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1

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING  

E-print Network

Chapter HQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

2

Coal-spoil and ground-water chemical data from two coal mines; Hanna Basin and Powder River basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data are presented describing chemical and mineralogical composition of spoil material and chemical quality of groundwater at 2 Wyoming mine sites. Samples were collected at Medicine Bow-Seminoe Number 1 mining area in the Hanna basin and at the Cordero Mine in the Powder River basin. The data collected from these sites, along with similar data from other coal-mining states in the West, are used to evaluate methods used in predicting post-mining groundwater quality. The data include mineral-composition analyses, paste-extract analyses, and sulfur-forms analyses of coal spoil, chemical analyses of water from batch-mixing experiments; and analyses of water samples collected from wells in the coal aquifers and from wells in the saturated spoils. (USGS)

Larson, L.R.

1988-01-01

3

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 5. Hanna III field test research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna III was conducted during the spring

T. C. Bartke; D. D. Fischer; S. B. King; R. M. Boyd; A. E. Humphrey

1985-01-01

4

Statistical summary of the chemical quality of surface water in the Powder River coal basin, the Hanna coal field, and the Green River coal region, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A summary of the chemical quality of surface water in the three principal coal-producing areas of Wyoming was intensified by the U.S. Geologic Survey during 1975-81, in response to interest spurred by a dramatic increase in surface mining of the areas. This statistical summary consists of descriptive statistics and regression analyses of data from 72 stations on streams in the Powder River coal basin, the Hanna coal field, and the Green River coal region of Wyoming. The mean dissolved-solids concentrations in streams ranged from 15 to 4,800 mg/L. Samples collected near mountainous areas or in the upstream reaches of perennial streams in the plains had the smallest concentrations of dissolved solids, and the predominant ions were calcium and bicarbonate. Samples from ephemeral, intermittent, and the downstream reaches of perennial streams in the plains contained relatively large dissolved-solids concentrations, and the predominant ions usually were sodium and sulfate. Regression models showed that the concentrations of dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, alkalinity, sulfate, and chloride correlated well with specific-conductance values in many of the streams. (USGS)

Peterson, D. A.

1988-01-01

5

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 5. Hanna III field test research report  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna III was conducted during the spring and summer of 1977. The test involved only two process wells but also had twelve water monitoring wells, eight in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and four in an aquifer above the coal seam. The test was designed to obtain information regarding the effects of the process on groundwater within the target seam and the overlying aquifer. The site for Hanna III had a low productivity aquifer above the Hanna No. 1 seam. The wells within the seam and the overlying aquifer were placed in such a manner that maximum information on groundwater flow and quality could be obtained. This report covers: (1) site selection and characterization; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 4 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

6

What Does Energy Development Mean for Wyoming? A Community Study at Hanna, Wyoming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enormous but often overlooked impact of energy resource development on small Western United States communities can be illustrated by the experiences of the traditional coal mining town of Hanna, Wyoming. Coal development doubled the population between 1970 and 1972, and required the addition of a sewer system and a police force, plus the…

Nellis, Lee

7

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 1. General information and executive summary  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation. This report covers: (1) history of underground coal gasification leading to the Hanna tests; (2) area characteristics (basic meteorological and socioeconomic data); (3) site selection history; (4) site characteristics; (5) permitting; and (6) executive summary. 5 figs., 15 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

8

Summary of the groundwater monitoring program at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification test sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality analyses of groundwaters at the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification (UCG) test sites comprise part of a continuing monitoring program to assess the impact of UCG on the environment. Collection and analysis of groundwater samples by DOE and various DOE contractor laboratories were initiated in 1974 and intensified in 1980. Samples from 48 wells were tested for 46

S. D. Cooke; R. L. Oliver

1985-01-01

9

Results of the groundwater restoration project, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Test Site, Wyoming: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments conducted during the 1970s at the Department of Energy (DOE) site near Hanna, Wyoming, formed six underground cavities in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam, an aquifer of low permeability. When the first Hanna UCG experiment began in March 1973, researchers had little information about what effects the geologic or hydrologic characteristics of the area might have on the UCG process; likewise, the effects of UCG on the environment were unknown. Since the UCG experiments were completed, dilute concentrations of pyrolysis products and leachates have been detected in groundwater monitoring wells in and near some of the six cavities. Three primary UCG indicator constituents have been measured at elevated concentrations: phenols, TDS, and sulfate. The Hanna III cavity water exceeded the DOE target level for TDS and sulfate, and the Hanna I cavity water exceeded the DOE target level for phenols. The indicated phenols contamination, however, was in groundwater sampled from a well which was previously used as a production well during the experiment. Water pumped during the restoration project and a new well located approximately 10 ft from the old production well was sampled and no elevated phenols concentration was detected. Therefore, the restoration performed on the Hanna I cavity water was not necessary. The restoration was performed, however, because these indications were not available until during the restoration. Locally, various other constituents exceed DOE target levels, but concentrations are very near target levels and are well within livestock use limits. 2 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Oliver, R.L.

1988-01-01

10

Geothermal resources of Wyoming sedimentary basins  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal resources of Wyoming sedimentary basins have been defined through analysis of over 14,000 oil well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logging of 380 wells, measurement of rock thermal conductivities, calculation of 60 heat-flow values, drilling of 9 geothermal exploratory wells, conductive thermal modeling, and the study of existing geologic, hydrologic, and thermal spring data. All data have been integrated into interpretations of the thermal structure of the Big Horn, Wind River, Washakie, Great Divide, Green River, Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley basins of Wyoming. Controlling factors for the formation of geothermal resources in these basins are regional heat flow, rock thermal conductivity values, depths to regional aquifers, and hydrologic flow directions. Regional basin heat-flow values range from about 40 to 80 milliwatts/m/sub 2/; measured thermal conductivities are in the general range of 1.5 to 4.0 watts/m/sup 0/K; and depths to aquifers are up to 11,000 m (36,000 ft). This results in regional geothermal gradients for Wyoming basins in the range of 15/sup 0/ to 40/sup 0/C/km (44/sup 0/ to 116/sup 0/F/mi) with predicted maximum aquifer temperatures near 300/sup 0/C (570/sup 0/F). Anomalous geothermal areas within the basins contain measured thermal gradients as high as 400/sup 0/C/km (1,160/sup 0/F/mi) over shallow depth intervals. These anomalous areas are the combined result of local geologic structures and hydrologic flow. A simplified model for such areas requires water movement through a syncline with subsequent heating due to regional heat flow and thermal conductivities of overlying rock units. Consequent flow of the heated water up over an anticline produces a localized area of anomalous geothermal gradients.

Heasler, H.P.

1983-08-01

11

Sampling and analyses report for December 1991 semiannual postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG site, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted from November 16, 1987, through February 26, 1988 at a site approximately one mile south of Hanna, Wyoming. The test consisted of a dual-module operation to evaluate the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) technology, the elongated linked well (ELW) technology, and the interaction of closely spaced modules operating simultaneously. The test caused two cavities to form in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and associated overburden. The Hanna No. 1 coal seam was approximately 30 ft thick and lay at depths between 350 and 365 ft below the surface in the test area. The coal seam was overlain by sandstones, siltstones, and claystones deposited by various fluvial environments. The groundwater monitoring was designed to satisfy the requirements of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) in addition to providing research data toward the development of UCG technology that minimizes environmental impacts. Further background material and the sampling and analytical procedures associated with the sampling task are described in the Rocky Mountain 1 Postburn Groundwater Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan (Mason and Johnson 1988).

Lindblom, S.R.

1992-01-01

12

Sampling and analyses report for June 1992 semiannual postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG site, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RMl) underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted from November 16, 1987 through February 26, 1988 (United Engineers and Constructors 1989) at a site approximately one mile south of Hanna, Wyoming. The test consisted of dual module operation to evaluate the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) technology, the elongated linked well (ELW) technology, and the interaction of closely spaced modules operating simultaneously. The test caused two cavities to be formed in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and associated overburden. The Hanna No. 1 coal seam is approximately 30 ft thick and lays at depths between 350 ft and 365 ft below the surface in the test area. The coal seam is overlain by sandstones, siltstones and claystones deposited by various fluvial environments. The groundwater monitoring was designed to satisfy the requirements of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) in addition to providing research data toward the development of UCG technology that minimizes environmental impacts. The June 1992 semiannual groundwater.sampling took place from June 10 through June 13, 1992. This event occurred nearly 34 months after the second groundwater restoration at the RM1 site and was the fifteenth sampling event since UCG operations ceased. Samples were collected for analyses of a limited suite set of parameters as listed in Table 1. With a few exceptions, the groundwater is near baseline conditions. Data from the field measurements and analysis of samples are presented. Benzene concentrations in the groundwater were below analytical detection limits.

Lindblom, S.R.

1992-08-01

13

Sampling and analyses report for December 1992 semiannual postburn sampling at the RMI UCG Site, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

During December 1992, groundwater was sampled at the site of the November 1987--February 1988 Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification test near Hanna, Wyoming. The groundwater in near baseline condition. Data from the field measurements and analyzes of samples are presented. Benzene concentrations in the groundwater are below analytical detection limits (<0.01 mg/L) for all wells, except concentrations of 0.016 mg/L and 0.013 mg/L in coal seam wells EMW-3 and EMW-1, respectively.

Lindblom, S.R.

1993-03-01

14

Sampling and analyses report for December 1991 semiannual postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG site, Hanna, Wyoming. [Quarterly report, January--March 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted from November 16, 1987, through February 26, 1988 at a site approximately one mile south of Hanna, Wyoming. The test consisted of a dual-module operation to evaluate the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) technology, the elongated linked well (ELW) technology, and the interaction of closely spaced modules operating simultaneously. The test caused two cavities to form in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and associated overburden. The Hanna No. 1 coal seam was approximately 30 ft thick and lay at depths between 350 and 365 ft below the surface in the test area. The coal seam was overlain by sandstones, siltstones, and claystones deposited by various fluvial environments. The groundwater monitoring was designed to satisfy the requirements of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) in addition to providing research data toward the development of UCG technology that minimizes environmental impacts. Further background material and the sampling and analytical procedures associated with the sampling task are described in the Rocky Mountain 1 Postburn Groundwater Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan (Mason and Johnson 1988).

Lindblom, S.R.

1992-01-01

15

Geothermal resources of Wyoming sedimentary basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal resources of Wyoming sedimentary basins have been defined through analysis of over 14,000 oil well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logging of 380 wells, measurement of rock thermal conductivities, calculation of 60 heat-flow values, drilling of 9 geothermal exploratory wells, conductive thermal modeling, and the study of existing geologic, hydrologic, and thermal spring data. All data have been integrated into interpretations

Heasler

1983-01-01

16

Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site  

SciTech Connect

Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-12-01

17

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the

F. C. Ethridge; L. K. Burns; W. G. Alexander; G. N. II Craig; A. D. Youngberg

1983-01-01

18

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA  

E-print Network

Chapter PQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA By G.D. Stricker Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

19

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

E-print Network

Chapter GQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

20

GOLDEN EAGLE PREDATION ON PRONGHORNS IN WYOMING'S GREAT DIVIDE BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1980-85, while studying pronghorn antelope in Wyoming's Great Divide Basin, we recorded seven inci- dents of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) attacking prong- horns (Antilocapra americana). Most reported observa- uons of golden eagle predation on pronghorns involve newborn fawns during spring and summer (Beale and Smith 1973, Barrett 1978, Beale 1978, Bodie 1978, Von Gunten 1978, Autenrieth 1980), but a

R. D. DEBLINGER; A. WILLIAM ALLDREDGE

21

Structural analysis of the Sheep Mountain anticline, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Geology STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE SHEEP MOUNTAIN ANTICLINE, BIGHORN BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by JEFFREY HUGH HENNIER Approved as to style and content by: o n . pan (Chairman of Committee) Ear R. os sn (Member... and Pete Petersen. Thanks go to Paul Nixon and Dr. Bob Clark at the Mobil Field Research Lab, for allowing me to participate in their structural geology seminar and an airplane flight over Wyoming. Neither the burdens nor the rewards of graduate school...

Hennier, Jeffrey Hugh

2012-06-07

22

Update on coal in Big Horn basin, Montana and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Big Horn Coal basin is located within the topographic and structural basin of the same name and is defined by the limits of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation in northwestern Wyoming and the Eagle Sandstone in south-central Montana. The coal in this basin ranges in rank from high volatile C bituminous (based primarily on resistance to weathering) to subbituminous B coal. In general, the Mesaverde and Eagle coals are highest in heat content, averaging over 10,500 Btu/lb; the Fort Union coals in the Red Lodge-Bear Creek and Grass Creek fields average about 10,200 Btu/lb and are second highest in heating value. The Meeteetse Formation contains coals that average 9,800 Btu/lb, the lowest heating values in the basin. An average heating value for all coal in the basin is slightly less than 10,000 But/lb. The average sulfur content of all coals in this basin is less than 1%, with a range of 0.4 to 2.2%. Coal mining in the Big Horn Coal basin began in the late 1880s in the Red Lodge field and has continued to the present. Almost 53 million tons of coal have been mined in the basin; nearly 78% of this production (41 million tons) is from bituminous Fort Union coal beds in the Red Lodge-Bear Creek and Bridger coal fields, Montana. Original in-place resources for the Big Horn Coal basin are given by rank of coal: 1,265.12 million tons of bituminous coal resources have been calculated for the Silvertip field, Wyoming, and the Red Lodge-Bear Creek and Bridger fields, Montana; 563.78 million tons of subbituminous resources have been calculated for the remaining Wyoming coal fields.

Jones, R.W.

1983-08-01

23

Thermal history determined by fission-track dating for three sedimentary basins in California and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of fission-tracks is demonstrated in studies of time-temperature relationships in three sedimentary basins in the western United States; in the Tejon Oil Field area of the southern San Joaquin Valley, California; in the northeastern Green River basin, Wyoming, and in drill holes in the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming.

Naeser, Nancy D.

1984-01-01

24

THE CRUSTAL STRUCTURE OF ORIENTALE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR BASIN FORMATION. J. C. Andrews-Hanna1  

E-print Network

for the origin of the super-isostatic mantle plugs observed beneath a number of lunar basins are then considered of individual basins [6]. These crustal thickness mod- els were limited by the amplification of the short the overturned flap of ejecta (Figure 2). Origin of super-isostatic mantle plugs. The excess positive gravity

25

Tectonic Structures Responsible for Anisotropic Transmissivities in the Paleozoic Aquifers, Southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A structure contour map datum on top of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep sandstone aquifer was drafted by the Wyoming Geological Survey. The map covers approximately 7,200 square miles in the southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming including Washakie and Hot Springs Co...

D. L. Blackstone, P. W. Huntoon

1984-01-01

26

Thermal analysis of the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and geologic data from over 3,000 oil and gas wells within a 180 km x 30 km area that transect across the southern Powder River Basin in Wyoming, U.S.A., were used to determine the present thermal regime of the basin. Three-dimensional temperature fields within the transect, based on corrected bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs) and other geologic information, were assessed using: (1) A laterally constant temperature gradient model in conjunction with an L{sub 1} norm inversion method, and (2) a laterally variable temperature gradient model in conjunction with a stochastic inversion technique. The mean geothermal gradient in the transect is 29 C/km, but important lateral variations in the geothermal gradient exist. The average heat flow for the southern Powder River Basin is 52 mW/m{sup 2} with systematic variations between 40 mW/m{sup 2} and 60 mW/m{sup 2} along the transect. Extremely high local heat flow (values up to 225 mW/m{sup 2}) in the vicinity of the Teapot Dome and the Salt Creek Anticline and low heat flow of 25 mW/m{sup 2} occurring locally near the northeast end of the transect are likely caused by groundwater movement.

McPherson, B.J.O.L.; Chapman, D.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1996-11-01

27

Carbonate facies patterns and oil shale genesis in Eocene Green River Formation, Fossil basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facies patterns and associated vertical sequences of kerogenous carbonates (oil shales) of the Green River Formation in Fossil basin, Wyoming, provide new insights into the deposition of oil shale. Unique to Fossil basin is a facies pattern consisting of kerogen-rich calcimicrite at the basin's depocenter succeeded laterally by laminated calcimicrite, bioturbated calcimicrite, and finally calcareous siliciclastics. This same pattern occurs

H. Paul Buchheim

1983-01-01

28

Multiphase CO 2 flow, transport and sequestration in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequestration of anthropogenic “greenhouse gases” such as CO2 is proposed as a means of reducing global warming. We tested the possibility of sequestering CO2 in regional-scale aquifers in sedimentary basins, including residence time in possible aquifer storage sites and migration rates away from such sites. The example basin studied is the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. We calibrated regional scale rock

B. J. O. L McPherson; B. S Cole

2000-01-01

29

Isotopic identification of natural vs. anthropogenic sources of Pb in Laramie basin groundwaters, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water well samples, precipitation, and leachates of aquifer rock samples from the Laramie basin, Wyoming, were analyzed to test the suitability of Pb isotopes for tracing hydrologic processes in a basin where Sr isotopes had proven effective. Leachable Pb from host rocks to aquifers in this basin have isotopically distinct compositions and isotopic tracing would be effective in differentiating natural

R. N. Toner; C. D. Frost; K. R. Chamberlain

2003-01-01

30

Hydrodynamic effect on oil accumulation in a stratigraphic trap, Kitty Field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

E-print Network

HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT ON OIL ACCUMULATION IN A STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP, KITTY FIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by GREGORY MARTIN LARBERG "I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Geology HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECT ON OIL ACCUMULATION IN A STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP, KITTY FIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING A Thesis by GREGORY MARTIN LARBERG Approved as to style...

Larberg, Gregory Martin

2012-06-07

31

Laramide deformation of the Rocky Mountain Foreland, southeastern corner of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

E-print Network

. . 74 75 . . . . 75 . 76 LIST OF PLATES PAGE Plate 1. Geologic Map of the Southeastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming Plate 2. View (looking east) of the south limb of the Warm Springs anticline. . . . . Plate 3. View (looking northeast) of the eastern... . . 74 75 . . . . 75 . 76 LIST OF PLATES PAGE Plate 1. Geologic Map of the Southeastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming Plate 2. View (looking east) of the south limb of the Warm Springs anticline. . . . . Plate 3. View (looking northeast) of the eastern...

Derr, Douglas Neanion

2012-06-07

32

Gas desorption and adsorption isotherm studies of coals in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG), of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper (Wyoming), investigated the coalbed methane resources (CBM) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, from 1999 to the present. Beginning in late 1999, the study also included the Williston Basin in Montana and North and South Dakota and Green River Basin and Big Horn Basin in Wyoming. The rapid development of CBM (referred to as coalbed natural gas by the BLM) during the early 1990s, and the lack of sufficient data for the BLM to fully assess and manage the resource in the Powder River Basin, in particular, gave impetus to the cooperative program. An integral part of the joint USGS-BLM project was the participation of 25 gas operators that entered individually into confidential agreements with the USGS, and whose cooperation was essential to the study. The arrangements were for the gas operators to drill and core coal-bed reservoirs at their cost, and for the USGS and BLM personnel to then desorb, analyze, and interpret the coal data with joint funding by the two agencies. Upon completion of analyses by the USGS, the data were to be shared with both the BLM and the gas operator that supplied the core, and then to be released or published 1 yr after the report was submitted to the operator.

Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; McGarry, Dwain E.; Stillwell, Dean P.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Stillwell, Cathy R.; Ochs, Alan M.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Osvald, Karl S.; Taylor, Sharon L.; Thorvaldson, Marjorie C.; Trippi, Michael H.; Grose, Sherry D.; Crockett, Fred J.; Shariff, Asghar J.

2006-01-01

33

Megascopic lithologic studies of coals in the Powder River basin in Wyoming and in adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between 1999 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated coalbed methane (CBM) resources in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin. The study also included the CBM resources in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin of North Dakota and the Wyoming portion of the Green River Basin of Wyoming. This project involved the cooperation of the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG) of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper, Wyo., and 16 independent gas operators in the Powder River, Williston, and Green River Basins. The USGS and BLM entered into agreements with these CBM operators to supply samples for the USGS to analyze and provide the RMG with rapid, timely results of total gas desorbed, coal quality, and high-pressure methane adsorption isotherm data. This program resulted in the collection of 963 cored coal samples from 37 core holes. This report presents megascopic lithologic descriptive data collected from canister samples extracted from the 37 wells cored for this project.

Trippi, Michael H.; Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stanton, Ronald W.; Chiehowsky, Lora A.; Moore, Timothy A.

2010-01-01

34

A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

E-print Network

Chapter SW A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING By R.M. Flores of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

35

FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS  

E-print Network

Chapter PS FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

36

Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserve base in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. Of that total, with a maximum stripping ratio of 10:1, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons. The estimate of economically recoverable resources was 25 billion tons.

Scott, David C.; Luppens, James A.

2013-01-01

37

Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 989 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 72 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 13 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Bighorn Basin Providence of Wyoming and Montana.

2008-01-01

38

Uncertainty quantification in predicting deep aquifer recharge rates, with applicability in the Power River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach to determine the uncertainties associated with a water budget model developed to predict recharge rates to deep aquifers in the Power River Basin of northeastern Wyoming. The inputs to this model are springtime snowmelt, streambed infiltration, infrequent convective rainfall, and evapotranspiration. The dominant recharge mechanism for the deeper aquifer units is assumed to be infiltrated

F. L. Ogden; K. Puckett

2006-01-01

39

Integrating geophysics and geochemistry to evaluate coalbed natural gas produced water disposal, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of methane from thick, extensive coalbeds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. More than 4.1 billion barrels of water have been produced with coalbed natural gas (CBNG) since 1997. Infiltration impoundments, which are the principal method used to dispose CBNG water, contribute to the recharge of underlying aquifers. Airborne electromagnetic surveys of an

Brian Andrew Lipinski

2007-01-01

40

Ground-water data from selected wells in alluvial aquifers, Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on selected wells completed in alluvial aquifers in the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming are presented without interpretation. Records of 300 wells, chemical analyses of water from 43 wells, and logs of 113 wells are listed in three tables. A map showing location of wells is included. (USGS)

Wells, Deborah K.

1982-01-01

41

Regional-scale permeability by heat flow calibration in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forward modeling of coupled fluid and heat flow in the Powder River basin, Wyoming, is used to explain anomalously high heat flow values observed in the southern portion of the basin. Effective basin-scale permeabilities of selected Powder River basin aquifers and aquitards were calibrated by matching surface heat flow measurements to simulation results. Fractures associated with a large anticline in the southwestern part of the basin were found to play a major role in the basin's thermal regime. While the model results are non-unique, they demonstrate that regional structural features play an important role in a basin's overall energy budget and fluid flow regime. With the results of the basin-scale model it is possible to evaluate regional-scale flow and transport processes.

McPherson, Brian J. O. L.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Forster, Craig B.; Cole, Barret S.

42

Guidebook to the coal geology of the Powder River coal basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This survey of Wyoming's Powder River Coal Basin was done in June 1980, with emphasis on coal geology and specifically environments of coal deposition. A geologic map explanation was included. The survey included: (1) the regional depositional framework of the uranium- and coal-bearing Wasatch (Eocene) and Fort Union (Paleocene) Formations, Powder River Basin; (2) the Lake De Smet Coal Seam: the product of active basin-margin sedimentation and tectonics in the Lake De Smet Area, Johnson County, Wyoming, during Eocene Wasatch time; (3) fluvial coal settings of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Clear Creek Area; (4) coal resources of the Powder River Coal basin; (5) survey of chemical and petrographic characteristics of Powder River Basin coals; and (6) the Rawhide Coal Mine, Campbell County, Wyoming. The depositional framework of the Fort Union and Wasach formations is characterized by a northward-flowing intermountain basinal fluvial system. The paleogeographic reconstruction of the fluvial settings of the Tongue River Member deposits in the Powder River-Clear Creek area sugges two important subenvironments of coal accumulation. The thickest and most important coals are found in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and the Eocene Wasatch Formation. Each section was discussed in detail. (DP)

Glass, G.B. (ed.)

1980-01-01

43

Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. As of January 2007, permits for more than 4000 impoundments had been issued within Wyoming. A study

Richard W. Healy; Cynthia A. Rice; Timothy T. Bartos; Michael P. McKinley

2008-01-01

44

Competitive Effects of Introduced Annual Weeds on Some Native and Reclamation Species in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four experiments were conducted to examine the competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on certain native and reclamation species. The first experiment was initiated by discing three sites in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, at three distances from ...

E. B. Allen, D. H. Knight

1980-01-01

45

Regional thermal-inertia mapping from an experimental satellite ( Powder River basin, Wyoming).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new experimental satellite has provided, for the first time, thermal data that should be useful in reconnaissance geologic exploration. Thermal inertia, a property of geologic materials, can be mapped from these data by applying an algorithm that has been developed using a new thermal model. A simple registration procedure was used on a pair of day and night images of the Powder River basin, Wyoming, to illustrate the method.-from Author

Watson, K.

1982-01-01

46

Invasive species and coal bed methane development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fastest growing areas of natural gas production is coal bed methane (CBM) due to the large monetary returns and\\u000a increased demand for energy from consumers. The Powder River Basin, Wyoming is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of\\u000a CBM development with projections of the establishment of up to 50,000 wells. CBM disturbances may make the native

E. Bergquist; P. Evangelista; T. J. Stohlgren; N. Alley

2007-01-01

47

Conservation Opportunities for Securing In-Stream Flows in the Platte River Basin: A Case Study Drawing on Casper, Wyoming’s MunicipalWater Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Platte River Basin consists of tributaries largely in Wyoming, Colorado and Western Nebraska, with the main stem in Central Nebraska. Critical wildlife habitat on the main stem requires additional in-stream flows. The watershed is one hosting multiple resources, a variety of users, and managed by an array of state and federal agencies. This study proposes a basis for securing

Aaron Waller; Donald McLeod; David Taylor

2004-01-01

48

Tailings basin reclamation: Atlantic City Iron Mine, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

An 81 ha (200 ac) tailings impoundment at a taconite operation in Wyoming abandoned in 1985 has been a source of blowing dust. The site qualified for reclamation under Wyoming's Abandoned Mine Land program. The reclamation design included: incorporating commercially available organic amendments and fertilizers into a 300 mm (12 in.) thick cap of a sterile gravelly clay loam cover material, planting trees in the protective wind/snow shadows of rock beams and rock snow fences, lowering the water level n a flooded mine pit that was feeding uncontrolled seeps, and constructing a wide tailings pond spillway that allows flood control while minimizing seasonal water level fluctuations in the pond. The construction of the earthwork aspects of the design were completed over two construction seasons, including work during the winter at this high-altitude (2,470 m [8,100 ft.]) site. This occurred because snow from an early winter storm that collected behind the rock beams and rock snow fences was slow to melt. Furthermore, the increased snow catch made the site too wet the following spring to allow seeding during the normal seeding window; a fall planting was necessary. The rocky nature of the cover material prompted the development of innovative reclamation approaches, including fabricating a rock rake bulldozer blade and applying organic soil amendments by aerial spraying. A randomly-configured two-acre test plot was installed to evaluate the benefits of various soil amendments as the site matures. Future work on the site will include tree seedling planting and plugging of a decant pipeline.

Gusek, J.J.; Richmond, T.C.

1999-07-01

49

Hydrodynamics of Minnelusa Formation, north Power River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Minnelusa Formation (Permian-Pennsylvanian) has produced over 250 million bbl of oil, from mainly stratigraphic traps in the Powder River basin. Production is dominantly from eolian sandstone reservoirs trapped by paleotopographic highs, simple closure, or porosity pinch-outs. Most of the production to date is from upper Minnelusa sandstones in the northeastern portion of the basin, where conditions are optimal for stratigraphic entrapment. The focus of this paper is on hydrodynamics as an additional control on the localization of hydrocarbons. Specifically, areas of low potential energy with respect to oil and gas can be mapped as a function of the potentiometric surface, fluid density, and aquifer configuration. This study in the Powder River basin defined an area of minimum potential energy with respect to hydrocarbons. Synhydrodynamic and posthydrodynamic hydrocarbon migration syn/post hydrodynamics will result in the majority of hydrocarbons moving toward the area of minimum potential energy. The area encompasses the majority of Minnelusa hydrocarbons discovered to date.

Maloney, W.V.

1987-08-01

50

Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

2006-01-01

51

Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

1985-06-13

52

Candy Draw: significant new Minnelusa field, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Candy Draw field is located in T53N, R69W, Campbell County, Wyoming. It was discovered by Santa Fe Energy Company in June 1985. Production is from a stratigraphic trap in the lower B sandstone of the Permian Minnelusa Formation. Nine wells are capable of production, and further development is underway. Proven reserves are 9 million bbl of oil. Primary recoverable reserves are calculated at 1 million bbl, or 11% of oil in place. An additional 2 million bbl are estimated to be recoverable from secondary waterflood. Gross ultimate reserves from the nine producing wells are 3 million bbl, or 33% of oil in place. Candy Draw field was discovered by utilizing seismic stratigraphy to confirm regional geologic mapping of the lower B sandstone and overlying Opeche Shale. A lower B sandstone buildup was projected on trend and modeled after Wagonspoke field. Sonic logs were used to construct synthetic seismic models, which indicated that a lower B sandstone buildup could be seen on seismic data. Two seismic lines were acquired with data in the 55 to 65-Hz frequency range. A strike line showed a strong-amplitude anomaly present over the field which matched models that indicated 35 ft of lower B sandstone was present with 25% porosity. Computer modeling indicated that less than 20 ft of sandstone with porosity values of 10 to 12% could not be resolved due to the similar velocity of the Opeche Shale. This was confirmed by development drilling. Modeling from existing well control is critical due to the complex lithology of the Minnelusa Formation. Pitfalls exist, but seismic data have become a valuable tool for Minnelusa exploration.

Gallivan, L.B.; Bjorlie, S.C.

1986-08-01

53

Geological remote sensing of Palaeogene rocks in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing studies of Palaeogene sediments in the Wind River Basin (Wyoming) were used for mapping stratigraphic units, sedimentary features and facies, and structural patterns. Thematic Mapper principal component images for the central and eastern Wind River Basin along with geological investigations and spectral analyses allowed: mapping of the Fort Union, Wind River, and Wagon Bed formations (Fm) and their subunits; recognition of two subunits in the Wind River Fm, one of which can be traced for 75 km; determination of sediment source and depositional environment of units within the Wind River Fm; correlation of the Wagon Bed Fm across the basin; and apparent confirmation of different sources of volcanic debris in the western and southeastern exposures of the Wagon Bed Fm.

Krishtalka, L.; Stucky, R. K.; Redline, A. D.

1988-01-01

54

William Hanna, 1910-2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Legendary cartoonist William Hanna has died at his home in Los Angeles at age 90. Hanna, along with his partner of over 50 years, Joseph Barbera, created some of the world's best known and most beloved cartoon characters, including Tom and Jerry, the Flintstones, Scooby-Doo, Snagglepuss, Yogi Bear, Huckleberry Hound, and many, many others. Hanna got his start as a lyricist and composer with Harmon-Ising Studios, the company that created the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoon series, in the early 1930s. In 1937 Hanna moved to MGM and soon afterward partnered with Barbera. Their first success was "Puss Gets the Boot," a cat and mouse cartoon that earned an Academy Award nomination and provided the genesis for Tom and Jerry. Between 1943 and 1952 the team won seven Oscars for their animated shorts. After MGM closed its animation division in the 1950s, Hanna and Barbera formed their own company and moved to television, producing numerous successful animated comedies. Probably the best known of these were the Flintstones, a parody of the Honeymooners and the first prime-time cartoon series, and Yogi Bear, who was modeled after Phil Silvers' Sergeant Bilko. Over the years since its creation in 1957 the Hanna-Barbera company developed over 150 cartoon and live-action television series and produced more than 5,000 TV animations, winning eight Emmys in the process. As a testament to the continued appeal of Hanna and Barbera's characters, the Cartoon Network recently created the Boomerang cable network, which exclusively showcases the Hanna-Barbera library.

De Nie, Michael W.

2001-01-01

55

Uncertainty quantification in predicting deep aquifer recharge rates, with applicability in the Power River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an approach to determine the uncertainties associated with a water budget model developed to predict recharge rates to deep aquifers in the Power River Basin of northeastern Wyoming. The inputs to this model are springtime snowmelt, streambed infiltration, infrequent convective rainfall, and evapotranspiration. The dominant recharge mechanism for the deeper aquifer units is assumed to be infiltrated water at the aquifer margins, where the formations daylight at the edges of the basin. Historical records are used to model infiltration along the formations. Gaps in spatial and temporal data were filled using interpolation and climate model reanalysis data. The uncertainty associated with each component of the water budget model is quantified using a Monte Carlo analysis with error distributions for each input parameter to develop a methodology to estimate groundwater recharge with confidence intervals in semi-arid areas.

Ogden, F. L.; Puckett, K.

2006-12-01

56

Depositional history of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Wind River basin area, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-three measured sections of the Dinwoody Formation, including five from the literature, provide information on thickness, lithology, paleontology, and stratigraphic relations within the Wind River basin and immediately adjacent areas of Wyoming. Most of these sections are in Fremont County, and some lie within the Wind River Indian Reservation. The Dinwoody becomes progressively thinner eastward, from a maximum thickness of 54.6 m in the northwestern Wind River Mountains to zero near the Natrona County line. The formation is characterized by yellowish-weathering, gray siltstone and silty shale. Variable amounts of limestone, sandstone, gypsum, and claystone are also present. Marine bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods (Lingula), and conodonts are common in the western part of the study area, but are absent to the northeast in gypsiferous strata, and near the eastern limit of Dinwoody deposition. The Dinwoody in the Wind River Basin area was deposited unconformably on the Upper Permian Ervary Member of the Park City Formation during the initial Mesozoic flood onto the Wyoming shelf during the Griesbachian, and represents the first of three Lower Triassic transgressive sequences in the western miogeocline. Conodonts of the Isarcica Chronozone document the rapid nature of this eastward transgression. The Permian surface underlying the Dinwoody rarely shows evidence of the long hiatus separating rocks of this age and earliest Triassic deposits. The Dinwoody transgression was followed by westward progradation of the Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group across the study area.

Paul, R.K.; Paull, R.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States))

1993-04-01

57

Undrilled Muddy formation (Lower Cretaceous) paleodrainage basin, southwestern Wyoming and northwestern Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Muddy formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the central and northern Rocky Mountains has produced over 1.5 billion bbl of oil equivalent hydrocarbons. Traps are developed in buried hills, valley fills, and onlapping marine sands associated with subaerial unconformities formed during a sea level drop. At least 10 paleodrainage basins developed at maximum lowstand. Of these, production has been established in seven. One such paleodrainage, herein designated the Washakie/Sand Wash basin (WSW) drainage, is only drilled peripherally and remains essentially untested over nearly 20,000 km/sup 2/. The WSW paleodrainage is productive in Wyoming from local tributary sandstones at Sugar Creek field (Sierra Madre uplift) and Lost Soldier field (Sweetwater uplift). A major through-going trunk drainage network is productive at Brady field (Rock Springs uplift) and in numerous pools on the Axial and Douglas Creek arches of northwestern Colorado. A recent deep wildcat in northwestern Colorado has confirmed subsurface existence of additional valley networks. Ten to fourteen percent porosity at 5800 m and recent deep Muddy equivalent valley fill discoveries on the southern Moxa arch (Wyoming) demonstrate reservoir potential throughout this trend. Future drilling successes will require 3400 to 6000-m deep tests but should result in significant deep gas and condensate production.

Dolson, J.; Leighton, V.

1989-03-01

58

Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial lower Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium- and hydrocarbon-exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains, as in the channel-sandstone

Seeland

1978-01-01

59

Competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on some native and reclamation species in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments were conducted to examine the competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on certain native and reclamation species. The first experiment was initiated by discing three sites in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, at three distances from introduced weed seed sources. Introduced weed colonization was greatest when a seed source was located nearby. Higher weed cover resulted in reductions

E. B. Allen; D. H. Knight

1980-01-01

60

Estimate of underflow in the Niobrara River Basin across the Wyoming-Nebraska state line  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to estimate the amount of ground water flowing across the Wyoming-Nebraska State line within the Niobrara Rive basin and to evaluate the accuracy of that estimate. The approximate effort involed in obtaining additional data to determine the underflow more accurately also is discussed. This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer and Director of the Conservation and Survey Division of the University of Nebraska, at the request of the Niobrara River Compact Commission. The following paragraph requesting the work is quoted from the report of the Engineering Subcommittee to the Niobrara River Compact Commission, Ainsworth, Nebr., October 29, 1956: Need for additional data under this item is confined to ground-water data since surface-water data discussions are covered under item 1. It is recommended that the Commission request the Geological Survey in cooperation with each of the three states to develop estimates of ground-water flows across state lines, together with ground-water contour maps extending adequate distanced into each state, such estimates and maps to be based on existing data and qualified by their evaluation of resultant percentage degree of accuracy. In addition they should be requested to furnish an estimate of cost to obtain additional data necessary to bring the estimate to within a more acceptable degree of accuracy as may be desired by the Commission.

Babcock, H.M.; Keech, Charles F.

1957-01-01

61

Vegetation analysis in the Laramie Basin, Wyoming from ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The application of ERTS-1 imagery to vegetation mapping and identification was tested and confirmed by field checking. ERTS-1 imagery interpretation and density contour mapping allows definition of minute vegetation features and estimation of vegetative biomass and species composition. Large- and small-scale vegetation maps were constructed for test areas in the Laramie Basin and Laramie mountains of Wyoming. Vegetative features reflecting grazing intensity, moisture availability, changes within the growing season, cutting of hay crops, and plant community constituents in forest and grassland are discussed and illustrated. Theoretical considerations of scattering, sun angle, slope, and instrument aperture upon image and map resolution were investigated. Future suggestions for applications of ERTS-1 data to vegetative analysis are included.

Evans, M. A.; Redfern, F. R.

1973-01-01

62

Drill hole data for coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Montana and Wyoming is part of the U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project. Essential to that project was the creation of a comprehensive drill hole database that was used for coal bed correlation and for coal resource and reserve assessments in the PRB. This drill hole database was assembled using data from the USGS National Coal Resources Data System, several other Federal and State agencies, and selected mining companies. Additionally, USGS personnel manually entered lithologic picks into the database from geophysical logs of coalbed methane, oil, and gas wells. Of the 29,928 drill holes processed, records of 21,393 are in the public domain and are included in this report. The database contains location information, lithology, and coal bed names for each drill hole.

Haacke, Jon; Scott, David C.

2013-01-01

63

Invasive species and coal bed methane development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the fastest growing areas of natural gas production is coal bed methane (CBM) due to the large monetary returns and increased demand for energy from consumers. The Powder River Basin, Wyoming is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of CBM development with projections of the establishment of up to 50,000 wells. CBM disturbances may make the native ecosystem more susceptible to invasion by non-native species, but there are few studies that have been conducted on the environmental impacts of this type of resource extraction. To evaluate the potential effects of CBM development on native plant species distribution and patterns of non-native plant invasion, 36 modified Forest Inventory and Analysis plots (each comprised of four 168-m2 subplots) were established in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. There were 73 168-m2 subplots on control sites; 42 subplots on secondary disturbances; 14 on major surface disturbances; eight on well pads; and seven on sites downslope of CBM wells water discharge points. Native plant species cover ranged from 39.5 ?? 2.7% (mean ?? 1 SE) in the secondary disturbance subplots to 17.7 ?? 7.5% in the pad subplots. Non-native plant species cover ranged from 31.0 ?? 8.4% in the discharge areas to 14.7 ?? 8.9% in the pad subplots. The control subplots had significantly less non-native species richness than the combined disturbance types. The combined disturbance subplots had significantly greater soil salinity than the control sites. These results suggest that CBM development and associated disturbances may facilitate the establishment of non-native plants. Future research and management decisions should consider the accumulative landscape-scale effects of CBM development on preserving native plant diversity. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

Bergquist, E.; Evangelista, P.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Alley, N.

2007-01-01

64

Viability of underground coal gasification in the 'deep coals' of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to evaluate the PRB coal geology, hydrology, infrastructure, environmental and permitting requirements and to analyze the possible UCG projects which could be developed in the PRB. Project economics on the possible UCG configurations are presented to evaluate the viability of UCG. There are an estimated 510 billion tons of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. These coals are found in extremely thick seams that are up to 200 feet thick. The total deep coal resource in the PRB has a contained energy content in excess of twenty times the total world energy consumption in 2002. However, only approximately five percent of the coal resource is at depths less than 500 feet and of adequate thickness to be extracted by open pit mining. The balance is at depths between 500 and 2,000 feet below the surface. These are the PRB 'deep coals' evaluated for UCG in this report. The coal deposits in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming are thick, laterally continuous, and nearly flat lying. These deposits are ideal for development by Underground Coal Gasification. The thick deep coal seams of the PRB can be harvested using UCG and be protective of groundwater, air resources, and with minimum subsidence. Protection of these environmental values requires correct site selection, site characterization, impact definition, and impact mitigation. The operating 'lessons learned' of previous UCG operations, especially the 'Clean Cavity' concepts developed at Rocky Mountain 1, should be incorporated into the future UCG operations. UCG can be conducted in the PRB with acceptable environmental consequences. The report gives the recommended development components for UCG commercialization. 97 refs., 31 figs., 57 tabs., 1 app.

