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1

Geothermal resources of the Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley Basins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A general discussion of how geothermal resources occur; a discussion of the temperatures, distribution, and possible applications of geothermal resources in Wyoming and a general description of the State's thermal setting; and a discussion of the methods used in assessing the geothermal resources are presented. The discussion of the geothermal resources of the Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley Basins includes material on heat flow and conductive gradients, stratigraphy and hydrology, structure and water movement, measured temperatures and gradients, areas of anomalous gradient (including discussion of the warm spring systems at Alcova and Saratoga), temperatures of the Cloverly Formation, and summary and conclusions. 23 references, 9 figures, 5 tables. (MHR)

Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

1984-01-01

2

Potential for deep basin-centered gas accumulation in Hanna Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for a continuous-type basin-centered gas accumulation in the Hanna Basin in Carbon County, Wyoming, is evaluated using geologic and production data including mud-weight, hydrocarbon-show, formation-test, bottom-hole-temperature, and vitrinite reflectance data from 29 exploratory wells. This limited data set supports the presence of a hypothetical basin-centered gas play in the Hanna Basin. Two generalized structural cross sections illustrate our interpretations of possible abnormally pressured compartments. Data indicate that a gas-charged, overpressured interval may occur within the Cretaceous Mowry, Frontier, and Niobrara Formations at depths below 10,000 ft along the southern and western margins of the basin. Overpressuring may also occur near the basin center within the Steele Shale and lower Mesaverde Group section at depths below 18,000 to 20,000 ft. However, the deepest wells drilled to date (12,000 to 15,300 ft) have not encountered over-pressure in the basin center. This overpressured zone is likely to be relatively small (probably 20 to 25 miles in diameter) and is probably depleted of gas near major basement reverse faults and outcrops where gas may have escaped. Water may have invaded reservoirs through outcrops and fracture zones along the basin margins, creating an extensive normally pressured zone. A zone of subnormal pressure also may exist below the water-saturated, normal-pressure zone and above the central zone of overpressure. Subnormal pressures have been interpreted in the center of the Hanna Basin at depths ranging from 10,000 to 25,000 ft based on indirect evidence including lost-circulation zones. Three wells on the south side of the basin, where the top of the subnormally pressured zone is interpreted to cut across stratigraphic boundaries, tested the Niobrara Formation and recovered gas and oil shows with very low shut-in pressures.

Wilson, Michael S.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Nuccio, Vito F.

2001-01-01

3

Tectonic evolution of Hanna Basin, Wyoming: Laramide block rotation in the Rocky Mountain foreland  

Microsoft Academic Search

From late Early Cretaceous through late Early Eocene time the Hanna Basin area of south-central Wyoming developed in response to regional and local tectonic forces. Subsidence history, flexural modeling, depositional setting and history, coal moisture content of Tertiary coal and fission-track thermochronology document the evolutionary history of this small (â2600 km²), deep (â16 km offset on the Precambrian basement) intermontane

LeFebre

1988-01-01

4

Coal-spoil and ground-water chemical data from two coal mines; Hanna Basin and Powder River basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data are presented describing chemical and mineralogical composition of spoil material and chemical quality of groundwater at 2 Wyoming mine sites. Samples were collected at Medicine Bow-Seminoe Number 1 mining area in the Hanna basin and at the Cordero Mine in the Powder River basin. The data collected from these sites, along with similar data from other coal-mining states in the West, are used to evaluate methods used in predicting post-mining groundwater quality. The data include mineral-composition analyses, paste-extract analyses, and sulfur-forms analyses of coal spoil, chemical analyses of water from batch-mixing experiments; and analyses of water samples collected from wells in the coal aquifers and from wells in the saturated spoils. (USGS)

Larson, L. R.

1988-01-01

5

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 5. Hanna III field test research report  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna III was conducted during the spring and summer of 1977. The test involved only two process wells but also had twelve water monitoring wells, eight in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and four in an aquifer above the coal seam. The test was designed to obtain information regarding the effects of the process on groundwater within the target seam and the overlying aquifer. The site for Hanna III had a low productivity aquifer above the Hanna No. 1 seam. The wells within the seam and the overlying aquifer were placed in such a manner that maximum information on groundwater flow and quality could be obtained. This report covers: (1) site selection and characterization; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 4 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

6

Results of the groundwater restoration project, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Test Site, Wyoming: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments conducted during the 1970s at the Department of Energy (DOE) site near Hanna, Wyoming, formed six underground cavities in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam, an aquifer of low permeability. When the first Hanna UCG experiment began in March 1973, researchers had little information about what effects the geologic or hydrologic characteristics of the area

1988-01-01

7

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 3. The Hanna II, Phase I field test  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phase I was conducted during the spring and summer of 1975, at a site about 700 feet up dip (to the southwest) of the Hanna I test. The test was conducted in two stages - Phase IA and IB. Phase IA consisted of linking and gasification operations between Wells 1 and 3 and Phase IB of linking from the 1-3 gasification zone to Well 2, followed by a short period of gasification from Well 2 to Well 3 over a broad range of air injection rates, in order to determine system turndown capabilities and response times. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operational testing; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

8

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 6. Hanna IVA and IVB field test research report  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. The reports in this series include: The Hanna IV test was designed as the first underground coal gasification test using commercial well spacings of 100 and 150 feet between well pairs in a linear 3-well pattern. The test was initiated in late 1977 and completed in late 1979. This long duration was due to unfavorable geologic conditions (faulting) which could not be successfully overcome resulting in the test being split into Hanna IVA and Hanna IVB with about one year between the conduct of each. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facility description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 5 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

9

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 4. Hanna II, Phases II and III field test research report  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phases II and III, were conducted during the winter of 1975 and the summer of 1976. The two phases refer to linking and gasification operations conducted between two adjacent well pairs as shown in Figure 1 with Phase II denoting operations between Wells 5 and 6 and Phase III operations between Wells 7 and 8. All of the other wells shown were instrumentation wells. Wells 7 and 8 were linked in November and December 1975. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 16 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

10

High resolution seismic survey of the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 1980 a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the underground coal gasification test site near Hanna, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to determine the feasibility of utilizing high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize underground coal burn zones and to identify shallow geologic faults at the test site. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow, 61 to 91 meter (200 to 300 foot) depths of interest. An anomaly was clearly discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse void above the burn zone which was studied in detail and compared to synthetic models. It is felt that the seismic method can be used to define similar burns.

Youngberg, A. D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.

1982-01-01

11

Sampling and analyses report for December 1992 semiannual postburn sampling at the RMI UCG Site, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

During December 1992, groundwater was sampled at the site of the November 1987--February 1988 Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification test near Hanna, Wyoming. The groundwater in near baseline condition. Data from the field measurements and analyzes of samples are presented. Benzene concentrations in the groundwater are below analytical detection limits (<0.01 mg/L) for all wells, except concentrations of 0.016 mg/L and 0.013 mg/L in coal seam wells EMW-3 and EMW-1, respectively.

Lindblom, S.R.

1993-03-01

12

Fluorescence spectral analysis of resinite macerals from coals of the Hanna Formation, Wyoming, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flourescence spectral analysis indicates that resinite macerals from Tertiary Hanna Formation coals (Hanna Coal Field, southcentral Wyoming, U.S.A.) can be separated into five distinct groups. The first resinite group fluoresces a a medium green (in blue light); its average spectral maximum occurs at or below 440 mm with a red/green quotient of 0.22. The second resinite group fluoresces yellow-green with an average spectral maximum of 500 nm and a red/green quotient of 0.53. The third resinite group displays a yellow fluorescence having an average spectral maximum of 580 nm and a red/green quotient of 0.86. The fourth resinite group fluorescence orange-brown having an average spectral maximum of 610 nm and a red/green quotient of 1.20. These four groups mostly occur as primary globular resinites exhibiting scratches and fractures, indicating that they are brittle, solid substances. Primary cell-filling and secondary fracture-filling resinites also occur in these four groups. The fifth group only occurs as a secondary void-filling material and lacks evidence of br of brittle properties. It fluoresces a reddish-brown, has a spectral maximum at 690 nm, and a red/green quotient of 1.54. The fifth group has properties resembling exsudatinite. The five resinite groups can be separated on the basis of their nine spectral properties alone, without qualitative petrographic interpretation. The relative quantities of the five resinite groups vary among Hanna Formation coals. The origins of these five resinite groups are probably related to their botanical properties and pre- and post-depossitional conditions. Overall, Hanna Formation resinites have petrographic characteristics similar to other North American resinites; however, only four resinite groups have been distinguished in in certain coals from Utah and New Mexico (U.S.A.), and western Canada. ?? 1987.

Teerman, S. C.; Crelling, J. C.; Glass, G. B.

1987-01-01

13

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

1984-11-01

14

Tensleep Reservoir, Oregon Basin Field, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oregon Basin field in northwestern Wyoming is about 9 mi long and is composed of a north dome and south dome. Since its discovery in 1927, over 122 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone at Oregon Basin. Geologists and engineers worked together to describe the reservoir and accumulate data that would aid in

J. T. Morgan; F. S. Cordiner; A. R. Livingston

1978-01-01

15

Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site  

SciTech Connect

Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-12-01

16

Tensleep reservoir study, Oregon Basin Field, Wyoming: reservoir characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineers and geologists worked together to perform a reservoir study of the Tensleep at Oregon Basin. Oregon Basin Field, located in northwestern Wyoming, has produced over 122 million barrels of Tensleep oil. Layers of non-reservoir material separate the Tensleep into zones that perform as discrete reservoirs. Some zones have been completely eroded in portions of the field by post-Tensleep streams.

J. T. Morgan; F. S. Cordiner; A. R. Livingston

1976-01-01

17

Reservoir analysis, Pennsylvanian Tensleep formation, Little Buffalo Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Little Buffalo Basin field, in NW. Wyoming on the SW. side of the Big Horn Basin, is a N.-S. asymmetric anticline 3-1\\/2 miles long, 1-1\\/2 mile wide, with about 1,000 ft of structural closure. Oil was discovered in 1943 in the Pennsylvanian Tensleep. Cumulative production has been over 30 million bbl of oil from the 1,500 acres. Reservoir energy

J. A. McCaleb; W. R. Emmett; K. W. Beaver

1971-01-01

18

Thermal analysis of the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature and geologic data from over 3,000 oil and gas wells within a 180 km x 30 km area that transect across the southern Powder River Basin in Wyoming, U.S.A., were used to determine the present thermal regime of the basin. Three-dimensional temperature fields within the transect, based on corrected bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs) and other geologic information, were assessed using:

Brian J. O. L. McPherson; D. S. Chapman

1996-01-01

19

New vitrinite reflectance data for the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range and Owl Creek and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, and the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected mainly from Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin to better characterize their thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential.

Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

20

Analysis of runoff from small drainage basins in Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A flood-hydrograph study has defined the magnitude and frequency of flood volumes and flood peaks that can be expected from drainage basins smaller than 11 square miles in the plains and valley areas of Wyoming. Rainfall and runoff data, collected for 9 years on a seasonal basis (April through September), were used to calibrate a rainfall-runoff model on each of 22 small basins. Long-term records of runoff volume and peak discharge were synthesized for these 22 basins. Flood volumes and flood peaks of specific recurrence intervals (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years) were then related to basin characteristics with a high degree of correlation. Flood volumes were related to drainage area, maximum relief, and basin slope. Flood peaks were related to drainage area, maximum relief, basin slope, and channel slope. An investigation of ponding behind a highway embankment, with available storage capacity and with a culvert to allow outflow, has shown that the single fast-rising peak is most important in culvert design. Consequently, a dimensionless hydrograph defines the characteristic shape of flood hydrographs to be expected from small drainage basins in Wyoming. For design purposes, a peak and volume can be estimated from basin characteristics and used with the dimensionless hydrograph to produce a synthetic single-peak hydrograph. Incremental discharges of the hydrograph can be routed along a channel, where a highway fill and culvert are to be placed, to help determine the most economical size of culvert if embankment storage is to be considered.

Craig, Gordon S.; Rankl, James G.

1978-01-01

21

UPR, DOE team to find gas deposits in Wyoming`s Green River Basin  

SciTech Connect

Union Pacific and the U.S. Department of Energy have entered into a project in an effort to find a more economic and technologically efficient method of drilling for and producing the exceptionally large gas resources trapped in tight sands in the Greater Green River Basin. The project will be conducted in the Frontier Formation in Southwestern Wyoming. A vertical well will be drilled and tested to evaluate the economic benefit of various technologies.

Clinton, C.L.; Guennewig, V.B.

1996-04-01

22

Sandstone-carbonate cycles in Tensleep Formation, eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcrop and core study of the Tensleep Formation in the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin has revealed cyclic deposits of eolian sandstone and marine carbonate. These cycles, several meters to tens of meters thick, represent the rise and fall of sea level on the Wyoming shelf during Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time. Falling sea level was marked

D. J. Rittersbacher; D. M. Wheeler; J. C. Horne

1986-01-01

23

Bison basin, central Wyoming - geologic overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northeastern part of the Great Divide basin is a separate, unique, and until recently, little-explored subbasin sometimes called the Bison basin. It is bounded by the Wind River Mountains, Sweetwater-Granite Mountain foreland uplift, Lost Soldier-Wertz structure, and a little-studied very positive east-west structural arch approximately coincident with the Sweetwater-Fremont county line. A comprehensive seismic, Landsat, and subsurface geologic examination

Pinnell

1984-01-01

24

Bison basin, central Wyoming - geologic overview  

SciTech Connect

The northeastern part of the Great Divide basin is a separate, unique, and until recently, little-explored subbasin sometimes called the Bison basin. It is bounded by the Wind River Mountains, Sweetwater-Granite Mountain foreland uplift, Lost Soldier-Wertz structure, and a little-studied very positive east-west structural arch approximately coincident with the Sweetwater-Fremont county line. A comprehensive seismic, Landsat, and subsurface geologic examination or, better, dissection of the Bison basin was initiated in 1978. Numerous oil and gas prospects were delineated by this study. Since this small, 12 by 40 mi (19 by 64 km) basin is bordered by known reserves of 260 million bbl of oil and 90 million bcf of gas, these prospects proved to be a popular target of the drill bit. At least one of these prospects appears to be productive; others are currently being drilled. The presence of major east-west wrench faults, a well-documented foreland uplift, until recently undrilled surface and subsurface structures, faults with throw measured in tens of thousands of feet, and an oil seep indicate possible additional hydrocarbon potential in the Bison basin that could exceed presently known reserves. Currently drilling wells and abundant already acquired reflection seismic data are the beginning step in an ongoing exploration program of an interesting, complex, and rewarding small basin with a lot of promise.

Pinnell, M.L.

1984-07-01

25

Analysis of runoff from small drainage basins in Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A flood-hydrograph study has defined the magnitude and frequency of flood volumes and flood peaks that can be expected from drainage basins smaller than 11 square miles in the plains and valley areas of Wyoming. Rainfall and runoff data, collected for 9 years on a seasonal basis (April through September), were used to calibrate a rainfall-runoff model on each of 22 small basins. Long-term records of runoff volume and peak discharge were synthesized for these 22 basins. Flood volumes and flood peaks of specific recurrence intervals (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years) were then related to basin characteristics with a high degree of correlation. Flood volumes were related to drainage area, maximum relief, and basin slope. Flood peaks were related to drainage area, maximum relief, basin slope, and channel slope. An investigation of ponding behind a highway embankment, with available storage capacity and with a culvert to allow outflow, has shown that the single fast-rising peak is most important in culvert design. Consequently, a dimensionless hydrograph defines the characteristic shape of flood hydrographs to be expected from small drainage basins in Wyoming. For design purposes, a peak and volume can be estimated from basin characteristics and used with the dimensionless hydrograph to produce a synthetic single-peak hydrograph. Incremental discharges of the hydrograph can be routed along a channel, where a highway fill and culvert are to be placed, to help determine the most economical size of culvert if embankment storage is to be considered. (Woodard-USGS)

Craig, Gordon S.; Rankl, James G.

1977-01-01

26

Water quality of streams and springs, Green River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data concerning salinity, phosphorus, and trace elements in streams and springs within the Green River Basin in Wyoming are summarized. Relative contributions of salinity are shown through estimates of annual loads and average concentrations at 11 water quality measurements sites for the 1970-77 water years. A hypothetical diversion of 20 cu ft/sec from the Big Sandy River was found to lower dissolved solids concentration in the Green River at Green River, Wyoming. This effect was greatest during the winter months, lowering dissolved solids concentration as much as 13%. Decrease in dissolved solids concentrations during the remainder of the year was generally less than 2%. Unlike the dilution effect that overland runoff has on perennial streams, runoff in ephemeral and intermittent streams within the basin was found to be enriched by the flushing of salts from normally dry channels and basin surfaces. Relative concentrations of sodium and sulfate in streams within the basin appear to be controlled by solubility. A downstream trend of increasing relative concentrations of sodium, sulfate, or both with increasing dissolved solids concentration was evident in all streams sampled. Estimates of total phosphorus concentration at water quality measurement sites indicate that phosphorus is removed from the Green River water as it passes through Fontenelle and Flaming Gorge Reservoirs. Total phosphorus concentration at some stream sites is directly or inversely related to streamflow, but at most sites a simple relation between concentration and streamflow is not discernable. (USGS)

DeLong, L. L.

1986-01-01

27

Ground-water data, Green River basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and geologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of energy-related projects in the Green River basin of Wyoming are compiled from the files of the Geological Survey and the Wyoming State Engineer as of 1977. The data include well and spring location, well depth, casing diameter, type of lifts, type of power, use of water, rock type of producing zone, owner, and discharge for more than 1,600 sites. Analyses for common chemical constituents, trace elements, and radioactive chemicals are tabulated as well as water temperature and specific conductance measurement data. Lithologic logs of more than 300 wells, test holes, and measured sections constitute much of this report. County maps at a scale of 1:500 ,000 show the locations. (USGS)

Zimmerman, Everett Alfred; Collier, K. R.

1985-01-01

28

Powder River basin, Wyoming: structural development, hydrocarbon migration, and accumulation  

SciTech Connect

The geographical location of oil accumulations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming, is closely related to present basement structure. About 70% of the basin's cumulative oil production has been obtained from only 12 fields or 23% of the total fields. Each major oil field lies in an area of a pronounced positive Bouguer gravity anomaly and in the path of preferred regional hydrocarbon migration. Powder River basin Bouguer gravity anomalies most likely are caused by a combination of present basement structure and density changes in post-Paleozoic sediments; the latter are the result of synsedimentary basement structure and/or related topographic features influencing post-Paleozoic sediments. Stratigraphic and structural traps occur in close interrelationships across the basin. Published geochemical data in connection with available regional subsurface data permit mapping the preferred migration paths for oil and gas across the basin. Future discoveries of major hydrocarbon fields will be made in these hydrocarbon migration paths and areas in and around regional positive Bouguer gravity anomalies. Powder River oil field distribution follows general rules known from practically all producing basins but rarely used for lack of sufficient integration of geological and geophysical data. Gas field distribution is expected to be similar to oil field distribution.

Pratsch, J.C.

1985-02-01

29

Thermal analysis of the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and geologic data from over 3,000 oil and gas wells within a 180 km x 30 km area that transect across the southern Powder River Basin in Wyoming, U.S.A., were used to determine the present thermal regime of the basin. Three-dimensional temperature fields within the transect, based on corrected bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs) and other geologic information, were assessed using: (1) A laterally constant temperature gradient model in conjunction with an L{sub 1} norm inversion method, and (2) a laterally variable temperature gradient model in conjunction with a stochastic inversion technique. The mean geothermal gradient in the transect is 29 C/km, but important lateral variations in the geothermal gradient exist. The average heat flow for the southern Powder River Basin is 52 mW/m{sup 2} with systematic variations between 40 mW/m{sup 2} and 60 mW/m{sup 2} along the transect. Extremely high local heat flow (values up to 225 mW/m{sup 2}) in the vicinity of the Teapot Dome and the Salt Creek Anticline and low heat flow of 25 mW/m{sup 2} occurring locally near the northeast end of the transect are likely caused by groundwater movement.

McPherson, B.J.O.L.; Chapman, D.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1996-11-01

30

Results of Phase 1 postburn drilling and coring, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in the Western Research Institute's (WRI) annual project plan for 1988--1989. The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed in the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. In relation to the seven objectives, WRI determined that (1) the ELW cavity extends farther to the west and the CRIP cavity was located 5--10 feet farther to the south than anticipated; (2) roof collapse was contained within unit A in both modules; (3) samples of all major rock types were recovered; (4) insufficient data were obtained to characterize the outflow channels, but cavity stratigraphy was well defined; (5) bore holes near the CRIP points and ignition point did not exhibit characteristics significantly different from other bore holes in the cavities; (6) a fault zone was detected between VIW=1 and VIW-2 that stepped down to the east; and (7) PW-1 was only 7--12 feet below the top of the coal seam in the eastern part of the ELW module area; and CIW-1 was located 18--20 feet below the top of the coal seam in the CRIP module area. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.; Oliver, R.L.

1990-09-01

31

Study of Airborne gamma-Ray Spectrometer Data Procedures: Wind River Basin, Wyoming, Thermopolis Quadrangle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains the following data from the Thermopolis Quadrangle, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: statistical summary tables; flight-line averages; geologic map units; geologic map with record locations; uranium mines and occurrences, uranium location m...

1979-01-01

32

Isotopic identification of natural vs. anthropogenic sources of Pb in Laramie basin groundwaters, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water well samples, precipitation, and leachates of aquifer rock samples from the Laramie basin, Wyoming, were analyzed to test the suitability of Pb isotopes for tracing hydrologic processes in a basin where Sr isotopes had proven effective. Leachable Pb from host rocks to aquifers in this basin have isotopically distinct compositions and isotopic tracing would be effective in differentiating natural

R. N. Toner; C. D. Frost; K. R. Chamberlain

2003-01-01

33

Depositional environments of Fort Union Formation, Bison Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Paleocene Fort Union Formation crops out in the vicinity of the Bison basin, approximately equidistant from the southeast terminus of the Wind River Range and the southwestern edge of the Granite Mountains uplift in central Wyoming. Early Laramide tectonic activity produced a series of uplifts north of the area forming a platform separating the Wind River and Great Divide basins. During middle to late Paleocene, aggrading fluvial systems flowing southward, rapidly deposited a sequence of thin, lenticular conglomerates and medium to coarse-grained planar-bedded sandstones in braided and anastomosing stream channels and carbonaceous overbank silt and claystones. Subaerially exposed interchannel areas developed cyclic pedogenic horizons. Early diagenetic cementation preserved tubular burrows and rhizoliths as well as impressions of fruits, nuts, leaves, and wood. Anomalous silicic cementation of mudstone, sandstone, and conglomerates probably are silcrete soil horizons developed in a warm temperature to subtropical humid climate. The sandstones are multicyclic containing fragments of preexisting siliceous sedimentary rocks (e.g., Tensleep Sandstone, Mowry Shale, and cherts from the Madison, Morrison, and Phosphoria Formations). Reworked glauconite is locally abundant in some Fort Union sandstones, reflecting the proximity of Paleozoic sources. Altered and embayed feldspars are present in trace amounts throughout most of the section, but significant accumulations of fresh feldspar are present near the top, indicating unroofing of Precambrian source before the Eocene.

Southwell, E.H.; Steidtmann, J.R.; Middleton, L.

1983-08-01

34

Sandstone-carbonate cycles in Tensleep Formation, eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Outcrop and core study of the Tensleep Formation in the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin has revealed cyclic deposits of eolian sandstone and marine carbonate. These cycles, several meters to tens of meters thick, represent the rise and fall of sea level on the Wyoming shelf during Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time. Falling sea level was marked by development of a sharp scour surface at the base of each cycle and progradation of eolian dunes over an exposed, shallow carbonate shelf. Subsequent sea level rise resulted in the reworking of eolian sand through wave activity and burrowing organisms. Subtidal carbonates overlies the reworked eolian sands and are sandy at the base, grading upward into fossiliferous dolomite mudstones to wackestones. The sharp scour surface, normally present directly on the subtidal carbonates, indicates that erosion eliminated any regressive marine deposits by deflation to the ground-water table during shoreline progradation or by deflation related to abrupt drop in sea level. Relative sea level changes on the low-relief Wyoming shelf affected large areas during Tensleep deposition. This resulted in widespread sandstone-carbonate cycles that provide the basis for regional correlations of the Tensleep Formation throughout the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin.

Rittersbacher, D.J.; Wheeler, D.M.; Horne, J.C.

1986-08-01

35

Paleotectonics and hydrocarbon accumulation, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Belle Fourche arch, a subtle northeast-trending paleoarch, extends across the central part of the Powder River basin, Wyoming, to the Black Hills uplift. The arch is the result of differential vertical uplift, primarily during Cretaceous time, on numerous northeast-trending structural lineaments. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that the structural lineaments which form the Belle Fourche arch have rejuvenated periodically throughout the Phanerozoic. Evidence includes: (1) localization of Minnelusa Formation (Permian) hydrocarbon production along the crest of the arch; (2) localization of Dakota Formation (Cretaceous) alluvial point-bar production on the crest of the arch; (3) localization of lower Muddy Formation (Cretaceous) channel deposits parallel with, and on the downthrown sides of, lineament trends; (4) abrupt change in depositional strike of upper Muddy Formation (Cretaceous) marine bars close to the arch; (5) superposition of Turner sandstone (Cretaceous) channel deposits along the trends of Muddy channels; and (6) localization of virtually all significant Upper Cretaceous Shannon and Sussex sandstone offshore marine-bar production along the crest of the arch. Subtle uplift along the arch was persistent during at least lower Muddy through Sussex deposition, a period of about 35 m.y. 14 figures.

Slack, P.B.

1981-04-01

36

An analysis of stream temperatures, Green River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for estimating temperatures of streams in the Green River basin, Wyoming, utilizes a regional model for estimating mean daily temperatures of streams at unmeasured sites. The regional model was developed by describing annual temperature patterns at 43 measured sites and by applying the harmonic function T = M + A -sin (0.0172 t + C)- where: T is mean daily temperature; M, A, and C are harmonic coefficients calculated from data for each stream-temperature station; and t is the day of the water year. Application of the equation for estimating temperatures at unmeasured sites requires regionalized estimates of M, A, and C. Regional estimates were developed with the aid of multiple-regression techniques, whereby the calculated harmonic coefficients were regressed against physical and climatic characteristics of the stream-temperature stations. Stream elevation was a significant factor affecting water temperature. Analysis of areal and temporal variations in temperature showed that springs, irrigation return flows, and reservoir storage were affecting reaches of several major streams. (Woodard-USGS)

Lowham, H. W.

1978-01-01

37

Gas desorption and adsorption isotherm studies of coals in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG), of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper (Wyoming), investigated the coalbed methane resources (CBM) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, from 1999 to the present. Beginning in late 1999, the study also included the Williston Basin in Montana and North and South Dakota and Green River Basin and Big Horn Basin in Wyoming. The rapid development of CBM (referred to as coalbed natural gas by the BLM) during the early 1990s, and the lack of sufficient data for the BLM to fully assess and manage the resource in the Powder River Basin, in particular, gave impetus to the cooperative program. An integral part of the joint USGS-BLM project was the participation of 25 gas operators that entered individually into confidential agreements with the USGS, and whose cooperation was essential to the study. The arrangements were for the gas operators to drill and core coal-bed reservoirs at their cost, and for the USGS and BLM personnel to then desorb, analyze, and interpret the coal data with joint funding by the two agencies. Upon completion of analyses by the USGS, the data were to be shared with both the BLM and the gas operator that supplied the core, and then to be released or published 1 yr after the report was submitted to the operator.

Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; McGarry, Dwain E.; Stillwell, Dean P.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Stillwell, Cathy R.; Ochs, Alan M.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Osvald, Karl S.; Taylor, Sharon L.; Thorvaldson, Marjorie C.; Trippi, Michael H.; Grose, Sherry D.; Crockett, Fred J.; Shariff, Asghar J.

2006-01-01

38

Megascopic lithologic studies of coals in the Powder River basin in Wyoming and in adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between 1999 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated coalbed methane (CBM) resources in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin. The study also included the CBM resources in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin of North Dakota and the Wyoming portion of the Green River Basin of Wyoming. This project involved the cooperation of the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG) of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper, Wyo., and 16 independent gas operators in the Powder River, Williston, and Green River Basins. The USGS and BLM entered into agreements with these CBM operators to supply samples for the USGS to analyze and provide the RMG with rapid, timely results of total gas desorbed, coal quality, and high-pressure methane adsorption isotherm data. This program resulted in the collection of 963 cored coal samples from 37 core holes. This report presents megascopic lithologic descriptive data collected from canister samples extracted from the 37 wells cored for this project.

Trippi, Michael H.; Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stanton, Ronald W.; Chiehowsky, Lora A.; Moore, Timothy A.

2010-01-01

39

William Hanna, 1910-2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Legendary cartoonist William Hanna has died at his home in Los Angeles at age 90. Hanna, along with his partner of over 50 years, Joseph Barbera, created some of the world's best known and most beloved cartoon characters, including Tom and Jerry, the Flintstones, Scooby-Doo, Snagglepuss, Yogi Bear, Huckleberry Hound, and many, many others. Hanna got his start as a lyricist and composer with Harmon-Ising Studios, the company that created the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoon series, in the early 1930s. In 1937 Hanna moved to MGM and soon afterward partnered with Barbera. Their first success was "Puss Gets the Boot," a cat and mouse cartoon that earned an Academy Award nomination and provided the genesis for Tom and Jerry. Between 1943 and 1952 the team won seven Oscars for their animated shorts. After MGM closed its animation division in the 1950s, Hanna and Barbera formed their own company and moved to television, producing numerous successful animated comedies. Probably the best known of these were the Flintstones, a parody of the Honeymooners and the first prime-time cartoon series, and Yogi Bear, who was modeled after Phil Silvers' Sergeant Bilko. Over the years since its creation in 1957 the Hanna-Barbera company developed over 150 cartoon and live-action television series and produced more than 5,000 TV animations, winning eight Emmys in the process. As a testament to the continued appeal of Hanna and Barbera's characters, the Cartoon Network recently created the Boomerang cable network, which exclusively showcases the Hanna-Barbera library.

De Nie, Michael W.

2001-01-01

40

Oil springs and flat top anticlines, Carbon County Wyoming: An unusual fold pair  

SciTech Connect

Oil Springs Anticline, northwest of Medicine Bow, Wyoming, and located at the northeast corner of the Hanna Basin, lies near the junction of the Freezeout Hills Anticline, the Shirley thrust fault and the Flat Top Anticline. The surface fold as defined by the outcrop of the Wall Creek Sandstone Member of the Frontier Formation is disharmonic to deeper structure at the level of the Jurassic Sundance Formation. The fold is wedged between two major folds and is the result of a space problem between larger structural elements. The controlling Flat Top Anticline is an excellent example of a fold controlled by a well constrained fault in the Precambrian crystalline basement. The basement is bowed upward and outward to the northwest in the hanging wall of the Flat Top Anticline. The purpose of this paper is to describe the geologic structure of the Oil Springs and Flat Top anticlines and their relationship to the Freezeout Hills and the Hanna Basin. Commercial production of petroleum and natural gas occurs on the west flank of the Laramie-Cooper Lake Basin as far north as the northeast corner of the Hanna Basin. Stone reviewed the producing formations in the Laramie and eastern Hanna basins and noted that 11 commercial accumulations of petroleum and natural gas are directly related to anticlinal structures. Production derived from the Permian-Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone in this region has a special geologic framework. Fields that produce from the Tensleep Sandstone are well defined anticlines bounded by faults or fault systems, a situation also reported by Biggs and Espach, Blackstone and in the Wyoming Geological Association Symposium. The Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in these faulted anticlines are in juxtaposition to potential source rocks of either Jurassic or Cretaceous age in the footwalls of the faults. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Blackstone, D.L. Jr. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States))

1994-04-01

41

Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 989 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 72 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 13 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Bighorn Basin Providence of Wyoming and Montana.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2008-01-01

42

Trapping mechanisms of Minnelusa oil accumulations, northeastern Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defines and documents trapping mechanisms present in the Permian age Minnelusa oil fields of the NE. Powder River Basin, Wyoming. By far the largest portion of the Minnelusa oil in place has been trapped by paleotopographic highs occurring at the unconformity at the top of the Minnelusa Formation. Smaller amounts of Minnelusa oil have been trapped by updip

Van West

1972-01-01

43

Integrating geophysics and geochemistry to evaluate coalbed natural gas produced water disposal, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of methane from thick, extensive coalbeds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. More than 4.1 billion barrels of water have been produced with coalbed natural gas (CBNG) since 1997. Infiltration impoundments, which are the principal method used to dispose CBNG water, contribute to the recharge of underlying aquifers. Airborne electromagnetic surveys of an

Brian Andrew Lipinski

2007-01-01

44

Glacial Geology of the West Tensleep Drainage Basin, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The glacial deposits of the West Tensleep Basin in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming are mapped and a relative chromology established. The deposits are correlated with the regional model as defined in the Wind River Mountains. A statistical analysis is per...

G. B. Burggraf

1980-01-01

45

Glacial geology of the West Tensleep Drainage Basin, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glacial deposits of the West Tensleep Basin in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming are mapped and a relative chromology established. The deposits are correlated with the regional model as defined in the Wind River Mountains. A statistical analysis is performed on the density and weathering characteristics of the surficial boulders to determine their validity as indicators of relative age.

Burggraf

1980-01-01

46

Assessment of Coal Geology, Resources, and Reserves in the Gillette Coalfield, Powder River Basin, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gillette coalfield, within the Powder River Basin in east-central Wyoming, is the most prolific coalfield in the United States. In 2006, production from the coalfield totaled over 431 million short tons of coal, which represented over 37 percent of th...

2008-01-01

47

Candy Draw: significant new Minnelusa field, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candy Draw field is located in T53N, R69W, Campbell County, Wyoming. It was discovered by Santa Fe Energy Company in June 1985. Production is from a stratigraphic trap in the lower B sandstone of the Permian Minnelusa Formation. Nine wells are capable of production, and further development is underway. Proven reserves are 9 million bbl of oil. Primary recoverable reserves

L. B. Gallivan; S. C. Bjorlie

1986-01-01

48

Guidebook to the coal geology of the Powder River coal basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This survey of Wyoming's Powder River Coal Basin was done in June 1980, with emphasis on coal geology and specifically environments of coal deposition. A geologic map explanation was included. The survey included: (1) the regional depositional framework of the uranium- and coal-bearing Wasatch (Eocene) and Fort Union (Paleocene) Formations, Powder River Basin; (2) the Lake De Smet Coal Seam: the product of active basin-margin sedimentation and tectonics in the Lake De Smet Area, Johnson County, Wyoming, during Eocene Wasatch time; (3) fluvial coal settings of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Clear Creek Area; (4) coal resources of the Powder River Coal basin; (5) survey of chemical and petrographic characteristics of Powder River Basin coals; and (6) the Rawhide Coal Mine, Campbell County, Wyoming. The depositional framework of the Fort Union and Wasach formations is characterized by a northward-flowing intermountain basinal fluvial system. The paleogeographic reconstruction of the fluvial settings of the Tongue River Member deposits in the Powder River-Clear Creek area sugges two important subenvironments of coal accumulation. The thickest and most important coals are found in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and the Eocene Wasatch Formation. Each section was discussed in detail. (DP)

Glass, G.B. (ed.)

1980-01-01

49

Regional thermal-inertia mapping from an experimental satellite ( Powder River basin, Wyoming).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new experimental satellite has provided, for the first time, thermal data that should be useful in reconnaissance geologic exploration. Thermal inertia, a property of geologic materials, can be mapped from these data by applying an algorithm that has been developed using a new thermal model. A simple registration procedure was used on a pair of day and night images of the Powder River basin, Wyoming, to illustrate the method.-from Author

Watson, K.

1982-01-01

50

Hydrodynamics of Minnelusa Formation, north Power River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minnelusa Formation (Permian-Pennsylvanian) has produced over 250 million bbl of oil, from mainly stratigraphic traps in the Powder River basin. Production is dominantly from eolian sandstone reservoirs trapped by paleotopographic highs, simple closure, or porosity pinch-outs. Most of the production to date is from upper Minnelusa sandstones in the northeastern portion of the basin, where conditions are optimal for

Maloney

1987-01-01

51

Tensleep sandstone stratigraphic-hydrodynamic traps, northeast Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trapping mechanism for the off-structure type of accumulation in the Bighorn Basin has been a controversial subject in geologic literature. The off-structure production in a number of Bighorn Basin fields has been attributed to one or more of the following mechanisms: an updip sand pinchout or loss of porosity, a paleo trap, an unconformity trap, a tar seal, a

Pedry

1975-01-01

52

Hydrodynamics of Minnelusa Formation, north Power River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Minnelusa Formation (Permian-Pennsylvanian) has produced over 250 million bbl of oil, from mainly stratigraphic traps in the Powder River basin. Production is dominantly from eolian sandstone reservoirs trapped by paleotopographic highs, simple closure, or porosity pinch-outs. Most of the production to date is from upper Minnelusa sandstones in the northeastern portion of the basin, where conditions are optimal for stratigraphic entrapment. The focus of this paper is on hydrodynamics as an additional control on the localization of hydrocarbons. Specifically, areas of low potential energy with respect to oil and gas can be mapped as a function of the potentiometric surface, fluid density, and aquifer configuration. This study in the Powder River basin defined an area of minimum potential energy with respect to hydrocarbons. Synhydrodynamic and posthydrodynamic hydrocarbon migration syn/post hydrodynamics will result in the majority of hydrocarbons moving toward the area of minimum potential energy. The area encompasses the majority of Minnelusa hydrocarbons discovered to date.

Maloney, W.V.

1987-08-01

53

Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2006-01-01

54

Applications and pitfalls in use of seismic stratigraphy in exploration (Minnelusa, Dakota), Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful exploration for oil in mature basins can be enhanced by using detailed geologic models coupled with seismic stratigraphy. The Pennsylvanian-Permian Minnelusa Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Formation of the Powder River basin, Wyoming, are prime examples of two diverse geologic models for which seismic and stratigraphic interpretations reduce risk for explorationists. The question becomes what techniques are available

G. F. Lawyer; A. T. Warmath

1988-01-01

55

Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind River Basin is generally insufficient to produce high conductive gradients. Only where hydrologic systems re-distribute heat through mass movement of water will high temperatures occur at shallow depths. Aquifers which may have the confinement and structural characteristics necessary to create such geothermal systems are the Lance/Fort Union, Mesa Verde, Frontier, Muddy, Cloverly, Sundance, Nugget, Park City, Tensleep, Amsden, Madison, Bighorn, and Flathead Formations. Of these the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone are the most attractive in terms of both productivity and water quality. Most of the identified geothermal anomalies in the Wind River Basin occur along complex structures in the southwest and south. The most attractive geothermal prospects identified are anomalous Areas 2 and 3 north of Lander, Sweetwater Station Springs west of Jeffrey City, and the thermal springs southwest of Dubois. Even in these areas, it is unlikely temperatures in excess of 130 to 150/sup 0/F can be developed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

1985-01-01

56

Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

1985-06-13

57

Candy Draw: significant new Minnelusa field, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Candy Draw field is located in T53N, R69W, Campbell County, Wyoming. It was discovered by Santa Fe Energy Company in June 1985. Production is from a stratigraphic trap in the lower B sandstone of the Permian Minnelusa Formation. Nine wells are capable of production, and further development is underway. Proven reserves are 9 million bbl of oil. Primary recoverable reserves are calculated at 1 million bbl, or 11% of oil in place. An additional 2 million bbl are estimated to be recoverable from secondary waterflood. Gross ultimate reserves from the nine producing wells are 3 million bbl, or 33% of oil in place. Candy Draw field was discovered by utilizing seismic stratigraphy to confirm regional geologic mapping of the lower B sandstone and overlying Opeche Shale. A lower B sandstone buildup was projected on trend and modeled after Wagonspoke field. Sonic logs were used to construct synthetic seismic models, which indicated that a lower B sandstone buildup could be seen on seismic data. Two seismic lines were acquired with data in the 55 to 65-Hz frequency range. A strike line showed a strong-amplitude anomaly present over the field which matched models that indicated 35 ft of lower B sandstone was present with 25% porosity. Computer modeling indicated that less than 20 ft of sandstone with porosity values of 10 to 12% could not be resolved due to the similar velocity of the Opeche Shale. This was confirmed by development drilling. Modeling from existing well control is critical due to the complex lithology of the Minnelusa Formation. Pitfalls exist, but seismic data have become a valuable tool for Minnelusa exploration.

Gallivan, L.B.; Bjorlie, S.C.

1986-08-01

58

Geological remote sensing of Palaeogene rocks in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing studies of Palaeogene sediments in the Wind River Basin (Wyoming) were used for mapping stratigraphic units, sedimentary features and facies, and structural patterns. Thematic Mapper principal component images for the central and eastern Wind River Basin along with geological investigations and spectral analyses allowed: mapping of the Fort Union, Wind River, and Wagon Bed formations (Fm) and their subunits; recognition of two subunits in the Wind River Fm, one of which can be traced for 75 km; determination of sediment source and depositional environment of units within the Wind River Fm; correlation of the Wagon Bed Fm across the basin; and apparent confirmation of different sources of volcanic debris in the western and southeastern exposures of the Wagon Bed Fm.

Krishtalka, L.; Stucky, R. K.; Redline, A. D.

1988-01-01

59

Geologic application of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Two night-time thermal images of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming distinctly show a major thermal feature. This feature is substantially coincident with a drainage divide and the southward facing slope appears cooler, suggesting a lower thermal inertia. An initial examination of regional geologic maps provides no clear evidence to suggest what type of geologic feature or structure may be present, although it can be noted that its northeastern end passes directly through Lead, South Dakota where the Homestake Gold Mine is located.

Offield, T. W. (principal investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

1980-01-01

60

Estimating average dissolved-solids yield from basins drained by ephemeral and intermittent streams, Green River basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method was developed to determine the average dissolved-solids yield contributed by small basins characterized by ephemeral and intermittent streams in the Green River basin in Wyoming. The method is different from that commonly used for perennial streams. Estimates of dissolved-solids discharge at eight water quality sampling stations operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management range from less than 2 to 95 tons/day. The dissolved-solids yield upstream from the sampling stations ranges from 0.023 to 0.107 tons/day/sq mi. However, estimates of dissolved solids yield contributed by drainage areas between paired stations on Bitter, Salt Wells, Little Muddy, and Muddy creeks, based on dissolved-solids discharge versus drainage area, range only from 0.081 to 0.092 tons/day/sq mi. (USGS)

DeLong, L. L.; Wells, D. K.

1988-01-01

61

Depositional history of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Wind River basin area, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-three measured sections of the Dinwoody Formation, including five from the literature, provide information on thickness, lithology, paleontology, and stratigraphic relations within the Wind River basin and immediately adjacent areas of Wyoming. Most of these sections are in Fremont County, and some lie within the Wind River Indian Reservation. The Dinwoody becomes progressively thinner eastward, from a maximum thickness of 54.6 m in the northwestern Wind River Mountains to zero near the Natrona County line. The formation is characterized by yellowish-weathering, gray siltstone and silty shale. Variable amounts of limestone, sandstone, gypsum, and claystone are also present. Marine bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods (Lingula), and conodonts are common in the western part of the study area, but are absent to the northeast in gypsiferous strata, and near the eastern limit of Dinwoody deposition. The Dinwoody in the Wind River Basin area was deposited unconformably on the Upper Permian Ervary Member of the Park City Formation during the initial Mesozoic flood onto the Wyoming shelf during the Griesbachian, and represents the first of three Lower Triassic transgressive sequences in the western miogeocline. Conodonts of the Isarcica Chronozone document the rapid nature of this eastward transgression. The Permian surface underlying the Dinwoody rarely shows evidence of the long hiatus separating rocks of this age and earliest Triassic deposits. The Dinwoody transgression was followed by westward progradation of the Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group across the study area.

Paul, R.K.; Paull, R.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States))

1993-04-01

62

Depositional history of Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana records the northeasternmost extent of the widespread and rapid Griesbachian transgression onto the Wyoming shelf. Depositional patterns document a progressive change from sparsely fossiliferous, inner-shelf marine conditions in the southwest and west to restricted, marginal-marine environments to the north and east. Characteristic lithologies include greenish-gray calcareous or dolomitic mudstone and siltstone, very thin to thick beds of gypsum, and thin-bedded, commonly laminated dolomite. A formation thickness of approximately 20 m persists throughout most of the basin but diminishes abruptly near the northern and eastern limits of deposition. The Dinwoody is disconformable on the Ervay Member of the Permian Park City Formation except in the northeasternmost part of the basin, where it locally overlies the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone. Considering the significant time interval involved, physical evidence at the Permian-Triassic boundary is generally limited to an abrupt lithologic change from light-colored shallow marine or intertidal Permian dolomite to greenish-gray Dinwoody siltstone. The Dinwoody grades vertically as well as laterally to the east and north into red beds of the Lower Triassic Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group. The Early Triassic depositional environment in the present-day Bighorn basin was hostile. A sparse molluscan fauna was observed at only one of the 20 sections studied, and no conodonts were recovered from Dinwoody carbonates. Significant amounts of gypsum within the Dinwoody suggest periodic high evaporation from hypersaline waters on a low-energy shallow shelf during intervals of reduced terrigenous sediment supply from the north and east. However, sufficient organic material was present to create reducing conditions, as evidenced by greenish rock color and abundant pyrite.

Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K.

1986-08-01

63

Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range, Owl Creek, and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, the Granite Mountains on the south, and the Wind River Range on the west. Important conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Mississippian through Tertiary. It has been suggested that various Upper Cretaceous marine shales are the principal hydrocarbon source rocks for many of these accumulations. Numerous source rock studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales throughout the Rocky Mountain region have led to the conclusion that these rocks have generated, or are capable of generating, oil and (or) gas. With recent advances and success in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation there has been an increase in exploration and completion of wells in these marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were traditionally thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters that control hydrocarbon production from shales include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a structural cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin.

Finn, Thomas M.;Pawlewicz, Mark J.

2013-01-01

64

Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bighorn Basin is one of many structural and sedimentary basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny, a period of crustal instability and compressional tectonics that began in latest Cretaceous time and ended in the Eocene. The basin is nearly 180 mi long, 100 mi wide, and encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. The basin is bounded on the northeast by the Pryor Mountains, on the east by the Bighorn Mountains, and on the south by the Owl Creek Mountains). The north boundary includes a zone of faulting and folding referred to as the Nye-Bowler lineament. The northwest and west margins are formed by the Beartooth Mountains and Absaroka Range, respectively. Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary. In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs in the deeper parts of the basin. It has been suggested by numerous authors that various Cretaceous marine shales are the principal source rock for these accumulations. Numerous studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Rocky Mountain region have led to the general conclusion that these rocks have generated or are capable of generating oil and (or) gas. In recent years, advances in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation have resulted in increased exploration and completion of wells in Cretaceous marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were previously thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters controlling hydrocarbon production from these shale reservoirs include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for selected Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Bighorn Basin.

Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

2014-01-01

65

Predictive depositional models for eolian deposits of Leo member of Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, eastern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 980 wells, 24 outcrop sections, and 29 cores was conducted in the Powder River basin of northeastern Wyoming in order to develop predictive depositional models for the Leo sandstones of the middle member of the Minnelusa Formation. Given the limited amount of data available, an approach was devised that relied on synthesis of information from modern analogs

D. D. Domeracki; J. J. McClurg; J. C. Horne

1985-01-01

66

Case study of the recoverable hydrocarbon volumes for the Minnelusa and Muddy Sands, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of the production histories of wells from Rozet and Raven fields of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. These fields, which were primarily depleted, produced from the muddy sands of Cretaceous age and the Minnelusa sand of the Permian age, respectively. The analysis of the recoverable hydrocarbon volume, P\\/sub d\\/, values obtained from the decline

Oduolowu

1973-01-01

67

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, 1980-92.  