NONE

2007-06-15

65

Sedimentology, Detrital Zircon Geochronology, and Stable Isotope Paleoaltimetry of the Early Eocene Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large sedimentary basins in Wyoming archive information about tectonic setting and paleotopography during Laramide deformation. In the northwestern corner of the Wind River Basin, the early Eocene Indian Meadows Formation and overlying Wind River Formation are well exposed. Previous studies of fossil assemblages in the two formations place the depositional age in the Wasatchian Land Mammal Age (51-55 Ma). We present results of a multidisciplinary study of sedimentology, detrital geochronology, and isotope paleoaltimetry. Lithostratigraphic data from four measured sections show that the sedimentary environment changed from alluvial fan-debris flow to anastomosing river systems, with paleocurrent directions mostly southward. Clast counts and sandstone modal framework point counts show that the proportions of Precambrian granite clasts, feldspar and lithic fragments increase upsection, indicating the sediment source terrane experienced rapid unroofing during early Eocene. Detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra show that the majority of the sediment was recycled from Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the Sevier thrust belt. One sample from the top of the Indians Meadow Formation mainly contains zircons from Grenville-age basement, which were most likely recycled from Cambrian sandstone. Surprisingly, very few Archean zircons were found as the proportion of basement granite clasts is high. Late Cretaceous-early Paleocene zircons were derived from the magmatic arc, but no depositional age zircons were recovered. The ?18O values of unaltered paleosol carbonate range between -8.5 and -9.8 (VPDB), similar to ?18O values of paleosol carbonate in the Bighorn Basin during early Eocene. Correcting for warmer Eocene global temperature and lower ?18O values of seawater, the inferred ?18O value of early Eocene precipitation is -6.9± 0.7 (VSMOW). The inferred precipitation ?18O value is comparable to that of the modern summer precipitation of the same latitude in the Great Plains, suggesting that the paleoelevation of the early Eocene Wind River Basin and Bighorn Basin was on the order of 500 meters.

Fan, M.; Decelles, P. G.; Gehrels, G. E.; Dettman, D. L.; Peyton, S. L.

2008-12-01

66

Seismic properties investigation of the Springer Ranch landslide, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A recent and rapid increase since the mid-1970's in commercial and residential development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, is caused by exploitation of vast coal and other resources in the basin. One geologic hazard to such development is landsliding. A landslide sufficiently representative of others in the area was chosen for detailed seismic studies. Studies of this landslide show that a low-velocity layer overlies a high-velocity layer both on the slide and away from it and that the contact between the volocity layers is nearly parallel with the preslide topographic surface. Computed shear and other elastic moduli of the low-velocity layer are about one-tenth those of the high-velocity layer. When failure occurs within the slope materials, it will very likely be confined to the low-velocity layer. The number and position of main shear planes in the landslide are unknown, but the main slippage surface is probably near the contact between the low- and high-velocity layers. The main cause of landslide failure in the study area is apparently the addition of moisture to the low-velocity layer.

Miller, C. H.; Ramirez, A. L.; Bullard, T. G.

1980-01-01

67

Characterization and fluid flow simulation of naturally fractured Frontier sandstone, Green River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Significant gas reserves are present in low-permeability sandstones of the Frontier Formation in the greater Green River Basin, Wyoming. Successful exploitation of these reservoirs requires an understanding of the characteristics and fluid-flow response of the regional natural fracture system that controls reservoir productivity. Fracture characteristics were obtained from outcrop studies of Frontier sandstones at locations in the basin. The fracture data were combined with matrix permeability data to compute an anisotropic horizontal permeability tensor (magnitude and direction) corresponding to an equivalent reservoir system in the subsurface using a computational model developed by Oda (1985). This analysis shows that the maximum and minimum horizontal permeability and flow capacity are controlled by fracture intensity and decrease with increasing bed thickness. However, storage capacity is controlled by matrix porosity and increases linearly with increasing bed thickness. The relationship between bed thickness and the calculated fluid-flow properties was used in a reservoir simulation study of vertical, hydraulically-fractured and horizontal wells and horizontal wells of different lengths in analogous naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The simulation results show that flow capacity dominates early time production, while storage capacity dominates pressure support over time for vertical wells. For horizontal wells drilled perpendicular to the maximum permeability direction a high target production rate can be maintained over a longer time and have higher cumulative production than vertical wells. Longer horizontal wells are required for the same cumulative production with decreasing bed thickness.

Harstad, H. [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM (United States); Teufel, L.W.; Lorenz, J.C.; Brown, S.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.

1996-08-01

68

In-place oil shale resources underlying Federal lands in the Green River and Washakie Basins, southwestern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geologic-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated an in-place oil shale resource of 906 billion barrels under Federal mineral rights, or 62 percent of the total oil shale in place, in the Green River and Washakie Basins, Wyoming. More than 67 percent of the total oil shale in-place resource, or 969 billion barrels, is under Federal surface management.

Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

2011-01-01

69

Fluvial deposits of Yellowstone tephras: Implications for late Cenozoic history of the Bighorn basin area, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several deposits of tephra derived from eruptions in Yellowstone National Park occur in the northern Bighorn basin area of Wyoming and Montana. These tephra deposits are mixed and interbedded with fluvial gravel and sand deposited by several different rivers. The fluvial tephra deposits are used to calculate stream incision rates, to provide insight into drainage histories and Quaternary tectonics, to infer the timing of alluvial erosion-deposition cycles, and to calibrate rates of soil development. ?? 1992.

Reheis, M.C.

1992-01-01

70

Cumulative potential hydrologic impacts of surface coal mining in the eastern Powder River structural basin, northeastern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are 16 existing and six proposed surface coal mines in the eastern Powder River structural basin of northeastern Wyoming. Coal mining companies predict water level declines of 5 ft or more in the Wasatch aquifer to extend form about 1,000 to about 2,000 ft beyond the mine pits. About 3,000 wells are in the area of potential cumulative water

L. J. Martin; D. L. Naftz; H. W. Lowham; J. G. Ranki

1988-01-01

71

Sr isotope tracing of aquifer interactions in an area of accelerating coal-bed methane production, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sr isotope data on groundwater samples from coal and overlying sandstone aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, demonstrate that the Sr isotope ratio effectively identifies groundwater from different aquifers where major ion geochemistry and O and H stable isotope data fail. Groundwaters from sandstone aquifers have a uniform 87Sr\\/86Sr ratio of 0.7126 0.7127. Waters from coal seams vary

C. D. Frost; B. N. Pearson; K. M. Ogle; E. L. Heffern; R. M. Lyman

2002-01-01

72

Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water Budget at a Storage Impoundment Site, Beaver Creek Drainage, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of producing wells, from less than 300 in 1997 to more than 10,000 in 2002, with as many as 40,000 new wells projected to be drilled during the next decade. CBM development involves the co-production of large volumes of coalbed

A. A. Payne; D. M. Saffer; J. R. Wheaton; S. Bierbach

2003-01-01

73

Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin ofWyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are

Brian A. Lipinski; James I. Sams; Bruce D. Smith; William Harbert

2008-01-01

74

Oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales in the Eocene Green River in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. This CD-ROM includes reports, data, and an ArcGIS project describing the assessment. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. Total in-place resources for the three assessed units in the Green River Formation are: (1) Tipton Shale Member, 362,816 million barrels of oil (MMBO), (2) Wilkins Peak Member, 704,991 MMBO, and (3) LaClede Bed of the Laney Member, 377,184 MMBO, for a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place. This compares with estimated in-place resources for the Piceance Basin of Colorado of 1.53 trillion barrels and estimated in-place resources for the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado of 1.32 trillion barrels.

2011-01-01

75

Ground-water and stream-water interaction in the Owl Creek basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding of the interaction of ground-water and surface-water resources is vital to water management when water availability is limited.Inflow of ground water is the primary source ofwater during stream base flow. The water chemistry of streams may substantially be affected by that inflow of ground water. This report is part of a study to examine ground-water and surface-water interaction in the Owl Creek Basin, Wyoming, completed by the U.S. Geological Survey incooperation with the Northern Arapaho Tribe and the Shoshone Tribe. During a low flow period between November\\x1113 - 17, 1991, streamflowmeasurements and water-quality samples were collected at 16 selected sites along major streams and tributaries in the Owl Creek Basin,Wyoming. The data were used to identify stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow and to examine causes of changes in stream chemistry.Streamflow measurements, radon-222 activity load, and dissolved solids load were used to identified stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow.Streamflow measurements identified three stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Analysis of radon-222 activity load identified five stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Dissolvedsolids load identified six stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. When these three methods were combined, stream reaches in two areas, theEmbar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area, were identified as receiving ground-water inflow.The Embar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area were then evaluated to determine the source of increased chemical load in stream water. Three potential sources were analyzed: tributary inflow, surficial geology, and anticlines. Two sources,tributary inflow and surficial geology, were related to changes in isotopic ratios and chemical load in the Embar Area. In two reaches in the Embar Area, isotopic ratios of 18O/16O, D/H, and 34S/32S indicated that tributary inflow affected stream-water chemistry. Increased chemical load of dissolved solids and dissolved sulfate in North Fork andSouth Fork Owl Creek appear to be related to the percentage of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits and of Cretaceous-Jurassic deposits in the drainage area. In the Thermopolis Anticline Area, changes in water chemistry in Owl Creek were not related to tributary inflow, surficial geology, or anticlines.The three tributaries that flow into Owl Creek in the Thermopolis Anticline Area did not substantially affect the isotopic ratios or contribute to the chemical load. Changes in the chemical load were not associated with changes in the surficial geologybetween the stream-water sampling sites. Water levels and chemical ratios indicate no ground-water inflow from the Thermopolis Anticline geothermal system to Owl Creek.

Ogle, K.M.

1996-01-01

76

The deep Madden Field, a super-deep Madison gas reservoir, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Madison dolomites form the reservoir of a super deep, potential giant sour gas field developed on the Madden Anticline immediately in front of the Owl Creek Thrust along the northern rim of the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming. The Madison reservoir dolomites are presently buried to some 25,000 feet at Madden Field and exhibit porosity in excess of 15%. An equivalent dolomitized Madison sequence is exposed in outcrop only 5 miles to the north on the hanging wall of the Owl Creek thrust at Lysite Mountain. Preliminary comparative stratigraphic, geochemical and petrologic data, between outcrop and available cores and logs at Deep Madden suggests: (1) early, sea level-controlled, evaporite-related dolomitization of the reservoir and outcrop prior to significant burial; (2) both outcrop and deep reservoir dolomites underwent significant recrystallization during a common burial history until their connection was severed during Laramide faulting in the Eocene; (3) While the dolomite reservoir at Madden suffered additional diagenesis during an additional 7-10 thousand feet of burial, the pore systems between outcrop and deep reservoir are remarkably similar. The two existing deep Madison wells at Madden are on stream, with a third deep Madison well currently drilling. The sequence stratigraphic framework and the diagenetic history of the Madison strongly suggests that outcrops and surface cores of the Madison in the Owl Creek Mountains will be useful in further development and detailed reservoir modeling of the Madden Deep Field.

Moore, C.H. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Hawkins, C. [Louisiana Land and Exploration, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

77

The deep Madden Field, a super-deep Madison gas reservoir, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Madison dolomites form the reservoir of a super deep, potential giant sour gas field developed on the Madden Anticline immediately in front of the Owl Creek Thrust along the northern rim of the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming. The Madison reservoir dolomites are presently buried to some 25,000 feet at Madden Field and exhibit porosity in excess of 15%. An equivalent dolomitized Madison sequence is exposed in outcrop only 5 miles to the north on the hanging wall of the Owl Creek thrust at Lysite Mountain. Preliminary comparative stratigraphic, geochemical and petrologic data, between outcrop and available cores and logs at Deep Madden suggests: (1) early, sea level-controlled, evaporite-related dolomitization of the reservoir and outcrop prior to significant burial; (2) both outcrop and deep reservoir dolomites underwent significant recrystallization during a common burial history until their connection was severed during Laramide faulting in the Eocene; (3) While the dolomite reservoir at Madden suffered additional diagenesis during an additional 7-10 thousand feet of burial, the pore systems between outcrop and deep reservoir are remarkably similar. The two existing deep Madison wells at Madden are on stream, with a third deep Madison well currently drilling. The sequence stratigraphic framework and the diagenetic history of the Madison strongly suggests that outcrops and surface cores of the Madison in the Owl Creek Mountains will be useful in further development and detailed reservoir modeling of the Madden Deep Field.

Moore, C.H. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)); Hawkins, C. (Louisiana Land and Exploration, Denver, CO (United States))

1996-01-01

78

Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data from Wind River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data are limited by MSS spatial resolution (80 m or 262 ft) and bandwidth selection. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data have greatly enhanced spatial resolution (30 m or 98 ft) and TM operates in spectral bands suited to geologic interpretation. To compare the two systems, three images center over the Wind River basin of Wyoming were obtained. Two were TM images - a false color composite (FCC) and a natural color composite (NCC) - and the third was an MSS image. A systematic analysis of drainage, landforms, geologic structure, gross lithologic characteristics, lineaments, and curvilinears was performed on the three images. Drainage density and landform distinction were greatly enhanced on the TM images. Geologic features such as faults, strike and dip, folds, and lithologic characteristics are often difficult to distinguish on the MSS image but are readily apparent on the TM images. The lineament-curvilinear analysis of the MSS image showed longer but less distinct linear features. In comparison, the TM images allowed interpretation of shorter but more distinct linear elements, providing a more accurate delineation of the actual dimensions of the geologic features which these lineaments are thought to represent. An analysis of the oil production present in the study area showed 75% of the surface productive structures were delineated on the TM images, whereas only the most obvious structures were visible on the MSS image.

Geronsin, R.L.; Merry, M.C.

1984-07-01

79

Seismic facies analysis of lacustrine system: Paleocene upper Fort Union Formation, Wind River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The authors interpreted seismic reflection data, supported by well control, to reconstruct the stratigraphic development of Paleocene Lake Waltman in the Wind River basin of Wyoming. After dividing the upper Fort Union into eight seismic sequences, the authors mapped seismic attributes (amplitude, continuity, and frequency) within each sequence. Interpretation of the variation in seismic attributes allowed them to detail delta development and encroachment into Lake Waltman during deposition of the upper Fort Union Formation. These deltas are interpreted as high-energy, well-differentiated lobate forms with distinct clinoform morphology on seismic data. Prograding delta-front facies are easily identified on seismic data as higher amplitude, continuous events within the clinoforms. Seismic data clearly demonstrate the time-Transgressive nature of this facies. Downdip of these clinoforms, homogeneous shales, as evidenced by low-amplitude, generally continuous seismic events, accumulated in an interpreted quiet, areally extensive lacustrine setting. Seismic definition of the lateral extent of this lacustrine facies is excellent, allowing them to effectively delineate changes in the lake morphology during deposition of the upper Fort Union Formation. Encasing the upper Fort Union lacustrine deposits are fluvial-alluvial deposits, interpreted from discontinuous, variable-amplitude seismic facies. The authors highlight the correlation of seismic facies data and interpretation to well log data in the Frenchie Draw field to emphasize the accuracy of depositional environment prediction from seismic data.

Liro, L.M.; Pardus, Y.C.

1989-03-01

80

Preliminary digital model of the Arikaree aquifer in the Sweetwater River basin, central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In central Wyoming, Potentially large supplies of ground water are available in the Sweetwater River basin from the Arikaree aquifer, which consists of the upper part of the White River, the Arikaree, and the Ogallala Formations. A preliminary digital model was developed for the Arikaree aquifer using a small amount of poorly distributed data, an estimated distribution of recharge, and a conceptual model of the Arikaree aquifer flow system. Calibration of the model was based on reproduction of the potentiometric surface and the base flow of the Sweetwater River in November 1975. Calculated steady-state hydraulic heads were within 50 feet of the observed heads in about 98 percent of the nodes. The calculated leakage from the Arikaree aquifer to he Sweetwater River in the western area was within about 12 percent of the leadage determined by gain and loss studies. In order to develop a comprehensive digital model that would respond to hydraulic stress in nearly the same manner as the actual aquifer flow system, measured responses of the aquifer to stress are needed. Also needed are additional data on aquifer characteristics, recharge to the aquifer, and stream-aquifer relationships. (Woodard-USGS)

Borchert, W. B.

1977-01-01

81

USING HELICOPTER FDEM TO MONITOR THE FATE OF CONDUCTIVE WATER CO-PRODUCED WITH METHANE IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN OF WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of coalbed methane resources in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana has produced more than 248,000 acre-ft of groundwater (produced water) that is disposed on the surface by land application or returned to groundwater aquifers via infiltration basins or injection wells. Because the chemistry of produced water differs from that of surface waters, there is concern

Richard Hammack; James Sams; Garret Veloski; Brian Lipinski; Mark Zellman; Bill Harbert

82

Magnetostratigraphy of the Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: new constraints on the location of Paleocene/Eocene boundary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Eocene Willwood Formation in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming preserves a rich and diverse mammalian and floral record. The paleomagnetic behavior of the sequence of floodplain paleosols of varying degrees of maturation ranges from excellent to poor. We present a magnetostratigraphic section for a composite section near Worland, Wyoming, by using a set of strict criteria for interpreting the step-wise alternating field and thermal demagnetization data of 266 samples from 90 sites throughout the composite section. Correlation to the geomagnetic reversal time scale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from this section, from a section in the Clark's Fork Basin in northern Wyoming, and from DSDP Site 550, with the isotopic data determined on a tuff near the top of our section. Our correlation suggests that the Bighorn Basin composite section in the Worland area spans from within Chron C24r to near the top of Chron C24n, or from approximately 55 to 52 Ma. This correlation places the Paleocene/Eocene boundary within the vicinity of the base of the section. Cryptochron C24r.6 of Cande and Kent is tentatively identified some 100 m above the base of the section. The temporal framework provided here enables correlation of the mammalian biostratigraphy of the Bighorn Basin to other continental sequences as well as to marine records. It also provides independent chronological information for the calculation of sediment accumulation rates to constrain soil maturation rates. We exclude an age as young as 53 Ma for the Paleocene/Eocene boundary and support older ages, as recommended in recent time scales. The location of a tuff dated at 52.8 ?? 0.3 Ma at the older boundary C24n.1 is consistent with the age of 52.5 Ma estimated by Cande and Kent and inconsistent with that of 53.7 Ma, from Harland et al. ?? 1994.

Tauxe, L.; Gee, J.; Gallet, Y.; Pick, T.; Bown, T.

1994-01-01

83

Winter ozone formation and VOC incremental reactivities in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in Wyoming experiences ozone episodes in the winter when the air is relatively stagnant and the ground is covered by snow. A modeling study was carried out to assess relative contributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrous acid (HONO) in winter ozone formation episodes in this region. The conditions of two ozone episodes, one in February 2008 and one in March 2011, were represented using a simplified box model with all pollutants present initially, but with the detailed SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism adapted for the temperature and radiation conditions arising from the high surface albedo of the snow that was present. Sensitivity calculations were conducted to assess effects of varying HONO inputs, ambient VOC speciation, and changing treatments of temperature and lighting conditions. The locations modeled were found to be quite different in VOC speciation and sensitivities to VOC and NOx emissions, with one site modeled for the 2008 episode being highly NOx-sensitive and insensitive to VOCs and HONO, and the other 2008 site and both 2011 sites being very sensitive to changes in VOC and HONO inputs. Incremental reactivity scales calculated for VOC-sensitive conditions in the UGRB predict far lower relative contributions of alkanes to ozone formation than in the traditional urban-based MIR scale and that the major contributors to ozone formation were the alkenes and the aromatics, despite their relatively small mass contributions. The reactivity scales are affected by the variable ambient VOC speciation and uncertainties in ambient HONO levels. These box model calculations are useful for indicating general sensitivities and reactivity characteristics of these winter UGRB episodes, but fully three-dimensional models will be required to assess ozone abatement strategies in the UGRB.

Carter, William P. L.; Seinfeld, John H.

2012-04-01

84

Hydrothermal alteration in research drill hole Y-3, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Y-3, a U.S. Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, reached a depth of 156.7 m. The recovered drill core consists of 42.2 m of surficial (mostly glacial) sediments and two rhyolite flows (Nez Perce Creek flow and an older, unnamed rhyolite flow) of the Central Plateau Member of the Pleistocene Plateau Rhyolite. Hydrothermal alteration is fairly extensive in most of the drill core. The surficial deposits are largely cemented by silica and zeolite minerals; and the two rhyolite flows are, in part, bleached by thermal water that deposited numerous hydrothermal minerals in cavities and fractures. Hydrothermal minerals containing sodium as a dominant cation (analcime, clinoptilolite, mordenite, Na-smectite, and aegirine) are more abundant than calcium-bearing minerals (calcite, fluorite, Ca-smectite, and pectolite) in the sedimentary section of the drill core. In the volcanic section of drill core Y-3, calcium-rich minerals (dachiardite, laumontite, yugawaralite, calcite, fluorite, Ca-smectite, pectolite, and truscottite) are predominant over sodium-bearing minerals (aegirine, mordenite, and Na-smectite). Hydrothermal minerals that contain significant amounts of potassium (alunite and lepidolite in the sediments and illitesmectite in the rhyolite flows) are found in the two drill-core intervals. Drill core y:.3 also contains hydrothermal silica minerals (opal, [3-cristobalite, chalcedony, and quartz), other clay minerals (allophane, halloysite, kaolinite, and chlorite), gypsum, pyrite, and hematite. The dominance of calcium-bearing hydrothermal minerals in the lower rhyolitic section of the y:.3 drill core appears to be due to loss of calcium, along with potassium, during adiabatic cooling of an ascending boiling water.

Bargar, Keith E.; Beeson, Melvin H.

1985-01-01

85

COAL RESOURCES OF THE HANNA AND CARBON By M.S. Ellis,1  

E-print Network

Chapter HN COAL RESOURCES OF THE HANNA AND CARBON BASINS By M.S. Ellis,1 G.L. Gunther,2 A.M. Ochs,2, Delaware 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

86

Geothermal resources of the Green River Basin, Wyoming, including thermal data for the Wyoming portion of the Thrust Belt  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources of the Green River basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth is tabulated. It was concluded that large areas are underlain by water at temperatures greater than 120/sup 0/F. Although much of this water is too deep to be economically tapped solely for geothermal use, oil and gas wells presently provide access to this significant geothermal resource. Isolated areas with high temperature gradients exist. These areas - many revealed by hot springs - represent geothermal systems which might presently be developed economically. 34 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs. (ACR)

Spencer, S.A.; Heasler, H.P.; Hinckley, B.S.

1985-01-01

87

Revised Subsurface Stratigraphic Framework of the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Described in this report is an updated subsurface stratigraphic framework of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and Eocene Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This framework is graphically presented in 17 intersecting west-east and north-south cross sections across the basin. Also included are: (1) the dataset and all associated digital files and (2) digital files for all figures and table 1 suitable for large-format printing. The purpose of this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report is to provide rapid dissemination and accessibility of the stratigraphic cross sections and related digital data to USGS customers, especially the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), to facilitate their modeling of the hydrostratigraphy of the PRB. This report contains a brief summary of the coal-bed correlations and database, and is part of a larger ongoing study that will be available in the near future.

Flores, Romeo M.; Spear, Brianne D.; Purchase, Peter A.; Gallagher, Craig M.

2010-01-01

88

Outcrops, Fossils, Geophysical Logs, and Tectonic Interpretations of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation and Contiguous Strata in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana, the Frontier Formation of early Late Cretaceous age consists of siliciclastic, bentonitic, and carbonaceous beds that were deposited in marine, brackish-water, and continental environments. Most lithologic units are laterally discontinuous. The Frontier Formation conformably overlies the Mowry Shale and is conformably overlain by the Cody Shale. Molluscan fossils collected from outcrops of these formations and listed in this report are mainly of marine origin and of Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian ages. The lower and thicker part of the Frontier in the Bighorn Basin is of Cenomanian age and laterally equivalent to the Belle Fourche Member of the Frontier in central Wyoming. Near the west edge of the basin, these basal strata are disconformably overlain by middle Turonian beds that are the age equivalent of the Emigrant Gap Member of the Frontier in central Wyoming. The middle Turonian beds are disconformably overlain by lower Coniacian strata. Cenomanian strata along the south and east margins of the basin are disconformably overlain by upper Turonian beds in the upper part of the Frontier, as well as in the lower part of the Cody; these are, in turn, conformably overlain by lower Coniacian strata. Thicknesses and ages of Cenomanian strata in the Bighorn Basin and adjoining regions are evidence of regional differential erosion and the presence of an uplift during the early Turonian centered in northwestern Wyoming, west of the basin, probably associated with a eustatic event. The truncated Cenomanian strata were buried by lower middle Turonian beds during a marine transgression and possibly during regional subsidence and a eustatic rise. An uplift in the late middle Turonian, centered in north-central Wyoming and possibly associated with a eustatic fall, caused the erosion of lower middle Turonian beds in southern and eastern areas of the basin as well as in an adjoining region of north-central Wyoming. Similarly, in east-central Wyoming and an adjacent area to the south, Cenomanian strata are disconformably overlain by upper middle and lower upper Turonian strata that probably reflect uplift and erosion in that region during the interim period of middle Turonian time. During later subsidence and a marine transgression, upper Turonian deposits buried Cenomanian beds in areas along the south and east margins of the Bighorn Basin and buried lower middle Turonian beds in much of northern Wyoming. Upper Turonian and lower Coniacian strata are apparently conformable in eastern and southern areas of the basin as well as near Riverton, Kaycee, and Casper in central Wyoming. Upper Turonian strata are absent on the west flank of the Bighorn Basin and in outcrops west of the basin, where middle Turonian beds are disconformably overlain by lower Coniacian beds . The conformable upper Turonian and lower Coniacian beds apparently transgressed an eroded middle Turonian surface in the region, but only Coniacian strata overlie middle Turonian beds on the west side of the basin and areas farther west. Coniacian strata onlap the truncated lower middle Turonian surface west of the basin, indicating a region that had higher elevation possibly resulting from tectonic uplift. In east-central Wyoming and an adjoining region to the south, upper middle Turonian and lower upper Turonian strata are disconformably overlain by lower and middle Coniacian beds. That region apparently was uplifted and eroded during the latest Turonian.

Merewether, E.A.; Cobban, W.A.; Tillman, R.W.

2010-01-01

89

Strong wintertime ozone events in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years, elevated ozone (O3) values have been observed repeatedly in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB), Wyoming during wintertime. This paper presents an analysis of high ozone days in late winter 2011 (1 h average up to 166 ppbv). Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) of ambient monitoring were performed which included comprehensive surface and boundary layer measurements. On IOP days, maximum O3 values are restricted to a very shallow surface layer. Low wind speeds in combination with low mixing layer heights (~50 m a.g.l. around noontime) are essential for accumulation of pollutants within the UGRB. Air masses contain substantial amounts of reactive nitrogen (NOx) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) emitted from fossil fuel exploration activities in the Pinedale Anticline. On IOP days in the morning hours in particular, reactive nitrogen (up to 69%), aromatics and alkanes (~10-15%; mostly ethane and propane) are major contributors to the hydroxyl (OH) reactivity. Measurements at the Boulder monitoring site during these time periods under SW wind flow conditions show the lowest NMHC/NOx ratios (~50), reflecting a relatively low NMHC mixture, and a change from a NOx-limited regime towards a NMHC limited regime as indicated by photochemical indicators, e.g. O3/NOy, O3/NOz, and O3/HNO3 and the EOR (Extent of Reaction). OH production on IOP days is mainly due to nitrous acid (HONO). Until noon on IOP days, HONO photolysis contributes between 74-98% of the entire OH-production. Ozone photolysis (contributing 2-24%) is second to HONO photolysis. However, both reach about the same magnitude in the early afternoon (close to 50%). Photolysis of formaldehyde (HCHO) is not important (2-7%). High HONO levels (maximum hourly median on IOP days: 1096 pptv) are favored by a combination of shallow boundary layer conditions and enhanced photolysis rates due to the high albedo of the snow surface. HONO is most likely formed through (i) abundant nitric acid (HNO3) produced in atmospheric oxidation of NOx, deposited onto the snow surface and undergoing photo-enhanced heterogeneous conversion to HONO (estimated HONO production: 2250 pptv h-1) and (ii) combustion related emission of HONO (estimated HONO production: ~585 pptv h-1). HONO, serves as the most important precursor for OH, strongly enhanced due to the high albedo of the snow cover (HONO photolysis rate 2900 pptv h-1). OH radicals will oxidize NMHCs, mostly aromatics (toluene, xylenes) and alkanes (ethane, propane), eventually leading to an increase in ozone.

Rappenglück, B.; Ackermann, L.; Alvarez, S.; Golovko, J.; Buhr, M.; Field, R.; Soltis, J.; Montague, D. C.; Hauze, B.; Adamson, S.; Risch, D.; Wilkerson, G.; Bush, D.; Stoeckenius, T.; Keslar, C.

2013-07-01

90

Strong wintertime ozone events in the Upper Green River basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years, elevated ozone (O3) values have been observed repeatedly in the Upper Green River basin (UGRB), Wyoming, during wintertime. This paper presents an analysis of high ozone days in late winter 2011 (1 h average up to 166 ppbv - parts per billion by volume). Intensive operational periods (IOPs) of ambient monitoring were performed, which included comprehensive surface and boundary layer measurements. On IOP days, maximum O3 values are restricted to a very shallow surface layer. Low wind speeds in combination with low mixing layer heights (~ 50 m above ground level around noontime) are essential for accumulation of pollutants within the UGRB. Air masses contain substantial amounts of reactive nitrogen (NOx) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) emitted from fossil fuel exploration activities in the Pinedale Anticline. On IOP days particularly in the morning hours, reactive nitrogen (up to 69%), aromatics and alkanes (~ 10-15%; mostly ethane and propane) are major contributors to the hydroxyl (OH) reactivity. Measurements at the Boulder monitoring site during these time periods under SW wind flow conditions show the lowest NMHC / NOx ratios (~ 50), reflecting a relatively low reactive NMHC mixture, and a change from a NOx-limited regime towards a NMHC-limited regime as indicated by photochemical indicators, e.g., O3 /NOy, O3 /NOz, and O3 / HNO3 and the EOR (extent of reaction). OH production on IOP days is mainly due to nitrous acid (HONO). On a 24 h basis and as determined for a measurement height of 1.80 m above the surface HONO photolysis on IOP days can contribute ~ 83% to OH production on average, followed by alkene ozonolysis (~ 9%). Photolysis by ozone and HCHO photolysis contribute about 4% each to hydroxyl formation. High HONO levels (maximum hourly median on IOP days: 1096 pptv - parts per trillion by volume) are favored by a combination of shallow boundary layer conditions and enhanced photolysis rates due to the high albedo of the snow surface. HONO is most likely formed through (i) abundant nitric acid (HNO3) produced in atmospheric oxidation of NOx, deposited onto the snow surface and undergoing photo-enhanced heterogeneous conversion to HONO (estimated HONO production: 10.2 ± 40% ppbv h-1) and (ii) combustion-related emission of HONO (estimated HONO production: ~ 0.1 ± 30% ppbv h-1). HONO production is confined to the lowermost 10 m of the boundary layer. HONO, serves as the most important precursor for OH, strongly enhanced due to the high albedo of the snow cover (HONO photolysis rate 10.7 ± 30% ppbv h-1). OH radicals will oxidize NMHCs, mostly aromatics (toluene, xylenes) and alkanes (ethane, propane), eventually leading to an increase in ozone.

Rappenglück, B.; Ackermann, L.; Alvarez, S.; Golovko, J.; Buhr, M.; Field, R. A.; Soltis, J.; Montague, D. C.; Hauze, B.; Adamson, S.; Risch, D.; Wilkerson, G.; Bush, D.; Stoeckenius, T.; Keslar, C.

2014-05-01

91

Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data are from analyses performed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, with some analyses made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet that is included in the CD-ROM. These Wyoming Fischer assays and histograms are part of a much larger collection of oil-shale information, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses on the Green River oil-shale deposits in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming held by the U.S. Geological Survey. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM containing Fischer assay data and oil-yield histograms for the Green River oil-shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming is being released to the public. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets included with Chapter 2 contain the Fischer assay data from the 426 holes and data on the company name and drill-hole name, and location. Histograms of the oil yields obtained from the Fischer assays are presented in both Grapher and PDF format. Fischer assay text data files are also included in the CD-ROM.

2008-01-01

92

78 FR 65609 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Wyoming; Thunder Basin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Thunder Basin National Grassland Prairie Dog Amendment Environmental Impact Statement...Thunder Basin National Grassland Prairie Dog Amendment EIS. The EIS will form the basis...Thunder Basin National Grassland Prairie Dog Amendment. The Open House/...

2013-11-01

93

Hydrodynamic flow in Lower Cretaceous Muddy Sandstones, Rozet Field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

E-print Network

and other Muddy Formation oil fields. Contour interval 1000 ft (305 m). . . Regional east-west cross section showing variable sandstone development in the Muddy interval from Kitty to Rozet Fields. . . . . . . . . Diagrammatic environments the northern... the format and style of the t ' A ' t' f P t 1 G l~tB 11*t' BELL CREEK MONTANA WYOMING ~ + ~ RECLUSE ~ I ~ ~ ~ GAG DRAW~ G RDZ ET. KITTY~ AX T ~ ~O, BLACK FIDDLER CR. y~ x~ J CLARETON MO ~ TARA WYOMING M I LE S 50 Figure l. Index map...

Smith, David Arthur

2012-06-07

94

Burial History, Thermal Maturity, and Oil and Gas Generation History of Source Rocks in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for seven key source-rock units at eight well locations throughout the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana. Also modeled was the timing of cracking to gas of Phosphoria Formation-sourced oil in the Permian Park City Formation reservoirs at two well locations. Within the basin boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon; it is thought that the Phosphoria oil produced from Park City and other reservoirs migrated from the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt. Other petroleum source rocks include the Cretaceous Thermopolis Shale, Mowry Shale, Frontier Formation, Cody Shale, Mesaverde and Meeteetse Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the Bighorn Basin (Emblem Bench, Red Point/Husky, and Sellers Draw), three at intermediate depths (Amoco BN 1, Santa Fe Tatman, and McCulloch Peak), and two at relatively shallow locations (Dobie Creek and Doctor Ditch). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep central part of the basin and decreases to the south, east, and north toward the basin margins. The Thermopolis and Mowry Shales are predominantly gas-prone source rocks, containing a mix of Type-III and Type-II kerogens. The Frontier, Cody, Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Fort Union Formations are gas-prone source rocks containing Type-III kerogen. Modeling results indicate that in the deepest areas, (1) the onset of petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from early Paleocene through early Eocene time, (2) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred during Eocene time, and (3) onset of gas generation from the Fort Union Formation occurred during early Eocene time and peak generation occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Only in the deepest part of the basin did the oil generated from the Thermopolis and Mowry Shales start generating gas from secondary cracking, which occurred in the late Eocene to Miocene. Also, based on modeling results, gas generation from the cracking of Phosphoria oil reservoired in the Park City Formation began in the late Eocene in the deep part of the basin but did not anywhere reach peak generation.

Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

2008-01-01

95

Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry - article no. W06424  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. A study was conducted on changes in water and sediment chemistry as water from an impoundment infiltrated

R. W. Healy; C. A. Rice; T. T. Bartos; M. P. McKinley

2008-01-01

96

Strontium isotopes as indicators of aquifer communication in an area of coal-bed natural gas production, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the coal-bed natural gas resource of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana has proceeded rapidly, from fewer than 200 wells in 1995 to more than 22,000 wells in 2007. Continued development of this resource will depend on minimization of water production during gas recovery as well as responsible use of the produced water. Ideally, water should

Catherine E. Campbell; Benjamin N. Pearson; Carol D. Frost

2008-01-01

97

Water Budget and Modeling of Stream Channel Infiltration of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water at a Storage Impoundment Site, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of producing wells, with as many as 40,000 new wells projected to drilled during the next decade. CBM development involves the co-production of large volumes of coalbed water, which is most commonly discharged to impoundments. Little is known about the

A. A. Payne; D. M. Saffer

2004-01-01

98

Stratigraphic framework and regional subsurface geology of upper Cretaceous through lower Eocene rocks in Wind River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A detailed stratigraphic study of over 6000 m of Upper Cretaceous through lower Eocene sedimentary rocks in the Wind River basin. Wyoming, has refined and expanded previous work and conclusions. A much larger data base than previously available was assembled to include a correlation net of 325 geophysical well logs, 36 drill holes with palynological age dates, lithology logs of drill hoes, and limited surface exposures. The most significant results and conclusions from this study are summarized below. (1) The lower part of the Mesaverde Formation intertongues with marine sandstones and shales of the upper Cody Shale to the east and with marine sandstones of the lower Mesaverde Formation in the Big Horn basin to the north. (2) An unconformity between the Mesaverde and Fort Union Formations in the southwestern part of the basin can be traced into the subsurface. (3) During the latest Cretaceous and Paleocene, over 2100 m of Lance Formation and over 2700 m of Fort Union Formation were deposited in the northeastern part of the basin. Ponding during the Paleocene is demonstrated by correlation and subsurface mapping of over 900 m of shale and siltstone in the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation. (4) The Lance and Fort Union Formations can be mapped in the subsurface throughout much of the basin. The Lance Formation pinches out in the western part of the basin. (5) Coal beds can be traced for short distances in the subsurface; coal bed occurrence is documented for the Mesaverde, lower Fort Union, and Meeteetse Formations in the southwestern, northern and central, and northwestern parts of the basin, respectively.

Hogle, D.G.; Jones, R.W.

1989-03-01

99

Description and correlation of Eocene rocks in stratigraphic reference sections for the Green River and Washakie basins, southwest Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphic reference sections of the Wasatch, Green River, and Bridger (Washakie) Formations were measured on outcrops in the Green River and Washakie basins adjacent to the Rock Springs uplift in southwest Wyoming. The Washakie basin reference section is 7,939 feet thick and consists of 708 beds that were measured, described, and sampled to evaluate the origin, composition, and paleontology of the rocks. The reference section in the Green River basin is 6,587 feet thick and consists of 624 beds that were measured and described but were not sampled. Columnar sections that have been prepared combine information on the stratigraphic nomenclature, age, depositional environments, lithologies, and fossils of each bed in the reference sections. Eocene strata in the Green River and Washakie basins have been correlated biostratigraphically, chronostratigraphically, and lithostratigraphically. The time boundaries of the lower, middle, and upper Eocene rocks in the reference sections are located partly from biostratigraphic investigations and partly from chronostratigraphic investigations. The time boundaries agree with North American land mammal ages. Major stratigraphic units and key marker beds correlated between the reference sections appeared similar in thickness and lithology, which suggests that most depositional events were contemporaneous in both basins. Rocks sampled in the Washakie basin reference section were examined petrographically and were analyzed using heavy mineral separations, X-ray techniques, and assays. The mineralogy suggests that source rocks in the lower part of the Eocene were mostly of plutonic origin and that source rocks in the upper part of the Eocene were mostly of volcanic origin. Economically significant beds of oil shale and zeolite were identified by the analyses. 51 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

Roehler, H.W.

1992-01-01

100

Lower Cody Shale (Niobrara equivalent) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana: thickness, distribution, and source rock potential  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower shaly member of the Cody Shale in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana is Coniacian to Santonian in age and is equivalent to the upper part of the Carlile Shale and basal part of the Niobrara Formation in the Powder River Basin to the east. The lower Cody ranges in thickness from 700 to 1,200 feet and underlies much of the central part of the basin. It is composed of gray to black shale, calcareous shale, bentonite, and minor amounts of siltstone and sandstone. Sixty-six samples, collected from well cuttings, from the lower Cody Shale were analyzed using Rock-Eval and total organic carbon analysis to determine the source rock potential. Total organic carbon content averages 2.28 weight percent for the Carlile equivalent interval and reaches a maximum of nearly 5 weight percent. The Niobrara equivalent interval averages about 1.5 weight percent and reaches a maximum of over 3 weight percent, indicating that both intervals are good to excellent source rocks. S2 values from pyrolysis analysis also indicate that both intervals have a good to excellent source rock potential. Plots of hydrogen index versus oxygen index, hydrogen index versus Tmax, and S2/S3 ratios indicate that organic matter contains both Type II and Type III kerogen capable of generating oil and gas. Maps showing the distribution of kerogen types and organic richness for the lower shaly member of the Cody Shale show that it is more organic-rich and more oil-prone in the eastern and southeastern parts of the basin. Thermal maturity based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro) ranges from 0.60–0.80 percent Ro around the margins of the basin, increasing to greater than 2.0 percent Ro in the deepest part of the basin, indicates that the lower Cody is mature to overmature with respect to hydrocarbon generation.

Finn, Thomas M.

2014-01-01

101

Geophysical and Geochemical Characterization of Subsurface Drip Irrigation Sites, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming has increased rapidly since 1997. CBNG production involves the extraction of large amounts of water containing >2000 mg/L total dissolved solids, dominantly sodium bicarbonate. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a beneficial disposal method of produced waters, provided that waters and associated salts are managed properly. We are studying how water and solute distributions change in soils with progressive irrigation at two PRB sites using a combination of geophysical, geochemical, and mineralogical analyses. Perennial crops are grown at both sites, drip tapes are located at 92 cm depth, and water is applied year-round. The first SDI site is located at the confluence of Crazy Woman Creek and the Powder River. Baseline ground-based and helicopter-borne frequency domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys were completed in 2007 and 2008, respectively, prior to the installation of the SDI system. Since installation, additional ground-based EMI, resistivity, and downhole geophysical log surveys have been completed along with soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses. Determining baseline physical, chemical, and electrical soil characteristics at this study site is an important step in linking the EMI measurements to the soil characteristics they are intended to assess. EMI surveys indicate that soil conductivity has generally increased with irrigation, but lateral migration of water away from the irrigated blocks is minimal. Median downhole electrical conductivity was positively correlated with soil mass wetness but not correlated with soil mineralogy. Soil-water extract results indicate existing salts are chemically heterogeneous throughout the site and in depth. The observed EMI conductivity variations are therefore primarily attributed to water content changes and secondarily to soil texture. The second SDI site, located northeast of Sheridan, WY, has been operating for six years and includes irrigated alfalfa and grass and adjacent non-irrigated grass fields. A single ground-based EMI survey was performed in Feb. 2010, which helped direct subsequent soil sampling. Gypsum distribution can be differentiated into two soil zones: an upper, gypsum-poor zone and a lower gypsum-rich zone. The break between zones is 30 cm deeper in the irrigated soil and is probably due to dissolution and displacement of gypsum by SDI waters infiltrating from the drip tape. Resistivity profiles were acquired in June 2010 over the soil sampling sites and are consistent with the EMI data, which show higher conductivity values in the irrigated fields. In the SDI alfalfa field, there is a strong negative correlation between mass wetness and resistivity with a 75% increase in mass wetness (0.2-0.35 g/g) at 3 m depth corresponding to a 30% resistivity decrease (15-10 ohm-m). When compared to the non-irrigated field profile, the SDI alfalfa field data show a 50% resistivity decrease (20-10 ohm-m) below 3 m depth, indicating a possible accumulation of irrigated waters below the SDI system.