EPA Science Inventory

Data summarized in this report are used in companion reports to help define the relations among land use, water use, water quality, and biological conditions. The upper Snake River Basin (1704) is located in southeastern Idaho and northwestern Wyoming and includes small parts of...

68

MAJOR SOURCES OF NITROGEN INPUT AND LOSS IN THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, 1990.  

EPA Science Inventory

Total nitrogen input and loss from cattle manure, fertilizer, legume crops, precipitation, and domestic septic systems in the upper Snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming (1704), were estimated by county for water year 1990. The purpose of these estimations was to rank inp...

69

The potential impact of coal-energy development on agriculture land resources in Wyoming's Powder River Basin. Completion report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of impacts that could occur to agriculture and the adjustments that might occur as land resources in Wyoming's Powder River Basin are shifted from agricultural production to coal-energy production are discussed. The impacts are analyzed in terms of acres of land withdrawn from agricultural production, the types of crops which would be on that land, and the economic

D. Janis; J. Carlson; C. Phillips

1977-01-01

70

Trace element chemistry of coal bed natural gas produced water in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming.  

PubMed

Coal bed natural gas (CBNG) produced water is usually disposed into nearby constructed disposal ponds. Geochemistry of produced water, particularly trace elements interacting with a semiarid environment, is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to collect produced water samples at outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds and monitor pH, iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), boron (B), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), and barium (Ba). Outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds were sampled from five different watersheds including Cheyenne River (CHR), Belle Fourche River (BFR), Little Powder River (LPR), Powder River (PR), and Tongue River (TR) within the Powder River Basin (PRB), Wyoming from 2003 to 2005. Paired t tests were conducted between CBNG outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds for each watershed. Results suggest that produced water from CBNG outfalls is chemically different from the produced water from corresponding disposal ponds. Most trace metal concentrations in the produced water increased from outfall to disposal pond except for Ba. In disposal ponds, Ba, As, and B concentrations increased from 2003 to 2005. Geochemical modeling predicted precipitation and dissolution reactions as controlling processes for Al, Cu, and Ba concentrations in CBNG produced water. Adsorption and desorption reactions appear to control As, Mo, and B concentrations in CBNG water in disposal ponds. Overall, results of this study will be important to determine beneficial uses (e.g., irrigation, livestock/wildlife water, and aquatic life) for CBNG produced water in the PRB, Wyoming. PMID:17937266

Jackson, Richard E; Reddy, K J

2007-09-01

71

Genetic structure of cougar populations across the Wyoming basin: Metapopulation or megapopulation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the genetic structure of 5 Wyoming cougar (Puma concolor) populations surrounding the Wyoming Basin, as well as a population from southwestern Colorado. When using 9 microsatellite DNA loci, observed heterozygosity was similar among populations (HO = 0.49-0.59) and intermediate to that of other large carnivores. Estimates of genetic structure (FST = 0.028, RST = 0.029) and number of migrants per generation (Nm) suggested high gene flow. Nm was lowest between distant populations and highest among adjacent populations. Examination of these data, plus Mantel test results of genetic versus geographic distance (P ??? 0.01), suggested both isolation by distance and an effect of habitat matrix. Bayesian assignment to population based on individual genotypes showed that cougars in this region were best described as a single panmictic population. Total effective population size for cougars in this region ranged from 1,797 to 4,532 depending on mutation model and analytical method used. Based on measures of gene flow, extinction risk in the near future appears low. We found no support for the existence of metapopulation structure among cougars in this region.

Anderson, Jr. , C. R.; Lindzey, F. G.; Mcdonald, D. B.

2004-01-01

72

Vegetation analysis in the Laramie Basin, Wyoming from ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The application of ERTS-1 imagery to vegetation mapping and identification was tested and confirmed by field checking. ERTS-1 imagery interpretation and density contour mapping allows definition of minute vegetation features and estimation of vegetative biomass and species composition. Large- and small-scale vegetation maps were constructed for test areas in the Laramie Basin and Laramie mountains of Wyoming. Vegetative features reflecting grazing intensity, moisture availability, changes within the growing season, cutting of hay crops, and plant community constituents in forest and grassland are discussed and illustrated. Theoretical considerations of scattering, sun angle, slope, and instrument aperture upon image and map resolution were investigated. Future suggestions for applications of ERTS-1 data to vegetative analysis are included.

Evans, M. A.; Redfern, F. R.

1973-01-01

73

Seismic amplitude anomalies associated with thick First Leo sandstone lenses, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several new discoveries of oil production in the Leo sandstone, an economic unit in the Pennsylvanian middle member of the Minnelusa formation, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming-Nebraska-South Dakota, have renewed exploration interest in this area. Vertical seismic profiles (VSP) and model studies suggested that a measurable seismic amplitude anomaly is frequently associated with the thick First Leo sandstone lenses. To test this concept, a surface reflection seismic profile was run between two wells about 12 miles apart. The First Leo was present and productive in one well and thin and barren in the other. The surface profile shows the predicted amplitude anomaly at the well where a thick lens is known to exist. Two other First Leo amplitude anomalies also appear on the surface seismic profile between the two wells, which may indicate the presence of additional lenses.-Authors

Balch, A. H.; Lee, M. W.; Miller, J. J.; Ryder, R. T.

1981-01-01

74

Drill hole data for coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Montana and Wyoming is part of the U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project. Essential to that project was the creation of a comprehensive drill hole database that was used for coal bed correlation and for coal resource and reserve assessments in the PRB. This drill hole database was assembled using data from the USGS National Coal Resources Data System, several other Federal and State agencies, and selected mining companies. Additionally, USGS personnel manually entered lithologic picks into the database from geophysical logs of coalbed methane, oil, and gas wells. Of the 29,928 drill holes processed, records of 21,393 are in the public domain and are included in this report. The database contains location information, lithology, and coal bed names for each drill hole.

Jon Haacke;David C Scott

2013-01-01

75

Invasive species and coal bed methane development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the fastest growing areas of natural gas production is coal bed methane (CBM) due to the large monetary returns and increased demand for energy from consumers. The Powder River Basin, Wyoming is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of CBM development with projections of the establishment of up to 50,000 wells. CBM disturbances may make the native ecosystem more susceptible to invasion by non-native species, but there are few studies that have been conducted on the environmental impacts of this type of resource extraction. To evaluate the potential effects of CBM development on native plant species distribution and patterns of non-native plant invasion, 36 modified Forest Inventory and Analysis plots (each comprised of four 168-m2 subplots) were established in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. There were 73 168-m2 subplots on control sites; 42 subplots on secondary disturbances; 14 on major surface disturbances; eight on well pads; and seven on sites downslope of CBM wells water discharge points. Native plant species cover ranged from 39.5 ?? 2.7% (mean ?? 1 SE) in the secondary disturbance subplots to 17.7 ?? 7.5% in the pad subplots. Non-native plant species cover ranged from 31.0 ?? 8.4% in the discharge areas to 14.7 ?? 8.9% in the pad subplots. The control subplots had significantly less non-native species richness than the combined disturbance types. The combined disturbance subplots had significantly greater soil salinity than the control sites. These results suggest that CBM development and associated disturbances may facilitate the establishment of non-native plants. Future research and management decisions should consider the accumulative landscape-scale effects of CBM development on preserving native plant diversity. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

Bergquist, E.; Evangelista, P.; Stohlgren, T. J.; Alley, N.

2007-01-01

76

Petrology and Reservoir Paragenesis in the Sussex 'B' Sandstone of the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale, House Creek and Porcupine Fields, Powder River Basin, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using petrologic and sedimentologic studies, the paper characterizes the influence of sedimentologic and petrologic variations on reservoir heterogeneity in the Sussex 'B' sandstone in the House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Eff...

D. K. Higley

1991-01-01

77

Secondary Lead Poisoning in Golden Eagle and Ferruginous Hawk Chicks Consuming Shot Black-tailed Prairie Dogs, Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recreational shooting of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a common activity at Thunder Basin National Grassland (TBNG), Wyoming. The prairie dog carcasses left in the area are scavenged by coyotes (Canis latrans), raptors, and other ani...

A. S. Johnson K. K. Dickerson M. C. McKinstry R. Plumb R. M. Stephens

2005-01-01

78

Origin of thick lower tertiary coal beds in the powder river basin, Wyoming and Montana. Some paleogeographic constraints (Chapter Q). Bulletin  

SciTech Connect

The late Paleocene and early Eocene paleogeography of the Powder River Basin suggests that the thick coals in the basin formed from peat deposits in dip-elongate swamps near the basin-axis trunk streams. The Powder River Basin has more than 80 percent of the coal resources in Wyoming, and therefore factors not related to climate or subsidence rate must be unique to the Powder River Basin. The most likely factor is regional paleogeography.

Seeland, D.

1993-01-01

79

Middle Jurassic (Bajocian and Bathonian) dinosaur megatracksites, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two previously unknown rare Middle Jurassic dinosaur megatracksites are reported from the Bighorn Basin of northern Wyoming in the Western Interior of the United States. These trace fossils occur in carbonate units once thought to be totally marine in origin, and constitute the two most extensive Middle Jurassic dinosaur tracksites currently known in North America. The youngest of these occurs primarily along a single horizon at or near the top of the "basal member" of the "lower" Sundance Formation, is mid-Bathonian in age, and dates to ??? 167 ma. This discovery necessitates a major change in the paleogeographic reconstructions for Wyoming for this period. The older tracksites occur at multiple horizons within a 1 m interval in the middle part of the Gypsum Spring Formation. This interval is uppermost Bajocian in age and dates to ??? 170 ma. Terrestrial tracks found, to date, have been all bipedal tridactyl dinosaur prints. At least some of these prints can be attributed to the theropods. Possible swim tracks of bipedal dinosaurs are also present in the Gypsum Spring Formation. Digitigrade prints dominate the Sundance trackways, with both plantigrade and digitigrade prints being preserved in the Gypsum Spring trackways. The Sundance track-bearing surface locally covers 7.5 square kilometers in the vicinity of Shell, Wyoming. Other tracks occur apparently on the same horizon approximately 25 kilometers to the west, north of the town of Greybull. The Gypsum Spring megatracksite is locally preserved across the same 25 kilometer east-west expanse, with the Gypsum Spring megatracksite more extensive in a north-south direction with tracks occurring locally across a 100 kilometer extent. Conservative estimates for the trackway density based on regional mapping in the Sundance tracksite discovery area near Shell suggests that over 150, 000 in situ tracks may be preserved per square kilometer in the Sundance Formation in this area. Comparable estimates have not been made for other areas. Similarities between the two megatracksites include their formation and preservation in upper intertidal to supratidal sediments deposited under at least seasonally arid conditions. Microbial mat growth on the ancient tidal flats apparently initiated the preservation of these prints.

Kvale, E. P.; Johnson, G. D.; Mickelson, D. L.; Keller, K.; Furer, L.; Archer, A.

2001-01-01

80

Geology and reservoir characteristics of Moran field, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Moran field was discovered June 1984 when Sun Exploration and Production Company successfully completed the E. Moran 1 well in the A sandstone member of the Permian Minnelusa Formation. This field is located along the township line between R29W and R70W in T49N, Campbell County, Wyoming, in the east-central portion of the Powder River basin. Production has been established from 15 wells in the A and upper B sandstone intervals. The original prospect was developed as an A sandstone play using subsurface maps of the Opeche Shale and Minnelusa sandstones. The discovery well encountered a productive A sandstone and a thick lower B sandstone interval in the Minnelusa section. Delineation of the field to the southeast revealed a productive upper B sandstone not anticipated in the original prospect. This upper B sandstone develops in paleolows created by the thinning of the lower B sandstone, similar to the relationship observed in Edsel field, Crook County, Wyoming. Moran field has been developed on 40-ac spacing and has a productive area of approximately 700 ac. Initial production rates have been as high as 540 BOPD with very little water production. Production is characterized by high decline rates due to rapid pressure depletion associated with an undersaturated oil reservoir. An oil-water contact is indicated in both sands by the presence of capillary transition zones. A biodegraded oil zone separates the oil-productive interval from the transition zone in the upper B sandstone. Cumulative production to December 1, 1985, is 471,322 bbl of oil. Potential for secondary recovery exists following unitization.

Severding, W.H.; Pence, T.C.

1986-08-01

81

Trace element chemistry of coal bed natural gas produced water in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Coal bed natural gas (CBNG) produced water is usually disposed into nearby constructed disposal ponds. Geochemistry of produced water, particularly trace elements interacting with a semiarid environment, is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to collect produced water samples at outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds and monitor pH, iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), boron (B), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), and barium (Ba). Outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds were sampled from five different watersheds including Cheyenne River (CHR), Belle Fourche River (BFR), Little Powder River (LPR), Powder River (PR), and Tongue River (TR) within the Powder River Basin (PRB), Wyoming from 2003 to 2005. Paired tests were conducted between CBNG outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds for each watershed. Results suggest that produced water from CBNG outfalls is chemically different from the produced water from corresponding disposal ponds. Most trace metal concentrations in the produced water increased from outfall to disposal pond except for Ba. In disposal ponds, Ba, As, and B concentrations increased from 2003 to 2005. Geochemical modeling predicted precipitation and dissolution reactions as controlling processes for Al, Cu, and Ba concentrations in CBNG produced water. Adsorption and desorption reactions appear to control As, Mo, and B concentrations in CBNG water in disposal ponds. Overall, results of this study will be important to determine beneficial uses (e.g., irrigation, livestock/wildlife water, and aquatic life) for CBNG produced water in the PRB, Wyoming. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Richard E. Jackson; K.J. Reddy [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Department of Renewable Resources

2007-09-15

82

Slattery field, Powder River basin, Wyoming: a multidisciplinary approach leading to improved interpretation of a complex Minnelusa (Permian) field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slattery field was discovered in 1963 on the eastern flank of the Powder River basin. The field has produced over 6.5 million bbl of oil in the past 22 years. Located 10 mi south-southeast of Gillette, Wyoming, T49N, R68, 69W, it is 2 mi long and 1.4 mi wide. Although there is minor Cretaceous Muddy production, the sandstones of the

Richard J. Sheppy

1986-01-01

83

Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water Budget at a Storage Impoundment Site, Beaver Creek Drainage, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of producing wells, from less than 300 in 1997 to more than 10,000 in 2002, with as many as 40,000 new wells projected to be drilled during the next decade. CBM development involves the co-production of large volumes of coalbed

A. A. Payne; D. M. Saffer; J. R. Wheaton; S. Bierbach

2003-01-01

84

Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin ofWyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are

Brian A. Lipinski; James I. Sams; Bruce D. Smith; William Harbert

2008-01-01

85

Jonah field, Sublette County, Wyoming: Gas production from overpressured Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Green River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jonah field, located in the northwestern Green River basin, Wyoming, produces gas from overpressured fluvial channel sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation. Reservoirs exist in isolated and amalgamated channel facies 10-100 ft (3-30 m) thick and 150-4000 ft (45-1210 m) wide, deposited by meandering and braided streams. Compositional and paleocurrent studies indicate these streams flowed eastward and had their

S. L. Montgomery; J. W. Robinson

1997-01-01

86

Oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales in the Eocene Green River in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. This CD-ROM includes reports, data, and an ArcGIS project describing the assessment. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. Total in-place resources for the three assessed units in the Green River Formation are: (1) Tipton Shale Member, 362,816 million barrels of oil (MMBO), (2) Wilkins Peak Member, 704,991 MMBO, and (3) LaClede Bed of the Laney Member, 377,184 MMBO, for a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place. This compares with estimated in-place resources for the Piceance Basin of Colorado of 1.53 trillion barrels and estimated in-place resources for the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado of 1.32 trillion barrels.

U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

2011-01-01

87

An oxygen isotope model for interpreting carbonate diagenesis in nonmarine rocks (Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A closed-system model is used for predicting the ??18O of formation waters in the deep portions of the northern Green River basin, Wyoming. ??18Ocalcite is calculated from this modeled water and compared with the ??18O of measured calcites to help interpret diagenesis in the basin. The modification of ??18Owater which may be caused by diagenetic reactions at elevated temperatures, is modeled from two mass-balance equations. Three diagenetic reactions used to modify ??18Owater include: detrital limestone???calcite cement; detrital quartz???quartz cement; and detrital clay???authigenic illite/smectite. A weighted average ??18Owater and ??18O of calcite, quartz and illite/smectite in equilibrium with this water are calculated at 500-m increments. For a closed-system model, calculated variables at one depth are used for input variables at the next depth. An open system can be crudely simulated by adjusting the input variables at each depth. Petrographic and hydrologic data suggest that throughout much of the basin an open hydrochemical system overlies a relatively closed system which is below 3000 m. From the surface to 3000 m deep, ??18Ocalcite measured in sandstone cements deviates from calculated ??18Ocalcite for the closed-system model. Below 3000 m, ??18Ocalcite of cement and bulk shale converge from opposite directions with increasing depth toward the calculated ??18Ocalcite. Adjusting the calculated ??18Ocalcite to match the measured ??18Ocalcite indicates that the deviation above 3000 m results from mixing of meteoric waters with 18O-rich formation water. ?? 1987.

Dickinson, W. W.

1987-01-01

88

Applications and pitfalls in use of seismic stratigraphy in exploration (Minnelusa, Dakota), Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Successful exploration for oil in mature basins can be enhanced by using detailed geologic models coupled with seismic stratigraphy. The Pennsylvanian-Permian Minnelusa Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Formation of the Powder River basin, Wyoming, are prime examples of two diverse geologic models for which seismic and stratigraphic interpretations reduce risk for explorationists. The question becomes what techniques are available and which techniques should be routinely used. Two inversion techniques, one amplitude with offset technique, and several color-enhanced methods are compared. Misuse of data and pitfalls are suggested with examples of false anomalies provided. Several actual prospect examples will be compared to demonstrate the results before and after drilling.

Lawyer, G.F.; Warmath, A.T.

1988-02-01

89

Omomyid primates (Tarsiiformes) from the Early Middle Eocene at South Pass, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming.  

PubMed

Recent fieldwork in the Gardnerbuttean (earliest Bridgerian) sediments along the northeastern edge of the Green River Basin at South Pass, Wyoming, has yielded a large and diverse sample of omomyid (tarsiiform) primates. This assemblage includes two species each of Artimonius gen. nov., Washakius, and Omomys, one species of Anaptomorphus, Trogolemur and Uintanius, and a new, primitive species of the rare omomyine genus,Utahia. Utahia is known elsewhere only from its type locality in the Uinta Basin and its phylogenetic position is poorly understood. Utahia carina sp. nov. allows for re-evaluation of the affinities of this genus relative to other omomyines. In most characters, such as a lesser degree of molar trigonid compression, more widely open talonid notches, and a lack of molar talonid crenulation, the new species is more primitive than U. kayi. The dental anatomy of U. carina also indicates that Utahia is morphologically intermediate between washakiins and omomyins, although the balance of anatomical features places Utahia as the sister taxon to a broadly defined "Ourayini" clade. Morphological similarity between U. carina, Loveina zephyri, and primitive Washakius suggests that while the omomyin and washakiin clades may have diverged by the middle Wasatchian, substantial morphological distinctions are first evidenced only in the early Bridgerian. This may be due either to a lack of appropriate faunal samples from older sediments, or, more likely, because ecological circumstances in the early Bridgerian favored omomyine diversification and subsequent replacement of previously occurring taxa. This hypothesis is further supported by the stratigraphic co-occurrence of U. carina, W. izetti, and a primitive variant of W. insignis at South Pass, a marginal area. Basin margins have been hypothesized to provide heterogeneous habitats conducive to the production of evolutionary innovation. Basin margin samples have also been cited as evidence that anaptomorphines were relegated to upland refugia as omomyine taxa began to appear in the later part of the early Eocene. Another possible explanation for the unusual co-occurrence of species at South Pass relates to fluctuating lake levels in the Green River Basin, which intermittently would have made lowland environments inhospitable for arboreal fauna. This would have created a situation whereby species which would normally be allopatric become sympatric at South Pass. PMID:12393005

Muldoon, Kathleen M; Gunnell, Gregg F

2002-10-01

90

Ecological Assessment of Streams in the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005-06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring. The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat and riparian zones as well as assessments of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities. All of the components were sampled at 47 sites in the PRB during 2005. A reduced set of components, consisting primarily of macroinvertebrate and fish community assessments, was sampled in 2006. Related ecological data, such as habitat and fish community data collected from selected sites in 2004, also are included in this report. The stream habitat assessment included measurement of channel features, substrate size and embeddedness, riparian vegetation, and reachwide characteristics. The width-to-depth ratio (bankfull width/bankfull depth) tended to be higher at sites on the main-stem Powder River than at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and at sites on tributary streams. The streambed substrate particle size was largest at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and smallest at sites on small tributary streams such as Squirrel Creek and Otter Creek. Total vegetative cover at the ground level, understory, and canopy layers ranged from less than 40 percent at a few sites to more than 90 percent at many of the sites. A bank-stability index indicated that sites in the Tongue River drainage were less at risk of bank failure than sites on the main-stem Powder River. Macroinvertebrate communities showed similarity at the river-drainage scale. Macroinvertebrate communities at sites with mountainous headwaters and snowmelt-driven hydrology, such as Clear Creek, Crazy Woman Creek, and Goose Creek, showed similarity with communities from the main-stem Tongue River. The data also indicated similarity among sites on the main-stem Powder River and among small tributaries of the Tongue River. Data analyses using macroinvertebrate observed/expected models and multimetric indices developed by the States of Wyoming and Montana indicated a tendency toward declining biological condition in the downstream direction along the Tongue River. Biological condition for the main-stem Powder River generally improved downstream, from below Salt Creek to near the Wyoming/Montana border, followed by a general decline downstream from the border to the confluence with the Yellowstone River. The biological condition generally was not significantly different between 2005 and 2006, although streamflow was less in 2006 because of drought. Algal communities showed similarity at the river-drainage scale with slight differences from the pattern observed in the macroinvertebrate communities. Although the algal communities from Clear Creek and Goose Creek were similar to those from the main-stem Tongue River, as was true of the macroinvertebrate communities, the algal communities from Crazy Woman Creek had more similarity to those of main-stem Powder River sites than to the Tongue River sites, contrary to the macroinvertebrates. Ordination of algal communities, as well as diatom metrics including salinity and dominant taxa, indicated substantial variation at two sites along the main stem of the Powder River. Fish communities of the PRB were most diverse in the Tongue River drainage. In part due to the effects of Tongue River Reservoir, 15 species of fish were found in the Tongue River drainage that were not found in the Cheyenne, Belle Fourche,

Peterson, D.A.; Wright P.R.; Edwards, G.P., Jr.; Hargett, E.G.; Feldman, D.L.; Zumberge, J.R.; Dey, Paul

2009-01-01

91

Irrigated acreage in the Bear River Basin as of the 1975 growing season. [Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The irrigated cropland in the Bear River Basin as of the 1975 growing season was inventoried from satellite imagery. LANDSAT color infrared images (scale 1:125,000) were examined for early, mid, and late summer dates, and acreage was estimated by use of township/section overlays. The total basin acreage was estimated to be 573,435 acres, with individual state totals as follows: Idaho 234,370 acres; Utah 265,505 acres; and Wyoming 73,560 acres. As anticipated, wetland areas intermingled among cropland appears to have produced an over-estimation of irrigated acreage. According to a 2% random sample of test sites evaluated by personnel from the Soil Conservation Service such basin-wide over-estimation is 7.5%; individual counties deviate significantly from the basin-wide figure, depending on the relative amount of wetland areas intermingled with cropland.

Ridd, M. K.; Jaynes, R. A.; Landgraf, K. F.; Clark, L. D., Jr. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

92

Petrophysical Properties of Cody, Mowry, Shell Creek, and Thermopolis Shales, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petrophysical properties of four shale formations are documented from well-log responses in 23 wells in the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming. Depths of the examined shales range from 4,771 to 20,594 ft. The four formations are the Thermopolis Shale (T), the Shell Creek Shale (SC), the Mowry Shale (M), and the lower part of the Cody Shale (C), all of Cretaceous age. These four shales lie within a 4,000-ft, moderately overpressured, gas-rich vertical interval in which the sonic velocity of most rocks is less than that of an interpolated trendline representing a normal increase of velocity with depth. Sonic velocity, resistivity, neutron, caliper, and gamma-ray values were determined from well logs at discrete intervals in each of the four shales in 23 wells. Sonic velocity in all four shales increases with depth to a present-day depth of about 10,000 ft; below this depth, sonic velocity remains relatively unchanged. Velocity (V), resistivity (R), neutron porosity (N), and hole diameter (D) in the four shales vary such that: VM > VC > VSC > VT, RM > RC > RSC > RT, NT > NSC ? NC > NM, and DT > DC ? DSC > DM. These orderings can be partially understood on the basis of rock compositions. The Mowry Shale is highly siliceous and by inference comparatively low in clay content, resulting in high sonic velocity, high resistivity, low neutron porosity, and minimal borehole enlargement. The Thermopolis Shale, by contrast, is a black fissile shale with very little silt--its high clay content causes low velocity, low resistivity, high neutron response, and results in the greatest borehole enlargement. The properties of the Shell Creek and lower Cody Shales are intermediate to the Mowry and Thermopolis Shales. The sonic velocities of all four shales are less than that of an interpolated trendline that is tied to velocities in shales above and below the interval of moderate overpressure. The reduction in velocity varies among the four shales, such that the amount of offset (O) from the trendline is OT > OSC > OC > OM, that is, the velocity in the Mowry Shale is reduced the least and the velocity in the Thermopolis Shale is reduced the most. Velocity reductions are attributed to increases in pore pressure during burial, caused by the generation and retention of gas, with lithology playing a key role in the amount of reduction. Sonic velocity in the four shale units remains low to the present day, after uplift and erosion of as much as 6,500 ft in the deeper part of the basin and consequent possible reduction from maximum pore pressures reached when strata were more deeply buried. A model combining burial history, the decrease of effective stress with increasing pore pressure, and Bower's model for the dependence of sonic velocity on effective stress is proposed to explain the persistence of low velocity in shale units. Interruptions to compaction gradients associated with gas occurrences and overpressure are observed in correlative strata in other basins in Wyoming, so the general results for shales in the Bighorn Basin established in this paper should be applicable elsewhere.

Nelson, P. H.

2013-12-01

93

Kriging analysis of mean annual precipitation, Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kriging is a statistical estimation technique for regionalized variables which exhibit an autocorrelation structure. Such structure can be described by a semi-variogram of the observed data. The kriging estimate at any point is a weighted average of the data, where the weights are determined using the semi-variogram and an assumed drift, or lack of drift, in the data. Block, or areal, estimates can also be calculated. The kriging algorithm, based on unbiased and minimum-variance estimates, involves a linear system of equations to calculate the weights. Kriging variances can then be used to give confidence intervals of the resulting estimates. Mean annual precipitation in the Powder River basin, Montana and Wyoming, is an important variable when considering restoration of coal-strip-mining lands of the region. Two kriging analyses involving data at 60 stations were made--one assuming no drift in precipitation, and one a partial quadratic drift simulating orographic effects. Contour maps of estimates of mean annual precipitation were similar for both analyses, as were the corresponding contours of kriging variances. Block estimates of mean annual precipitation were made for two subbasins. Runoff estimates were 1-2 percent of the kriged block estimates. (USGS)

Karlinger, M. R.; Skrivan, James A.

1981-01-01

94

Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data from Wind River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data are limited by MSS spatial resolution (80 m or 262 ft) and bandwidth selection. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data have greatly enhanced spatial resolution (30 m or 98 ft) and TM operates in spectral bands suited to geologic interpretation. To compare the two systems, three images center over the Wind River basin of Wyoming were obtained. Two were TM images - a false color composite (FCC) and a natural color composite (NCC) - and the third was an MSS image. A systematic analysis of drainage, landforms, geologic structure, gross lithologic characteristics, lineaments, and curvilinears was performed on the three images. Drainage density and landform distinction were greatly enhanced on the TM images. Geologic features such as faults, strike and dip, folds, and lithologic characteristics are often difficult to distinguish on the MSS image but are readily apparent on the TM images. The lineament-curvilinear analysis of the MSS image showed longer but less distinct linear features. In comparison, the TM images allowed interpretation of shorter but more distinct linear elements, providing a more accurate delineation of the actual dimensions of the geologic features which these lineaments are thought to represent. An analysis of the oil production present in the study area showed 75% of the surface productive structures were delineated on the TM images, whereas only the most obvious structures were visible on the MSS image.

Geronsin, R.L.; Merry, M.C.

1984-07-01

95

Stratigraphy of Upper Jurassic Morrison and Lower Cretaceous Cloverly formations of Big Horn basin, northern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Morrison and Cloverly Formations in the Big Horn basin of northern Wyoming and southern Montana are part of a distal edge of a westward-thickening clastic wedge of sediment deposited in an elongate intracontinental basin in the western North American craton. These formations reflect orogenic and volcanic activity in the western Cordillera during Late Jurassic and the subsequent eastward migration of volcanic centers during Early Cretaceous. The Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) conformably overlies the Jurassic marine Sundance Formation and consists of light olive-green, lenticular, calcareous siltstones and mudstones interbedded with white to buff or yellowish green, massive and cross laminated, calcareous quartz-arenites. The Cloverly Formation (Lower Cretaceous) consists of three members: the Pryor Conglomerate, and Little Sheep Mudstone, and the Himes; it overlies the Morrison Formation both conformably and unconformably. Both the Morrison and Cloverly Formations are characterized by high ratios of overbank fines relative to coarse channel sands. It has been assumed, but not documented by detailed sedimentologic study, that the deposits were part of an aggrading alluvial flood plain complex dotted by seasonal lakes and swamps and crossed by braided rivers. This model deviates from most modern braided systems which are characterized by rapid lateral mobility and the lack of fine-grained overbank material. The large ratio of fine-grained siltstones and mudstones to coarser grained sandstones can be explained by a number of processes, the most probable being rapid overbank aggradation as a result of a large influx of windblown volcanic material from vents to the west.

Kvale, E.P.; Vondra, C.F.

1983-08-01

96

78 FR 56650 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Wyoming; Thunder Basin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...it was determined that the language, as stated in the ROD...consistency with the current Wyoming Game and Fish Department Prairie...outlined in an obsolete Wyoming Game and Fish Department Translocation...Policy (WGFD 2004); Develop language to address how lands added...

2013-09-13

97

Geologic Storage at the Basin Scale: Region-Based Basin Modeling, Powder River Basin (PRB), NE Wyoming and SE Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon capture and storage from the over 2000 power plants is estimated at 3-5 GT\\/yr, which requires large- scale geologic storage of greenhouse gasses in sedimentary basins. Unfortunately, determination of basin scale storage capacity is currently based on oversimplified geologic models that are difficult to validate. Simplification involves reducing the number of geologic parameters incorporated into the model, modeling with

J. J. Melick; M. H. Gardner

2008-01-01

98

Potentiometric-surface map of the Wyodak-Anderson Coal Bed, Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, 1973-84  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previous water level maps of shallow aquifers in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming were based on water levels from wells completed in different stratigraphic intervals within thick sequences of sedimentary rocks. A potentiometric surface using water levels from a single aquifer had never been mapped throughout the basin. The sandstone aquifers in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age and the Wasatch Formation of Eocene age are discontinuous and lenticular, and do not extend even short distances. Coal aquifers are more continuous and the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed, in the Fort Union Formation, has been mapped in much of the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming. Water level altitudes in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed and other stratigraphically equivalent coal beds were mapped to determine if they represent a continuous potentiometric surface in the Powder River structural basin. The potentiometric surface, except in the vicinity of the Wyodak mine east of Gillette, represents a premining condition as it was based on water level measurements made during 1973-84 that were not significantly affected by mining. The map was prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. (Lantz-PTT)

Daddow, Pamela B.

1986-01-01

99

Water-quality assessment of the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming; environmental setting and study design  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming is one of 51 study units in the United States where the status and trends of water quality, and the factors controlling water quality, are being studied by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The 14,500-square-mile Great Salt Lake Basins study unit encompasses three major river systems that enter Great Salt Lake: the Bear, the Weber, and the Utah Lake/Jordan River systems. The environmental setting of the study unit includes natural and human-related factors that potentially influence the physical, chemical, and/or biological quality of the surface- and ground-water resources. Surface- and ground-water components of the planned assessment activities are designed to evaluate the sources of natural and human-related factors that affect the water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit.

Baskin, Robert L.; Waddell, K. M.; Thiros, S. A.; Giddings, E. M.; Hadley, H. K.; Stephens, D. W.; Gerner, S. J.

2002-01-01

100

Simulating Grazing Impacts on Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics in the Green River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grazing is one of the key disturbances on semi-arid grasslands. To understand the grazing impacts on carbon (C ) dynamics in these grasslands can help to create livestock management in a sustainable way. We used the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to study the effects of grazing intensity on ecosystem carbon dynamics between 1970 and 1999 across the Green River Basin (GRB) in southwest Wyoming. The National Land Cover Database and multi-year MODIS Net Primary Production (NPP) data were used as inputs to produce the spatial maps of carbon dynamics in GRB. We set three scenarios based on different levels of grazing intensity: no grazing, light grazing, and moderate grazing. Our results indicate that if potential vegetation production (which is defined by the biological traits of the grass species) does not change, excluding grazing on semi-arid grasslands reduces grassland production. The moderate-grazing scenario resulted in the highest production (5.1 TgC), followed by the light-grazing scenario (4.6 TgC) and no-grazing scenario (4.3 TgC). The NPP differences between grazing and no-grazing scenarios varied annually and were significantly affected by annual precipitation and temperature. Excluding grazing for 30 years on the grasslands increased the ecosystem carbon by 6.7% while reducing grazing to light-grazing increased 3.6%. The spatial distribution of ecosystem carbon change wereas significantly impacted by initial ecosystem carbon storage, vegetation production, and carbon removed from ecosystem. The carbon dynamic maps generated by our approach can be used as a diagnostic tool for rangeland managements.

li, Z.; Liu, S.; Tan, Z.; Young, C.

2011-12-01

101

Volcanic ash dispersed in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minerals derived from air-fall volcanic ash were found in two zones in the upper Paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal bed of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, and are the first reported evidence of such volcanic material in this thick (> 20 m) coal bed. The volcanic minerals occur in zones that are not visually obvious because they contain little or no clay. These zones were located by geophysical logs of the boreholes and X-ray radiography of the cores. The zones correspond to two of a series of incremental core samples of the coal bed that have anomalous concentrations of Zr, Ba, Nb, Sr, and P2O5. Two suites of minerals were found in both of the high-density zones. A primary suite (not authigenic) consists of silt-sized quartz grains, biotite, and minor zircon. A minor suite consists of authigenic minerals, including calcite, pyrite, kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and an alumino-phosphate (crandallite?). The original volcanic ash is inferred to have consisted of silica glass containing phenocrysts of quartz, biotite, zircon, and possibly, associated feldspars, pyroxenes, and amphiboles. The glass, as well as the less stable minerals, probably dissolved relatively quickly and contributed to the minor authigenic mineral suite or was removed from the peat as a result of the prevailing hydrologic conditions present in a raised peat formation. This type of volcanic ash suggests that suggests that volcanic material could have rained on the peat; this fallout may have also had a fertilizing effect on the peat by providing nutrients essential for plant growth thus contributing to the thick accumulations of the Wyodak-Anderson bed. Notwithstanding, the presence of these minerals provides evidence for the contribution by volcanic sources to the mineral content of coal, but not as tonsteins. ?? 1991.

Triplehorn, D. M.; Stanton, R. W.; Ruppert, L. F.; Crowley, S. S.

1991-01-01

102

3 Years of Ammonia Monitoring in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-year ammonia air monitoring study was conducted at Boulder, Wyoming, in the Upper Green River Basin - a region experiencing rapid natural gas development with potential consequences of air quality and visibility impacts in the adjacent Class I Bridger Wilderness. The objective of this study is to characterize the local airborne nitrogen budget, specifically concentrations of ammonia and related gases and particles over one year. Samples were collected twice per week beginning December 15, 2006, using coated annular denuders and stacked filters in a URG sampler, analyzed at Colorado State University’s Atmospheric Science Department. NH3 concentrations are variable throughout the year and below 1 ppbv for most of the monitoring period, peaking in August 2007 at 1.55 ppbv (2.8 ppbv in Aug 2008), with a yearly mean value of 0.24 ppbv in 2007 (0.30 pppv in 2008). Concentrations are below or near detectable limits from December through February in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Elevated NH3 concentrations coincide with warmer summer months. A shift in ammonium nitrate equilibrium toward the gas phase might be responsible for some of this increase, although an increase in total reduced nitrogen (ammonium + ammonia) during the summer suggests that changes in emissions and or transport patterns are likely also important contributors. Increasingly strong nitrate and nitric acid cycles lasting several days, characterize the winter months, coinciding with observations of elevated ozone. This phenomenon dies off quickly with the onset of snowmelt. Two special studies were conducted in August 2008 and February/March 2009, representing typical peak summer and late winter conditions. Summer data show diurnal patterns likely driven by photochemical reactions and temperature changes, while winter observations indicate a coincidence of increased nitrogen loading with high ozone periods during stagnant conditions lasting several days. Changes of wind direction and speed in all cases significantly lower this nitrogen burden and high ozone conditions alike.

Schwandner, F. M.; Sewell, H.; Collett, J. L.; Molenar, J. V.; Archuleta, C.; Tigges, M.; Sherman, L.; Li, Y.; Raja, S.

2009-12-01

103

Integrating geophysics and geochemistry to evaluate coalbed natural gas produced water disposal, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of methane from thick, extensive coalbeds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. More than 4.1 billion barrels of water have been produced with coalbed natural gas (CBNG) since 1997. Infiltration impoundments, which are the principal method used to dispose CBNG water, contribute to the recharge of underlying aquifers. Airborne electromagnetic surveys of an alluvial aquifer that has been receiving CBNG water effluent through infiltration impoundments since 2001 reveal produced water plumes within these aquifers and also provide insight into geomorphologic controls on resultant salinity levels. Geochemical data from the same aquifer reveal that CBNG water enriched in sodium and bicarbonate infiltrates and mixes with sodium-calcium-sulfate type alluvial groundwater, which subsequently may have migrated into the Powder River. The highly sodic produced water undergoes cation exchange reactions with native alluvial sediments as it infiltrates, exchanging sodium from solution for calcium and magnesium on montmorillonite clays. The reaction may ultimately reduce sediment permeability by clay dispersion. Strontium isotope data from CBNG wells discharging water into these impoundments indicate that the Anderson coalbed of the Fort Union Formation is dewatered due to production. Geophysical methods provide a broad-scale tool to monitor CBNG water disposal especially in areas where field based investigations are logistically prohibitive, but geochemical data are needed to reveal subsurface processes undetectable by geophysical techniques. The results of this research show that: (1) CBNG impoundments should not be located near streams because they can alter the surrounding hydraulic potential field forcing saline alluvial groundwater and eventually CBNG water into the stream, (2) point bars are poor impoundment locations because they are essentially in direct hydraulic communication with the associated stream and because plants readily transpire shallow groundwater within them creating vadose zone salt accumulations that will be dissolved by infiltrating CBNG water, and (3) cation exchange reactions in vadose zone sediments may reduce soil permeability beneath infiltration impoundments through clay dispersion lowering their designed disposal capacity.

Lipinski, Brian Andrew

104

Near surface characterisation with passive seismic data - a case study from the La Barge basin (Wyoming)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In regions where active source seismic data are inadequate for imaging purposes due to energy penetration and recovery, cost and logistical concerns, or regulatory restrictions, analysis of natural source and ambient seismic data may provide an alternative. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using locally-generated seismic noise and teleseismic events in the 2-10 Hz band to obtain a subsurface model. We apply different techniques to 3-component data recorded during the LaBarge Passive Seismic Experiment, a local deployment in southwestern Wyoming in a producing hydrocarbon basin. Fifty-five broadband instruments with an inter-station distance of 250 m recorded continuous seismic data between November 2008 and June 2009. The consistency and high quality of the data set make it an ideal test ground to determine the value of passive seismology techniques for exploration purposes. The near surface is targeted by interferometric analysis of ambient noise. Our results indicate that traffic noise from a state highway generates coherent Rayleigh and Love waves that can then be inverted for laterally varying velocities. The results correlate well with surface geology, and are thought to represent the average of the few upper hundred meters. The autocorrelation functions (ACF) of teleseismic body waves provide information on the uppermost part (1 to 5 km depth) of the crust. ACFs from P-waves correlate with the shallow structure as known from active source studies. The analysis of S-waves exhibits a pronounced azimuthal dependency, which might be used to gain insights on anisotropy.

Behm, M.; Snieder, R.; Tomic, J.

2012-12-01

105

Gas, Oil, and Water Production in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were collected from the Fuller Reservoir, Cooper Reservoir, Frenchie Draw, Cave Gulch, and Madden fields in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. These fields produce from the Mississippian Madison Limestone, the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale and Mesaverde Formation, and the Paleocene lower unnamed member and Shotgun Member of the Fort Union Formation. Diagrams of water and gas production from tight gas accumulations in three formations in the Madden field show that (1) water production either increased or decreased with time in all three formations, (2) increases and decreases in water production were greater in the Cody Shale than in either the Mesaverde Formation or the lower unnamed member of the Fort Union Formation, (3) the gas production rate declined more slowly in the lower part of the Fort Union Formation than in the Cody Shale or the Mesaverde Formation, (4) changes in gas and water production were not related to their initial production rates, and (5) there appears to be no relation between well location and the magnitudes or trends of gas and water production. To explain the apparent independence of gas and water production in the Cody Shale and Mesaverde Formation, a two-step scenario is proposed: gas was generated and emplaced under the compressive stress regime resulting from Laramide tectonism; then, fractures formed during a subsequent period of stress relaxation and extension. Gas is produced from the pore and fracture system near the wellbore, whereas water is produced from a larger scale system of extension fractures. The distribution of gas and water in the lower Fort Union resulted from a similar scenario, but continued generation of gas during post-Laramide extension may have allowed its more widespread distribution.

Nelson, Philip H.; Trainor, Patrick K.; Finn, Thomas M.

2009-01-01

106

Hydrothermal alteration in research drill hole Y-3, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Y-3, a U.S. Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, reached a depth of 156.7 m. The recovered drill core consists of 42.2 m of surficial (mostly glacial) sediments and two rhyolite flows (Nez Perce Creek flow and an older, unnamed rhyolite flow) of the Central Plateau Member of the Pleistocene Plateau Rhyolite. Hydrothermal alteration is fairly extensive in most of the drill core. The surficial deposits are largely cemented by silica and zeolite minerals; and the two rhyolite flows are, in part, bleached by thermal water that deposited numerous hydrothermal minerals in cavities and fractures. Hydrothermal minerals containing sodium as a dominant cation (analcime, clinoptilolite, mordenite, Na-smectite, and aegirine) are more abundant than calcium-bearing minerals (calcite, fluorite, Ca-smectite, and pectolite) in the sedimentary section of the drill core. In the volcanic section of drill core Y-3, calcium-rich minerals (dachiardite, laumontite, yugawaralite, calcite, fluorite, Ca-smectite, pectolite, and truscottite) are predominant over sodium-bearing minerals (aegirine, mordenite, and Na-smectite). Hydrothermal minerals that contain significant amounts of potassium (alunite and lepidolite in the sediments and illitesmectite in the rhyolite flows) are found in the two drill-core intervals. Drill core y:.3 also contains hydrothermal silica minerals (opal, [3-cristobalite, chalcedony, and quartz), other clay minerals (allophane, halloysite, kaolinite, and chlorite), gypsum, pyrite, and hematite. The dominance of calcium-bearing hydrothermal minerals in the lower rhyolitic section of the y:.3 drill core appears to be due to loss of calcium, along with potassium, during adiabatic cooling of an ascending boiling water.

Bargar, Keith E.; Beeson, Melvin H.

1985-01-01

107

An analysis of wintertime surface wind fields in the Upper Green River Basin of Sublette County, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of high ozone mixing ratios in Sublette County, Wyoming, recently resulted in the region being designated to be in marginal non-attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Many interrelated factors influence the frequency and extent of elevated ozone episodes, including meteorological factors, through their effect on pollutant dilution and dispersion. Surface wind field patterns in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) of Sublette County, Wyoming, were therefore examined using observations from a network of surface monitoring stations for 2011, when many ozone episodes occurred, and for 2012, when, in contrast, there were none. The synoptic conditions associated with each pattern are described using output from the North American Mesoscale (NAM) model. Five patterns are described. They confirm that elevated ozone is often associated with light and variable winds. However, there are also days when moderate afternoon southeasterly flow leads to observations of elevated ozone on the west side of the basin. These southeasterly winds are identified as barrier winds caused by southwesterly flow at 700mb. Recognition of this wind pattern facilitates future forecasting of periods likely to experience potentially elevated ozone in the region. The merit of adding additional monitoring sites from the Upper Green River Basin Wintertime Ozone Wind Field Investigation (O3w) and the Upper Green River Ozone Study (UGWOS) of 2012 to the current monitoring network is also discussed.

Emery, Brittni R.

108

Evapotranspiration Retrieval through Optical/Thermal Satellite Imagery and Ground Measurements in the Green River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing methods are increasingly employed in combination with modeling for evapotranspiration estimation because they can provide multi-temporal, spatially-distributed estimates of key variables based on spatially distributed measurements. The approach for estimating evapotranspiration with remotely sensed data couples thermal and optical remote sensing with energy balance models such as: SEBAL, Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land, and METRICtm, Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution using Internalized Calibration. The objective of this study is to investigate how ground measurements and satellite imagery at different scales can be combined to retrieve actual evapotranspiration over large watersheds. Scales of ground measurements are: (1) point scale that is typical for regular meteorological measurements such as air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed; (2) footprint scale that varies from about 5,000 m2 for eddy-covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes to about 5,000,000 m2 for scintillometer sensible heat flux measurements when optical/thermal Landsat and MODIS satellites pass over around 10 am. In our analysis, we focused on evapotranspiration or consumptive use associated with irrigated agriculture in the Green River Basin in Wyoming that is the main headwater tributary of the entire Colorado River Basin. Ground-based meteorological stations, eddy-covariance and large-aperture scintillometers were set up in Pinedale, Green River basin, Wyoming to conduct the research. METRIC is used to retrieve evapotranspiration estimates from Landsat5 (30-120 m resolution) and MODIS (250-1000 m resolution) imagery.

Pradhan, N.; Hendrickx, J. M.; Ogden, F. L.; Wollf, S. W.

2010-12-01

109

Geothermal resources of the Green River Basin, Wyoming, including thermal data for the Wyoming portion of the Thrust Belt  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources of the Green River basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth is tabulated. It was concluded that large areas are underlain by water at temperatures greater than 120/sup 0/F. Although much of this water is too deep to be economically tapped solely for geothermal use, oil and gas wells presently provide access to this significant geothermal resource. Isolated areas with high temperature gradients exist. These areas - many revealed by hot springs - represent geothermal systems which might presently be developed economically. 34 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs. (ACR)

Spencer, S.A.; Heasler, H.P.; Hinckley, B.S.