Burton, B. L.; Bern, C. R.; Sams, J. I., III; Veloski, G.; Minsley, B. J.; Smith, B. D.

2010-12-01

102

The application of geologic remote sensing to vertebrate biostratigraphy - General results from the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1986, remote sensing images derived from satellite and aircraft-borne sensor data have been used to study the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the vertebrate-bearing Wind River and Wagon Bed formations in the Wind River Basin (Wyoming). Landsat 5 TM and aircraft Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data were combined with conventional geologic analyses. The remote sensing data have contributed significantly to: (1) geologic mapping at the formation, member, and bed levels; (2) stratigraphic correlation; (3) reconstruction of ancient depositional environments; and (4) identification of structural complexity. This information is critical to vertebrate paleontology in providing the stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and structural framework required for evolutionary and paleoecologic studies. Of primary importance is the ability to map at minimal cost the geology of large areas (20,000 sq km or greater) at a high level of precision. Remote sensing data can be especially useful in geologically and paleontologically unexplored or poorly understood regions.

Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard

1991-01-01

103

Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Bighorn Basin Province, which encompasses about 6.7 million acres in north-central Wyoming and southern Montana. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, petroleum generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined two total petroleum systems: (1) Phosphoria, and (2) Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite. Within these two systems, eight assessment units (AU) were defined, and undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated within each AU.

U.S. Geological Survey Bighorn Basin Province Assessment Team

2010-01-01

104

Sr isotope tracing of aquifer interactions in an area of accelerating coal-bed methane production, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sr isotope data on groundwater samples from coal and overlying sandstone aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, demonstrate that the Sr isotope ratio effectively identifies groundwater from different aquifers where major ion geochemistry and O and H stable isotope data fail. Groundwaters from sandstone aquifers have a uniform 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7126 0.7127. Waters from coal seams vary from 87Sr/86Sr ratio = 0.7127 near the recharge area to 0.7151 farther into the basin. The distinct Sr isotope signatures of sandstone and coal aquifers may reflect different sources of Sr in these two rock types: Sr in sandstones is held primarily in carbonate cement, whereas coals contain more radiogenic Sr in organic matter. The Sr isotope ratio is useful in identifying wells that contain mixed waters, whether due to well construction or to incomplete aquifer isolation. Measurement and continued monitoring of the Sr isotope ratio in groundwaters should provide a powerful tool for characterizing the impact of the burgeoning coal-bed methane industry on the hydrology of the Powder River Basin.

Frost, C. D.; Pearson, B. N.; Ogle, K. M.; Heffern, E. L.; Lyman, R. M.

2002-10-01

105

Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. As of January 2007, permits for more than 4000 impoundments had been issued within Wyoming. A study was conducted on changes in water and sediment chemistry as water from an impoundment infiltrated the subsurface. Sediment cores were collected prior to operation of the impoundment and after its closure and reclamation. Suction lysimeters were used to collect water samples from beneath the impoundment. Large amounts of chloride (12,300 kg) and nitrate (13,500 kg as N), most of which accumulated naturally in the sediments over thousands of years, were released into groundwater by infiltrating water. Nitrate was more readily flushed from the sediments than chloride. If sediments at other impoundment locations contain similar amounts of chloride and nitrate, impoundments already permitted could release over 48 x 106 kg of chloride and 52 x 106 kg of nitrate into groundwater in the basin. A solute plume with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations at times exceeding 100,000 mg/L was created in the subsurface. TDS concentrations in the plume were substantially greater than those in the CBNG water (about 2300 mg/L) and in the ambient shallow groundwater (about 8000 mg/L). Sulfate, sodium, and magnesium are the dominant ions in the plume. The elevated concentrations are attributed to cation-exchange-enhanced gypsum dissolution. As gypsum dissolves, calcium goes into solution and is exchanged for sodium and magnesium on clays. Removal of calcium from solution allows further gypsum dissolution.

Healy, R.W.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; McKinley, M.P.

2008-01-01

106

Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently (2011) completed an assessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of grade, in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Greater Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah. Green River Formation oil shale also is present in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado, and the results of these assessments are published separately. No attempt was made to estimate the amount of oil that is economically recoverable because there has not yet been an economic method developed to recover the oil from Green River Formation oil shale.

Johnson, R.C.; Mercier, T.J.; Brownfield, M.E.

2011-01-01

107

Geology of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River Basin is a structural and topographic basin occupying an area of about 20,000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming arid southeastern Montana. The Basin is about 230 miles long in a northwest-southeast direction and is about 100 miles wide. It is bounded on three sides by mountains in which rocks of Precambrian age are exposed. The Basin is asymmetrical with a steep west limb adjacent to the Bighorn Mountains and a gentle east limb adjacent to the Black Hills. Sedimentary rocks within the Basin have a maximum thickness of about 18,000 feet and rocks of every geologic period are represented. Paleozoic rocks are about 2,500 feet thick and consist of marine bonate rocks and sandstone; Mesozoic rocks are about 9,500 feet thick and consist of both marine and nonmarine siltstone and sandstone; and Cenozoic rocks are from 4,000 to 6,000 feet thick and consist of coal-bearing sandstone and shale. Radioactive waste could be stored in the pore space of permeable sandstone or in shale where space could be developed. Many such rock units that could be used for storing radioactive wastes are present within the Powder River Basin. Permeable sandstone beds that may be possible reservoirs for storage of radioactive waste are present throughout the Powder River Basin. These include sandstone beds in the Flathead Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Deadwood Formation, the Tensleep Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Minnelusa Formation and the Sundance Formation in rocks of pre-Cretaceous age. However, most of the possible sandstone reservoirs are in rocks of Cretaceous age and include sandstone beds in the Fall River, Lakota, Newcastle, Frontier, Cody, and Mesaverde Formations. Problems of containment of waste such as clogging of pore space and chemical incompatibility would have to be solved before a particular sandstone unit could be selected for waste disposal. Several thick sequences of impermeable shale such as those in the Skull Creek, Mowry, Frontier, Belle Fourche, Cody, Lewis, and Pierre Formations, occur in rocks of Cretaceous age in the Basin. Limited storage space for liquid waste might be developed in impermeable shale by fracturing the shale and space for calcined or fused waste could be developed by mining cavities.

Beikman, Helen M.

1962-01-01

108

Fluvial and glacial implications of tephra localities in the western Wind River basin, Wyoming, U. S. A  

SciTech Connect

Examination of Quaternary fluvial and glacial deposits in the western Wind River Basin allows a new understanding of the Quaternary Wind River fluvial system. Interbedded fluvial sediments and volcanic ashes provide important temporal information for correlation of Quaternary deposits. In the western Wind River Basin, six mid-Pleistocene localities of tephra, the Muddy Creek, Red Creek, Lander, Kinnear, Morton and Yellow Calf ashes are known. Geochronologic studies confirm the Muddy Creek, Red Creek, Kinnear and Lander ashes as the 620--650ka Lava Creek tephra from the Yellowstone region in northwestern Wyoming. The stratigraphic position and index of refraction of volcanic glass from the Morton and Yellow Calf ashes are consistent with identification as Lava Creek tephra. Approximately 350 feet (106 meters) above the Wind River and 13 miles downstream from Bull Lake, interbedded Wind River fluvial gravels, volcanic glass and pumice at the Morton locality correlate to late (upper) Sacajawea Ridge gravels mapped by Richmond and Murphy. Associated with the oxygen isotope 16--15 boundary, the ash-bearing terrace deposits reveal the nature of the Wind River fluvial system during late glacial-early interglacial times. The Lander and Yellow Calf ashes, are found in terrace deposits along tributaries of the Wind River. Differences in timing and rates of incision between the Wind River and its tributary, the Little Wind River, results in complex terrace development near their junction.

Jaworowski, C. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-04-01

109

Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin ofWyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam’s inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated to water salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin.

Lipinski, B.A.; Sams, J.I.; Smith, B.D. (USGS, Denver, CO); Harbert, W.P.

2008-05-01

110

A new Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary locality in the western powder River basin, Wyoming: biological and geological implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A newly discovered Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary locality in the western Powder River basin, Wyoming, is characterized by a palynologically defined extinction horizon, a fern-spore abundance anomaly, a strong iridium anomaly, and shock-metamorphosed quartz grains. Detailed microstratigraphic analyses show that about one third of the palynoflora (mostly angiosperm pollen) disappeared abruptly, placing the K-T boundary within a distinctive, 1- to 2-cm-thick claystone layer. Shocked quartz grains are concentrated at the top of this layer, and although fern-spore and iridium concentrations are high in this layer, they reach their maximum concentrations in a 2-cm-thick carbonaceous claystone that overlies the boundary claystone layer. The evidence supports the theory that the K-T boundary event was associated with the impact of an extraterrestrial body or bodies. Palynological analyses of samples from the K-T boundary interval document extensive changes in the flora that resulted from the boundary event. The palynologically and geochemically defined K-T boundary provides a unique time-line of use in regional basin analysis. ?? 1992.

Nichols, D. J.; Brown, J. L.; Attrep, Jr. , M.; Orth, C. J.

1992-01-01

111

Evolutionary relationships of a new genus and three new species of Omomyid primates (Willwood Formation, Lower Eocene, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of new finds of omomyid primates from the lower Eocene Willwood Formation of northwest Wyoming reveal the presence of a new genus and two new species of anaptomorphines and a new species of omomyine. All were apparently short-lived immigrants into the Bighorn Basin. The new genus and speciesTatmanius szalayi is typified by a diminutive single-rooted p3 and a bilobed-rooted p4 with a crown smaller than ml. These traits were probably derived fromPseudotetonius and parallel similar conditions inTrogolemur andNannopithex. The new speciesArapahovius advena is the first occurrence ofArapahovius outside the Washakie Basin, where it appears to have also been a vagrant species.Steinius annectens, sp. nov., is larger than the olderSteinius vespertinus and strengthens the alliance between this genus and BridgerianOraorays carteri, although which species ofSteinius is closer toOmomys is not yet clear. The available evidence suggests a derivation ofOmomys (Omomyini) fromSteinius and all Washakiini from the anaptomorphineTeilhardina, which would indicate that Omomyinae were at least diphyletic. Preliminary evidence suggests that the geographic distributions of at least some Willwood omomyids correlate with paleosol distributions.

Bown, T. M.

1991-01-01

112

Geologic map and coal stratigraphy of the Doty Mountain quadrangle, eastern Washakie basin, Carbon County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides a geologic map of the Doty Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic formations and individual coal beds were mapped at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface. Detailed measured sections are provided for the type sections of the Red Rim Member of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation and China Butte and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. The data set was collected as part of a larger effort to acquire data on Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in the eastern Washakie Basin and southeastern Great Divide Basin. Regions in the eastern Washakie Basin and southeastern Great Divide Basin have potential for coal development and were considered previously for coal leasing by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.

Hettinger, R.D.; Honey, J.G.

2006-01-01

113

Plan for study of water and its relation to economic development in the Green River and Great Divide basins in Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of extensive coal, oil, gas, trona, and oil-shale resources as well as other developments in the Green River and Great Divide basins will require a projected increase in water consumption of 490,000 acre-ft (600 cu hm) per year by 2020. Developments of energy resources in other parts of Wyoming also will require large amounts of water; transbasin diversion of

H. W. Lowham; L. L. De Long; K. D. Peter; D. J. Wangsness; W. J. Head

1976-01-01

114

Airborne Electromagnetic Surveys Coupled With Hydrogeochemical Data to Enhance Near Surface Aquifer Investigations in an Area of Active Coalbed Natural Gas Production, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing environmental effects from the disposal of water coproduced with coalbed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming is complex. Over 30,000 CBNG wells are currently in production with another 30,000 to be installed within the next 20 years. Each well pumps between 100-400 barrels of water per day over an average operating life of seven years. Produced

B. Lipinski; J. Sams; W. Harbert

2005-01-01

115

Managing Fungicide Applications in Soybean Shane Hanna  

E-print Network

Managing Fungicide Applications in Soybean Shane Hanna Shawn Conley Judith Santini Department.btny.purdue.edu Purdue University Purdue extension SOYBEAN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS SPS-100-WSPS-103-W Crop, Soil, and EnvironmEntal SCiEnCES Why Apply Fungicides? Asian soybean rust has the potential to be the most destructive soybean

116

78 FR 56650 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Wyoming; Thunder Basin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Thunder Basin National Grassland Prairie Dog Amendment AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA...modify Categories 1 and 2 of the 2009 Prairie Dog Management Strategy. The amendment is being...address continuing concerns regarding prairie dog management, raised by the [[Page...

2013-09-13

117

Effects of changes in drainage-basin boundaries on sedimentation in Eocene Lakes Gosiute and Uinta of Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regimes of early Tertiary Lakes Gosiute and Uinta were strongly affected by pronounced imbalance between evaporation and recharge by surface and ground water. Both evaporation and recharge were strongly affected by the climate of the closed hydrographic basins where the lakes formed. However, at unique times in the histories of the Lake Gosiute and the Lake Uinta basins, the regimes of these lakes were significantly modified by enlargement of the drainage basins to include water from basins farther north. Evidence for changes in the size of drainage basins includes southward dispersal of volcaniclastic sands containing basaltic to dacitic volcanic rock fragments from the Absaroka volcanic field in northwestern Wyoming. The southward progradation of the resulting sandstone units from the Wind River Basin into the greater Green River Basin and from there into the northern Piceance Creek Basin records the successive depositional filling of closed hydrographic basins so that water and sediment were transported by streams over the lowest divides into the adjacent basins. Filling of these basins allowed large volumes of surface and ground water to be added first to Lake Gosiute and then to Lake Uinta. The added water resulted in (1) a rise in lake level, (2) the development of nutrient-rich lakes where algal productivity led to the deposition of precursors of oil shale, and (3) in the case of Lake Uinta, a change in water chemistry such that brines precipitated sodium carbonate rather than calcium sulfate minerals. Basin filling and enlargement of the drainage systems were probably a consequence of tectonic activity and stability of the basins and adjacent uplifts, although climatic conditions that increased sediment yield and runoff in the hydrographic basins also could have hastened their filling. However, it is difficult to explain patterns of evaporite minerals, oil shale, mudstone, and sandstone formed in Lakes Gosiute and Uinta if climate was the dominant factor.

Surdam, Ronald C.; Stanley, K. O.

1980-03-01

118

Environmental setting of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural and anthropogenic factors influence water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin. Physiography parallels the structural geologic setting that is generally composed of several uplifts and structural basins. Contrasts in climate and vegetation reflect topographic controls and the midcontinental location of the study unit. Surface-water hydrology reflects water surpluses in mountainous areas that are dominated by snowmelt runoff, and arid to semiarid conditions in the plains that are dissected by typically irrigated valleys in the remainder of the study unit. Principal shallow aquifers are Tertiary sandstones and unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Human population, though sparsely distributed in general, is growing most rapidly in a few urban centers and resort areas, mostly in the northwestern part of the basin. Land use is areally dominated by grazing in the basins and plains and economically dominated by mineral-extraction activities. Forests are the dominant land cover in mountainous areas. Cropland is a major land use in principal stream valleys. Water use is dominated by irrigated agriculture overall, but mining and public-supply facilities are major users of ground water. Coal and hydrocarbon production and reserves distinguish the Yellowstone River Basin as a principal energy-minerals resources region. Current metallic ore production or reserves are nationally significant for platinum-group elements and chromium.The study unit was subdivided as an initial environmental stratification for use in designing the National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation that began in 1997. Ecoregions, geologic groups, mineral-resource areas, and general land-cover and land-use categories were used in combination to define 18 environmental settings in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is expected that these different settings will be reflected in differing water-quality or aquatic-ecological characteristics.

Zelt, Ronald B.; Boughton, G. K.; Miller, K. A.; Mason, J. P.; Gianakos, L. M.

1999-01-01

119

Influences of fragmentation on three species of native warmwater fishes in a Colorado River Basin headwater stream system, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the effects of constructed instream structures on movements and demographics of bluehead suckers Catostomus discobolus, flannelmouth suckers C. latipinnis, and roundtail chub Gila robusta in the upstream portion of Muddy Creek, an isolated headwater stream system in the upper Colorado River basin of Wyoming. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate upstream and downstream movements of these three native species past a small dam built to divert irrigation water from the stream and a barrier constructed to prevent upstream movements of nonnative salmonids and (2) describe population characteristics in stream segments created by these structures. Our results indicated that upstream and downstream movements of the three target fishes were common. Fish of all three species moved frequently downstream over both structures, displayed some upstream movements over the irrigation diversion dam, and did not move upstream over the fish barrier. Spawning migrations by some fish into an intermittent tributary, which was not separated from Muddy Creek by a barrier, were observed for all three species. Both the irrigation diversion dam and the fish barrier contributed to fragmentation of the native fish populations, and considerable differences in population features were observed among segments. The instream structures may eventually cause extirpation of some native species in one or more of the segments created by the structures. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Compton, R. I.; Hubert, W. A.; Rahel, F. J.; Quist, M. C.; Bower, M. R.

2008-01-01

120

A critical review of published coal quality data from the southwestern part of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review of publicly available coal quality data during the coal resource assessment of the southwestern part of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming (SWPRB), revealed significant problems and limitations with those data. Subsequent citations of data from original sources often omitted important information, such as moisture integrity and information needed to evaluate the issue of representativeness. Occasionally, only selected data were quoted, and some data were misquoted. Therefore, it was important to try to resolve issues concerning both the accuracy and representativeness of each available dataset. The review processes demonstrated why it is always preferable to research and evaluate the circumstances regarding the sampling and analytical methodology from the original data sources when evaluating coal quality information, particularly if only limited data are available. Use of the available published data at face value would have significantly overestimated the coal quality for all the coal fields from both the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the SWPRB assessment area. However, by using the sampling and analytical information from the original reports, it was possible to make reasonable adjustments to reported data to derive more realistic estimates of coal quality.

Luppens, James A.

2011-01-01

121

Preliminary report on coal resources of the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project by the U.S. Geological Survey is designed to assess US coal with the greatest potential for development in the next 20 to 30 years. Coal in the Wyodak-Anderson (WA) coal zone in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana is plentiful, clean, and compliant with EPA emissions standards. This coal is considered to be very desirable for development for use in electric power generation. The purpose of this NCRA study was to compile all available data relating to the Wyodak- Anderson coal, correlate the beds that make up the WA coal zone, create digital files pertaining to the study area and the WA coal, and produce a variety of reports on various aspects of the assessed coal unit. This report contains preliminary calculations of coal resources for the WA coal zone and is one of many products of the NCRA study. Coal resource calculations in this report were produced using both public and confidential data from many sources. The data was manipulated using a variety of commercially available software programs and several custom programs. A general description of the steps involved in producing the resource calculations is described in this report.

Ellis, Margaret S.; Gunther, Gregory L.; Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, Allen M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Roberts, Steven B.; Taber, Thomas T.; Bader, Lisa R.; Schuenemeyer, John H.

1998-01-01

122

Effects of coal-bed methane discharge waters on the vegetation and soil ecosystem in Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-bed methane (CBM) co-produced discharge waters in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, resulting from extraction of methane from coal seams, have become a priority for chemical, hydrological and biological research during the last few years. Soil and vegetation samples were taken from affected and reference sites (upland elevations and wetted gully) in Juniper Draw to investigate the effects of CBM discharge waters on soil physical and chemical properties and on native and introduced vegetation density and diversity. Results indicate an increase of salinity and sodicity within local soil ecosystems at sites directly exposed to CBM discharge waters. Elevated concentrations of sodium in the soil are correlated with consistent exposure to CBM waters. Clay-loam soils in the study area have a much larger specific surface area than the sandy soils and facilitate a greater sodium adsorption. However, there was no significant relation between increasing water sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values and increasing sediment SAR values downstream; however, soils exposed to the CBM water ranged from the moderate to severe SAR hazard index. Native vegetation species density was highest at the reference (upland and gully) and CBM affected upland sites. The affected gully had the greatest percent composition of introduced vegetation species. Salt-tolerant species had the greatest richness at the affected gully, implying a potential threat of invasion and competition to established native vegetation. These findings suggest that CBM waters could affect agricultural production operations and long-term water quality. ?? Springer 2005.

Stearns, M.; Tindall, J.A.; Cronin, G.; Friedel, M.J.; Bergquist, E.

2005-01-01

123

Sequence stratigraphy and tectonic influences on a fluvial-deltaic lacustrine system: Fort Union Formation, Wind River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The nonmarine Fort Union Formation in the Wind River basin of Wyoming is divided into a fluvial lower part and a lacustrine upper part. The separation between these intervals is a tectonically enhanced sequence boundary recording increased and pronounced subsidence in the Fort Union Depocenter owing to Laramide thrusting. This sequence boundary appears to be recorded in a thin but widespread shale rather than the base of the lacustrine Waltman Shale Member. A sand between the shale marker and the base of the Waltman Shale likely represents a maximum flooding surface. The upper part of the Fort Union is composed of the lacustrine Waltman Shale that is encroached by two coeval but distinct deltaic systems. The persistent progradation of these deltas suggests that the volume of sediment supplied was relatively constant. The similarity in relative rates of progradation and aggradation in the deltaic sequences suggests possible eustatic control. Dominant sigmoidal offlap indicates a gradual decrease in accommodation space with time. Well logs through this interval record an overall regressive unit (a progradational parasequence set) that can be subdivided into a series of progradation parasequences. The upper Fort Union is characterized by repetitive transgressive and highstand systems tracts, with some lowstand wedges present. Individual transgressive-regressive cycles are numerous in the upper Fort Union.

Liro, L.M. (Texaco Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

124

Cumulative potential hydrologic impacts of surface coal mining in the eastern Powder River structural basin, northeastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

There are 16 existing and six proposed surface coal mines in the eastern Powder River structural basin of northeastern Wyoming. Coal mining companies predict water level declines of 5 ft or more in the Wasatch aquifer to extend form about 1,000 to about 2,000 ft beyond the mine pits. About 3,000 wells are in the area of potential cumulative water level declines resulting from all anticipated mining. Of these 3,000 wells, about 1,200 are outside the areas of anticipated mining: about 1,000 wells supply water for domestic or livestock uses, and about 200 wells supply water for municipal, industrial, irrigation, and miscellaneous uses. The 1,800 remaining wells are used by coal mining companies. Future surface coal mining probably will result in postmining groundwater of similar quality to that currently present in the study area. By use of geochemical modeling techniques, the results of a hypothetical reaction path exercise indicate the potential for marked improvements in postmining water quality because of chemical reactions as postmining groundwater with a large dissolved solids concentration moves into a coal aquifer with relatively small dissolved solids concentrations. Results of the modeling exercise also indicate geochemical conditions that are most ideal for large decreases in dissolved solids concentrations in coal aquifers receiving recharge from a spoil aquifer. 118 refs., 52 figs., 33 tabs.

Martin, L.J.; Naftz, D.L.; Lowham, H.W.; Ranki, J.G.

1988-01-01

125

Hydrogeologic features of the alluvial deposits in the Nowood River drainage area, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Nowood River drainage area, Wyoming, the principal deposits comprising the alluvial aquifer include the flood-plain and younger (generally undissected) alluvial-fan deposits and a unique boulder-fan gravel. Other deposits mapped, but virtually nonwater yielding, are the older (dissected) alluvial-fan, pediment, and terrace deposits. Terraces are capped by gravel and form levels at 30-40, 45-100, 120-150, 200-260, and 280-330 feet above the Nowood River. The thickness of the alluvial aquifer indicated from the sparse well-log data and 42 surface resistivity measurements is between 25 and 50 feet along the Nowood River and more than 60 feet along Tensleep and Paint Rock Creeks. The resistivity measurements indicate a buried bedrock ridge below the boulder-fan gravel between Paint Rock and Medicine Lodge Creeks and a buried channel filled by alluvium along Tensleep Creek. Well yields from the alluvial aquifer are estimated to be low. The most favorable areas for ground-water development are from the flood-plain alluvium along Tensleep Creek and from the boulder-fan gravel and adjoining flood-plain alluvium along Paint Rock and Medicine Creeks. Along the Nowood River the flood-plain alluvium, although its yields are small, has the best potential for ground-water development. (Kosco-USGS)

Cooley, M.E.; Head, William J.

1979-01-01

126

Geologic map and coal stratigraphy of the Blue Gap quadrangle, eastern Washakie Basin, Carbon County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides a geologic map of the Blue Gap 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic formations and individual coal beds were mapped at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface.

Hettinger, R.D.; Honey, J.G.

2005-01-01

127

Hydrochemical implications of groundwater mixing: An example from the Southern Laramie Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern Laramie Basin groundwater system was studied to explore how standard thermodynamic chemical calculations can produce misleading results with respect to water-rock interactions when groundwaters with different chemical compositions mix. Geological and hydrological data determined the direction of flow to be NW in the Casper aquifers, as well as in the Redbeds aquifers. Hydrological and structural data were used

E. Mazor; J. I. Drever; J. Finley; P. W. Huntoon; D. A. Lundy

1993-01-01

128

Hydrochemical implications of groundwater mixing: an example from the southern Laramie Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern Laramie Basin groundwater system was studied to explore how standard thermodynamic chemical calculations can produce misleading results with respect to water-rock interactions when groundwaters with different chemical compositions mix. Geological and hydrological data determined the direction of flow to be NW in the Casper aquifers, as well as in the Redbeds aquifers. Hydrological and structural data were used

E. Mazor; J. I. Drever; J. Finley; P. W. Huntoon; D. A. Lundy

1993-01-01

129

The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Norris Geyser Basin, normally shortened to Norris Basin, is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone caldera at the common intersection of the caldera rim and the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. An east-west fault zone terminates the Gallatin Range at its southern end and extends from Hebgen Lake, west of the park, to Norris Basin. No local evidence exists at the surface in Norris Basin for the two oldest Yellowstone volcanic caldera cycles (~2.0 and 1.3 m.y.B.P.). The third and youngest cycle formed the Yellowstone caldera, which erupted the 600,000-year-old Lava Creek Tuff. No evidence is preserved of hydrothermal activity near Norris Basin during the first 300,000.years after the caldera collapse. Glaciation probably removed most of the early evidence, but erratics of hot-spring sinter that had been converted diagenetically to extremely hard, resistant chalcedonic sinter are present as cobbles in and on some moraines and till from the last two glacial stages, here correlated with the early and late stages of the Pinedale glaciation <150,000 years B.P.). Indirect evidence for the oldest hydrothermal system at Norris Basin indicates an age probably older than both stages of Pinedale glaciation. Stream deposits consisting mainly of rounded quartz phenocrysts of the Lava Creek Tuff were subaerial, perhaps in part windblown and redeposited by streams. A few small rounded pebbles are interpreted as chalcedonic sinter of a still older cycle. None of these are precisely dated but are unlikely to be more than 150,000 to 200,000 years old. ...Most studies of active hydrothermal areas have noted chemical differences in fluids and alteration products but have given little attention to differences and models to explain evolution in types. This report, in contrast, emphasizes the kinds of changes in vents and their changing chemical types of waters and then provides models for explaining these differences. Norris Basin is probably not an independent volcanic-hydrothermal system. The basin and nearby acid-leached areas (from oxidation of H2S-enriched vapor) are best considered as parts of the same system, extending from Norris Basin to Roaring Mountain and possibly to Mammoth. If so, are they parts of a single large system centered within the Yellowstone caldera, or are Norris Basin and the nearby altered areas both parts of one or more young independent corridor systems confined, at least in the shallow crust, to the Norris-Mammoth Corridor? Tentatively, we favor the latter relation, probably having evolved in the past ~300,000 years. A model for large, long-lived, volcanic-hydrothermal activity is also suggested, involving all of the crust and upper mantle and using much recent geophysical data bearing on crust-mantle interrelations. Our model for large systems is much superior to previous suggestions for explaining continuing hydrothermal activity over hundreds of thousands of years, but is less attractive for the smaller nonhomogenized volcanic system actually favored here for the Norris-Mammoth Corridor.

White, Donald Edward; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.

1988-01-01

130

Chapter A. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the South Platte River basin, Colorado and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 basins along an urban land-use gradient in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, from 2002 through 2003. Study basins were chosen to minimize natural variability among basins due to factors such as geology, elevation, and climate and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among basins. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated in a multimetric urban intensity index to represent the degree of urban development in each study basin. Physical characteristics studied included stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied included nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and fecal bacteria concentrations; and biological characteristics studied included algae, fish, and invertebrate communities. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin. Commonly observed effects of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased flashiness, higher magnitude and more frequent peak flows, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure, generally were not observed in this study. None of the hydrologic, temperature, habitat, or chemical variables were correlated strongly (Spearman's rho greater than or equal to 0.7) with urban intensity, with the exception of some of the SPMD-based toxicity and chemical variables. SPMD-based measures of potential toxicity and PAH concentrations were positively correlated with urban intensity. The PAH concentrations also were positively correlated with measures of road density and negatively correlated with distance to the nearest road, indicating that automobile exhaust is a major source of these compounds in the study area. This source may be localized enough that the transport of PAHs would be minimally affected by water-management practices such as diversion or storage upstream. In contrast, the predominant sources of nutrients, bacteria, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and pesticides may be more dispersed throughout the drainage area and, therefore, their transport to downstream sites may be subject to greater disruption by water regulation. Although no direct link was found between most water-chemistry characteristics and urbanization, invertebrate, algae, and fish-community characteristics were strongly associated with nutrients, pesticides, sulfate, chloride, and suspended sediment. None of the biological community variables were strongly correlated with the urban intensity index. Algal biomass predominantly was associated with total nitrogen concentrations, nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations, and the duration of high flows. Fish communities predominantly were associated with housing age, the percentage of suspended sediment finer than 0.063 millimeters and chloride concentrations. Invertebrate communities predominantly were associated with the frequency of rising and falling flow events, the duration of high flows, total nitrogen concentrations, nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations, and total herbicide concentrations. Historical records indicate that aquatic communities in the region may have been altered prior to any substantial urban development by early agricultural and water-management practices. Present-day aquatic communities ar

Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

2006-01-01

131

Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Southwestern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A total of 37 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 23 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Southwestern Powder River Basin assessment area for these 23 coal beds, with no restrictions applied was calculated to be 369 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 341 billion short tons (92.4 percent of the total original resource). Approximately 61 percent are at depths between 1,000 and 2,000 ft, with a modeled price of about $30 per short ton. Therefore, the majority of coal resources in the South-western Powder River Basin assessment area are considered sub-economic.

Osmonson, Lee M.; Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.

2011-01-01

132

Hydrothermal alteration in research drill hole Y-2, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Y-2, a US Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, was drilled to a depth of 157.4 meters. The hole penetrated interbedded siliceous sinter and travertine to 10.2 m, glacial sediments of the Pinedale Glaciation interlayered with pumiceous tuff from 10.2 to 31.7 m, and rhyolitic lavas of the Elephant Back flow of the Central

K. E. Bargar; MELVTN H. BEESoN

1981-01-01

133

Hydrodynamic flow in lower Cretaceous Muddy sandstone, Gas Draw Field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

E-print Network

. Simple numbering of these Muddy zones solves this confusion. Stoudt (1974) divided the units from one to six in descending order. Larberg (1976a) divided the unit into four zones in Kitty field area and combined Stoudt's fourth and fifth zones into a... fields (Berg, ig76a). The second Muddy zone has its maximum development at Bell Creek field. The third through sixth Table 1. Stratigraphic Nomenclature for the Muddy Formation in the Eastern Powder River Basin. Standard Section Stone (1972) Kitty...

Lin, Joseph Tien-Chin

2012-06-07

134

Hydrologic data for Paleozoic rocks in the upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains data used to interpret the hydrology of Paleozoic rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin under the U.S. Geological Survey 's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The study area includes the drainages of the Green and Colorado Rivers from their headwaters to Lees Ferry, Arizona. Hydrologic data presented in this report include artesian yields from wells and springs, and values of porosity, intrinsic permeability, and hydraulic conductivity determined by laboratory analyses and aquifer tests. (USGS)

Geldon, Arthur L.

1989-01-01

135

Variation in sedimentology and architecture of Eocene alluvial strata, Wind River and Washakie basins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Eocene continental, alluvial strata of the Wind River Formation (Wind River Basin) and the Cathedral Bluffs Member of the Wasatch Formation (Washakie basin) provide two examples of Laramide intermontane basin aggradation. These alluvial sediments primarily represent overbank flood deposits marginal to channel complexes. Their sedimentology and architecture, although grossly similar, appear to vary somewhat with proximity to Laramide uplifts. In both cases, repetitive sedimentation on the floodplain produced a succession of depositional couplets, each composed of a light-gray sand overlain by a red clay-rich silt or sand. The lower sands are tabular bodies that, near their distal margins, taper discernibly. They commonly display planar and ripple-drift laminations. Upper clay-rich layers, which are laminated, are also generally tabular. Those floodplain strata depositional proximal to Laramide uplifts show little evidence of scouring prior to deposition of the next, overlying couplet. Most of these sedimentary layers, therefore, are laterally continuous (up to 2 km). This alluvial architecture results in relatively uniform porosity laterally within depositional units but variable porosity stratigraphically through the sequence. In contrast, alluvial sediments deposited farther from the Laramide uplifts have undergone sporadic incision (either during rising flood stage or subsequently) followed by aggradation. As a result, many of these floodplain couplets are discontinuous laterally and, hence, exhibit large-scale lateral variability in porosity. Both alluvial sequences have undergone similar types and extents of burial diagenesis.

Patterson, P.E.; Larson, E.E. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

1991-03-01

136

An empirical method for determining average soil infiltration rates and runoff, Powder River structural basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes a method to estimate infiltration rates of soils for use in estimating runoff from small basins. Average rainfall intensity is plotted against storm duration on log-log paper. All rainfall events are designated as having either runoff or nonrunoff. A power-decay-type curve is visually fitted to separate the two types of rainfall events. This separation curve is an incipient-ponding curve and its equation describes infiltration parameters for a soil. For basins with more than one soil complex, only the incipient-ponding curve for the soil complex with the lowest infiltration rate can be defined using the separation technique. Incipient-ponding curves for soils with infiltration rates greater than the lowest curve are defined by ranking the soils according to their relative permeabilities and optimizing the curve position. A comparison of results for six basins produced computed total runoff for all events used ranging from 16.6 percent less to 2.3 percent more than measured total runoff. (USGS)

Rankl, James G.

1982-01-01

137

Distribution of coarse- and fire-grained rocks in the Wasatch formation and their relationship to uranium deposits, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A brief study of the areal distribution of the various rock types of the Wasatch formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, was made during the summer of 1952. In the south and central parts if the basin, the Wasatch formation appears to contain coarser-grained rocks in contrast to the northern part, which contain relatively no coarser-grained rocks. The finer-grained rocks are abundant in the northern and central parts of the basin but relatively scare in the southern part. The known uranium deposits in the Wasatch are in the central area where coarser-grained sandstones are complemented by abundant finer-grained rocks such as shales and siltstones.

Davidson, David F.

1953-01-01

138

From fold-related fracture population analysis to paleofluid flow reconstruction at basin-scale : a case study in the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While fluid flows associated with thin-skinned folded structures have been extensively studied, reconstructions of paleofluid systems associated with thick-skinned tectonics remain scarce. In addition, major thrusts are usually considered as the preferential channels for fluids: investigating the role of diffuse fracture sets as potential drains for fluids has received poor attention. In this work, we tentatively reconstruct the paleofluid system related to the Bighorn basin (Wyoming, USA), a Sevier-Laramide foreland basin affected by large basement uplifts during the Laramide thick-skinned tectonic event. Fracture pattern and related paleofluid flow were studied in selected folds within this basin. For this purpose, Oxygen, Carbon and Strontium isotopic studies were performed on host rocks as well as on pre-folding and on fold-related calcite veins; these studies were combined to fluid inclusion chemical and microthermometric analysis. The results suggest a strong control of fluid chemistry by the tectonic style: our work evidences migration of exotic hydrothermal fluids (temperatures of homogenisation of fluid inclusion reaching 140°C) in basement-cored, thrust-related folds, while in detachment folds, only intra-formational fluids were characterized.At the scale of the entire basin, the open paleofluid system reconstructed in basement-cored folds appears to be consistent, with oxygen isotopic signature ranging from -25‰ to -5‰ PDB. Indeed, the scattering of oxygen isotopic signatures in cemented veins shows different degree of mixing between local basinal fluids and exotic hydrothermal fluids remaining unequilibrated with surrounding limestones. Strontium isotopic analyses suggest that these exotic hydrothermal fluids are a mixing of meteoric fluids and basinal fluids that havemigrated in basement rocks, likely deeper than the basement/cover interface. The timing of the fast upward flow of these fluids through the cover is given by, and related to, different fracturing events and the associated sudden increase of hydraulic permeability (related to the vertical persistence of the fractures). The local opening of the fluid system to the fast hydrothermal fluid flow is however diachronic: it occurs as early as Sevier in age in the western part of the basin (in foreland flexure-related fractures) and later, during the Laramide phase, in the eastern part (in the fold curvature-related fractures). This raise of hydraulic permeability allows fluid to flow vertically, which caused a fluid pressure drop in the Paleozoic strata, as demonstrated independently by the combined analysis of striated microfaults and fracture sets in terms of stress with calcite twinning paleopiezometry. The timing of the vertical hydraulic permeability increase also suggests that mode I fractures due to strata bending, either related to far-field (plate flexure) or local (strata curvature) stresses, were more efficient vertical drains than mode I fractures opened during layer-parallel shortening phases and connected the fracture pattern to allow lateral fluid flow.

Beaudoin, N.; Bellahsen, N.; Lacombe, O.; Emmanuel, L.; Pironon, J.

2012-04-01

139

Cumulative potential hydrologic impacts of surface coal mining in the eastern Powder River structural basin, northeastern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There are 16 existing and six proposed surface coal mines in the eastern Powder River structural basin of northeastern Wyoming. Coal mining companies predict water level declines of 5 ft or more in the Wasatch aquifer to extend form about 1,000 to about 2,000 ft beyond the mine pits. The predicted 5 ft water level decline in the Wyodak coal aquifer generally extends 4-8 mi beyond the lease areas. About 3,000 wells are in the area of potential cumulative water level declines resulting from all anticipated mining. Of these 3,000 wells, about 1,200 are outside the areas of anticipated mining: about 1,000 wells supply water for domestic or livestock uses, and about 200 wells supply water for municipal, industrial, irrigation, and miscellaneous uses. The 1,800 remaining wells are used by coal mining companies. Future surface coal mining probably will result in postmining groundwater of similar quality to that currently present in the study area. By use of geochemical modeling techniques, the results of a hypothetical reaction path exercise indicate the potential for marked improvements in postmining water quality because of chemical reactions as postmining groundwater with a large dissolved solids concentration (3,540 mg/L) moves into a coal aquifer with relatively small dissolved solids concentrations (910 mg/L). Results of the modeling exercise also indicate geochemical conditions that are most ideal for large decreases in dissolved solids concentrations in coal aquifers receiving recharge from a spoil aquifer. (Lantz-PTT)

Martin, L.J.; Naftz, D.L.; Lowham, H.W.; Rankl, J.G.

1988-01-01

140

Competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on some native and reclamation species in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Four experiments were conducted to examine the competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on certain native and reclamation species. The first experiment was initiated by discing three sites in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, at three distances from introduced weed seed sources. Introduced weed colonization was greatest when a seed source was located nearby. Higher weed cover resulted in reductions of percent cover, density, and richness of the native species. The second experiment was conducted in the greenhouse and was designed to determine if there are changes in response of S. kali and the native grasses Agropyron smithii and Bouteloua gracilis to competition and water regime. Both grass species had lower biomass and higher stomatal resistance when growing in mixed culture with S. kali than in pure culture in the dry regime, but there were no significant differences in the wet regime. In general, the difference in plant response between mixed and pure cultures was more pronounced in the dry than in the wet regime. The third study was a greenhouse experiment on germination and competition of S. kali (a C/sub 4/ species) with native species Lepidium densiflorum (C/sub 3/), Chenopodium pratericola (C/sub 3/), A. smithii (C/sub 3/), and B. gracilis (C/sub 4/) under May, June, and July temperature regimes. Salsola kali germinated equally well in all three regimes, but the other C/sub 4/ species had highest germination in the July regime and the C/sub 3/ species in the May and June regimes. The fourth study was designed to examine the effect of weed colonization on the success of mine reclamation. Little effect was observed, but colonization by introduced annuals was very low. (ERB)

Allen, E.B.; Knight, D.H.

1980-01-01

141

Arsenic data for streams in the uppper Missouri River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although large concentrations of arsenic originating from geothermal sources within Yellowstone National Park have been known to be present in the Madison River for many years, systematic monitoring throughout the upper Missouri River basin had not been done. Therefore, a monitoring network consisting of 24 stations was established for the purpose of measuring arsenic concentrations and determining arsenic discharge. Included were 5 sites on mainstems of the Madison and Missouri Rivers and 19 sites on major and some minor tributaries from Yellowstone National Park to Canyon Ferry Lake. Fifteen of the 24 stations were sampled 12 times from November 1985 to October 1986. The remaining stations were sampled twice during the year, at high flow and at low flow. Total recoverable arsenic discharge (loading) in pounds per day was calculated for each sample by multiplying total recoverable arsenic concentration by water discharge (obtained at time of sample collection) and a conversion factor. This report presents data resulting from the monitoring program. (USGS)

Knapton, J. R.; Horpestad, A. A.

1987-01-01

142

Hydrochemical implications of groundwater mixing: An example from the Southern Laramie Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Laramie Basin groundwater system was studied to explore how standard thermodynamic chemical calculations can produce misleading results with respect to water-rock interactions when groundwaters with different chemical compositions mix. Geological and hydrological data determined the direction of flow to be NW in the Casper aquifers, as well as in the Redbeds aquifers. Hydrological and structural data were used to identify wells having mixtures of groundwater. The chemical data revealed that waters in the different aquifers are distinguishable by their chemical compositions and that mixtures have intermediate compositions. The different chemistries of the mixed groundwater samples are identical to those predicted by geochemical evolution paths, including calcite precipitation, evolution toward equilibration with gypsum, and Ca-Mg ion exchange.

Mazor, E.; Drever, J. I.; Finley, J.; Huntoon, P. W.; Lundy, D. A.

1993-01-01

143

Water-quality characteristics, including sodium-adsorption ratios, for four sites in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming and Montana, water years 2001-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, monitors streams throughout the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and parts of Montana for potential effects of coalbed natural gas development. Specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios may be larger in coalbed waters than in stream waters that may receive the discharge waters. Therefore, continuous water-quality instruments for specific conductance were installed and discrete water-quality samples were collected to characterize water quality during water years 2001-2004 at four sites in the Powder River drainage basin: Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming; Crazy Woman Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; Clear Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; and Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. During water years 2001-2004, the median specific conductance of 2,270 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm) in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming, was larger than the median specific conductance of 1,930 ?S/cm in discrete samples collected downstream from the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The median specific conductance was smallest in discrete samples from Clear Creek (1,180 ?S/cm), which has a dilution effect on the specific conductance for the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The daily mean specific conductance from continuous water-quality instruments during the irrigation season showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance values for the discrete samples. Dissolved sodium, sodium-adsorption ratios, and dissolved solids generally showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance. The largest median sodium concentration (274 milligrams per liter) and the largest range of sodium-adsorption ratios (3.7 to 21) were measured in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming. Median concentrations of sodium and sodium-adsorption ratios were substantially smaller in Crazy Woman Creek and Clear Creek, which tend to decrease sodium concentrations and sodium-adsorption ratios at the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. Dissolved-solids concentrations in discrete samples were closely correlated with specific conductance values; Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.98 or greater for all four sites. Regression equations for discrete values of specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were statistically significant (p-values <0.001) at all four sites. The strongest relation (R2=0.92) was at the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming. Relations on Crazy Woman Creek (R2=0.91) and Clear Creek (R2=0.83) also were strong. The relation between specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios was weakest (R2=0.65) at the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana; however, the relation was still significant. These data indicate that values of specific conductance are useful for estimating sodium-adsorption ratios. A regression model called LOADEST was used to estimate dissolved-solids loads for the four sites. The average daily mean dissolved-solids loads varied among the sites during water year 2004. The largest average daily mean dissolved-solids load was calculated for the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. Although the smallest concentrations of dissolved solids were in samples from Clear Creek, the smallest average daily mean dissolved-solids load was calculated for Crazy Woman Creek. The largest loads occurred during spring runoff, and the smallest loads occurred in late summer, when streamflows typically were smallest. Dissolved-solids loads may be smaller than average during water years 2001-2004 because of smaller than average streamflow as a result of drought conditions.

Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

2006-01-01

144

Chapter 4: The Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Wind River Basin Province includes all strata from the base of the Lower Cretaceous Cloverly Formation to the base of the Waltman Shale Member of the Paleocene age Fort Union Formation and, where the Waltman is absent, includes strata as young as the Eocene Wind River Formation. Locally, Cretaceous-sourced gas migrated into strata as old as the Mississippian Madison Limestone, and in these areas the TPS extends stratigraphically downward to include these reservoirs. The extensive vertical migration of gases in highly fractured areas of the Wind River Basin led to the commingling of gases from several Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sources, thus only two petroleum systems are recognized in these rocks, the Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite TPS, the subject of this report, and the Waltman Shale TPS described by Roberts and others (Chapter 5, this CD-ROM). The Cretaceous-lower Tertiary Composite TPS was subdivided into (1) seven continuous gas assessment units (AU): (a) Frontier-Muddy Continuous Gas AU, (b) Cody Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, (c) Mesaverde--Meeteetse Sandstone Gas AU, (d) Lance-Fort Union Sandstone Gas AU, (e) Mesaverde Coalbed Gas AU, (f) Meeteetse Coalbed Gas AU, and (g) Fort Union Coalbed Gas AU; (2) one continuous oil assessement unit--- Cody Fractured Shale Continuous Oil AU; and (3) one conventional assessment Unit--- Cretaceous-Tertiary Conventional Oil and Gas AU. Estimates of undiscovered resources having the potential for additions to reserves were made for all but the Cody Fractured Shale Continuous Oil AU, which is considered hypothetical and was not quantitively assessed. The mean estimate of the total oil is 41.99 million barrels, mean estimate of gas is 2.39 trillion cubic feet, and mean estimate of natural gas liquids is 20.55 million barrels. For gas, 480.66 billion cubic feet (BCFG) is estimated for the Frontier-Muddy Continuous Gas AU, 115.34 BCFG for the Cody Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, 383.16 BCFG for the Mesaverde-Meeteetse Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, 711.30 BCFG for the Lance-Fort Union Sandstone Gas AU, 107.18 BCFG for the Mesaverde Coalbed Gas AU, 21.29 BCFG for the Meeteetse Coalbed Gas AU, and 118.08 BCFG for the Fort Union Coalbed Gas AU. All the undiscovered oil and 98.94 BCFG of undiscovered gas is in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Conventional Oil and Gas AU.

Johnson, R. C.; Finn, Thomas M.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Roberts, Stephen B.; Roberts, Laura N. R.; Cook, Troy; Taylor, David J.

2007-01-01

145

Dating Fluvial Terraces by 230Th/U on Pedogenic Carbonate, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable and precise ages of Quaternary pedogenic carbonate can be obtained with 230Th/U dating by TIMS applied to large suites of carefully selected small samples. Datable carbonate can form within a few thousand years of surface stabilization allowing ages of Quaternary deposits and surfaces to be closely estimated. We have dated pedogenic carbonate from glacio-fluvial terraces of the Wind River Basin to better constrain the age of the penultimate glaciation in the central Rocky Mountains. Dense pedogenic carbonate clast-rinds from gravels of middle to late Quaternary terraces in the Wind River Basin contain 5-35 ppm U and 0.01-0.3 ppm 232Th, with (230Th/232Th)=5-7500, making them extremely suitable for 230Th/U dating. Complexities in the textures of the Wind River clast-rinds emphasized the importance of sampling horizons as thin as 0.5 mm from polished slabs to avoid averaging long (104-105 yr) and potentially discontinuous depositional histories. Samples meeting straightforward textural criteria with finite 230Th/U ages preserve within-rind stratigraphic order in all cases. Cosmogenic nuclide (10Be, 26Al, 36Cl) dating of Wind River terraces by others yields most-probable ages that are systematically younger than those inferred from clast-rind 230Th/U ages though the differences are not resolvable outside of the analytical and systematic uncertainties of the two techniques. Ages from 230Th/U rind dating for terraces WR4 (163+/-8 ka) and WR2 (55+/-7 ka), in conjunction with constraints from WR1 and the modern floodplain, indicate incision of the Wind River is slower than previously inferred and relatively uniform from terrace to terrace over the past glacial cycle. An age of 151+/-9 ka is interpolated for terrace WR3 that may be traced to moraines of the final advance of the Bull Lake glaciation at the type locality. The new age indicates that the Bull Lake glaciation climaxed near the end of marine isotope stage 6 rather than in early stage 5 and coincided with a global ice volume maximum. Thus, the Bull Lake glaciation is not an example of asynchrony between advances of mountain glaciers and continental ice sheets.

Sharp, W. D.; Ludwig, K. R.; Chadwick, O. A.; Amundson, R.; Glaser, L. L.

2001-12-01

146

Eocene climates, depositional environments, and geography, greater Green River basin, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The climates, depositional environments, and geography of Eocene rocks in the greater Green River basin are investigated to determine the origin, mode of deposition, and areal distribution of the Wasatch, Green River, Bridger, and Washakie Formations. The data indicate that Eocene climates ranged from cool temperature to tropical and were affected by both terrestrial and astronomical factors. The terrestrial factors were mainly latitude, altitude, regional geography, tectonism, and volcanism. The astronomical factors are interpreted from reptitious rock sequences in the Wilkins Peak Member of the Green River Formation that record seasonal changes, 21,000 year precession of the equinox cycles, 100,000 year eccentricity cycles, and an undetermined cycle of 727,000 years. Eight depositional environments are identified, discussed, and illustrated by diagrams, columnar sections, and photographs. They are: (1) fluvial, (2) paludal, (3) freshwater lacustrine, (4) saltwater lacustrine, (5) pond and playa lake, (6) evaporite (salt pan), (7) mudflat, and (8) volcanic and fluviovolcanic. The areal distribution of the eight depositional environments in the Wasatch, Green River, Bridger, and Washakie Formations is illustrated by photographs and 13 paleogeographic maps. 76 refs., 90 figs.

Roehler, H.W.

1993-12-31

147

Tectonic controls on deposition and preservation of Pennsylvanian Tensleep Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

During deposition of the Tensleep Formation, a shallow, semirestricted portion of a major seaway that occupied the geosynclinal area to the west extended into the area of the present-day Bighorn basin. Limiting the transgression of this sea was the Beartooth high on the north and the Bighorn high on the east and southeast. On the western side of the area, a southerly extension of the Yellowstone high restricted circulation. The lower Tensleep Formation (Desmoinesian), characterized by extensive marine influence, was deposited as coastal sand dunes and interdunes over subaerially exposed structural highs. These deposits grade basinward into shoreface sandstones, which in turn grade into sandstones and carbonates of the shelf environment. During deposition of upper Tensleep strata (Missourian through Virgilian), marine waters were less widespread. The Greybull arch, a northeast-trending feature in the northern part of the area, was uplifted, dividing the shallow sea into two parts. The upper Tensleep Formation was deposited as a terrestrial sand sea over the Bighorn high. Coastal dunes and interdunes were deposited seaward of the sand seas and over the Beartooth high, the Greybull arch, and the southerly extension of the Yellowstone high. These deposits grade basinward into clastic shoreface deposits. Following Tensleep deposition, the region underwent southward tilting, which caused exposure and erosion of the Tensleep Formation. The resulting unconformity surface was deeply incised by a dendritic drainage system that controlled the thickness of the formation. The Greybull arch and the Bighorn high acted as significant drainage divides, over which very little of the formation was preserved.

Kelly Anne, O.; Horne, J.C.; Wheeler, D.M.; Musgrave, C.E.

1986-08-01

148

A groundwater vortex hypothesis for mima-like mounds, Laramie Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mima-like mounds in the Laramie Basin occur where: (1) impervious bedrock (shale) is at a shallow depth (˜ 2-5 m); (2) bedrock is overlain by a thin veneer (˜ 1-4 m) of alluvial gravels; and (3) a strong argillic/calcic or petrocalcic soil caps the landform, typically a terrace. Active and inactive mounds contain churned materials, including pebbles derived from adjacent/subjacent units. The mounds are circular in plan view and lens- or funnel-shaped in cross-section. The strong intermound (premound) soil collapses beneath the mound, is entirely or partly destroyed at its base, or is truncated at the mound edge. Stratigraphic relationships on the youngest terrace of the Laramie River indicate that the inactive mounds are Holocene in age. Sodium concentrations (used as a tracer) in mound material and adjacent/subjacent units suggest that the mounds rotate counterclockwise. This movement may be driven by free spiral vortices (low hydraulic head) in confined (artesian) groundwater flow in alluvium between shallow bedrock and strong surface soil. The vortices (similar to water draining from a bathtub or a whirlpool in a river) may result from enlargements, constrictions, or changes in permeability of the aquifer — or meandering of groundwater flow. Groundwater, dissolved ions, and materials in suspension, or through friction and turbidity, then would move from adjacent high-hydraulic head areas into and down the vortex. In effect, the high head (intermound) areas would act as a pump whereas the vortex (which would form a mound) would act as a turbine — responding, therefore, to energy transformations between groundwater velocity and pressure according to the Bernoulli principle and Newton's Second Law of Motion. Soil or sediment, incapable of being fully moved into and down the vortex, would amass at the land surface as a circular mound that in cross-section would have a lens or funnel (turbine) shape. Computer modelling shows that mounds tend to form over deep bedrock and thick alluvium. The groundwater vortex hypothesis can account for the building of the mound higher at its center, the circular plan view and lens (or funnel) shape in cross-section, the inward spiral of sodium, the churned character of mound material, and the collapse (or truncation) of soils and other units beneath and along mound edges. The hypothesis, however, must not be applied to all other Mima or mima-like mounds, unless vortex motion can be determined and if stratigraphic similarities can be demonstrated.

Reider, Richard G.; Huss, Joseph M.; Miller, Timothy W.

1996-08-01

149

Preliminary results on the characterization of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary low-permeability (tight) gas-bearing rocks in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Wind River Basin is a structural and sedimentary basin in central Wyoming (Figure 1) that was created during the Laramide orogeny from Late Cretaceous through Eocene time. The objectives of the Wind River Basin tight gas sandstone project are to define the limits of the tight gas accumulation in the basin and to estimate in-place and recoverable gas resources. The approximate limits of the tight gas accumulation are defined from available drillhole information. Geologic parameters, which controlled the development of the accumulation, are studied in order to better understand the origins of tight gas accumulations, and to predict the limits of the accumulation in areas where little drillhole information is available. The architecture of sandstone reservoirs are studied in outcrop to predict production characteristics of similar reservoirs within the tight gas accumulation. Core and cuttings are used to determine thermal maturities, quality of source rocks, and diagenetic histories. Our work thus far has concentrated in the Wind River Indian Reservation in the western part of the basin.

Fouch, T.D.; Keefer, W.R.; Finn, T.M. [and others

1993-12-31

150

Carbon dioxide sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in unmineable coalbeds of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first problem addressed in this thesis is global warming, where it has been shown that the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm to present levels of ˜380 ppm. This increase in atmospheric CO2 is attributed to the world's expanding use of fossil fuels and is believed to be one of the primary causes of global warming. To examine the feasibility of sequestering CO2 in unmineable coalbeds of the Powder River Basin (PRB), Wyoming, a reservoir characterization study and fluid flow simulations have been carried out. The results suggest that after 13 years of CO2 injection, ˜99% of the total CO 2 injected into the Big George coal would be sequestered (assuming the coalbed is overlain by an impermeable caprock), that methane production would be ˜5-8 times greater with CO2 injection than without, and that one injection well would be able to sequester ˜9 kt of CO2 a year. The second issue addressed in this thesis is the disposal of coalbed methane (CBM) water, which is co-produced with CBM in the PRB. CBM water poses a serious environmental hazard to the PRB because the water has high saline and sodium contents, making it unsuitable for agricultural use and damaging to wildlife habitats. One option for the disposal of CBM water is injection into aquifers. To determine if pore pressures in aquifers are low enough to allow for significant CBM water injection and to determine whether the coals and sands are in hydraulic communication with each other, pore pressures in 250 wells that monitor water levels in coalbeds and adjacent sands within the PRB have been calculated. The analysis indicates that both sands and coalbeds have sub-hydrostatic pore pressures and that at present all sand aquifers in hydraulic communication with a producing coalbed are within ˜200 ft of the coalbed. Therefore, in order to be sure that disposed CBM water does not migrate back into producing coalbeds over time, CBM water disposal should be undertaken in sub-hydrostatic sand aquifers that are not in hydraulic communication with a coalbed.

Ross, Hannah Elizabeth

151

Evaluation of the rhenium-osmium geochronometer in the Phosphoria petroleum system, Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronometry is applied to crude oils derived from the Permian Phosphoria Formation of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana to determine whether the radiogenic age reflects the timing of petroleum generation, timing of migration, age of the source rock, or the timing of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The oils selected for this study are interpreted to be derived from the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Phosphoria Formation based on oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations utilizing bulk properties, elemental composition, ?13C and ?34S values, and biomarker distributions. The ?34S values of the oils range from -6.2‰ to +5.7‰, with oils heavier than -2‰ interpreted to be indicative of TSR. The Re and Os isotope data of the Phosphoria oils plot in two general trends: (1) the main trend (n = 15 oils) yielding a Triassic age (239 ± 43 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 0.85 ± 0.42 and a mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) of 1596, and (2) the Torchlight trend (n = 4 oils) yielding a Miocene age (9.24 ± 0.39 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 1.88 ± 0.01 and a MSWD of 0.05. The scatter (high MSWD) in the main-trend regression is due, in part, to TSR in reservoirs along the eastern margin of the basin. Excluding oils that have experienced TSR, the regression is significantly improved, yielding an age of 211 ± 21 Ma with a MSWD of 148. This revised age is consistent with some studies that have proposed Late Triassic as the beginning of Phosphoria oil generation and migration, and does not seem to reflect the source rock age (Permian) or the timing of re-migration (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) associated with the Laramide orogeny. The low precision of the revised regression (±21 Ma) is not unexpected for this oil family given the long duration of generation from a large geographic area of mature Phosphoria source rock, and the possible range in the initial 187Os/188Os values of the Meade Peak and Retort source units. Effects of re-migration may have contributed to the scatter, but thermal cracking and biodegradation likely have had minimal or no effect on the main-trend regression. The four Phosphoria-sourced oils from Torchlight and Lamb fields yield a precise Miocene age Re-Os isochron that may reflect the end of TSR in the reservoir due to cooling below a threshold temperature in the last 10 m.y. from uplift and erosion of overlying rocks. The mechanism for the formation of a Re-Os isotopic relationship in a family of crude oils may involve multiple steps in the petroleum generation process. Bitumen generation from the source rock kerogen may provide a reset of the isotopic chronometer, and incremental expulsion of oil over the duration of the oil window may provide some of the variation seen in 187Re/188Os values from an oil family.

Lillis, Paul G.; Selby, David

2013-01-01

152

Godiva Rim Member: A new stratigraphic unit of the Green River Formation in southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado. Geology of the Eocene Wasatch, Green River, and Bridger (Washakie) Formations, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

The report names and describes the Godiva Rim Member of the Green River Formation in the eastern part of the Washakie basin in southwest Wyoming and the central part of the Sand Wash basin in northwest Colorado. The Godiva Rim Member comprises lithofacies of mixed mudflat and lacustrine origin situated between the overlying lacustrine Laney Member of the Green River Formation and the underlying fluvial Cathedral Bluffs Tongue of the Wasatch Formation. The Godiva Rim Member is laterally equivalent to and grades westward into the LaClede Bed of the Laney Member. The Godiva Rim Member of the Green River Formation was deposited along the southeast margins of Lake Gosiute and is correlated to similar lithologic units that were deposited along the northeast margins of Lake Uinta in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation. The stratigraphic data presented provide significant evidence that the two lakes were periodically connected around the east end of the Uinta Mountains during the middle Eocene.

Roehler, H.W.

1991-01-01

153

Geostatistical study of coal and overburden data from the Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. [R-squared statistics used as measure of correlation between drill cutting samples and core samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis was performed with overburden characterization data that was obtained from a US Forest Service study site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. The drilling and overburden characterization program had been performed during 1977 and 1978 and this information was provided to the Laramie Energy Technology Center by the US Forest Service. There were three basic goals that

L. Borgman; W. Quimby; C. Sever; M. Andrew; D. Youngberg; F. Davis

1983-01-01

154

Evaluating controls on fluvial sand-body clustering in the Ferris Formation (Cretaceous/Paleogene, Wyoming, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of sedimentary geologists is to interpret past tectonic, climatic, and eustatic conditions from the stratigraphic record. Stratigraphic changes in alluvial-basin fills are routinely interpreted as the result of past tectonic movements or changes in climate or sea level. Recent physical and numerical models have shown that sedimentary systems can exhibit self-organization on basin-filling time scales, suggesting that structured stratigraphic patterns can form spontaneously rather than as the result of changing boundary conditions. The Ferris Formation (Upper Cretaceous/Paleogene, Hanna Basin, Wyoming) exhibits stratigraphic organization where clusters of closely-spaced channel deposits are separated from other clusters by intervals dominated by overbank material. In order to evaluate the role of basinal controls on deposition and ascertain the potential for self-organization in this ancient deposit, the spatial patterns of key channel properties (including sand-body dimensions, paleoflow depth, maximum clast size, paleocurrent direction, and sediment provenance) are analyzed. Overall the study area lacks strong trends sand-body properties through the stratigraphic succession and in cluster groups. Consequently there is no indication that the stratigraphic pattern observed in the Ferris Formation was driven by systematic changes in climate or tectonics.

Hajek, E. A.; Heller, P.

2009-12-01

155

Northwest Indiana Regional Development Authority William Hanna, Executive Director  

E-print Network

Northwest Indiana Regional Development Authority William Hanna, Executive Director 9800 Connecticut.in.gov/rda Northwest Indiana Regional Development Authority: Established to fund and develop transportation, shoreline and economic development projects in Northwest Indiana, the Northwest Indiana Regional Development Authority

156

Geology of Paleozoic Rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, Excluding the San Juan Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geology of the Paleozoic rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program to provide support for hydrogeological interpretations. The study area is segmented by numerous uplifts and basins caused by folding and faulting that have recurred repeatedly from Precambrian to Cenozoic time. Paleozoic rocks in the study area are 0-18,000 feet thick. They are underlain by Precambrian igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and are overlain in most of the area by Triassic formations composed mostly of shale. The overlying Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are 0-27,000 feet thick. All Paleozoic systems except the Silurian are represented in the region. The Paleozoic rocks are divisible into 11 hydrogeologic units. The basal hydrogeologic unit consisting of Paleozoic rocks, the Flathead aquifer, predominantly is composed of Lower to Upper Cambrian sandstone and quartzite. The aquifer is 0-800 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Gros Ventre confining unit consists of Middle to Upper Cambrian shale with subordinate carbonate rocks and sandstone. The confining unit is 0-1,100 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Bighom aquifer consists of Middle Cambrian to Upper Ordovician limestone and dolomite with subordinate shale and sandstone. The aquifer is 0-3,000 feet thick and is overlain unconformably by Devonian and Mississipplan rocks. The Elbert-Parting confining unit consists of Lower Devonian to Lower Mississippian limestone, dolomite, sandstone, quartzite, shale, and anhydrite. It is 0-700 feet thick and is overlain conformably to unconformably by Upper Devonian and Mississippian rocks. The Madison aquifer consists of two zones of distinctly different lithology. The lower (Redwall-Leadville) zone is 0-2,500 feet thick and is composed almost entirely of Upper Devonian to Upper Mississippian limestone, dolomite, and chert. The overlying (Darwin-Humbug) zone is 0-800 feet thick and consists of Upper Mississippian limestone, dolomite, sandstone, shale, gypsum, and solution breccia. The Madison aquifer is overlain conformably by Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks. The Madison aquifer in most areas is overlain by Upper Mississippian to Middle Pennsylvanian rocks of the Four Comers confining unit. The lower part of this confining unit, the Belden-Molas subunit, consists of as much as 4,300 feet of shale with subordinate carbonate rocks, sandstone, and minor gypsum. The upper part of the confining unit, the Paradox-Eagle Valley subunit, in most places consists of as much as 9,700 feet of interbedded limestone, dolomite, shale, sandstone, gypsum, anhydrite, and halite. Locally, the evaporitic rocks are deformed into diapirs as much as 15,000 feet thick. The Four Corners confining unit is overlain gradationally to disconformably by Pennsylvanian rocks. The uppermost Paleozoic rocks comprise the Canyonlands aquifer, which is composed of three zones with distinctly different lithologies. The basal (Cutler-Maroon) zone consists of as much as 16,500 feet of Lower Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian sandstone, conglomerate, shale, limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. The middle (Weber-De Chelly) zone consists of as much as 4,000 feet of Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian quartz sandstone with minor carbonate rocks and shale. The upper (Park City-State Bridge) zone consists of as much as 800 feet of Lower to Upper Permian limestone, dolomite, shale, sandstone, phosphorite, chert, and gypsum. The Canyonlands aquifer is overlain disconformably to unconformably by formations of Triassic and Jurassic age.

Geldon, Arthur L.

2003-01-01

157

An assessment of cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology in part of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming; a progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality are involved in a cooperative effort to assess the probable cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology of a part of the Powder River Structural Basin in Wyoming. It was assumed that the principal impacts on the ground-water system due to mining will occur in the relatively shallow aquifers which can be grouped into three homogeneous aquifers, namely, the Wyodak coal, the overburden, and the under burden. Emphasis of this report is on the results of analysis of surface-water resources in the Caballo Creek drainage. A surface-water model of the Caballo Creek drainage was developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran model to help assess the impacts of mining activities on streamflow. The Caballo Creek drainage was divided into 10 land segments and 6 stream reaches in the modeling process. Three simulation runs show little, if any, change in streamflow between pre- and post-mining conditions and very little change between pre-mining and during-mining conditions. The principal reason for the absence of change is the high infiltration rate used in the model for all three conditions. (USGS)

Jordan, P.R.; Bloyd, R.M.; Daddow, P.B.

1984-01-01

158

Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water Budget at a Storage Impoundment Site, Beaver Creek Drainage, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of producing wells, from less than 300 in 1997 to more than 10,000 in 2002, with as many as 40,000 new wells projected to be drilled during the next decade. CBM development involves the co-production of large volumes of coalbed water, which is most commonly discharged to impoundments. Little is known about the potentially significant effects that this co-produced water may have on shallow aquifers and water budgets. A small study site (1600 meters in length) was chosen in the Beaver Creek drainage (a tributary to the Powder River) to quantify the fate of CBM water. Discharge into two in-channel infiltration impoundments (areas of 4000 m2 and 10,500 m2) began in November, 2002. We installed monitoring wells at three locations-upstream, between, and downstream of the ponds. We emplaced a series of v-notch weirs between and dowstream of the ponds to quantify conveyance losses, and constructed a floating pan in one impoundment to measure evaporation. Over the study period from July 23 to August 21, 2003, we established a water budget from daily coalbed water production, flow measurements, and evaporation data. Water production from five wells into the two ponds averaged 647 L/min, or about 4500 bbl/day. Mean evaporation from the ponds and stream channel was 102 L/min. Infiltration determined by differences in water production and streamflow plus evaporation loss indicate an average infiltration of 240 L/min in the ponds, and 97 L/min within 1100 meters of investigated stream channel. Approximately 52% of the CBM co-produced water infiltrated, 16% was lost to evaporation, and 32% left the study area as surface water. Mean infiltration rates within the ponds ranged from 0.07 cm/hr in the smaller upstream pond to 0.1 cm/hr in the larger pond. In the middle sections of the stream channel, infiltration rates were about 0.7 cm/hr. Directly below the downstream pond, the infiltration rate was 0.3 cm/hr, slightly less than that determined for other streambed sections. In the most dowstream section of stream channel, the infiltration rate was 1.1 cm/hr. Well water levels in a control area unaffected by CBM water dropped by 18.3 cm over the study duration, while levels dropped only 6.1 cm between the ponds, and 12.2 cm below both ponds. Preliminary results suggest potentially significant variations in infiltration rates between the pond and stream settings. The response of the shallow aquifer water table also appears to vary within the study area.

Payne, A. A.; Saffer, D. M.; Wheaton, J. R.; Bierbach, S.

2003-12-01

159

A Synoptic Study of Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins, Wyoming, June-July 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A synoptic study of fecal-indicator bacteria was conducted during June and July 2000 in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins in Wyoming as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program for the Yellowstone River Basin. Fecal-coliform concentrations ranged from 2 to 3,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for 100 samples, and Escherichia coli concentrations ranged from 1 to 2,800 col/100 mL for 97 samples. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for recreational contact with water in 37.0 percent of the samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for moderate use, full-body recreational contact with water in 38.1 percent of the samples and the recommended limit for infrequent use, full-body recreational contact with water in 24.7 percent of the samples. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by basin. Samples from the Bighorn River Basin had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 340 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 300 col/100 mL. Samples from the Wind River Basin had the lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 50 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 62 col/100 mL. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by land cover. Samples from sites with an urban land cover had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 540 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 420 col/100 mL. Maximum concentrations for fecal coliform of 3,000 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 2,800 col/100 mL were in samples from sites with an agricultural land cover. The lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 130 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 67 col/100 mL were for samples from sites with a forested land cover. A strong and positive relation existed between fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (Spearman's Rho value of 0.976). The majority of the fecal coliforms were Escherichia coli during the synoptic study. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations were not correlated to streamflow, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conduc-tance, and alkalinity. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations were moderately correlated with turbidity (Spearman's Rho values of 0.662 and 0.640 for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli, respectively) and sediment (Spearman's Rho values of 0.628 and 0.636 for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli, respectively). Escherichia coli isolates analyzed by discriminant analysis of ribotype patterns for samples from the Bighorn River at Basin, Wyoming, and Bitter Creek near Garland, Wyoming, in the Bighorn River Basin were determined to be from nonhuman and human sources. Using a confidence interval of 90 percent, more of the isolates from both sites were classified as being from nonhuman than human sources; however, both samples had additional isolates that were classified as unknown sources. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Clark, Melanie L.; Gamper, Merry E.

2003-01-01

160

Evidence of Late Quaternary Faulting along the Northeastern Segment of the Stagner Creek Fault in the Northwestern Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stagner Creek fault, located along the southern margin of the Owl Creek Mountains in central Wyoming, is one of several east-west striking Quaternary faults that may correspond with scattered, present-day, intraplate seismicity in the region. These Quaternary faults are peculiar in that they strike nearly orthogonal to the Basin and Range faults observed in western Wyoming, and their orientation may reflect the influence of inherited, Laramide structures. These east-west striking faults are inferred to be predominantly normal faults. Previous studies have documented the Quaternary activity of the Stagner Creek fault affecting 6 distinct alluvial fan southeast of the Boysen Reservoir. This study aims to expand on these prior efforts using geomorphic and geophysical analyses. In this area, the Stagner Creek fault is expressed as a prominent scarp, visible in air photos and satellite imagery. Microtopographic mapping was accomplished using a real-time kinematic GPS surveying. The resulting DEM provides detailed scarp morphology, as well as documenting possible knick points within the alluvial surfaces upstream from the scarp. The alluvial surface has a regional slope of 2-3 degrees, and the scarp face has a relatively shallow slope of 6-12 degrees. Scarp heights range from 0.4 to 2 meters. The minimum scarp may reflect a single faulting event, corresponding with a magnitude 6.5 - 6.7. These surfaces are believed to be Late Pleistocene and younger, and geochronological constraints are pending. A shallow seismic reflection profile acquired across the scarp imaged structure to depths of about 500 meters. The profile suggests a steep fault coincident with the surface scarp that offsets Tertiary reflectors several 10s of meters in the subsurface. The steep dip is similar to Laradmide structures. These results suggest that the Stagner Creek fault is capable of generating moderate magnitude earthquakes in this low-strain tectonic environment.

Abousaif, A.; Wang, H.; Cochran, W. J.; Hinrichs, N.; Gomez, F.; Sandvol, E. A.

2012-12-01

161

Assessment of impacts of proposed coal-resource and related economic development on water resources, Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming; a summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Expanded mining and use of coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States will have substantial impacts on water resources, environmental amenities, and social and economic conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a 3-year assessment of the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, where increased coal-resource development has begun to affect the environment and quality of life. Economic projections of the overall effects of coal-resource development were used to estimate water use and the types and amounts of waste residuals that need to be assimilated into the environment. Based in part upon these projections, several physical-based models and other semiquantitative assessment methods were used to determine possible effects upon the basin's water resources. Depending on the magnitude of mining and use of coal resources in the basin, an estimated 0.7 to 2.7 million tons (0.6 to 2.4 million metric tons) of waste residuals may be discharged annually into the environment by coal-resource development and associated economic activities. If the assumed development of coal resources in the basin occurs, annual consumptive use of water, which was approximately 142,000 acre-feet (175 million cubic meters) during 1975, may almost double by 1990. In a related analysis of alternative cooling systems for coal-conversion facilities, four to five times as much water may be used consumptively in a wet-tower, cooling-pond recycling system as in once-through cooling. An equivalent amount of coal transported by slurry pipeline would require about one-third the water used consumptively by once-through cooling for in-basin conversion. Current conditions and a variety of possible changes in the water resources of the basin resulting from coal-resource development were assessed. Basin population may increase by as much as threefold between 1975 and 1990. Volumes of wastes requiring treatment will increase accordingly. Potential problems associated with ammonia-nitrogen concentrations in the Yampa River downstream from Steamboat Springs were evaluated using a waste-load assimilative-capacity model. Changes in sediment loads carried by streams due to increased coal mining and construction of roads and buildings may be apparent only locally; projected increases in sediment loads relative to historic loads from the basin are estimated to be 2 to 7 percent. Solid-waste residuals generated by coal-conversion processes and disposed of into old mine pits may cause widely dispersed ground-water contamination, based on simulation-modeling results. Projected increases in year-round water use will probably result in the construction of several proposed reservoirs. Current seasonal patterns of streamflow and of dissolvedsolids concentrations in streamflow will be altered appreciably by these reservoirs. Decreases in time-weighted mean-annual dissolved-solids concentrations of as much as 34 percent are anticipated, based upon model simulations of several configurations of proposed reservoirs. Detailed statistical analyses of water-quality conditions in the Yampa River basin were made. Regionalized maximum waterquality concentrations were estimated for possible comparison with future conditions. Using Landsat imagery and aerial photographs, potential remote-sensing applications were evaluated to monitor land-use changes and to assess both snow cover and turbidity levels in streams. The technical information provided by the several studies of the Yampa River basin assessment should be useful to regional planners and resource managers in evaluating the possible impacts of development on the basin's water resources.

Steele, Timothy Doak; Hillier, Donald E.

1981-01-01

162

Early Eocene paleogeography of the Bighorn Basin, northwest Wyoming, inferred from paleocurrent and particle shape and size analyses  

SciTech Connect

Drainage patterns of the Bighorn Basin in early Eocene time have been reconstructed from studies of crossbedding and of particle sizes and shapes in the fluvial Willwood Formation. These patterns were inferred from (1) a moving-average paleocurrent map based on crossbedding vector means for 104 localities, (2) size and shape isopleth maps based on sand grains from 88 other localities, and (3) maximum pebble length at each crossbedding locality. The shape and size factors determined for each locality, using an electronic image analyzer, were regularity (area/perimeter/sup 2/), elongation (width/length), and mean sand-grain length. The resulting isopleth maps reveal areas of maximum stream competence. The reconstruction suggests a system of three major basin-margin tributary streams and one trunk stream. Two of these tributaries entered the western side of the basin: one near Clarks Fork Canyon, the other near the Shoshone River west of Cody. A third tributary, which drained the highest part of the Bighorn Mountains, entered the eastern side of the basin near Paint Rock Creek. These present major drainages and some others seem to have had similar positions since early Eocene time. The Eocene trunk stream, however, entered the southwestern part of the basin, flowed northward west of the present Bighorn River but east of the basin's structural axis, and crossed the northern Bighorn Mountains along a course that essentially coincided with the present Bighorn Canyon. It carried minor amounts of locally derived sedimentary and igneous clasts and an influx of very coarse quartzite roundstones (as large as 0.7 m) derived from older conglomerates in Jackson Hole. Small amounts of fine-grained gold were found in almost every panned concentrate of the resulting quartzite conglomerate.

Seeland, D.

1985-01-01

163

Activities and summary statistics of radon-222 in stream- and ground-water samples, Owl Creek basin, north-central Wyoming, September 1991 through March 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radon-222 activity was measured for 27 water samples from streams, an alluvial aquifer, bedrock aquifers, and a geothermal system, in and near the 510-square mile area of Owl Creek Basin, north- central Wyoming. Summary statistics of the radon- 222 activities are compiled. For 16 stream-water samples, the arithmetic mean radon-222 activity was 20 pCi/L (picocuries per liter), geometric mean activity was 7 pCi/L, harmonic mean activity was 2 pCi/L and median activity was 8 pCi/L. The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is 29 pCi/L. The activities in the stream-water samples ranged from 0.4 to 97 pCi/L. The histogram of stream-water samples is left-skewed when compared to a normal distribution. For 11 ground-water samples, the arithmetic mean radon- 222 activity was 486 pCi/L, geometric mean activity was 280 pCi/L, harmonic mean activity was 130 pCi/L and median activity was 373 pCi/L. The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is 500 pCi/L. The activity in the ground-water samples ranged from 25 to 1,704 pCi/L. The histogram of ground-water samples is left-skewed when compared to a normal distribution. (USGS)

Ogle, K.M.; Lee, R.W.

1994-01-01

164

Hydraulic fracturing and wellbore completion of coalbed methane wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Implications for water and gas production  

SciTech Connect

Excessive water production (more than 7000 bbl/month per well) from many coalbed methane (CBM) wells in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming is also associated with significant delays in the time it takes for gas production to begin. Analysis of about 550 water-enhancement activities carried out during well completion demonstrates that such activities result in hydraulic fracturing of the coal. Water-enhancement activities, consists of pumping 60 bbl of water/min into the coal seam during approximately 15 min. This is done to clean the well-bore and to enhance CBM production. Hydraulic fracturing is of concern because vertical hydraulic fracture growth could extend into adjacent formations and potentially result in excess CBM water production and inefficient depressurization of coals. Analysis of the pressure-time records of the water-enhancement tests enabled us to determine the magnitude of the least principal stress (S{sub 3}) in the coal seams of 372 wells. These data reveal that because S{sub 3} switches between the minimum horizontal stress and the overburden at different locations, both vertical and horizontal hydraulic fracture growth is inferred to occur in the basin, depending on the exact location and coal layer. Relatively low water production is observed for wells with inferred horizontal fractures, whereas all of the wells associated with excessive water production are characterized by inferred vertical hydraulic fractures. The reason wells with exceptionally high water production show delays in gas production appears to be inefficient depressurization of the coal caused by water production from the formations outside the coal. To minimize CBM water production, we recommend that in areas of known vertical fracture propagation, the injection rate during the water-enhancement tests should be reduced to prevent the propagation of induced fractures into adjacent water-bearing formations.

Colmenares, L.B.; Zoback, M.D. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics

2007-01-15

165

Water Budget and Modeling of Stream Channel Infiltration of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water at a Storage Impoundment Site, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of producing wells, with as many as 40,000 new wells projected to drilled during the next decade. CBM development involves the co-production of large volumes of coalbed water, which is most commonly discharged to impoundments. Little is known about the potentially significant effects that this co-produced water may have on shallow aquifers and water budgets. Since many of the impoundments in the Powder River Basin are in-channel and supplement surface water flow, it is important to understand what factors influence stream channel infiltration. Modeling of cross-sectional infiltration in a stream channel was undertaken using the U. S. Geological Survey's SUTRA finite-element code, simulating fluid movement from the stream channel, through the unsaturated zone, and into the shallow aquifer. Soil type, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and degree of anisotropy within the soil layer were analyzed to better understand the effects that each have on channel infiltration. At a small study site containing two in-channel infiltration impoundments in the Beaver Creek drainage (a tributary to the Powder River), water budgets have been determined from late July, 2003 to the present (excluding the winter months). Calculated infiltration rates of 0.04 cfs/mile in a 0.8 m wide stream channel compared well with modeled regional soils. Slug tests were utilized to determine aquifer properties in the underlying alluvium/weathered bedrock. A two-layer SUTRA model is presented representing the upper soil layer and underlying alluvium/weathered bedrock and compared to observed changes in groundwater levels in the stream sections affected by introduced CBM water.

Payne, A. A.; Saffer, D. M.

2004-12-01

166

Mark A. Newbrough, MD Hanna Thurman, MSW, LGSW, MPA  

E-print Network

an essentially normal brain, with little or no evidence of Alzheimer's disease, according to a studyMark A. Newbrough, MD Hanna Thurman, MSW, LGSW, MPA West Virginia Geriatric Education Center and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official policy of, nor should be any

Mohaghegh, Shahab

167

Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Powder River Basin Province of Wyoming and Montana--2006 Update  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 16.6 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, 639 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and 131 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Powder River Basin Province.