1985-01-01

110

Revised Subsurface Stratigraphic Framework of the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Described in this report is an updated subsurface stratigraphic framework of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and Eocene Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This framework is graphically presented in 17 intersecting west-east and north-south cross sections across the basin. Also included are: (1) the dataset and all associated digital files and (2) digital files for all figures and table 1 suitable for large-format printing. The purpose of this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report is to provide rapid dissemination and accessibility of the stratigraphic cross sections and related digital data to USGS customers, especially the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), to facilitate their modeling of the hydrostratigraphy of the PRB. This report contains a brief summary of the coal-bed correlations and database, and is part of a larger ongoing study that will be available in the near future.

Flores, Romeo M.; Spear, Brianne D.; Purchase, Peter A.; Gallagher, Craig M.

2010-01-01

111

Jonah field, Sublette County, Wyoming: Gas production from overpressured Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Green River Basin  

SciTech Connect

Jonah field, located in the northwestern Green River basin, Wyoming, produces gas from overpressured fluvial channel sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation. Reservoirs exist in isolated and amalgamated channel facies 10-100 ft (3-30 m) thick and 150-4000 ft (45-1210 m) wide, deposited by meandering and braided streams. Compositional and paleocurrent studies indicate these streams flowed eastward and had their source area in highlands associated with the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt to the west. Productive sandstones at Jonah have been divided into five pay intervals, only one of which (Jonah interval) displays continuity across most of the field. Porosities in clean, productive sandstones range from 8 to 12%, with core permeabilities of .01-0.9 md (millidarcys) and in-situ permeabilities as low as 3-20 pd (microdarcys), as determined by pressure buildup analyses. Structurally, the field is bounded by faults that have partly controlled the level of overpressuring. This level is 2500 ft (758 in) higher at Jonah field than in surrounding parts of the basin, extending to the top part of the Lance Formation. The field was discovered in 1975, but only in the 1990s did the area become fully commercial, due to improvements in fracture stimulation techniques. Recent advances in this area have further increased recoverable reserves and serve as a potential example for future development of tight gas sands elsewhere in the Rocky Mountain region.

Montgomery, S.L.; Robinson, J.W. [Synder Oil Corp., Denver, CO (United States)

1997-07-01

112

Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data are from analyses performed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, with some analyses made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet that is included in the CD-ROM. These Wyoming Fischer assays and histograms are part of a much larger collection of oil-shale information, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses on the Green River oil-shale deposits in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming held by the U.S. Geological Survey. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM containing Fischer assay data and oil-yield histograms for the Green River oil-shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming is being released to the public. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets included with Chapter 2 contain the Fischer assay data from the 426 holes and data on the company name and drill-hole name, and location. Histograms of the oil yields obtained from the Fischer assays are presented in both Grapher and PDF format. Fischer assay text data files are also included in the CD-ROM.

U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

2008-01-01

114

Strong wintertime ozone events in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years, elevated ozone (O3) values have been observed repeatedly in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB), Wyoming during wintertime. This paper presents an analysis of high ozone days in late winter 2011 (1 h average up to 166 ppbv). Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) of ambient monitoring were performed which included comprehensive surface and boundary layer measurements. On IOP days, maximum O3 values are restricted to a very shallow surface layer. Low wind speeds in combination with low mixing layer heights (~50 m a.g.l. around noontime) are essential for accumulation of pollutants within the UGRB. Air masses contain substantial amounts of reactive nitrogen (NOx) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) emitted from fossil fuel exploration activities in the Pinedale Anticline. On IOP days in the morning hours in particular, reactive nitrogen (up to 69%), aromatics and alkanes (~10-15%; mostly ethane and propane) are major contributors to the hydroxyl (OH) reactivity. Measurements at the Boulder monitoring site during these time periods under SW wind flow conditions show the lowest NMHC/NOx ratios (~50), reflecting a relatively low NMHC mixture, and a change from a NOx-limited regime towards a NMHC limited regime as indicated by photochemical indicators, e.g. O3/NOy, O3/NOz, and O3/HNO3 and the EOR (Extent of Reaction). OH production on IOP days is mainly due to nitrous acid (HONO). Until noon on IOP days, HONO photolysis contributes between 74-98% of the entire OH-production. Ozone photolysis (contributing 2-24%) is second to HONO photolysis. However, both reach about the same magnitude in the early afternoon (close to 50%). Photolysis of formaldehyde (HCHO) is not important (2-7%). High HONO levels (maximum hourly median on IOP days: 1096 pptv) are favored by a combination of shallow boundary layer conditions and enhanced photolysis rates due to the high albedo of the snow surface. HONO is most likely formed through (i) abundant nitric acid (HNO3) produced in atmospheric oxidation of NOx, deposited onto the snow surface and undergoing photo-enhanced heterogeneous conversion to HONO (estimated HONO production: 2250 pptv h-1) and (ii) combustion related emission of HONO (estimated HONO production: ~585 pptv h-1). HONO, serves as the most important precursor for OH, strongly enhanced due to the high albedo of the snow cover (HONO photolysis rate 2900 pptv h-1). OH radicals will oxidize NMHCs, mostly aromatics (toluene, xylenes) and alkanes (ethane, propane), eventually leading to an increase in ozone.

Rappenglück, B.; Ackermann, L.; Alvarez, S.; Golovko, J.; Buhr, M.; Field, R.; Soltis, J.; Montague, D. C.; Hauze, B.; Adamson, S.; Risch, D.; Wilkerson, G.; Bush, D.; Stoeckenius, T.; Keslar, C.

2013-07-01

115

Strong wintertime ozone events in the Upper Green River basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years, elevated ozone (O3) values have been observed repeatedly in the Upper Green River basin (UGRB), Wyoming, during wintertime. This paper presents an analysis of high ozone days in late winter 2011 (1 h average up to 166 ppbv - parts per billion by volume). Intensive operational periods (IOPs) of ambient monitoring were performed, which included comprehensive surface and boundary layer measurements. On IOP days, maximum O3 values are restricted to a very shallow surface layer. Low wind speeds in combination with low mixing layer heights (~ 50 m above ground level around noontime) are essential for accumulation of pollutants within the UGRB. Air masses contain substantial amounts of reactive nitrogen (NOx) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) emitted from fossil fuel exploration activities in the Pinedale Anticline. On IOP days particularly in the morning hours, reactive nitrogen (up to 69%), aromatics and alkanes (~ 10-15%; mostly ethane and propane) are major contributors to the hydroxyl (OH) reactivity. Measurements at the Boulder monitoring site during these time periods under SW wind flow conditions show the lowest NMHC / NOx ratios (~ 50), reflecting a relatively low reactive NMHC mixture, and a change from a NOx-limited regime towards a NMHC-limited regime as indicated by photochemical indicators, e.g., O3 /NOy, O3 /NOz, and O3 / HNO3 and the EOR (extent of reaction). OH production on IOP days is mainly due to nitrous acid (HONO). On a 24 h basis and as determined for a measurement height of 1.80 m above the surface HONO photolysis on IOP days can contribute ~ 83% to OH production on average, followed by alkene ozonolysis (~ 9%). Photolysis by ozone and HCHO photolysis contribute about 4% each to hydroxyl formation. High HONO levels (maximum hourly median on IOP days: 1096 pptv - parts per trillion by volume) are favored by a combination of shallow boundary layer conditions and enhanced photolysis rates due to the high albedo of the snow surface. HONO is most likely formed through (i) abundant nitric acid (HNO3) produced in atmospheric oxidation of NOx, deposited onto the snow surface and undergoing photo-enhanced heterogeneous conversion to HONO (estimated HONO production: 10.2 ± 40% ppbv h-1) and (ii) combustion-related emission of HONO (estimated HONO production: ~ 0.1 ± 30% ppbv h-1). HONO production is confined to the lowermost 10 m of the boundary layer. HONO, serves as the most important precursor for OH, strongly enhanced due to the high albedo of the snow cover (HONO photolysis rate 10.7 ± 30% ppbv h-1). OH radicals will oxidize NMHCs, mostly aromatics (toluene, xylenes) and alkanes (ethane, propane), eventually leading to an increase in ozone.

Rappenglück, B.; Ackermann, L.; Alvarez, S.; Golovko, J.; Buhr, M.; Field, R. A.; Soltis, J.; Montague, D. C.; Hauze, B.; Adamson, S.; Risch, D.; Wilkerson, G.; Bush, D.; Stoeckenius, T.; Keslar, C.

2014-05-01

116

Burial History, Thermal Maturity, and Oil and Gas Generation History of Source Rocks in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for seven key source-rock units at eight well locations throughout the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana. Also modeled was the timing of cracking to gas of Phosphoria Formation-sourced oil in the Permian Park City Formation reservoirs at two well locations. Within the basin boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon; it is thought that the Phosphoria oil produced from Park City and other reservoirs migrated from the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt. Other petroleum source rocks include the Cretaceous Thermopolis Shale, Mowry Shale, Frontier Formation, Cody Shale, Mesaverde and Meeteetse Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the Bighorn Basin (Emblem Bench, Red Point/Husky, and Sellers Draw), three at intermediate depths (Amoco BN 1, Santa Fe Tatman, and McCulloch Peak), and two at relatively shallow locations (Dobie Creek and Doctor Ditch). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep central part of the basin and decreases to the south, east, and north toward the basin margins. The Thermopolis and Mowry Shales are predominantly gas-prone source rocks, containing a mix of Type-III and Type-II kerogens. The Frontier, Cody, Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Fort Union Formations are gas-prone source rocks containing Type-III kerogen. Modeling results indicate that in the deepest areas, (1) the onset of petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from early Paleocene through early Eocene time, (2) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred during Eocene time, and (3) onset of gas generation from the Fort Union Formation occurred during early Eocene time and peak generation occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Only in the deepest part of the basin did the oil generated from the Thermopolis and Mowry Shales start generating gas from secondary cracking, which occurred in the late Eocene to Miocene. Also, based on modeling results, gas generation from the cracking of Phosphoria oil reservoired in the Park City Formation began in the late Eocene in the deep part of the basin but did not anywhere reach peak generation.

Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

2008-01-01

117

Correlation of discrete Minnelusa porosity intervals and identification of common reservoirs aided by computer-drawn geologic cross sections, Powder River basin, northeast Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper Minnelusa Formation in the northeastern Wyoming portion of the Powder River basin continues to challenge geologists. Oil exploration and development success depends heavily on correct correlation of discrete porosity intervals within the sand-dolomite series of the upper Minnelusa oil-bearing interval. Drill cores generally are not available. Correlation work must be performed on the basis of electric logs, drill

James H. Borgerding

1987-01-01

118

Strontium isotopes as indicators of aquifer communication in an area of coal-bed natural gas production, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the coal-bed natural gas resource of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana has proceeded rapidly, from fewer than 200 wells in 1995 to more than 22,000 wells in 2007. Continued development of this resource will depend on minimization of water production during gas recovery as well as responsible use of the produced water. Ideally, water should

Catherine E. Campbell; Benjamin N. Pearson; Carol D. Frost

2008-01-01

119

Prediction of reservoir properties using diagenetic analysis of a template unit: example from Upper Cretaceous sandstones in Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depositional and postdepositional histories of the Parkman formation in the Powder River basin, Wyoming, were studied in detail and compared with other Upper Cretaceous lenticular sandstone units of the Teapot, Sussex, and Shannon sandstones. Petrographic analysis was done using light, cathodoluminescent, scanning, scanning transmission, and backscattered microscopic techniques. X-ray microanalysis was done using energy and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy systems. The primary

A. U. Dogan; R. L. Brenner

1987-01-01

120

Petrology and reservoir paragenesis in the Sussex B sandstone of the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale, House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This book of reservoir paragenesis includes detailed descriptions of the petrology of depositional facies of the Sussex B sandstone of the Sussex Sandstone Member of the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale in the House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming.

Not Available

1992-01-01

121

Petrology and reservoir paragenesis in the Sussex 'B' sandstone of the upper Cretaceous Cody Shale, House Creek and Porcupine Fields, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Using petrologic and sedimentologic studies, the paper characterizes the influence of sedimentologic and petrologic variations on reservoir heterogeneity in the Sussex 'B' sandstone in the House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Effects of authigenic minerals on reservoir properties are described in detail for selected inter-ridge and ridge facies sandstones.

Higley, D.K.

1991-05-03

122

Extraction of Uranium Low-Grade Ores from Great Divide Basin, Wyoming. National Uranium Resource Evaluation (Acid, Roast-Acid, and Pressure Leaching Techniques).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Bureau of Mines is investigating the leachability of carbonaceous uranium ore samples submitted by the DOE under an Interagency Agreement. Studies on eight samples from the Great Divide Basin, Wyoming, are the basis of this report. The uranium cont...

J. C. Judd I. L. Nichols J. L. Huiatt

1983-01-01

123

Geology of the Pumpkin Buttes Area of the Powder River Basin, Campbell and Johnson Counties, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

About 200 uranium occurrences have been examined in the Pumpkin Buttes area, Wyoming. Uranium minerals are visible at most of these places and occur in red and buff sandstone lenses in the Wasatch formation of Eocene age. The uranium minerals are disseminated in buff sandstone near red sandstone, and also occur in red sandstone in manganese oxide concretions and uraninite concretions.

Sharp, William Neil; White, Amos McNairy

1956-01-01

124

The history of dinosaur footprint discoveries in Wyoming with emphasis on the Bighorn basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dinosaur traces are well known from the western United States in the Colorado Plateau region (Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona). Utah contains the greatest abundance of known and documented dinosaur footprints and trackways. Far less well known, however, is the occurrence and distribution of dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons in Wyoming. Scientific studies over the past 10 years have shown that three of the four Middle and Upper Jurassic formations in northern Wyoming contain dinosaur footprints. Two of the footprint-bearing horizons are located in geologic intervals that were once thought to have been deposited in offshore to nearshore marine settings and represent rare North American examples of Middle Jurassic (Bajocian and Bathonian) dinosaur remains. Some of these new Wyoming sites can be correlated to known dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons or intervals in Utah. Wyoming has a great potential for additional discoveries of new dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons, and further prospecting and study is warranted and will ultimately lead to a much better understanding of the geographic distribution and behavior of the potential footprint-makers. ?? Taylor and Francis Inc.

Kvale, E. P.; Mickelson, D. L.; Hasiotis, S. T.; Johnson, G. D.

2003-01-01

125

Description and correlation of Eocene rocks in stratigraphic reference sections for the Green River and Washakie basins, southwest Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphic reference sections of the Wasatch, Green River, and Bridger (Washakie) Formations were measured on outcrops in the Green River and Washakie basins adjacent to the Rock Springs uplift in southwest Wyoming. The Washakie basin reference section is 7,939 feet thick and consists of 708 beds that were measured, described, and sampled to evaluate the origin, composition, and paleontology of the rocks. The reference section in the Green River basin is 6,587 feet thick and consists of 624 beds that were measured and described but were not sampled. Columnar sections that have been prepared combine information on the stratigraphic nomenclature, age, depositional environments, lithologies, and fossils of each bed in the reference sections. Eocene strata in the Green River and Washakie basins have been correlated biostratigraphically, chronostratigraphically, and lithostratigraphically. The time boundaries of the lower, middle, and upper Eocene rocks in the reference sections are located partly from biostratigraphic investigations and partly from chronostratigraphic investigations. The time boundaries agree with North American land mammal ages. Major stratigraphic units and key marker beds correlated between the reference sections appeared similar in thickness and lithology, which suggests that most depositional events were contemporaneous in both basins. Rocks sampled in the Washakie basin reference section were examined petrographically and were analyzed using heavy mineral separations, X-ray techniques, and assays. The mineralogy suggests that source rocks in the lower part of the Eocene were mostly of plutonic origin and that source rocks in the upper part of the Eocene were mostly of volcanic origin. Economically significant beds of oil shale and zeolite were identified by the analyses. 51 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

Roehler, H.W.

1992-01-01

126

Lower Cody Shale (Niobrara equivalent) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana: thickness, distribution, and source rock potential  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower shaly member of the Cody Shale in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana is Coniacian to Santonian in age and is equivalent to the upper part of the Carlile Shale and basal part of the Niobrara Formation in the Powder River Basin to the east. The lower Cody ranges in thickness from 700 to 1,200 feet and underlies much of the central part of the basin. It is composed of gray to black shale, calcareous shale, bentonite, and minor amounts of siltstone and sandstone. Sixty-six samples, collected from well cuttings, from the lower Cody Shale were analyzed using Rock-Eval and total organic carbon analysis to determine the source rock potential. Total organic carbon content averages 2.28 weight percent for the Carlile equivalent interval and reaches a maximum of nearly 5 weight percent. The Niobrara equivalent interval averages about 1.5 weight percent and reaches a maximum of over 3 weight percent, indicating that both intervals are good to excellent source rocks. S2 values from pyrolysis analysis also indicate that both intervals have a good to excellent source rock potential. Plots of hydrogen index versus oxygen index, hydrogen index versus Tmax, and S2/S3 ratios indicate that organic matter contains both Type II and Type III kerogen capable of generating oil and gas. Maps showing the distribution of kerogen types and organic richness for the lower shaly member of the Cody Shale show that it is more organic-rich and more oil-prone in the eastern and southeastern parts of the basin. Thermal maturity based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro) ranges from 0.60–0.80 percent Ro around the margins of the basin, increasing to greater than 2.0 percent Ro in the deepest part of the basin, indicates that the lower Cody is mature to overmature with respect to hydrocarbon generation.

Finn, Thomas M.

2014-01-01

127

Geophysical and Geochemical Characterization of Subsurface Drip Irrigation Sites, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming has increased rapidly since 1997. CBNG production involves the extraction of large amounts of water containing >2000 mg/L total dissolved solids, dominantly sodium bicarbonate. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a beneficial disposal method of produced waters, provided that waters and associated salts are managed properly. We are studying how water and solute distributions change in soils with progressive irrigation at two PRB sites using a combination of geophysical, geochemical, and mineralogical analyses. Perennial crops are grown at both sites, drip tapes are located at 92 cm depth, and water is applied year-round. The first SDI site is located at the confluence of Crazy Woman Creek and the Powder River. Baseline ground-based and helicopter-borne frequency domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys were completed in 2007 and 2008, respectively, prior to the installation of the SDI system. Since installation, additional ground-based EMI, resistivity, and downhole geophysical log surveys have been completed along with soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses. Determining baseline physical, chemical, and electrical soil characteristics at this study site is an important step in linking the EMI measurements to the soil characteristics they are intended to assess. EMI surveys indicate that soil conductivity has generally increased with irrigation, but lateral migration of water away from the irrigated blocks is minimal. Median downhole electrical conductivity was positively correlated with soil mass wetness but not correlated with soil mineralogy. Soil-water extract results indicate existing salts are chemically heterogeneous throughout the site and in depth. The observed EMI conductivity variations are therefore primarily attributed to water content changes and secondarily to soil texture. The second SDI site, located northeast of Sheridan, WY, has been operating for six years and includes irrigated alfalfa and grass and adjacent non-irrigated grass fields. A single ground-based EMI survey was performed in Feb. 2010, which helped direct subsequent soil sampling. Gypsum distribution can be differentiated into two soil zones: an upper, gypsum-poor zone and a lower gypsum-rich zone. The break between zones is 30 cm deeper in the irrigated soil and is probably due to dissolution and displacement of gypsum by SDI waters infiltrating from the drip tape. Resistivity profiles were acquired in June 2010 over the soil sampling sites and are consistent with the EMI data, which show higher conductivity values in the irrigated fields. In the SDI alfalfa field, there is a strong negative correlation between mass wetness and resistivity with a 75% increase in mass wetness (0.2-0.35 g/g) at 3 m depth corresponding to a 30% resistivity decrease (15-10 ohm-m). When compared to the non-irrigated field profile, the SDI alfalfa field data show a 50% resistivity decrease (20-10 ohm-m) below 3 m depth, indicating a possible accumulation of irrigated waters below the SDI system.

Burton, B. L.; Bern, C. R.; Sams, J. I., III; Veloski, G.; Minsley, B. J.; Smith, B. D.

2010-12-01

128

The application of geologic remote sensing to vertebrate biostratigraphy - General results from the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1986, remote sensing images derived from satellite and aircraft-borne sensor data have been used to study the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the vertebrate-bearing Wind River and Wagon Bed formations in the Wind River Basin (Wyoming). Landsat 5 TM and aircraft Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data were combined with conventional geologic analyses. The remote sensing data have contributed significantly to: (1) geologic mapping at the formation, member, and bed levels; (2) stratigraphic correlation; (3) reconstruction of ancient depositional environments; and (4) identification of structural complexity. This information is critical to vertebrate paleontology in providing the stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and structural framework required for evolutionary and paleoecologic studies. Of primary importance is the ability to map at minimal cost the geology of large areas (20,000 sq km or greater) at a high level of precision. Remote sensing data can be especially useful in geologically and paleontologically unexplored or poorly understood regions.

Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard

1991-01-01

129

Multispectral remote sensing as stratigraphic and structural tool, Wind River Basin and Big Horn Basin areas, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of Landsat TM, Airborne Imaging Spectrometer, and airborne Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner data in the geological evaluation of two sites in central Wyoming is described and illustrated with diagrams, maps, photographs, sample images, and tables of numerical data. The value of the remotely sensed information on the areal variation of attitude, sequence, thickness, and lithology of exposed strata is demonstrated; details of the data analysis are given; and the specialized software packages employed are briefly characterized.

Lang, Harold R.; Adams, Steven L.; Conel, James E.; Mcguffie, Barbara A.; Paylor, Earnest D.; Walker, Richard E.

1987-01-01

130

Diagenesis of sandstones in Permian upper Minnelusa Formation, West Mellott field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dolomite-anhydrite-sandstone cycles of the Permian upper Minnelusa Formation, Wyoming, record multiple progradations of marine, siliciclastic sabkha, and eolian sediments. Heterogeneity in the sandstones, studied in five cores from present-day depths between 7,100 and 7,300 ft, is partly the result of diagenetic alterations. The earliest alternation was the formation of clay coatings on the detrital grains, particularly in siliciclastic sabkha and

C. J. Schenck; J. W. Schmoker; R. M. Pollastro

1988-01-01

131

Diagenesis of sandstones in Permian upper Minnelusa Formation, west Mellott field, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dolomite-anhydrite-sandstone cycles of the Permian upper Minnelusa Formation, Wyoming, record multiple progradations of marine, siliciclastic sabkha, and eolian sediments. Heterogeneity in the sandstones, studied in five cores from present-day depths between 7100 and 7300 ft, is partly the result of diagenetic alterations. Late-stage dissolution of anhydrite produced irregularly distributed secondary sandstone porosity that ranged to approximately 30%; dissolution was most

C. J. Schenk; J. W. Schmoker; R. M. Pollastro

1988-01-01

132

Fold axis-parallel rotation within the Laramide Derby Dome Fold, Wind River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Derby Dome, a doubly plunging anticline (7×3 km) on the eastern flank of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, trends NW–SE in response to the regional NE–SW directed shortening of the Cretaceous–Eocene Laramide orogeny. Mesozoic sediments are exposed around the fold hinge above an east-dipping thrust fault that offsets Archean crystalline rocks at depth. Stress and strain ellipsoidal data were determined

John P Craddock; Monica Relle

2003-01-01

133

Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. As of January 2007, permits for more than 4000 impoundments had been issued within Wyoming. A study was conducted on changes in water and sediment chemistry as water from an impoundment infiltrated the subsurface. Sediment cores were collected prior to operation of the impoundment and after its closure and reclamation. Suction lysimeters were used to collect water samples from beneath the impoundment. Large amounts of chloride (12,300 kg) and nitrate (13,500 kg as N), most of which accumulated naturally in the sediments over thousands of years, were released into groundwater by infiltrating water. Nitrate was more readily flushed from the sediments than chloride. If sediments at other impoundment locations contain similar amounts of chloride and nitrate, impoundments already permitted could release over 48 x 106 kg of chloride and 52 x 106 kg of nitrate into groundwater in the basin. A solute plume with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations at times exceeding 100,000 mg/L was created in the subsurface. TDS concentrations in the plume were substantially greater than those in the CBNG water (about 2300 mg/L) and in the ambient shallow groundwater (about 8000 mg/L). Sulfate, sodium, and magnesium are the dominant ions in the plume. The elevated concentrations are attributed to cation-exchange-enhanced gypsum dissolution. As gypsum dissolves, calcium goes into solution and is exchanged for sodium and magnesium on clays. Removal of calcium from solution allows further gypsum dissolution.

Healy, R. W.; Rice, C. A.; Bartos, T. T.; McKinley, M. P.

2008-01-01

134

Late Cretaceous-early Eocene Laramide uplift, exhumation, and basin subsidence in Wyoming: Crustal responses to flat slab subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

subduction of the Farallon oceanic plate during the Late Cretaceous-early Eocene is generally considered as the main driver forming the high Rocky Mountains in Wyoming and nearby areas. How the deformation was transferred from mantle to upper crust over the great duration of deformation (~40 Myr) is still debated. Here, we reconstruct basin subsidence and compile paleoelevation, thermochronology, and provenance data to assess the timing, magnitude, and rates of rock uplift during the Laramide deformation. We reconstruct rock uplift as the sum of surface uplift and erosion constrained by combining paleoelevation and exhumation with regional stratigraphic thickness and chronostratigraphic information. The amount (and rate) of rock uplift of individual Laramide ranges was less than 2.4-4.8 km (~0.21-0.32 mm/yr) during the early Maastrichtian-Paleocene (stage 1) and increased to more than ~3 km (~0.38-0.60 mm/yr) during the late Paleocene-early Eocene (stage 2). Our quantitative constraints reveal a two-stage development of the Laramide deformation in Wyoming and an increase of rock uplift during stage 2, associated with enhanced intermontane basin subsidence. Exhumation and uplift during stage 1 is consistent with eastward migration of Cordilleran deformation associated with low-angle subduction, whereas the change in exhumation during stage 2 seems to follow a southwestward trend, which requires an alternative explanation. We here suggest that the increase of rock uplift rate during the late Paleocene-early Eocene and the southwestward younging trend of uplift may be a response to the rollback and associated retreating delamination of the Farallon oceanic slab.

Fan, Majie; Carrapa, Barbara

2014-04-01

135

Tectonic significance of lithicwacke-polymictic conglomerate petrofacies association within Upper Cretaceous torchlight sandstone, Big Horn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Torchlight Sandstone belonging to the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation in the Big Horn basin, Wyoming, shows a distinctive lithicwacke-polymictic conglomerate is composed of granule-cobble-sized clasts of quartzite, chert, andesite, and argillite, and phyllite. The survival of phyllite, argillite, and neovolcanic andesite clasts indicate that the detritus underwent very little subaerial transport before it was deposited along the proximal margin of the foreland basin. A petrologically heterogeneous upland source of high to moderate relief is indicated by the clast size and composition. Hydrodynamic structures, in conjunction with textural attributes, and compositional data indicate that detritus moved southeast from its source terrane and was deposited by a high-energy distributary complex. The lithicwacke petrofacies is dominated by higher chert and quartz content with a subordinate amount of labile components including paleovolcanic clasts and fine-grained matrix. The development of phyllosilicate matrix around quartz and chert grains preserved the primary porosity and permeability of the sandstone. Absence of any noticeable quartz overgrowth apparently contributed to the preservation of good reservoir quality in this petrofacies. Considering its (Torchlight Sandstone) close proximity to the thrust belt and to the locus of andesite volcanism in the northwest and west, it is suggested that the extrabasinal detritus within the foreland basin can provide significant clues as to the timing of the thrust events and volcanicity in the adjacent region. New perspectives for hydrocarbon exploration and regional correlation may be gained by employing this petrofacies association.

Khandaker, N.I.; Vondra, C.F.

1987-05-01

136

Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently (2011) completed an assessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of grade, in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Greater Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah. Green River Formation oil shale also is present in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado, and the results of these assessments are published separately. No attempt was made to estimate the amount of oil that is economically recoverable because there has not yet been an economic method developed to recover the oil from Green River Formation oil shale.

Johnson, R. C.; Mercier, T. J.; Brownfield, M. E.

2011-01-01

137

Vitrinite reflectance data for Cretaceous marine shales and coals in the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 square miles in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected from Cretaceous marine shales and coals in the Bighorn Basin to better characterize the thermal maturity and petroleum potential of these rocks. Ninety-eight samples from Lower Cretaceous and lowermost Upper Cretaceous strata were collected from well cuttings from wells stored at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Core Research Center in Lakewood, Colorado.

Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

2012-01-01

138

Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin ofWyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam’s inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated to water salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin.

Lipinski, B.A.; Sams, J.I.; Smith, B.D. (USGS, Denver, CO); Harbert, W.P.

2008-05-01

139

Predictive depositional models for eolian deposits of Leo member of Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, eastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A study of 980 wells, 24 outcrop sections, and 29 cores was conducted in the Powder River basin of northeastern Wyoming in order to develop predictive depositional models for the Leo sandstones of the middle member of the Minnelusa Formation. Given the limited amount of data available, an approach was devised that relied on synthesis of information from modern analogs with data derived from the ancient to predict regional patterns of deposition. This information was then used to determine genetic relationships between the patterns of regional sedimentation and proven stratigraphic traps. Six Leo oil and gas fields were examined in detail; the Qatar Peninsula and Um Said sabkhas serve as modern analogs. The results of the study show that the Leo member of the Minnelusa and equivalent units of the Powder River basin were deposited as dune sequences within and adjacent to the Lusk embayment, a northward-extending arm of a large epeiric sea that existed southeast of the study area. Situated approximately 15/sup 0/ north of the paleoequator, the study area was the site of accumulation of sands transported from a northerly source by northeasterly trade winds. Accumulation and distribution of these windblown sands in the area surrounding the Lusk embayment were controlled by the local depositional setting, tectonic framework, and a series of minor fluctuations of eustatic sea level. The greatest potential for preservation of these dune deposits occurred during periods of rising base level.

Domeracki, D.D.; McClurg, J.J.; Horne, J.C.

1985-02-01

140

Enigmatic uppermost Permian-lowermost Triassic stratigraphic relations in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen measured sections in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana provide the basis for an analysis of Permian-Triassic stratigraphic relations. This boundary is well defined to the south where gray calcareous siltstones of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody disconformably overlie the Upper Permian Ervay Member of the Park City Formation with little physical evidence of a significant hiatus. The Dinwoody is gradationally overlain by red beds of the Red Peak Formation. The Dinwoody this to zero near the state line. Northward, the erathem boundary is enigmatic because fossils are absent and there is no evidence of an unconformity. Poor and discontinuous exposures contribute to the problem. Up to 20 m of Permian or Triassic rocks or both overlie the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone in the westernmost surface exposures on the eastern flank of the Bighorn basin with physical evidence of an unconformity. East of the exposed Tensleep, Ervay-like carbonates are overlain by about 15 m of Dinwoody-like siltstones interbedded with red beds and thin dolomitic limestone. In both areas, they are overlain by the Red Peak Formation. Thin carbonates within the Dinwoody are silty, coarse algal laminates with associated peloidal micrite. Carbonates north of the Dinwoody termination and above probably Ervay are peloidal algal laminates with fenestral fabric and sparse coated shell fragments with pisoids. These rocks may be Dinwoody equivalents or they may be of younger Permian age than the Ervay. Regardless, revision of stratigraphic nomenclature in this area may bed required.

Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States))

1991-06-01

141

A new Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary locality in the western powder River basin, Wyoming: biological and geological implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A newly discovered Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary locality in the western Powder River basin, Wyoming, is characterized by a palynologically defined extinction horizon, a fern-spore abundance anomaly, a strong iridium anomaly, and shock-metamorphosed quartz grains. Detailed microstratigraphic analyses show that about one third of the palynoflora (mostly angiosperm pollen) disappeared abruptly, placing the K-T boundary within a distinctive, 1- to 2-cm-thick claystone layer. Shocked quartz grains are concentrated at the top of this layer, and although fern-spore and iridium concentrations are high in this layer, they reach their maximum concentrations in a 2-cm-thick carbonaceous claystone that overlies the boundary claystone layer. The evidence supports the theory that the K-T boundary event was associated with the impact of an extraterrestrial body or bodies. Palynological analyses of samples from the K-T boundary interval document extensive changes in the flora that resulted from the boundary event. The palynologically and geochemically defined K-T boundary provides a unique time-line of use in regional basin analysis. ?? 1992.

Nichols, D. J.; Brown, J. L.; Attrep, Jr. , M.; Orth, C. J.

1992-01-01

142

Fluvial and glacial implications of tephra localities in the western Wind River basin, Wyoming, U. S. A  

SciTech Connect

Examination of Quaternary fluvial and glacial deposits in the western Wind River Basin allows a new understanding of the Quaternary Wind River fluvial system. Interbedded fluvial sediments and volcanic ashes provide important temporal information for correlation of Quaternary deposits. In the western Wind River Basin, six mid-Pleistocene localities of tephra, the Muddy Creek, Red Creek, Lander, Kinnear, Morton and Yellow Calf ashes are known. Geochronologic studies confirm the Muddy Creek, Red Creek, Kinnear and Lander ashes as the 620--650ka Lava Creek tephra from the Yellowstone region in northwestern Wyoming. The stratigraphic position and index of refraction of volcanic glass from the Morton and Yellow Calf ashes are consistent with identification as Lava Creek tephra. Approximately 350 feet (106 meters) above the Wind River and 13 miles downstream from Bull Lake, interbedded Wind River fluvial gravels, volcanic glass and pumice at the Morton locality correlate to late (upper) Sacajawea Ridge gravels mapped by Richmond and Murphy. Associated with the oxygen isotope 16--15 boundary, the ash-bearing terrace deposits reveal the nature of the Wind River fluvial system during late glacial-early interglacial times. The Lander and Yellow Calf ashes, are found in terrace deposits along tributaries of the Wind River. Differences in timing and rates of incision between the Wind River and its tributary, the Little Wind River, results in complex terrace development near their junction.

Jaworowski, C. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-04-01

143

Map Showing Principal Coal Beds and Bedrock Geology of the Ucross-Arvada Area, Central Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ucross-Arvada area is part of the Powder River Basin, a large, north-trending structural depression between the Black Hills on the east and the Bighorn Mountains on the west. Almost all of the study area is within Sheridan and Johnson Counties, Wyoming. Most of the Ucross-Arvada area lies within the outcrop of the Wasatch Formation of Eocene age; the extreme northeast corner falls within the outcrop of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age. Within the Powder River Basin, both the Wasatch Formation and the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation contain significant coal resources. The map includes locations and elevations of coal beds at 1:50,000 scale for an area that includes ten 7½-minute quadrangles covering some 500 square miles. The Wasatch Formation coal beds shown (in descending order) are Monument Peak, Walters (also called Ulm 1), Healy (also called Ulm 2), Truman, Felix, and Arvada. The Fort Union Formation coal beds shown (in descending order) are Roland (of Baker, 1929) and Smith.

Molnia, Carol L.

2013-01-01

144

Evolutionary relationships of a new genus and three new species of Omomyid primates (Willwood Formation, Lower Eocene, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of new finds of omomyid primates from the lower Eocene Willwood Formation of northwest Wyoming reveal the presence of a new genus and two new species of anaptomorphines and a new species of omomyine. All were apparently short-lived immigrants into the Bighorn Basin. The new genus and speciesTatmanius szalayi is typified by a diminutive single-rooted p3 and a bilobed-rooted p4 with a crown smaller than ml. These traits were probably derived fromPseudotetonius and parallel similar conditions inTrogolemur andNannopithex. The new speciesArapahovius advena is the first occurrence ofArapahovius outside the Washakie Basin, where it appears to have also been a vagrant species.Steinius annectens, sp. nov., is larger than the olderSteinius vespertinus and strengthens the alliance between this genus and BridgerianOraorays carteri, although which species ofSteinius is closer toOmomys is not yet clear. The available evidence suggests a derivation ofOmomys (Omomyini) fromSteinius and all Washakiini from the anaptomorphineTeilhardina, which would indicate that Omomyinae were at least diphyletic. Preliminary evidence suggests that the geographic distributions of at least some Willwood omomyids correlate with paleosol distributions.

Bown, T. M.

1991-01-01

145

Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam's inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated towater salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin. ?? 2008 2008 Society of ExplorationGeophysicists. All rights reserved.

Lipinski, B. A.; Sams, J. I.; Smith, B. D.; Harbert, W.

2008-01-01

146

After a century-Revised Paleogene coal stratigraphy, correlation, and deposition, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The stratigraphy, correlation, mapping, and depositional history of coal-bearing strata in the Paleogene Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Powder River Basin were mainly based on measurement and description of outcrops during the early 20th century. Subsequently, the quality and quantity of data improved with (1) exploration and development of oil, gas, and coal during the middle 20th century and (2) the onset of coalbed methane (CBM) development during the late 20th and early 21st centuries that resulted in the drilling of more than 26,000 closely spaced wells with accompanying geophysical logs. The closeness of the data control points, which average 0.5 mi (805 m) apart, made for better accuracy in the subsurface delineation and correlation of coal beds that greatly facilitated the construction of regional stratigraphic cross sections and the assessment of resources. The drillhole data show that coal beds previously mapped as merged coal zones, such as the Wyodak coal zone in the Wyoming part of the Powder River Basin, gradually thinned into several discontinuous beds and sequentially split into as many as 7 hierarchical orders westward and northward. The thinning and splitting of coal beds in these directions were accompanied by as much as a ten-fold increase in the thicknesses of sandstone-dominated intervals within the Wyodak coal zone. This probably resulted from thrust loading by the eastern front of the Bighorn uplift accompanied by vertical displacement along lineaments that caused subsidence of the western axial part of the Powder River Basin during Laramide deformation in Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Accommodation space was thereby created for synsedimentary alluvial infilling that controlled thickening, thinning, splitting, pinching out, and areal distribution of coal beds. Equally important was differential subsidence between this main accommodation space and adjoining areas, which influenced the overlapping, for example, of the Dietz coal zone in Montana, over the Wyodak coal zone in Wyoming. Correlation in a circular track of the Wyodak coal zone in the southern part of the basin also demonstrates overlapping with lower coal zones. Recognition of this stratigraphic relationship has led to revision of the correlations and nomenclature of coal beds because of inconsistency within these zones as well as those below and above them, which have long been subjects of controversy. Also, it significantly changes the traditional coal bed-to-bed correlations, and estimates of coal and coalbed methane resources of these coal zones due to thinning and pinching out of beds. More notably, thickness isopach, orientation, and distribution of the merged Wyodak coal bodies in the south-southeast part of the basin suggest that differential movement of lineament zones active during the Cretaceous was not a major influence on coal accumulation during the Paleocene. Improved knowledge of alluvial depositional environments as influenced by external and internal paleotectonic conditions within the Powder River Basin permits more accurate correlation, mapping, and resource estimation of the Fort Union and Wasatch coal beds. The result is a better understanding of the sedimentology of the basin infill deposits in relation to peat bog accumulation.

Flores, Romeo M.; Spear, Brianne D.; Kinney, Scott A.; Purchase, Peter A.; Gallagher, Craig M.

2010-01-01

147

Extraction of uranium low-grade ores from Great Divide Basin, Wyoming. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. [Acid, roast-acid, and pressure leaching techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Bureau of Mines is investigating the leachability of carbonaceous uranium ore samples submitted by the DOE under an Interagency Agreement. Studies on eight samples from the Great Divide Basin, Wyoming, are the basis of this report. The uranium content of the eight ore samples ranged from 0.003 to 0.03% UâOâ and contained 0.7 to 45% organic carbon. Experiments

J. C. Judd; I. L. Nichols; J. L. Huiatt

1983-01-01

148

Maps Showing Thermal Maturity of Upper Cretaceous Marine Shales in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bighorn Basin is one of many structural and sedimentary basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny, a period of crustal instability and compressional tectonics that began in latest Cretaceous time and ended in the Eo...

M. J. Pawlewicz T. M. Finn

2014-01-01

149

Phreatophytic land-cover map of the northern and central Great Basin Ecoregion: California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Oregon, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasing water use and changing climate in the Great Basin of the western United States are likely affecting the distribution of phreatophytic vegetation in the region. Phreatophytic plant communities that depend on groundwater are susceptible to natural and anthropogenic changes to hydrologic flow systems. The purpose of this report is to document the methods used to create the accompanying map that delineates areas of the Great Basin that have the greatest potential to support phreatophytic vegetation. Several data sets were used to develop the data displayed on the map, including Shrub Map (a land-cover data set derived from the Regional Gap Analysis Program) and Gap Analysis Program (GAP) data sets for California and Wyoming. In addition, the analysis used the surface landforms from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Ecosystems Mapping Project data to delineate regions of the study area based on topographic relief that are most favorable to support phreatophytic vegetation. Using spatial analysis techniques in a GIS, phreatophytic vegetation classes identified within Shrub Map and GAP were selected and compared to the spatial distribution of selected landforms in the study area to delineate areas of phreatophyte vegetation. Results were compared to more detailed studies conducted in selected areas. A general qualitative description of the data and the limitations of the base data determined that these results provide a regional overview but are not intended for localized studies or as a substitute for detailed field analysis. The map is intended as a decision-support aide for land managers to better understand, anticipate, and respond to ecosystem changes in the Great Basin.

Mathie, Amy M.; Welborn, Toby L.; Susong, David D.; Tumbusch, Mary L.

2011-01-01

150

Detection of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon microseepage in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming using isotopic, biogeochemical, and spectral reflectance techniques  

SciTech Connect

A stable isotope, biogeochemical, and gebotanical reflectance study was conducted at five areas in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. Three of the areas are active hydrocarbon producing fields, including Little Buffalo Basin, Bonanza, and Enigma oil fields. One area contains no surface or subsurface hydrocarbons, the Cody Base area. One area, Trapper Canyon, is a surface tar sand deposit. In each area numerous reflectance spectra were measured and leaf samples collected from sagebrush over and surrounding the fields. At Bonanza and Trapper Canyon, sagebrush plants were also growing directly in hydrocarbon impregnated formations. Unusually low [delta][sup 13]C values of calcite were found in calcite-bearing samples over the Little Buffalo Basin Field. The systematic distribution of these low [delta][sup 13]C values is correlated with the subsurface oil and gas production axis. Significant distinctions between the surface hydrocarbon occurrences at Trapper Canyon and Bonanza Seeps are highlighted by chemical differences in sagebrush leaves. At Trapper Canyon relatively high concentrations of aluminum and iron are found. Sagebrush leaves at the Bonanza Seeps contain relatively low concentrations of calcium and potassium, and a relatively high amount of organic material. Analyses from sagebrush growing over subsurface commercial hydrocarbon deposits tend to be relatively low in magnesium and relatively high in sodium. The increase in sodium may indicate subsurface reservoirs without regard to their hydrocarbon content. The results of the geobotanical reflectance study shows that a significant blue shift of the green peak and red trough positions is the most reliable indicator of hydrocarbon-induced stress in sagebrush plants, and can only be detected where the sage is actually growing in visible surface or near-surface hydrocarbons. Spectral reflectance intensity data have no significant correlation with the presence of surface or subsurface hydrocarbons.

Bammel, B.H.

1992-01-01

151

New Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Bighorn Basin, North-Central Wyoming and South-Central Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana (fig. 1). Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary (Fox and Dolton, 1989, 1996a, b; De Bruin, 1993). In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs (Johnson and Finn, 1998; Johnson and others, 1999). The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data to be used in support of the U.S Geological Survey's assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Bighorn Basin. These new data supplement previously published data by Nuccio and Finn (1998), and Yin (1997), and lead to a better understanding and characterization of the thermal maturation and burial history of potential source rocks. Eighty-nine samples of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata (fig. 2) were collected and analyzed - 15 samples were from outcrops around the margins of the basin and 74 samples were well cuttings (fig. 1). Forty-one of the samples were shale, two were carbonaceous shale, and the remainder from coal. All samples were analyzed by vitrinite reflectance to determine levels of thermal maturation. Preparation of samples for reflectance analysis required (1) crushing the larger pieces into 0.25-to 1-mm pieces, (2) casting the pieces with epoxy in pre-cut and drilled plugs, and (3) curing the samples overnight. Subsequently, a four-step grinding and polishing process was implemented that included sanding with progressively finer sandpaper (60 and 600 grit) followed with a two-step polishing process (0.3 and 0.05 micron). Vitrinite reflectance measurements were determined at 500 X magnification using plane-polarized incident white light and a 546-nm monochromatic filter in immersion oil. For samples containing sufficiently high quality vitrinite, at least 25 measurements were recorded. For samples of poorer quality, either due to a poor polish or to the presence of mineral or other inorganic material, fewer measurements were recorded. Analytical results are given in tables 1 and 2.

Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

2007-01-01

152

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

A primary objective of the Institute for Energy Research (IER)-Santa Fe Snyder Corporation DOE Riverton Dome project is to test the validity of a new conceptual model and resultant exploration paradigm for so-called ''basin center'' gas accumulations. This paradigm and derivative exploration strategy suggest that the two most important elements crucial to the development of prospects in the deep, gas-saturated portions of Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) are (1) the determination and, if possible, three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes (i.e., this boundary is typically expressed as a significant inversion in both sonic and seismic velocity-depth profiles) , and (2) the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability ''sweet spots'' (i.e., areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability) in potential reservoir targets below this boundary. There are other critical aspects in searching for basin center gas accumulations, but completion of these two tasks is essential to the successful exploration for the unconventional gas resources present in anomalously pressured rock/fluid systems in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. The southern Wind River Basin, in particular the Riverton Dome and Emigrant areas, is a neat location for testing this exploration paradigm. Preliminary work within the Wind River Basin has demonstrated that there is a regionally prominent pressure surface boundary that can be detected by inversions in sonic velocity depth gradients in individual well log profiles and that can be seen as a velocity inversion on seismic lines. Also, the Wind River Basin in general--and the Riverton Dome area specially--is characterized by a significant number of anomalously pressured gas accumulations. Most importantly, Santa Fe Snyder Corporation has provided the study with sonic logs, two 3-D seismic studies (40 mi{sup 2} and 30 mi {sup 2}) and a variety of other necessary geological and geophysical information.

Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

1999-08-01

153

Fluid pressure evolution in overpressured limestone reservoir at basin-scale: example of the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA) and lessons from comparison with other reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many natural cases, an hydrostatic gradient prevails in strata, and some oil-producing basins are the location of underpressured reservoirs. This contribution presents the fluid paleo-(over)pressure evolution in a carbonate reservoir, reconstructed using a paleo-stress dataset and novel methodology. The case study of the Madison-Phosphoria reservoir (Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA) is an interesting example to assess the problem of the fluid overpressure evolution in deforming media. Indeed it proposes among the first paleo-overpressure reconstruction in strata regarding both burial and subsequent compressional deformation. Results point out that in the Bighorn Basin, supra-hydrostatic pressure values prevail in the Madison-Phosphoria reservoir during most of its whole Sevier-Laramide history, except during the stage of Sevier foreland flexure/forebulge. At the basin-scale, the evolution of fluid overpressure can easily be related to large-scale fluid migrations characterized independently using geochemistry of vein-filling cements. We propose a comparison of the reconstructed fluid overpressure values with in situ measurements in various overpressured reservoirs in other oil-producing basins with respect to burial depth. The comparison with natural pressure data measured in several basins suggests the existence of a mean gradient of overpressure level in carbonates, and the pressure values reconstructed in vertical veins that accommodated the layer-parallel shortening respect this mean gradient. Strikingly, the fluid overpressure measured or recorded in porous media like sandstones are systematically beyond this mean gradient, as are the fluid pressure values related to extensional stress regimes. On the opposite, when the stress regime become compressional, we observe that fluid pressure is above the mean gradient, illustrating that during orogenic stress build-up, the supra-hydrostatic fluid pressure may gradually reach and exceed the lithostatic value, marked by the development of reverse faults and horizontal veins parallel to bedding. Thus, the difference between this mean gradient and the reconstructed pressure values may be related to three main parameters: the lithology and the vertical permeability of fractures (i.e. the mechanical stratigraphy), and the local stress regime. The hydraulic permeability related to mechanical stratigraphy and/or to stress regime seems to impact more the fluid pressure level than the chemical compaction related to hydrocarbon generation, or to differential compaction related to sedimentation rates.