2006-01-01

168

Early Eocene paleogeography of the Bighorn Basin, northwest Wyoming, inferred from paleocurrent and particle shape and size analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drainage patterns of the Bighorn Basin in early Eocene time have been reconstructed from studies of crossbedding and of particle sizes and shapes in the fluvial Willwood Formation. These patterns were inferred from (1) a moving-average paleocurrent map based on crossbedding vector means for 104 localities, (2) size and shape isopleth maps based on sand grains from 88 other localities,

Seeland

1985-01-01

169

Organic compounds in produced waters from coalbed natural gas wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic composition of produced water samples from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wells in the Powder River Basin, WY, sampled in 2001 and 2002 are reported as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from coal. The quality of CBNG produced waters is a potential environmental concern and disposal problem for

William H. Orem; Calin A. Tatu; Harry E. Lerch; Cynthia A. Rice; Timothy T. Bartos; Anne L. Bates; Susan Tewalt; Margo D. Corum

2007-01-01

170

Estimates of monthly streamflow characteristics at selected sites, Wind River and part of Bighorn River drainage basins, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monthly streamflow records from gaging stations with more than 5 years of record were extended to a 50-year base period, 1941-90, using a mixed- station, record-extension model. Monthly streamflow characteristics were computed from the extended record. Four statistical methods--basin characteristics, active-channel width, concurrent measurement, and weighted average were used to estimate monthly streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites and at streamflow-gaging stations with fewer than 5 years of record. Linear- regression models were used with the basin characteristic and active-channel-width methods to define the relations between the monthly streamflow characteristics and physical basin, climatic, and channel characteristics. The concurrent-measurement method used a Maintenance of Variance Extension, Type 1 curve-fitting technique to correlate discharge at active streamflow-gaging stations, which had computed streamflow characteristics, with discharge measured at ungaged sites. The weighted-average method is a weighted combination of estimates from any two or all three of the other methods. For the basin-characteristics method, the standard errors of estimate ranged from 37 to 83 percent and for the active-channel-width method, 34 to 100 percent. Standard errors for the concurrent- measurement method ranged from 27 to 151 percent. The standard error for the weighted-average method, ranged from 18 to 82 percent, which was lower than any individual method. Application of the equations for estimating monthly streamflow characteristics is limited to perennial streams with physical-basin, climatic, and active channel- width characteristics that are within the range of values used in the study. The equations are not applicable to estimate flow for ephemeral streams.

Rankl, J.G.; Montague, Ellen; Lenz, B.N.

1994-01-01

171

Hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of the Paleozoic rocks in the upper Colorado River basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, excluding the San Juan Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin were investigated under the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey in anticipation of the development of water supplies from bedrock aquifers to fulfill the region's growing water demands. The study area, in parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, covers about 100,000 square miles. It includes parts of four physiographic provinces--the Middle Rocky Mountains, Wyoming Basin, Southern Rocky Mountains, and Colorado Plateaus. A variety of landforms, including mountains, plateaus, mesas, cuestas, plains, badlands, and canyons, are present. Altitudes range from 3,100 to 14,500 feet. Precipitation is distributed orographically and ranges from less than 6 inches per year at lower altitudes to more than 60 inches per year in some mountainous areas. Most of the infrequent precipitation at altitudes of less than 6,000 feet is consumed by evapotranspiration. The Colorado and Green Rivers are the principal streams: the 1964-82 average discharge of the Colorado River where it leaves the Upper Colorado River Basin is 12,170 cubic feet per second (a decrease of 5,680 cubic feet per second since construction of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963). On the basis of their predominant lithologic and hydrologic properties, the Paleozoic rocks are classified into four aquifers and three confining units. The Flathead aquifer, Gros Ventre confining unit, Bighorn aquifer, Elbert-Parting confining unit, and Madison aquifer (Redwall-Leadville and Darwin-Humbug zones) make up the Four Corners aquifer system. A thick sequence, composed mostly of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian shale, anhydrite, halite, and carbonate rocks--the Four Corners confining unit (Belden-Molas and Paradox-Eagle Valley subunits)--overlies the Four Corners aquifer system in most areas and inhibits vertical ground-water flow between the Four Corners aquifer system and the overlying Canyonlands aquifer. Composed of the uppermost Paleozoic rocks, the Canyonlands aquifer consists, in ascending order, of the Cutler-Maroon, Weber-De Chelly, and Park City-State Bridge zones. The Paleozoic rocks are underlain by a basal confining unit consisting of Precambrian sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks and overlain throughout most of the Upper Colorado River Basin by the Chinle-Moenkopi confining unit, which consists of Triassic formations composed mostly of shale. The largest values of porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, and artesian yield are exhibited by the Redwall-Leadville zone of the Madison aquifer and the Weber-De Chelly zone of the Canyonlands aquifer. The former consists almost entirely of Devonian and Mississippian carbonate rocks: the latter consists mostly of Pennsylvanian and Permian quartz sandstone. Unit-averaged porosity in hydrogeologic units composed of Paleozoic rocks ranges from less than 1 to 28 percent. Permeability ranges from less than 0.0001 to 3,460 millidarcies. Unit-averaged hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.000005 to 200 feet per day. The composite transmissivity of Paleozoic rocks ranges from 0.0005 to 47,000 feet squared per day. Artesian yields to wells and springs (excluding atypical springflows) from these hydrogeologic units range from less than 1 to 10,000 gallons per minute. The permeability and watersupply capabilities of all hydrogeologic units progressively decrease from uplifted areas to structural basins. Recharge to the Paleozoic rocks is provided by direct infiltration of precipitation, leakage from streams, and ground-water inflows from structurally continuous areas west and north of the Upper Colorado River Basin. The total recharge available flom ground-water systems in the basin from direct precipitation and stream leakage is estimated to be 6,600,000 acre-feet per year. However, little of this recharge directly enters the Paleozoic rocks

Geldon, Arthur L.

2003-01-01

172

Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide degassing and cryptic thermal input to Brimstone Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brimstone Basin is a remote area of intense hydrothermal alteration a few km outside the southeast boundary of the Yellowstone Caldera. The area has long been considered to be a cold remnant of an ancient hydrothermal system. A 2008 field campaign confirmed that emissions from discrete gas vents were cold and that soil temperatures in the altered area were at background levels. Accumulation chamber measurements across the altered ground revealed a surprisingly large diffuse flux of CO2 and H2S, ~277 and 0.6 tonnes per day, respectively, comparable to those from Yellowstone's thermal areas. The acidic nature and low discharge of the creeks that drain the basin preclude a significant flux of dissolved magmatic carbon. Diffuse gas flux is clearly the main component of the magmatic volatile efflux from Brimstone Basin. The cold waters of Alluvium Creek flow through the active degassing areas at Brimstone Basin. On average, the isotopic composition of the waters in the degassing areas are shifted about 3.5 permil off the global meteoric water line to lighter ?18O values without an apparent shift in ?D. We used the measured diffuse CO2 discharge from Brimstone Basin and stable isotope mass balance modeling to show that the observed ?18O shift can be plausibly linked to isotopic equilibration with CO2 from an underlying thermal reservoir at 88±17°C. Results from analyses of Brimstone gases indicate that although there are no surface thermal anomalies, a clear connection to a heat source remains. The ?13C-CO2 values of -2.9 and -3.0 per mil (3 sites) are typical of CO2 in Yellowstone high-temperature gas, and the helium isotope ratio of 3.0 RA (2 sites) clearly indicates that some of the helium is from a magmatic source. Relations between C2H6 and CH4 concentrations and ?13C-CH4 values (3 sites; -46.4 to -42.8 per mil) reveal the gases have a distinct thermogenic signature. Findings from gas and water chemistry when combined with the diffuse gas flux suggest that the hydrothermal system at Brimstone Basin is likely fed by thermal waters that migrate out from the high-temperature, gas-rich system within the caldera, but then mix with non-thermal groundwaters to reach a temperature <90°C. The results from this study emphasize that cold emissions may be a significant component of the total CO2 output from Yellowstone.

Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.

2012-12-01

173

Sedimentology of Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming, and a comparison to the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Outcrops of the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation near Beulah, Wyoming consist of dolomite, gypsum, and sandstone units deposited in transgressive-regressive cycles. Three depositional cycles are partly exposed in the Simons Ranch anticline near Beulah, and provide an opportunity to view fades of the upper Minnelusa Formation in three dimensions. The cycles observed in outcrop were informally labelled cycle 1, cycle 2, and cycle 3 in ascending stratigraphic order. Cycle 2 contains a basal, laterally extensive sabkha sandstone and an overlying, laterally restricted sandstone that represents a preserved eolian-dune complex. The eolian-dune sandstone of cycle 2 was partially reworked during the marine transgression that initiated cycle 3. The eolian-dune deposit grades laterally into an apron of contorted and massive-bedded sandstones that formed as water-saturated sands liquified and slumped from the margins of the eolian dune. The partially reworked eolian-dune topography was covered by gypsum beds of cycle 3. The sandstone of cycle 3 is interpreted as a laterally continuous sabkha sandstone. West Mellott field (secs. 8, 9, T52N, R68W) represents a subsurface example of the facies and facies relationships observed in outcrop. The eolian-dune sandstone of the C cycle, which was partially reworked by the transgression of the B cycle, produces oil at West Mellott. The draping of dolomite and anhydrite of the B cycle on the eolian-dune sandstone of the C cycle is analogous to the draping of gypsum on dune sand in cycle 2 in outcrop.

Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.

1993-04-01

174

Facies and fracture architecture of the Tensleep Sandstone, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: Preliminary result of an outcrop and subsurface study  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Tensleep Sandstone has been the most prolific producer in the state of Wyoming. Now in its advanced stages of production. it is critical to accurately characterize the Tensleep facies and fracture architecture. Two outcrop locations have been selected: Alkali Creek has cross-strata dip parallel exposures at close spacings for eolian facies architecture Ziesman Dome is an NW-SE trending asymmetric anticlinal closure with the SE axis having a marked dextral dislocation, and is selected for analysis of fracture architecture. Byron Field is also an anticlinal closure with NW-SE trend which is selected for location of subsurface study. Methods of study for outcrop includes high- precision electronic surveying, photomosaics, geologic mapping, and fracture spacing and orientation measurements. The subsurface study includes conventional wireline logs, cores, and porosity and permeability data. In addition, a microresistivity log was evaluated from the Lindsay 3H horizontal well. Tensleep facies architecture is defined by a hierarchy of elements. Parasequences are made up of marine to marginal marine dolomitic sandstones and sandy dolostones (<10{sup -2} to 10{sup 2} md) in the lower 20-50%, and eolian dune, interdune and large-scale deformed sandstones in the upper part. Eolian dune sandstones, the primary reservoir (2 to 3x10{sup 2} md), am characterized by very large-scale (up to 40 ft thick) tabular-planar cross strata with lower permeability wind ripple strata (1 to 2x10{sup 2} md, strongly anisotropic) concentrated above 1st- and 2nd-order bounding surfaces. Medium-scale trough cross stratified intrasets are common; however, their spatial dimensions and distribution pattern are uncertain at this time.

Aviantara, A. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

1996-12-31

175

Facies and fracture architecture of the Tensleep Sandstone, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: Preliminary result of an outcrop and subsurface study  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Tensleep Sandstone has been the most prolific producer in the state of Wyoming. Now in its advanced stages of production. it is critical to accurately characterize the Tensleep facies and fracture architecture. Two outcrop locations have been selected: Alkali Creek has cross-strata dip parallel exposures at close spacings for eolian facies architecture Ziesman Dome is an NW-SE trending asymmetric anticlinal closure with the SE axis having a marked dextral dislocation, and is selected for analysis of fracture architecture. Byron Field is also an anticlinal closure with NW-SE trend which is selected for location of subsurface study. Methods of study for outcrop includes high- precision electronic surveying, photomosaics, geologic mapping, and fracture spacing and orientation measurements. The subsurface study includes conventional wireline logs, cores, and porosity and permeability data. In addition, a microresistivity log was evaluated from the Lindsay 3H horizontal well. Tensleep facies architecture is defined by a hierarchy of elements. Parasequences are made up of marine to marginal marine dolomitic sandstones and sandy dolostones (<10[sup -2] to 10[sup 2] md) in the lower 20-50%, and eolian dune, interdune and large-scale deformed sandstones in the upper part. Eolian dune sandstones, the primary reservoir (2 to 3x10[sup 2] md), am characterized by very large-scale (up to 40 ft thick) tabular-planar cross strata with lower permeability wind ripple strata (1 to 2x10[sup 2] md, strongly anisotropic) concentrated above 1st- and 2nd-order bounding surfaces. Medium-scale trough cross stratified intrasets are common; however, their spatial dimensions and distribution pattern are uncertain at this time.

Aviantara, A. (Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States))

1996-01-01

176

Systematics of Water Temperature and Flow at Tantalus Creek During Calendar Year 2005, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyze data for stream flow and water temperature from Tantalus Creek in the Norris Geyser Basin and their relationship to air temperature, precipitation, and geyser eruptions during calendar year 2005. The creek is of interest because it is the primary drainage of the Norris Geyser Basin and carries a very high proportion of thermal water derived directly from hot springs. Two separate diurnal patterns emerge - (1) a winter pattern where increases in water temperature and stream flow closely track those of air temperature and (2) a summer pattern where water and air temperature are closely aligned but stream flow declines once water temperature reaches its daily maximum. The winter pattern is present when the daily average temperature consistently drops below 0 ?C whereas the summer pattern is recognizable when the daily average temperature regularly exceeds 0 ?C. Spring and fall systematics are much more irregular, although both summer and winter patterns can be discerned occasionally during those seasons. We interpret increases in stream flow associated with the winter pattern to result from addition of locally sourced melt water (both snow and soil-bound ice) that increases in abundance once temperatures increase in the morning. Melting is facilitated by the warm ground temperatures in the geyser basin, which are significantly higher than air temperatures in the winter. The summer pattern appears to be strongly affected by increased evaporation in the afternoon, decreasing flow and cooling the remaining water. Discharge from eruptions at Echinus Geyser are clearly visible as peaks in the hydrograph, and indicate that water from this geyser reach the Tantalus weir in 80 to 90 minutes, reflecting a slug of water that travels about 0.4 m s-1.

Clor, Laura E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Heasler, Henry P.

2007-01-01

177

Geochemical and well-log investigation of an actively generating source rock sequence: Waltman shale, Wind River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation is a thick lacustrine shale deposited in the Wind River basin during Paleocene time. Available geologic and geophysical data suggest that the depositional conditions were relatively constant during deposition. These data also indicate that Lake Waltman was deep, with maximum water depths on the order of 500 ft. Sonic logs indicate that within deeper portions of the basin a velocity inversion is seen in the Waltman Shale Member, where the expected increase in acoustic velocity with depth due to compaction is not observed. An examination of available data reveals that this anomaly does not appear to be a result of either differences in organic matter content or mineralogy. The inversion appears to be most likely the result of overpressuring within the unit. The pyrolysis data indicate that the overpressuring within the unit. The pyrolysis data indicate that the overpressuring is associated with hydrocarbon generation and the inability of the system to effectively expel these hydrocarbons through a massive shale. The proposed relationship among the acoustic inversion, overpressuring, and active hydrocarbon generation is supported by the disappearance of the acoustic anomaly and the anomalous free hydrocarbon content in the vicinity of sand layers in some of the wells examined. These sands allow for the expulsion or drainage of hydrocarbons from the shale and a return to normal pressures and a normal seismic velocity profile.

Jorjorian, T.; Liro, L.M.; Katz, B.J. (Texaco Inc., Houston, TX (USA))

1989-09-01

178

A debris flow deposit in alluvial, coal-bearing facies, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA: Evidence for catastrophic termination of a mire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal and clastic facies investigations of a Paleocene coal-bearing succession in the Grass Creek coal mine, southwestern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, suggest that disruption of peat accumulation in recurrent mires was caused by the repetitive progradation of crevasse splays and, ultimately, by a catastrophic mass movement. The mass movement, represented by deposits of debris flow, marked the termination of significant peat accumulation in the Grass Creek coal mine area. Megascopic and microscopic analyses of coal beds exposed along the mine highwalls suggest that these deposits developed in low-lying mires, as evidenced primarily by their ash yields and maceral composition. Disruption of peat accumulation in successive mires was caused by incursions of sediment into the mire environments. Termination by crevasse splay progradation is represented by coarsening-upward successions of mudrock and tabular, rooted sandstone, which overlie coal beds in the lower part of the coal-bearing interval. A more rapid process of mire termination by mass movement is exemplified by a debris flow deposit of diamictite, which overlies the uppermost coal bed at the top of the coal-bearing interval. The diamictite consists of a poorly sorted, unstratified mixture of quartzite cobbles and pebbles embedded in a claystone-rich or sandy mudstone matrix. Deposition of the diamictite may have taken place over a matter of weeks, days, or perhaps even hours, by catastrophic flood, thus reflecting an instantaneous process of mire termination. Coarse clastics and mud were transported from the southwest some 20-40 km as a viscous debris flow along stream courses from the ancestral Washakie Range to the Grass Creek area, where the flow overrode a low-lying mire and effectively terminated peat accumulation. ?? 1994.

Roberts, S.B.; Stanton, R.W.; Flores, R.M.

1994-01-01

179

Geochemical processes and the effects of natural organic solutes on the solubility of selenium in coal-mine backfill samples from the Powder River basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical processes and the effects of natural organic solutes on the solubility of selenium in coal-mine backfill aquifers were investigated. Backfill and ground-water samples were collected at coal mines in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Backfill was generally dominated by aluminum (14,400 to 49,000 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram)), iron (3,330 to 23,200 mg/kg), and potassium (7,950 to 18,000 mg/kg). Backfill saturated-paste selenium concentrations ranged from 1 to 156 mg/kg (microsiemens per kilogram). Ground-water total selenium concentrations ranged from 3 to 125 mg/L. Dissolved organic carbon in all ground-water samples was dominated by hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids (38 to 84 percent). Selenite sorption/desorption experiments were conducted using background solutions of distilled-deionized water, 0.1 molar calcium chloride, and isolated hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids. Selenite sorption was larger when 0.1 molar calcium chloride was used. The addition of hydrophilic acid decreased selenite sorption more than the addition of hydrophobic acids. Geochemical modelling was used to predict the solid phases controlling dissolved selenium concentrations and to evaluate the effects of dissolved organic carbon on selenium solubility. Results suggested that 55 to 90 percent of selenium in backfill precipitation/dissolution extracts was dominated by magnesium selenate ion pairs. Dissolved organic carbon had little effect on selenium speciation. A redox chamber was constructed to control Eh and pH in water and backfill-core sample suspensions. The response of selenite and selenate in water samples to redox conditions did not follow thermodynamic predictions. Reduction of selenate in water samples did not occur at any of the redox levels tested.

See, R.B.; Reddy, K.J.; Vance, G.F.; Fadlelmawla, A.A.; Blaylock, M.J.

1995-01-01

180

Selenium and mining in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Phase III - a preliminary survey of selenium concentrations in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) livers  

SciTech Connect

Samples of liver tissue from deer mice trapped on not-yet-mined areas and reclaimed areas at five surface coal mines in the Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming were analyzed for selenium. The overall mean concentration of selenium in wet weight liver tissue was 1.685 ppm. The mean value from not-yet-mined areas was 1.437 ppm; the mean value from reclaimed areas was 1.910 ppm (significant at p<0.1016). When one not-yet-mined outlier was removed, significance rose to p<0.0004. Mine-to-mine comparison of samples stratified by type (that is, by not-yet-mined or reclaimed), showed average tissue concentrations from the reclaimed area of Mine 1 were also higher (p<0.0143) then not-yet-mined area samples at Mine 1. No statistically significant differences were found between mines for samples from not-yet-mined areas, and no statistically significant differences were found between Mines 2, 3, 4, and 5 for samples from reclaimed areas. Multiple analysis of variance using the factors: site (mine) and type (not-yet-mined or reclaimed) was not significantly significant (p<0.2115). Simple linear regression showed that selenium concentrations in dry tissue could easily be predicted from wet tissue selenium (r2=0.9775), demonstrating that percent water in the samples was relatively constant. Animal body weight in general was not a predictor for either wet or dry tissue selenium concentrations, but was related to body weight at the higher tissue concentrations of selenium encountered in samples from the reclaimed area at Mine 1. Mouse body weights at Mine 1 were higher on the reclaimed area than mouse body weights from the not-yet-mined area.

Raisbeck, M.L.; Vance, G.F. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Steward, D.G. [AMAX Coal West, Inc., Gillette, WY (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

181

Airborne Electromagnetic Surveys Coupled With Hydrogeochemical Data to Enhance Near Surface Aquifer Investigations in an Area of Active Coalbed Natural Gas Production, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing environmental effects from the disposal of water coproduced with coalbed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming is complex. Over 30,000 CBNG wells are currently in production with another 30,000 to be installed within the next 20 years. Each well pumps between 100-400 barrels of water per day over an average operating life of seven years. Produced waters are generally of sodium-bicarbonate type with high sodium adsorption ratios and moderate salinity levels. A commonly used disposal method is through evaporation and infiltration impoundments. Downgradient subsurface hydrogeochemical changes are determined from groundwater monitoring wells. These methods are costly and provide limited data. Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) geophysical techniques present a viable alternative to current assessment protocols. Frequency domain AEM surveys were flown over an actively producing CBNG field along the Powder River in 2003 and 2004. Multifrequency inphase/quadrature responses were analyzed using Occam inversion techniques. Inversions were constrained using sounding specific starting models generated by the differential parameter method. Observed geochemical differences in the alluvial aquifer were successfully imaged using the geophysical data. Furthermore, geophysical responses interpreted as produced water mixing zones were consistent with results from strontium isotope data. AEM data will also be used to develop improved groundwater models. Discrete layer geoelectrical models derived from inversions yield depths that correlate with observed hydraulic head data. Additionally, AEM derived electrical conductivity distributions correspond to observed geomorphologic features allowing for delineation of hydrostratigraphic units. Results of this research are expected to provide policy makers with a better tool to manage impoundment permitting while also serving as an abundant source of data for groundwater model development and calibration.

Lipinski, B.; Sams, J.; Harbert, W.

2005-12-01

182

Selected hydrologic and physical properties of Mesozoic formations in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming; excluding the San Juan Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data for hydrologic and physical properties of Mesozoic formations in the Upper Colorado River Basin, excluding the San Juan Basin, have been collected by government agencies, private industry, property owners, and other sources. These data were compiled and analyzed so that they would be available for use by hydrologists, earth scientists, planners, and others. Five methods of data analysis are discussed. The results of these five methods are not directly comparable because of differences in the volume of an aquifer represented by each method. Aquifer tests represent the largest volume of an aquifer, specific capacity and drill-stem tests represent a smaller volume, slug-injection tests represent a still smaller volume, and laboratory tests represent the smallest volume. Because they represent large volumes of an aquifer, aquifer tests were considered to give the best estimates of hydrologic characteristics. Laboratory data for permeability to air and hydraulic conductivity were determined to be related by a simple power function. (Author 's abstract)

Weigel, J.F.

1987-01-01

183

Seismic, magnetic, and geotechnical properties of a landslide and clinker deposits, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exploitation of vast coal and other resources in the Powder River Basin has caused recent, rapid increases in population and in commercial and residential development and has prompted land utilization studies. Two aspects of land utilization were studied for this report: (1) the seismic and geotechnical properties of a landslide and (2) the seismic, magnetic, and geotechnical properties of clinker deposits. (1) The landslide seismic survey revealed two layers in the slide area. The upper (low-velocity) layer is a relatively weak mantle of colluvium and unconsolidated and weathered bedrock that ranges in thickness from 3.0 to 7.5 m and has an average seismic velocity of about 390 m/s. It overlies high-velocity, relatively strong sedimentary bedrock that has velocities greater than about 1330 m/s. The low-velocity layer is also present at the other eight seismic refraction sites in the basin; a similar layer has also been reported in the Soviet Union in a landslide area over similar bedrock. The buried contact of the low- and high-velocity layers is relatively smooth and is nearly parallel with the restored topographic surface. There is no indication that any of the high-velocity layer (bedrock) has been displaced or removed. The seismic data also show that the shear modulus of the low-velocity layer is only about one-tenth that of the high-velocity layer and the shear strength (at failure) is only about one-thirtieth. Much of the slide failure is clearly in the shear mode, and failure is, therefore, concluded to be confined to the low-velocity layer. The major immediate factor contributing to landslide failure is apparently the addition of moisture to the low-velocity layer. The study implies that the low-velocity layer can be defined over some of the basin by seismic surveys and that they can help predict or delineate potential slides. Preventative actions that could then be taken include avoidance, dewatering, prevention of saturation, buttressing the toe, and unloading the head. The low-velocity layer is usually less than about 5 m thick and may be excavated by dozing, whereas the bedrock must be blasted. Thus, it would seem economically feasible to underpin a structure to nonweathered bedrock or, perhaps, to remove the low-velocity layer prior to construction. (2) Many coal beds in the Powder River Basin have burned along their outcrops, and the resulting intense heat has baked and fused the overlying clastic (sedimentary) rocks into clinkers. The clinkers are very magnetic and a buried edge of a single layer of burn can easily be located by magnetic prospecting methods. Location of the edge is very important in estimating unburned coal deposits, locating clinker quarries, and planning drilling of seismic reflection lines. The clinkers are very porous and highly fractured,-and seismic and geotechnical tests show that they have relatively low strength and competency. Many of the laboratory tests, however, are inherently biased because the clinkers are so highly fractured that only competent samples are selected. The laboratory tests, for example, show that clinkers must be loosened by heavy ripping tractors or blasting, whereas the field data and practical experience indicate that clinkers may be mined with light equipment. Heavy structures such as coal silos and bridge abutments may have to be sited on clinkers. However, differential settlement may occur, with failure in the shear mode, because chimneys of relatively greater strength occur among the weaker clinkers. Preliminary data indicate that the chimneys may be located by magnetic or possibly seismic surveys. Special foundation-preparation techniques could be used or, perhaps, the chimneys could be avoided altogether at a construction site.

Miller, C. H.

1979-01-01

184

Drainage development of the Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming and its bearing on fish biogeography, neotectonics, and paleoclimates.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Upper Green River flows southward out of the Green River Basin through a series of deep canyons across the Uinta Mountains in a course that post-dates the deposition of the Bishop Conglomerate (Oligocene). After the Eocene lakes disappeared, drainage was generally eastward across the present Continental Divide, until the Green River was captured near Green River, Wyo. by south-flowing drainage in middle Pleistocene time, ca., 600 kyr ago. Capture of the Upper Green River as recently as middle Pleistocene time, if a valid hypothesis, must take into account the marked differences between the endemic and indigenous fish fauna of the Green River and that of the North Platte. -from Author

Hansen, W. R.

1985-01-01

185

Erosion and deposition as indicated by sediment accumulation in stock reservoirs in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report gives the results of an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of sediment accumulation in stock reservoirs in the powder River drainage basin upstream from Arvada, Wyo. The study was made to determine the net rates of erosion in the upland areas and the effects of the reservoirs on the amount of sediment transported to the parent stream. The climate of the area ranges from cold and humid on the high mountains to warm and semiarid on the plains. The average annual precipitation ranges from less than 15 inches on the plains to more than 27 inches in the high mountains, which have a maximum altitude of 13,165 feet. The rocks in the Powder River drainage basin range in age from Precambrian to Recent. The 25 stock reservoirs that were used in the study have drainage areas of 0.09 to 3.53 square miles, are from 3 to 51 years old, and impound water from areas that have land slopes averaging from about 3 to 41 percent. The ratio of average reservoir capacity to drainage area ranges from about 2 to nearly 200 acre-feet per square mile. After adjustment for trap efficiency the average annual sediment yield to the 25 reservoirs ranged from 0.04 to 1.49 acre-feet per square mile and averaged 0.50 acre-foot per square mile of drainage area. The average sediment yield from 6 drainage areas mostly underlain by shale was 0.80 acre-foot per year, 2.3 times greater than yields from the areas underlain by sandstone or sandy shales. Correlations show that the sediment yield increased approximately as the 1.5 power of the channel density, the 0.4 power oif the shape factor, the 0.7 power of the average land slope, and the -0.25 power of the age of the reservoir. Empirical equations for sediment yield and trap efficiency for the area studied are given.

Roach, Carl H.; Colby, Bruce R.

1957-01-01

186

Occurrence and flux of selected pesticides in surface water of the upper snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During May and June 1994, 37 water samples were collected at 31 sites in the upper Snake River Basin and analyzed for 83 pesticides and pesticide metabolites. EPTC, atrazine, and the atrazine metabolite deethylated atrazine were the most frequently detected and were found in 30, 20, and 13 of the samples, respectively. Fifteen additional pesticides were detected at least once. All the compounds detected were at concentrations of less than 1 microgram per liter. Total annual applications of EPTC and atrazine within subbasins and their instantaneous instream fluxes have a logarithmic relation with coefficients of determination (R2 values) of 0.55 and 0.62, respectively. At the time of sampling, the median daily flux of EPTC was about O. 0001% of the annual amount applied in a subbasin, whereas the median daily flux of atrazine was between 0.001 and 0.01%. The difference in fluxes between EPTC and atrazine probably results from differences in their physical properties and in the method and timing of application.

Clark, G.M.

1997-01-01

187

Stratigraphy of the Mesaverde Group in the central and eastern greater Green River basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper establishes a stratigraphic framework for the Mesaverde Group, nearly 5,000 ft thick, in the central and eastern greater Green River basin based on data from measured outcrop sections and drill holes. Stratigraphic correlations are supported by ammonite zonation. No new stratigraphic names are introduced, and no nomenclature problems are discussed. Five long measured sections through the Mesaverde Group are described. The lower part of the Mesaverde Group, comprising the Rock Springs, Blair, Haystack Mountains, Allen Ridge, and Iles Formations, was deposited during a major eastward regression of the interior Cretaceous seaway of North America during the late Santonian and early Campanian. This regression was followed by regional uplift of the central Rocky Mountain area during the middle Campanian. The regional uplift was accompanied by widespread nondeposition and erosion, which, in turn, were followed by deposition of the Ericson and Pine Ridge Sandstones. The upper part of the Mesaverde Group, comprising the Almond and Williams Fork Formations, was deposited during a major westward transgression of the interior seaway in the early Maestrichtian. The major marine transgressions and regressions of the interior seaway were caused by eustatic changes of sea level, whereas intervening periods of nondeposition and erosion resulted from tectonism in the Sevier orogenic belt west of the study area. Formations of the Mesaverde Group are composed of sediments deposited in a landward-seaward progression of alluvial-plain, floodplain, coastal-plain, barrier-plain, tidal-flat, delta-plain, marine-shoreline, and marine-shelf and slope depositional environments. Each of these depositional environments is represented by specific lithofacies, sedimentary structures, and fossils, which are characteristic of depositional settings determined by water salinity, water depth, sedimentary and diagenetic processes, and the nature of sediment source terranes. The Mesaverde Group was deposited mainly along the western margins of the interior Cretaceous seaway as marine shorelines that trended north to northeast across the study area. Arcuate deltas, which formed at the mouths of major rivers along these shorelines, spread eastward onto shallow marine shelves. Embayed shoreline areas between the deltas were the sites of barrier-island and tidal-flat deposition. Alluvial-plain, flood-plain, and coastal-plain environments were present inland. The marine shorelines were tidally influenced and wave dominated, and shoreline deposits were mostly thick, linear sheets of quartzose sandstone. Deposition was largely controlled by the emergence or submergence of shoreline areas. Stillstands occurred close to local transgressions and regressions, depending on rates of sedimentation and subsidence.

Roehler, Henry W.

1990-01-01

188

Chapter 5: Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources in the Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System,Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System encompasses about 3,400 square miles in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming, and includes accumulations of oil and associated gas that were generated and expelled from oil-prone, lacustrine shale source rocks in the Waltman Shale Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Much of the petroleum migrated and accumulated in marginal lacustrine (deltaic) and fluvial sandstone reservoirs in the Shotgun Member of the Fort Union, which overlies and intertongues with the Waltman Shale Member. Additional petroleum accumulations derived from Waltman source rocks are present in fluvial deposits in the Eocene Wind River Formation overlying the Shotgun Member, and also might be present within fan-delta deposits included in the Waltman Shale Member, and in fluvial sandstone reservoirs in the uppermost part of the lower member of the Fort Union Formation immediately underlying the Waltman. To date, cumulative production from 53 wells producing Waltman-sourced petroleum exceeds 2.8 million barrels of oil and 5.8 billion cubic feet of gas. Productive horizons range from about 1,770 feet to 5,800 feet in depth, and average about 3,400 to 3,500 feet in depth. Formations in the Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System (Fort Union and Wind River Formations) reflect synorogenic deposition closely related to Laramide structural development of the Wind River Basin. In much of the basin, the Fort Union Formation is divided into three members (ascending order): the lower unnamed member, the Waltman Shale Member, and the Shotgun Member. These members record the transition from deposition in dominantly fluvial, floodplain, and mire environments in the early Paleocene (lower member) to a depositional setting characterized by substantial lacustrine development (Waltman Shale Member) and contemporaneous fluvial, and marginal lacustrine (deltaic) deposition (Shotgun Member) during the middle and late Paleocene. Waltman Shale Member source rocks have total organic carbon values ranging from 0.93 to 6.21 weight percent, averaging about 2.71 weight percent. The hydrocarbon generative potential of the source rocks typically exceeds 2.5 milligrams of hydrocarbon per gram of rock and numerous samples had generative potentials exceeding 6.0 milligrams of hydrocarbon per gram of rock. Waltman source rocks are oil prone, and contain a mix of Type-II and Type-III kerogen, indicating organic input from a mix of algal and terrestrial plant matter, or a mix of algal and reworked or recycled material. Thermal maturity at the base of the Waltman Shale Member ranges from a vitrinite reflectance value of less than 0.60 percent along the south basin margin to projected values exceeding 1.10 percent in the deep basin west of Madden anticline. Burial history reconstructions for three wells in the northern part of the Wind River Basin indicate that the Waltman Shale Member was well within the oil window (Ro equal to or greater than 0.65 percent) by the time of maximum burial about 15 million years ago; maximum burial depths exceeded 10,000 feet. Onset of oil generation calculated for the base of the Waltman Shale member took place from about 49 million years ago to about 20 million years ago. Peak oil generation occurred from about 31 million years ago to 26 million years ago in the deep basin west of Madden anticline. Two assessment units were defined in the Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System: the Upper Fort Union Sandstones Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (50350301) and the Waltman Fractured Shale Continuous Oil Assessment Unit (50350361). The conventional assessment unit primarily relates to the potential for undiscovered petroleum accumulations that are derived from source rocks in the Waltman Shale Member and trapped within sandstone reservoirs in the Shotgun Member (Fort Union Formation) and in the lower part of the overlying Wind River Formation. The potential for Waltman-sourced oil accumulations in fan-delta depos

Roberts, Steve B.; Roberts, Laura N. R.; Cook, Troy

2007-01-01

189

STATUS REVIEW OF THE BEAR LODGE MEADOW JUMPING MOUSE ( Zapus hudsonius campestris ) IN WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Bear Lodge meadow jumping mouse ( Zapus hudsonius campestris ) is one of 2 subspecies of the meadow jumping mouse that occur in Wyoming. It occurs in northeastern Wyoming (Crook and Weston counties) and adjacent portions of South Dakota. In Wyoming, it has been documented only in the Belle Fourche River basin. The second subspecies, Preble's meadow jumping

Gary P. Beauvais

2000-01-01

190

New frontiers in old areas - Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The first producing oil well in Wyoming was drilled in 1883 on Dallas dome in the central part of the state; in 1983 it was still capable of production. The first geologic map of Wyoming, published by W.C. Knight in 1900, showed 14 oil fields and oil seeps. The next map, Map of the Wyoming Oil fields, was published anonymously in 1917 and showed 62 oil fields, some of which were imaginary and others, such as Lost Cabin, that were found and first produced 40 years after the map was published. Oil and gas field overprints on the geologic maps of Wyoming in 1925, 1955, and 1985 showed about 41, 155, and 780 oil fields and 30, 88, and 400 gas fields. In the thrust belt of western Wyoming, more than 25 oil and gas fields have been discovered since 1975. Five rank as giant oil (100 million bbl) of gas (1 tcf) fields. Two fields, Whitney Canyon-Carter Creek and Riley ridge, may be among the ten largest oil and gas fields in the world as of 1985. The large number of oil and gas fields discovered, in part because of stratigraphic plays, between 1955 and 1985 in the Green River and Powder River basins suggests that additional fields will be found in these basins and in other Wyoming basins as drilling continues. Production, mostly from depths of less than 10,000 ft, will increase as drilling techniques become more sophisticated. Oil and gas also may be obtained in the future from within, as well as from under, volcanic rocks in northwestern Wyoming and from under the basin-margin thrust faults.

Love, J.D.; Christiansen, A.C.

1986-05-01

191

Water-quality characteristics of quaternary unconsolidated-deposit aquifers and lower tertiary aquifers of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 1999-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the Yellowstone River Basin National Water Quality Assessment study, ground-water samples were collected from Quaternary unconsolidated-deposit and lower Tertiary aquifers in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana from 1999 to 2001. Samples from 54 wells were analyzed for physical characteristics, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, radionuclides, pesticide compounds, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to evaluate current water-quality conditions in both aquifers. Water-quality samples indicated that waters generally were suitable for most uses, and that natural conditions, rather than the effects of human activities, were more likely to limit uses of the waters. Waters in both types of aquifers generally were highly mineralized, and total dissolved-solids concentrations frequently exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) of 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Because of generally high mineralization, waters from nearly one-half of the samples from Quaternary aquifers and more than one-half of the samples from lower Tertiary aquifers were not classified as fresh (dissolved-solids concentration were not less than 1,000 mg/L). The anions sulfate, fluoride, and chloride were measured in some ground-water samples at concentrations greater than SMCLs. Most waters from the Quaternary aquifers were classified as very hard (hardness greater than 180 mg/L), but hardness varied much more in waters from the lower Tertiary aquifers and ranged from soft (less than 60 mg/L) to very hard (greater than 180 mg/L). Major-ion chemistry varied with dissolved-solids concentrations. In both types of aquifers, the predominant anion changes from bicarbonate to sulfate with increasing dissolved-solids concentrations. Samples from Quaternary aquifers with fresh waters generally were calcium-bicarbonate, calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, and calcium-sodium-sulfate-bicarbonate type waters, whereas samples with larger concentrations generally were calcium-sodium-sulfate, calcium-sulfate, or sodium-sulfate-type waters. In the lower Tertiary aquifers, samples with fresh waters generally were sodium-bicarbonate or sodium-bicarbonate-sulfate type waters, whereas samples with larger concentrations were sodium-sulfate or calcium-sodium-sulfate types. Concentrations of most trace elements in both types of aquifers generally were small and most were less than applicable USEPA standards. The trace elements that most often did not meet USEPA secondary drinking-water standards were iron and manganese. In fact, the SMCL for manganese was the most frequently exceeded standard; 68 percent of the samples from the Quaternary aquifers and 31 percent of the samples from the lower Tertiary aquifers exceeded the manganese standard. Geochemical conditions may control manganese in both aquifers as concentrations in Quaternary aquifers were negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen concentrations and concentrations in lower Tertiary aquifers decreased with increasing pH. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to detection of pesticides and VOCs in both aquifers, indicated some effects of human activities on ground-water quality. Nitrate concentrations in 36 percent of the wells in Quaternary aquifers and 28 percent of the wells in lower Tertiary aquifers were greater than 1 mg/L, which may indicate ground-water contamination from human sources. The USEPA drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for nitrate, 10 mg/L, was exceeded in 8 percent of samples collected from Quaternary aquifers and 3 percent from lower Tertiary aquifers. Nitrate concentrations in Quaternary aquifers were positively correlated with the percentage of cropland and other agricultural land (non-cropland), and negatively correlated with rangeland and riparian land. In the lower Tertiary aquifers, nitrate concentrations only were correlated with the percentage of cropland. Concentratio

Bartos, Timothy T.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Norris, Jody R.; Gamper, Merry E.; Hallberg, Laura L.

2004-01-01

192

Burial history, thermal maturity, and oil and gas generation history of petroleum systems in the Wind River Basin Province, central Wyoming: Chapter 6 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for eight key source rock units at nine well locations throughout the Wind River Basin Province. Petroleum source rocks include the Permian Phosphoria Formation, the Cretaceous Mowry Shale, Cody Shale, and Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Lance Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation, including the Waltman Shale Member. Within the province boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon. Phosphoria oil produced from reservoirs in the province is thought to have migrated from the Wyoming and Idaho thrust belt. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the province (Adams OAB-17, Bighorn 1-5, and Coastal Owl Creek); three at intermediate depths (Hells Half Acre, Shell 33X-10, and West Poison Spider); and three at relatively shallow locations (Young Ranch, Amoco Unit 100, and Conoco-Coal Bank). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep northern and central parts of the province and decreases to the south and east toward the basin margins. The results of the modeling indicate that, in the deepest areas, (1) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from Late Cretaceous through middle Eocene time, and (2) onset of oil generation from the Waltman Shale Member occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Based on modeling results, gas generation from the cracking of Phosphoria oil reservoired in the Park City Formation reached a peak in the late Paleocene/early Eocene (58 to 55 Ma) only in the deepest parts of the province. The Mowry Shale and Cody Shale (in the eastern half of the basin) contain a mix of Type-II and Type-III kerogens. Oil generation from predominantly Type-II source rocks of these units in the deepest parts of the province reached peak rates during the latest Cretaceous to early Eocene (65 to 55 Ma). Only in these areas of the basin did these units reach peak gas generation from the cracking of oil, which occurred in the early to middle Eocene (55 to 42 Ma). Gas-prone source rocks of the Mowry and Cody Shales (predominantly Type-III kerogen), and the Mesaverde, Meeteetse, Lance, and Fort Union Formations (Type –III kerogen) reached peak gas generation in the latest Cretaceous to late Eocene (67 to 38 Ma) in the deepest parts of the province. Gas generation from the Mesaverde source rocks started at all of the modeled locations but reached peak generation at only the deepest locations and at the Hells Half Acre location in the middle Paleocene to early Eocene (59 to 48 Ma). Also at the deepest locations, peak gas generation occurred from the late Paleocene to the early Eocene (57 to 49 Ma) for the Meeteetse Formation, and during the Eocene for the Lance Formation (55 to 48 Ma) and the Fort Union Formation (44 to 38 Ma). The Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation contains Type-II kerogen. The base of the Waltman reached a level of thermal maturity to generate oil only at the deep-basin locations (Adams OAB-17 and Bighorn 1-5 locations) in the middle Eocene to early Miocene (36 to 20 Ma).

Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

2007-01-01

193

Tectonically induced climate and its control on the distribution of depositional systems in a continental foreland basin, Cloverly and Lakota Formations (Lower Cretaceous) of Wyoming, U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental sediments of the Cloverly and Lakota Formations (Lower Cretaceous) in Wyoming are subdivided into three depositional systems: perennial to intermittent alluvial, intermittent to ephemeral alluvial, and playa. Chert-bearing sandstones, conglomerates, carbonaceous mudrocks, blocky mudrocks, and skeletal limestones were deposited by perennial to intermittent alluvial systems. Carbonaceous mudrocks contain abundant wood fragments, cuticle and cortical debris, and other vascular plant remains representing deposition in oxbow lakes, abandoned channels, and on floodplains under humid to seasonal conditions. Intraformational conglomerates, sandstones, bioturbated and blocky mudrocks with caliche nodules, and bioturbated limestones characterize deposition in intermittent to ephemeral alluvial systems. Bioturbated limestones are encased in bioturbated mudrocks with abundant pseudo-slickensides. The presence of caliche nodules in some of the blocky to bioturbated mudrocks is consistent with supersaturation and precipitation of calcium carbonate from groundwater under semi-arid conditions. Caliche nodules, pseudo-slickensides, and carbonate-rich floodplain sediments are interpreted to have been deposited by intermittent to ephemeral alluvial systems under seasonal to semi-arid climatic conditions. Laminated mudrocks, siltstones, vuggy carbonates, bedded to nodular evaporites, pebbly mudrocks, and diamictites were deposited in evaporative alkaline lakes or playas. Pebbly mudrocks and diamictites are interpreted to represent deposition from channelized and unchannelized hyperconcentrated flows on a playa, resulting from intense rain events within the basin. The areal abundance and distribution of these depositional systems change systematically across the overfilled portion of the Early Cretaceous Cordilleran foreland basin in Wyoming. The lower part (A-interval) of the Cloverly and Lakota Formations is characterized by deposits of perennial to intermittent rivers that existed 300 to 1000 km east of the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt. Proximal to the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt, the A-interval of the Cloverly Formation and upper Ephraim Formation of the Gannett Group are typified by deposits of intermittent to ephemeral rivers and their associated floodplains. In the middle part (B-interval) of the Cloverly Formation, intermittent to ephemeral alluvial systems expand to 600 km into the basin. The upper part (C-interval) of the Cloverly Formation is characterized by playa deposits in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins and intermittent to ephemeral alluvial deposits along the front of the ancestral Sevier Mountains. Deposits of perennial to intermittent alluvial systems in the C-interval of the Cloverly and Lakota Formations are restricted to the Black Hills region, almost 900 km to the east of the Sevier Mountains. The change in the areal distribution of depositional systems through time within this continental foreland basin may be attributed to the development of a rain shadow associated with the uplift of the Sevier Mountains in the Early Cretaceous.

Elliott, William S.; Suttner, Lee J.; Pratt, Lisa M.

2007-12-01

194

Geology and ground-water resources of the upper Lodgepole Creek drainage basin, Wyoming, with a section on chemical quality of the water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The principal sources of ground-water supply in the upper Lodgepole Creek drainage basin-the part of the basin west of the Wyoming-Nebraska State line-are the Brule formation of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, the Ogallala formation of Pliocene age, and the unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age. The Brule formation is a moderately hard siltstone that generally is not a good aquifer. However, where it is fractured or where the upper part consists of pebbles of reworked siltstone, it will yield large quantities of water to wells. Many wells in the Pine Bluffs lowland, at the east end of the area, derive water from the Brule. The Arikaree formation, which consists of loosely to moderately cemented fine sand, will yield small quantities of water to wells but is not thick enough or permeable enough to supply sufficient water for irrigation. Only a few wells derive water from it. The Ogallala formation consists of lenticular beds of clay, silt, sand, and gravel which, in part, are cemented with calcium carbonate. Only the lower part of the formation is saturated. Nearly all the wells in the upland part of the area tap the Ogallala, but they supply water in amounts sufficient for domestic and stock use only. Two of the wells have a moderately large discharge, and other wells of comparable discharge probably could be drilled in those parts of the upland where the saturated part of the Ogallala is fairly thick. Most of the unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age are very permeable and, where a sufficient thickness is saturated, will yield large quantities of water to wells. These deposits are a significant source of water supply in the southeastern part of the area. The Chadron formation of Oligocene age, which underlies the Brule formation, is a medium- to coarse-grained sandstone where it crops out in the Islay lowland. No wells tap the Chadron, but it probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. It lies at a relatively shallow depth beneath most of the Islay lowland, near the west end of the area, and at a depth of about 800 feet beneath the Pine Bluffs lowland. In the latter area it probably is finer grained and may not be permeable enough to yield water to wells. All the ground water in the area is derived from precipitation. It is estimated that about 5 percent of the precipitation infiltrates directly to the zone of saturation. The remainder either is evaporated immediately; is retained by the soil, later to be evaporated or transpired; or is discharged by overland flow to the surface drainage courses. Most of the water that reaches the surface drainage courses eventually sinks to the zone of saturation or is evaporated. The slope of the water table and the movement of ground water are generally eastward. The depth to water ranges from less than 10 feet in parts of the valley to about 300 feet in the upland areas. In much of the Pine Bluffs lowland, the depth to water is less than 50 feet. Ground water not pumped from wells within the area is discharged by evapotranspiration where the water table is close to the land surface, by outflow into streams, or by underflow eastward beneath the State line. The chemical quality of ground water from the principal sources is remarkably uniform, and the range in concentration of dissolved constituents is narrow. In general, the water is of the calcium bicarbonate type, is hard (hardness as CaC03 is as high as 246 ppm), and contains less than about 400 parts per million of dissolved solids, which is a moderate mineralization. Silica constitutes a large proportion of the dissolved solids. The water is suitable for irrigation and, except for iron in water from some wells that tap the Ogallala formation, meets the drinking water standards of the U.S. Public Health Service for chemical constituents. Because the water is siliceous, alkaline, and hard, it is unsuitable for many industrial uses unless treated.

Bjorklund, Louis Jay; Krieger, R.A.; Jochens, E.R.

1959-01-01

195

HANNA DEL et al.: Noise affects call structure in spring peepers UNCORRECTED PROOF  

E-print Network

Pseudacris crucifer modify their call structure in response to noise Dalal E. L. HANNA1 , David R. WILSON2 of their signals. In this study, we played artificial noise to 46 male spring peepers Pseudacris crucifer

Wilson, David R.

196

Android Permissions Demystified Adrienne Porter Felt, Erika Chin, Steve Hanna, Dawn Song, David Wagner  

E-print Network

Android Permissions Demystified Adrienne Porter Felt, Erika Chin, Steve Hanna, Dawn Song, David-1-4503-0948-6/11/10 ...$10.00. Access to privacy- and security-relevant parts of Android's rich API is controlled

Song, Dawn

197

Paleotectonics of Frontier Formation in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The most intense and widespread pre-Laramide structural deformation of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in Wyoming is associated with the Wall Creek sandstone of the Frontier Formation. Most of the evidence of structural deformation is found immediately below the regional unconformity at the base of this sandstone. Regionally, an isopach map from the top of the Frontier Formation to the top of the Mowry Formation shows strong and persistent thinning onto a north-trending arch in western Wyoming and thickening into a northwest trending basin in eastern Wyoming. Part of the thinning onto the western arch is caused by progressively deeper erosion of a regional unconformity at the base of the Wall Creek sandstone, and regional onlap of the Wall Creek sandstone above the unconformity. There is also some westward thinning of the lower Frontier interval, however, which is not related to the Wall Creek unconformity. Of the more specific paleostructures discussed, the north-trending anticlines in the vicinity of the Moxa arch in southwestern Wyoming are particularly well developed. An east-west anticline in the Bison basin area appears to have been faulted on the south flank, and a broad arch on the west side of the Powder River basin may have influenced paleocurrents and sandstone depositional trends of the productive First Frontier Sandstone of that area.

Curry, W.H. III

1983-08-01

198

Coalbed Methane in Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coalbed methane (CH4) is a natural gas and valuable energy resource that occurs in coal beds. This site, hosted by an energy development corporation, explains the geology and stratigraphy of Wyoming in the context of the formation of coalbed methane and its occurrence in Wyoming. Maps, cross sections, stratigraphic columns and fence diagrams are provided to explain Cretaceous and Tertiary coalbed methane-plays in Wyoming.

Black Diamond Energy, Inc.

199

Geologic map of the Peach Orchard Flat quadrangle, Carbon County, Wyoming, and descriptions of new stratigraphic units in the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation and Paleocene Fort Union Formation, eastern Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming-Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides a geologic map of the Peach Orchard Flat 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic formations and individual coal beds were mapped at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface. In addition, four lithostratigraphic units were named: the Red Rim Member of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation, and the China Butte, Blue Gap, and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation.

Honey, J. D.; Hettinger, R. D.

2004-01-01

200

Water-Quality Characteristics of Quaternary Unconsolidated-Deposit Aquifers and Lower Tertiary Aquifers of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 1999-2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes current (1999-2001) ground-water quality characteristics in Quaternary and lower Tertiary aquifers in the Bighorn Basin part of the Yellowstone River Basin NAWQA study unit. Results are presented for samples from 24 new wells and one...

T. T. Bartos, C. A. Eddy-Miller, J. R. Norris, M. E. Gamper, L. L. Hallberg

2005-01-01

201

Anisotropy and Spatial Variation of Relative Permeability and Lithologic Character of Tensleep Sandstone Reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery; and (5) a geochemical investigation of the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery processes.

Dunn, Thomas L.

1996-10-01

202

Wyoming Children's Factbook 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The first section of the report describes the issues affecting Wyoming's families, health, and teens. The second section consists of a sampling of programs aimed at addressing problems in children's well-being in the areas of teen pregnancy, child abuse,…

Wyoming P.A.R.E.N.T., Laramie.

203

Use of computer-generated maps of oil and gas development and exploration intensity for delineating producing trends, Denver basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Exploration intensity maps were used in conjunction with existing or generated maps of depositional environment, structure, thermal maturity, core porosity, and production data to delineate trends and assess oil and gas resources for the Denver basin as part of the US Geological Survey's Federal Lands Assessment Program. Maps illustrating oil and gas production, shows, and dry holes were constructed for the Denver basin using the Petroleum Information WHCS data base, with mapping and statistical software developed by the US Geological Survey. Data from more than 36,000 drill hoes in the Denver basin were entered into a program that divides the basin into 1/2 mi/sup 2/ grid cells and analyzes show and production data for drill holes within each grid cell.

Higley, D.K.; Mast, R.F.; Gautier, D.L.

1986-05-01

204

Energy Development Opportunities for Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Wyoming Business Council, representing the state’s interests, is participating in a collaborative evaluation of energy development opportunities with the NGNP Industry Alliance (an industry consortium), the University of Wyoming, and the US Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory. Three important energy-related goals are being pursued by the State of Wyoming: Ensuring continued reliable and affordable sources of energy for Wyoming’s industries and people Restructuring the coal economy in Wyoming Restructuring the natural gas economy in Wyoming

Larry Demick

2012-11-01

205

Regional implications of an extensive linear sediment-dispersal system along western margin of Cretaceous interior seaway: Second Wall Creek sand, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Second Wall Creek sand in the Powder River basin in Johnson and Natrona Counties is similar in clast lithology, primary sedimentary structures, and facies association to the Torchlight Sandstone at the top of the Frontier Formation in the northern Big Horn basin. The Second Wall Creek sand is predominantly composed of medium to coarse-grained, moderately sorted massive to cross-bedded quartz-lithic wacke with a minor amount of carbonaceous shale and siltstone. The observed field relationships and petrographic data have important tectonostratigraphic implications concerning Late Cretaceous sedimentation in the Western Interior. In addition to its great potential as an oil-bearing horizon in both Big Horn and Powder River basins, this sediment-dispersal pattern will aid in reevaluating the regional sandbody architecture and reservoir characteristics of the upper Frontier Formation.

Vondra, C.F.; Khandaker, N.I.

1988-02-01

206

National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Denver Basin Province, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming - USGS Province 39  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Denver Basin Province (USGS Province 39), Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Petroleum is produced in the province from sandstone, shale, and limestone reservoirs that range from Pennsylvanian to Upper Cretaceous in age. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define seven total petroleum systems and twelve assessment units. Nine of these assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources. Gas was not assessed for two coal bed methane assessment units due to lack of information and limited potential; oil resources were not assessed for the Fractured Pierre Shale Assessment Unit due to its mature development status.

Higley, Debra K.

2007-01-01

207

Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

208

Assessing the cumulative impacts of surface mining and coal bed methane development on shallow aquifers in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Large scale surface coal mining taken place along the cropline of the Wyodak-Anderson coal seam since approximately 1977. Groundwater impacts due to surface mining of coal and other energy-related development is a primary regulatory concern and an identified Office of Surface Mining deficiency in the Wyoming coal program. The modeled aquifers are the upper unit (coal) of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and the overlying Eocene Wasatch Formation. A regional groundwater model covering 790 square miles was constructed using MODFLOW, to simulate the impacts from three surface coal mines and coal bed methane development occurring downdip. Assessing anisotropy of the coal aquifer, quality checking of in situ aquifer tests and database quality control were precursors to modelling. Geologic data was kriged to develop the structural model of the aquifers. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was utilized to facilitate storage, analysis, display, development of input modelling arrays and assessment of hydrologic boundaries. Model output presents the predicted impacts of likely development scenarios, including impacts from coal bed methane development and surface coal mining through anticipated life of mining, and surface mining impacts independent of gas development.

Peacock, K. [Dept. of Interior, Casper, WY (United States)

1997-12-31

209

DERAILMENT IN WYOMING (2005) http://www.bigcountry.coop/coal.html  

E-print Network

1 DERAILMENT IN WYOMING (2005) http://www.bigcountry.coop/coal.html [Johnson, 2005] Steven Johnson bottleneck in shipments from the nation's most important vein of low-sulfur coal has cut into coal supplies of railroad that the Union Pacific and BNSF Railways use to transport coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin

Tesfatsion, Leigh

210

Mission Canyon (Mississippian) reservoir study, Whitney Canyon-Carter Creek Field, southwestern Wyoming thrust belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whitney Canyon-Carter Creek field is a giant sour gas and condensate reservoir located in extreme southwestern Wyoming in the Fossil basin area of the Wyoming thrust belt. Discovered in 1977, the field contains 36 wells within an area 13 mi long and 2 mi wide. Porous dolomites of the Mississippian Mission Canyon formation contain over 70% of total proven reserves.

J. L. Sieverding; P. E. Flynn; P. M. Harris

1987-01-01

211

SUMMER FOOD HABITS AND TROPHIC OVERLAP OF ROUNDTAIL CHUB AND CREEK CHUB IN MUDDY CREEK, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial de- clines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. latipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because

Michael C. Quist; Michael R. Bower; Wayne A. Hubert; Kevin Bestgen

2006-01-01

212

ANALYSIS OF DATA ON NUTRIENTS AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GROUND WATER IN THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, 1980-91  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground-water quality in the upper Snake River Basin (17...

213

Delineating producing trends within plays by the use of computer-generated drill intensity maps, Denver basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-generated exploration intensity maps were constructed for the Lower Cretaceous J and D sandstones of the Dakota Group in the Denver basin as part of the US Geological Survey's Federal Lands Assessment Program (FLAP). These maps illustrate producing and non-producing areas, distribution of hydrocarbon shows, and explored areas. They were compared with existing or generated maps of depositional environment, structure,

D. K. Higley; R. F. Mast; D. L. Gautier

1986-01-01

214

The effects of tectonism and eustasy on sequence stratigraphic framework and the distribution of play elements, Upper Cretaceous Foreland basin, southwestern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Larger scale ('second-order') stratal patterns in the Upper Cretaceous foreland succession record the alternation of active thrusting and relative quiescence in the adjacent thrust belt. Periods of active thrusting are characterized by a rapid increase in subsidence-related accommodation. During these times, proximal foreland strata consist of aggradation deposits with poor preservation potential. Sediments in medial to distal parts of the basin are relatively starved, display an abruptly deepening to retrogradational stacking pattern, and become more source- and seal-prone further from the mountain belt. Periods of tectonic quiescence are characterized by a decrease in subsidence-related accommodation. Accommodation space in proximal regions is quickly filled by sediment, and the locus of coarser grained sedimentation shifts with the basin through progradation. Consequently, strata in medial portions of the basin display a progradational stacking pattern and become more reservoir-prone. Smaller scale, third- and fourth-order sequences are interpreted as eustatic, but their expression is controlled by the larger scale (tectonic) patterns. In general, transgressive and highstand systems tracts tend to be enhanced during rapid subsidence. Lithofacies are source- and seal-prone, and condensed sections will be enhanced; valley incision and lowstand reservoir development (including deepwater sand deposition) will be inhibited. Intra-foreland, basement-involved movements further affect the distribution of play elements. Such effects include deposition of widespread, reservoir-prone, nonmarine facies, development of localized, depositional shelf edges, and the creation of subbasins that serve as depocenters for basinally restricted reservoir deposits.

Devlin, W.J.; Rudolph, K.W. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

215

Hydraulic Communication Between Coalbeds and Overlying Sands in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Implications for Re-injection of Coalbed Methane Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coalbed methane (CBM) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is associated with the production of large volumes of CBM water. CBM water from the PRB has high saline and sodium contents, making it unsuitable for agriculture and environmentally damaging. One option for the disposal of CBM water is re-injection into aquifers, but for injection to be feasible the porosity

H. E. Ross; M. D. Zoback

2006-01-01

216

Characterization of Habitat and Biological Communities at Fixed Sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, Water Years 1999-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat and biological communities were sampled at 10 sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program to assess the occurrence and distribution of biological organisms in relation to environmental conditions. Sites were distributed among the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River basins and were selected to represent stream conditions in different land-use settings that are prominent within the basins, including agriculture, rangeland, urban, and forested. High-gradient streams had more diverse habitat conditions with larger substrates and more dynamic flow characteristics and were typically lower in discharge than low-gradient streams, which had a higher degree of siltation and lacked variability in geomorphic channel characteristics, which may account for differences in habitat. Habitat scores were higher at high-gradient sites with high percentages of forested land use within their basins. Sources and causes of stream habitat impairment included effects from channel modifications, siltation, and riparian land use. Effects of hydrologic modifications were evident at many sites. Algal sites where colder temperatures, less nutrient enrichment, and forest and rangeland uses dominated the basins contained communities that were more sensitive to organic pollution, siltation, dissolved oxygen, and salinity than sites that were warmer, had higher degrees of nutrient enrichment, and were affected by agriculture and urban land uses. Sites that had high inputs of solar radiation and generally were associated with agricultural land use supported the greatest number of algal species. Invertebrate samples collected from sites where riffles were the richest-targeted habitat differed in species composition and pollution tolerance from those collected at sites that did not have riffle habitat (nonriffle sites), where samples were collected in depositional areas, woody snags, or macrophyte beds. Invertebrate taxa richness, pollution tolerance, and trophic interactions at riffle and nonriffle sites responded differently to environmental variables. Fish communities were assessed in relation to the designated beneficial use for aquatic life for each site. Fish-community sites in basins where agriculture and urbanization were prevalent consistently had poorer conditions than sites with forest and rangeland uses. Warm temperatures appear to be limiting most native fish species, and more introduced, warm-water fish species were present at sites with warmer temperatures. Ranges of environmental conditions where native species were present or absent were identified. The farthest-upstream site in each of the three basins had better ecological condition overall, as indicated by the integrity of habitat and the presence of more sensitive algae, invertebrate, and fish species than were observed at sites downstream. The farthest-downstream site in each of the three basins showed the poorest ecological condition, with more tolerant organisms present, degraded habitat and water-quality conditions, and a high degree of effects from agriculture, grazing, and urbanization. Of the mid-basin sites, the site most affected by urbanization had more degraded biological condition than the agricultural indicator site of similar basin size.

Albano, Christine M.; Giddings, Elise M.P.

2007-01-01

217

Einstein in Wyoming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "Einstein's Adventurarium," a science center housed in an empty shopping mall in Gillette, Wyoming, created through school, business, and city-county government partnership. Describes how interactive exhibits allow exploration of life sciences, physics, and paleontology. (KDFB)

Elliot, Ian

1996-01-01

218

Bitter bonanza in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Mineral and energy-related exploration, such as the drilling activity in the Overthrust Belt for petroleum, has made Wyoming a leading energy supplier in the U.S. The energy boom has had many unfortunate effects on the state's environment. Environmental degradation caused by exploration and production in Wyoming includes loss of habitat, poaching of wildlife, water pollution from oil dumping and erosion, and impacts from squatter's camps.

Randall, D.

1980-12-01

219

Hydrologic and geochemical data collected near Skewed Reservoir, an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas produced water, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River Structural Basin is one of the largest producers of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the United States. An important environmental concern in the Basin is the fate of groundwater that is extracted during CBNG production. Most of this produced water is disposed of in unlined surface impoundments. A 6-year study of groundwater flow and subsurface water and soil chemistry was conducted at one such impoundment, Skewed Reservoir. Hydrologic and geochemical data collected as part of that study are contained herein. Data include chemistry of groundwater obtained from a network of 21 monitoring wells and three suction lysimeters and chemical and physical properties of soil cores including chemistry of water/soil extracts, particle-size analyses, mineralogy, cation-exchange capacity, soil-water content, and total carbon and nitrogen content of soils.

Healy, Richard W.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Bartos, Timothy T.

2012-01-01

220

CO 2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery: Reservoir characterization and fluid flow simulations of the Big George coal, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coalbeds are an attractive geological environment for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) because CO2 is retained in the coal as an adsorbed phase and the cost of injection can be offset by enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production. This paper presents the findings of a CO2 storage feasibility study on coalbeds in the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone of the Powder River Basin,

Hannah E. Ross; Paul Hagin; Mark D. Zoback

2009-01-01

221

Experimental study of shortite (Na2Ca2(CO3)3) formation and application to the burial history of the Wilkins Peak Member, Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature at which shortite (Na2Ca2(CO3)3) forms from pirssonite (Na2Ca(CO3)2·2H2O) and calcite using pure synthetic phases in the system Na2CO3-CaCO3-H2O has been experimentally determined. At ˜1 atm pressure, shortite forms via the reaction Na2Ca(CO3)2·2H2O + CaCO3 = Na2Ca2(CO3)3 + 2H2O above 55 ± 2 °C. This equilibrium temperature is lower than determined previously (90 ± 25 °C) by Bradley and Eugster (1969). The solution in equilibrium with synthetic shortite, pirssonite, and calcite approximates a binary H2O-Na2CO3 brine with 1.1 m Na2CO3 (10.6 wt% Na2CO3). The equilibrium temperature is lowered to 52 ± 2 °C with 5 m NaCl added to the system, which shows that this reaction is weakly dependent on the activity of H2O, aO. This study suggests that shortite does not occur in surficial alkaline saline environments because temperatures are too low. Shortite is abundant in the Wilkins Peak Member (WPM) of the Eocene Green River Formation, Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA (>78 million tons/km2), where it occurs as diagenetic displacive crystals, fracture fills, and pseudomorphous replacements of a precursor Na-Ca-carbonate. The large area over which shortite occurs in the WPM indicates that saline pore fluids once existed in the buried lacustrine sediments, and thus, at times, large Na-CO3-rich saline alkaline lakes or laterally extensive saline groundwaters existed in the Green River Basin during WPM time. The thermal stability of shortite, together with vitrinite reflectance data and inferred regional geothermal gradients, establish that the shortite-bearing intervals of the WPM were buried to maximum depths of ˜1000 m in the Green River Basin, and since experienced ˜800 m of erosional exhumation.

Jagniecki, Elliot A.; Jenkins, David M.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Carroll, Alan R.

2013-08-01

222

Topic Modeling: Beyond Bag-of-Words Hanna M. Wallach hmw26@cam.ac.uk  

E-print Network

by computing estimators of both the marginal probability of word i and the con- ditional probability of word i estimator fi|j is smoothed by the marginal frequency estimator fi to give the predictive probability of wordTopic Modeling: Beyond Bag-of-Words Hanna M. Wallach hmw26@cam.ac.uk Cavendish Laboratory

Wallach, Hanna M.

223

Android Permissions Demystified Adrienne Porter Felt, Erika Chin, Steve Hanna, Dawn Song, David Wagner  

E-print Network

Android Permissions Demystified Adrienne Porter Felt, Erika Chin, Steve Hanna, Dawn Song, David Android provides third-party applications with an extensive API that includes access to phone hardware with an install-time application permis- sion system. We study Android applications to determine whether Android

Wagner, David

224

Runoff and mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet: 19582003 Edward Hanna,1  

E-print Network

been validated using shallow ice core data. Surface mass balance (SMB) responds rapidly on a yearly signals in runoff and SMB following three major volcanic eruptions. Runoff losses from the ice sheet were to global sea level rise, with 0.15 mm yrÃ?1 from declining SMB alone over the last 6 years. Citation: Hanna

Huybrechts, Philippe

225

HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE SUCCESSION OF HURRICANES IN 2008: GUSTAV, HANNA, AND IKE  

E-print Network

HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE SUCCESSION OF HURRICANES IN 2008: GUSTAV, HANNA, AND IKE W. Lin of Atlantic hurricanes in August-September 2008 is used to assess the ability of the Weather Research and the eastern United States. The succession of the hurricanes in observation developed from either local

226

Learning the Structure of Deep Sparse Graphical Models Ryan Prescott Adams Hanna M. Wallach Zoubin Ghahramani  

E-print Network

Learning the Structure of Deep Sparse Graphical Models Ryan Prescott Adams Hanna M. Wallach Zoubin a nonparametric Bayesian framework to perform structure learning in deep networks, a problem that has not been Ghahramani University of Toronto University of Massachusetts Amherst University of Cambridge Abstract Deep

Chen, Yiling

227

Soil CO2 production in upland tundra where permafrost is thawing Hanna Lee,1,2  

E-print Network

Soil CO2 production in upland tundra where permafrost is thawing Hanna Lee,1,2 Edward A. G. Schuur 2009; published 16 February 2010. [1] Permafrost soils store nearly half of global soil carbon (C), and therefore permafrost thawing could lead to large amounts of greenhouse gas emissions via decomposition

Wagner, Diane

228

Analysis of Duration Prediction Accuracy in HMM-Based Speech Synthesis Hanna Siln1  

E-print Network

database, and further, for generating speech representations cor- responding to the input phoneme sequencesAnalysis of Duration Prediction Accuracy in HMM-Based Speech Synthesis Hanna Silén1 , Elina speech synthesis. In hidden Markov model-based text-to- speech (HMM-TTS), durations are typically modeled

Gabbouj, Moncef

229

Activities of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1991-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the water quality of a large part of the Nation's rivers and aquifers and to improve understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect water-quality conditions. In meeting these goals, the program will produce water-quality, ecological, and geographic information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, upon which national-level assessment activities are based. The program's 60 study-unit investigations are associated with principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. Study units encompass areas from 1,200 to more than 65,000 mi2 (square miles) and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the upper Snake River Basin was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for implementation. From 1991 to 1995, a high-intensity data-collection phase of the upper Snake River Basin study unit (fig. 1) was implemented and completed. Components of this phase are described in a report by Gilliom and others (1995). In 1997, a low-intensity phase of data collection began, and work continued on data analysis, report writing, and data documentation and archiving activities that began in 1996. Principal data-collection activities during the low-intensity phase will include monitoring of surface-water and ground-water quality, assessment of aquatic biological conditions, and continued compilation of environmental setting information.

Low, Walton H.

1997-01-01

230

Subsurface geology and porosity distribution, Madison Limestone and underlying formations, Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana and adjacent areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To evaluate the Madison Limestone and associated rocks as potential sources for water supplies in the Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, an understanding of the geologic framework of these units, their lithologic facies patterns, the distribution of porosity zones, and the relation between porosity development and stratigraphic facies is necessary. Regionally the Madison is mainly a fossiliferous limestone. However, in broad areas of the eastern Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains, dolomite is a dominant constituent and in places the Madison is almost entirely dolomite. Within these areas maximum porosity development is found and it seems to be related to the coarser crystalline dolomite facies. The porosity development is associated with tabular and fairly continuous crystalline dolomite beds separated by non-porous limestones. The maximum porosity development in the Bighorn Dolomite, as in the Madison, is directly associated with the occurrence of a more coarsely crystalline sucrosic dolomite facies. Well data indicate, however, that where the Bighorn is present in the deeper parts of the Powder River Basin, it may be dominated by a finer crystalline dolomite facies of low porosity. The 'Winnipeg Sandstone' is a clean, generally well-sorted, medium-grained sandstone. It shows good porosity development in parts of the northern Powder River Basin and northwestern South Dakota. Because the sandstone is silica-cemented and quartzitic in areas of deep burial, good porosity is expected only where it is no deeper than a few thousand feet. The Flathead Sandstone is a predominantly quartzose, slightly feldspathic sandstone, commonly cemented with iron oxide. Like the 'Winnipeg Sandstone,' it too is silica-cemented and quartzitic in many places so that its porosity is poor in areas of deep burial. Illustrations in this report show the thickness, percent dolomite, and porosity-feet for the Bighorn Dolomite and the Madison Limestone and its subdivisions. The porosity-feet for the 'Winnipeg' and Flathead Sandstones and four regional geologic sections are also shown.

Peterson, James A.

1978-01-01

231

Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

Thiagarajan, B.; Bal, Y.; Gage, K.L.; Cully, J.F., Jr.

2008-01-01

232

In situ measurements of microbially-catalyzed nitrification and nitrate reduction rates in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving water from coalbed natural gas discharge, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrification and nitrate reduction were examined in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving discharge from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. CBNG co-produced water typically contains dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), primarily as ammonium. In this study, a substantial portion of discharged ammonium was oxidized within 50??m of downstream transport, but speciation was markedly influenced by diel fluctuations in dissolved oxygen (> 300????M). After 300??m of transport, 60% of the initial DIN load had been removed. The effect of benthic nitrogen-cycling processes on stream water chemistry was assessed at 2 locations within the stream channel using acrylic chambers to conduct short-term (2-6??h), in-stream incubations. The highest ambient DIN removal rates (2103????mol N m- 2 h- 1) were found at a location where ammonium concentrations > 350????M. This occurred during light incubations when oxygen concentrations were highest. Nitrification was occurring at the site, however, net accumulation of nitrate and nitrite accounted for < 12% of the ammonium consumed, indicating that other ammonium-consuming processes were also occurring. In dark incubations, nitrite and nitrate consumption were dominant processes, while ammonium was produced rather than consumed. At a downstream location nitrification was not a factor and changes in DIN removal rates were controlled by nitrate reduction, diel fluctuations in oxygen concentration, and availability of electron donor. This study indicates that short-term adaptation of stream channel processes can be effective for removing CBNG DIN loads given sufficient travel distances, but the long-term potential for nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen saturation remain to be determined.

Harris, S. H.; Smith, R. L.

2009-01-01

233

Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases in water production are rare in the upper part of the Almond, and a higher percentage of wells in the upper part of the Almond show water decreasing at the same rate as gas than in the main or combined parts of the Almond. In Stagecoach Draw field, the gas production rate after five years is about one-fourth that of the first sample, whereas in Pinedale, Jonah, and Greater Wamsutter fields, the production rate after five years is about one-half that of the first sample. The more rapid gas decline rate seems to be the outstanding feature distinguishing Stagecoach Draw field, which is characterized as a conventional field, from Pinedale, Jonah, and Greater Wamsutter fields, which are generally characterized as tight-gas accumulations. Oil-gas ratios are fairly consistent within Jonah, Pinedale, and Stagecoach Draw fields, suggesting similar chemical composition and pressure-temperature conditions within each field, and are less than the 20 bbl/mmcf upper limit for wet gas. However, oil-gas ratios vary considerably from one area to another in the Greater Wamsutter field, demonstrating a lack of commonality in either chemistry or pressure-temperature conditions among the six areas. In all wells in all four fields examined here, water production commences with gas production-there are no examples of wells with water-free production and no examples where water production commences after first-sample gas production. The fraction of records with water production higher in the second sample than in the first sample varies from field to field, with Pinedale field showing the lowest percentage of such cases and Jonah field showing the most. Most wells have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature.

Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

2010-01-01

234

Stratigraphy, depositional history, and trapping mechanisms of Lone Tree Creek and Lodgepole Creek oil fields, Lower Cretaceous Fall River formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphically trapped accumulations of oil in the Lone Tree Creek and Lodgepole Creek fields occur within and just updip from a fluvial meander belt within the Fall River Formation. The meander belt can be mapped north-to-south over a distance of at least 100 mi (161 km) in the eastern part of the Powder River basin. The northern part of the meander belt contains the oil fields of the Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend; the southern part contains only the relatively small Lone Tree Creek and Lodgepole Creek fields. These small fields are of considerable interest, as they display a style of stratigraphic trapping of hydrocarbons not observed in the prolific Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend. The stratigraphic traps of the Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend occur at updip facing convexities along the eastern edge of the meander belt, with abandonment clay plugs serving as lateral permeability barriers to hydrocarbon migration. Oil has been produced in part of the Lone Tree Creek field from a similar trap. The remaining part of Lone Tree Creek field and Lodgepole creek field produce from stratigraphic traps formed by lateral pinch-outs of delta-front sandstone bodies. These traps are situated updip from and apparently in continuity with the meander-belt deposits, indicating that they may have been charged with hydrocarbons that found their way through the clay-plug barriers along the margin of the meander belt. Similar, undiscovered traps may exist updip from Fall River meander belts elsewhere in the basin.

Gustason, E.R.; Ryer, T.A.

1985-05-01

235

Learning to Read the Earth: Wyoming Field Studies in  

E-print Network

Learning to Read the Earth: Wyoming Field Studies in Ecology and Paleontology Four credits :: June-grass prairie ecology featuring animals and plants that co-evolved over the ages. We will explore prairie basins activities on the planet's values, no matter where life's journey takes them. Explore :: Discover :: Engage

Elliott, Emily M.

236

Coalbed Methane Product Water Chemistry in Three Wyoming Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Powder River Basin in Wyoming has become one of the most active areas of coalbed methane (CBM) development in the western United States. Extraction of methane from coalbeds requires pumping of aquifer water, which is called product water. Two to ten extraction wells are manifolded into one discharge point and product water is released into nearby unlined holding ponds.

Ian H. McBeth; Katta J. Reddy; Quentin D. Skinner

2003-01-01

237

Wyoming State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.

238

Impact of fracture stratigraphy on the paleohydrogeology of the Madison limestone in two basement involved folds in the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the study of the Madison Limestone at Sheep Mountain and Rattlesnake Mountain, a unique outcrop dataset including (1) facies and diagenenitc analyses, (2) vertical persistence and cement stratigraphy of vein sets and (3) fluid inclusions thermometry are used to demonstrate (i) the importance of the eo-diagenetic phases on reservoirs petrophysical and mechanical properties, and (ii) the impact of folding and fracturing on paleo-hydrogeology. The different phases of porosity and permeability development of the carbonates of the Madison Limestone occurred mainly during the syn-depositional eogenesis, the postponed eogenesis (reflux of brine during LFS3) and during the karstification at the end of the Mississippian. The early sealing by the Amsden Formation during the Early Pennsylvanian, limited the vertical exchanges and initiated the confinement of the Madison "aquifer". The burial of the Madison Limestone leaded to the occlusion of the pore network due to the calcite cementation in the distal parts of the platform whereas it leaded to the pore network development due to the crystallization of dolomite in proximal parts. Quantification of the vertical persistence of fractures shows that Sheep Mountain and Rattlesnake Mountain differ by the vertical persistence of the pre-folding Laramide vein sets, which are strictly bed-confined in Sheep Mountain but cut across bedding at Rattlesnake Mountain, whereas the syn-folding veins are through-going in both. The emplacement chronology and the various sources of the fluids responsible for the paragenetic sequence are based on isotope chemistry and fluid inclusions analysis of the matrix and vein cements. At Sheep Mountain and Rattlesnake Mountain, the two cements related to the burial are characterized by isotopic signatures of marine formation waters that were diluted during the karstification of the Madison Platform at the end of Mississippian. Meteoric fluids, presumably migrating during the Cenomanian from Wind River Range and Teton Range, recharge zones located in the south-west of the Bighorn Basin, were remobilized in the early bed-confined and through-going syn-folding veins of the Sheep Mountain Anticline. The former vein set drained only local fluids whose isotopic signature relates to an increase of temperature of the meteoric fluids during their migration, whereas the latter set allowed quick drainage of basinal fluids.

Barbier, Mickael; Leprêtre, Rémi; Hamon, Youri; Callot, Jean-Paul; Gasparrini, Marta; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Lacombe, Olivier

2013-04-01

239

Sampling and analyses report for the September 1989 postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG Site, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Between September 14, 1989 and September 19, 1989, Western Research Institute (WRI) completed the third quarterly Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) groundwater monitoring for the year 1989. This quarterly sample outing represents the first sampling since the completion of the second RM1 groundwater restoration in August 1989. Background material and the sampling and analytical procedures associated with this task are described in the Rocky Mountain 1 Postburn Groundwater Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan, prepared by Western Research Institute for the Gas Research Institute and the US Department of Energy.

Crader, S.E.

1989-09-01

240

Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final report for the period October 1992--October 1993  

SciTech Connect

Badger Basin Field, discovered in 1931, produces at stripper rates from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Only 15% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. This project will increase recoverable reserves through a better understanding of the reservoir and factors which control production. Characterization of the reservoir has been accomplished through an integrated engineering, geological and geophysical approach. Production data, drilling and completion techniques, and relative location of wells on the anticline were reviewed and related to productivity. Literature was reviewed for interpretations on preferred flow directions on anticlinal structures. A structure map of the producing Frontier reservoir was constructed. Porosity development and its relationship to fracture networks was examined petrographically. Fractures in core were described and oriented using paleomagnetic techniques. Azimuths of fractures in outcrop were compared to fracture azimuths measured in the core. A 17 square-mile 3D seismic survey was designed, acquired and processed. Interpretation is being performed on a Sun workstation using Landmark Graphics software. Time-structure and amplitude-distribution maps will be constructed on three Frontier horizons. A location for a high-angle well will be chosen. The slant/horizontal test will be drilled and completed to increase recovery of reserves. Transfer of successful technologies will be accomplished by technical publications and presentations, and access to project materials, data, and field facilities.

Walker, J.P.; Fortmann, R.G.

1994-12-01

241

Hydraulic Communication Between Coalbeds and Overlying Sands in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Implications for Re-injection of Coalbed Methane Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalbed methane (CBM) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is associated with the production of large volumes of CBM water. CBM water from the PRB has high saline and sodium contents, making it unsuitable for agriculture and environmentally damaging. One option for the disposal of CBM water is re-injection into aquifers, but for injection to be feasible the porosity and permeability of the sands needs to be high, the pore pressure needs to be low, and the aquifer cannot be in hydraulic communication with the coalbeds. In order to determine if pore pressures in the aquifers are low enough to allow for significant CBM water re-injection and to determine whether the coals and sands are in hydraulic communication with each other we have calculated pore pressures in 220 wells that monitor water levels in coalbeds and adjacent sands within the PRB. All 220 wells have pore pressures below hydrostatic pressure, implying that re-injection of CBM water should be feasible. However, by analyzing pore pressure changes with time for both the coals and their overlying sands, we find that sands less than 100 ft from coal appear to be in communication with the coalbed. Therefore, re- injection of CBM water should be carried out in sands further than 100 ft from adjacent coalbeds. It also follows that CO2 sequestration in PRB coalbeds should not be carried out in areas where sands and coals are hydraulically connected, as potential leakage pathways for CO2 maybe present.

Ross, H. E.; Zoback, M. D.

2006-12-01

242

Depositional environments, sequence stratigraphy, and trapping mechanisms of Fall River Formation in Donkey Creek and Coyote Creek oil fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Donkey Creek and Coyote Creek fields contain combined reserves of approximately 35 million bbl of oil and are within a trend of fields on the eastern flank of the Powder River basin that totals over 100 million bbl of reserves. The principal producing formation is the Lower Cretaceous Fall River Sandstone. A study of 45 cores and 248 logs from the three pools in the Donkey Creek and Coyote fields has shown that the Fall River is composed of three progradational deltaic units deposited during a period of rising relative sea level. These are locally eroded and are filled by a fluvial point-bar complex deposited following a lowering of relative sea level. Four important depositional facies have been recognized: the delta-front and distributary-channel sandstone of the highstand deltaic sequence and the point-bar sandstone and channel-abandonment of the lowstand fluvial sequence. Stratigraphic traps in Coyote Creek and south Donkey Creek pools are the result of permeable (250 md) point-bar sandstone (250 bbl oil/day ip) bounded updip by impermeable (0.1 md) channel abandonment mudstone. Most of the oil in the central Donkey Creek pool is produced from permeable (76 md) distributary-channel sandstone (150 bbl oil/day ip), which is restricted to the western flank of a structural nose. Lesser production, on the crest and upper western flank of the structure, is obtained from the less permeable (2.8 md) delta-front sandstone (50 bbl oil/day ip). Production is possibly limited to the crest and western flank by hydrodynamic processes.