Beaudoin, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Amrouch, Khalid; Daniel, Jean-Marc

2014-05-01

154

Stress and strain evolution in foreland basins and its relation to the structural style : insights from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rocky Mountains in western US provide amongst the best examples of thick-skinned tectonics: following the thin-skinned Sevier orogeny, the subsequent compressional reactivation of basement faults gave birth to the so-called Laramide uplifts/arches. The Bighorn basin, located in Wyoming, is therefore a key place to study the stress evolution during the transition from thin- to thick-skinned tectonics in orogenic forelands in terms of structural, microstructural and stress/strain evolution. We report the results of the analyses of fracture populations, inversion of fault-slip data and calcite twin data for stress as well as of calcite twinning paleopiezometry performed in two famous Laramide basement-cored structures located on each side of the basin: the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline (RMA) and the Sheep Mountain Anticline (SMA). The comparison between the stress evolution in both folds allows to unravel (i) the pattern of both paleostress orientations and magnitudes and their evolution in time and space and (ii) the tectonic history at the basin scale. Structural and microstructural analyses show that both folds share similar kinematics. Most of the fractures are related to three main events: the Sevier thin-skinned contraction, the Laramide thick-skinned contraction, and the Basin and Range extension. During the thin-skinned period, in the innermost part of the foreland, the stress regime evolved from strike-slip to reverse while it remained strike-slip in the outermost part of the basin. Moreover, some fracture sets related to layer-parallel shortening during the early Sevier contraction formed only close to the Sevier deformation front and remained poorly expressed further away. Stress attenuation toward the craton interior is thus clearly shown by the dataset and illustrates the prominent role of the distance to the front of deformation in the way fracture sets developed in orogenic forelands. Alternatively, during the thick-skinned period, the evolution of stress trends and magnitudes is quite similar throughout the whole basin. In such context, differential stress magnitudes seem to be primarily controlled by the structure and the kinematics of the basement-cored anticlines themselves. This in turn suggests that basement faults were active since the very beginning of the Laramide shortening phase. In contrast to previous studies, our work thus supports the influence of the tectonic style on the evolution of stress magnitudes in orogenic forelands.

Beaudoin, N.; Leprêtre, R.; Bellahsen, N.; Lacombe, O.; Amrouch, K.; Callot, J.-P.; Emmanuel, L.; Daniel, J.-M.

2012-04-01

155

Eustatic and tectonic control on localization of porosity and permeability, Mid-Permian, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Goose Egg Formation of the northeastern Bighorn basin was deposited in an arid shoreline (sabkha) environment during a time of global cyclic sea level variations and local tectonic uplift Eustatic sea level lows are represented by terrestrial red beds (seals), whereas highs resulted in the deposition of supratidal to shallow subtidal carbonates (reservoirs). Pennsylvanian and Permian differential uplift along the present basin margin localized a broken chain of barrier islands and shoals during deposition of the Ervay and earlier carbonate members, as recognized in outcrop at Sheep and Little Sheep Mountain anticlines. The Ervay Member on these paleohighs is typified by fenestral dolomite, containing abundant tepees and pisoids. This fabric is interpreted to have folded in the highest intertidal to supratidal sabkha environment which developed on the leeward shores of these islands. The fenestral carbonates grade basinward (westward) into narrow bioclastic grainstone beach deposits and then to open-shelf fossiliferous packstones and wackestone. To the east lie laminated lagoonal micritic limestones and dolomites. Outcrop and core study has shown the fenestral facies to be limited to areas coincident with present-day basin margin anticlines. Not only are these the locations of the most porous facies, but tight Laramide folding of the Goose Egg carbonates resulted in pervasive fracturing and thus very high permeabilities in the same structures. The close association of Laramide folds and productive Permian carbonate horizons in the northeast Bighorn basin could well be characteristic for other yet to be explored structures along the basin-margin trend.

Simmons, S.P.; Scholle, P.A. (Southern methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA))

1990-05-01

156

Computer modeling of Minnelusa (Pennsylvanian-Permian) paleotopography in eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming, with a case history  

SciTech Connect

Most Minnelusa Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) oil production in the Powder River basin is from paleotopographic traps. These traps occur where upper Minnelusa dune sands are encased in the overlying supratidal red Opeche Shale (Permian). The morphology of these sands suggests northwest-southeast-trending barchanoid sand ridges. Thickness variations in the Opeche mirror the relief on the Minnelusa surface. Opeche isopachous maps are one of the main methods used to explore for Minnelusa paleotopographic traps. Hand-contoured isopachous maps can be subject to ambiguous interpretations in areas of low-density control. This difficulty is partially overcome when the map is mathematically produced. Observations from oil tests in the area indicate that Minnelusa paleotopography is cyclic with a wavelength of approximately 3 mi (5 km). Double Fourier transforms are appropriate in modeling this kind of cyclic data. For a test township, the calculated double Fourier surfaces showed good correlation with the actual data values. This technique was then applied to a Minnelusa prospect in Campbell County, Wyoming. Double Fourier surfaces were calculated for several structural datums and isopach intervals. Additionally, regional dip was determined from a polynomial fit, the section was restored to horizontal, and then was modeled to reveal paleotopography. The paleotopographic-high axes and Opeche thin axes showed remarkable coincidence. This trend is believed to represent the trace of a paleo sand dune. A test well sited using conventional geologic methods plus input from the double Fourier maps confirmed the accuracy of the calculated surface.

Maslyn, R.M.; Phillips, F.J.

1984-04-01

157

Slattery field, Powder River basin, Wyoming: a multidisciplinary approach leading to improved interpretation of a complex Minnelusa (Permian) field  

SciTech Connect

Slattery field was discovered in 1963 on the eastern flank of the Powder River basin. The field has produced over 6.5 million bbl of oil in the past 22 years. Located 10 mi south-southeast of Gillette, Wyoming, T49N, R68, 69W, it is 2 mi long and 1.4 mi wide. Although there is minor Cretaceous Muddy production, the sandstones of the Minnelusa Formation are the principal reservoirs. Previous interpretations have suggested the continuous, widespread nature of the sandstone reservoirs; however, this study indicates the limited nature of each reservoir and its relative stratigraphic position. Sand dunes are present in the Upper Minnelusa at five separate zones that partially overlap southwest to northeast. Four of the zones form separate reservoirs as determined by geologic correlations, log analysis, reservoir information, and production data. The southern end of the Slattery field structure abuts a south-southwest-trending structural nose. An Opeche Shale-filled valley parallels the field on its eastern updip edge and truncates upper reservoirs, forming part of the trapping mechanism.

Sheppy, R.J.

1986-08-01

158

Tar yields from low-temperature carbonization of coal facies from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tar yields from low-temperature carbonization correlate with the amount of crypto-eugelinite in samples selected to represent petrographically distinct coal facies of the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone. Tar yields from Fischer Assay range from <1 to 11 wt.% on a dry basis and correspond (r = 0.72) to crypto-eugelinite contents of the coal that range from 15 to 60 vol.%. Core and highwall samples were obtained from active surface mines in the Gillette field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Because the rank of the samples is essentially the same, differences in low-temperature carbonization yields are interpreted from compositional differences, particularly the crypto-eugelinite content. In the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, crypto-eugelinite probably was derived from degraded humic matter which absorbed decomposition products from algae, fungi, bacteria, and liptinitic plant parts (materials possibly high in hydrogen). Previous modeling of the distribution of crypto-eugelinite in the discontinuous Wyodak-Anderson coal zone indicated that tar yields should be greater from coal composing the upper part and interior areas than from coal composing the lower parts and margins of the individual coal bodies. It is possible that hydrocarbon yields from natural coalification processes would be similar to yields obtained from laboratory pyrolysis. If so, the amount of crypto-eugelinite may also be an important characteristic when evaluating coal as source rock for migrated hydrocarbons.

Stanton, R. W.; Warwick, P. D.; Swanson, S. M.

2005-01-01

159

A critical review of published coal quality data from the southwestern part of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review of publicly available coal quality data during the coal resource assessment of the southwestern part of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming (SWPRB), revealed significant problems and limitations with those data. Subsequent citations of data from original sources often omitted important information, such as moisture integrity and information needed to evaluate the issue of representativeness. Occasionally, only selected data were quoted, and some data were misquoted. Therefore, it was important to try to resolve issues concerning both the accuracy and representativeness of each available dataset. The review processes demonstrated why it is always preferable to research and evaluate the circumstances regarding the sampling and analytical methodology from the original data sources when evaluating coal quality information, particularly if only limited data are available. Use of the available published data at face value would have significantly overestimated the coal quality for all the coal fields from both the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the SWPRB assessment area. However, by using the sampling and analytical information from the original reports, it was possible to make reasonable adjustments to reported data to derive more realistic estimates of coal quality.

Luppens, James A.

2011-01-01

160

Mammalian community response to the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: An isotaphonomic study in the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New stratigraphic and paleontological information from the McCullough Peaks, northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, is incorporated into an isotaphonomic faunal database and used to investigate the impact of the latest Paleocene thermal maximum and coincident earliest Wasatchian immigration event on local mammalian community structure. Surface collections from Willwood Formation overbank deposits provide taphonomically consistent and stratigraphically resolved samples of the medium- to large-sized components of underlying mammalian communities. Rarefaction shows that the immigration event caused an abrupt and dramatic increase in species richness and evenness. After this initial increase, diversity tapered off to more typical Wasatchian levels that were still higher than those in the preceding Clarkforkian. Wasatchian immigrants were rapidly incorporated into the new community organization, representing ˜20% of the taxa and ˜50% of the individuals. Immigrant taxa generally had larger body sizes and more herbivorous and frugivorous dietary habits compared to endemic taxa, causing significant turnover in body-size structure and trophic structure. There was a significant short-term body-size decrease in many lineages that may have been prompted by the elevated temperatures and/or decreased latitudinal thermal gradients during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum. Rapid short-term climatic change (transient climates) and associated biotic dispersal can have abrupt and long-lasting effects on mammalian community evolution.

Clyde, William C.; Gingerich, Philip D.

1998-11-01

161

Preliminary report on coal resources of the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project by the U.S. Geological Survey is designed to assess US coal with the greatest potential for development in the next 20 to 30 years. Coal in the Wyodak-Anderson (WA) coal zone in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana is plentiful, clean, and compliant with EPA emissions standards. This coal is considered to be very desirable for development for use in electric power generation. The purpose of this NCRA study was to compile all available data relating to the Wyodak- Anderson coal, correlate the beds that make up the WA coal zone, create digital files pertaining to the study area and the WA coal, and produce a variety of reports on various aspects of the assessed coal unit. This report contains preliminary calculations of coal resources for the WA coal zone and is one of many products of the NCRA study. Coal resource calculations in this report were produced using both public and confidential data from many sources. The data was manipulated using a variety of commercially available software programs and several custom programs. A general description of the steps involved in producing the resource calculations is described in this report.

Ellis, Margaret S.; Gunther, Gregory L.; Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, Allen M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Roberts, Steven B.; Taber, Thomas T.; Bader, Lisa R.; Schuenemeyer, John H.

1998-01-01

162

Effects of coal-bed methane discharge waters on the vegetation and soil ecosystem in Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-bed methane (CBM) co-produced discharge waters in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, resulting from extraction of methane from coal seams, have become a priority for chemical, hydrological and biological research during the last few years. Soil and vegetation samples were taken from affected and reference sites (upland elevations and wetted gully) in Juniper Draw to investigate the effects of CBM discharge waters on soil physical and chemical properties and on native and introduced vegetation density and diversity. Results indicate an increase of salinity and sodicity within local soil ecosystems at sites directly exposed to CBM discharge waters. Elevated concentrations of sodium in the soil are correlated with consistent exposure to CBM waters. Clay-loam soils in the study area have a much larger specific surface area than the sandy soils and facilitate a greater sodium adsorption. However, there was no significant relation between increasing water sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values and increasing sediment SAR values downstream; however, soils exposed to the CBM water ranged from the moderate to severe SAR hazard index. Native vegetation species density was highest at the reference (upland and gully) and CBM affected upland sites. The affected gully had the greatest percent composition of introduced vegetation species. Salt-tolerant species had the greatest richness at the affected gully, implying a potential threat of invasion and competition to established native vegetation. These findings suggest that CBM waters could affect agricultural production operations and long-term water quality. ?? Springer 2005.

Stearns, M.; Tindall, J. A.; Cronin, G.; Friedel, M. J.; Bergquist, E.

2005-01-01

163

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends.

Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

1999-02-01

164

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends.

NONE

1998-08-28

165

Diagenesis of sandstones in Permian upper Minnelusa Formation, west Mellott field, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Dolomite-anhydrite-sandstone cycles of the Permian upper Minnelusa Formation, Wyoming, record multiple progradations of marine, siliciclastic sabkha, and eolian sediments. Heterogeneity in the sandstones, studied in five cores from present-day depths between 7100 and 7300 ft, is partly the result of diagenetic alterations. Late-stage dissolution of anhydrite produced irregularly distributed secondary sandstone porosity that ranged to approximately 30%; dissolution was most complete in the upper parts of eolian-dune and reworked-eolian sandstones, resulting in excellent reservoir properties. Late-stage dissolution of potassium feldspars also occurred, as evidenced by the lack of compaction of the partially dissolved grains. Hydrocarbons then migrated into and occupied the secondary porosity of the upper parts of eolian-dune sandstones and reworked-eolian sandstones at West Mellott. Small rhombs of authigenic dolomite grew along most of the secondary pores and partially replaced the remaining anhydrite. Quartz overgrowth cement formed subsequent to the dolomite, in some cases engulfing the dolomite rhombs in syntaxial overgrowths. Pyrite appears to be a late authigenic phase that automorphically replaced anhydrite, quartz, and dolomite.

Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Pollastro, R.M.

1988-02-01

166

Diagenesis of sandstones in Permian upper Minnelusa Formation, West Mellott field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Dolomite-anhydrite-sandstone cycles of the Permian upper Minnelusa Formation, Wyoming, record multiple progradations of marine, siliciclastic sabkha, and eolian sediments. Heterogeneity in the sandstones, studied in five cores from present-day depths between 7,100 and 7,300 ft, is partly the result of diagenetic alterations. The earliest alternation was the formation of clay coatings on the detrital grains, particularly in siliciclastic sabkha and related eolian sandstones. Quartz cement formed small overgrowths, particularly in the siliciclastic sabkha sandstones. Carbonate clasts in the sandstones were pervasively dolomitized, as were the adjacent carbonate beds, possibly by reflux associated with brines that formed during the evaporitic stage of the next sedimentary cycle. The sandstones were then partially cemented with anhydrite (or gypsum). Clay coatings and partial cementation by anhydrite did not completely prevent a progressive loss of intergranular volume by pressure solution with burial. The illitization of early clay coatings was also a progressive process with burial. Late-stage dissolution of anhydrite produced irregularly distributed secondary sandstone porosity that ranged to approximately 30%; dissolution was most complete in the upper parts of eolian-dune and reworked-eolian sandstones, resulting in excellent reservoir properties. Late-stage dissolution of potassium feldspars also occurred, as evidenced by the lack of compaction of the partially dissolved grains. Hydrocarbons then migrated into and occupied the secondary porosity of the upper arts of eolian-dune sandstones and reworked-eolian sandstones at West Mellott.

Schenck, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Pollastro, R.M.

1988-01-01

167

Trapper Canyon Deposit, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming: tar sand or heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

The Trapper Canyon Deposit (Battle Creek Deposit in US Bureau of Mines Monograph 12) is located on the western flank of the Bighorn Mountains approximately 30 mi (48 km) east of Greybull, Wyoming. The petroleum occurs in the upper eolian sequence of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone which dips from 5/sup 0/ to 8/sup 0/ to the southwest. The deposit was initially reported by N.H. Darton in US Geological Survey Professional Paper 51 in 1906. A characterization study was made on the deposit which included mapping the deposit and surrounding area, measuring three stratigraphic sections in the Tensleep Sandstone, and sampling 13 outcrop localities. Thickness of the deposit ranged from 0 to 22.5 ft (6.8 m) in the 13 sample localities. Preliminary analyses of outcrop samples indicate API gravities and viscosities consistent with the definition of a tar sand. Oil properties are similar to those published for Phosphoria-sourced oils produced from the Tensleep Sandstone in fields to the west. Lateral pinch-out of the deposit, tight characteristics of upper and lower bounding units, and the lack of any apparent structural controls in the area, are all evidence for a stratigraphic trapping mechanism. Recoverable reserves are estimated at 1.96 million bbl over a 67-acre (27 ha) area.

Verploeg, A.J.; Debruin, R.H.

1983-08-01

168

Stratigraphy and depositional environment of middle member of Minnelusa formation, Central Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional correlations of the middle member of the Minnelusa Formation (middle Upper Pennsylvanian) shed new light on the stratigraphic relationships of Pennsylvanian rocks in the central Powder River basin and serve as the basis for a regional depositional model. The two main factors influencing the depositional environments of the middle Minnelusa were paleogeography and sea level change. In the southeastern

R. J. Jr. Desmond; J. R. Steidtmann; D. F. Cardinal

1984-01-01

169

Stratigraphy and depositional environments of middle member of Minnelusa formation, central Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional correlations, from the southern to northern Black Hills and across the central Powder River basin to the Bighorn Mountains, serve as the frame work for a depositional model of middle Minnelusa sediments. In the eastern part of the study area, deposition took place in a carbonate sabkha environment. During transgressive periods, most of this region was covered by a

R. J. Desmond; J. R. Steidtmann; D. F. Cardinal

1985-01-01

170

Tensleep reservoir study, Oregon Basin Field, Wyoming: engineering plans for development and operation, South Dome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combination of geologic and engineering expertise has contributed greatly to a better understanding of characteristics of the Tensleep reservoir on the South Dome of the Oregon Basin Field. Knowledge of reservoir zonation and distribution has resulted in improved performance of the Tensleep water injection program. Modification of water injection plans, incorporating geologic concepts, will result in significant increases in oil

F. S. Cordiner; A. R. Livingston

1976-01-01

171

Little Buffalo Basin, Wyoming, Tensleep heterogeneity--its influence on infill drilling and secondary recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heterogeneity study of the Tensleep reservoir in the Little Buffalo Basin field, Wyo., revealed that extensive cross-bedding, permeability variation, and fracture orientation have influenced and will continue to influence recovery from the reservoir. Well spacing has been reduced from 40 to 20 acres in areas of the field that would not otherwise have been efficiently depleted. The infill development

W. R. Emmett; K. W. Beaver; J. A. McCaleb

1969-01-01

172

Tectonic controls on deposition and preservation of Pennsylvanian Tensleep Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

During deposition of the Tensleep Formation, a shallow, semirestricted portion of a major seaway that occupied the geosynclinal area to the west extended into the area of the present-day Bighorn basin. Limiting the transgression of this sea was the Beartooth high on the north and the Bighorn high on the east and southeast. On the western side of the area,

O. Kelly Anne; J. C. Horne; D. M. Wheeler; C. E. Musgrave

1986-01-01

173

Potential for Minnelusa-type truncation traps in Tensleep Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pennsylvanian Tensleep Formation in the Bighorn basin has potential for Minnelusa-type truncation traps. A dendritic drainage pattern on the upper Tensleep surface formed as a result of two regional unconformities. Subtle movements along basement faults locally controlled the orientation of drainages and valleys cut as these drainages were subsequently filled with Permian Goose Egg and Park City lithofacies. These

D. M. Wheeler; D. E. Baldwin; M. A. Sares

1986-01-01

174

Structural control on paleovalley development, muddy sandstone, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A subaerial unconformity within the Lower Cretaceous Muddy Sandstone in the Powder River basin developed during a late Albian sea level lowstand and resulted in a markedly rectangular drainage pattern. Numerous right-angle bends and perpendicular confluences of Muddy paleovalleys are believed to reflect syndepositional movement on basement faults and dissolution of salts in the Goose Egg Formation. A detailed subsurface analysis of geophysical logs from closely spaced wells reveals that up to 30 ft of vertical displacement occurred along northwest- and northeast-trending faults prior to and during the development of the subaerial unconformity. An analysis of a high-resolution magnetic survey (NewMag) of the Powder River basin reveals that numerous paleovalleys parallel the boundaries, or basement shear zones, between basement blocks. Small, irregularly shaped, thin intervals of the Permian Goose Egg Formation, which resemble karst topography, also occur along these northwest- and northeast-trending basement faults beneath Muddy paleovalleys. An arcuate Muddy paleovalley located in the northern Powder River basin parallels contours of isopach and trend surface maps of the Goose Egg Formation. These relationships suggest that the location and orientation of Muddy paleovalleys were controlled by a combination of movement along northwest- and northeast-trending faults and syntectonic dissolution of salt within the Goose Egg Formation. Simultaneous dissolution of Goose Egg salts and headward erosion of Muddy paleovalleys along this conjugate fault pattern also indicate that the Powder River basin was influenced by wrench fault tectonics during the late Albian.

Gustason, E.R.; Wheeler, D.A.; Ryer, T.A.

1988-07-01

175

Water Quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains the major findings of a 1998-2001 assessment of water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to water quality in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Great Salt Lake Basins summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed at http://ut.water.usgs.gov. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed at the national NAWQA Web site http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa.

Waddell, Kidd M.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Giddings, Elise M.; Baskin, Robert L.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Albano, Christine M.

2004-01-01

176

Chapter A. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the South Platte River basin, Colorado and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 basins along an urban land-use gradient in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, from 2002 through 2003. Study basins were chosen to minimize natural variability among basins due to factors such as geology, elevation, and climate and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among basins. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated in a multimetric urban intensity index to represent the degree of urban development in each study basin. Physical characteristics studied included stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied included nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and fecal bacteria concentrations; and biological characteristics studied included algae, fish, and invertebrate communities. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin. Commonly observed effects of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased flashiness, higher magnitude and more frequent peak flows, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure, generally were not observed in this study. None of the hydrologic, temperature, habitat, or chemical variables were correlated strongly (Spearman's rho greater than or equal to 0.7) with urban intensity, with the exception of some of the SPMD-based toxicity and chemical variables. SPMD-based measures of potential toxicity and PAH concentrations were positively correlated with urban intensity. The PAH concentrations also were positively correlated with measures of road density and negatively correlated with distance to the nearest road, indicating that automobile exhaust is a major source of these compounds in the study area. This source may be localized enough that the transport of PAHs would be minimally affected by water-management practices such as diversion or storage upstream. In contrast, the predominant sources of nutrients, bacteria, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and pesticides may be more dispersed throughout the drainage area and, therefore, their transport to downstream sites may be subject to greater disruption by water regulation. Although no direct link was found between most water-chemistry characteristics and urbanization, invertebrate, algae, and fish-community characteristics were strongly associated with nutrients, pesticides, sulfate, chloride, and suspended sediment. None of the biological community variables were strongly correlated with the urban intensity index. Algal biomass predominantly was associated with total nitrogen concentrations, nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations, and the duration of high flows. Fish communities predominantly were associated with housing age, the percentage of suspended sediment finer than 0.063 millimeters and chloride concentrations. Invertebrate communities predominantly were associated with the frequency of rising and falling flow events, the duration of high flows, total nitrogen concentrations, nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations, and total herbicide concentrations. Historical records indicate that aquatic communities in the region may have been altered prior to any substantial urban development by early agricultural and water-management practices. Present-day aquatic communities ar

Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

2006-01-01

177

Design, implementation, and completion of a horizontal tight gas wellbore - case study: Green River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

In September, 1993 Amoco Production Company began drilling the Champlin 254B No. 2H, a horizontal well test located near the Wamsutter Arch, southwestem Wyoming. The Champlin 254B No. 2H was designed to confirm a fractured reservoir concept and to test the economic viability of a horizontal wellbore in the Almond fm.. The wellbore was designed to determine real-time, the fracture direction and the optimum horizontal leg direction within the confines of the drilling permit. A deviated pilot hole was drilled to optimize our ability to cross vertical natural fractures. MWD gamma-ray, oriented core, a vertical seismic profile, Formation Microimager, and a robust suite of electric logs were obtained to gain information on the presence and orientation of fractures before kickoff for the horizontal leg. Electromagnetic goniometry was used onsite to orient fractures in core. Log and core data were consistent and a wellbore trajectory of due South was chosen. A two thousand foot horizontal wellbore was drilled, 1700 feet of which is in the upper Almond formation productive zone. MWD gamma-ray, three 30` cores, Formation Microscanner logs, and a density-neutron log were obtained in the horizontal hole. This wellbore was completed open-hole with a stabilized gas rate of 1 mmcfd. In May, 1994 a portion of the original wellbore collapsed and a replacement horizontal leg was drilled. Oil-based mud and rotary BOP`s were utilized to minimize damage and invasion to the reservoir. Reservoir pressures encountered in the redrill indicate that depletion along the original wellbore had begun. The redrill was completed open-hole with a pre-perforated (every third joint) 5 1/2 inches liner and also stabilized at a rate of 1 mmcfd.

Billingsley, R.L.; Evans, L.W.; Anderson, T.M. [Amoco Production Co., Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

178

Hydrologic data for Paleozoic rocks in the upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains data used to interpret the hydrology of Paleozoic rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin under the U.S. Geological Survey 's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The study area includes the drainages of the Green and Colorado Rivers from their headwaters to Lees Ferry, Arizona. Hydrologic data presented in this report include artesian yields from wells and springs, and values of porosity, intrinsic permeability, and hydraulic conductivity determined by laboratory analyses and aquifer tests. (USGS)

Geldon, Arthur L.

1989-01-01

179

Groundwater chemistry near an impoundment for produced water, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe Powder River Basin is one of the largest producers of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the United States. An important environmental concern in the Basin is the fate of the large amounts of groundwater extracted during CBNG production. Most of this produced water is disposed of in unlined surface impoundments. A 6-year study of groundwater flow and water chemistry at one impoundment, Skewed Reservoir, has produced the most detailed data set for any impoundment in the Basin. Data were collected from a network of 21 observation wells and three suction lysimeters. A groundwater mound formed atop bedrock within initially unsaturated, unconsolidated deposits underlying the reservoir. Heterogeneity in physical and chemical properties of sediments resulted in complex groundwater flow paths and highly variable groundwater chemistry. Sulfate, bicarbonate, sodium, and magnesium were the dominant ions in all areas, but substantial variability existed in relative concentrations; pH varied from less than 3 to more than 9, and total dissolved solids concentrations ranged from less than 5000 to greater than 100,000 mg/L. Selenium was a useful tracer of reservoir water; selenium concentrations exceeded 300 ?g/L in samples obtained from 18 of the 24 sampling points. Groundwater travel time from the reservoir to a nearby alluvial aquifer (a linear distance of 177 m) was calculated at 474 days on the basis of selenium concentrations. The produced water is not the primary source of solutes in the groundwater. Naturally occurring salts and minerals within the unsaturated zone, dissolved and mobilized by infiltrating impoundment water, account for most of the solute mass in groundwater. Gypsum dissolution, cation-exchange, and pyrite oxidation appear to be important reactions. The complex geochemistry and groundwater flow paths at the study site underscore the difficulty in assessing effects of surface impoundments on water resources within the Powder River Basin.

Healy, Richard W.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Rice, Cynthia A.; McKinley, Michael P.; Smith, Bruce D.

2011-06-01

180

Depositional systems and petroleum potential, Mesaverde Formation southeastern Wind River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depositional environments and systems of the Wind River basin Mesaverde Formation were interpreted from an analysis of outcrops along the Casper arch and Rattlesnake Hills anticline and cores and wireline logs from the adjacent subsurface. The Fales Sandstone and Parkman Sandstone\\/unnamed middle member are deposits of eastward progradational, wave-dominated strand-plain and deltaic complexes. Basal portions of the Fales Sandstone and

D. J. Hippe; D. W. Needham; F. G. Ethridge

1986-01-01

181

A groundwater vortex hypothesis for mima-like mounds, Laramie Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mima-like mounds in the Laramie Basin occur where: (1) impervious bedrock (shale) is at a shallow depth (? 2–5 m); (2) bedrock is overlain by a thin veneer (? 1–4 m) of alluvial gravels; and (3) a strong argillic\\/calcic or petrocalcic soil caps the landform, typically a terrace. Active and inactive mounds contain churned materials, including pebbles derived from adjacent\\/subjacent

Richard G. Reider; Joseph M. Huss; Timothy W. Miller

1996-01-01

182

Riverton Dome Gas Exploration and Stimulation Technology Demonstration, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends. The Institute for Energy Research has taken a unique approach to building a new exploration strategy for low-permeability gas accumulations in basins characterized by anomalously pressured, compartmentalized gas accumulations. Key to this approach is the determination and three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes, and the detection and delineation of areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability below this boundary. This new exploration strategy will be demonstrated in the Riverton Dome? Emigrant Demonstration Project (RDEDP) by completing the following tasks: 1) detect and delineate the anomalous pressure boundaries, 2) delineate surface lineaments, fracture and fault distribution, spacing, and orientation through remote sensing investigations, 3) characterize the internal structure of the anomalous pressured volume in the RDEDP and determine the scale of compartmentalization using produced water chemistry, 4) define the prospects and well locations as a result on this new exploration technology, and 5) utilize new completion techniques that will minimize formation damage and optimize production.

Ronald C. Surdam

1998-11-15

183

Introduction to stratigraphy, structure, and geologic problems in Big Horn basin, Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphy of the Big Horn basin can be divided generally into (1) the Middle Cambrian clastics, (2) the Paleozoic shelf carbonates, (3) the Mesozoic clastics, (4) the Late Cretaceous to Teritary synorogenic clastics, and (5) the Teritary post-orogenic clastics and volcanics. By far the most economically important formations have been the Permian Phosphoria and Pennsylvanian Tensleep Formations. This dynamic duo consists of porous eolian and shallow marine, oil-rich carbonates of the Phosphoria. The two have combined to produce over 1.5 billion bbl of oil in the Big Horn basin alone. The draping of the Tensleep and Phosphoria over large Laramide structures (closures of over 5,000 + ft, 1,500 m, and areal extents up to 15 mi/sup 2/, 40 km/sup 2/) was the final key. There is a controversy over the morphology of the folds in the foreland. Put simply, there is some disagreement over how much the horizontal or thrusting component contributes to these folds. Concerning other problems, Stone in the October 1967 AAPG bulletin pointed out that the Paleozoic reservoirs often have a common oil-water contact (OWC) within individual structures. He attributed the common OWC to fractures joining the reservoirs. The OWC is commonly tilted; this he attributed to hydrodynamic flow. An understanding of fractures and tilted oil-water contacts is imperative for successful exploration and production programs in the Big Horn basin.

Hollis, S.H.; Fisher, M.P.

1983-08-01

184

Variation in sedimentology and architecture of Eocene alluvial strata, Wind River and Washakie basins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Eocene continental, alluvial strata of the Wind River Formation (Wind River Basin) and the Cathedral Bluffs Member of the Wasatch Formation (Washakie basin) provide two examples of Laramide intermontane basin aggradation. These alluvial sediments primarily represent overbank flood deposits marginal to channel complexes. Their sedimentology and architecture, although grossly similar, appear to vary somewhat with proximity to Laramide uplifts. In both cases, repetitive sedimentation on the floodplain produced a succession of depositional couplets, each composed of a light-gray sand overlain by a red clay-rich silt or sand. The lower sands are tabular bodies that, near their distal margins, taper discernibly. They commonly display planar and ripple-drift laminations. Upper clay-rich layers, which are laminated, are also generally tabular. Those floodplain strata depositional proximal to Laramide uplifts show little evidence of scouring prior to deposition of the next, overlying couplet. Most of these sedimentary layers, therefore, are laterally continuous (up to 2 km). This alluvial architecture results in relatively uniform porosity laterally within depositional units but variable porosity stratigraphically through the sequence. In contrast, alluvial sediments deposited farther from the Laramide uplifts have undergone sporadic incision (either during rising flood stage or subsequently) followed by aggradation. As a result, many of these floodplain couplets are discontinuous laterally and, hence, exhibit large-scale lateral variability in porosity. Both alluvial sequences have undergone similar types and extents of burial diagenesis.

Patterson, P.E.; Larson, E.E. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

1991-03-01

185

Bighorn Basin Coring Project: Palynofloral changes and taphonomy through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Palaeogene hyperthermals provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the biotic responses to rapid and transient global warming events. As part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP), we have analyzed 182 sporomorph (pollen and spore) samples from three newly cored sites in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. Two sites, Basin Substation (121 samples) and Polecat Bench (41 samples), contain the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ETM1), and one early Eocene site, Gilmore Hill (20 samples), contains the ELMO (ETM2) event. We have focused initially on the Basin Substation section, because it is more organic rich, has demonstrated higher sporomorph recovery potential than the other two sites, and is the main focus of complementary geochemical analyses. Below 90 m core depth sporomorph concentrations are typically 1000 - 10 000 grains/gram, but between 90 and 60 m these decline to <100 grains/gram, before rising again to levels similar to those seen at the base of the core. Correlation between marker beds in the core and those at outcrop suggests that this zone of low recovery corresponds closely to the position of the PETM. Prior to this interval, the sporomorph assemblage is dominated by the gymnosperms Cupressacites hiatipites (cypress, Cupressaceae) and bisaccate pollen (Pinaceae and/or Podocarpaceae), and the angiosperm taxa Polyatriopollenites vermontensis (wingnut or wheel wingnut, Juglandaceae), Caryapollenites spp. (hickory, Juglandaceae), and Alnipollenites spp. (alder, Betulaceae). However, samples are heterogeneous in terms of the dominant taxon, with different taxa having the highest relative abundance in different samples. In the upper part of the core, the assemblage is similar to that in the lower part, but with a more consistent dominance of gymnosperm taxa, and with the addition of Eocene marker taxa Intratriporopollenites instructus (linden, Tilioideae) and Celtis spp. (hackberry, Cannabaceae). These both have their first appearance at 56.14 m in the core, just above the zone of low sporomorph recovery. These results point to (a) a decrease in sporomorph preservation that is linked to environmental change during the PETM event, and (b) repeated reorganizations of plant relative abundances prior to the PETM. Current research is focusing on the timing, and possible climatic control, of these floral changes in the lead up to the PETM event.

Harrington, G.; Jardine, P.

2012-12-01

186

Isopach map of the interval from surface elevation to the top of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Minnelusa Formation and equivalents, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 1,480 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

Crysdale, B. L.

1990-01-01

187

Map showing contours on the top of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Minnelusa Formation and equivalents, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 1,480 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

Crysdale, B. L.

1990-01-01

188

Distribution of coarse- and fire-grained rocks in the Wasatch formation and their relationship to uranium deposits, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A brief study of the areal distribution of the various rock types of the Wasatch formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, was made during the summer of 1952. In the south and central parts if the basin, the Wasatch formation appears to contain coarser-grained rocks in contrast to the northern part, which contain relatively no coarser-grained rocks. The finer-grained rocks are abundant in the northern and central parts of the basin but relatively scare in the southern part. The known uranium deposits in the Wasatch are in the central area where coarser-grained sandstones are complemented by abundant finer-grained rocks such as shales and siltstones.

Davidson, David F.

1953-01-01

189

Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

1987-01-01

190

Water Quality in the Bear River Basin of Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming Prior to and Following Snowmelt Runoff in 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality samples were collected from the Bear River during two base-flow periods in 2001: March 11 to 21, prior to snowmelt runoff, and July 30 to August 9, following snowmelt runoff. The samples were collected from 65 sites along the Bear River and selected tributaries and analyzed for dissolved solids and major ions, suspended sediment, nutrients, pesticides, and periphyton chlorophyll a. On the main stem of the Bear River during March, dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 116 milligrams per liter (mg/L) near the Utah-Wyoming Stateline to 672 mg/L near Corinne, Utah. During July-August, dissolved-solid concentrations ranged from 117 mg/L near the Utah-Wyoming Stateline to 2,540 mg/L near Corinne and were heavily influenced by outflow from irrigation diversions. High concentrations of dissolved solids near Corinne result largely from inflow of mineralized spring water. Suspended-sediment concentrations in the Bear River in March ranged from 2 to 98 mg/L and generally decreased below reservoirs. Tributary concentrations were much higher, as high as 861 mg/L in water from Battle Creek. Streams with high sediment concentrations in March included Whiskey Creek, Otter Creek, and the Malad River. Sediment concentrations in tributaries in July-August generally were lower than in March. The concentrations of most dissolved and suspended forms of nitrogen generally were higher in March than in July-August. Dissolved ammonia concentrations in the Bear River and its tributaries in March ranged from less than 0.021 mg/L to as much as 1.43 mg/L, and dissolved ammonia plus organic nitrogen concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 mg/L to 2.4 mg/L. Spring Creek is the only site where the concentrations of all ammonia species exceeded 1.0 mg/L. In samples collected during March, tributary concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate ranged from 0.042 mg/L to 5.28 mg/L. In samples collected from tributaries during July-August, concentrations ranged from less than 0.23 mg/L to 3.06 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate were highest in samples collected from the Whiskey Creek and Spring Creek drainage basins and from main-stem sites below Cutler Reservoir near Collinston (March) and Corinne (July-August). Concentrations of total phosphorus at main-stem sites were fairly similar during both base-flow periods, ranging from less than 0.02 to 0.49 mg/L during March and less than 0.02 to 0.287 mg/L during July-August. In March, concentrations of total phosphorus in the Bear River generally increased from upstream to downstream. Total phosphorus concentrations in tributaries generally were higher in March than in July-August. Concentrations of selected pesticides in samples collected from 20 sites in the Bear River basin in either March or July-August were less than 0.1 microgram per liter. Of the 12 pesticides detected, the most frequently detected insecticide was malathion, and prometon and atrazine were the most frequently detected herbicides. Periphyton samples were collected at 14 sites on the Bear River during August. Chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 21 milligrams per square meter to 416 milligrams per square meter, with highest concentrations occurring below reservoirs. Samples from 8 of the 14 sites had concentrations of chlorophyll a that exceeded 100 milligrams per square meter, indicating that algal abundance at these sites may represent a nuisance condition.

Gerner, Steven J.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

2006-01-01

191

Tracking solutes and water from subsurface drip irrigation application of coalbed methane-produced waters, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One method to beneficially use water produced from coalbed methane (CBM) extraction is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) of croplands. In SDI systems, treated CBMwater (injectate) is supplied to the soil at depth, with the purpose of preventing the buildup of detrimental salts near the surface. The technology is expanding within the Powder River Basin, but little research has been published on its environmental impacts. This article reports on initial results from tracking water and solutes from the injected CBM-produced waters at an SDI system in Johnson County, Wyoming. In the first year of SDI operation, soil moisture significantly increased in the SDI areas, but well water levels increased only modestly, suggesting that most of the water added was stored in the vadose zone or lost to evapotranspiration. The injectate has lower concentrations of most inorganic constituents relative to ambient groundwater at the site but exhibits a high sodium adsorption ratio. Changes in groundwater chemistry during the same period of SDI operation were small; the increase in groundwater-specific conductance relative to pre-SDI conditions was observed in a single well. Conversely, groundwater samples collected beneath another SDI field showed decreased concentrations of several constituents since the SDI operation.Groundwater-specific conductance at the 12 other wells showed no significant changes. Major controls on and compositional variability of groundwater, surface water, and soil water chemistry are discussed in detail. Findings from this research provide an understanding of water and salt dynamics associated with SDI systems using CBM-produced water. Copyright ??2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

Engle, M. A.; Bern, C. R.; Healy, R. W.; Sams, J. I.; Zupancic, J. W.; Schroeder, K. T.

2011-01-01

192

Cumulative potential hydrologic impacts of surface coal mining in the eastern Powder River structural basin, northeastern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There are 16 existing and six proposed surface coal mines in the eastern Powder River structural basin of northeastern Wyoming. Coal mining companies predict water level declines of 5 ft or more in the Wasatch aquifer to extend form about 1,000 to about 2,000 ft beyond the mine pits. The predicted 5 ft water level decline in the Wyodak coal aquifer generally extends 4-8 mi beyond the lease areas. About 3,000 wells are in the area of potential cumulative water level declines resulting from all anticipated mining. Of these 3,000 wells, about 1,200 are outside the areas of anticipated mining: about 1,000 wells supply water for domestic or livestock uses, and about 200 wells supply water for municipal, industrial, irrigation, and miscellaneous uses. The 1,800 remaining wells are used by coal mining companies. Future surface coal mining probably will result in postmining groundwater of similar quality to that currently present in the study area. By use of geochemical modeling techniques, the results of a hypothetical reaction path exercise indicate the potential for marked improvements in postmining water quality because of chemical reactions as postmining groundwater with a large dissolved solids concentration (3,540 mg/L) moves into a coal aquifer with relatively small dissolved solids concentrations (910 mg/L). Results of the modeling exercise also indicate geochemical conditions that are most ideal for large decreases in dissolved solids concentrations in coal aquifers receiving recharge from a spoil aquifer. (Lantz-PTT)

Martin, L. J.; Naftz, D. L.; Lowham, H. W.; Rankl, J. G.

1988-01-01

193

Competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on some native and reclamation species in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Four experiments were conducted to examine the competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on certain native and reclamation species. The first experiment was initiated by discing three sites in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, at three distances from introduced weed seed sources. Introduced weed colonization was greatest when a seed source was located nearby. Higher weed cover resulted in reductions of percent cover, density, and richness of the native species. The second experiment was conducted in the greenhouse and was designed to determine if there are changes in response of S. kali and the native grasses Agropyron smithii and Bouteloua gracilis to competition and water regime. Both grass species had lower biomass and higher stomatal resistance when growing in mixed culture with S. kali than in pure culture in the dry regime, but there were no significant differences in the wet regime. In general, the difference in plant response between mixed and pure cultures was more pronounced in the dry than in the wet regime. The third study was a greenhouse experiment on germination and competition of S. kali (a C/sub 4/ species) with native species Lepidium densiflorum (C/sub 3/), Chenopodium pratericola (C/sub 3/), A. smithii (C/sub 3/), and B. gracilis (C/sub 4/) under May, June, and July temperature regimes. Salsola kali germinated equally well in all three regimes, but the other C/sub 4/ species had highest germination in the July regime and the C/sub 3/ species in the May and June regimes. The fourth study was designed to examine the effect of weed colonization on the success of mine reclamation. Little effect was observed, but colonization by introduced annuals was very low. (ERB)

Allen, E.B.; Knight, D.H.

1980-01-01

194

75 FR 74678 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Colorado and Wyoming...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder...National Grassland; Colorado and Wyoming; Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder...SUMMARY: The Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and...

2010-12-01

195

Stratigraphy and depositional environments of middle member of Minnelusa formation, central Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Regional correlations, from the southern to northern Black Hills and across the central Powder River basin to the Bighorn Mountains, serve as the frame work for a depositional model of middle Minnelusa sediments. In the eastern part of the study area, deposition took place in a carbonate sabkha environment. During transgressive periods, most of this region was covered by a restricted shallow sea. In the northern Black Hills, close to the limit of the transgression, deposition occurred in a coastal dune setting. During regressions, the sabkha prograded westward toward the Lusk embayment. Coastal dune fields to the north and isolated dune complexes to the south migrated southwestward across this prograding sabkha. West of the Lusk embayment, deposition occurred in a sand dominated tidal-flat environment during transgressions and along the coastal edge of an eolian sand sea during regression.

Desmond, R.J.; Steidtmann, J.R.; Cardinal, D.F.

1985-05-01

196

Chapter 4: The Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Wind River Basin Province includes all strata from the base of the Lower Cretaceous Cloverly Formation to the base of the Waltman Shale Member of the Paleocene age Fort Union Formation and, where the Waltman is absent, includes strata as young as the Eocene Wind River Formation. Locally, Cretaceous-sourced gas migrated into strata as old as the Mississippian Madison Limestone, and in these areas the TPS extends stratigraphically downward to include these reservoirs. The extensive vertical migration of gases in highly fractured areas of the Wind River Basin led to the commingling of gases from several Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sources, thus only two petroleum systems are recognized in these rocks, the Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite TPS, the subject of this report, and the Waltman Shale TPS described by Roberts and others (Chapter 5, this CD-ROM). The Cretaceous-lower Tertiary Composite TPS was subdivided into (1) seven continuous gas assessment units (AU): (a) Frontier-Muddy Continuous Gas AU, (b) Cody Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, (c) Mesaverde--Meeteetse Sandstone Gas AU, (d) Lance-Fort Union Sandstone Gas AU, (e) Mesaverde Coalbed Gas AU, (f) Meeteetse Coalbed Gas AU, and (g) Fort Union Coalbed Gas AU; (2) one continuous oil assessement unit--- Cody Fractured Shale Continuous Oil AU; and (3) one conventional assessment Unit--- Cretaceous-Tertiary Conventional Oil and Gas AU. Estimates of undiscovered resources having the potential for additions to reserves were made for all but the Cody Fractured Shale Continuous Oil AU, which is considered hypothetical and was not quantitively assessed. The mean estimate of the total oil is 41.99 million barrels, mean estimate of gas is 2.39 trillion cubic feet, and mean estimate of natural gas liquids is 20.55 million barrels. For gas, 480.66 billion cubic feet (BCFG) is estimated for the Frontier-Muddy Continuous Gas AU, 115.34 BCFG for the Cody Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, 383.16 BCFG for the Mesaverde-Meeteetse Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, 711.30 BCFG for the Lance-Fort Union Sandstone Gas AU, 107.18 BCFG for the Mesaverde Coalbed Gas AU, 21.29 BCFG for the Meeteetse Coalbed Gas AU, and 118.08 BCFG for the Fort Union Coalbed Gas AU. All the undiscovered oil and 98.94 BCFG of undiscovered gas is in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Conventional Oil and Gas AU.

Johnson, R. C.; Finn, Thomas M.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Roberts, Stephen B.; Roberts, Laura N. R.; Cook, Troy; Taylor, David J.

2007-01-01

197

Dating Fluvial Terraces by 230Th/U on Pedogenic Carbonate, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable and precise ages of Quaternary pedogenic carbonate can be obtained with 230Th/U dating by TIMS applied to large suites of carefully selected small samples. Datable carbonate can form within a few thousand years of surface stabilization allowing ages of Quaternary deposits and surfaces to be closely estimated. We have dated pedogenic carbonate from glacio-fluvial terraces of the Wind River Basin to better constrain the age of the penultimate glaciation in the central Rocky Mountains. Dense pedogenic carbonate clast-rinds from gravels of middle to late Quaternary terraces in the Wind River Basin contain 5-35 ppm U and 0.01-0.3 ppm 232Th, with (230Th/232Th)=5-7500, making them extremely suitable for 230Th/U dating. Complexities in the textures of the Wind River clast-rinds emphasized the importance of sampling horizons as thin as 0.5 mm from polished slabs to avoid averaging long (104-105 yr) and potentially discontinuous depositional histories. Samples meeting straightforward textural criteria with finite 230Th/U ages preserve within-rind stratigraphic order in all cases. Cosmogenic nuclide (10Be, 26Al, 36Cl) dating of Wind River terraces by others yields most-probable ages that are systematically younger than those inferred from clast-rind 230Th/U ages though the differences are not resolvable outside of the analytical and systematic uncertainties of the two techniques. Ages from 230Th/U rind dating for terraces WR4 (163+/-8 ka) and WR2 (55+/-7 ka), in conjunction with constraints from WR1 and the modern floodplain, indicate incision of the Wind River is slower than previously inferred and relatively uniform from terrace to terrace over the past glacial cycle. An age of 151+/-9 ka is interpolated for terrace WR3 that may be traced to moraines of the final advance of the Bull Lake glaciation at the type locality. The new age indicates that the Bull Lake glaciation climaxed near the end of marine isotope stage 6 rather than in early stage 5 and coincided with a global ice volume maximum. Thus, the Bull Lake glaciation is not an example of asynchrony between advances of mountain glaciers and continental ice sheets.

Sharp, W. D.; Ludwig, K. R.; Chadwick, O. A.; Amundson, R.; Glaser, L. L.

2001-12-01

198

Stratigraphy and depositional environment of middle member of Minnelusa formation, Central Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Regional correlations of the middle member of the Minnelusa Formation (middle Upper Pennsylvanian) shed new light on the stratigraphic relationships of Pennsylvanian rocks in the central Powder River basin and serve as the basis for a regional depositional model. The two main factors influencing the depositional environments of the middle Minnelusa were paleogeography and sea level change. In the southeastern and south-central parts of the area, the proximity of the Lusk embayment and fluctuations in sea level caused frequent flooding of a broad, flat sabkha surface over which isolated dune complexes were migrating. The sediments deposited were subtidal carbonates and black shales interbedded with supratidal dolomites, evaporites, and eolian sandstones. Farther north, closer to the sand source, the dune complexes were larger, more continuous, and were affected only by major transgressive events. Laterally extensive eolian sands were also deposited to the west. The lack of black shales and presence of sandy dolomites with Skolithus burrow, however, suggests more normal marine conditions and deposition on a sand-dominated tidal flat.

Desmond, R.J. Jr.; Steidtmann, J.R.; Cardinal, D.F.

1984-07-01

199

Types of stratigraphic traps in Lower Cretaceous Muddy Formation, northern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphic traps account for most of the oil produced from the Muddy Sandstone in the northern Powder River basin. Two categories of traps exist. The first trap type is the result of lateral and vertical facies changes. Reservoir facies include tidal channels, point bars, bayhead deltas, barrier islands, and strand-plain sandstones; trapping facies include bay-fill and estuarine sediments, mud-filled tidal channels, and flood-plain deposits. The second of the two categories of traps results from an unconformity that juxtaposes permeable and impermeable sediments of quite different ages. Structural and diagenetic factors often modify and locally enhance reservoir quality within both categories of stratigraphic traps. The various types of traps are demonstrated by studies of six field areas: (1) barrier-island sandstones, sealed updip by back-barrier shales, produce at Ute and Kitty fields; (2) tidal channels produce at Collums and Kitty fields; (3) bayhead deltas, encased in estuarine sediments, form traps at Oedekoven and Kitty fields; (4) fluvial point-bar sandstones form traps at Oedekoven, Store, and Kitty fields; (5) unconformity-related traps exist where Muddy fluvial valley-fill sediments lap out against impermeable valley walls of Skull Creek Shale on the updip side at Store, Oedekoven, and Kitty fields; and (6) the clay-rich weathered zone, directly beneath an intraformational unconformity, forms the seal to the reservoirs at Amos Draw field.

Lovekin, J.R.; Odland, S.K.; Quartarone, T.S. Gardner, M.H.; Ritchie, J.G.

1986-08-01

200

Potential for Minnelusa-type truncation traps in Tensleep Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvanian Tensleep Formation in the Bighorn basin has potential for Minnelusa-type truncation traps. A dendritic drainage pattern on the upper Tensleep surface formed as a result of two regional unconformities. Subtle movements along basement faults locally controlled the orientation of drainages and valleys cut as these drainages were subsequently filled with Permian Goose Egg and Park City lithofacies. These later impermeable deposits may have acted as lateral barriers to petroleum migration within the Tensleep Formation. Reservoir potential of the Tensleep Formation depends upon both the environment of deposition and the degree of post-Tensleep erosion. The Tensleep consists of a dominantly marine lower member and a dominantly eolian upper member. This overall regressive sequence is punctuated by many transgressive surfaces. As a result, porous and permeable eolian sandstones are intercalated with marine carbonates and sandstones. These marine carbonates may act as permeability barriers, dividing the Tensleep into a series of discrete reservoirs as well. Depending upon the depth of incisement of the valleys and the amount of regional truncation, multiple reservoir systems are possible. Minnelusa-type truncation traps may exist in the Tensleep Formation where paleovalleys are oriented normal to regional dip. The best lateral seals would be provided by concave-downdip curves in valley trends or by intersections of primary and secondary drainages.

Wheeler, D.M.; Baldwin, D.E.; Sares, M.A.

1986-08-01

201

Eocene climates, depositional environments, and geography, greater Green River basin, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The climates, depositional environments, and geography of Eocene rocks in the greater Green River basin are investigated to determine the origin, mode of deposition, and areal distribution of the Wasatch, Green River, Bridger, and Washakie Formations. The data indicate that Eocene climates ranged from cool temperature to tropical and were affected by both terrestrial and astronomical factors. The terrestrial factors were mainly latitude, altitude, regional geography, tectonism, and volcanism. The astronomical factors are interpreted from reptitious rock sequences in the Wilkins Peak Member of the Green River Formation that record seasonal changes, 21,000 year precession of the equinox cycles, 100,000 year eccentricity cycles, and an undetermined cycle of 727,000 years. Eight depositional environments are identified, discussed, and illustrated by diagrams, columnar sections, and photographs. They are: (1) fluvial, (2) paludal, (3) freshwater lacustrine, (4) saltwater lacustrine, (5) pond and playa lake, (6) evaporite (salt pan), (7) mudflat, and (8) volcanic and fluviovolcanic. The areal distribution of the eight depositional environments in the Wasatch, Green River, Bridger, and Washakie Formations is illustrated by photographs and 13 paleogeographic maps. 76 refs., 90 figs.

Roehler, H.W.

1993-12-31

202

Tectonic controls on deposition and preservation of Pennsylvanian Tensleep Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

During deposition of the Tensleep Formation, a shallow, semirestricted portion of a major seaway that occupied the geosynclinal area to the west extended into the area of the present-day Bighorn basin. Limiting the transgression of this sea was the Beartooth high on the north and the Bighorn high on the east and southeast. On the western side of the area, a southerly extension of the Yellowstone high restricted circulation. The lower Tensleep Formation (Desmoinesian), characterized by extensive marine influence, was deposited as coastal sand dunes and interdunes over subaerially exposed structural highs. These deposits grade basinward into shoreface sandstones, which in turn grade into sandstones and carbonates of the shelf environment. During deposition of upper Tensleep strata (Missourian through Virgilian), marine waters were less widespread. The Greybull arch, a northeast-trending feature in the northern part of the area, was uplifted, dividing the shallow sea into two parts. The upper Tensleep Formation was deposited as a terrestrial sand sea over the Bighorn high. Coastal dunes and interdunes were deposited seaward of the sand seas and over the Beartooth high, the Greybull arch, and the southerly extension of the Yellowstone high. These deposits grade basinward into clastic shoreface deposits. Following Tensleep deposition, the region underwent southward tilting, which caused exposure and erosion of the Tensleep Formation. The resulting unconformity surface was deeply incised by a dendritic drainage system that controlled the thickness of the formation. The Greybull arch and the Bighorn high acted as significant drainage divides, over which very little of the formation was preserved.

Kelly Anne, O.; Horne, J.C.; Wheeler, D.M.; Musgrave, C.E.

1986-08-01

203

Groundwater well inventory and assessment in the area of the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project, Green River Basin, Wyoming, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During May through September 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, inventoried and assessed existing water wells in southwestern Wyoming for inclusion in a possible groundwater-monitor network. Records were located for 3,282 wells in the upper Green River Basin, which includes the U.S. Geological Survey study area and the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project area. Records for 2,713 upper Green River Basin wells were determined to be unique (not duplicated) and to have a Wyoming State Engineers Office permit. Further, 376 of these wells were within the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area. Of the 376 wells in the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area, 141 well records had sufficient documentation, such as well depth, open interval, geologic log, and depth to water, to meet many, but not always all, established monitor well criteria. Efforts were made to locate each of the 141 wells and to document their current condition. Field crews were able to locate 121 of the wells, and the remaining 20 wells either were not located as described, or had been abandoned and the site reclaimed. Of the 121 wells located, 92 were found to meet established monitor well criteria. Results of the field efforts during May through September 2012, and specific physical characteristics of the 92 wells, are presented in this report.

Sweat, Michael J.

2013-01-01

204

A groundwater vortex hypothesis for mima-like mounds, Laramie Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mima-like mounds in the Laramie Basin occur where: (1) impervious bedrock (shale) is at a shallow depth (˜ 2-5 m); (2) bedrock is overlain by a thin veneer (˜ 1-4 m) of alluvial gravels; and (3) a strong argillic/calcic or petrocalcic soil caps the landform, typically a terrace. Active and inactive mounds contain churned materials, including pebbles derived from adjacent/subjacent units. The mounds are circular in plan view and lens- or funnel-shaped in cross-section. The strong intermound (premound) soil collapses beneath the mound, is entirely or partly destroyed at its base, or is truncated at the mound edge. Stratigraphic relationships on the youngest terrace of the Laramie River indicate that the inactive mounds are Holocene in age. Sodium concentrations (used as a tracer) in mound material and adjacent/subjacent units suggest that the mounds rotate counterclockwise. This movement may be driven by free spiral vortices (low hydraulic head) in confined (artesian) groundwater flow in alluvium between shallow bedrock and strong surface soil. The vortices (similar to water draining from a bathtub or a whirlpool in a river) may result from enlargements, constrictions, or changes in permeability of the aquifer — or meandering of groundwater flow. Groundwater, dissolved ions, and materials in suspension, or through friction and turbidity, then would move from adjacent high-hydraulic head areas into and down the vortex. In effect, the high head (intermound) areas would act as a pump whereas the vortex (which would form a mound) would act as a turbine — responding, therefore, to energy transformations between groundwater velocity and pressure according to the Bernoulli principle and Newton's Second Law of Motion. Soil or sediment, incapable of being fully moved into and down the vortex, would amass at the land surface as a circular mound that in cross-section would have a lens or funnel (turbine) shape. Computer modelling shows that mounds tend to form over deep bedrock and thick alluvium. The groundwater vortex hypothesis can account for the building of the mound higher at its center, the circular plan view and lens (or funnel) shape in cross-section, the inward spiral of sodium, the churned character of mound material, and the collapse (or truncation) of soils and other units beneath and along mound edges. The hypothesis, however, must not be applied to all other Mima or mima-like mounds, unless vortex motion can be determined and if stratigraphic similarities can be demonstrated.

Reider, Richard G.; Huss, Joseph M.; Miller, Timothy W.

1996-08-01

205

Preliminary applications of Landsat images and aerial photography for determining land-use, geologic, and hydrologic characteristics, Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Expanded energy- and recreation-related activities in the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, have caused a rapid increase in economic development which will result in increased demand and competition for natural resources. In planning for efficient allocation of the basin 's natural resources, Landsat images and small-scale color and color-infrared photographs were used for selected geologic, hydrologic and land-use applications within the Yampa River basin. Applications of Landsat data included: (1) regional land-use classification and mapping, (2) lineament mapping, and (3) areal snow-cover mapping. Results from the Landsat investigations indicated that: (1) Landsat land-use classification maps, at a regional level, compared favorably with areal land-use patterns that were defined from available ground information, (2) lineaments were mapped in sufficient detail using recently developed techniques for interpreting aerial photographs, (3) snow cover generally could be mapped for large areas with the exception of some densely forested areas of the basin and areas having a large percentage of winter-season cloud cover. Aerial photographs were used for estimation of turbidity for eight stream locations in the basin. Spectral reflectance values obtained by digitizing photographs were compared with measured turbidity values. Results showed strong correlations (variances explained of greater than 90 percent) between spectral reflectance obtained from color photographs and measured turbidity values. (Woodard-USGS)

Heimes, F. J.; Moore, G. K.; Steele, T. D.

1978-01-01

206

Preliminary results on the characterization of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary low-permeability (tight) gas-bearing rocks in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Wind River Basin is a structural and sedimentary basin in central Wyoming (Figure 1) that was created during the Laramide orogeny from Late Cretaceous through Eocene time. The objectives of the Wind River Basin tight gas sandstone project are to define the limits of the tight gas accumulation in the basin and to estimate in-place and recoverable gas resources. The approximate limits of the tight gas accumulation are defined from available drillhole information. Geologic parameters, which controlled the development of the accumulation, are studied in order to better understand the origins of tight gas accumulations, and to predict the limits of the accumulation in areas where little drillhole information is available. The architecture of sandstone reservoirs are studied in outcrop to predict production characteristics of similar reservoirs within the tight gas accumulation. Core and cuttings are used to determine thermal maturities, quality of source rocks, and diagenetic histories. Our work thus far has concentrated in the Wind River Indian Reservation in the western part of the basin.

Fouch, T.D.; Keefer, W.R.; Finn, T.M. [and others

1993-12-31

207

Godiva Rim Member: A new stratigraphic unit of the Green River Formation in southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado. Geology of the Eocene Wasatch, Green River, and Bridger (Washakie) Formations, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

The report names and describes the Godiva Rim Member of the Green River Formation in the eastern part of the Washakie basin in southwest Wyoming and the central part of the Sand Wash basin in northwest Colorado. The Godiva Rim Member comprises lithofacies of mixed mudflat and lacustrine origin situated between the overlying lacustrine Laney Member of the Green River Formation and the underlying fluvial Cathedral Bluffs Tongue of the Wasatch Formation. The Godiva Rim Member is laterally equivalent to and grades westward into the LaClede Bed of the Laney Member. The Godiva Rim Member of the Green River Formation was deposited along the southeast margins of Lake Gosiute and is correlated to similar lithologic units that were deposited along the northeast margins of Lake Uinta in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation. The stratigraphic data presented provide significant evidence that the two lakes were periodically connected around the east end of the Uinta Mountains during the middle Eocene.

Roehler, H.W.

1991-01-01

208

Origin and diagenesis of clay minerals in relation to sandstone paragenesis: An example in eolian dune reservoirs and associated rocks, Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eolian dune sandstones are the principal reservoir rocks in the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming. These sandstones formed as shorelines retreated and dunes migrated across siliciclastic sabkhas. Sandstones are mainly quartzarenites; on average, clay minerals constitute about 5 wt.% the whole rock. Although present in minor amounts, clay minerals play an important role in

R. M. Pollastro; C. J. Schenk

1991-01-01

209

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Annual report, September 15, 1993September 30, 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal focus of this project is to evaluate the importance of relative permeability anisotropy with respect to other known geologic and engineering production concepts. This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. The Tensleep Sandstone contains the largest potential reserves within reservoirs

Dunn

1995-01-01

210

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Annual report, October 1, 1994-- September 30, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Because of the great range of API gravities of the oils produced from these reservoirs, the proposed study concentrates on understanding the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability within the Tensleep Sandstone. This research

Dunn

1996-01-01

211

Evaluation of the rhenium-osmium geochronometer in the Phosphoria petroleum system, Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronometry is applied to crude oils derived from the Permian Phosphoria Formation of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana to determine whether the radiogenic age reflects the timing of petroleum generation, timing of migration, age of the source rock, or the timing of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The oils selected for this study are interpreted to be derived from the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Phosphoria Formation based on oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations utilizing bulk properties, elemental composition, ?13C and ?34S values, and biomarker distributions. The ?34S values of the oils range from -6.2‰ to +5.7‰, with oils heavier than -2‰ interpreted to be indicative of TSR. The Re and Os isotope data of the Phosphoria oils plot in two general trends: (1) the main trend (n = 15 oils) yielding a Triassic age (239 ± 43 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 0.85 ± 0.42 and a mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) of 1596, and (2) the Torchlight trend (n = 4 oils) yielding a Miocene age (9.24 ± 0.39 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 1.88 ± 0.01 and a MSWD of 0.05. The scatter (high MSWD) in the main-trend regression is due, in part, to TSR in reservoirs along the eastern margin of the basin. Excluding oils that have experienced TSR, the regression is significantly improved, yielding an age of 211 ± 21 Ma with a MSWD of 148. This revised age is consistent with some studies that have proposed Late Triassic as the beginning of Phosphoria oil generation and migration, and does not seem to reflect the source rock age (Permian) or the timing of re-migration (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) associated with the Laramide orogeny. The low precision of the revised regression (±21 Ma) is not unexpected for this oil family given the long duration of generation from a large geographic area of mature Phosphoria source rock, and the possible range in the initial 187Os/188Os values of the Meade Peak and Retort source units. Effects of re-migration may have contributed to the scatter, but thermal cracking and biodegradation likely have had minimal or no effect on the main-trend regression. The four Phosphoria-sourced oils from Torchlight and Lamb fields yield a precise Miocene age Re-Os isochron that may reflect the end of TSR in the reservoir due to cooling below a threshold temperature in the last 10 m.y. from uplift and erosion of overlying rocks. The mechanism for the formation of a Re-Os isotopic relationship in a family of crude oils may involve multiple steps in the petroleum generation process. Bitumen generation from the source rock kerogen may provide a reset of the isotopic chronometer, and incremental expulsion of oil over the duration of the oil window may provide some of the variation seen in 187Re/188Os values from an oil family.

Lillis, Paul G.; Selby, David

2013-01-01

212

Upper part of Minnelusa Formation in outcrop near Beulah, Wyoming, and at West Mellott field, Powder River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper part of the Minnelusa Formation near Beulah, Wyoming, consists of dolomite, gypsum (anhydrite in the subsurface), and sandstone units that provide a three-dimensional sedimentologic and structural analog for upper Minnelusa oil fields such as West Mellott. Each dolomite records the initiation of marine transgression across relict topography of the previous cycle. Gypsum (anhydrite) above the dolomite records restriction

J. W. Schmoker; C. J. Schenk; R. M. Pollastro

1988-01-01

213

Sedimentology of Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming, and a comparison to the subsurface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcrops of the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation near Beulah, Wyoming consist of dolomite, gypsum, and sandstone units deposited in transgressive-regressive cycles. Three depositional cycles are partly exposed in the Simons Ranch anticline near Beulah, and provide an opportunity to view fades of the upper Minnelusa Formation in three dimensions. The cycles observed in outcrop were informally labelled

C. J. Schenk; J. W. Schmoker; J. E. Fox

1993-01-01

214

Facies and fracture architecture of the Tensleep Sandstone, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: Preliminary result of an outcrop and subsurface study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Tensleep Sandstone has been the most prolific producer in the state of Wyoming. Now in its advanced stages of production. it is critical to accurately characterize the Tensleep facies and fracture architecture. Two outcrop locations have been selected: Alkali Creek has cross-strata dip parallel exposures at close spacings for eolian facies architecture Ziesman Dome

Aviantara

1996-01-01

215

Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water Budget at a Storage Impoundment Site, Beaver Creek Drainage, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of producing wells, from less than 300 in 1997 to more than 10,000 in 2002, with as many as 40,000 new wells projected to be drilled during the next decade. CBM development involves the co-production of large volumes of coalbed water, which is most commonly discharged to impoundments. Little is known about the potentially significant effects that this co-produced water may have on shallow aquifers and water budgets. A small study site (1600 meters in length) was chosen in the Beaver Creek drainage (a tributary to the Powder River) to quantify the fate of CBM water. Discharge into two in-channel infiltration impoundments (areas of 4000 m2 and 10,500 m2) began in November, 2002. We installed monitoring wells at three locations-upstream, between, and downstream of the ponds. We emplaced a series of v-notch weirs between and dowstream of the ponds to quantify conveyance losses, and constructed a floating pan in one impoundment to measure evaporation. Over the study period from July 23 to August 21, 2003, we established a water budget from daily coalbed water production, flow measurements, and evaporation data. Water production from five wells into the two ponds averaged 647 L/min, or about 4500 bbl/day. Mean evaporation from the ponds and stream channel was 102 L/min. Infiltration determined by differences in water production and streamflow plus evaporation loss indicate an average infiltration of 240 L/min in the ponds, and 97 L/min within 1100 meters of investigated stream channel. Approximately 52% of the CBM co-produced water infiltrated, 16% was lost to evaporation, and 32% left the study area as surface water. Mean infiltration rates within the ponds ranged from 0.07 cm/hr in the smaller upstream pond to 0.1 cm/hr in the larger pond. In the middle sections of the stream channel, infiltration rates were about 0.7 cm/hr. Directly below the downstream pond, the infiltration rate was 0.3 cm/hr, slightly less than that determined for other streambed sections. In the most dowstream section of stream channel, the infiltration rate was 1.1 cm/hr. Well water levels in a control area unaffected by CBM water dropped by 18.3 cm over the study duration, while levels dropped only 6.1 cm between the ponds, and 12.2 cm below both ponds. Preliminary results suggest potentially significant variations in infiltration rates between the pond and stream settings. The response of the shallow aquifer water table also appears to vary within the study area.

Payne, A. A.; Saffer, D. M.; Wheaton, J. R.; Bierbach, S.

2003-12-01

216

Geology of Paleozoic Rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, Excluding the San Juan Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geology of the Paleozoic rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program to provide support for hydrogeological interpretations. The study area is segmented by numerous uplifts and basins caused by folding and faulting that have recurred repeatedly from Precambrian to Cenozoic time. Paleozoic rocks in the study area are 0-18,000 feet thick. They are underlain by Precambrian igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and are overlain in most of the area by Triassic formations composed mostly of shale. The overlying Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are 0-27,000 feet thick. All Paleozoic systems except the Silurian are represented in the region. The Paleozoic rocks are divisible into 11 hydrogeologic units. The basal hydrogeologic unit consisting of Paleozoic rocks, the Flathead aquifer, predominantly is composed of Lower to Upper Cambrian sandstone and quartzite. The aquifer is 0-800 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Gros Ventre confining unit consists of Middle to Upper Cambrian shale with subordinate carbonate rocks and sandstone. The confining unit is 0-1,100 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Bighom aquifer consists of Middle Cambrian to Upper Ordovician limestone and dolomite with subordinate shale and sandstone. The aquifer is 0-3,000 feet thick and is overlain unconformably by Devonian and Mississipplan rocks. The Elbert-Parting confining unit consists of Lower Devonian to Lower Mississippian limestone, dolomite, sandstone, quartzite, shale, and anhydrite. It is 0-700 feet thick and is overlain conformably to unconformably by Upper Devonian and Mississippian rocks. The Madison aquifer consists of two zones of distinctly different lithology. The lower (Redwall-Leadville) zone is 0-2,500 feet thick and is composed almost entirely of Upper Devonian to Upper Mississippian limestone, dolomite, and chert. The overlying (Darwin-Humbug) zone is 0-800 feet thick and consists of Upper Mississippian limestone, dolomite, sandstone, shale, gypsum, and solution breccia. The Madison aquifer is overlain conformably by Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks. The Madison aquifer in most areas is overlain by Upper Mississippian to Middle Pennsylvanian rocks of the Four Comers confining unit. The lower part of this confining unit, the Belden-Molas subunit, consists of as much as 4,300 feet of shale with subordinate carbonate rocks, sandstone, and minor gypsum. The upper part of the confining unit, the Paradox-Eagle Valley subunit, in most places consists of as much as 9,700 feet of interbedded limestone, dolomite, shale, sandstone, gypsum, anhydrite, and halite. Locally, the evaporitic rocks are deformed into diapirs as much as 15,000 feet thick. The Four Corners confining unit is overlain gradationally to disconformably by Pennsylvanian rocks. The uppermost Paleozoic rocks comprise the Canyonlands aquifer, which is composed of three zones with distinctly different lithologies. The basal (Cutler-Maroon) zone consists of as much as 16,500 feet of Lower Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian sandstone, conglomerate, shale, limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. The middle (Weber-De Chelly) zone consists of as much as 4,000 feet of Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian quartz sandstone with minor carbonate rocks and shale. The upper (Park City-State Bridge) zone consists of as much as 800 feet of Lower to Upper Permian limestone, dolomite, shale, sandstone, phosphorite, chert, and gypsum. The Canyonlands aquifer is overlain disconformably to unconformably by formations of Triassic and Jurassic age.

Geldon, Arthur L.

2003-01-01

217

Structural and microstructural evolution of the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline (Wyoming, USA): New insights into the Sevier and Laramide orogenic stress build-up in the Bighorn Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rocky Mountains in western US provide among the best examples of thick-skinned tectonics: following a period of thin-skinned tectonics related to the Sevier orogeny, the compressional reactivation of basement faults gave birth to the so-called Laramide uplifts/arches. The Bighorn basin, located in Wyoming, is therefore a key place to study the transition from thin- to thick-skinned tectonics in orogenic forelands, especially in terms of microstructural and stress/strain evolution. Our study focuses on a classic Laramide structure: the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline (RMA, Wyoming, USA), a basement-cored anticline located in the western part of the Bighorn basin. Stress and strain evolution analysis in folded sedimentary layers and underlying faulted basement rocks were performed on the basis of combined analyses of fractures, fault-slip data and calcite twinning paleopiezometry. Most of the fractures are related to three main tectonic events: the Sevier thin-skinned contraction, the Laramide thick-skinned contraction, and the Basin and Range extension. Serial balanced cross-sections of RMA and displacement profiles suggest that all thrust faults were coeval, evidencing strain distribution in the basement during faulting. The comparison of RMA with another structure located in the eastern edge of the Bighorn basin, i.e. the Sheep Mountain Anticline (SMA), allows to propose a conceptual model for the geometric and kinematic evolution of Laramide-related basement-cored anticlines. Finally, the stress evolution is reconstructed at both the fold scale and the basin scale. We show that the evolution of stress trends and magnitudes was quite similar in both structures (RMA and SMA) during Laramide times (thick-skinned tectonics), in spite of different stress regimes. During Sevier (thin-skinned tectonics) and post-Laramide times, stress trends and fracture patterns were different in these two structures. These results suggest that the distance to the orogenic front influenced the fracture patterns but not the foreland stress magnitudes, which were likely controlled by the structural style.

Beaudoin, Nicolas; Leprêtre, Rémi; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Amrouch, Khalid; Callot, Jean-Paul; Emmanuel, Laurent; Daniel, Jean-Marc

2012-11-01

218

Origin of high-permeability reservoirs in Upper Minnelusa Sandstone (Permian) Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrographic analysis of samples from 8 Minnelusa cores from Campbell County, Wyoming, and Powder River County, Montana, reveals that high-permeability reservoirs (up to 3200 md) are the result of extensive dissolution of early precipitated gypsum or anhydrite cement. The Minnelusa reservoirs are in eolian sandstones (dune and interdune facies) that are very fine to coarse-grained, moderately to bimodally sorted quartz-arenites,

K. P. Helmold; R. G. Loucks

1985-01-01

219

Chapter 3: Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in the Phosphoria Total Petroleum System of the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Phosphoria Total Petroleum System (TPS) encompasses the entire Wind River Basin Province, an area of 4.7 million acres in central Wyoming. The source rocks most likely are black, organic-rich shales of the Meade Peak and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Permian Phosphoria Formation located in the Wyoming and Idaho thrust belt to the west and southwest of the province. Petroleum was generated and expelled during Jurassic and Cretaceous time in westernmost Wyoming and is interpreted to have migrated into the province through carrier beds of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone where it was preserved in hypothesized regional stratigraphic traps in the Tensleep and Permian Park City Formation. Secondary migration occurred during the development of structural traps associated with the Laramide orogeny. The main reservoirs are in the Tensleep Sandstone and Park City Formation and minor reservoirs are in the Mississippian Madison Limestone, Mississippian-Pennsylvanian Amsden Formation, Triassic Chugwater Group, and Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Sundance Formation. The traps are sealed by shale or evaporite beds of the Park City, Amsden, and Triassic Dinwoody Formations, Triassic Chugwater Group, and Jurassic Gypsum Spring Formation. A single conventional oil and gas assessment unit (AU), the Tensleep-Park City AU, was defined for the Phosphoria TPS. Both the AU and TPS cover the entire Wind River Basin Province. Oil is produced from 18 anticlinal fields, the last of which was discovered in 1957, and the possibility of discovering new structural oil accumulations is considered to be relatively low. Nonassociated gas is produced from only two fields, but may be underexplored in the province. The discovery of new gas is more promising, but will be from deep structures. The bulk of new oil and gas accumulations is dependent on the discovery of hypothesized stratigraphic traps in isolated carbonate reservoirs of the Park City Formation. Mean resource estimates for the Tensleep-Park City Conventional Oil and Gas AU total 18 million barrels of oil, 294 billion cubic feet of gas, and 5.9 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

Kirschbaum, M. A.; Lillis, P. G.; Roberts, L. N. R.

2007-01-01

220

Environmental Setting of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming. National Water-Quality Assessment Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural and anthropogenic factors influence water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin. Physiography parallels the structural geologic setting that is generally composed of several uplifts and structural basins. Contrasts in climate and veget...

R. B. Zelt G. Boughton K. A. Miller J. P. Mason L. M. Gianakos

1999-01-01

221

Detailed measured sections, cross sections, and paleogeographic reconstructions of the upper cretaceous and lower tertiary nonmarine interval, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: Chapter 10 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detailed measured sections and regional stratigraphic cross sections are used to reconstruct facies maps and interpret paleogeographic settings for the interval from the base of Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation to top of lower member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. The Mesaverde Formation spans the time during which the Upper Cretaceous seaway retreated eastward out of central Wyoming in Campanian time and the initial stages of the Lewis transgression in earliest Maastrichtian time. This retreat stalled for a considerable period of time during deposition of the lower part of the Mesaverde, creating a thick buildup of marginal marine sandstones and coaly coastal plain deposits across the western part of the basin. The Lewis sea transgressed into the northeast part of Wind River Basin, beginning in early Maastrichtian time during deposition of the Teapot Sandstone Member of the Mesaverde Formation. The Meeteetse Formation, which overlies the Teapot, was deposited in a poorly-drained coastal plain setting southwest of the Lewis seaway. The Lewis seaway, at maximum transgression, covered much of the northeast half of the Wind River Basin area but was clearly deflected around the present site of the Wind River Range, southwest of the basin, providing the first direct evidence of Laramide uplift on that range. Uplift of the Wind River Range continued during deposition of the overlying Maastrichtian Lance Formation. The Granite Mountains south of the basin also became a positive feature during this time. A rapidly subsiding trough during the Maastrichtian time formed near the presentday trough of the Wind River Basin in which more than 6,000 feet of Lance was deposited. The development of this trough appears to have begun before the adjacent Owl Creek Mountains to the north started to rise; however, a muddy facies in the upper part of Lance in the deep subsurface, just to the south, might be interpreted to indicate that the Cretaceous Cody Shale was being eroded off a rising Owl Creek Mountains in latest Cretaceous time. The Paleocene Fort Union Formation unconformably overlies older units but with only slight angular discordance around much of the margins of the Wind River Basin. Pre-Fort Union erosion was most pronounced toward the Wind River Range to the southwest, where the Fort Union ultimately overlies strata as old as the upper part of the Cretaceous Cody Shale. The unconformity appears to die out toward the basin center. Coal-forming mires developed throughout the western part of the basin near the beginning of the Paleocene. River systems entering the basin from the Wind River Range to the southwest and the Granite Mountains to the south produced areas of sandy fluvial deposition along mountain fronts. A major river system appears to have entered the basin from about the same spot along the Wind River Range throughout much of the Paleocene, probably because it became incised and could not migrate laterally. The muddy floodplain facies that developed along the deep basin trough during latest Cretaceous time, expanded during the early part of the Paleocene. Coal-forming mires that characterize part of the lower Fort Union Formation reached maximum extent near the beginning of the late Paleocene and just prior to the initial transgression of Lake Waltman. From the time of initial flooding, Lake Waltman expanded rapidly, drowning the coal-forming mires in the central part of the basin and spreading to near basin margins. Outcrop studies along the south margin of the basin document that once maximum transgression was reached, the lake was rapidly pushed basinward and replaced by fluvial environments.

Johnson, Ronald C.

2007-01-01

222

Development of techniques for optimizing selection and completion of western tight gas sands. Tight gas sandstone channel continuity study, Fort Union-through Mesaverde Rocks, Greater Green River and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Phase IV report, 1 August 1979-31 May 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help find solutions to problems in obtaining gas production from channel sandstones in the Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, we studied outcrops of equivalent rocks in three areas: Rock Springs Uplift, Hoback Basin, and Cretaceous Mountain. Formations studied were: Paleocene (Ft. Union equivalent), Hoback, Lance, Mesaverde (Hoback Basin), Ericson, and Rock Springs. Besides a photographic survey of channels

L. T. Hodges; C. F. Knutson

1980-01-01

223

Coal Quality and Major, Minor, and Trace Elements in the Powder River, Green River, and Williston Basins, Wyoming and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Wyoming Reservoir Management Group (RMG) of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and nineteen independent coalbed methane (CBM) gas operators in the Powder River and Green River Basins in Wyoming and the Williston Basin in North Dakota, collected 963 coal samples from 37 core holes (fig. 1; table 1) between 1999 and 2005. The drilling and coring program was in response to the rapid development of CBM, particularly in the Powder River Basin (PRB), and the needs of the RMG BLM for new and more reliable data for CBM resource estimates and reservoir characterization. The USGS and BLM entered into agreements with the gas operators to drill and core Fort Union coal beds, thus supplying core samples for the USGS to analyze and provide the RMG with rapid, real-time results of total gas desorbed, coal quality, and high pressure methane adsorption isotherm data (Stricker and others, 2006). The USGS determined the ultimate composition of all coal core samples; for selected samples analyses also included proximate analysis, calorific value, equilibrium moisture, apparent specific gravity, and forms of sulfur. Analytical procedures followed those of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM; 1998). In addition, samples from three wells (129 samples) were analyzed for major, minor, and trace element contents. Ultimate and proximate compositions, calorific value, and forms of sulfur are fundamental parameters in evaluating the economic value of a coal. Determining trace element concentrations, along with total sulfur and ash yield, is also essential to assess the environmental effects of coal use, as is the suitability of the coal for cleaning, gasification, liquefaction, and other treatments. Determination of coal quality in the deeper part (depths greater than 1,000 to 1,200 ft) of the PRB (Rohrbacher and others, 2006; Luppens and others, 2006) is especially important, because these coals are targeted for future mining and development. This report contains summary tables, histograms, and isopleth maps of coal analyses. Details of the compositional internal variability of the coal beds are based on the continuous vertical sampling of coal sequences, including beds in the deeper part of the PRB. Such sampling allows for close comparisons of the compositions of different parts of coal beds as well as within the same coal beds at different core hole locations within short distances of each other.

Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Olson, Carol M.; Sullivan, Jonah E.; Takahashi, Kenneth I.

2007-01-01

224

Temporal and Spatial Distributions of Volatile Organic Compounds Associated with Oil and Gas Development in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil and gas development has in recent years become associated with the phenomenon of wintertime ground level ozone. Here we present the results of research performed in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming. This basin is associated with the Jonah and Pinedale Anticline (PAPA) developments. The focus of our research in this area has been to determine spatial and temporal variations of key ozone precursor compounds. We present temporal VOC data, from our background air sampling location Boulder South Road, that is located 4 miles from the edge of PAPA for 2011. Our linked spatial assessments using canister and passive sampling methods show variations that indicate the importance of different emission sources for a variety of compound classes. For VOC we identify two areas with relatively high VOC concentrations. One is associated with oil and gas production, the other with water treatment. We highlight the importance of the compositional profile of emission processes, as those with higher levels of aromatic VOC have relatively high ozone creation potentials. Effective policy decisions require an understanding of the relationship between air quality measurements and meteorology with emission inventories and modeling. We discuss the problem of gaining a clear focus on a problem that has ever changing conditions.ater Treatment Survey et Gas vs Water Treatment Emission Carbon Distribution

Field, R. A.; Soltis, J.; Montague, D. C.

2012-12-01

225

Evidence of Late Quaternary Faulting along the Northeastern Segment of the Stagner Creek Fault in the Northwestern Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stagner Creek fault, located along the southern margin of the Owl Creek Mountains in central Wyoming, is one of several east-west striking Quaternary faults that may correspond with scattered, present-day, intraplate seismicity in the region. These Quaternary faults are peculiar in that they strike nearly orthogonal to the Basin and Range faults observed in western Wyoming, and their orientation may reflect the influence of inherited, Laramide structures. These east-west striking faults are inferred to be predominantly normal faults. Previous studies have documented the Quaternary activity of the Stagner Creek fault affecting 6 distinct alluvial fan southeast of the Boysen Reservoir. This study aims to expand on these prior efforts using geomorphic and geophysical analyses. In this area, the Stagner Creek fault is expressed as a prominent scarp, visible in air photos and satellite imagery. Microtopographic mapping was accomplished using a real-time kinematic GPS surveying. The resulting DEM provides detailed scarp morphology, as well as documenting possible knick points within the alluvial surfaces upstream from the scarp. The alluvial surface has a regional slope of 2-3 degrees, and the scarp face has a relatively shallow slope of 6-12 degrees. Scarp heights range from 0.4 to 2 meters. The minimum scarp may reflect a single faulting event, corresponding with a magnitude 6.5 - 6.7. These surfaces are believed to be Late Pleistocene and younger, and geochronological constraints are pending. A shallow seismic reflection profile acquired across the scarp imaged structure to depths of about 500 meters. The profile suggests a steep fault coincident with the surface scarp that offsets Tertiary reflectors several 10s of meters in the subsurface. The steep dip is similar to Laradmide structures. These results suggest that the Stagner Creek fault is capable of generating moderate magnitude earthquakes in this low-strain tectonic environment.

Abousaif, A.; Wang, H.; Cochran, W. J.; Hinrichs, N.; Gomez, F.; Sandvol, E. A.

2012-12-01

226

Assessment of impacts of proposed coal-resource and related economic development on water resources, Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming; a summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Expanded mining and use of coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States will have substantial impacts on water resources, environmental amenities, and social and economic conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a 3-year assessment of the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, where increased coal-resource development has begun to affect the environment and quality of life. Economic projections of the overall effects of coal-resource development were used to estimate water use and the types and amounts of waste residuals that need to be assimilated into the environment. Based in part upon these projections, several physical-based models and other semiquantitative assessment methods were used to determine possible effects upon the basin's water resources. Depending on the magnitude of mining and use of coal resources in the basin, an estimated 0.7 to 2.7 million tons (0.6 to 2.4 million metric tons) of waste residuals may be discharged annually into the environment by coal-resource development and associated economic activities. If the assumed development of coal resources in the basin occurs, annual consumptive use of water, which was approximately 142,000 acre-feet (175 million cubic meters) during 1975, may almost double by 1990. In a related analysis of alternative cooling systems for coal-conversion facilities, four to five times as much water may be used consumptively in a wet-tower, cooling-pond recycling system as in once-through cooling. An equivalent amount of coal transported by slurry pipeline would require about one-third the water used consumptively by once-through cooling for in-basin conversion. Current conditions and a variety of possible changes in the water resources of the basin resulting from coal-resource development were assessed. Basin population may increase by as much as threefold between 1975 and 1990. Volumes of wastes requiring treatment will increase accordingly. Potential problems associated with ammonia-nitrogen concentrations in the Yampa River downstream from Steamboat Springs were evaluated using a waste-load assimilative-capacity model. Changes in sediment loads carried by streams due to increased coal mining and construction of roads and buildings may be apparent only locally; projected increases in sediment loads relative to historic loads from the basin are estimated to be 2 to 7 percent. Solid-waste residuals generated by coal-conversion processes and disposed of into old mine pits may cause widely dispersed ground-water contamination, based on simulation-modeling results. Projected increases in year-round water use will probably result in the construction of several proposed reservoirs. Current seasonal patterns of streamflow and of dissolvedsolids concentrations in streamflow will be altered appreciably by these reservoirs. Decreases in time-weighted mean-annual dissolved-solids concentrations of as much as 34 percent are anticipated, based upon model simulations of several configurations of proposed reservoirs. Detailed statistical analyses of water-quality conditions in the Yampa River basin were made. Regionalized maximum waterquality concentrations were estimated for possible comparison with future conditions. Using Landsat imagery and aerial photographs, potential remote-sensing applications were evaluated to monitor land-use changes and to assess both snow cover and turbidity levels in streams. The technical information provided by the several studies of the Yampa River basin assessment should be useful to regional planners and resource managers in evaluating the possible impacts of development on the basin's water resources.

Steele, Timothy Doak; Hillier, Donald E.

1981-01-01

227

Workforce: Wyoming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 2002 to 2012, the economy in Wyoming and the nation will continue generating jobs for workers at all levels of education and training, but there will be an increasing demand for employees with at least some postsecondary education, preferably a bachelor's degree. Nationwide, during a decade that will witness large numbers of baby boomers…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

2006-01-01

228

Water Quality of the Snake River and Five Eastern Tributaries in the Upper Snake River Basin, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 1998-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling in the upper Snake River Basin. Routine sampling of the Snake River was conducted during water years 1998-2002 to monitor the water quality of the Snake River through time. A synoptic study during 2002 was conducted to supplement the routine Snake River sampling and establish baseline water-quality conditions of five of its eastern tributaries?Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek. Samples from the Snake River and the five tributaries were collected at 12 sites and analyzed for field measurements, major ions and dissolved solids, nutrients, selected trace metals, pesticides, and suspended sediment. In addition, the eastern tributaries were sampled for fecal-indicator bacteria by the National Park Service during the synoptic study. Major-ion chemistry of the Snake River varies between an upstream site above Jackson Lake near the northern boundary of Grand Teton National Park and a downstream site near the southern boundary of the Park, in part owing to the inputs from the eastern tributaries. Water type of the Snake River changes from sodium bicarbonate at the upstream site to calcium bicarbonate at the downstream site. The water type of the five eastern tributaries is calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved solids in samples collected from the Snake River were significantly higher at the upstream site (p-value<0.001), where concentrations in 43 samples ranged from 62 to 240 milligrams per liter, compared to the downstream site where concentrations in 33 samples ranged from 77 to 141 milligrams per liter. Major-ion chemistry of Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek generally did not change substantially between the upstream sites near the National Park Service boundary with the National Forest and the downstream sites near the Snake River; however, variations in the major ions and dissolved solids existed between basins. Variations probably result from differences in geology between the tributary basins. Concentrations of dissolved ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate in all samples collected from the Snake River and the five eastern tributaries were less than water-quality criteria for surface waters in Wyoming. Concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in samples from the Snake River and the tributaries generally were less than median concentrations determined for undeveloped streams in the United States; however, concentrations in some samples did exceed ambient total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus criteria for forested mountain streams in the Middle Rockies ecoregion recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to address cultural eutrophication. Sources for the excess nitrogen and phosphorus probably are natural because these basins have little development and cultivation. Concentrations of trace metals and pesticides were low and less than water-quality criteria for surface waters in Wyoming in samples collected from the Snake River and the five eastern tributaries. Atrazine, dieldrin, EPTC, or tebuthiuron were detected in estimated concentrations of 0.003 microgram per liter or less in 5 of 27 samples collected from the Snake River. An estimated concentration of 0.008 microgram per liter of metolachlor was detected in one sample from the Buffalo Fork. The estimated concentrations were less than the reporting levels for the pesticide analytical method. Suspended-sediment concentrations in 43 samples from the upstream site on the Snake River ranged from 1 to 604 milligrams per liter and were similar to suspended-sediment concentrations in 33 samples from the downstream site, which ranged from 1 to 648 milligrams per liter. Suspended-sediment concentrations in 38 samples collected from the tributary streams ranged from 1 t

Clark, Melanie L.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.; O'Ney, Susan E.

2004-01-01

229

Activities and summary statistics of radon-222 in stream- and ground-water samples, Owl Creek basin, north-central Wyoming, September 1991 through March 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radon-222 activity was measured for 27 water samples from streams, an alluvial aquifer, bedrock aquifers, and a geothermal system, in and near the 510-square mile area of Owl Creek Basin, north- central Wyoming. Summary statistics of the radon- 222 activities are compiled. For 16 stream-water samples, the arithmetic mean radon-222 activity was 20 pCi/L (picocuries per liter), geometric mean activity was 7 pCi/L, harmonic mean activity was 2 pCi/L and median activity was 8 pCi/L. The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is 29 pCi/L. The activities in the stream-water samples ranged from 0.4 to 97 pCi/L. The histogram of stream-water samples is left-skewed when compared to a normal distribution. For 11 ground-water samples, the arithmetic mean radon- 222 activity was 486 pCi/L, geometric mean activity was 280 pCi/L, harmonic mean activity was 130 pCi/L and median activity was 373 pCi/L. The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is 500 pCi/L. The activity in the ground-water samples ranged from 25 to 1,704 pCi/L. The histogram of ground-water samples is left-skewed when compared to a normal distribution. (USGS)

Ogle, K. M.; Lee, R. W.

1994-01-01

230

Depositional environments in an alluvial-lacustrine system: molluscan paleoecology and lithofacies relations in upper part of Tongue River Member of Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The upper part of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) in the northern Powder River basin, Wyoming, contains assemblages of excellently preserved nonmarine mollusks which occur in laterally continuous outcrops of diverse lithologic sequences and sedimentary structures. Three facies are recognized vertically within an alluvial-lacustrine system. The interfluvial lake and lake splay facies is characterized by sequences of coarsening-upward detritus, abundant continuous limestone beds, and few beds of discontinuous coal and continuous carbonaceous shale. Limestones contain two lacustrine mollusk assemblages: a locally reworked assemblage dominated by the bivalve Plesielliptio (two species), and the gastropods Viviparus, Lioplacodes (three species), and Clenchiella; and a quite-water assemblage dominated by sphaeriid bivalves. The interfluvial crevasse splay-crevasse channel facies is characterized by sequences of coarsening-upward detritus and few discontinuous limestone beds, separated vertically by thick, continuous coal and carbonaceous shale beds. This facies includes small crevasse channel sandstones which scour into splay sandstones. Biofabric of lacustrine mollusk assemblages, which are identical in composition (but with dwarfed species of Plesielliptio) to locally reworked lacustrine assemblages of the interfluvial lake and lake splay facies, reflects deterioration of lakes through active infilling by crevasses. The fluvial channel and interchannel facies is typified by thick channel sandstones laterally separated by sequences of coarsening-upward detritus, overbank sediments, and rare limestones. This facies includes thick, continuous coal and carbonaceous shale beds.

Hanley, J.H.; Flores, R.M.

1983-03-01

231

Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry - article no. W06424  

SciTech Connect

Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. A study was conducted on changes in water and sediment chemistry as water from an impoundment infiltrated the subsurface. Sediment cores were collected prior to operation of the impoundment and after its closure and reclamation. Suction lysimeters were used to collect water samples from beneath the impoundment. Large amounts of chloride (12,300 kg) and nitrate (13,500 kg as N), most of which accumulated naturally in the sediments over thousands of years, were released into groundwater by infiltrating water. Nitrate was more readily flushed from the sediments than chloride. If sediments at other impoundment locations contain similar amounts of chloride and nitrate, impoundments already permitted could release over 48 x 10{sup 6} kg of chloride and 52 x 10{sup 6} kg of nitrate into groundwater in the basin. A solute plume with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations at times exceeding 100,000 mg/L was created in the subsurface. TDS concentrations in the plume were substantially greater than those in the CBNG water (about 2300 mg/L) and in the ambient shallow groundwater (about 8000 mg/L). Sulfate, sodium, and magnesium are the dominant ions in the plume. The elevated concentrations are attributed to cation-exchange-enhanced gypsum dissolution. As gypsum dissolves, calcium goes into solution and is exchanged for sodium and magnesium on clays. Removal of calcium from solution allows further gypsum dissolution.