Knox, P.R. (Unocal, Santa Fe Springs, CA (USA))

1989-09-01

243

Assessment of ecological conditions and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities in streams of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. The interagency task group developed a monitoring plan and conducted sampling of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities at 47 sites during 2005-08 to document current ecological conditions and determine existing and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities. Macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish community composition varied between drainage basins, among sites within drainage basins, and by year. Macroinvertebrate communities of the main-stem Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and higher abundance of Ephemeroptera, for example, compared to macroinvertebrate communities in plains tributaries of the Tongue River and the main-stem Powder River. Fish communities of the Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and abundance of introduced species compared to the Powder River where native species were dominant. Macroinvertebrate community metric values from sites in the middle reach of the main-stem Powder River, from below Willow Creek to below Crazy Woman Creek, differed from metric values in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River. Metrics indicative of communitywide differences included measures of taxa richness, relative abundance, feeding mode, and tolerance. Some of the variation in the macroinvertebrate communities could be explained by variation in environmental variables, including physical (turbidity, embeddedness, bed substrate size, and streamflow) and chemical (alkalinity and specific conductance) variables. Of these environmental variables, alkalinity was the best indicator of coalbed natural gas development because of the sodiumbicarbonate signature of the production water. Algal samples from the main-stem Powder River generally confirmed the pattern observed in the macroinvertebrate communities. Algal communities at sites in the middle reach of the Powder River commonly were characterized by dominance by a single taxon and by low biovolume of algae compared to other sites. In contrast to the macroinvertebrate and algal communities, species richness of fish communities was highest in the middle reach of the Powder River. Although a few significant differences in fish metrics were determined along the main-stem Powder River, the differences did not correspond to the pattern observed for the macroinvertebrate and algae communities. Differences in biological communities were noted between years, potentially due to the effects of drought. Macroinvertebrate community metrics, such as Diptera taxa richness, were significantly different in the severe drought year of 2006 from metric values in 2005 and 2007-08. Waterquality data collected during the study indicated that, with few exceptions, water-quality constituents generally did not exceed State or Federal acute and chronic criteria for the protection of aquatic life.

Peterson, David A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Foster, Katharine; Wright, Peter R.; Boughton, Gregory K.

2010-01-01

244

Wyoming Natural Resources Data Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wyoming Natural Resources Data Clearinghouse Web site, which "has the largest clearinghouse of digital geospatial data for Wyoming" is part of the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center. Users can search the spatial data using keywords, browse using a clickable atlas of the state, or browse the individual categories including climate, land management, land / environmental, mineral, water, and more. Each of the listings describes the type of data, its scale and source, and even includes a picture of what it looks like on screen. Easy to use and navigate, the site does a good job of making the free Wyoming specific data accessible to anyone.

2008-10-22

245

A first look at geological aspects of ERTS imagery of Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The analysis of six MSS-5 frames covering most of the western half of Wyoming is discussed. The frames under consideration covered the following areas: (1) Rock Springs, (2) Western Wind River Basin, and (3) Bighorn Basin-Absarokas Mountains. Miscellaneous observations concerning identification of natural and man-made structures are included.

Short, N.

1972-01-01

246

Estimation of Growing Season ET using Wyoming ET Calculator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimations of Evapotranspiration (ET) and Consumptive Irrigation Requirement (CIR) are essential for water resources planning and management. The Wyoming State Engineer's Office currently determines monthly reference evapotranspiration (ET) with an Excel Spreadsheet ET model using average monthly data from a nearby weather station (usually an airport weather station) for the irrigated area of interest, and interpolates them into daily reference ET using either linear or cubic functions. The purpose of this project is to replace the current Excel model with a GIS-based ET calculator. Our approach uses daily weather data to calculate daily reference and actual ET, and then aggregate actual ET into monthly and seasonal ET. Among many reference ET equations available, the ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation (ASCE-ET) and the Hargreaves-Samani equations were selected to calculate daily reference ET. Wyoming ET Calculator, a GIS-based ET tool, was developed to calculate daily potential ET, CIR, and actual ET, using daily reference ET, crop coefficients, effective precipitation ratios, and water stress factors. Total monthly and growing season ET and CIR were determined over the Upper Green River Basin in Wyoming. The long term trends of these totals from 1960-2009 were analyzed and compared to trends in weather data (minimum and maximum temperatures, wind speed, and dew point temperature). We also evaluated the total monthly and growing season ET from Wyoming ET Calculator against satellite-based ET (METRIC ET) estimations for June, July, and August of 2009 around an irrigated area near the Wind River Mountain Range in Wyoming. The total monthly ET from Wyoming ET Calculator agrees very well with total monthly ET from METRIC for well-watered crop areas. For other areas, the Wyoming ET Calculator tends to overestimate total monthly ET values than METRIC, because the tool assumes all NLCD crop area are being irrigated.

Rasmussen, R. W.; Park, G.

2011-12-01

247

Water Resources of Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S Geological Survey (USGS) website contains water data including water quality samples and water use data, information on USGS projects, links to USGS educational sites, and a bibliography of USGS water resource publications. Projects and studies covered include: the Wyoming Drought Watch, which contains maps of daily streamflow conditions and historical streamflow data; algal-nutrient relations in the Yellowstone River; county water resource studies; estimating peak-streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites; the Integrating Aquatic Ecosystem Data project of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP); an aquifer; water-quality issues associated with irrigation drainage; watershed delineation; urban hydrology; and a pathogen indicator synoptic study.

248

Wyoming Community College Commission Annual Report, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC) serves the system of Wyoming's seven community colleges. Wyoming's seven community colleges provide affordable, accessible and lifelong education. The Wyoming Community College Commission supports the colleges through advocacy, coordination and collaboration. In partnership with the colleges, the…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2010

2010-01-01

249

Expansion and Enhacement of the Wyoming Coalbed Methane Clearinghouse Website to the Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse.  

SciTech Connect

Energy development is expanding across the United States, particularly in western states like Wyoming. Federal and state land management agencies, local governments, industry and non-governmental organizations have realized the need to access spatially-referenced data and other non-spatial information to determine the geographical extent and cumulative impacts of expanding energy development. The Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse (WERIC) is a web-based portal which centralizes access to news, data, maps, reports and other information related to the development, management and conservation of Wyomingâ??s diverse energy resources. WERIC was established in 2006 by the University of Wyomingâ??s Ruckelshaus Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) and the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center (WyGISC) with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The WERIC web portal originated in concept from a more specifically focused website, the Coalbed Methane (CBM) Clearinghouse. The CBM Clearinghouse effort focused only on coalbed methane production within the Powder River Basin of northeast Wyoming. The CBM Clearinghouse demonstrated a need to expand the effort statewide with a comprehensive energy focus, including fossil fuels and renewable and alternative energy resources produced and/or developed in Wyoming. WERIC serves spatial data to the greater Wyoming geospatial community through the Wyoming GeoLibrary, the WyGISC Data Server and the Wyoming Energy Map. These applications are critical components that support the Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse (WERIC). The Wyoming GeoLibrary is a tool for searching and browsing a central repository for metadata. It provides the ability to publish and maintain metadata and geospatial data in a distributed environment. The WyGISC Data Server is an internet mapping application that provides traditional GIS mapping and analysis functionality via the web. It is linked into various state and federal agency spatial data servers allowing users to visualize multiple themes, such as well locations and core sage grouse areas, in one domain. Additionally, this application gives users the ability to download any of the data being displayed within the web map. The Wyoming Energy Map is the newest mapping application developed directly from this effort. With over a 100 different layers accessible via this mapping application, it is the most comprehensive Wyoming energy mapping application available. This application also provides the public with the ability to create cultural and wildlife reports based on any location throughout Wyoming and at multiple scales. The WERIC website also allows users to access links to federal, state, and local natural resource agency websites and map servers; research documents about energy; and educational information, including information on upcoming energy-relate conferences. The WERIC website has seen significant use by energy industry consultants, land management agencies, state and local decision-makers, non-governmental organizations and the public. Continued service to these sectors is desirable but some challenges remain in keeping the WERIC site viable. The most pressing issue is finding the human and financial resources to keep the site continually updated. Initially, the concept included offering users the ability to maintain the site themselves; however, this has proven not to be a viable option since very few people contributed. Without user contributions, the web page relied on already committed university staff to publish and link to the appropriate documents and web-pages. An option that is currently being explored to address this issue is development of a partnership with the University of Wyoming, School of Energy Resources (SER). As part of their outreach program, SER may be able to contribute funding for a full-time position dedicated to maintenance of WERIC.

Hulme, Diana; Hamerlinck, Jeffrey; Bergman, Harold; Oakleaf, Jim

2010-03-26

250

The trials of Hanna Porn: the campaign to abolish midwifery in Massachusetts.  

PubMed Central

The case of Hanna Porn affords an opportunity to examine how the laws that led to the abolition of midwifery in Massachusetts evolved and were applied to the midwife whose case set the state legal precedent. Mrs Porn served primarily a Finnish-Swedish clientele of wives of laborers. The outcomes of the births she attended appear to have been positive, and she maintained a neonatal mortality rate of less than half that of local physicians. She also repeatedly defied court orders to stop practicing. Her case exemplifies the efforts that occurred nationally to abolish midwifery in the United States. PMID:8203670

Declercq, E R

1994-01-01

251

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Second quarterly, second year, technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This study is designed to provide improvements in reservoir characterization techniques. Activities include: an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional and diagenic frameworks; the development of pore system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and reservoir simulations testing the impact of permeability and anisotropy on enhanced oil recovery. Results are described.

Dunn, T.L.

1995-04-13

252

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault,  

E-print Network

Fault, Wind River Basin, Fremont County Wyoming Robert G. McWilliams, Professor Emeritus, Department) on their geologic maps of the Wind River Basin and Wyoming, respectively. #12;[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin and Christiansen (1985) mapped in the area north of Wilderness and southeast and northwest of Horse Creek (shown

Lee Jr., Richard E.

253

An application of concepts from statics to geometrical proofs Gila Hanna, Ysbrand DeBruyn, Nathan Sidoli and Dennis Lomas  

E-print Network

166 An application of concepts from statics to geometrical proofs Gila Hanna, Ysbrand De Abstract: This paper describes an application of statics to geometrical proofs in the classroom. The aim of the study was to find out whether the use of concepts and arguments from statics can help students

Spagnolo, Filippo

254

Energetics of small n-pentanol clusters from droplet nucleation rate data Michael Knott, Hanna Vehkamaki,a)  

E-print Network

Energetics of small n-pentanol clusters from droplet nucleation rate data Michael Knott, Hanna theorems to extract the excess internal energy of small molecular clusters of n-pentanol from experimental several experimental datasets for the nucleation of n-pentanol droplets. This substance has been

Ford, Ian

255

Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part B: oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. The WLCI represents the USGS partnership with other Department of the Interior Bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners, all of whom collaborate to maintain healthy landscapes, sustain wildlife, and preserve recreational and grazing uses while developing energy resources in southwestern Wyoming. This product is the second and final part of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming series (also see USGS Data Series 683, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/683/), and encompasses all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties, as well as areas in Fremont County that are in the Great Divide and Green River Basins.

Biewick, Laura R. H.; Wilson, Anna B.

2014-01-01

256

Geologic and hydrologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, Great Green River Basin, Wyoming and Colorado. Topical report, January 1993-January 1994  

SciTech Connect

;Contents: Executive summary and introduction; Tectonic and stratigraphic setting and coal occurrence of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lower Tertiary Fort Union Formation, Greater Green River Basin; Coal rank, gas content and composition, and origin of coalbed gases; Hydrology of the Mesaverde Aquifer and Tertiary Aquifer System, Greater Green River Basin; Coalbed methane resources, production, and exploration in the Greater Green River Basin; and Conclusions.

Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Scott, A.R.; Hamilton, D.S.; McMurry, R.G.

1994-07-01

257

77 FR 34894 - Wyoming Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...submitted the amendment to address required ownership and control rule changes that OSM identified...included changes to Wyoming's rules for ownership and control. Wyoming also submitted...Safety and Health Administration, USDA Forest Service, U.S. Geological...

2012-06-12

258

Low-BTU gas in the Rocky Mountain region - Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Utah  

SciTech Connect

There are over 100 reservoirs in Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Utah that produce or could produce low-BTU (heating value less than 900 BTU/ft[sup 3]) gas. Reservoirs range in age from Devonian to Cretaceous; reservoir lithologies include both carbonates and sandstones. Frequently, the low-BTU gas (CO[sub 2], N[sub 2], and He) is a byproduct of normal hydrocarbon production. CO[sub 2]-rich gas occurs in southwest to east-central Utah, in the southeastern Paradox basin (Utah and Colorado), in the North Park basin (Colorado), in southeast Colorado and northeast New Mexico, and in the Green River and Wind River basins (Wyoming). Five fields produce nearly pure (98%) CO[sub 2]. The 1990 annual CO[sub 2] production from these fields was North and South McCallum (Colorado), 1.7 bcf; McElmo (Colorado), 205 bcf; Sheep Mountain (Colorado), 70.7 bcf; and Bravo Dome (New Mexico), 119.7 bcf. Big Piney-LaBarge (Wyoming) produced 120 bcf of CO[sub 2] (at a concentration of 65%) in 1990. Most of the CO[sub 2] is used in enhanced oil recovery. Nitrogen-rich gas is found in the southern Green River basin (Utah and Wyoming), east flank of the San Rafael uplift (Utah), northern Paradox basin (Utah), Uncompahgre uplift (Utah and Colorado), Douglas Creek arch (Colorado), Hugoton embayment (Colorado), Las Animas arch (Colorado), Permian basin (New Mexico), and Four Corners platform (New Mexico). Helium is sometimes associated with the nitrogen and in concentrations of up to 8% in New Mexico and Colorado, 2.8% in Utah, and 1% in Wyoming.

Tremain, C.M. (Colorado Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Broadhead, R.E. (New Mexico Bureau of Miners and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Chidsey, T.C. Jr. (Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Doelger, M. (Barrow Haun, Inc., Casper, WY (United States)); Morgan, C.D. (Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1993-08-01

259

Wyoming: Territory to Statehood, Unit VI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for elementary school students, this unit on the Wyoming evolution from territory to statehood provides concepts, activities, stories, resources, and maps. Concepts stress the five national flags which have flown over Wyoming, several other territories Wyoming was a part of, construction of the Union Pacific railroad, problems of the new…

Robinson, Terry

260

WILDLIFE MITIGATION TECHNIQUES AT SURFACE COAL MINES IN NORTHEAST WYOMING1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife issues at surface coal mines in the Powder River Basin of northeast Wyoming have been a topic of discussion since operations first began in the early 1970s. Since then, wildlife monitoring and mitigation programs have evolved to address changing concerns, and incorporate new information and techniques. Over the last 26 years, biologists with Thunderbird - Jones & Stokes (J&S)

Gwyn McKee

261

Influence of geological heterogeneties on secondary recovery from Permian Phosphoria reservoir, Cottonwood Creek Field, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cottonwood Creek Field is on the E. side of the Big Horn basin in northwestern Wyoming. It is on a W.-SW.- dipping monoclinal surface along the SW. flank of Hidden Dome anticline. Reservoir zones interfinger with a red- shale anhydrite facies on the N., E., and SE. The stratigraphic traps for hydrocarbons are the impervious strata of the redbed

R. M. Willingham; J. A. McCaleb

1966-01-01

262

Aerodynamic roughness parameters for semi-arid natural shrub communities of Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of aerodynamic roughness length (z0) were calculated at nine sites for natural sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp.), saltbush (Atriplex nuttallii) and greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus) plant communities in two semi-arid basins in Wyoming, USA. Estimates were based on wind and temperature profiles measured above the plant canopies during summer (August) of 1994 and fall (September and October) of 1995. Values of

Kenneth L. Driese; William A. Reiners

1997-01-01

263

9. VIEW OF THE PRESSURE CULVERT STILLING BASIN, LOOKING NORTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF THE PRESSURE CULVERT STILLING BASIN, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE THE LEVEE TO THE RIGHT. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

264

Wyoming's "Education Reform & Cost Study."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A history of education in the state of Wyoming, along with a description of recent legislative initiatives, are presented in this paper. It opens with statewide reorganizations begun in the 1960s that unified school districts and equalized property valuation. A decade later a court order ruled the system inequitable and new laws provided for a…

Meyer, Joseph B.

265

Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

266

CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

1984-01-01

267

Geologic Mapping and Geologic History: Sheep Mountain, Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Half way through the second semester of our year-long integrated Sed/Strat and Structure course we travel to Sheep Mountain, Wyoming where the students spend 5 days describing and measuring section and the constructing geologic and structural maps. The field data gathered then form the basis for a paper titled: "Geologic History of the Sheep Mountain Region". In addition to simply making geologic maps, stratigraphic sections and structural cross-sections, the students have to put the local geology into the broader contexts of the Big Horn Basin and sequences of western orogenies.

Malinconico, Lawrence L.

268

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Final technical report, September 15, 1993--October 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study was designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal was accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, and depositional regional frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts were aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focused on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work establishes new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in wellbore scale damage. This task was accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends the at field scale; and chemical modeling of both the experimental and reservoir systems.

Dunn, T.L.

1996-10-01

269

Mapping bedrock topography with seismic refraction at an oil and gas field: A comparison of engineering and petroleum exploration methods at a site in the Wind River Basin of Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Weathered-layer{close_quotes} corrections to seismic-reflection travel times for deep hydrocarbon exploration are often made using shallow refracted arrivals on the reflection records. There has been recent interest in using these {open_quotes}refraction-statics{close_quotes} solutions to provide depth-to-bedrock maps for environmental or engineering applications as a by-product of the deep seismic survey. We show that the depth to bedrock and bedrock velocities produced by automatic refraction-statics processing of a three-dimensional seismic survey of a gas field in Wyoming differ significantly from those determined from an engineering survey. Manual reprocessing of the refraction statics produced some improvement, but is still inferior to refraction data taken for the specific purpose of determining depth to bedrock. Automatic refraction statics provide adequate travel-time adjustments to reflection records due to a shallow low-velocity layer, but such solutions should not be taken to represent explicit depth to bedrock.

Phillips, D.; Grimm, R.; Hoekstra, B.

1997-10-01

270

Water-quality assessment of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming; analysis of available nutrient, suspended-sediment, and pesticide data, water years 1980-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient, suspended-sediment, and pesticide data from surface- and ground-water sites in the South Platte River Basin for water years 1980-92 were compiled, screened, and interpreted. This activity is part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The analysis of existing water-quality data provides a perspective on recent water-quality conditions in the South Platte River Basin, evaluations of the strengths and weaknesses of available data, and implications for water-quality issues and future study priorities and design. Most data analyzed were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. Additionally, data from three local agencies were used in the analysis. A total of 3,484 samples from 54 surface-water sites and 107 wells were used in the analysis. The areal distribution of nutrient samples collected from surface-water and ground-water sites were sufficient in number and areal distribution to describe current water- quality conditions throughout the basin, but data were not sufficient to analyze factors and processes affecting water quality. However, suspended- sediment and pesticide data were sparse in their distribution with respect to time, space, and flow regime, and were sufficient only to provide a preliminary description of conditions in the basin.

Dennehy, K.F.; Litke, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Heiny, J.S.; Tate, C.M.

1995-01-01

271

Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of Wyoming and its application to evaluation of Wyoming's natural resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Structurally linear elements in the vicinity of the Rock Springs Uplift, Sweetwater County, Wyoming are reported for the first time. One element trends N 40 deg W near Farson, Wyoming and the other N 65 deg E from Rock Springs. These elements confirm the block-like or mosaic pattern of major structural elements in Wyoming.

Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

1972-01-01

272

Wyoming fossils change theories about extinction Casper, Wyoming -Wednesday, March 12, 2003  

E-print Network

larger animals. According to a paper assessing modern extinction rates by British scientists Robert MayWyoming fossils change theories about extinction Casper, Wyoming - Wednesday, March 12, 2003 about extinction News Wyoming Casper National World AP News UPI News Business Opinion Sports Obituaries

Wilf, Peter

273

HUSTON PARK ROADLESS AREA, WYOMING.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A probable resource potential for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources in stratiform sulfide deposits is assigned to areas in the northern and southeastern parts of the Huston Park Roadless Area, Wyoming. These areas are underlain by volcanic rock successions favorable for stratiform sulfide deposits. However, no indication of mineralized rock was identified during a mineral survey. Study of granites of the southern Sierra Madre are needed to determine whether or not they have promise as a source of tin and tungsten.

Houston, Robert, S.; Lane, Michael, E.

1984-01-01

274

Cretaceous biostratigraphy in the Wyoming thrust belt.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Cretaceous section of the thrust belt, fossils are especially useful for dating and correlating repetitive facies of different ages in structurally complex terrain. The biostratigraphic zonation for the region is based on megafossils (chiefly ammonites) , which permit accurate dating and correlation of outcrop sections, and which have been calibrated with the radiometric time scale for the Western Interior. Molluscan and vertebrate zone fossils are difficult to obtain from the subsurface, however, and ammonites are restricted to rocks of marine origin. Palynomorphs (plant microfossils) have proven to be the most valuable fossils in the subsurface because they can be recovered from drill cuttings. Palynomorphs also are found in both marine and nonmarine rocks and can be used for correlation between facies. Stratigraphic ranges of selected Cretaceous marine and nonmarine palynomorphs in previously designated reference sections in Fossil Basin, Wyoming are correlated with the occurrence of ammonites and other zone fossils in the same sections. These correlations can be related to known isotopic ages, and they contribute to the calibration of palynomorph ranges in the Cretaceous of the Western Interior. -from Authors

Nichols, D. J.; Jacobson, S. R.

1982-01-01

275

Agricultural land-use classification using landsat imagery data, and estimates of irrigation water use in Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, and Minidoka counties, 1992 water year, Upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin study unit, land- and water-use data were used to describe activities that have potential effects on water quality, including biological conditions, in the basin. Land-use maps and estimates of water use by irrigated agriculture were needed for Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, and Minidoka Counties (south-central Idaho), four of the most intensively irrigated counties in the study unit. Land use in the four counties was mapped from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery data for the 1992 water year using the SPECTRUM computer program. Land-use data were field verified in 108 randomly selected sections (640 acres each); results compared favorably with land-use maps from other sources. Water used for irrigation during the 1992 water year was estimated using land-use and ancillary data. In 1992, a drought year, estimated irrigation withdrawals in the four counties were about 2.9 million acre-feet of water. Of the 2.9 million acre-feet, an estimated 2.12 million acre-feet of water was withdrawn from surface water, mainly the Snake River, and nearly 776,000 acre-feet was withdrawn from ground water. One-half of the 2.9 million acre-feet of water withdrawn for irrigation was considered to be lost during conveyance or was returned to the Snake River; the remainder was consumptively used by crops during the growing season.

Maupin, Molly A.

1997-01-01

276

Preliminary Assessment of Burrowing Owl Population Status in Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, little is known about Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) abundance in Wyoming. The Wyoming Game and Fish Department (WCFD) classifies the Burrowing Owl as a Species of Special Concern. We identified available data sources to assess Burrowing Owl distribution and population trends in Wyoming and conducted a population survey in eastern Wyoming. The WGFD's Wildlife Observation System (WOS), initiated in

NICOLE M. KORFANTA; LOREN W. AYERS; STANLEY H. ANDERSON; DAVID B. MCDONALD

2001-01-01

277

Shallow Early Cretaceous oil production in Wind Creek\\/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1.5 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Early Cretaceous Fall River and Lakota Formations on the east side of the Powder River basin in the Wind Creek\\/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming. Producing depths range from 42 ft at the Barton Ranch field to over 2528 ft at an unnamed field. The gravity of the gas-free

Arthur G. Randall

1986-01-01

278

Cleat orientation and areal hydraulic anisotropy of a Wyoming Coal Aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anisotropic, areal hydraulic conductivity of the Felix No. 2 coal (Eocene, Wasatch Formation) has been defined in a four-well pump test at a site in the Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming. The direction of maximum hydraulic conductivity of the subbituminous coal bed bears N59°E and is associated with a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 0.27 m\\/day. The direction of

Randolph Stone; David F. Snoeberger

1977-01-01

279

A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN,  

E-print Network

Chapter SB A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN, WYOMING assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U...........................................................................................................................SB-1 Coal Production History

280

THE FORMATION OF VALLES MARINERIS, MARS. J. C. Andrews-Hanna, Department of Geophysics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, jcahanna@mines.edu.  

E-print Network

THE FORMATION OF VALLES MARINERIS, MARS. J. C. Andrews-Hanna, Department of Geophysics, Colorado tectonic feature on Mars, consisting of troughs up to 2000 km in length, 200 km in width, and 10 km. Figure 1. Present-day topography and isostatic roots of Mars in a polar projection centered around

281

Comparison of Hanna and Hessburg-Barron trephine and punch systems using histological, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and elliptical curve fitting models  

PubMed Central

Background: This study analyzes the characteristics of donor and recipient tissue preparation between the Hessburg-Barron and Hanna punch and trephine systems by using elliptical curve fitting models, light microscopy, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods: Eight millimeter Hessburg-Barron and Hanna vacuum trephines and punches were used on six cadaver globes and six corneal-scleral rims, respectively. Eccentricity data were generated using measurements from photographs of the corneal buttons and were used to generate an elliptical curve fit to calculate properties of the corneal button. The trephination angle and punch angle were measured by digital protractor software from light microscopy and AS-OCT images to evaluate the consistency with which each device cuts the cornea. Results: The Hanna trephine showed a trend towards producing a more circular recipient button than the Barron trephine (ratio of major axis to minor axis), ie, 1.059 ± 0.041 versus 1.110 ± 0.027 (P = 0.147) and the Hanna punch showed a trend towards producing a more circular donor cut than the Barron punch, ie, 1.021 ± 0.022 versus 1.046 ± 0.039 (P = 0.445). The Hanna trephine was demonstrated to have a more consistent trephination angle than the Barron trephine when assessing light microscopy images, ie, ±14.39° (95% confidence interval [CI] 111.9–157.7) versus ±19.38° (95% CI 101.9–150.2, P = 0.492) and OCT images, ie, ±8.08° (95% CI 106.2–123.3) versus ±11.16° (95% CI 109.3–132.6, P = 0.306). The angle created by the Hanna punch had less variability than the Barron punch from both the light microscopy, ie, ±4.81° (95% CI 101.6–113.9) versus ±11.28° (95% CI 84.5–120.6, P = 0.295) and AS-OCT imaging, ie, ±9.96° (95% CI 95.7–116.4) versus ±14.02° (95% CI 91.8–123.7, P = 0.825). Statistical significance was not achieved. Conclusion: The Hanna trephine and punch may be more accurate and consistent in cutting corneal buttons than the Hessburg-Barron trephine and punch when evaluated using elliptical curve fitting models, light microscopy, and AS-OCT. PMID:21887093

Moshirfar, Majid; Calvo, Charles M; Kinard, Krista I; Williams, Lloyd B; Sikder, Shameema; Neuffer, Marcus C

2011-01-01

282

Reconnaissance examination of selected oil-sand outcrops in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Numerous surface occurrences of oil sands and oil seeps have been reported in the geologic literature for Wyoming. Seventy-eight reported occurrences are listed in Wyoming Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-5. Most of the listed deposits are taken from old references with vague descriptions and locations. Field reconnaissance examinations of selected oil-sand occurrences were conducted to describe them better and to assess their potential economic importance. A reconnaissance geologic map of each examined deposit was constructed, and the deposits were sampled and described. Ten occurrences were described during the 1984 and 1985 field seasons. The oil-sand occurrences were all sandstone reservoirs ranging from Pennsylvanian to Tertiary. Based on these reconnaissance examinations, only three occurrences appeared to be potentially significant. The Rattlesnake Hills occurrence, west of Casper, is an asymmetrical anticline with oil-impregnated sands in the Mesaverde Formation, Frontier Formation, and, most extensively, the Muddy Sandstone. Other formations in the structure contain minor amounts of oil staining. The Muddy Creek occurrence, southwest of Rawlins, contains oil-impregnated sandstones in the lower Wasatch Formation. This stratigraphically controlled trap dips to the west into the Washakie basin. The Conant Creek occurrence, southeast of Riverton, includes stratigraphically controlled oil sands in the relatively flat Wagon Bed Formation.

Ver Ploeg, A.

1986-08-01

283

Hydrology of the Bear Lake Basin, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bear Lake’s natural watershed is made up of relatively low mountains covered with sagebrush at lower elevations and southern exposures and fir-aspen forests at higher elevations and northern exposures. The basin is traversed by the Bear River that begins high in the Unita Mountains and flows through Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming before feeding the Great Salt Lake. The Bear River

Patsy Palacios; Chris Luecke; Justin Robinson

2007-01-01

284

Original Article Burning and Mowing Wyoming Big  

E-print Network

, WY 82071, USA ABSTRACT Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis) treatments are often Artemisia tridentata, Centrocercus urophasianus, early brood-rearing, greater sage-grouse, habitat man sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) has generally been conducted to restore or enhance sagebrush communities

Beck, Jeffrey L.

285

50 CFR 32.70 - Wyoming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.70 Wyoming. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2012-10-01

286

50 CFR 32.70 - Wyoming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.70 Wyoming. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2011-10-01

287

50 CFR 32.70 - Wyoming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.70 Wyoming. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2013-10-01

288

78 FR 10512 - Wyoming Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part...Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior...Wyoming program'') under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of...

2013-02-14

289

Trans-Hudson orogen and Williston basin in Montana and North Dakota: New COCORP deep-profiling results  

E-print Network

-scale structures (e.g., Nesson and Cedar Creek anticlines), the basement surface beneath the Williston basin, supporting the current view that subduction polarity was to the west beneath the Wyoming province. (5) The eastern edge of the Wyoming province is marked by east-dipping upper-crustal reflections and subhorizontal

Jones, Alan G.

290

Glacial Change in the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper Green River Basin (GRB) [located in the upper Colorado River Basin] and the upper Wind-Bighorn River Basin (WBRB) [located in the upper Missouri-Mississippi River Basin] are separated by the Wind River Range (WRR) of Wyoming. The WRR is an unbroken 160-kilometer barrier in west central Wyoming that is host to 63 glaciers, the largest concentration of glaciers in the American Rocky Mountains. These glaciers serve as natural water reservoirs and the continued recession of glaciers will impact agricultural water supply in the region. Previous research determined that the glaciers in the WRR contribute approximately 30% of the total streamflow volume during the critical late summer / early fall growing season. However, the previous research was limited in scope to a small number of climatic stations and limited streamflow measurements. The proposed research improves on previous research by evaluating glacial recession in the WRR using remote sensing techniques. Glacier area and terminus position for 42 glacial complexes in the WRR (from 1985 to present) will be evaluated using LANDSAT Imagery and GIS techniques. Next, for selected glaciers, aerial photograph stereopairs will also be obtained from the USGS Earth Resources, Observation and Science (EROS) Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota from 1966 to present. The stereopair images will be utilized to derive the surface elevation of glaciers and calculate volume change. Traditional methods require the user to view the two photos with a stereoscope to view an object in three dimensions. Modern techniques allow this process to be completed digitally. Leica Photogrammetry suite is used to specify the spatial coordinates of each photo and create a block file, a file that consists of two or more photographs of the same area that contain spatial coordinates of each photo. Once the block file is created, the user can view the objects contained in the overlapping portions of the photos and make vertical measurements. This process allows the user to calculate changes in surface area and changes in elevation, thus volume changes can be computed. Glacier volume will also be estimated from glacier surface areas using the Bahr et al. (1997) area-volume scaling method. Finally, field data (real-time differential GPS surface survey, ground penetrating radar of ice thickness and repeat photography) from a summer 2006 site visit to Dinwoody Glacier (located on the east slope of the WRR) will be compared to previous site visits in the past 40 years. The field data will either confirm or reject observations from the remote sensing approach.

Cheesbrough, K.; Edmunds, J.; Kerr, G.; Pochop, L.; Tootle, G.

2007-12-01

291

Habitat Strategies Susan Hanna, Ph.D., Professor of Marine Economics, Oregon State University  

E-print Network

River Basin, creating conditions of uncertainty for habitat protection. Climate change will influence assessments need to take into account two interrelated processes: socio-economic change and climate change. Berkhout, F. Hertina J., and Jordan. A. "Socio-economic futures in climate change impact assessment: using

292

Nd isotopic evidence for the antiquity of the Wyoming province  

E-print Network

and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 ABSTRACT Sm-Nd isotopic data on Late Archean age variety of ages was exposed and eroding in Late Archean time. The predominance ofMiddle Archean model ages different from the rest. The Nd isotopic characteristics of Archean rocks from the Wyoming province contrast

Reiners, Peter W.

293

Review of Machine Learning, written by A. AbuHanna. Appeared in Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 16, 1999, pp. 201--204.  

E-print Network

Review of Machine Learning, written by A. Abu­Hanna. Appeared in Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 16, 1999, pp. 201--204. Tom M. Mitchell Machine Learning McGraw­Hill, 1997 ISBN 0­07­115467­1 Paperback, 414 pages Price $21.99 An old dream of Machine Learning has been to teach computers how to solve

Mitchell, Tom

294

Field guide to Muddy Formation outcrops, Crook County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research program are to (1) determine the reservoir characteristics and production problems of shoreline barrier reservoirs; and (2) develop methods and methodologies to effectively characterize shoreline bamer reservoirs to predict flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Two reservoirs were selected for detailed reservoir characterization studies -- Bell Creek field, Carter County, Montana that produces from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Muddy Formation, and Patrick Draw field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming that produces from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Almond Formation of the Mesaverde Group. An important component of the research project was to use information from outcrop exposures of the producing formations to study the spatial variations of reservoir properties and the degree to which outcrop information can be used in the construction of reservoir models. This report contains the data and analyses collected from outcrop exposures of the Muddy Formation, located in Crook County, Wyoming, 40 miles south of Bell Creek oil field. The outcrop data set contains permeability, porosity, petrographic, grain size and geologic data from 1-inch-diameter core plugs chilled from the outcrop face, as well as geological descriptions and sedimentological interpretations of the outcrop exposures. The outcrop data set provides information about facies characteristics and geometries and the spatial distribution of permeability and porosity on interwell scales. Appendices within this report include a micropaleontological analyses of selected outcrop samples, an annotated bibliography of papers on the Muddy Formation in the Powder River Basin, and over 950 permeability and porosity values measured from 1-inch-diameter core plugs drilled from the outcrop. All data contained in this resort are available in electronic format upon request. The core plugs drilled from the outcrop are available for measurement.

Rawn-Schatzinger, V.

1993-11-01

295

Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: Regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush\\/grasses\\/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle

Mark E. Eiswerth; Karl Krauter; Sherman R. Swanson; Mike Zielinski

2009-01-01

296

Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of Wyoming and its application to evaluation of Wyoming's natural resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The Wyoming investigation has progressed according to schedule during the Jan. - Feb., 1973 report period. A map of the maximum extent of Pleistocene glaciation was compiled for northwest Wyoming from interpretations of glacial features seen on ERTS-1 imagery. Using isodensitometry as a tool for image enhancement, techniques were developed which allowed accurate delineation of small urban areas and provided distinction of broad classifications within these small urban centers.

Marrs, R. W.; Breckenridge, R. M.

1973-01-01

297

Phanerozoic stratigraphy of Northwind Ridge, magnetic anomalies in the Canada Basin, and the geometry and timing of rifting in the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cores from Northwind Ridge, a high-standing continental fragment in the Chukchi borderland of the oceanic Amerasia basin, Arctic Ocean, contain representatives of every Phanerozoic system except the Silurian and Devonian systems. Cambrian and Ordovician shallow-water marine carbonates in Northwind Ridge are similar to basement rocks beneath the Sverdrup basin of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Upper Mississippian(?) to Permian shelf carbonate and spicularite and Triassic turbidite and shelf lutite resemble coeval strata in the Sverdrup basin and the western Arctic Alaska basin (Hanna trough). These resemblances indicate that Triassic and older strata in southern Northwind Ridge were attached to both Arctic Canada and Arctic Alaska prior to the rifting that created the Amerasia basin. Late Jurassic marine lutite in Northwind Ridge was structurally isolated from coeval strata in the Sverdrup and Arctic Alaska basins by rift shoulder and grabens, and is interpreted to be a riftogenic deposit. This lutite may be the oldest deposit in the Canada basin. A cape of late Cenomanian or Turonian rhyodacite air-fall ash that lacks terrigenous material shows that Northwind Ridge was structurally isolated from the adjacent continental margins by earliest Late Cretaceous time. Closing Amerasia basin by conjoining seafloor magnetic anomalies beneath the Canada basin or by uniting the pre-Jurassic strata of Northwind Ridge with kindred sections in the Sverdrup basin and Hanna trough yield simular tectonic reconstructions. Together with the orientation and age of rift-marine structures, these data suggest that: 1) prior to opening of the Amerasia basin, both northern Alaska and continental ridges of the Chukchi borderland were part of North America, 2) the extension that created the Amerasia basin formed rift-margin graben beginning in Early Jurassic time and new oceanic crust probably beginning in Late Jurassic or early Neocomian time. Reconstruction of the Amerasia basin on the basis of the stratigraphy of Northwind Ridge and sea-floor magnetic anomalies in the Canada basin accounts in a general way for the major crustal elements of the Americasia basin, including the highstanding ridges of the Chukchi borderland, and supports S.W. Carye's hypothesis that the Amerasia basin is the product of anticlockwise rotational rifting of Arctic Alaska from North America.

Grantz, A.; Clark, D. L.; Phillips, R. L.; Srivastava, S. P.; Blome, C. D.; Gray, L. B.; Haga, H.; Mamet, B. L.; McIntyre, D. J.; McNeil, D. H.; Mickey, M. B.; Mullen, M. W.; Murchey, B. I.; Ross, C. A.; Stevens, C. H.; Silberling, N. J.; Wall, J. H.; Willard, D. A.

1998-01-01

298

Exploring the infrared universe from Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2.3 m infrared telescope at Jelm Mountain, Wyoming, is described in terms of its design and operating characteristics. The basic principles of IR astronomy are reviewed, together with an overview of the type of objects which lend themselves to IR observation, e.g., young hot stars, gaseous nebulae, stellar envelopes, etc. Attention is given to mechanisms whereby background and source

R. D. Gehrz; J. A. Hackwell

1978-01-01

299

Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs all partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2008

2008-01-01

300

Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships assist…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2009

2009-01-01

301

Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs all partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2007

2007-01-01

302

Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs all partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2006

2006-01-01

303

Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships assist…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2009

2009-01-01

304

State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Wyoming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Wyoming edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

2009-01-01

305

Oil field geothermal waters of Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Over 150 million gallons of water a day are brought to the surface in the oil fields of Wyoming. The temperature of this water is nearly always greater than 90/sup 0/F, and ranges as high as 230/sup 0/F. The location, volume, temperature, and present use status of co-produced oil field thermal waters are presented briefly.

Hinckley, B.S.

1983-08-01

306

76 FR 80310 - Wyoming Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provides for the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation...including; adding the term ``surface'' back into Wyoming's rules...reinstating the definition of ``Surface coal mining and reclamation...rules; adding the 1:24,000 scale requirement for maps...

2011-12-23

307

78 FR 13004 - Wyoming Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provides for the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation...including: Adding the term ``surface'' back into Wyoming's rules...reinstating the definition of ``Surface coal mining and reclamation...rules; adding the 1:24,000 scale requirement for maps...

2013-02-26

308

Wyoming Community College Commission Agency Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on outcomes of community college programs monitored by the Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC). The document covers the following WCCC objectives: (1) Study of tuition rates for the community colleges; (2) Negotiation of contracts and provision of financial support for administrative computing system components and…

Wyoming Community Coll. Commission, Cheyenne.

309

Cretaceous References: Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site supplies a comprehensive list of references relevant to Cretaceous stratigraphy, paleogeography, tectonics and petroleum exploration in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and Montana. The references range from the 1930's to the 1990's cover a variety of specific topics. Additional information and references are available on the site's home page under resources.

Inc., Petrodynamics

310

Hydrothermal commercialization baseline for state of Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wyoming does have numerous hot springs; but there has been little development effort in geothermal energy, since the state's primary interests are in coal, gas and oil. The hot springs of Thermopolis are among the largest in the world. Recent data from the central portion of the state indicate the potential for electric power generation from geothermal energy. Oil and

J. A. Hanny; B. C. Lunis

1979-01-01

311

Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin  

SciTech Connect

Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

1986-05-01

312

Effects of Land Cover, Water Redistribution, and Temperature on Ecosystem Processes in the South Platte Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over one-third of the land area in the South Platte Basin of Colorado, Ne- braska, and Wyoming, has been converted to croplands. Irrigated cropland now comprises 8% of the basin, while dry croplands make up 31%. We used the RHESSys model to compare the changes in plant productivity and vegetation-related hydrological processes that occurred as a result of either land

J. S. Baron; M. D. Hartman; T. G. F. Kittel; L. E. Band; D. S. Ojima; R. B. Lammers

1998-01-01

313

Interpretation of planetary stress systems: Determination of tectonic over-printing in Northwest Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural and tectonic interpretations of planetary surfaces rely strongly on visual determination of regional structural grain. This grain can be very complex and confusing, and sorting out of discrete trends in time and space is of utmost importance. This study is a test of these techniques applied to a well known area having several discrete structural grains. In the Bighorn Basin region of Wyoming, a largely overlooked N10E structural grain has been verified with detailed structural analysis and indicates a significant change in stress orientation at the end of the Laramide orogeny.

Wise, D. U.; Allison, M. L.

1984-01-01

314

HYDROTHERMAL MINERALOGY OF RESEARCH DRILL HOLE Y-3, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, WYOMING.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The approximate paragenetic sequence of hydrothermal minerals in the Y-3 U. S. Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, is: hydrothermal chalcedony, hematite, pyrite, quartz, clay minerals (smectite and mixed-layer illite-smectite), calcite, chlorite, fluorite, pyrite, quartz, zeolite minerals (analcime, dachiardite, laumontite, stilbite, and yugawaralite), and clay minerals (smectite and mixed-layer illite-smectite). A few hydrothermal minerals that were identified in drill core Y-3 (lepidolite, aegirine, pectolite, and truscottite) are rarely found in modern geothermal areas. The alteration minerals occur primarily as vug and fracture fillings that were deposited from cooling thermal water. Refs.