Healy, R.W.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; McKinley, M.P. [US Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center

2008-06-15

232

Water Budget and Modeling of Stream Channel Infiltration of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water at a Storage Impoundment Site, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of producing wells, with as many as 40,000 new wells projected to drilled during the next decade. CBM development involves the co-production of large volumes of coalbed water, which is most commonly discharged to impoundments. Little is known about the potentially significant effects that this co-produced water may have on shallow aquifers and water budgets. Since many of the impoundments in the Powder River Basin are in-channel and supplement surface water flow, it is important to understand what factors influence stream channel infiltration. Modeling of cross-sectional infiltration in a stream channel was undertaken using the U. S. Geological Survey's SUTRA finite-element code, simulating fluid movement from the stream channel, through the unsaturated zone, and into the shallow aquifer. Soil type, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and degree of anisotropy within the soil layer were analyzed to better understand the effects that each have on channel infiltration. At a small study site containing two in-channel infiltration impoundments in the Beaver Creek drainage (a tributary to the Powder River), water budgets have been determined from late July, 2003 to the present (excluding the winter months). Calculated infiltration rates of 0.04 cfs/mile in a 0.8 m wide stream channel compared well with modeled regional soils. Slug tests were utilized to determine aquifer properties in the underlying alluvium/weathered bedrock. A two-layer SUTRA model is presented representing the upper soil layer and underlying alluvium/weathered bedrock and compared to observed changes in groundwater levels in the stream sections affected by introduced CBM water.

Payne, A. A.; Saffer, D. M.

2004-12-01

233

Expression of syndepositional tectonic uplift in Permian Goose Egg formation (Phosphoria equivalent) carbonates and red beds of Sheep Mountain anticline, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Based on detailed field observations at Sheep Mountain, a doubly plunging anticline in the northeastern Bighorn basin in Wyoming, there appears to have been active tectonic uplift at this site contemporaneous with Pennsylvanian and Permian sedimentation. The Permian (Leonardian to Guadalupian) Goose Egg Formation at Sheep Mountain consists of 25-60 m of silty red beds (including minor carbonate and evaporite units) capped by 15-30 m of dominantly intertidal carbonates (the Ervay Member). A strong lateral variation of facies normal to the trend of the anticline is found within the red-bed sequence: carbonate beds on the anticline flanks are transitional with a gypsum/anhydrite facies along the crest. Similarly, shales on the anticline limbs grade into sandstones near the fold axis, indicating a paleohigh roughly coincidental with the present-day anticline crest. Ervay deposition (late Guadalupian) was marked by a more extensive uplifted structure in a marginal marine setting. On Sheep Mountain the unit is typified by intertidal fenestral carbonates, whereas outcrops to the east suggest a restricted marine facies and outcrops to the west reflect a more open marine environment. Thin sand lenses present in the Ervay are thought to represent terrigenous sediments blown onto the sometimes emergent bank which were then captured through adhesion and cementation. Anticlinal features similar to Sheep Mountain are common along the eastern margin of the Bighorn basin. When found in the subsurface, these structures are often associated with hydrocarbon production from the Ervay Member. Tectonic uplift contemporaneous with deposition of this unit may explain the localization of the productive fenestral facies on the present-day anticlines.

Simmons, S.P.; Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A.

1989-03-01

234

Hydraulic fracturing and wellbore completion of coalbed methane wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Implications for water and gas production  

SciTech Connect

Excessive water production (more than 7000 bbl/month per well) from many coalbed methane (CBM) wells in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming is also associated with significant delays in the time it takes for gas production to begin. Analysis of about 550 water-enhancement activities carried out during well completion demonstrates that such activities result in hydraulic fracturing of the coal. Water-enhancement activities, consists of pumping 60 bbl of water/min into the coal seam during approximately 15 min. This is done to clean the well-bore and to enhance CBM production. Hydraulic fracturing is of concern because vertical hydraulic fracture growth could extend into adjacent formations and potentially result in excess CBM water production and inefficient depressurization of coals. Analysis of the pressure-time records of the water-enhancement tests enabled us to determine the magnitude of the least principal stress (S{sub 3}) in the coal seams of 372 wells. These data reveal that because S{sub 3} switches between the minimum horizontal stress and the overburden at different locations, both vertical and horizontal hydraulic fracture growth is inferred to occur in the basin, depending on the exact location and coal layer. Relatively low water production is observed for wells with inferred horizontal fractures, whereas all of the wells associated with excessive water production are characterized by inferred vertical hydraulic fractures. The reason wells with exceptionally high water production show delays in gas production appears to be inefficient depressurization of the coal caused by water production from the formations outside the coal. To minimize CBM water production, we recommend that in areas of known vertical fracture propagation, the injection rate during the water-enhancement tests should be reduced to prevent the propagation of induced fractures into adjacent water-bearing formations.

Colmenares, L.B.; Zoback, M.D. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics

2007-01-15

235

Upper part of Minnelusa Formation in outcrop near Beulah, Wyoming, and at West Mellott field, Powder River basin  

SciTech Connect

The upper part of the Minnelusa Formation near Beulah, Wyoming, consists of dolomite, gypsum (anhydrite in the subsurface), and sandstone units that provide a three-dimensional sedimentologic and structural analog for upper Minnelusa oil fields such as West Mellott. Each dolomite records the initiation of marine transgression across relict topography of the previous cycle. Gypsum (anhydrite) above the dolomite records restriction of the water body as sea level began to fall. Low-energy marine, sabkha, and eolian-dune sandstones record continued regression. The extent and distribution of eolian dunes differ from cycle to cycle. Where eolian sandstones were not preserved, marine and sabkha sandstones are directly overlain by marine dolomites of the next cycle. At Beulah, gypsum onlaps and covers an eolian-dune complex tens of feet thick, forming a visual model of the reservoir-trap system at West Mellott field. Original intergranular pore space of the eolian-dune complex at West Mellott was about 40-45% and was probably pervasively filled with early gypsum (anhydrite) cement. Relatively late dissolution of anhydrite cement has preceded and overshadowed burial compaction, resulting in an increase of fluid-filled pore space (to as high as 30%) and a concurrent and somewhat incongruous decrease of intergranular pore space. At West Mellott, intergranular pore space is reduced from original levels but is still relatively high, and reservoir quality of sandstones is limited by incomplete anhydrite dissolution rather than by burial compaction.

Schmoker, J.W.; Schenk, C.J.; Pollastro, R.M.

1988-07-01

236

Coal availability in the Hilight Quadrangle, Powder River Basin, Wyoming; a prototype study in a western coal field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Geological Survey of Wyoming, and U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM), has produced an estimate of the amount of available coal in an area about 35 miles south of Gillette, Wyo., where the Wyodak coal bed is, in places, more than 100 ft thick. Available coal is the quantity of the total coal resource that is accessible for mine development under current regulatory, land-use, and technologic constraints. This first western coal availability study, of the Hilight 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, indicates that approximately 60 percent (2.7 billion short tons) of the total 4.4 billion tons of coal in-place in the quadrangle is available for development. (There has been no commercial mining in the Hilight quadrangle.) Approximately 67 percent (1.9 billion tons) of the Main Wyodak coal bed is considered available. All tonnage measurements in this report are given in short tons. Coal-development considerations in the quadrangle include dwellings, railroads, pipelines, power lines, wildlife habitat (eagles), alluvial valley floors, cemeteries, and the Hilight oil and gas field and gas plant. Some of these considerations could be mitigated so that surface mining of the coal may proceed; others could not be mitigated and would preclude mining in their vicinity. Other technological constraints that influence the availability of the coal include overburden thickness, coal beds too thin, and areas of clinker.

Molnia, Carol L.; Biewick, Laura R. H.; Blake, Dorsey; Tewalt, Susan J.; Carter, M. Devereaux; Gaskill, Charlie

1997-01-01

237

Resolution of complex Minnelusa stratigraphy, Powder River basin, Wyoming, using an interactive workstation-based interpretation environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Permian Minnelusa Formation of the Powder River basin is a complex of cyclic shoreline eolian sands and nearshore reworked sands, evaporites, and carbonates. Hydrocarbons occur in secondary porosity created by late-stage facies-dependent dissolution of anhydrite cement. Trapping is by lateral facies changes and by paleotopographically formed structural anomalies. Stratigraphic trends change abruptly and, therefore, create serious geologic interpretation and

Lyndon H. Bell

1989-01-01

238

Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Powder River Basin Province of Wyoming and Montana--2006 Update  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 16.6 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, 639 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and 131 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Powder River Basin Province.

Geological Survey (U.S)

2006-01-01

239

Hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of the Paleozoic rocks in the upper Colorado River basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, excluding the San Juan Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin were investigated under the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey in anticipation of the development of water supplies from bedrock aquifers to fulfill the region's growing water demands. The study area, in parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, covers about 100,000 square miles. It includes parts of four physiographic provinces--the Middle Rocky Mountains, Wyoming Basin, Southern Rocky Mountains, and Colorado Plateaus. A variety of landforms, including mountains, plateaus, mesas, cuestas, plains, badlands, and canyons, are present. Altitudes range from 3,100 to 14,500 feet. Precipitation is distributed orographically and ranges from less than 6 inches per year at lower altitudes to more than 60 inches per year in some mountainous areas. Most of the infrequent precipitation at altitudes of less than 6,000 feet is consumed by evapotranspiration. The Colorado and Green Rivers are the principal streams: the 1964-82 average discharge of the Colorado River where it leaves the Upper Colorado River Basin is 12,170 cubic feet per second (a decrease of 5,680 cubic feet per second since construction of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963). On the basis of their predominant lithologic and hydrologic properties, the Paleozoic rocks are classified into four aquifers and three confining units. The Flathead aquifer, Gros Ventre confining unit, Bighorn aquifer, Elbert-Parting confining unit, and Madison aquifer (Redwall-Leadville and Darwin-Humbug zones) make up the Four Corners aquifer system. A thick sequence, composed mostly of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian shale, anhydrite, halite, and carbonate rocks--the Four Corners confining unit (Belden-Molas and Paradox-Eagle Valley subunits)--overlies the Four Corners aquifer system in most areas and inhibits vertical ground-water flow between the Four Corners aquifer system and the overlying Canyonlands aquifer. Composed of the uppermost Paleozoic rocks, the Canyonlands aquifer consists, in ascending order, of the Cutler-Maroon, Weber-De Chelly, and Park City-State Bridge zones. The Paleozoic rocks are underlain by a basal confining unit consisting of Precambrian sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks and overlain throughout most of the Upper Colorado River Basin by the Chinle-Moenkopi confining unit, which consists of Triassic formations composed mostly of shale. The largest values of porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, and artesian yield are exhibited by the Redwall-Leadville zone of the Madison aquifer and the Weber-De Chelly zone of the Canyonlands aquifer. The former consists almost entirely of Devonian and Mississippian carbonate rocks: the latter consists mostly of Pennsylvanian and Permian quartz sandstone. Unit-averaged porosity in hydrogeologic units composed of Paleozoic rocks ranges from less than 1 to 28 percent. Permeability ranges from less than 0.0001 to 3,460 millidarcies. Unit-averaged hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.000005 to 200 feet per day. The composite transmissivity of Paleozoic rocks ranges from 0.0005 to 47,000 feet squared per day. Artesian yields to wells and springs (excluding atypical springflows) from these hydrogeologic units range from less than 1 to 10,000 gallons per minute. The permeability and watersupply capabilities of all hydrogeologic units progressively decrease from uplifted areas to structural basins. Recharge to the Paleozoic rocks is provided by direct infiltration of precipitation, leakage from streams, and ground-water inflows from structurally continuous areas west and north of the Upper Colorado River Basin. The total recharge available flom ground-water systems in the basin from direct precipitation and stream leakage is estimated to be 6,600,000 acre-feet per year. However, little of this recharge directly enters the Paleozoic rocks

Geldon, Arthur L.

2003-01-01

240

Origin of high-permeability reservoirs in Upper Minnelusa Sandstone (Permian) Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

Petrographic analysis of samples from 8 Minnelusa cores from Campbell County, Wyoming, and Powder River County, Montana, reveals that high-permeability reservoirs (up to 3200 md) are the result of extensive dissolution of early precipitated gypsum or anhydrite cement. The Minnelusa reservoirs are in eolian sandstones (dune and interdune facies) that are very fine to coarse-grained, moderately to bimodally sorted quartz-arenites, subarkoses, and sublitharenites. Dune and interdune sandstones exhibit differences in detrital mineralogy that are the result of postdepositional dissolution of labile grains. The most common cements in the sandstone are anhydrite (0-30%), quartz overgrowths (0-10%), dolomite (0-10%), Kaolinite (< 5%), and illite (< 1%). Most cementation occurred during the pre-Jurassic when the sandstones were buried less than 1500 ft. The porosity network within the sandstone is a combination of primary and secondary porosity created by the dissolution of anhydrite cement. Burial history curves suggest that anhydrite dissolution occurred during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, when the top of the sandstones was still near the surface. During this time, 3 periods of uplift and erosion occurred in which meteoric waters undersaturated in calcium sulfate may have flowed through the sandstones. The distribution of the reservoirs is probably controlled by the regional structure during the periods of flushing. Dune sandstones are the most productive facies in the high-permeability reservoirs. Porosity in the dune facies averages 21% compared with an average of 9% in the interdune facies. This difference is the result of both lower depositional porosity and greater quartz and dolomite cementation in the interdune sandstones. Porosity loss due to mechanical compaction is similar for both facies.

Helmold, K.P.; Loucks, R.G.

1985-02-01

241

Facies and fracture architecture of the Tensleep Sandstone, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: Preliminary result of an outcrop and subsurface study  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Tensleep Sandstone has been the most prolific producer in the state of Wyoming. Now in its advanced stages of production. it is critical to accurately characterize the Tensleep facies and fracture architecture. Two outcrop locations have been selected: Alkali Creek has cross-strata dip parallel exposures at close spacings for eolian facies architecture Ziesman Dome is an NW-SE trending asymmetric anticlinal closure with the SE axis having a marked dextral dislocation, and is selected for analysis of fracture architecture. Byron Field is also an anticlinal closure with NW-SE trend which is selected for location of subsurface study. Methods of study for outcrop includes high- precision electronic surveying, photomosaics, geologic mapping, and fracture spacing and orientation measurements. The subsurface study includes conventional wireline logs, cores, and porosity and permeability data. In addition, a microresistivity log was evaluated from the Lindsay 3H horizontal well. Tensleep facies architecture is defined by a hierarchy of elements. Parasequences are made up of marine to marginal marine dolomitic sandstones and sandy dolostones (<10[sup -2] to 10[sup 2] md) in the lower 20-50%, and eolian dune, interdune and large-scale deformed sandstones in the upper part. Eolian dune sandstones, the primary reservoir (2 to 3x10[sup 2] md), am characterized by very large-scale (up to 40 ft thick) tabular-planar cross strata with lower permeability wind ripple strata (1 to 2x10[sup 2] md, strongly anisotropic) concentrated above 1st- and 2nd-order bounding surfaces. Medium-scale trough cross stratified intrasets are common; however, their spatial dimensions and distribution pattern are uncertain at this time.

Aviantara, A. (Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States))

1996-01-01

242

Sedimentology of Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming, and a comparison to the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Outcrops of the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation near Beulah, Wyoming consist of dolomite, gypsum, and sandstone units deposited in transgressive-regressive cycles. Three depositional cycles are partly exposed in the Simons Ranch anticline near Beulah, and provide an opportunity to view fades of the upper Minnelusa Formation in three dimensions. The cycles observed in outcrop were informally labelled cycle 1, cycle 2, and cycle 3 in ascending stratigraphic order. Cycle 2 contains a basal, laterally extensive sabkha sandstone and an overlying, laterally restricted sandstone that represents a preserved eolian-dune complex. The eolian-dune sandstone of cycle 2 was partially reworked during the marine transgression that initiated cycle 3. The eolian-dune deposit grades laterally into an apron of contorted and massive-bedded sandstones that formed as water-saturated sands liquified and slumped from the margins of the eolian dune. The partially reworked eolian-dune topography was covered by gypsum beds of cycle 3. The sandstone of cycle 3 is interpreted as a laterally continuous sabkha sandstone. West Mellott field (secs. 8, 9, T52N, R68W) represents a subsurface example of the facies and facies relationships observed in outcrop. The eolian-dune sandstone of the C cycle, which was partially reworked by the transgression of the B cycle, produces oil at West Mellott. The draping of dolomite and anhydrite of the B cycle on the eolian-dune sandstone of the C cycle is analogous to the draping of gypsum on dune sand in cycle 2 in outcrop.

Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.

1993-04-01

243

Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide degassing and cryptic thermal input to Brimstone Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brimstone Basin is a remote area of intense hydrothermal alteration a few km outside the southeast boundary of the Yellowstone Caldera. The area has long been considered to be a cold remnant of an ancient hydrothermal system. A 2008 field campaign confirmed that emissions from discrete gas vents were cold and that soil temperatures in the altered area were at background levels. Accumulation chamber measurements across the altered ground revealed a surprisingly large diffuse flux of CO2 and H2S, ~277 and 0.6 tonnes per day, respectively, comparable to those from Yellowstone's thermal areas. The acidic nature and low discharge of the creeks that drain the basin preclude a significant flux of dissolved magmatic carbon. Diffuse gas flux is clearly the main component of the magmatic volatile efflux from Brimstone Basin. The cold waters of Alluvium Creek flow through the active degassing areas at Brimstone Basin. On average, the isotopic composition of the waters in the degassing areas are shifted about 3.5 permil off the global meteoric water line to lighter ?18O values without an apparent shift in ?D. We used the measured diffuse CO2 discharge from Brimstone Basin and stable isotope mass balance modeling to show that the observed ?18O shift can be plausibly linked to isotopic equilibration with CO2 from an underlying thermal reservoir at 88±17°C. Results from analyses of Brimstone gases indicate that although there are no surface thermal anomalies, a clear connection to a heat source remains. The ?13C-CO2 values of -2.9 and -3.0 per mil (3 sites) are typical of CO2 in Yellowstone high-temperature gas, and the helium isotope ratio of 3.0 RA (2 sites) clearly indicates that some of the helium is from a magmatic source. Relations between C2H6 and CH4 concentrations and ?13C-CH4 values (3 sites; -46.4 to -42.8 per mil) reveal the gases have a distinct thermogenic signature. Findings from gas and water chemistry when combined with the diffuse gas flux suggest that the hydrothermal system at Brimstone Basin is likely fed by thermal waters that migrate out from the high-temperature, gas-rich system within the caldera, but then mix with non-thermal groundwaters to reach a temperature <90°C. The results from this study emphasize that cold emissions may be a significant component of the total CO2 output from Yellowstone.

Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.

2012-12-01

244

Computer modeling of Minnelusa (Pennsylvanian-Permian) paleotopography in eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming, with a case history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most Minnelusa Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) oil production in the Powder River basin is from paleotopographic traps. These traps occur where upper Minnelusa dune sands are encased in the overlying supratidal red Opeche Shale (Permian). The morphology of these sands suggests northwest-southeast-trending barchanoid sand ridges. Thickness variations in the Opeche mirror the relief on the Minnelusa surface. Opeche isopachous maps are one

R. M. Maslyn; F. J. Phillips

1984-01-01

245

Statistical model fitting of remote induction sounding data from underground coal gasification site - Hanna II, phases 2 and 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical model fitting of field measurements of the location, shape and size of the coal burned during underground coal gasification at a site near Hanna, Wyoming taken with a wideband loop-loop induction sounding system is discussed. Soundings were taken immediately after the burn and one year later by a system using audio frequency electromagnetic coupling between transmitter and receiver loops, and pseudo-noise pulse trains and cross correlation with averaging at the receiver to obtain minimum mean-square-error time domain signatures. Wire grid approximations of induction models were employed to compute model responses of simulated reaction zones consisting of buried metal boxes, cylinders and spheres in a conducting overburden. A dual-parameter Bayes minimum mean-square-error estimator was used to estimate model dimensions from magnitude responses extracted from field data at 1 kHz. Box model estimates of the volumes of coal gasified are shown to compare favorably with those obtained by chemical estimation, however the location of the conducting anomaly was shifted laterally from the gasification wells and was observed to migrate upwards with site aging.

Queincy, E. A.; Rahman, M. M.; Richmond, J. H.; Rhoades, M. L.

1981-01-01

246

Remote stratigraphic analysis: Combined TM and AIS results in the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An in-progress study demonstrates the utility of airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data for unraveling the stratigraphic evolution of a North American, western interior foreland basin. AIS data are used to determine the stratigraphic distribution of mineralogical facies that are diagnostic of specific depositional environments. After wavelength and amplitude calibration using natural ground targets with known spectral characteristics, AIS data identify calcite, dolomite, gypsum and montmorillonite-bearing strata in the Permian-Cretaceous sequence. Combined AIS and TM results illustrate the feasibility of spectral stratigraphy, remote analysis of stratigraphic sequences.

Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Adams, S.

1985-01-01

247

Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major Paleozoic artesian aquifers in the southeastern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming area, in descending order, the Tensleep Sandstone; the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite, which together form the Madison-Bighorn aquifer; and the Flathead Sandstone. Operating yields commonly are more than 1,000 gallons per minute from flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. The initial test of one well indicated a flow of 14,000 gallons per minute. Wellhead pressures range from less than 50 to more than 400 pounds per square inch. Transmissivities are 500-1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and 90-325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Despite extensive development for irrigation there have been few decreases in pressure. Some decreases in pressure have occurred in wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone. Fractures along linear structural features result in significant secondary permeability and allow upward interformational movement of water that affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces in the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Upward-moving water from the Tensleep and other formations discharges at the land surface as springs along or near these lineations. Water from the aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but has excessive hardness. The water is satisfactory for irrigation and other purposes when hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 degrees to 27.5 degrees C, giving a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 degrees C per 100 feet. (USGS)

Cooley, M. E.

1985-01-01

248

Correlation of discrete Minnelusa porosity intervals and identification of common reservoirs aided by computer-drawn geologic cross sections, Powder River basin, northeast Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The upper Minnelusa Formation in the northeastern Wyoming portion of the Powder River basin continues to challenge geologists. Oil exploration and development success depends heavily on correct correlation of discrete porosity intervals within the sand-dolomite series of the upper Minnelusa oil-bearing interval. Drill cores generally are not available. Correlation work must be performed on the basis of electric logs, drill cutting descriptions, and the expertise provided by the experienced geologist. Correlation of discrete porosity units and reservoir delineation can be improved by greater uses of the resistivity log, which is generally available in conjunction with the sonic porosity log. The salinity of the water (R/sub W/) commonly shows variance within the upper Minnelusa section, and thus suggests separate confined reservoirs. Software has been developed for Apple's Macintosh computer that allows a screen display of digitized electric-log data and calculated results. Geologic markers can be picked by user interaction with the screen display. Geologic cross sections can then be printed quickly on the dot matrix printer and no costly plotter bed is required. The cross sections can be presented on either a subsea datum or a user-defined geologic marker. Detailed foot-by-foot water saturation calculations are performed on the digitized data, and plotted on the log cross sections. By means of known or what-if water resistivity inputs, identification of separately confined reservoirs is possible. Computer generated cross sections showing examples of how correlation work can be aided by detailed calculations from digitized well log data will be presented for poster display. The hardware, consisting of Apple's Macintosh computer, Image Writer printer, and device for digitizing well logs will be displayed and demonstrated for interested viewers.

Borgerding, J.H.

1987-08-01

249

Airborne Electromagnetic Surveys Coupled With Hydrogeochemical Data to Enhance Near Surface Aquifer Investigations in an Area of Active Coalbed Natural Gas Production, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing environmental effects from the disposal of water coproduced with coalbed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming is complex. Over 30,000 CBNG wells are currently in production with another 30,000 to be installed within the next 20 years. Each well pumps between 100-400 barrels of water per day over an average operating life of seven years. Produced waters are generally of sodium-bicarbonate type with high sodium adsorption ratios and moderate salinity levels. A commonly used disposal method is through evaporation and infiltration impoundments. Downgradient subsurface hydrogeochemical changes are determined from groundwater monitoring wells. These methods are costly and provide limited data. Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) geophysical techniques present a viable alternative to current assessment protocols. Frequency domain AEM surveys were flown over an actively producing CBNG field along the Powder River in 2003 and 2004. Multifrequency inphase/quadrature responses were analyzed using Occam inversion techniques. Inversions were constrained using sounding specific starting models generated by the differential parameter method. Observed geochemical differences in the alluvial aquifer were successfully imaged using the geophysical data. Furthermore, geophysical responses interpreted as produced water mixing zones were consistent with results from strontium isotope data. AEM data will also be used to develop improved groundwater models. Discrete layer geoelectrical models derived from inversions yield depths that correlate with observed hydraulic head data. Additionally, AEM derived electrical conductivity distributions correspond to observed geomorphologic features allowing for delineation of hydrostratigraphic units. Results of this research are expected to provide policy makers with a better tool to manage impoundment permitting while also serving as an abundant source of data for groundwater model development and calibration.

Lipinski, B.; Sams, J.; Harbert, W.

2005-12-01

250

Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen isotope records of Cenozoic sea water temperatures indicate that a rapid warming event known as the Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM) occurred during the otherwise gradual increase in world temperatures during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene. Oxygen isotope analysis of the carbonate and phosphate components of hydroxyapatite found in mammalian tooth enamel and body scales of river-dwelling fish from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming were made to investigate corresponding changes in the terrestrial climate. A comparison of carbonate and phosphate isotope data from modern and fossil material indicates that some diagenetic alteration of the fossil material has occurred, although systematically larger intra-tooth ranges in the oxygen isotope composition of carbonate indicate that it is more likely to have been affected than phosphate. Carbonate and phosphate from the ecologically diverse mammals and fishes both record a shift to higher oxygen isotope ratios at the same time and of the same duration as the LPTM. These shifts reflect a change in the isotopic composition of regional precipitation, which in turn provides the first evidence for continental climate change during the LPTM. Assuming the present-day relation between the oxygen isotope composition of precipitation and temperature applies to conditions in the past, and that animal physiology and behavior is relatively invariant over time, the isotopic shift is equivalent to an increase of surface temperature in western North America of several degrees. This result is consistent with the magnitude of high-latitude ocean warming, and provides a basis for relating marine and terrestrial oxygen isotope records to records of terrestrial biotic change.

Fricke, Henry C.; Clyde, William C.; O'Neil, James R.; Gingerich, Philip D.

1998-07-01

251

Geochemistry of inorganic nitrogen in waters released from coal-bed natural gas production wells in the powder river basin, wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A. study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 ??M. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n = 13), DIN concentrations were >300 ??M, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25-30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day-1 entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

Smith, R. L.; Repert, D. A.; Hart, C. P.

2009-01-01

252

Geochemistry of Inorganic Nitrogen in Waters Released from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production Wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 µM. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n = 13), DIN concentrations were >300 µM, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25-30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day-1 entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day.

Richard L Smith;Deborah A Repert;Charles P Hart

2009-01-01

253

Geochemical processes controlling selenium in ground water after mining, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical data for samples of overburden from three mines in the Powder River Basin indicate a statistically significant (0.01 confidence level) positive correlation (r = 0.74) between Se and organic C. Results of factor analysis with varimax rotation on the major and trace element data from the rock samples indicate large (>50) varimax loadings for Se in two of the three factors. In Factor 1, the association of Se with constituents common to detrital grains indicates that water transporting the detrital particles into the Powder River Basin also carried dissolved Se. The large (>50) varimax loadings of Se and organic C in Factor 2 probably are due to the organic affinities characteristic of Se. Dissolved Se concentrations in water samples collected at one coal mine are directly related to the dissolved organic C concentrations. Hydrophilic acid concentrations in the water samples from the mine ranged from 35 to 43% of the total dissolved organic C, and hydrophobic acid concentrations ranged from 40 to 49% of the total dissolved organic C. The largest dissolved organic C concentrations in water from the same mine (34-302 mg/l), coupled with the large proportion of acidic components, may saturate adsorption sites on geothite and similar minerals that comprise the aquifer material, thus decreasing the extent of selenite (SeO32-) adsorption as a sink for Se as the redox state of ground water decreases. ?? 1989.

Naftz, D. L.; Rice, J. A.

1989-01-01

254

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Annual report, September 15, 1993--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The principal focus of this project is to evaluate the importance of relative permeability anisotropy with respect to other known geologic and engineering production concepts. This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. The Tensleep Sandstone contains the largest potential reserves within reservoirs which are candidates for EOR processes in the State of Wyoming. Although this formation has produced billions of barrels of oil, in some fields, as little as one in seven barrels of discovered oil is recoverable by current primary and secondary techniques. Because of the great range of {degree}API gravities of the oils produced from the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs, the proposed study concentrates on establishing an understanding of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability within the Tensleep Sandstone. This research is to associate those spatial distributions and anisotropies with the depositional subfacies and zones of diagenetic alteration found within the Tensleep Sandstone. In addition, these studies are being coupled with geochemical modeling and coreflood experiments to investigate the potential for wellbore scaling and formation damage anticipated during EOR processes (e.g., C0{sub 2} flooding). This multidisciplinary project will provide a regional basis for EOR strategies which can be clearly mapped and efficiently applied to the largest potential target reservoir in the State of Wyoming. Additionally, the results of this study have application to all eolian reservoirs through the correlations of relative permeability variation and anisotropy with eolian depositional lithofacies.

Dunn, T.L.

1995-07-01

255

Lower Eocene alluvial paleosols (Willwood Formation, Northwest Wyoming, U.S.A.) and their significance for paleoecology, paleoclimatology, and basin analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Eocene Willwood Formation of northwest Wyoming is a 700 m thick accumulation of alluvial floodplain and channel mudstones and sandstones, nearly all of which show paleopedogenic modifications. Pedogenesis of Willwood sandstones is indicated by taproot and vertebrate and invertebrate bioturbation, early local cementation by calcium carbonate, and thin illuviation cutans on clastic grains. Pedogenesis in Willwood mudstones is indicated by plant bioturbation, insect and other invertebrate burrow casts and lebensspuren; free iron, aluminum, and manganese mobilization, including hydromorphic gleying; sesquioxide and calcareous glaebule formation in lower parts of the solum; presence of clay-rich and organic carbon-rich zones; and well differentiated epipedons and albic and spodic horizons. Probable A horizons are also locally well developed. Occurrence of variegated paleosol units in thick floodplain mudstone deposits and their association with thin, lenticular, and unconnected fluvial sandstones in the Willwood Formation of the central and southeast Bighorn Basin suggest that these soils formed during times of rapid sediment accumulation. The tabular geometry and lateral persistence of soil units as well as the absence of catenization indicate that Willwood floodplains were broad and essentially featureless. All Willwood paleosols were developed on alluvial parent materials and are complex in that B horizons of younger paleosols were commonly superimposed upon and mask properties of suspected A and B horizons of the next older paleosols. The soils appear to be wet varieties of the Spodosol and Entisol groups (aquods and ferrods, and aquents, respectively), though thick, superposed and less mottled red, purple, and yellow paleosols resemble some ultisols. Most Willwood paleosols resemble warm temperate to subtropical alluvial soils that form today under alternating wet and dry conditions and (or) fluctuating water tables. The up-section decrease in frequency of gley mottles, increase in numerical proportion and thickness of red versus orange coloration, and increase in abundance of calcrete glaebules indicate better drained soils and probably drier climate in late Willwood time. This drying is believed to be related to creation of rain shadows and spacing of rainfall (but not necessarily decrease in absolute rainfall) due to progressive tectonic structural elevation of the mountainous margins of the Bighorn Basin. ?? 1981.

Bown, T. M.; Kraus, M. J.

1981-01-01

256

Research-based prioritization of volunteered GRI field experiment sites in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of the massive Cretaceous gas resource in the Greater Green River Basin into gas reserves will require focus on production from numerous laminated tight sands. Commercial production has historically been from conventional sweet spots, but these sweet spots contain only about one percent of the recoverable resources. There importance is that they evidently provide a really extensive horizontal conduits into surrounding gas-saturated tight sands, and that their examination has led to the hypothesis that very thin sands may be capable of draining large areas if stimulated properly. These ideas will be tested in one or more cooperative well investigations. Sixteen volunteered cooperative well sites have been prioritized on the basis of what the IER considers their potential contribution to GRI research goals.

Iverson, W.P.

1994-04-01

257

Drainage development of the Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming and its bearing on fish biogeography, neotectonics, and paleoclimates.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Upper Green River flows southward out of the Green River Basin through a series of deep canyons across the Uinta Mountains in a course that post-dates the deposition of the Bishop Conglomerate (Oligocene). After the Eocene lakes disappeared, drainage was generally eastward across the present Continental Divide, until the Green River was captured near Green River, Wyo. by south-flowing drainage in middle Pleistocene time, ca., 600 kyr ago. Capture of the Upper Green River as recently as middle Pleistocene time, if a valid hypothesis, must take into account the marked differences between the endemic and indigenous fish fauna of the Green River and that of the North Platte. -from Author

Hansen, W. R.

1985-01-01

258

Clinker deposits, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A new source of high-fidelity paleomagnetic data for the Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinker, rock baked and fused by in situ burning of underlying coal, posesses a thermoremanent and/or thermochemical magnetization that resides in magnetite, hematite, and goethite. Data from individual sites imply that clinker may provide a high resolution recording of the geomagnetic field (e.g., within-site virtual geomagnetic pole angular standard deviations are usually less than 10°) , but this is dependent on its thermal history and the time over which magnetic phases formed. Data from 17 sites in the Powder River Basin (13 normal polarity, 4 reverse) yield a mean of Decl. = 348°, Incl. = 62°, ?95 = 5°, k = 42 and a corresponding pole position of 81° lat., 158° long. with a virtual geomagnetic pole angular standard deviation of 17.3°. The mechanism of clinker formation, the wide geographic distribution, and the range of available fission-track ages suggest that clinker may contain a nearly complete geomagnetic field record for much of the Quaternary.

Jones, Alison H.; Geissman, John W.; Coates, Donald A.

1984-12-01

259

Selected hydrologic and physical properties of Mesozoic formations in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming; excluding the San Juan Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data for hydrologic and physical properties of Mesozoic formations in the Upper Colorado River Basin, excluding the San Juan Basin, have been collected by government agencies, private industry, property owners, and other sources. These data were compiled and analyzed so that they would be available for use by hydrologists, earth scientists, planners, and others. Five methods of data analysis are discussed. The results of these five methods are not directly comparable because of differences in the volume of an aquifer represented by each method. Aquifer tests represent the largest volume of an aquifer, specific capacity and drill-stem tests represent a smaller volume, slug-injection tests represent a still smaller volume, and laboratory tests represent the smallest volume. Because they represent large volumes of an aquifer, aquifer tests were considered to give the best estimates of hydrologic characteristics. Laboratory data for permeability to air and hydraulic conductivity were determined to be related by a simple power function. (Author 's abstract)

Weigel, J. F.

1987-01-01

260

General hydrogeology of the aquifers of Mesozoic age, Upper Colorado River Basin - excluding the San Juan Basin - Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratigraphic, hydraulic, and water-level data obtained from water-well and petroleum test-hole records indicate that the Mesozoic rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin include many potential aquifers. Structural deformation during late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic time caused large parts of the most productive aquifers to be removed by erosion; other parts are deeply buried by younger deposits. Three hydrogeologic units

G. W. Freethey; B. A. Kimball; D. E. Wilberg; J. W. Hood

1984-01-01

261

Erosion and deposition as indicated by sediment accumulation in stock reservoirs in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report gives the results of an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of sediment accumulation in stock reservoirs in the powder River drainage basin upstream from Arvada, Wyo. The study was made to determine the net rates of erosion in the upland areas and the effects of the reservoirs on the amount of sediment transported to the parent stream. The climate of the area ranges from cold and humid on the high mountains to warm and semiarid on the plains. The average annual precipitation ranges from less than 15 inches on the plains to more than 27 inches in the high mountains, which have a maximum altitude of 13,165 feet. The rocks in the Powder River drainage basin range in age from Precambrian to Recent. The 25 stock reservoirs that were used in the study have drainage areas of 0.09 to 3.53 square miles, are from 3 to 51 years old, and impound water from areas that have land slopes averaging from about 3 to 41 percent. The ratio of average reservoir capacity to drainage area ranges from about 2 to nearly 200 acre-feet per square mile. After adjustment for trap efficiency the average annual sediment yield to the 25 reservoirs ranged from 0.04 to 1.49 acre-feet per square mile and averaged 0.50 acre-foot per square mile of drainage area. The average sediment yield from 6 drainage areas mostly underlain by shale was 0.80 acre-foot per year, 2.3 times greater than yields from the areas underlain by sandstone or sandy shales. Correlations show that the sediment yield increased approximately as the 1.5 power of the channel density, the 0.4 power oif the shape factor, the 0.7 power of the average land slope, and the -0.25 power of the age of the reservoir. Empirical equations for sediment yield and trap efficiency for the area studied are given.

Roach, Carl H.; Colby, Bruce R.

1957-01-01

262

Resolution of complex Minnelusa stratigraphy, Powder River basin, Wyoming, using an interactive workstation-based interpretation environment  

SciTech Connect

The Permian Minnelusa Formation of the Powder River basin is a complex of cyclic shoreline eolian sands and nearshore reworked sands, evaporites, and carbonates. Hydrocarbons occur in secondary porosity created by late-stage facies-dependent dissolution of anhydrite cement. Trapping is by lateral facies changes and by paleotopographically formed structural anomalies. Stratigraphic trends change abruptly and, therefore, create serious geologic interpretation and mapping problems. Correlation of rock units using only raw petrophysical curves is difficult. However, correlations based on lithology are easier to make and have a firmer stratigraphic basis. Lithology was determined by numerical analysis of the sonic travel time, neutron porosity, gamma ray, and bulk-density log suite. Analysis results were digitally stored as log curves representing percentages of shale, anhydrite, dolomite, quartz, and porosity. Displays of these curves were used for correlation. Summary statistics from specific depth intervals were used for mapping lithologies. Lithofacies cross sections and maps, conventional cross sections and structure contour maps, and fluid production maps were used to interpret the petroleum geology of the study area.

Bell, L.H.

1989-03-01

263

Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide degassing and cryptic thermal input to Brimstone Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brimstone Basin, a remote area of intense hydrothermal alteration a few km east of the Yellowstone Caldera, is rarely studied and has long been considered to be a cold remnant of an ancient hydrothermal system. A field campaign in 2008 confirmed that gas emissions from the few small vents were cold and that soil temperatures in the altered area were at background levels. Geochemical and isotopic evidence from gas samples (3He/4He ~ 3RA, ?13C-CO2 ~ ? 3‰) however, indicate continuing magmatic gas input to the system. Accumulation chamber measurements revealed a surprisingly large diffuse flux of CO2 (~ 277 t d-1) and H2S (0.6 t d-1). The flux of CO2 reduces the 18O content of the overlying cold groundwater and related stream waters relative to normal meteoric waters. Simple isotopic modeling reveals that the CO2 likely originates from geothermal water at a temperature of 93 ± 19 °C. These results and the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons (C1:C2 ~ 100 and ?13C-CH4 = ? 46.4 to ? 42.8‰) in gases require some heat source at depth and refute the assumption that this is a “fossil” hydrothermal system.

Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W. C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.

2012-01-01

264

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Annual report, October 1, 1994-- September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Because of the great range of API gravities of the oils produced from these reservoirs, the proposed study concentrates on understanding the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability within the Tensleep Sandstone. This research will associate those spatial distributions and anisotropies with the depositional subfacies and zones of diagenetic alteration found within the sandstone. The associations of the above with pore geometry will link relative permeability with the dimensions of lithofacies and authigenic mineral facies. Hence, the study is to provide criteria for scaling this parameter on a range of scales, from the laboratory to the basin-wide scale of subfacies distribution. Effects of depositional processes and burial diagenesis will be investigated. Image analysis of pore systems will be done to produce algorithms for estimating relative permeability from petrographic analyses of core and well cuttings. In addition, these studies are being coupled with geochemical modeling and coreflood experiments to investigate the potential for wellbore scaling and formation damage anticipated during EOR, eg., CO{sub 2} flooding. This will provide a regional basis for EOR strategies for the largest potential target reservoir in Wyoming; results will have application to all eolian reservoirs through correlations of relative permeability variation and anisotropy with eolian depositional lithofacies.

Dunn, T.L.

1996-03-01

265

Water quality at fixed sites in the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, water years 1999-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Salt Lake Basins (GRSL) study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment program encompasses the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River systems, all of which discharge to Great Salt Lake in Utah. Data were collected during each month at 10 sites in the GRSL study unit from October 1998 to September 2000 to define spatial and temporal distribution and variability in concentration of nutrients, major ions, trace elements, suspended sediments, and organic compounds. Water samples collected from rangeland and forest sites in the GRSL study unit generally contained low concentrations of dissolved solids. Median dissolved-solids concentration in water samples was highest at sites with mixed land uses. Dissolved-solids concentration in some parts of the Bear River during low flow exceeded Utah State standards for agricultural use. Total-nitrogen concentration in water samples from GRSL sites ranged from 0.06 to 11 milligrams per liter. Water samples from predominantly forest and rangeland sites generally had a low total-nitrogen concentration. Many samples from sites with a higher percentage of agricultural and urban land cover had higher concentrations of total nitrogen. Fifty percent of the samples collected at GRSL sites had total phosphorus concentrations that exceeded 0.1 milligram per liter, the recommended limit for the prevention of nuisance aquatic-plant growth in streams not discharging directly into lakes or impoundments. Concentration of most trace elements in water samples from the fixed sites generally was low; however, arsenic concentrations, as high as 284 micrograms per liter, sometimes exceeded aquatic-life guidelines. Forty-three pesticides and 35 volatile organic compounds were detected in water samples from three GRSL sites; however, the concentration of most was low, less than 1 microgram per liter. The herbicides atrazine and prometon and the insecticides carbaryl and diazinon were the most frequently detected pesticides. Chloroform and toluene were detected in more than 90 percent of the samples and were the most frequently detected volatile organic compounds. The concentration of carbaryl, diazinon, malathion, and toluene in water samples from GRSL sites sometimes exceeded aquatic-life guidelines.

Gerner, Steven J.

2003-01-01

266

Chapter 5: Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources in the Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System,Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System encompasses about 3,400 square miles in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming, and includes accumulations of oil and associated gas that were generated and expelled from oil-prone, lacustrine shale source rocks in the Waltman Shale Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Much of the petroleum migrated and accumulated in marginal lacustrine (deltaic) and fluvial sandstone reservoirs in the Shotgun Member of the Fort Union, which overlies and intertongues with the Waltman Shale Member. Additional petroleum accumulations derived from Waltman source rocks are present in fluvial deposits in the Eocene Wind River Formation overlying the Shotgun Member, and also might be present within fan-delta deposits included in the Waltman Shale Member, and in fluvial sandstone reservoirs in the uppermost part of the lower member of the Fort Union Formation immediately underlying the Waltman. To date, cumulative production from 53 wells producing Waltman-sourced petroleum exceeds 2.8 million barrels of oil and 5.8 billion cubic feet of gas. Productive horizons range from about 1,770 feet to 5,800 feet in depth, and average about 3,400 to 3,500 feet in depth. Formations in the Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System (Fort Union and Wind River Formations) reflect synorogenic deposition closely related to Laramide structural development of the Wind River Basin. In much of the basin, the Fort Union Formation is divided into three members (ascending order): the lower unnamed member, the Waltman Shale Member, and the Shotgun Member. These members record the transition from deposition in dominantly fluvial, floodplain, and mire environments in the early Paleocene (lower member) to a depositional setting characterized by substantial lacustrine development (Waltman Shale Member) and contemporaneous fluvial, and marginal lacustrine (deltaic) deposition (Shotgun Member) during the middle and late Paleocene. Waltman Shale Member source rocks have total organic carbon values ranging from 0.93 to 6.21 weight percent, averaging about 2.71 weight percent. The hydrocarbon generative potential of the source rocks typically exceeds 2.5 milligrams of hydrocarbon per gram of rock and numerous samples had generative potentials exceeding 6.0 milligrams of hydrocarbon per gram of rock. Waltman source rocks are oil prone, and contain a mix of Type-II and Type-III kerogen, indicating organic input from a mix of algal and terrestrial plant matter, or a mix of algal and reworked or recycled material. Thermal maturity at the base of the Waltman Shale Member ranges from a vitrinite reflectance value of less than 0.60 percent along the south basin margin to projected values exceeding 1.10 percent in the deep basin west of Madden anticline. Burial history reconstructions for three wells in the northern part of the Wind River Basin indicate that the Waltman Shale Member was well within the oil window (Ro equal to or greater than 0.65 percent) by the time of maximum burial about 15 million years ago; maximum burial depths exceeded 10,000 feet. Onset of oil generation calculated for the base of the Waltman Shale member took place from about 49 million years ago to about 20 million years ago. Peak oil generation occurred from about 31 million years ago to 26 million years ago in the deep basin west of Madden anticline. Two assessment units were defined in the Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System: the Upper Fort Union Sandstones Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (50350301) and the Waltman Fractured Shale Continuous Oil Assessment Unit (50350361). The conventional assessment unit primarily relates to the potential for undiscovered petroleum accumulations that are derived from source rocks in the Waltman Shale Member and trapped within sandstone reservoirs in the Shotgun Member (Fort Union Formation) and in the lower part of the overlying Wind River Formation. The potential for Waltman-sourced oil accumulations in fan-delta depos

Roberts, Steve B.; Roberts, Laura N. R.; Cook, Troy

2007-01-01

267

Anisotropy and Spatial Variation of Relative Permeability and Lithologic Character of Tensleep Sandstone Reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques

Dunn; Thomas L

1996-01-01

268

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone Reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: An examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation

Dunn

1995-01-01

269

Wyoming Strategic Plan, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wyoming's colleges offer much more than academic and occupational technical degrees and certificates. In 2000, 27,703 Wyoming citizens, age 25 years and older, did not have a high school diploma. For this 12.14% of Wyoming's population, the Adult Basic Education (ABE) program at each of the colleges is designed to equip these adults with the…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2005

2005-01-01

270

Burial history, thermal maturity, and oil and gas generation history of petroleum systems in the Wind River Basin Province, central Wyoming: Chapter 6 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for eight key source rock units at nine well locations throughout the Wind River Basin Province. Petroleum source rocks include the Permian Phosphoria Formation, the Cretaceous Mowry Shale, Cody Shale, and Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Lance Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation, including the Waltman Shale Member. Within the province boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon. Phosphoria oil produced from reservoirs in the province is thought to have migrated from the Wyoming and Idaho thrust belt. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the province (Adams OAB-17, Bighorn 1-5, and Coastal Owl Creek); three at intermediate depths (Hells Half Acre, Shell 33X-10, and West Poison Spider); and three at relatively shallow locations (Young Ranch, Amoco Unit 100, and Conoco-Coal Bank). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep northern and central parts of the province and decreases to the south and east toward the basin margins. The results of the modeling indicate that, in the deepest areas, (1) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from Late Cretaceous through middle Eocene time, and (2) onset of oil generation from the Waltman Shale Member occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Based on modeling results, gas generation from the cracking of Phosphoria oil reservoired in the Park City Formation reached a peak in the late Paleocene/early Eocene (58 to 55 Ma) only in the deepest parts of the province. The Mowry Shale and Cody Shale (in the eastern half of the basin) contain a mix of Type-II and Type-III kerogens. Oil generation from predominantly Type-II source rocks of these units in the deepest parts of the province reached peak rates during the latest Cretaceous to early Eocene (65 to 55 Ma). Only in these areas of the basin did these units reach peak gas generation from the cracking of oil, which occurred in the early to middle Eocene (55 to 42 Ma). Gas-prone source rocks of the Mowry and Cody Shales (predominantly Type-III kerogen), and the Mesaverde, Meeteetse, Lance, and Fort Union Formations (Type –III kerogen) reached peak gas generation in the latest Cretaceous to late Eocene (67 to 38 Ma) in the deepest parts of the province. Gas generation from the Mesaverde source rocks started at all of the modeled locations but reached peak generation at only the deepest locations and at the Hells Half Acre location in the middle Paleocene to early Eocene (59 to 48 Ma). Also at the deepest locations, peak gas generation occurred from the late Paleocene to the early Eocene (57 to 49 Ma) for the Meeteetse Formation, and during the Eocene for the Lance Formation (55 to 48 Ma) and the Fort Union Formation (44 to 38 Ma). The Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation contains Type-II kerogen. The base of the Waltman reached a level of thermal maturity to generate oil only at the deep-basin locations (Adams OAB-17 and Bighorn 1-5 locations) in the middle Eocene to early Miocene (36 to 20 Ma).

Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

2007-01-01

271

Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The major Paleozoic artesian aquifers, the aquifers most favorable for continued development, in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming are the Tensleep Sandstone, the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite (Madison-Bighorn aquifer), and the Flathead Sandstone. The minor aquifers include the Goose Egg and Park City Formations (considered in the Ten Sleep area to be the lateral equivalent of the Phosphoria Formation) and the Amsden Formation. Most wells completed in the major and minor aquifers flow at the land surface. Wellhead pressures generally are less than 50 pounds per square inch for the Tensleep Sandstone, 150-250 pounds per square inch for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, and more than 400 pounds per square inch for the Flathead Sandstone. Flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and the Flathead Sandstone yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. The initial test of one well completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer indicated a flow rate of 14,000 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 500 to 1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and from about 90 to 325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Significant secondary permeability from fracturing in the Paleozoic aquifers allows local upward interformational movement of water, and this affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Water moves upward from the Tensleep and other formations, through the Goose Egg Formation, to discharge at the land surface as springs. Much of the spring flow is diverted for irrigation or is used for rearing fish. Decreases from original well pressures were not apparent in wells completed in the Tensleep Sandstone or in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer in the study area except for a few wells in or near the town of Ten Sleep. Most wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone, which also are open to the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, show a decrease of pressure from the time of completion to 1978. The decrease of pressure is partly the result of water moving from the Flathead Sandstone into the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, which has a lower potentiometric surface than does the Flathead Sandstone, even during the time the wells are not in operation. Pressure in some small-capacity wells completed in the Goose Egg Formation also has decreased near Ten Sleep. Most of the wells, particularly the irrigation wells, show a progressive decrease in pressure during the irrigation season but recover during periods of nonuse. Measurements of the pressure were made principally in 1953, 1962, 1970, and 1975-78. Well water from the Paleozoic aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but excessive hardness. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water are less than 300 milligrams per liter in the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, less than 200 milligrams per liter in the Flathead Sandstone, and as much as 450 milligrams per liter in the Goose Egg Formation. Bicarbonate is the major constituent, followed by calcium and magnesium. Relatively large concentrations of sulfate, as much as 490 milligrams per liter, were found, mainly in water from the Goose Egg Formation. The water has low sodium (alkali) and medium salinity; therefore, the water is satisfactory for irrigation and most other uses, if excessive hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 ? to 27.5 ? Celsius (51 ? to 81.5 ? Fahrenheit) within a range in depth of approximately 250 to 4,000 feet. This gives a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 ? Celsius per 100 feet (0.79 ? Fahrenheit per 100 feet).

Cooley, Maurice E.

1986-01-01

272

Tectonically induced climate and its control on the distribution of depositional systems in a continental foreland basin, Cloverly and Lakota Formations (Lower Cretaceous) of Wyoming, U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental sediments of the Cloverly and Lakota Formations (Lower Cretaceous) in Wyoming are subdivided into three depositional systems: perennial to intermittent alluvial, intermittent to ephemeral alluvial, and playa. Chert-bearing sandstones, conglomerates, carbonaceous mudrocks, blocky mudrocks, and skeletal limestones were deposited by perennial to intermittent alluvial systems. Carbonaceous mudrocks contain abundant wood fragments, cuticle and cortical debris, and other vascular plant remains representing deposition in oxbow lakes, abandoned channels, and on floodplains under humid to seasonal conditions. Intraformational conglomerates, sandstones, bioturbated and blocky mudrocks with caliche nodules, and bioturbated limestones characterize deposition in intermittent to ephemeral alluvial systems. Bioturbated limestones are encased in bioturbated mudrocks with abundant pseudo-slickensides. The presence of caliche nodules in some of the blocky to bioturbated mudrocks is consistent with supersaturation and precipitation of calcium carbonate from groundwater under semi-arid conditions. Caliche nodules, pseudo-slickensides, and carbonate-rich floodplain sediments are interpreted to have been deposited by intermittent to ephemeral alluvial systems under seasonal to semi-arid climatic conditions. Laminated mudrocks, siltstones, vuggy carbonates, bedded to nodular evaporites, pebbly mudrocks, and diamictites were deposited in evaporative alkaline lakes or playas. Pebbly mudrocks and diamictites are interpreted to represent deposition from channelized and unchannelized hyperconcentrated flows on a playa, resulting from intense rain events within the basin. The areal abundance and distribution of these depositional systems change systematically across the overfilled portion of the Early Cretaceous Cordilleran foreland basin in Wyoming. The lower part (A-interval) of the Cloverly and Lakota Formations is characterized by deposits of perennial to intermittent rivers that existed 300 to 1000 km east of the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt. Proximal to the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt, the A-interval of the Cloverly Formation and upper Ephraim Formation of the Gannett Group are typified by deposits of intermittent to ephemeral rivers and their associated floodplains. In the middle part (B-interval) of the Cloverly Formation, intermittent to ephemeral alluvial systems expand to 600 km into the basin. The upper part (C-interval) of the Cloverly Formation is characterized by playa deposits in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins and intermittent to ephemeral alluvial deposits along the front of the ancestral Sevier Mountains. Deposits of perennial to intermittent alluvial systems in the C-interval of the Cloverly and Lakota Formations are restricted to the Black Hills region, almost 900 km to the east of the Sevier Mountains. The change in the areal distribution of depositional systems through time within this continental foreland basin may be attributed to the development of a rain shadow associated with the uplift of the Sevier Mountains in the Early Cretaceous.

Elliott, William S.; Suttner, Lee J.; Pratt, Lisa M.

2007-12-01

273

Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality sampling was conducted regularly at stream sites within or near the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during water years 2001-05 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2005) to characterize water quality in an area of coalbed natural gas development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, characterized the water quality at 22 sampling sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Data for general hydrology, field measurements, major-ion chemistry, and selected trace elements were summarized, and specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were evaluated for relations with streamflow and seasonal variability. Trend analysis for water years 1991-2005 was conducted for selected sites and constituents to assess change through time. Average annual runoff was highly variable among the stream sites. Generally, streams that have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains had more runoff as a result of higher average annual precipitation than streams that have headwaters in the plains. The Powder River at Moorhead, Mont., had the largest average annual runoff (319,000 acre-feet) of all the sites; however, streams in the Tongue River drainage basin had the highest runoff per unit area of the four major drainage basins. Annual runoff in all major drainage basins was less than average during 2001-05 because of drought conditions. Consequently, water-quality samples collected during the study period may not represent long-term water-quality con-ditions for all sites. Water-quality characteristics were highly variable generally because of streamflow variability, geologic controls, and potential land-use effects. The range of median specific-conductance values among sites was smallest in the Tongue River drainage basin. Median values in that basin ranged from 643 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm at 25?C) on the Tongue River to 1,460 ?S/cm at 25?C on Prairie Dog Creek. The Tongue River drainage basin has the largest percentage of area underlain by Mesozoic-age and older rocks and by more resistant rocks. In addition, the higher annual precipitation and a steeper gradient in this basin compared to basins in the plains produce relatively fast stream velocities, which result in a short contact time between stream waters and basin materials. The Powder River drainage basin, which has the largest drainage area and most diverse site conditions, had the largest range of median specific-conductance values among the four major drainage basins. Median values in that basin ranged from 680 ?S/cm at 25?C on Clear Creek to 5,950 ?S/cm at 25?C on Salt Creek. Median specific-conductance values among sites in the Cheyenne River drainage basin ranged from 1,850 ?S/cm at 25?C on Black Thunder Creek to 4,680 ?S/cm at 25?C on the Cheyenne River. The entire Cheyenne River drainage basin is in the plains, which have low precipitation, soluble geologic materials, and relatively low gradients that produce slow stream velocities and long contact times. Median specific-conductance values among sites in the Belle Fourche River drainage basin ranged from 1,740 ?S/cm at 25?C on Caballo Creek to 2,800 ?S/cm at 25?C on Donkey Creek. Water in the study area ranged from a magnesium-calcium-bicarbonate type for some sites in the Tongue River drainage basin to a sodium-sulfate type at many sites in the Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Little Goose Creek, Goose Creek, and the Tongue River in the Tongue River drainage basin, and Clear Creek in the Powder River drainage basin, which have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains, consistently had the smallest median dissolved-sodium concentrations, sodium-adsorption ratios, dissolved-sulfate concentrations, and dissolved-solids concentrations. Salt Creek, Wild Horse Creek, Little Powder River, and the Cheyenne River, which have headwat

Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

2007-01-01

274

Geologic and Hydrologic Controls on Coalbed Methane: Sand Wash Basin, Colorado and Wyoming. Topical Report, August 1, 1991-April 30, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Tectonic Evolution, Stratigraphic Setting, and Coal Fracture Patterns of the Sand Wash Basin; Stratigraphy and Coal Occurrence of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Sand Wash Basin; Coal Rank, Gas Content, and Composition and Origin of Coalbe...

W. R. Kaiser A. R. Scott D. S. Hamilton R. Tyler R. G. McMurry

1993-01-01

275

Variations in fluvial deposition on an alluvial plain: an example from the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), southeastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation is an important coal-bearing sedimentary unit in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. We studied the depositional environments of a portion of this member at three sites 20 km apart in the southeastern part of the basin. Six lithofacies are recognized that we assign to five depositional facies categorized as either channel or interchannel-wetlands environments. (1) Type A sandstone is cross stratified and occurs as lenticular bodies with concave-upward basal surfaces; these bodies are assigned to the channel facies interpreted to be the product of low-sinuosity streams. (2) Type B sandstone occurs in parallel-bedded units containing mudrock partings and fossil plant debris; these units constitute the levee facies. (3) Type C sandstone typically lacks internal structure and occurs as tabular bodies separating finer grained deposits; these bodies represent the crevasse-splay facies. (4) Gray mudrock is generally nonlaminated and contains ironstone concretions; these deposits constitute the floodplain facies. (5) Carbonaceous shale and coal are assigned to the swamp facies. We recognize two styles of stream deposition in our study area. Laterally continuous complexes of single and multistoried channel bodies occur at our middle study site and we interpret these to be the deposits of sandy braided stream systems. In the two adjacent study sites, single and multistoried channel bodies are isolated in a matrix of finer-grained interchannel sediment suggesting deposition by anastomosed streams. A depositional model for our study area contains northwest-trending braided stream systems. Avulsions of these systems created anastomosed streams that flowed into adjacent interchannel areas. We propose that during late Paleocene a broad alluvial plain existed on the southeastern flank of the Powder River Basin. The braided streams that crossed this surface were tributaries to a northward-flowing, basin-axis trunk stream that existed to the west. ?? 1990.

Johnson, E. A.; Pierce, F. W.

1990-01-01

276

Sampling and analyses report for the September 1989 postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG Site, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Between September 14, 1989 and September 19, 1989, Western Research Institute (WRI) completed the third quarterly Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) groundwater monitoring for the year 1989. This quarterly sample outing represents the first sampling since the completion of the second RM1 groundwater restoration in August 1989. Background material and the sampling and analytical procedures associated with this task are described in the Rocky Mountain 1 Postburn Groundwater Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan, prepared by Western Research Institute for the Gas Research Institute and the US Department of Energy.

Crader, S.E.

1989-09-01

277

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - SUMMARY OF AQUATIC BIOLOGICAL DATA FOR SURFACE WATER THROUGH 1992  

EPA Science Inventory

The initial phase of this study involved compiling data to describe the current (1992) and historical aquatic biological conditions of surface water in the Snake River Basin (1704). To assess water quality of the basin, at least 26 different macroinvertebrate and fish community ...

278

Water-quality characteristics and trend analyses for the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins, Wyoming and Montana, for selected periods, water years 1991 through 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is an area of ongoing coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development. Waters produced during CBNG development are managed with a variety of techniques, including surface impoundments and discharges into stream drainages. The interaction of CBNG-produced waters with the atmosphere and the semiarid soils of the Powder River structural basin can affect water chemistry in several ways. Specific conductance and sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of CBNG-produced waters that are discharged to streams have been of particular concern because they have the potential to affect the use of the water for irrigation. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted since 2001 at main-stem and tributary sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins in response to concerns about CBNG effects. A study was conducted to summarize characteristics of stream-water quality for water years 2001–10 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2010) and examine trends in specific conductance, SAR, and primary constituents that contribute to specific conductance and SAR for changes through time (water years 1991–2010) that may have occurred as a result of CBNG development. Specific conductance and SAR are the focus characteristics of this report. Dissolved calcium, magnesium, and sodium, which are primary contributors to specific conductance and SAR, as well as dissolved alkalinity, chloride, and sulfate, which are other primary contributors to specific conductance, also are described. Stream-water quality in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins was variable during water years 2001–10, in part because of variations in streamflow. In general, annual runoff was less than average during water years 2001–06 and near or above average during water years 2007–10. Stream water of the Tongue River had the smallest specific conductance values, sodium adsorption ratios, and major ion concentrations of the main-stem streams. Sites in the Tongue River drainage basin typically had the smallest range of specific conductance and SAR values. The water chemistry of sites in the Powder River drainage basin generally was the most variable as a result of diverse characteristics of that basin. Plains tributaries in the Powder River drainage basin had the largest range of specific conductance and SAR values, in part due to the many tributaries that receive CBNG-produced waters. Trends were analyzed using the seasonal Kendall test with flow-adjusted concentrations to determine changes to water quality through time at sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Trends were evaluated for water years 2001–10 for 17 sites, which generally were on the main-stem streams and primary tributaries. Trends were evaluated for water years 2005–10 for 26 sites to increase the spatial coverage of sites. Trends were evaluated for water years 1991–2010 for eight sites to include water-quality data collected prior to widespread CBNG development and expand the temporal context of trends. Consistent patterns were not observed in trend results for water years 2001–10 for flow-adjusted specific conductance and SAR values in the Tongue, Powder, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Significant (p-values less than 0.05) upward trends in flow-adjusted specific conductance values were determined for 3 sites, a downward trend was determined for 1 site, and no significant (p-value greater than 0.05) trends were determined for 13 sites. One of the sites with a significant upward trend was the Tongue River at the Wyoming-Montana State line. No trend in flow-adjusted specific conductance values was determined for the Powder River at Moorhead, Mont. Significant upward trends in flow-adjusted SAR values were determined for 2 sites and no significant trends were determined for 15 sites. No trends in flow-adjusted SAR values were determined for the Tongue River at the Wyoming-Montana State line

Clark, Melanie L.

2012-01-01

279

Minerals outlook for Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wyoming drilling activity was down. The rig count was at a seven year low in February. Crude oil prices also affect Wyoming's gas production. Fuel oil prices are already low enough to compete with higher priced gas, and may edge out part of the market for natural gas. This year's coal production is still forecast at 112 million tons -

1983-01-01

280

Wyoming Toad Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current Status: The Wyoming toad (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri) was common into the early 1970s, but the populations crashed in the middle 1970s. The Wyoming toad was listed as endangered in January 1984. The only known population of this species is located so...

M. D. Stone

1991-01-01

281

Anisotropy and Spatial Variation of Relative Permeability and Lithologic Character of Tensleep Sandstone Reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery; and (5) a geochemical investigation of the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery processes.

Dunn, Thomas L.

1996-10-01

282

Energy Development Opportunities for Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Wyoming Business Council, representing the state’s interests, is participating in a collaborative evaluation of energy development opportunities with the NGNP Industry Alliance (an industry consortium), the University of Wyoming, and the US Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory. Three important energy-related goals are being pursued by the State of Wyoming: Ensuring continued reliable and affordable sources of energy for Wyoming’s industries and people Restructuring the coal economy in Wyoming Restructuring the natural gas economy in Wyoming

Larry Demick

2012-11-01

283

Nutrient, Suspended-Sediment, and Total Suspended-Solids Data for Surface Water in the Great Salt Lake Basins Study Unit, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1980-95.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selected nitrogen and phosphorus (nutrient), suspended sediment and total suspended-solids surface water data were compiled from January 1980 through December 1995 within the Great Salt Lake Basins National Water-Quality Assessment study unit, which exten...

2001-01-01

284

Use of computer-generated maps of oil and gas development and exploration intensity for delineating producing trends, Denver basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Exploration intensity maps were used in conjunction with existing or generated maps of depositional environment, structure, thermal maturity, core porosity, and production data to delineate trends and assess oil and gas resources for the Denver basin as part of the US Geological Survey's Federal Lands Assessment Program. Maps illustrating oil and gas production, shows, and dry holes were constructed for the Denver basin using the Petroleum Information WHCS data base, with mapping and statistical software developed by the US Geological Survey. Data from more than 36,000 drill hoes in the Denver basin were entered into a program that divides the basin into 1/2 mi/sup 2/ grid cells and analyzes show and production data for drill holes within each grid cell.

Higley, D.K.; Mast, R.F.; Gautier, D.L.

1986-05-01

285

Assessment of selected constituents in surface water of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, water years 1975-89  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A more extensive data-collection program in the upper Snake River Basin is needed to address a number of water-quality issues. These include an analysis of effects of land use on the quality of surface water; quantification of mass movement of nutrients and suspended sediment at key locations in the basin; distribution of aquatic organisms; and temporal and spatial distribution of pesticides in surface water, bottom sediment, and biota.

Clark, Gregory M.

1994-01-01

286

Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

287

Origin and diagenesis of clay minerals in relation to sandstone paragenesis: An example in eolian dune reservoirs and associated rocks, Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Eolian dune sandstones are the principal reservoir rocks in the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming. These sandstones formed as shorelines retreated and dunes migrated across siliciclastic sabkhas. Sandstones are mainly quartzarenites; on average, clay minerals constitute about 5 wt.% the whole rock. Although present in minor amounts, clay minerals play an important role in the diagenetic evolution of these sandstones. Allogenic clay minerals are present in shaly rock fragments and laminae. Early infiltration of clays into porous sabkha sands commonly form characteristic menisei or bridges between framework grains or, when more extensive, form coatings or rims on grain surfaces. Authigenic clays include nearly pure smectite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S), and late diagenetic illite and corrensite; these clay minerals are present as pore-lining cements. In addition to the deposition and neoformation of clay minerals throughout sandstone paragenesis, the conversion of smectite to illite occurred as temperatures increased with progressive burial. A temperature of 103C is calculated at a present depth of 3,200 m using a geothermal gradient of 30C/km and a mean annual surface temperature of 7C. After correction for uplift and erosion (250 m), the maximum calculated temperature for the conversion of all random I/S to ordered I/S is 100C. This calculated temperature is in excellent agreement with temperatures of 100-110C implied from I/S geothermometry.

Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1991-06-01

288

Geostatistical study of coal and overburden data from the Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. [R-squared statistics used as measure of correlation between drill cutting samples and core samples  

SciTech Connect

A statistical analysis was performed with overburden characterization data that was obtained from a US Forest Service study site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. The drilling and overburden characterization program had been performed during 1977 and 1978 and this information was provided to the Laramie Energy Technology Center by the US Forest Service. There were three basic goals that were accomplished during this study. First, find out how overburden data obtained from drill cuttings compares with overburden data obtained from core samples. Second, determine the basic chemical and physical characteristics of the overburden. Third, determine the minimum drill hole spacing required to adequately characterize the overburden. The R-Squared statistic was used as a measure of correlation between drill cutting samples and core samples. Most R-Squared values were less than 50%, therefore, it was concluded that geostatistical structure cannot be predicted accurately during an overburden study when drill cuttings are used. Principal component R-Mode factor analysis with Varimax rotation was used to characterize the overburden. Thirty-one variables were used in the factor analysis. The factor analysis yielded twelve distinct factors which explained ninety percent of the total variation. A two state sequential drilling procedure was developed that moves in a stepwise manner towards the goal of a predetermined level of accuracy until that level is reached. Thus, the desired level of accuracy can be reached without over-drilling an area. 7 figures, 11 tables.

Borgman, L.; Quimby, W.; Sever, C.; Andrew, M.; Youngberg, D.; Davis, F.

1983-05-01

289

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone Reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: An examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recover. Concurrent efforts are aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery processes. This work focuses on quantifying the relationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization (in terms of changes in relative permeability, wettability, and pore structure) and with fluid characterization (in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties.) This work will establish new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to production-induced formation alteration that results in change in relative permeability and in wellbore scale damage.

Dunn, T.L.

1995-07-20

290

Einstein in Wyoming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "Einstein's Adventurarium," a science center housed in an empty shopping mall in Gillette, Wyoming, created through school, business, and city-county government partnership. Describes how interactive exhibits allow exploration of life sciences, physics, and paleontology. (KDFB)

Elliot, Ian

1996-01-01

291

Characteristics of fish assemblages and related environmental variables for streams of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1993-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

limited designation for the middle reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill and provide a framework for developing indices of biotic integrity by using fish assemblages to evaluate water quality of streams in the upper Snake River Basin.

Maret, Terry R.

1997-01-01

292

ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED CONSTITUENTS IN THE SURFACE WATER OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, WATER YEARS 1975-1989.  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1991, a water-quality investigation of the upper Snake River Basin (1704) was initiated as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Nearly 9,000 analyses of nutrients and suspended sediment from more than 450 stations were retrieved from the U.S. Environmen...

293

ANALYSIS OF DATA ON NUTRIENTS AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GROUND WATER IN THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, 1980-91  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground-water quality in the upper Snake River Basin (17...

294

Depositional environments, sequence stratigraphy, and trapping mechanisms of Fall River Formation in Donkey Creek and Coyote Creek oil fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donkey Creek and Coyote Creek fields contain combined reserves of approximately 35 million bbl of oil and are within a trend of fields on the eastern flank of the Powder River basin that totals over 100 million bbl of reserves. The principal producing formation is the Lower Cretaceous Fall River Sandstone. A study of 45 cores and 248 logs from

Paul R. Knox

1989-01-01

295

Characterization of Habitat and Biological Communities at Fixed Sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, Water Years 1999-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat and biological communities were sampled at 10 sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program to assess the occurrence and distribution of biological organisms in relation to environmental conditions. Sites were distributed among the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River basins and were selected to represent stream conditions in different land-use settings that are prominent within the basins, including agriculture, rangeland, urban, and forested. High-gradient streams had more diverse habitat conditions with larger substrates and more dynamic flow characteristics and were typically lower in discharge than low-gradient streams, which had a higher degree of siltation and lacked variability in geomorphic channel characteristics, which may account for differences in habitat. Habitat scores were higher at high-gradient sites with high percentages of forested land use within their basins. Sources and causes of stream habitat impairment included effects from channel modifications, siltation, and riparian land use. Effects of hydrologic modifications were evident at many sites. Algal sites where colder temperatures, less nutrient enrichment, and forest and rangeland uses dominated the basins contained communities that were more sensitive to organic pollution, siltation, dissolved oxygen, and salinity than sites that were warmer, had higher degrees of nutrient enrichment, and were affected by agriculture and urban land uses. Sites that had high inputs of solar radiation and generally were associated with agricultural land use supported the greatest number of algal species. Invertebrate samples collected from sites where riffles were the richest-targeted habitat differed in species composition and pollution tolerance from those collected at sites that did not have riffle habitat (nonriffle sites), where samples were collected in depositional areas, woody snags, or macrophyte beds. Invertebrate taxa richness, pollution tolerance, and trophic interactions at riffle and nonriffle sites responded differently to environmental variables. Fish communities were assessed in relation to the designated beneficial use for aquatic life for each site. Fish-community sites in basins where agriculture and urbanization were prevalent consistently had poorer conditions than sites with forest and rangeland uses. Warm temperatures appear to be limiting most native fish species, and more introduced, warm-water fish species were present at sites with warmer temperatures. Ranges of environmental conditions where native species were present or absent were identified. The farthest-upstream site in each of the three basins had better ecological condition overall, as indicated by the integrity of habitat and the presence of more sensitive algae, invertebrate, and fish species than were observed at sites downstream. The farthest-downstream site in each of the three basins showed the poorest ecological condition, with more tolerant organisms present, degraded habitat and water-quality conditions, and a high degree of effects from agriculture, grazing, and urbanization. Of the mid-basin sites, the site most affected by urbanization had more degraded biological condition than the agricultural indicator site of similar basin size.

Albano, Christine M.; Giddings, Elise M.P.

2007-01-01

296

Proxies for Metabolic Carbon (CM) and\\/or Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) Contributions to Mollusk Shell Carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface waters reflect biogeochemical cycling of carbon, and therefore overall environmental conditions. Understanding past records of DIC can facilitate interpretations of ancient environmental conditions, and can be used to clarify effects of climate change in continental environments. The Hanna Formation, exposed in the Hanna Basin of south-central Wyoming, includes strata that

P. Higgins

2010-01-01

297

Water-Quality Assessment of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana and Wyoming-Water Quality of Fixed Sites, 1999-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an assessment in 1997 of the quality of water resources in the Yellowstone River Basin. Water-quality samples regularly were collected during 1999-2001 at 10 fixed sites on streams representing the major environmental settings of the basin. Integrator sites, which are heterogeneous in land use and geology, were established on the mainstem of the Yellowstone River (4 sites) and on three major tributaries?Clarks Fork Yellowstone River (1 site), the Bighorn River (1 site), and the Powder River (1 site). Indicator sites, which are more homogeneous in land use and geology than the integrator sites, were located on minor tributaries with important environmental settings?Soda Butte Creek in a mineral resource area (1 site), the Tongue River in a forested area (1 site), and the Little Powder River in a rangeland area (1 site). Water-quality sampling frequency generally was at least monthly and included field measurements and laboratory analyses of fecal-indicator bacteria, major ions, dissolved solids, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Median concentrations of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were largest for basins that were predominantly rangeland and smallest for basins that were predominantly forested. Concentrations of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli significantly varied by season (p-value <0.001); the smallest median concentrations were during January?March and the largest median concentrations were during April?June. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended limit for a single sample of 400 colonies per 100 milliliters in 2.6 percent of all samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended limit for a single sample of 298 colonies per 100 milliliters for moderate use, full-body contact recreation in 7.6 percent of all samples. Variations in water type in the basin are reflective of the diverse geologic terrain in the Yellowstone River Basin. The water type of Soda Butte Creek and the Tongue River was calcium bicarbonate. These two sites are in forested and mountainous areas where igneous rocks and Paleozoic-era and Mesozoic-era sedimentary rocks are the dominant geologic groups. The water type of the Little Powder River was sodium sulfate. The Little Powder River originates in the plains, and geology of the basin is nearly homogenous with Tertiary-period sedimentary rocks. Water type of the Yellowstone River changed from a mixed-cation bicarbonate type upstream to a mixed-cation sulfate type downstream. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from fairly dilute in Soda Butte Creek, which had a median concentration of 118 milligrams per liter, to concentrated in the Little Powder River, which had a median concentration of 2,840 milligrams per liter. Nutrient concentrations generally were small and reflect the relatively undeveloped conditions in the basin; however, some correlations were made with anthropogenic factors. Median dissolved-nitrate concentrations in all samples from the fixed sites ranged from 0.04 milligram per liter to 0.54 milligram per liter. Flow-weighted mean dissolved-nitrate concentrations were positively correlated with increasing agricultural land use and rangeland on alluvial deposits upstream from the sites and negatively correlated with increasing forested land. Ammonia concentrations generally were largest in samples collected from the Yellowstone River at Corwin Springs, Montana, which is downstream from Yellowstone National Park and receives discharge from geothermal waters that are high in ammonia. Median total-phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 0.18 milligram per liter. Median total-phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended goal of 0.10 milligram per liter for preventing nuisance plant growth for samples collec

Miller, Kirk A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Wright, Peter R.

2005-01-01

298

Diversity and distribution of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), and caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming, 1873-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado), compiled collection record data to document the historical and present-day occurrence of mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly species in the South Platte River Basin. Data were compiled from records collected between 1873 and 2010 to identify where regional knowledge about species occurrence in the basin is lacking and to encourage future researchers to locate additional populations of these poorly understood but very important organisms. This report provides a description of how data were compiled, a map of approximate collection locations, a listing of the most recent collection records from unique locations, general remarks for each species, a species list with selected summary information, and distribution maps of species collection records.

Zuellig, Robert E.; Heinold, Brian D.; Kondratieff, Boris C.; Ruiter, David E.

2012-01-01

299

Hydrologic and geochemical data collected near Skewed Reservoir, an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas produced water, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River Structural Basin is one of the largest producers of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the United States. An important environmental concern in the Basin is the fate of groundwater that is extracted during CBNG production. Most of this produced water is disposed of in unlined surface impoundments. A 6-year study of groundwater flow and subsurface water and soil chemistry was conducted at one such impoundment, Skewed Reservoir. Hydrologic and geochemical data collected as part of that study are contained herein. Data include chemistry of groundwater obtained from a network of 21 monitoring wells and three suction lysimeters and chemical and physical properties of soil cores including chemistry of water/soil extracts, particle-size analyses, mineralogy, cation-exchange capacity, soil-water content, and total carbon and nitrogen content of soils.

Healy, Richard W.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Bartos, Timothy T.

2012-01-01

300

Experimental study of shortite (Na2Ca2(CO3)3) formation and application to the burial history of the Wilkins Peak Member, Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature at which shortite (Na2Ca2(CO3)3) forms from pirssonite (Na2Ca(CO3)2·2H2O) and calcite using pure synthetic phases in the system Na2CO3-CaCO3-H2O has been experimentally determined. At ˜1 atm pressure, shortite forms via the reaction Na2Ca(CO3)2·2H2O + CaCO3 = Na2Ca2(CO3)3 + 2H2O above 55 ± 2 °C. This equilibrium temperature is lower than determined previously (90 ± 25 °C) by Bradley and Eugster (1969). The solution in equilibrium with synthetic shortite, pirssonite, and calcite approximates a binary H2O-Na2CO3 brine with 1.1 m Na2CO3 (10.6 wt% Na2CO3). The equilibrium temperature is lowered to 52 ± 2 °C with 5 m NaCl added to the system, which shows that this reaction is weakly dependent on the activity of H2O, aO. This study suggests that shortite does not occur in surficial alkaline saline environments because temperatures are too low. Shortite is abundant in the Wilkins Peak Member (WPM) of the Eocene Green River Formation, Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA (>78 million tons/km2), where it occurs as diagenetic displacive crystals, fracture fills, and pseudomorphous replacements of a precursor Na-Ca-carbonate. The large area over which shortite occurs in the WPM indicates that saline pore fluids once existed in the buried lacustrine sediments, and thus, at times, large Na-CO3-rich saline alkaline lakes or laterally extensive saline groundwaters existed in the Green River Basin during WPM time. The thermal stability of shortite, together with vitrinite reflectance data and inferred regional geothermal gradients, establish that the shortite-bearing intervals of the WPM were buried to maximum depths of ˜1000 m in the Green River Basin, and since experienced ˜800 m of erosional exhumation.

Jagniecki, Elliot A.; Jenkins, David M.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Carroll, Alan R.

2013-08-01

301

A new approach to fluid flow modeling of directional permeability in a faulted anticline, Little Sand Draw Field, Big Horn Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little Sand Draw field, Hot Springs County, Wyoming, is a fractured and faulted asymmetric anticlinal oil reservoir. The main producing formation is the Permian Phosphoria Formation. Numerical simulation of this reservoir is important for evaluating reservoir quality and past and future performance. This study presents a new integrated methodology which combines reservoir engineering with geology to improve reservoir characterization, simulation, and planning for reservoir management. The goal of this project is to apply a new geological and engineering approach to simulate directional permeability in a faulted and fractured anticlinal oil reservoir. Tear faults, which have apparent strike slip offset and occur at high angles to the fold axis, have been quantified at Thermopolis anticline, an analogous structure 6 mi (10 km) to the south. The observed tear faults could be significant source of permeability anisotropy, and may provide high permeability conduits across structural folds. Anisotropic directional permeabilities, roughly perpendicular to fold axes, are known from pressure- interference tests in the Phosphoria Formation at Little Sand Draw field. The hypothesis is that tear faults are the cause of the observed directional permeability. To accomplish the objectives, this study constructed 3- dimensional geological and fluid-flow models of the Little Sand Draw field. The spacing of faults in outcrop was used as input for fault compartments in the reservoir simulation model. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is whether reservoir models with or without tear faults provide a good history match. The 3-D geological model was built using EarthVision (Dynamic Graphics) software. The geological model correctly honors the structural geology. Petrophysical properties are distributed in 3-D using five zones in the upper Phosphoria Formation and one zone in the Tensleep Formation. The full-field, 3-D reservoir fluid-flow model was built using the ECLIPSE black-oil simulator (Geoquest, Schlumberger) to perform history matches and forecast. Three fluid-flow models were generated: (1)an unfaulted-unfractured model, (2)a faulted- unfractured model, and (3)a faulted-fractured model. History matching performed on these models tested which one of them best resembles actual field performance. The unfaulted-unfractured model could not produce enough total fluids to match historical data, and reservoir pressures were too low. The faulted-unfractured model improved the history match, but could not match production data. The faulted-fractured model does the best job of matching the observed past performance at Little Sand Draw field. Forecasting future performance of the faulted-fractured model under existing operating conditions showed production rates for the next 20 years.

Raba'A, Ali Saleh Bin

2001-09-01

302

Historical Sagebrush Establishment Practices in the Powder River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Powder River Basin of Wyoming is a semi-arid area dominated by sagebrush grassland vegetation communities. This region includes 15 surface coal mines. Reclamation of mined lands requires re-establishment of native species to meet the post mine land use. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) serves as the regulatory authority for the State's surface coal mines. Wyoming statutes require

Laurel E. Vicklund

303

Trace Elements and Organic Compounds in Sediment and Fish Tissue from the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study to determine the occurrence and distribution of trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semivolatile organic compounds in sediment and in fish tissue was conducted in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program during 1998-99. Streambed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were collected concurrently at 11 sites and analyzed for trace-element concentration. An additional four sites were sampled for streambed sediment only and one site for fish tissue only. Organic compounds were analyzed from streambed-sediment and fish-tissue samples at 15 sites concurrently. Bed-sediment cores from lakes, reservoirs, and Farmington Bay collected by the NAWQA program in 1998 and by other researchers in 1982 were used to examine historical trends in trace-element concentration and to determine anthropogenic sources of contaminants. Cores collected in 1982 from Mirror Lake, a high-mountain reference location, showed an enrichment of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, tin, and zinc in the surface sediments relative to the deeper sediments, indicating that enrichment likely began after about 1900. This enrichment was attributed to atmospheric deposition during the period of metal-ore mining and smelting. A core from Echo Reservoir, in the Weber River Basin, however, showed a different pattern of trace-element concentration that was attributed to a local source. This site is located downstream from the Park City mining district, which is the most likely historical source of trace elements. Cores collected in 1998 from Farmington Bay show that the concentration of lead began to increase after 1842 and peaked during the mid-1980s and has been in decline since. Recent sediments deposited during 1996-98 indicate a 41- to 62-percent reduction since the peak in the mid-1980s. The concentration of trace elements in streambed sediment was greatest at sites that have been affected by historic mining, including sites on Little Cottonwood Creek in the Jordan River basin, Silver Creek in the Weber River basin, and the Weber River below the confluence with Silver Creek. There was significant correlation of lead concentrations in streambed sediment and fish tissue, but other trace elements did not correlate well. Streambed sediment and fish tissue collected from sites in the Bear River basin, which is predominantly rangeland and agriculture, generally had low concentrations of most elements. Sediment-quality guidelines were used to assess the relative toxicity of streambed-sediment sites to aquatic communities. Sites affected by mining exceeded the Probable Effect Concentration (PEC), the concentration at which it is likely there will be a negative effect on the aquatic community, for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, silver, mercury, and zinc. Sites that were not affected by mining did not exceed these criteria. Concentrations of trace elements in samples collected from the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit (GRSL) are high compared to those of samples collected nationally with the NAWQA program. Nine of 15 streambed-sediment samples and 11 of 14 fish-tissue samples had concentrations of at least one trace element greater than the concentration of 90 percent of the samples collected nationally during 1993-2000. Organic compounds that were examined in streambed sediment and fish-tissue samples also were examined in bed-sediment cores. A bed-sediment core from Farmington Bay of Great Salt Lake showed an increase in total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations coincident with the increase in population in Salt Lake Valley, which drains into this bay. Analysis of streambed-sediment samples showed that the highest concentrations of PAHs were detected at urban sites, including two sites in the lower Jordan River (the Jordan River flows into Farmington Bay), the Weber River at Ogden Bay, and the Provo River near Provo. Other organic compounds detected i

Waddell, Kidd M.; Giddings, Elise M.

2004-01-01

304

High-resolution, high-fidelity carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in northern Wyoming from cores recovered by the Bighorn Basin Coring Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic records derived from marine core and terrestrial outcrop sediments spanning the Paleocene-Eocene boundary reveal a large (>2.5‰) negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in a relatively short period of time (total duration of ~200 Kyr). This event, known as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum or PETM, reflects the geologically rapid release of isotopically light carbon into the atmosphere and is associated with global warming of ~5-8°C. While numerous studies have investigated the timing and magnitude of the PETM CIE, significant uncertainty remains regarding the amount and pacing of the global carbon isotope shift. The Bighorn Basin Coring Project recently collected the first scientific drill cores preserving high-resolution, stratigraphically continuous records of the PETM in continental environments and providing a new suite of data from un-weathered rocks. We report data from pedogenic carbonate nodules sampled at >200 levels within two adjacent drilling locations at Polecat Bench in the Bighorn Basin. These data provide a continuous record of the evolution of carbon isotope ratios in Bighorn Basin paleosols over a period of approximately 500 Kyr spanning the P-E boundary. ?13C data from the nodules reveal a CIE of ~7 ‰ with considerable structured isotopic variability at the onset of the PETM and a smooth recovery back to pre-PETM baseline conditions. Relative to previous studies, this higher-resolution dataset better constrains the pattern and pace of the carbon isotope changes and records higher variability during the onset of the event, but confirms existing results of the general shape and ~7‰ magnitude of the CIE at this locality.

Maibauer, B. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Srinivasaraghavan, V.; VanDeVelde, J. H.; Wing, S. L.; Gingerich, P. D.; Clyde, W. C.

2012-12-01

305

Activities of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1991-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the water quality of a large part of the Nation's rivers and aquifers and to improve understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect water-quality conditions. In meeting these goals, the program will produce water-quality, ecological, and geographic information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, upon which national-level assessment activities are based. The program's 60 study-unit investigations are associated with principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. Study units encompass areas from 1,200 to more than 65,000 mi2 (square miles) and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the upper Snake River Basin was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for implementation. From 1991 to 1995, a high-intensity data-collection phase of the upper Snake River Basin study unit (fig. 1) was implemented and completed. Components of this phase are described in a report by Gilliom and others (1995). In 1997, a low-intensity phase of data collection began, and work continued on data analysis, report writing, and data documentation and archiving activities that began in 1996. Principal data-collection activities during the low-intensity phase will include monitoring of surface-water and ground-water quality, assessment of aquatic biological conditions, and continued compilation of environmental setting information.

Low, Walton H.

1997-01-01

306

Subsurface geology and porosity distribution, Madison Limestone and underlying formations, Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana and adjacent areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To evaluate the Madison Limestone and associated rocks as potential sources for water supplies in the Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, an understanding of the geologic framework of these units, their lithologic facies patterns, the distribution of porosity zones, and the relation between porosity development and stratigraphic facies is necessary. Regionally the Madison is mainly a fossiliferous limestone. However, in broad areas of the eastern Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains, dolomite is a dominant constituent and in places the Madison is almost entirely dolomite. Within these areas maximum porosity development is found and it seems to be related to the coarser crystalline dolomite facies. The porosity development is associated with tabular and fairly continuous crystalline dolomite beds separated by non-porous limestones. The maximum porosity development in the Bighorn Dolomite, as in the Madison, is directly associated with the occurrence of a more coarsely crystalline sucrosic dolomite facies. Well data indicate, however, that where the Bighorn is present in the deeper parts of the Powder River Basin, it may be dominated by a finer crystalline dolomite facies of low porosity. The 'Winnipeg Sandstone' is a clean, generally well-sorted, medium-grained sandstone. It shows good porosity development in parts of the northern Powder River Basin and northwestern South Dakota. Because the sandstone is silica-cemented and quartzitic in areas of deep burial, good porosity is expected only where it is no deeper than a few thousand feet. The Flathead Sandstone is a predominantly quartzose, slightly feldspathic sandstone, commonly cemented with iron oxide. Like the 'Winnipeg Sandstone,' it too is silica-cemented and quartzitic in many places so that its porosity is poor in areas of deep burial. Illustrations in this report show the thickness, percent dolomite, and porosity-feet for the Bighorn Dolomite and the Madison Limestone and its subdivisions. The porosity-feet for the 'Winnipeg' and Flathead Sandstones and four regional geologic sections are also shown.

Peterson, James A.

1978-01-01

307

In-place oil shale resources examined by grade in the major basins of the Green River Formation, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a total of 4.285 trillion barrels of oil in-place in the oil shale of the three principal basins of the Eocene Green River Formation. Using oil shale cutoffs of potentially viable (15 gallons per ton) and high grade (25 gallons per ton), it is estimated that between 353 billion and 1.146 trillion barrels of the in-place resource have a high potential for development.

Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

2013-01-01

308

Water quality and environmental isotopic analyses of ground-water samples collected from the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations in areas of coalbed methane development : implications to recharge and ground-water flow, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses of ground-water samples were evaluated as part of an investigation of lower Tertiary aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin where coalbed methane is being developed. Ground-water samples were collected from two springs discharging from clinker, eight monitoring wells completed in the Wasatch aquifer, and 13 monitoring or coalbed methane production wells completed in coalbed aquifers. The ground-water samples were analyzed for major ions and environmental isotopes (tritium and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen) to characterize the composition of waters in these aquifers, to relate these characteristics to geochemical processes, and to evaluate recharge and ground-water flow within and between these aquifers. This investigation was conducted in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office and the Bureau of Land Management. Water quality in the different aquifers was characterized by major-ion composition. Samples collected from the two springs were classified as calcium-sulfate-type and calcium-bicarbonate-type waters. All ground-water samples from the coalbed aquifers were sodium-bicarbonate-type waters as were five of eight samples collected from the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Potential areal patterns in ionic composition were examined. Ground-water samples collected during this and another investigation suggest that dissolved-solids concentrations in the coalbed aquifers may be lower south of the Belle Fourche River (generally less than 600 milligrams per liter). As ground water in coalbed aquifers flows to the north and northwest away from an inferred source of recharge (clinker in the study area), dissolved-solids concentrations appear to increase. Variation in ionic composition in the vertical dimension was examined qualitatively and statistically within and between aquifers. A relationship between ionic composition and well depth was noted and corroborates similar observations by earlier investigators in the Powder River Basin in both Wyoming and Montana. This relationship results in two different water-quality zones with different characteristics - a shallow zone, comprising the upper part of the Wasatch aquifer, characterized by mixed cation composition and either sulfate or bicarbonate as the dominant anion; and a deeper zone, comprising the lower (deeper) part of the Wasatch aquifer and the underlying coalbed aquifers, characterized by sodium-bicarbonate-type waters. The zonation appears to be related to geochemical processes described by earlier investigators such as dissolution and precipitation of minerals, ion exchange, sulfate reduction, and mixing of waters. Qualitative and statistically significant differences were observed in sulfate concentrations between the coalbed aquifers and the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Ionic composition suggests that bacterially mediated redox processes such as sulfate reduction were probably the dominant geochemical processes in the anaerobic coalbed aquifers. Tritium was used to qualitatively estimate the time of ground-water recharge. Tritium concentrations in both springs suggests that both were recharged after 1952 and contain modern water. Tritium was not detected at concentrations suggestive of modern water in any ground-water samples collected from the coalbed aquifers or in six of eight ground-water samples collected from the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Tritium concentrations in the remaining two wells from the Wasatch aquifer suggest a mixture between submodern (recharged before 1952) and modern water, although the low concentrations suggest that ground water in these two wells have very little modern water. The relative absence of modern water in all aquifers in the study area suggests that recharge processes to these aquifers are probably very slow. Paired d2H (deuterium/hydrogen isotopic ratio) and d18O (oxygen-18/oxygen-16 isotopic ratio) values for samples collected from the springs and all aquifers are close to the Globa

Bartos, Timothy T.; Ogle, Kathy Muller

2002-01-01

309

In situ measurements of microbially-catalyzed nitrification and nitrate reduction rates in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving water from coalbed natural gas discharge, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrification and nitrate reduction were examined in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving discharge from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. CBNG co-produced water typically contains dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), primarily as ammonium. In this study, a substantial portion of discharged ammonium was oxidized within 50??m of downstream transport, but speciation was markedly influenced by diel fluctuations in dissolved oxygen (> 300????M). After 300??m of transport, 60% of the initial DIN load had been removed. The effect of benthic nitrogen-cycling processes on stream water chemistry was assessed at 2 locations within the stream channel using acrylic chambers to conduct short-term (2-6??h), in-stream incubations. The highest ambient DIN removal rates (2103????mol N m- 2 h- 1) were found at a location where ammonium concentrations > 350????M. This occurred during light incubations when oxygen concentrations were highest. Nitrification was occurring at the site, however, net accumulation of nitrate and nitrite accounted for < 12% of the ammonium consumed, indicating that other ammonium-consuming processes were also occurring. In dark incubations, nitrite and nitrate consumption were dominant processes, while ammonium was produced rather than consumed. At a downstream location nitrification was not a factor and changes in DIN removal rates were controlled by nitrate reduction, diel fluctuations in oxygen concentration, and availability of electron donor. This study indicates that short-term adaptation of stream channel processes can be effective for removing CBNG DIN loads given sufficient travel distances, but the long-term potential for nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen saturation remain to be determined.

Harris, S. H.; Smith, R. L.

2009-01-01

310

Use of seismic stratigraphy for Minnelusa exploration, northeastern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Powder River basin in northeastern Wyoming has long been a productive oil province. Abrupt lithology changes of the Upper Pennsylvanian-Permian Minnelusa Formation have provided a variety of hydrocarbon traps. However, these same abrupt changes have also yielded many surprises to the hopeful explorationist. Sonic logs used to construct a geologic cross section showed a significant difference in the sonic

Daw

1983-01-01

311

Assessment of nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in surface water of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, water years 1991-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quality Assessment Program. As part of the investigation, intensive monitoring was conducted during water years 1993 through 1995 to assess surface-water quality in the basin. Sampling and analysis focused on nutrients, suspended sediments, and pesticides because of nationwide interest in these constituents. Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in water samples from 19 sites in the upper Snake River Basin, including nine on the main stem, were assessed. In general, concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment were smaller in water from the 11 sites upstream from American Falls Reservoir than in water from the 8 sites downstream from the reservoir where effects from land-use activities are most pronounced. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen at the 19 sites ranged from less than 0.05 to 1.60 milligrams per liter; total phosphorus as phosphorus, less than 0.01 to 0.11 milligrams per liter; and suspended sediment, 4 to 72 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in the main stem of the Snake River, in general, increased downstream. The largest concentrations in the main stem were in the middle reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and the outlet of the upper Snake River Basin at King Hill. Significant differences (p Nutrient and suspended sediment inputs to the middle Snake reach were from a variety of sources. During water year 1995, springs were the primary source of water and total nitrogen to the river and accounted for 66 and 60 percent of the total input, respectively. Isotope and water-table information indicated that the springs derived most of their nitrogen from agricultural activities along the margins of the Snake River. Aquacultural effluent was a major source of ammonia (82 percent), organic nitrogen (30 percent), and total phosphorus (35 percent). Tributary streams were a major source of organic nitrogen (28 percent) and suspended sediment (58 percent). In proportion to its discharge (less than 1 percent), the Twin Falls sewage-treatment plant was a major source of total phosphorus (13 percent). A comparison of discharge and loading in water year 1995 with estimates of instream transport showed a good correlation (relative difference of less than 15 percent) for discharge, total organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Estimates of dissolved ammonia and suspended sediment loads correlated poorly with instream transport; relative differences were about 79 and 61 percent, respectively. The pesticides EPTC, atrazine, desethylatrazine, metolachlor, and alachlor were the most commonly detected in the upper Snake River Basin and accounted for about 75 percent of all pesticide detections. All pesticides detected were at concentrations less than 1 microgram per liter and below water-quality criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In samples collected from two small agriculturally dominated tributary basins, the largest number and concentrations of pesticides were detected in May and June following early growing season applications. At one of the sites, the pesticide atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine were detected throughout the year. On the basis of 37 samples collected basinwide in May and June 1994, total annual subbasin applications and instantaneous instream fluxes of EPTC and atrazine showed logarithmic relations with coefficients of determination (R2 values) of 0.55 and 0.62, respectively. At the time of sampling, the median daily flux of EPTC was about 0.0001 percent of the annual quantity applied, whereas the median daily flux of atrazine was between 0.001 and 0.01 percent.

Clark, Gregory M.

1997-01-01

312

Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases in water production are rare in the upper part of the Almond, and a higher percentage of wells in the upper part of the Almond show water decreasing at the same rate as gas than in the main or combined parts of the Almond. In Stagecoach Draw field, the gas production rate after five years is about one-fourth that of the first sample, whereas in Pinedale, Jonah, and Greater Wamsutter fields, the production rate after five years is about one-half that of the first sample. The more rapid gas decline rate seems to be the outstanding feature distinguishing Stagecoach Draw field, which is characterized as a conventional field, from Pinedale, Jonah, and Greater Wamsutter fields, which are generally characterized as tight-gas accumulations. Oil-gas ratios are fairly consistent within Jonah, Pinedale, and Stagecoach Draw fields, suggesting similar chemical composition and pressure-temperature conditions within each field, and are less than the 20 bbl/mmcf upper limit for wet gas. However, oil-gas ratios vary considerably from one area to another in the Greater Wamsutter field, demonstrating a lack of commonality in either chemistry or pressure-temperature conditions among the six areas. In all wells in all four fields examined here, water production commences with gas production-there are no examples of wells with water-free production and no examples where water production commences after first-sample gas production. The fraction of records with water production higher in the second sample than in the first sample varies from field to field, with Pinedale field showing the lowest percentage of such cases and Jonah field showing the most. Most wells have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature.

Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

2010-01-01

313

Chemical and stable isotopic evidence for water/rock interaction and biogenic origin of coalbed methane, Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana U.S.A  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Significant amounts (> 36??million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, ??DH2O and ??18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and ??DCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na-HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median < 1??mg/L) and little or no dissolved oxygen (< 0.15??mg/L), whereas shallow groundwater (depth generally < 120??m) is a mixed Ca-Mg-Na-SO4-HCO3 type; (2) water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation-reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270-3310??mg/L) and low SO4 (median < 0.15??mg/L) values; (4) fractionation between ??DCH4 (- 283 to - 328 per mil) and ??DH2O (- 121 to - 167 per mil) indicates that the production of methane is primarily by biogenic CO2 reduction; and (5) values of ??DH2O and ??18OH2O (- 16 to - 22 per mil) have a wide range of values and plot near or above the global meteoric water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

Rice, C. A.; Flores, R. M.; Stricker, G. D.; Ellis, M. S.

2008-01-01

314

Chemical and stable isotopic composition of water and gas in the Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Evidence for water/rock interaction and the biogenic origin of coalbed natural gas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Significant amounts (> 36 million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, ?DH2O and ?18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and ?DCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na–HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median < 1 mg/L) and little or no dissolved oxygen (< 0.15 mg/L), whereas shallow groundwater (depth generally < 120 m) is a mixed Ca–Mg–Na–SO4–HCO3 type; (2) water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation–reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270–3310 mg/L) and low SO4 (median < 0.15 mg/L) values; (4) fractionation between ?DCH4 (? 283 to ? 328 per mil) and ?DH2O (? 121 to ? 167 per mil) indicates that the production of methane is primarily by biogenic CO2 reduction; and (5) values of ?DH2O and ?18OH2O (? 16 to ? 22 per mil) have a wide range of values and plot near or above the global meteoric water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

Cynthia A Rice;Romeo M Flores;Gary D Stricker;Margaret S Ellis

2008-01-01

315

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques and is applied to the study of the Tensleep Sandstone reservoir in Wyoming. Investigations were performed on CO{sub 2} flooding.

Dunn, T.L.

1996-01-12

316

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995December 31, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques and is applied to the study of the Tensleep Sandstone reservoir in Wyoming. Investigations were performed on COâ flooding.

Dunn

1996-01-01

317

Analysis of data on nutrients and organic compounds in ground water in the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1980-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground-water quality in the upper Snake River Basin. Nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen; hereafter referred to as nitrate) concentrations exceeded the Federal drinking-water regulation of 10 milligrams per liter in three areas in Idaho" the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the area north of Pocatello (Fort Hall area), and the area surrounding Burley. Water from many wells in the Twin Falls area also contained elevated (greater than two milligrams per liter) nitrate concentrations. Water from domestic wells contained the highest median nitrate concentrations; water from industrial and public supply wells contained the lowest. Nitrate concentrations decreased with increasing well depth, increasing depth to water (unsaturated thickness), and increasing depth below water table (saturated thickness). Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations decreased with increasing well depth and depth below water table. The relation between kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations and depth to water was poor. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations in water from wells were correlated among three hydrogeomorphic regions in the upper Snake River Basin, Concentrations of nitrate were statistically higher in the eastern Snake River Plain and local aquifers than in the tributary valleys. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among the three hydrogeomorphic regions. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations were correlated with land-use classifications developed using the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System. Concentrations of nitrate were statistically higher in area of agricultural land than in areas of rangeland. There was no statistical difference in concentrations between rangeland and urban land and between urban land and agricultural land. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among any of the land-use classifications. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations also were correlated with land-use classifications developed by the Idaho Department of Water Resources for the Idaho part of the upper Snake River Basin. Nitrate concentrations were statistically higher in areas of irrigated agriculture than in areas of dryland agriculture and rangeland. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among any of the Idaho Department of Water Resources land-use classifications. Data were sufficient to assess long-term trends of nitrate concentrations in water from only eight wells: four wells north of Burley and four wells northwest of Pocatello. The trend in nitrate concentrations in water from all wells in upward. The following organic compounds were detected in ground water in the upper Snake River Basin: cyanazine, 2,4-D DDT, dacthal, diazinon, dichloropropane, dieldrin, malathion, and metribuzin. Of 211 wells sampled for organic compounds, water from 17 contained detectable concentrations.

Rupert, Michael G.

1994-01-01

318

Castle Geyser and Bobby Sox Trees: Pulses and Pauses in the Development of Hydrothermal Features in the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary 14-C dating of Castle Geyser, combined with observations of living and dead trees in hydrothermal areas, suggests that hydrothermal systems in Yellowstone have pulses of activity interspersed with pauses of little or no activity. Between the time scale of volcanic activity, with pulses and pauses over thousands to hundreds of thousands of years, and geyser eruptions, with pulses and pauses over minutes to decades, lies the time scale for pulses and pauses in the development of individual hydrothermal systems and large thermal basins. Castle Geyser has long been noted as being among the largest, and therefore probably oldest, geysers in Yellowstone. Watson (1961) proposed an age of 8000 years for the geyser cone, and Bryan (2001) suggested that it is 5000 to 15000 years old. Recent dating, accompanied by 3-D laser mapping, suggests a complex, multi- stage development of the geyser. AMS 14C dating of microbial and pollen carbon trapped in siliceous sinter that forms a broad, gently-sloping shield at the base of the geyser cone yields ages of 8787 +/- 60 years BP and 10472 +/- 70 years BP. Carbon from sinter on the cone of the geyser yields ages equal to or younger than 1038 +/- 35 years BP. No samples dated so far have ages between 8787 and 1038 years BP. The morphology of the geyser suggests that the pause after shield formation was followed at least one stage of terrace formation (from either hot spring or pool-type geyser activity), which in turn has been followed by the construction and partial destruction of a massive cone. Where thermal waters are high in silica, thermally killed trees may develop white lower trunks, informally known as "bobby sox." Forest growth implies a time of no thermal activity; forest death, where clear evidence of thermal activity exists, implies inception or rejuvenation of hydrothermal activity. Many thermal features, such as Castle and Old Faithful geysers, have evidence of trees that are now encrusted by silica. The duration from initial tree kill to complete desiccation may be long enough to provide a useful chronometer for thermal activity. The 14C date of a small bobby sox tree near Gem Pool in the Upper Geyser Basin yielded an age of 190 years BP. The pulses and pauses documented by 14C dating of Castle Geyser, and observed in the nature of tree growth and subsequent hydrothermal kill, may be combined to develop a chronology of hydrothermal activity which, when combined with other data sets, may help provide clues to deeper processes in the Yellowstone caldera.

Foley, D.

2007-12-01

319

Minerals Yearbook, 1988: Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The value of nonfuel mineral production in Wyoming rose about 10% in 1988 to $709.8 million. A similar percentage increase in the value of natural sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate (soda ash) production accounted for most of the change. Soda ash continu...

K. Starch W. D. Hausel R. E. Harris

1988-01-01

320

Wyoming: Jackson Hole  

article title:  Green Knoll Forest Fire     View ... 8554) show the area around Jackson Hole, Wyoming, where the Green Knoll forest fire has raged for many days. Due to the year's low ... Management Office announced a high risk for the area. The Green Knoll blaze is suspected to have been sparked by a campfire, and is ...

2013-04-18

321

Wyoming Children's Factbook 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The first part of the report provides a statistical portrait based on seven indicators of well-being for the year 1994: (1) prenatal care; (2) percent low birth-weight babies; (3) births to teens; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) child death rate; (6) teen…

Wyoming P.A.R.E.N.T., Laramie.

322

Assessment of ecological conditions and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities in streams of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. The interagency task group developed a monitoring plan and conducted sampling of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities at 47 sites during 2005-08 to document current ecological conditions and determine existing and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities. Macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish community composition varied between drainage basins, among sites within drainage basins, and by year. Macroinvertebrate communities of the main-stem Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and higher abundance of Ephemeroptera, for example, compared to macroinvertebrate communities in plains tributaries of the Tongue River and the main-stem Powder River. Fish communities of the Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and abundance of introduced species compared to the Powder River where native species were dominant. Macroinvertebrate community metric values from sites in the middle reach of the main-stem Powder River, from below Willow Creek to below Crazy Woman Creek, differed from metric values in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River. Metrics indicative of communitywide differences included measures of taxa richness, relative abundance, feeding mode, and tolerance. Some of the variation in the macroinvertebrate communities could be explained by variation in environmental variables, including physical (turbidity, embeddedness, bed substrate size, and streamflow) and chemical (alkalinity and specific conductance) variables. Of these environmental variables, alkalinity was the best indicator of coalbed natural gas development because of the sodiumbicarbonate signature of the production water. Algal samples from the main-stem Powder River generally confirmed the pattern observed in the macroinvertebrate communities. Algal communities at sites in the middle reach of the Powder River commonly were characterized by dominance by a single taxon and by low biovolume of algae compared to other sites. In contrast to the macroinvertebrate and algal communities, species richness of fish communities was highest in the middle reach of the Powder River. Although a few significant differences in fish metrics were determined along the main-stem Powder River, the differences did not correspond to the pattern observed for the macroinvertebrate and algae communities. Differences in biological communities were noted between years, potentially due to the effects of drought. Macroinvertebrate community metrics, such as Diptera taxa richness, were significantly different in the severe drought year of 2006 from metric values in 2005 and 2007-08. Waterquality data collected during the study indicated that, with few exceptions, water-quality constituents generally did not exceed State or Federal acute and chronic criteria for the protection of aquatic life.

Peterson, David A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Foster, Katharine; Wright, Peter R.; Boughton, Gregory K.

2010-01-01

323

Estimation of Growing Season ET using Wyoming ET Calculator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimations of Evapotranspiration (ET) and Consumptive Irrigation Requirement (CIR) are essential for water resources planning and management. The Wyoming State Engineer's Office currently determines monthly reference evapotranspiration (ET) with an Excel Spreadsheet ET model using average monthly data from a nearby weather station (usually an airport weather station) for the irrigated area of interest, and interpolates them into daily reference ET using either linear or cubic functions. The purpose of this project is to replace the current Excel model with a GIS-based ET calculator. Our approach uses daily weather data to calculate daily reference and actual ET, and then aggregate actual ET into monthly and seasonal ET. Among many reference ET equations available, the ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation (ASCE-ET) and the Hargreaves-Samani equations were selected to calculate daily reference ET. Wyoming ET Calculator, a GIS-based ET tool, was developed to calculate daily potential ET, CIR, and actual ET, using daily reference ET, crop coefficients, effective precipitation ratios, and water stress factors. Total monthly and growing season ET and CIR were determined over the Upper Green River Basin in Wyoming. The long term trends of these totals from 1960-2009 were analyzed and compared to trends in weather data (minimum and maximum temperatures, wind speed, and dew point temperature). We also evaluated the total monthly and growing season ET from Wyoming ET Calculator against satellite-based ET (METRIC ET) estimations for June, July, and August of 2009 around an irrigated area near the Wind River Mountain Range in Wyoming. The total monthly ET from Wyoming ET Calculator agrees very well with total monthly ET from METRIC for well-watered crop areas. For other areas, the Wyoming ET Calculator tends to overestimate total monthly ET values than METRIC, because the tool assumes all NLCD crop area are being irrigated.

Rasmussen, R. W.; Park, G.

2011-12-01

324

Aerial gamma Ray and Magnetic Survey: Idaho Project, Ogden Quadrangle, Utah and Wyoming. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ogden quadrangle in northeastern Utah and southe western Wyoming contains portions of the Green River Basin, the Wasatch-Teton Line, and the Sevier overthrust belt. A small percentage of the quadrangle along the western edge lies within the Basin-Rang...

1979-01-01

325

Diagenetic control on porosity differences between Tensleep and Minnelusa Sandstones, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tensleep Sandstone (Pennsylvanian) in the Bighorn basin and the Minnelusa Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) in the Powder River basin are two prolific hydrocarbon-producing units in Wyoming. Both formations were deposited in a variety of depositional environments, including open and restricted marine, sabkha, and eolian settings. Sandstones of both formations are compositionally similar; they are dominantly quartzarenites containing variable amounts of cements,

P. E. Patterson; S. K. Odland; M. M. Muller

1986-01-01

326

Strippable coal reserves of Wyoming. Location, tonnage, and characteristics of coal and overburden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tertiary rocks along margins of the Powder River basin contain most of the strippable coal reserves in Wyoming. The Wyodak beds, ranging in combined thickness from 30 to 130 feet, crop out on the east flank of the basin and contain an estimated 19 billion tons of strippable subbituminous C-rank coals under less than 200 feet of overburden. Partings between

J. B. Smith; M. F. Ayler; C. C. Knox; B. C. Pollard

1972-01-01

327

Analysis of nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1980-98, National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1995, ground water was the source of drinking water to about 52 percent of the population served by public drinking water systems in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit, which includes parts of Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming. Existing nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water collected in the study unit were compiled and summarized as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s objective to describe water-quality conditions in the Nation?s aquifers. Prerequisites for the inclusion of nitrate and volatile organic compound data into this retrospective analysis are that the data set is available in electronic form, the data were collected during 1980-98, the data set is somewhat regional in coverage, and the locations of the sampled sites are known. Ground-water data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Information Systemand the Idaho and Utah Public DrinkingWater Systems databases were reviewed. Only the most recent analysis was included in the data sets if more than one analysis was available for a site. The National Water Information System data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 480 wells. The median concentration of nitratewas 1.30 milligrams per liter for the 388 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was exceeded in water from 10 of the 200 wells less than or equal to 150 feet deep and in water from3 of 280 wells greater than 150 feet deep. The Public Drinking Water Systems data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 587 wells. The median concentration of nitrate was 1.12 milligrams per liter for the 548 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate was exceeded at 1 site and 22 sites had concentrations equal to or greater than 5 milligrams per liter. The types of land use surrounding a well and the well depth were related to measured nitrate concentrations in the sampled ground water. Overall, water sampled from wells in rangeland areas had a lowermedianmeasured nitrate concentration (0.76 milligrams per liter) than water from areas with an agricultural or urban/residential land use (1.41 and 1.20 milligrams per liter, respectively). In the NationalWater Information System data set, the median measured nitrate concentration in water from urban/residential areas varied from 1.00 milligrams per liter for wells greater than 150 feet deep to 1.84 milligrams per liter for wells less than or equal to 150 feet deep. The Public DrinkingWater Systems and the National Water Information System data sets contained analyses for most of the State and Federally regulated volatile organic compounds in water from about 368 and 74 wells, respectively. Fifteen different volatile organic compounds were detected at least once in ground water sampled from the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit. Water from 21 wells contained at least 1 volatile organiccompound at detectable concentrations. About 68 percent of the volatile organic compounds detected were in water sampled from wells in Salt Lake County, Utah. Tetrachloroethylene was the most commonly detected volatile organic compound in ground water sampled from the study unit, present in 8 out of 442 samples. Maximum contaminant levels for tetrachloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were exceeded in water from one well each.

Thiros, Susan A.

2000-01-01

328

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Final technical report, September 15, 1993October 31, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary study was designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal was accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, and depositional regional frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the

Dunn

1996-01-01

329

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. First quarterly technical progress report, September 15, 1993December 14, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques

Dunn

1993-01-01

330

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994June 30, 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques

Dunn

1994-01-01

331

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Second quarterly, second year, technical progress report, January 1, 1995March 31, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to provide improvements in reservoir characterization techniques. Activities include: an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional and diagenic frameworks; the development of pore system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and reservoir simulations

Dunn

1995-01-01

332

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. First quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994December 31, 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques

Dunn

1995-01-01

333

Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment Work Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of the Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) undertaken by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that facilitates development of ecoregion-based conservation strategies across jurisdictional boundaries and to facili...

A. Ray A. Walters C. P. Melcher N. B. Carr S. L. Garman

2013-01-01

334

Longwall in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The article describes development of a longwall operation at Pacific Corp's Jim Bridger mine in Wyoming, USA. The lease acquisition and permitting process began in late 2003 and the longwall operations began on 5 March 2007. The quality is between sub and bituminous coal. The mine is shallow and the surrounding rock is weaker than longwall mines in Colorado or Utah. DBT supplied the longwall system comprising 1.75 m shields, a 1 m wide face conveyor and a DBT EL200 shear with a 1-m web. The mine also operates a highwall unit and two draglines. 4 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2007-05-15

335

Water Resources of Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S Geological Survey (USGS) website contains water data including water quality samples and water use data, information on USGS projects, links to USGS educational sites, and a bibliography of USGS water resource publications. Projects and studies covered include: the Wyoming Drought Watch, which contains maps of daily streamflow conditions and historical streamflow data; algal-nutrient relations in the Yellowstone River; county water resource studies; estimating peak-streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites; the Integrating Aquatic Ecosystem Data project of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP); an aquifer; water-quality issues associated with irrigation drainage; watershed delineation; urban hydrology; and a pathogen indicator synoptic study.

336

Expansion and Enhacement of the Wyoming Coalbed Methane Clearinghouse Website to the Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse.  

SciTech Connect

Energy development is expanding across the United States, particularly in western states like Wyoming. Federal and state land management agencies, local governments, industry and non-governmental organizations have realized the need to access spatially-referenced data and other non-spatial information to determine the geographical extent and cumulative impacts of expanding energy development. The Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse (WERIC) is a web-based portal which centralizes access to news, data, maps, reports and other information related to the development, management and conservation of Wyomingâ??s diverse energy resources. WERIC was established in 2006 by the University of Wyomingâ??s Ruckelshaus Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) and the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center (WyGISC) with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The WERIC web portal originated in concept from a more specifically focused website, the Coalbed Methane (CBM) Clearinghouse. The CBM Clearinghouse effort focused only on coalbed methane production within the Powder River Basin of northeast Wyoming. The CBM Clearinghouse demonstrated a need to expand the effort statewide with a comprehensive energy focus, including fossil fuels and renewable and alternative energy resources produced and/or developed in Wyoming. WERIC serves spatial data to the greater Wyoming geospatial community through the Wyoming GeoLibrary, the WyGISC Data Server and the Wyoming Energy Map. These applications are critical components that support the Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse (WERIC). The Wyoming GeoLibrary is a tool for searching and browsing a central repository for metadata. It provides the ability to publish and maintain metadata and geospatial data in a distributed environment. The WyGISC Data Server is an internet mapping application that provides traditional GIS mapping and analysis functionality via the web. It is linked into various state and federal agency spatial data servers allowing users to visualize multiple themes, such as well locations and core sage grouse areas, in one domain. Additionally, this application gives users the ability to download any of the data being displayed within the web map. The Wyoming Energy Map is the newest mapping application developed directly from this effort. With over a 100 different layers accessible via this mapping application, it is the most comprehensive Wyoming energy mapping application available. This application also provides the public with the ability to create cultural and wildlife reports based on any location throughout Wyoming and at multiple scales. The WERIC website also allows users to access links to federal, state, and local natural resource agency websites and map servers; research documents about energy; and educational information, including information on upcoming energy-relate conferences. The WERIC website has seen significant use by energy industry consultants, land management agencies, state and local decision-makers, non-governmental organizations and the public. Continued service to these sectors is desirable but some challenges remain in keeping the WERIC site viable. The most pressing issue is finding the human and financial resources to keep the site continually updated. Initially, the concept included offering users the ability to maintain the site themselves; however, this has proven not to be a viable option since very few people contributed. Without user contributions, the web page relied on already committed university staff to publish and link to the appropriate documents and web-pages. An option that is currently being explored to address this issue is development of a partnership with the University of Wyoming, School of Energy Resources (SER). As part of their outreach program, SER may be able to contribute funding for a full-time position dedicated to maintenance of WERIC.

Hulme, Diana; Hamerlinck, Jeffrey; Bergman, Harold; Oakleaf, Jim

2010-03-26

337

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Second quarterly, second year, technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This study is designed to provide improvements in reservoir characterization techniques. Activities include: an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional and diagenic frameworks; the development of pore system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and reservoir simulations testing the impact of permeability and anisotropy on enhanced oil recovery. Results are described.

Dunn, T.L.

1995-04-13

338

Nursing Resources for Wyoming's Health Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After a review of national trends in health care and nursing, recommendations for the utilization of nursing resources in Wyoming to meet health care needs are presented. The Wyoming Commission for Nursing and Nursing Education has been active with regard...

1974-01-01

339

Thermochronology of the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt during the Sevier orogeny: A new, calibrated, multiprocess thermal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Idaho-Wyoming portion of the Idaho-Wyoming-Utah thrust belt, gravity-driven fluid flow was responsible for moving large amounts of heat from the depths of the Early Cretaceous foreland basin eastward toward the stable platform. In the process, isotherms were depressed in the vicinity of the Paris-Willard thrust 100 to 140 m.y.a., and geothermal gradients became abnormally high along the eastern

R. L. Burtner; A. Nigrini

1994-01-01

340

Relative Validity of the Orleans-Hanna Algebra Prognosis Test in the Prediction of Girls' and Boys' Grades in First-Year Algebra.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative predictive validity of girls' and boys' success in algebra is examined. Eighth-grade students completed the Orleans-Hanna Algebra Prognosis Test. These prognosis test scores were correlated with grades that students subsequently earned in first-year algebra. Algebra grades of girls proved to be the more predictable. (Author/DWH)

Hanna, Gerald S.; Sonnenschein, Joan L.

1985-01-01

341

Comparison of Hanna and Hessburg-Barron trephine and punch systems using histological, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and elliptical curve fitting models  

PubMed Central

Background: This study analyzes the characteristics of donor and recipient tissue preparation between the Hessburg-Barron and Hanna punch and trephine systems by using elliptical curve fitting models, light microscopy, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods: Eight millimeter Hessburg-Barron and Hanna vacuum trephines and punches were used on six cadaver globes and six corneal-scleral rims, respectively. Eccentricity data were generated using measurements from photographs of the corneal buttons and were used to generate an elliptical curve fit to calculate properties of the corneal button. The trephination angle and punch angle were measured by digital protractor software from light microscopy and AS-OCT images to evaluate the consistency with which each device cuts the cornea. Results: The Hanna trephine showed a trend towards producing a more circular recipient button than the Barron trephine (ratio of major axis to minor axis), ie, 1.059 ± 0.041 versus 1.110 ± 0.027 (P = 0.147) and the Hanna punch showed a trend towards producing a more circular donor cut than the Barron punch, ie, 1.021 ± 0.022 versus 1.046 ± 0.039 (P = 0.445). The Hanna trephine was demonstrated to have a more consistent trephination angle than the Barron trephine when assessing light microscopy images, ie, ±14.39° (95% confidence interval [CI] 111.9–157.7) versus ±19.38° (95% CI 101.9–150.2, P = 0.492) and OCT images, ie, ±8.08° (95% CI 106.2–123.3) versus ±11.16° (95% CI 109.3–132.6, P = 0.306). The angle created by the Hanna punch had less variability than the Barron punch from both the light microscopy, ie, ±4.81° (95% CI 101.6–113.9) versus ±11.28° (95% CI 84.5–120.6, P = 0.295) and AS-OCT imaging, ie, ±9.96° (95% CI 95.7–116.4) versus ±14.02° (95% CI 91.8–123.7, P = 0.825). Statistical significance was not achieved. Conclusion: The Hanna trephine and punch may be more accurate and consistent in cutting corneal buttons than the Hessburg-Barron trephine and punch when evaluated using elliptical curve fitting models, light microscopy, and AS-OCT.

Moshirfar, Majid; Calvo, Charles M; Kinard, Krista I; Williams, Lloyd B; Sikder, Shameema; Neuffer, Marcus C

2011-01-01

342

Wyoming Community College Commission Annual Report, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC) collaborates with Wyoming's seven community colleges to provide educational experiences that strengthen, support and enrich communities and prepare students to successfully meet life's challenges and recognize and profit from opportunities. Wyoming's seven community colleges provide affordable,…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2009

2009-01-01

343

Wyoming Community College Commission Annual Report, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC) collaborates with Wyoming's seven community colleges to provide educational experiences that strengthen, support and enrich communities and prepare students to successfully meet life's challenges and recognize and profit from opportunities. Wyoming's seven community colleges provide affordable,…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2008

2008-01-01

344

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work in conjunction with Marathon Oil Company in the Oregon Basin field utilizing Formation MicroImager and Formation MicroScanner logs has been completed. Tensleep outcrops on the western side of the Bighorn Basin are not of the quality necessary to do d...

T. L. Dunn

1996-01-01

345

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996March 31, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work in conjunction with Marathon Oil Company in the Oregon Basin field utilizing Formation MicroImager and Formation MicroScanner logs has been completed. Tensleep outcrops on the western side of the Bighorn Basin are not of the quality necessary to do detailed study of stratification. This made the use of borehole imaging logs, in which stratification can be recognized, particularly attractive

Dunn

1996-01-01

346

Depositional environments of middle Minnelusa Leo (Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian), Wyoming, South Dakota, and Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The informal middle member of the Minnelusa Formation, commonly known as Leo, consists of a spectrum of sediments including sandstone, dolomite, anhydrite, bedded chert, limestone, and radioactive carbonaceous shale. Deposition within the upper Paleozoic alliance basin of the present day tri-state area of South Dakota, Wyoming, and Nebraska occurred in sabkha, tidal flat, and shallow subtidal environments. Major and minor

Paul L. Tromp

1983-01-01

347

Compositional Variations of Organic Material from Green River Oil Shale. Wyoming No. 1 Core.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oil-shale samples, selected from a core of the Green River Basin (Wyoming), were studied to ascertain differences in the composition and/or chemical structure of the organic material in the samples relative to stratigraphic position within the Green River...

G. L. Cook W. E. Robinson

1973-01-01

348

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Work in conjunction with Marathon Oil Company in the Oregon Basin field utilizing Formation MicroImager and Formation MicroScanner logs has been completed. Tensleep outcrops on the western side of the Bighorn Basin are not of the quality necessary to do detailed study of stratification. This made the use of borehole imaging logs, in which stratification can be recognized, particularly attractive for the western side of the Bighorn Basin. The borehole imaging logs were used to determine the dip angle and dip direction of stratification as well as to distinguish different lithologies. It is also possible to recognize erosional bounding surfaces and classify them according to a process-oriented hierarchy. Foreset and bounding surface orientation data was utilized to create bedform reconstructions in order to simulate the distribution of flow-units bounded by erosional surfaces. The bedform reconstructions indicate that the bedforms on the western side of the basin are somewhat different from those on the eastern side of the Bighorn Basin. A report has been submitted to Marathon Oil Company, the principal cost-share subcontractor. Marine dolomitic units initially identified and correlated in the Bighorn Basin have been correlated into the Wind River Basin. Gross and net sand maps have been produced for the entire upper Tensleep in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, as well as for each of the eolian units identified in the study. These maps indicate an overall thickening of the Tensleep to the west and south. This thickening is a result of both greater subsidence to the west and south and greater differential erosion to the north and east. An article documenting the North Oregon Basin field study will appear in the Gulf Coast Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Foundation Conference volume entitled {open_quotes}Stratigraphic Analysis Utilizing Advanced Geophysical, Wireline and Borehole Technology for Petroleum Exploration and Production{close_quotes}.

Dunn, T.L.

1996-04-26

349

Tensleep, Minnelusa, and Casper Formations, Wyoming and adjacent states: study of Permian-Pennsylvanian oil occurrence and oil gravity distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an area covering the western Wind River basin, all of the Bighorn basin, and the northern half of the Wyoming part of the Powder River basin, the Tensleep\\/Minnelusa Formation contains vast quantities of oil. South of that line, very little Tensleep\\/Minnelusa\\/Casper Formation oil is found, even in large, closed structures. Examination of outcrops and correlations in the subsurface south

David A. Moore

1986-01-01

350

Geologic and Hydrologic Assessment of Natural Gas from Coal Seams in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, Great Green River Basin, Wyoming and Colorado. Topical Report, January 1993-January 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Executive summary and introduction; Tectonic and stratigraphic setting and coal occurrence of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lower Tertiary Fort Union Formation, Greater Green River Basin; Coal rank, gas content and composition, and or...

R. Tyler W. R. Kaiser A. R. Scott D. S. Hamilton R. G. McMurry N. Zhou W. L. Fisher

1994-01-01

351

Early Eocene Bat from Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fossil skeleton of an early Eocene bat, the oldest known flying mammal, was found in southwest Wyoming. The bat is assigned to the new species Icaronycteris index of the suborder Microchiroptera. It was apparently of a young male whose body was buried in varved marls of the Green River Formation, on the bottom of Fossil Lake, about 50 million

Glenn L. Jepsen

1966-01-01

352

210Pb as a tracer of shelf-basin transport and sediment focusing in the Chukchi Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activities of dissolved, particulate, and sedimentary 210Pb were measured in the shelf-slope region of the Chukchi Sea. Samples were collected as part of the Shelf-Basin Interactions (SBI) Phase II process study (6 May-15 June, 2002) along three shelf-basin transects identified as West Hanna Shoal, East Hanna Shoal, and Barrow Canyon. Distributions of 210Pb and suspended particulate matter indicate efficient removal of 210Pb over the shelf by particle scavenging. Low 210Pb activities measured throughout the halocline of the Canada Basin are attributed to shelf scavenging and subsequent advective transport into the interior basin. Additionally, 210Pb inventories were used to construct a water-column-sediment budget of 210Pb and determine regions of particle export and deposition on the continental shelf and slope. Sediment focusing calculated with this 210Pb budget was observed throughout the shelf-slope region, particularly in shallow (˜100 m) shelf waters at Barrow Canyon. Despite elevated concentrations of suspended particulate matter in Barrow Canyon, the 210Pb budget does not indicate that sediment transport occurred from the West and East Hanna Shoals into Barrow Canyon.

Lepore, K.; Moran, S. B.; Smith, J. N.

2009-08-01

353

CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

Kiilsgaard, Thor, H.; Patten, Lowell, L.

1984-01-01

354

Geologic Mapping and Geologic History: Sheep Mountain, Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Half way through the second semester of our year-long integrated Sed/Strat and Structure course we travel to Sheep Mountain, Wyoming where the students spend 5 days describing and measuring section and the constructing geologic and structural maps. The field data gathered then form the basis for a paper titled: "Geologic History of the Sheep Mountain Region". In addition to simply making geologic maps, stratigraphic sections and structural cross-sections, the students have to put the local geology into the broader contexts of the Big Horn Basin and sequences of western orogenies.

Malinconico, Lawrence L.

355

75 FR 19920 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wyoming; Revisions to the Wyoming...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revisions to the Wyoming Air Quality Standards and Regulations...Wyoming has revised its Air Quality Standards and Regulations...section 110 of the Clean Air Act. In the ``Rules...1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, Colorado...

2010-04-16

356

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. First quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts are aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focuses on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization in terms of changes in relative permeability, wettability, and pore structure, and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work will establish new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in change in relative permeability and in wellbore scale damage. This task will be accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends at field scale; and chemical modeling of both the experimental and reservoir systems in order to scale up the experiments to field scale. Accomplishments to date are described.

Dunn, T.L.

1995-01-12

357

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts are aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focuses on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization in terms of changes in relative permeability, wettability, and pore structure, and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work will establish new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in change in relative permeability and in wellbore scale damage. This task will be accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends at field scale; and chemical modeling of both the experimental and reservoir systems in order to scale up the experiments to field scales.

Dunn, T.L.

1994-07-22

358

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. First quarterly technical progress report, September 15, 1993--December 14, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts are aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focuses on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization in terms of changes in relative permeability, wettability, and pore structure, and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work will establish new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in a change in relative permeability and wellbore scale damage. This task will be accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends on the scale of a field; and chemical modeling of the reservoir and experimental systems in order to scale-up the experiments to reservoir conditions.

Dunn, T.L.

1993-12-14

359

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Final technical report, September 15, 1993--October 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study was designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal was accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, and depositional regional frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts were aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focused on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work establishes new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in wellbore scale damage. This task was accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends the at field scale; and chemical modeling of both the experimental and reservoir systems.

Dunn, T.L.

1996-10-01

360

Wyoming Kindergartens: Past, Present, and Future. Wyoming Center for Educational Research Report Series 1993, No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews the history of kindergartens in America and in the state of Wyoming, and examines current trends and future directions of kindergarten programs. Wyoming's first kindergarten was established in Sundance in 1891-92. The University of Wyoming began offering courses in kindergarten theory by the mid 1940s, and the kindergarten…

Hook, Jim; Shaeffer, Peggy

361

Natural gas resource characterization study of the Mesaverde group in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming: A strategic plan for the exploitation of tight gas sands. Final report, September 1993April 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report summarizes work completed during the contract on developing an innovative exploration and production strategy for the Mesaverde Group tight gas sands in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Thorough investigation of the processes affecting the sources and reservoirs of this gas resource has been undertaken in order to establish the critical parameters that determine how gas accumulates

Surdam

1996-01-01

362

Cretaceous biostratigraphy in the Wyoming thrust belt.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Cretaceous section of the thrust belt, fossils are especially useful for dating and correlating repetitive facies of different ages in structurally complex terrain. The biostratigraphic zonation for the region is based on megafossils (chiefly ammonites) , which permit accurate dating and correlation of outcrop sections, and which have been calibrated with the radiometric time scale for the Western Interior. Molluscan and vertebrate zone fossils are difficult to obtain from the subsurface, however, and ammonites are restricted to rocks of marine origin. Palynomorphs (plant microfossils) have proven to be the most valuable fossils in the subsurface because they can be recovered from drill cuttings. Palynomorphs also are found in both marine and nonmarine rocks and can be used for correlation between facies. Stratigraphic ranges of selected Cretaceous marine and nonmarine palynomorphs in previously designated reference sections in Fossil Basin, Wyoming are correlated with the occurrence of ammonites and other zone fossils in the same sections. These correlations can be related to known isotopic ages, and they contribute to the calibration of palynomorph ranges in the Cretaceous of the Western Interior. -from Authors

Nichols, D. J.; Jacobson, S. R.

1982-01-01

363

Wyoming Geology and Geography, Unit I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit on the geology and geography of Wyoming for elementary school students provides activities for map and globe skills. Goals include reading and interpreting maps and globes, interpreting map symbols, comparing maps and drawing inferences, and understanding time and chronology. Outlines and charts are provided for Wyoming geology and…

Robinson, Terry

364

Supervision and Evaluation: The Wyoming Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intent of this study was to assess the perceptions and actions of Wyoming principals concerning their role in supervising and evaluating teachers. A survey was sent to all 286 principals in the state of Wyoming, of which, 143 returned surveys, a response rate of 50%. Findings suggested that principals utilized supervisory behaviors more often…

Range, Bret G.; Scherz, Susan; Holt, Carleton R.; Young, Suzanne

2011-01-01

365

Are Wyoming's Secondary School Vocational Programs Geared to Wyoming Industry? A Project Submitted to the Wyoming Research Coordinating Unit, Cheyenne, Wyoming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether or not the vocational curriculum offered in Wyoming secondary schools was directed toward providing graduates with occupational skills that permitted employment, three sources of information were examined: (1) industrial arts and trades and industry classes for the 1962 to 1967 school years, (2) attitudes of Wyoming industry…

Wright, Robert D.

366

Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Annual Partnership Report is a collection of all established partnerships that Wyoming community colleges cultivated and maintained for fiscal year 2004. Serving as transfer preparation institutions, vocational educators, providers of workforce training and personal development education, and cultural centers, Wyoming comprehensive community…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2005

2005-01-01

367

A Compilation of Planning Information for Wyoming's Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Program and campus development plans of Wyoming's community colleges, as of September and October 1973, are provided. The report is divided into three sections: 1. The Colleges (Casper College, Central Wyoming College, Eastern Wyoming College, Laramie County Community College, Northwest Community College, Sheridan College, and Western Wyoming

Maier, Stephen

368

Preliminary Assessment of Burrowing Owl Population Status in Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, little is known about Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) abundance in Wyoming. The Wyoming Game and Fish Department (WCFD) classifies the Burrowing Owl as a Species of Special Concern. We identified available data sources to assess Burrowing Owl distribution and population trends in Wyoming and conducted a population survey in eastern Wyoming. The WGFD's Wildlife Observation System (WOS), initiated in

NICOLE M. KORFANTA; LOREN W. AYERS; STANLEY H. ANDERSON; DAVID B. MCDONALD

2001-01-01

369

Natural gas resource characterization study of the Mesaverde group in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming: A strategic plan for the exploitation of tight gas sands. Final report, September 1993-April 1996  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes work completed during the contract on developing an innovative exploration and production strategy for the Mesaverde Group tight gas sands in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Thorough investigation of the processes affecting the sources and reservoirs of this gas resource has been undertaken in order to establish the critical parameters that determine how gas accumulates in gas-saturated, anomalously pressured rocks and that affect the successful and efficient exploitation of tight gas sands. During the contract, IER researchers have (1) developed a natural gas exploration paradigm that can be be used to create improved exploitation strategies for the Mesaverde Group tight gas sands, thereby lowing exploration risk; (2) detected and delineated sweet spots using 2-D and 3-D models of well log responses, petrographic and petrophysical studies, water chemistry analyses, and natural frature studies; (3) investigated the relationship of natural fractures and lineaments to hydrocarbon production in the GGRB; (4) created an expanded database for the GGRB; (5) prioritized volunteered experimental drill sites in the GGRB for potential cooperative research and development; and (6) participated in joint studies on a horizontal well completion in the Almond Formation, Echo Springs field, Washakie Basin.

Surdam, R.C.

1996-05-01

370

Chemical weathering and related controls on surface water chemistry in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical relationships among surface waters, soils and rocks were investigated in the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Shoshone River in northwestern Wyoming. The area is underlain entirely by andesitic volcanic rocks. Smectite is the only clay mineral forming in soils over much of the area, although minor kaolinite occurs in a few areas of higher-than-average rainfall. Mass-balance

William R. Miller; James I. Drever

1977-01-01

371

Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The goals during this period included the following objectives from the Statement of Work: in Phase 2A, completion of Subtask 2.1.4 -- Interpret data, of Task 2.1 -- Acquire 3-D seismic data; and, in Phase 2B, completion of Subtask 2.2.1 -- Solicit bids and award, and initiation of Subtask 2.2.2 -- Acquire cores, of Task 2.2 -- Drill slant hole. Subtask 2.1.4 -- Interpret data: Interpretation of the 3- D seismic survey was completed on a Sun Sparcstation10 workstation (UNIX based), using Landmark Graphics latest version of Seisworks 3D software. Subtask 2.2.2 -- Acquire cores: Sierra had picked a location and prepared a drilling plan for the slant/horizontal wellbores. Sierra was ready to submit an Application for Permit to Drill. However, due to the fact that Sierra entered into an agreement to sell the Badger Basin property, the drilling phase was put on hold.

Fortmann, R.G.

1994-01-14

372

Agricultural land-use classification using landsat imagery data, and estimates of irrigation water use in Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, and Minidoka counties, 1992 water year, Upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin study unit, land- and water-use data were used to describe activities that have potential effects on water quality, including biological conditions, in the basin. Land-use maps and estimates of water use by irrigated agriculture were needed for Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, and Minidoka Counties (south-central Idaho), four of the most intensively irrigated counties in the study unit. Land use in the four counties was mapped from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery data for the 1992 water year using the SPECTRUM computer program. Land-use data were field verified in 108 randomly selected sections (640 acres each); results compared favorably with land-use maps from other sources. Water used for irrigation during the 1992 water year was estimated using land-use and ancillary data. In 1992, a drought year, estimated irrigation withdrawals in the four counties were about 2.9 million acre-feet of water. Of the 2.9 million acre-feet, an estimated 2.12 million acre-feet of water was withdrawn from surface water, mainly the Snake River, and nearly 776,000 acre-feet was withdrawn from ground water. One-half of the 2.9 million acre-feet of water withdrawn for irrigation was considered to be lost during conveyance or was returned to the Snake River; the remainder was consumptively used by crops during the growing season.

Maupin, Molly A.

1997-01-01

373

Strict liability for oil spills in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The multi-tiered legal action that followed the April 8, 1980 crude oil spill into a Wyoming river, contaminating sixty-eight river miles and causing considerable damage to the river's ecosystem, terminated in the finding by the Wyoming Supreme Court that pipeline operators were strictly liable for any unpermitted discharge of pollution into waters of the state. The background of the federal and state water-pollution legislation is compared and contrasted. The Court's decision of strict liability is analyzed and guidelines are presented for assessing liability for oil spills in the state of Wyoming. 111 references.

Ellerbe, J.M.

1983-01-01

374

Reconnaissance examination of selected oil-sand outcrops in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Numerous surface occurrences of oil sands and oil seeps have been reported in the geologic literature for Wyoming. Seventy-eight reported occurrences are listed in Wyoming Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-5. Most of the listed deposits are taken from old references with vague descriptions and locations. Field reconnaissance examinations of selected oil-sand occurrences were conducted to describe them better and to assess their potential economic importance. A reconnaissance geologic map of each examined deposit was constructed, and the deposits were sampled and described. Ten occurrences were described during the 1984 and 1985 field seasons. The oil-sand occurrences were all sandstone reservoirs ranging from Pennsylvanian to Tertiary. Based on these reconnaissance examinations, only three occurrences appeared to be potentially significant. The Rattlesnake Hills occurrence, west of Casper, is an asymmetrical anticline with oil-impregnated sands in the Mesaverde Formation, Frontier Formation, and, most extensively, the Muddy Sandstone. Other formations in the structure contain minor amounts of oil staining. The Muddy Creek occurrence, southwest of Rawlins, contains oil-impregnated sandstones in the lower Wasatch Formation. This stratigraphically controlled trap dips to the west into the Washakie basin. The Conant Creek occurrence, southeast of Riverton, includes stratigraphically controlled oil sands in the relatively flat Wagon Bed Formation.

Ver Ploeg, A.

1986-08-01

375

78 FR 10512 - Wyoming Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part...Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior...Wyoming program'') under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of...

2013-02-14

376

POPO AGIE PRIMITIVE AREA, WYOMING.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource appraisal was made of the Popo Agie Primitive Area and some adjoining lands. This scenic mountainous region of the Wind River Range in west-central Wyoming is composed largely of ancient granitic rocks in which virtually no evidence of mineral deposits was found. Deep crustal seismic-reflection profiles obtained across the southern Wind River Range suggest the possibility that young sedimentary rocks, similar to those at the surface along the northeast flank of the range, are present at depth beneath the granite in the Popo Agie primitive Area. If present, such buried sedimentary rocks could be petroleum bearing. Additional seismic and gravity studies would probably add valuable information, but ultimately very expensive, very deep drilling will be necessary to test this possibility.

Pearson, Robert, C.; Patten, L. L.

1984-01-01

377

Science Nation: Wind Powers Careers in Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the federal government began to incorporate wind into the country's energy portfolio, educators in Wyoming started planning to train technicians who will maintain the turbines that capture this clean, consistent energy. Students entering the wind energy program at Laramie County Community College in Cheyenne, Wyoming, range from environmentally minded young people right out of high school to individuals in the middle of their careers.

378

Hydrology of the Bear Lake Basin, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bear Lake’s natural watershed is made up of relatively low mountains covered with sagebrush at lower elevations and southern exposures and fir-aspen forests at higher elevations and northern exposures. The basin is traversed by the Bear River that begins high in the Unita Mountains and flows through Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming before feeding the Great Salt Lake. The Bear River

Patsy Palacios; Chris Luecke; Justin Robinson

2007-01-01

379

Organic Carbon Burial and Phosphogenesis in the Antler Foreland Basin: An Out-of-Phase Relationship During the Lower Mississippian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratigraphic analysis of Lower Mississippian successions at four localities in Utah and Wyoming establish the relative timing of a large carbon isotope excursion ( 7‰) and episode of regional phosphogenesis in the Antler foreland basin and adjacent shelf (Delle Phosphatic Member). The 13C excursion, which appears global in scope, is marked by peak values of 7.3‰ in western Wyoming, which

MATTHEW R. SALTZMAN

2003-01-01