Bargar, Keith E.; Beeson, Melvin H.

1984-01-01

315

Summer food habits and trophic overlap of roundtail chub and creek chub in Muddy Creek, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial declines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. tatipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because it is the only area known to have sympatric populations of all 3 species in Wyoming. However, introduced creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are abundant and might have a negative influence on native fishes. We assessed summer food habits of roundtail chub and creek chub to provide information on the ecology of each species and obtain insight on potential trophic overlap. Roundtail chub and creek chub seemed to be opportunistic generalists that consumed a diverse array of food items. Stomach contents of both species were dominated by plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and Fishes, but also included gastropods and mussels. Stomach contents were similar between species, indicating high trophic, overlap. No length-related patterns in diet were observed for either species. These results suggest that creek chubs have the potential to adversely influence the roundtail chub population through competition for food and the native fish assemblage through predation.

Quist, M. C.; Bower, M. R.; Hubert, W. A.

2006-01-01

316

Basin-scale relations via conditioning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A rainfall-runoff model is used in conjunction with a probabilistic description of the input to this model to obtain simple regression-like relations for basin runoff in terms of basin and storm characteristics. These relations, similar to those sought in regionalization studies, are computed by evaluating the conditional distribution of model output given basin and storm characteristics. This method of conditioning provides a general way of examining model sensitivity to various components of model input. The resulting relations may be expected to resemble corresponding relations obtained by regionalization using actual runoff to the extent that the rainfall-runoff model and the model input specification are physically realistic. The probabilistic description of model input is an extension of so-called "random-model" of channel networks and involves postulating an ensemble of basins and associated probability distributions that mimic the variability of basin characteristics seen in nature. Application is made to small basins in the State of Wyoming. Parameters of the input variable distribution are estimated using data from Wyoming, and basin-scale relations are estimated both, parametrically and nonparametrically using model-generated runoff from simulated basins. Resulting basin-scale relations involving annual flood quantiles are in reasonable agreement with those presented in a previous regionalization study, but error estimates are smaller than those in the previous study, an artifact of the simplicity of the rainfall-runoff model used in this paper. We also obtain relations for peak of the instantaneous unit hydrograph which agree fairly well with theoretical relations given in the literature. Finally, we explore the issues of sensitivity of basin-scale, relations and error estimates to parameterization of the model input probability distribution and of how this sensitivity is related to making inferences about a particular ungaged basin. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.; Guertin, D.P.

1989-01-01

317

30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.  

...2014-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SPECIAL BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

2014-07-01

318

30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SPECIAL BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

2011-07-01

319

30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SPECIAL BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

2013-07-01

320

30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SPECIAL BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

2010-07-01

321

30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SPECIAL BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

2012-07-01

322

78 FR 21565 - Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, Wyoming to Wilmington, DE  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, Wyoming to Wilmington, DE AGENCY...licensee of KJWY(TV), channel 2, Jackson, Wyoming, that it agrees to the reallocation of channel 2 from Jackson, Wyoming to Wilmington,...

2013-04-11

323

Procedure for evaluating observation-well networks in Wyoming, and application to northeastern Wyoming, 1986  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A sequence of steps was developed for evaluating and modifying the existing, long-term, observation-well network in any part of Wyoming. The State was subdivided geographically into nine groundwater areas, including the northeastern Wyoming groundwater area, based on major structural features. Northeastern Wyoming was the first of the nine areas to be evaluated using these procedures. The stratigraphic units of Wyoming were grouped into five rock units on the basis of age, similar depositional environments, and water-yielding properties. Activities likely to affect groundwater in northeastern Wyoming were evaluated. The most important monitoring needs in the area are related to: (1) Oil-field waterflooding; (2) surface mining of coal; (3) increasing municipal use of groundwater, and (4) need for general resource information. The 18 observation wells in the existing (1986) network meet most of the needs identified. Seven additional wells need to be added to the network, whereas four wells in the network can be discontinued. Water level data from the 18 observation wells are presented by county. Maps and hydrographs are accompanied by brief discussions of information related to the records obtained. (USGS)

Wallace, J.C.; Crist, M.A.

1989-01-01

324

High Resolution Mapping of Reference ET for the State of Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimation of Consumptive Use (CU) and Consumptive Irrigation Requirement (CIR) are essential components for water resources planning and management. The Wyoming State Engineer’s Office currently determines monthly reference evapotranspiration (ET) with an Excel Spreadsheet ET model using average monthly data from a nearby weather station (usually an airport weather station) for the irrigated area of interest. The monthly reference ET is then interpolated into daily reference ET using either linear or cubic functions. The purpose of this project is to enhance the current Excel model with a GIS-based ET calculator. Our approach will use daily weather data to calculate reference ET and actual ET, and then aggregate them into monthly and seasonal ET. Among the many reference ET equations available, the ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation (ASCE-ET) and the Hargreaves-Samani equations were selected to calculate daily reference ET. Data needed for the equations (minimum and maximum temperatures, wind speed, and dew point temperature) was gathered at various resolutions from several sources, such as weather stations in Wyoming and from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). High resolution (1km x 1km) gridded reference ET maps were produced from interpolated weather data for the three major river basins in southern Wyoming (North Platte River, Green River, and Bear River basins). Monthly and seasonal reference ET values will be determined using daily reference ET. Gridded reference ET values from the two methods will be compared with the reference ET using data from a single weather station. These reference ET maps will then be used to develop a GIS-based ET calculator.

Rasmussen, R. W.; Park, G.

2010-12-01

325

Magnetostratigraphic correlation of Eocene rocks from the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A paleomagnetic framework has been established for the correlation of the Eocene section throughout the southern and eastern Absaroka Mountains of northwestern Wyoming, and it has been tested against biostratigraphic and rock stratigraphic markers. Correlation is based on the magnetic polarity of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks samples collected from nine sites that include Togwotee Pass, the East Fork basin, the Owl Creek and Cottonwood Creek drainages, Phelps Mountain, Carter Mountain, and along the South fork and North fork of the Shoshone River. The remnant magnetization of these samples reflects the polarity of the earth's magnetic field when the rocks were deposited. Magnetic polarity zonations, determined at individual sections, were correlated throughout the region and established horizons that are contemporaneous to within a few thousand years. This represents a method for timing volcanic, tectonic, and depositional events that is more precise than any other technique currently known. In addition, the method provides absolute ages if the polarity zonations can be matched to the pattern of Eocene geomagnetic reversals. Using this approach, it has been determined that (1) the Wiggins Formation in the Carter and Phelps Mountain areas is similar in age to the Tepee Trail Formation in the southeastern Absarokas; (2) the Pitchfork Formation is a transitional facies between the Aycross and Wapiti Formations; and (3) the Eocene section from the upper Willwood to the lower Wiggins was deposited between 52 and 47 Ma.

Shive, P.N.; Sundell, K.A.

1986-08-01

326

CIG's deep massive frac in Wyoming improves deliverability  

SciTech Connect

A recently completed massive frac job - one of the deepest yet - has enabled CIG Exploration Co. to achieve a substantial increase in gas productivity on its Bullfrog Unit No. 1 in the Wind River Basin. Location of the Bullfrog Unit No. 1 is 6-36N-86E, Natrona County, Wyoming. The field designation is the Waltman Deep. The well was perforated in 5 zones; these 5 perforated intervals have a total of 231 holes. The sands which were perforated and treated are the muddy (19,830-872), Lakota (20,060-099), Morrison (20,226-276), and Sundance (20,298-338) (20,455-510). The frac job was set up for a spearhead of 30,000 bl of 100 mesh sand and gelled water, followed by 4300 bbl of cross-linked gel containing 30,000 lb of 40-70 mesh bauxite and 127,500 lb of 20-40 mesh bauxite. A well bore schematic is included and the fracturing procedure is described.

Leonard, J.E.

1981-08-31

327

The fate of geothermal arsenic in the Madison and Missouri Rivers, Montana and Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal As from Yellowstone National Park causes high As concentrations (10-370 ?g/L) in the Madison and Missouri Rivers in Montana and Wyoming. Arsenic transport is largely conservative in the upper basin as demonstrated by the near equivalence of dissolved and total-recoverable As concentrations, the constancy of As loads, and consistent ratios of concentrations of As to conservative geothermal tracers. Diurnal cycling of As between aqueous and solid phases in response to pH-induced changes in sorption equilibria causes small variations of about 10-20% in dissolved As concentrations. HCl-extractable As concentrations in river and lake sediment in the upper basin are variable depending on position relative to the As-rich headwaters and geochemical and physical processes associated with lakes. In the lower Missouri River, large quantities of suspended sediment from tributaries provide sufficient sorption sites for substantial conversion of As from the aqueous phase to the solid phase.

Nimick, David A.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Dalby, Charles E.; Savka, Michael W.

1998-11-01

328

Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of Wyoming and its application to evaluation of Wyoming's natural resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the Wyoming investigation during the first six months include: (1) successful segregation of Precambrian metasedimentary/metavolcanic rocks from igneous rocks; (2) discovery of iron formation within the metasedimentary sequence; (3) mapping of previously unreported tectonic elements of major significance; (4) successful mapping of large scale fractures of the Wind River Mountains; (5) sucessful distinction of some metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary lithologies by color-additive viewing of ERTS images; (6) mapping and interpretation of glacial features in western Wyoming; and (7) development of techniques for mapping small urban areas.

Marrs, R. W.

1973-01-01

329

Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

2005-12-30

330

Groundwater recharge estimates for the Powder River and Williston structural basins Katherine R. Aurand and Andrew J. Long  

E-print Network

,000 mi2 in parts of Wyoming, Montana, and North and South Dakota. These aquifers are the shallowest Cretaceous aquifer system in the Powder River and Williston structural basins. The study area covers about 75 and typically most accessible primary aquifers within the two structural basins. Prolific natural gas and coal

Torgersen, Christian

331

Deformation consequences of impingement of Foreland and Northern Thrust Belt (Palisades-Jackson Hole area), eastern Idaho and western Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Structural studies in the Wyoming-Idaho segment of the Cordilleran thrust belt have provided insight into the nature and origin of the broad, east-facing salient west and southwest of Jackson, Wyoming. Changes in the orientation of regional fracture patterns and compression directions determined by dynamic analysis of calcite twins both indicate that the thrust sheets rotated into the salient in a counterclockwise direction. Furthermore, both field observations and calcite twin data show that there has been a large amount of subhorizontal, strike-normal deformation in the Prospect thrust sheet in the Teton Pass area, where the Prospect and Cache Creek thrusts are in direct contact. Subsurface evidence from Teton valley and the Hoback basin dates the Cache Creek thrust as older than the Prospect, Darby, and Absaroka thrusts. An accurate understanding of the timing of these structural events relative to the timing of hydrocarbon generation and migration should be an essential factor in any exploration model of the area.

Kopania, A.A.

1984-07-01

332

RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN  

SciTech Connect

Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to understand and quantify the resource itself and to develop technologies that will permit commercial exploitation. This study is a contribution to that process.

Robert Caldwell

1998-04-01

333

Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

2010-01-01

334

Chemical analyses of selected thermal springs and wells in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Basic chemical data for 27 selected thermal well and springs in Wyoming are presented. The samples were gathered from 1979 through 1982 in an effort to define geothermal resources in Wyoming. The basic data for the 27 analyzed samples generally include location, temperature, flow, date analyzed, and a description of what the sample is from. The chemical analyses for the sample are listed.

Heasler, H.P.

1984-06-01

335

Seeds and Seedling Establishment of Wyoming Big Sagebrush  

Microsoft Academic Search

Success with Wyoming sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) depends on good seed vigor, and rapid seedling development. These characteristics are influenced by harvesting, processing, storing, and sowing. In this paper we discuss research findings related to those activities: (1) It appears that Wyoming big sagebrush growing on the western edge of the Great Plains might hold viable seed longer into

D. T. Booth; Y. Bai

336

Wyoming Community College Commission Statewide Strategic Plan: Planning for the Future of Wyoming's Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the national spotlight on community colleges, Wyoming is poised to become a leader through its efforts to align the programs of its seven community colleges with defined state interests. As local economies become more globally focused and knowledge-based, community colleges are a critical way for learners to gain access to postsecondary…

Richards, Amanda; Sipes, Laurel; Studier, Carol; Staklis, Sandra; Farr, Beverly; Horn, Laura J.

2009-01-01

337

Dyslexia and the failure to form a perceptual anchor Merav Ahissar1,2, Yedida Lubin3, Hanna Putter-Katz2,6 & Karen Banai4,5  

E-print Network

Dyslexia and the failure to form a perceptual anchor Merav Ahissar1,2, Yedida Lubin3, Hanna Putter with previously suggested static models of dyslexia. Instead, we propose that D-LDs' core deficit is a general and mechanisms at the level of specific neuronal circuits. Developmental dyslexia was first documented more than

Joskowicz, Leo

338

Specific Conductance and Dissolved-Solids Characteristics for the Green River and Muddy Creek, Wyoming, Water Years 1999-2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southwestern Wyoming is an area of diverse scenery, wildlife, and natural resources that is actively undergoing energy development. The U.S. Department of the Interior's Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative is a long-term science-based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale, while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Green River near Green River, Wyoming, and Muddy Creek near Baggs, Wyoming. This monitoring, which is being conducted in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies and as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative, is in response to concerns about potentially increased dissolved solids in the Colorado River Basin as a result of energy development. Because of the need to provide real-time dissolved-solids concentrations for the Green River and Muddy Creek on the World Wide Web, the U.S. Geological Survey developed regression equations to estimate dissolved-solids concentrations on the basis of continuous specific conductance using relations between measured specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations. Specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations were less varied and generally lower for the Green River than for Muddy Creek. The median dissolved-solids concentration for the site on the Green River was 318 milligrams per liter, and the median concentration for the site on Muddy Creek was 943 milligrams per liter. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 187 to 594 milligrams per liter in samples collected from the Green River during water years 1999-2008. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 293 to 2,485 milligrams per liter in samples collected from Muddy Creek during water years 2006-08. The differences in dissolved-solids concentrations in samples collected from the Green River compared to samples collected from Muddy Creek reflect the different basin characteristics. Relations between specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations were statistically significant for the Green River (p-value less than 0.001) and Muddy Creek (p-value less than 0.001); therefore, specific conductance can be used to estimate dissolved-solids concentrations. Using continuous specific conductance values to estimate dissolved solids in real-time on the World Wide Web increases the amount and improves the timeliness of data available to water managers for assessing dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River Basin.

Clark, Melanie L.; Davidson, Seth L.

2009-01-01

339

Stream Characteristics and Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Following Wildland Fire in Western Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined fire effects on aquatic habitat and benthic macroinvertebrates in streams of the Little Granite Creek watershed, Wyoming, where a wildfire burned approximately 75% of one basin, while an adjacent (reference) basin remained largely unburned. Embeddedness (% of channel surface covered by fines) was substantially greater in the burned stream (92%) than in the reference stream (59%). Stream temperatures were consistently higher in summer and lower in fall in the burned drainage, reflecting basin differences in vegetative cover. Although macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness was similar in both streams (45 families), benthic communities in the burned stream were dominated by Dipterans (77% total abundance) with 22% EPT, while communities in the unburned stream were composed of 46% Dipterans and 53% EPT. Benthic communities in both streams had similar proportions of generalist feeders (mostly Chironomidae, 31 to 33%), and collector-gatherers and scrapers (mostly Baetidae, 17%). However, collector-filterers (mostly Simulidae) accounted for over 40% of the total abundance in the burned stream, and only 3% in the unburned stream. Despite differences between the study basins, fire effects in the Little Granite Creek watershed are less dramatic than those reported from other regions.

Dwire, K. A.; Monroe, J.; Rhodes, H.; Dixon, M. K.; Ryan, S. E.

2005-05-01

340

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

Peggy Robinson

2005-07-01

341

Geologic map of the Sand Creek Pass quadrangle, Larimer County, Colorado, and Albany County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New geologic mapping within the Sand Creek Pass 7.5 minute quadrangle defines geologic relationships within the northern Front Range of Colorado along the Wyoming border approximately 35 km south of Laramie, Wyo. Previous mapping within the quadrangle was limited to regional reconnaissance mapping; Eaton Reservoir 7.5 minute quadrangle to the east (2008), granite of the Rawah batholith to the south (1983), Laramie River valley to the west (1979), and the Laramie 30' x 60' quadrangle to the north (2007). Fieldwork was completed during 1981 and 1982 and during 2007 and 2008. Mapping was compiled at 1:24,000-scale. Minimal petrographic work was done and no isotope work was done in the quadrangle area, but detailed petrographic and isotope studies were performed on correlative map units in surrounding areas as part of a related regional study of the northern Front Range. Stratigraphy of Proterozoic rocks is primarily based upon field observation of bulk mineral composition, macroscopic textural features, and field relationships that allow for correlation with rocks studied in greater detail outside of the map area. Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic rocks is primarily based upon correlation with similar rocks to the north in the Laramie Basin of Wyoming and to the east in the Front Range of Colorado.

Workman, Jeremiah B.; Braddock, William A.

2010-01-01

342

Fluvial response to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in northwest Wyoming and western Colorado, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Willwood and Wasatch formations of northwest Wyoming and western Colorado record alluvial deposition within the intermontane Bighorn and Piceance Creek basins, respectively. Both display substantial shifts in the character of fluvial sand-bodies coincident with an abrupt negative carbon isotope excursion linked to the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) climate change event at ~55 Ma. In the northern Bighorn Basin, an anomalously thick and laterally persistent multi-story fluvial sand-body crops out within the main body of the PETM isotopic excursion. The internal architecture and lithofacies within the sand-body are similar to pre- and post-PETM sand-bodies, and mean paleo-flow depths do not appear to change substantially. The most significant change is the increase in vertical and lateral amalgamation within the PETM sand-body. Long-term basin sedimentation rates are constant spanning the event implying a transient increase in channel mobility via avulsion and meandering processes during the PETM, which preferentially evacuated fine-grained overbank material out of the basin to the north. Similarly, fluvial sand-bodies are more laterally and vertically amalgamated during the PETM in the Piceance Creek Basin. Yet here the sand-bodies are a recurrent phenomenon throughout the PETM, persist after the PETM, and show dramatic internal architectural changes. Flow depths increase by ~50% and are twice as variable during the PETM, lithofacies are dominated by upper flow regime structures, and crevasse splay deposits are ubiquitous in the associated floodplain strata. In both basins enhanced channel mobility was likely facilitated by a combination of vegetation overturn and alteration of precipitation patterns. Sediment stored higher in the catchment and on related hill-slopes was released, choked basin river systems, instigated greater in-channel deposition, and caused more rapid avulsions. Introduction of coarser sediment loads and vegetation change would have weakened bank strengths allowing more rapid meandering by river systems. However, the differential response in the two basins suggests that vegetation overturn played a greater role in the Bighorn Basin as channel size, discharge, and flow conditions did not substantially change whereas increases in the seasonality of precipitation likely played a more dominant role in the Piceance Creek Basin where discharge and flow conditions were greatly altered during the event.

Foreman, B. Z.; Heller, P.; Clementz, M. T.

2011-12-01

343

Effects of groundwater recharge rates and nutrient supply on metabolic pathways for coal bed methane generation in the Powder River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Powder River Basin (PRB), located in northeastern Wyoming (USA), is a principle producer of coal bed methane world-wide. The basin contains an extensive natural gas well network, which combined with past studies, facilitates a unique opportunity to study the coupling of hydrology and microbial methane generation. Microbes generate methane via two metabolic pathways, acetate fermentation and carbon dioxide reduction,

B. L. Bates; J. C. McIntosh

2008-01-01

344

Relocation of Wyoming Mine Production Blasts Using Calibration Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

- An important requirement for a comprehensive seismic monitoring system is the capability to accurately locate small seismic events worldwide. Accurate event location can improve the probability of determining whether or not a small event, recorded predominantly by local and regional stations, is a nuclear explosion. For those portions of the earth where crustal velocities are not well established, reference event calibration techniques offer a method of increased locational accuracy and reduced locational bias.In this study, data from a set of mining events with good ground-truth data in the Powder River Basin region of eastern Wyoming are used to investigate the potential of event calibration techniques in the area. Results of this study are compared with locations published in the prototype International Data Center's Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB). A Joint Hypocenter Determination (JHD) method was applied to a s et of 23 events. Four of those events with superior ground-truth control (mining company report or Global Positioning System data) were used as JHD reference events. Nineteen (83%) of the solutions converged and the resulting set of station-phase travel-time corrections from the JHD results was then tested. When those travel-time corrections were applied individually to the four events with good ground-truth control, the average locational error reduced the original REB location error from 16.1km to 5.7km (65% improvement). The JHD locations indicated reduced locational bias and all of the individual error ellipses enclosed the actual known event locations.Given a set of well-recorded calibration events, it appears that the JHD methodology is a viable technique for improving locational accuracy of future small events where the location depends on arrival times from predominantly local and/or regional stations. In this specific case, the International Associ ation of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI) travel-time tables, coupled with JHD-derived travel-time corrections, may obviate the need for an accurately known regional velocity structure in the Powder River Basin region.

Finn, C. A.; Kraft, G. D.; Sibol, M. S.; Jones, R. L.; Pulaski, M. E.

345

Overview of Energy Development Opportunities for Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

An important opportunity exists for the energy future of Wyoming that will • Maintain its coal industry • Add substantive value to its indigenous coal and natural gas resources • Improve dramatically the environmental impact of its energy production capability • Increase its Gross Domestic Product These can be achieved through development of a carbon conversion industry that transforms coal and natural gas to synthetic transportation fuels, chemical feedstocks, and chemicals that are the building blocks for the chemical industry. Over the longer term, environmentally clean nuclear energy can provide the substantial energy needs of a carbon conversion industry and be part of the mix of replacement technologies for the current fleet of aging coal-fired electric power generating stations.

Larry Demick

2012-11-01

346

US hydropower resource assessment for Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Wyoming.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

347

15. CLOSEUP OF THE SWITCHGEAR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Wyoming Valley ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. CLOSEUP OF THE SWITCHGEAR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

348

A summary of the U.S. Geological Survey 1999 resource assessment of selected coal zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, 1,100 million short tons of coal were produced in the United States, 38 percent from the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This coal has low ash content, and sulfur content is in compliance with Clean Air Act standards (U.S. Statutes at Large, 1990).The National Coal Resource Assessment for this region includes geologic, stratigraphic, palynologic, and geochemical studies and resource calculations for 18 major coal zones in the Powder River, Williston, Green River, Hanna, and Carbon Basins. Calculated resources are 660,000 million short tons. Results of the study are available in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625?A (Fort Union Coal Assess-ment Team, 1999) and Open-File Report 99-376 (Flores and others, 1999) in CD-ROM format.

Ellis, M.S.; Nichols, D.J.

2002-01-01

349

Effect of fungicide on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different water potentials (-0.033 and -0.7 MPa) and found that treating

Robert D Cox; Lance H Kosberg; Nancy L Shaw; Stuart P Hardegree

2011-01-01

350

Effect of fungicide on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different water potentials (-0.033 and -0.7 MPa) and found that treating

Robert D Cox; Lance H Kosberg; Nancy L Shaw; Stuart P Hardegree

2011-01-01

351

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Spook, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action is complete at the Spook Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Wyoming. Based on an evaluation of site characterization data, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, US Department of Energy, and state of Wyoming have concurred in the determination that a program to monitor ground water is not required because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is Class 3 (limited use) (40 CFR 192.21(g)(1993)).

Not Available

1994-03-01

352

2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean supercontinent at ???2480 Ma. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

2006-01-01

353

Uranium distribution and sandstone depositional environments: oligocene and upper Cretaceous sediments, Cheyenne basin, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wyoming-type roll-front uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills sandstones in the Cheyenne basin of northeastern Colorado. The location, geometry, and trend of specific depositional environments of the Oligocene White River and the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills formations are important factors that control the distribution of uranium in these sandstones. The Fox Hills Sandstone

K. A. Nibbelink; F. G. Ethridge

1984-01-01

354

78 FR 49685 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Wyoming; Revised General...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State of Wyoming; Revised General Conformity Requirements and an Associated Revision...of Chapter 8 that addresses general conformity requirements and a new Section 5 to...and additions to Wyoming's general conformity requirements in order to align...

2013-08-15

355

78 FR 65420 - Environmental Impact Statement, Portageville Bridge Project (Wyoming and Livingston Counties, New...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement, Portageville Bridge Project (Wyoming and Livingston Counties...at the location of the existing Portageville Bridge (also known as the ``Portage High Bridge'') over the Genesee River in Wyoming...

2013-10-31

356

Reconnaissance examination of selected oil sand and oil spring occurrences in Wyoming. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous oil seeps and oil sands have been reported in the literature in Wyoming. Clark and Glass (Clark, M., and Glass, G.B., 1982, Review of reported tar sand occurrences and recent projects in Wyoming: Geological Survey of Wyoming Open File Report 82-5, 49 p.) reviewed the literature for reports of occurrences and catalogued 78 reported occurrences of shallow or outcropping

Ver Ploeg

1986-01-01

357

Wyoming Community Colleges. Annual Performance Report: Core Indicators of Effectiveness 2008-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Core Indicators of Effectiveness Report" delineates the performance of Wyoming's community colleges as measured by the 14 indicators set forth by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) and adopted by the seven Wyoming community colleges and the Wyoming Community College Commission in 2002. These indicators, while providing some…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2010

2010-01-01

358

Wyoming Community Colleges. Annual Performance Report: Core Indicators of Effectiveness 2009-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Core Indicators of Effectiveness Report" delineates the performance of Wyoming's community colleges as measured by the 14 indicators set forth by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) and adopted by the seven Wyoming community colleges and the Wyoming Community College Commission in 2002. These indicators, while providing some…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2011

2011-01-01

359

77 FR 33235 - Public Land Order No. 7791; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land...associated with the Crandall Creek Administrative Site...Lane Avenue, Cody, Wyoming 82414, 307-578-5151...Yellowstone Road, Cheyenne, Wyoming 82009, 307-775-6189...associated with the Crandall Creek Administrative...

2012-06-05

360

76 FR 75900 - Notice of Application for Withdrawal Extension and Opportunity for Public Meeting; Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Public Meeting; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land...protect the USFS Crandall Creek Administrative Site...State Director, BLM, Wyoming State Office, 5353 Yellowstone...associated with the Crandall Creek Administrative Site...in writing to the BLM Wyoming State Director at...

2011-12-05

361

The Spirit and Influence of the Wyoming Resolution: Looking Back to Look Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the 1986 Wyoming Conference on English, a group of graduate students and part-time and tenure-line faculty formulated a statement known as the Wyoming Resolution, a rallying cry to improve composition teachers' pay, benefits, and working conditions. Adopted by the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in 1987, the Wyoming

McDonald, James C.; Schell, Eileen E.

2011-01-01

362

Canopy Growth and Density of Wyoming Big Sagebrush Sown with Cool-Season Perennial Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-mining revegetation efforts often require grass seeding and mulch applications to stabilize the soils at the same time as shrub seeding, creating intraspecific competition between seeded shrubs and grasses that is not well understood. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) is the dominant premining shrub on many Wyoming mines. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality,

Ann L. Hild; Gerald E. Schuman; Laurel E. Vicklund; Mary I. Williams

2006-01-01

363

Spatial mapping and attribution of Wyoming wind turbines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Wyoming wind-turbine data set represents locations of wind turbines found within Wyoming as of August 1, 2009. Each wind turbine is assigned to a wind farm. For each turbine, this report contains information about the following: potential megawatt output, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, land ownership, county, wind farm power capacity, the number of units currently associated with its wind farm, the wind turbine manufacturer and model, the wind farm developer, the owner of the wind farm, the current purchaser of power from the wind farm, the year the wind farm went online, and the status of its operation. Some attributes are estimates based on information that was obtained through the American Wind Energy Association and miscellaneous online reports. The locations are derived from August 2009 true-color aerial photographs made by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of approximately ?5 meters. The location of wind turbines under construction during the development of this data set will likely be less accurate than the location of turbines already completed. The original purpose for developing the data presented here was to evaluate the effect of wind energy development on seasonal habitat used by greater sage-grouse. Additionally, these data will provide a planning tool for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative Science Team and for other wildlife- and habitat-related projects underway at the U.S. Geological Survey's Fort Collins Science Center. Specifically, these data will be used to quantify disturbance of the landscape related to wind energy as well as quantifying indirect disturbances to flora and fauna. This data set was developed for the 2010 project 'Seasonal predictive habitat models for greater sage-grouse in Wyoming.' This project's spatially explicit seasonal distribution models of sage-grouse in Wyoming will provide resource managers with tools for conservation planning. These specific data are being used for assessing the effect of disturbance resulting from wind energy development within Wyoming on sage-grouse populations.

O'Donnell, Michael S.; Fancher, Tammy S.

2010-01-01

364

Depositional environments of middle Minnelusa Leo (Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian), Wyoming, South Dakota, and Nebraska  

SciTech Connect

The informal middle member of the Minnelusa Formation, commonly known as Leo, consists of a spectrum of sediments including sandstone, dolomite, anhydrite, bedded chert, limestone, and radioactive carbonaceous shale. Deposition within the upper Paleozoic alliance basin of the present day tri-state area of South Dakota, Wyoming, and Nebraska occurred in sabkha, tidal flat, and shallow subtidal environments. Major and minor cycles of eustatic sea level changes are manifest by the Leo section. Early Desmoinesian (lowermost Leo) sediments are open marine, upper subtidal limestone interbedded with restricted marine upper subtidal dolomite, anhydrite, and radioactive organic-rich dolomite. During the upper Desmoinesian and lower Missourian, most of the Alliance basin was a restricted carbonate tidal flat. Throughout the remainder of the Pennsylvanian, the prevalent environment was a restricted coastal to inland sabkha with episodic inundations intercalating intertidal dolomite and lagoonal black shale with the sabkha sediments. Prolonged periods of exposure allowed migration of eolian bypass with only isolated patches of dunes being trapped by rare topographic relief. Criteria suggesting windblown deposition of the majority of Leo sandstone include deflationary lag surfaces, low-amplitude ripples, subcritically climbing translatent cross-stratification, and sand-flow toes. Isolated eolian sandstones provide excellent stratigraphic traps for hydrocarbons generated in the organic-rich shales. The current flurry of Leo drilling that began in 1978, has affirmed the inherent potential of this play. Definition of paleodepositional trends and seismic recognition of isolated dunes are the keys to Leo exploration success.

Tromp, P.L.

1983-08-01

365

Haybarn field, Fremont County, Wyoming, an upper Fort Union (Paleocene) stratigraphic trap  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 1981, Northwest Exploration Co. drilled the discovery well for Haybarn field. The field is located in the Wind River basin of Wyoming and produces stratigraphically trapped 43/sup 0/ API gravity, 80/sup 0/F pour point oil and associated gas from the Paleocene upper Fort Union Formation; these rocks are thought of generally as poor exploration targets and gas-prone at best. The reservoir is an arkosic sandstone deposited along the front of a lacustrine delta system. Clays in the reservoir are almost entirely secondary. Despite the precipitation of diagenetic kaolinite and chlorite, the reservoir capacity has remained high with porosities ranging from 18 to 26% and averaging about 20%. Reservoir permeabilities average about 7 md. Transmissibility has been enhanced in some zones by natural vertical fractures. The fractures also provide an avenue for water from lower water sands. The resistivities of the formation waters are variable, making electric log calculations difficult. The R/sub w/ of the productive sand tongue in the discovery well ranges from 0.35 ohm-meters at the top to 1.40 at the base, over a vertical distance of 75 ft (23 m). Oil production is limited to the upper, more saline portion. Both the petroleum source and the trapping mechanism for the field appear to be the lacustrine Waltman Shale. The depositional system responsible for Haybarn field is not unique. Similar oil fields remain to be found in other parts of the Wind River basin.

Robertson, R.D.

1983-08-01

366

Haybarn field, Fremont County, Wyoming: an upper Fort Union (Paleocene) stratigraphic trap  

SciTech Connect

Haybarn field was discovered in the fall of 1981 and produces stratigraphically trapped 43.7/sup 0/ API gravity oil from shallow reservoir sandstones in the upper member of the Fort Union Formation. The sandstones were deposited in a marginal lacustrine delta front setting in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. The interfingering lacustrine Waltman Shale has provided the trapping mechanism for the field. The Waltman Shale also appears to be the petroleum source; this primary source, however, was probably deposited in deeper portions of the basin north of the field rather than immediately adjacent to the reservoir. The reservoir sandstones are arkosic and have excellent porosity averaging about 20%. Clays in the reservoir appear to be entirely secondary suggesting that the sandstones were deposited in a high energy, wave-dominated depositional system. Electrical log evaluation of the Upper Fort Union reservoirs is complicated by variations in formation water resistivities between and within the sandstone tongues. The uppermost section of the Upper Fort Union member tends to be fresh water-bearing, while the producing zones in the lower portion of the member have much lower, more saline R/sub w/'s.

Robertson, R.D.

1984-04-01

367

Recharge of shallow aquifers through two ephemeral-stream channels in northeastern Wyoming, 1982-1983  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying the recharge from ephemeral streams to alluvial and bedrock aquifers will help evaluate the effects of surface mining on alluvial valley floors in Wyoming. Two stream reaches were chosen for study in the Powder River basin. One reach was located along the North Fork Dry Fork Cheyenne River near Glenrock, Wyoming, and the other reach was located along Black Thunder Creek near Hampshire, Wyoming. The reach along the North Fork Dry Fork Cheyenne River was instrumented with 3 gaging stations to measure streamflow and with 6 observation wells to measure groundwater level fluctuations in alluvial and bedrock aquifers in response to streamflow. The 3 streamflow gaging stations were located within the 2.5-mi study reach to measure the approximate gain or loss of discharge along the reach. Computed streamflow losses ranged from 0.43 acre-ft/mi on July 9 , 1982, to 1.44 acre-ft/mi on August 9, 1982. The observation wells completed only in the alluvial aquifer were dry during flow in the North Fork Dry Fork Cheyenne River, whereas water levels in half of the observation wells completed in the bedrock aquifers or the alluvial and bedrock aquifers rose in response to flow in the North Fork Dry Fork Cheyenne River. Groundwater recharge on August 9, 1982, was calculated using a convolution technique using groundwater levels at the upstream site and was estimated to be 26.5 acre-ft/mi. The reach along Black Thunder Creek was instrumented with one gaging station to measure streamflow and with 4 observation wells to measure water level response in alluvial and bedrock aquifers to streamflow. Recharge to the alluvial aquifer from flow in Black Thunder Creek ranged from 3.56 to 12.4 acre-ft/mi. The recharge was estimated using the convolution technique using water level measurements in the observation wells completed in the alluvial aquifer. Water level measurements in the observation wells indicated water level rises in the alluvial and bedrock aquifers in response to flow in Black Thunder Creek. (Author 's abstract)

Lenfest, L. W.

1987-01-01

368

Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.  

SciTech Connect

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

2009-02-11

369

Protecting the Geyser Basins of Yellowstone National Park: Toward a New National Policy for a Vulnerable Environmental Resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geyser basins provide high value recreation, scientific, economic and national heritage benefits. Geysers are globally rare, in part, because development activities have quenched about 260 of the natural endowment. Today, more than half of the world's remaining geysers are located in Yellowstone National Park, northwest Wyoming, USA. However, the hydrothermal reservoirs that supply Yellowstone's geysers extend well beyond the Park

Kenneth A. Barrick

2010-01-01

370

Publications Wood, D. H., and Flaig, P. P., 2013, Transgressive systems tract reservoirs of the San Juan Basin,  

E-print Network

of the San Juan Basin, Northwest New Mexico: The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology to Southwestern Wyoming: The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Quantitative Clastics of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Quantitative Clastics Laboratory 78 p. Articles Peer

Yang, Zong-Liang

371

Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Development of energy-related resources in the northern Great Plains of the US will require large quantities of ground water. Because Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming are semiarid, the primary local sources of nonappropriated water are the deep bedrock aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. The US Geological Survey undertook a 4-year interdisciplinary study that has culminated in a digital-simulation model of the regional flow system and incorporates the results of geochemical, hydrologic, and geologic studies. Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age form at least five artesian aquifers that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. The aquifers extend for more than 600 mi to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in Manitoba. In general, the direction of flow in each aquifer is east to northeast, but flow is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of brine (200,000-350,000 mg/l), halite beds, geologic structures, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Fracture systems and lineaments transverse the entire area and act either as conduits or as barriers to ground-water flow, depending on their hydrogeologic and geochemical history. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale with low permeability, by halite beds, and by stratigraphic traps or low-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. However, interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments and fractures. Interaquifer leakage may be a major consideration in determining the quality of water produced from wells.

Downey, J.S.

1986-01-01

372

Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush/grasses/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young)), dominated area largely devoid of herbaceous perennials burns, it often transitions to an annual dominated and highly flammable plant community that thereafter excludes sagebrush and native perennials. Considerable effort is devoted to revegetating rangeland following fire, but to date there has been very little analysis of the factors that lead to the success of this revegetation. This paper utilizes a revegetation monitoring dataset to examine the densities of three key types of vegetation, specifically nonnative seeded grasses, nonnative seeded forbs, and native Wyoming big sagebrush, at several points in time following seeding. We find that unlike forbs, increasing the seeding rates for grasses does not appear to increase their density (at least for the sites and seeding rates we examined). Also, seeding Wyoming big sagebrush increases its density with time since fire. Seeding of grasses and forbs is less successful at locations that were dominated primarily by annual grasses (cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)), and devoid of shrubs, prior to wildfire. This supports the hypothesis of a "closing window of opportunity" for seeding at locations that burned sagebrush for the first time in recent history. PMID:18790557

Eiswerth, Mark E; Krauter, Karl; Swanson, Sherman R; Zielinski, Mike

2009-02-01

373

Contribution to CCN Workshop report from University of Wyoming group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The group's CCN counter is described. It is a static, horizontal, parallel plate thermal gradient diffusion chamber. Examples of the application of the CCN are presented and include the CCN spectra measured during the winter of 1978-79 near Elk Mountain, Wyoming. Comparisons of droplet concentrations derived from upwind CCN spectra are covered.

Rogers, D. C.; Politovich, M. K.

1981-01-01

374

77 FR 3790 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L13200000-EL0000; WYW176095] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the South Porcupine Coal Tract described below in Campbell County,...

2012-01-25

375

76 FR 35465 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L51100000-GA0000-LVEMK09CK36; WYW172657] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of...Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the Caballo West Coal...

2011-06-17

376

76 FR 28063 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L13200000-EL0000; WYW161248] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the Belle Ayr North Coal Tract described below in Campbell County,...

2011-05-13

377

76 FR 18240 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L13200000-EL0000; WYW177903] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of...Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the West Antelope II...

2011-04-01

378

76 FR 11258 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L13200000-EL0000; WYW163340] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of...Interior. ACTION: Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the West Antelope II...

2011-03-01

379

76 FR 64099 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L13200000-EL0000; WYW174596] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of...Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the South Hilight Field...

2011-10-17

380

77 FR 22607 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L57000000-BX0000; WYW176095] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the South Porcupine Coal Tract described below in Campbell County,...

2012-04-16

381

77 FR 31385 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L57000000.BX0000; WYW173408] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the North Porcupine Coal Tract described below in Campbell County,...

2012-05-25

382

University of Wyoming: College and University Systems Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Division of Computer Services at the University of Wyoming is a combined academic and administrative installation. Administrative systems are developed through a team approach, with representatives from the user office, the Institutional Data Management group, and the Division of Computer Services. (MLW)

CAUSE/EFFECT, 1981

1981-01-01

383

Cloud Creek structure, central Wyoming, USA: Impact origin confirmed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circular Cloud Creek structure in central Wyoming, USA is buried beneath ~1200 m of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and has a current diameter of ~7 km. The morphology\\/morphometry of the structure, as defined by borehole, seismic, and gravity data, is similar to that of other buried terrestrial complex impact structures in sedimentary target rocks, e.g., Red Wing Creek in North

D. S. Stone; A. M. Therriault

2003-01-01

384

NO-TILL GRAIN PRODUCTION IN WYOMING: STATUS AND POTENTIAL  

E-print Network

1 NO-TILL GRAIN PRODUCTION IN WYOMING: STATUS AND POTENTIAL Jay B. Norton Department of Renewable-term research shows that conservation tillage, especially no-till, can achieve both while reducing fuel and fertilizer needs. But costs of conversion and perceptions about lower yields prevent adoption of no-till

Norton, Jay B.

385

Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative data management and integration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six Federal agencies, two State agencies, and two local entities formally support the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) and work together on a landscape scale to manage fragile habitats and wildlife resources amidst growing energy development in southwest Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was tasked with implementing targeted research and providing scientific information about southwest Wyoming to inform the development of WLCI habitat enhancement and restoration projects conducted by land management agencies. Many WLCI researchers and decisionmakers representing the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the State of Wyoming, and others have overwhelmingly expressed the need for a stable, robust infrastructure to promote sharing of data resources produced by multiple entities, including metadata adequately describing the datasets. Descriptive metadata facilitates use of the datasets by users unfamiliar with the data. Agency representatives advocate development of common data handling and distribution practices among WLCI partners to enhance availability of comprehensive and diverse data resources for use in scientific analyses and resource management. The USGS Core Science Informatics (CSI) team is developing and promoting data integration tools and techniques across USGS and partner entity endeavors, including a data management infrastructure to aid WLCI researchers and decisionmakers.

Latysh, Natalie; Bristol, Sky

2011-01-01

386

A new species of Oryzopsis (Gramineae) from Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oryzopsis hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Ricker (Gramineae: Stipeae) is a widely distributed species, common to the arid and semi-arid regions of the western United States. A morphologically distinct form of O. hymenoides was described by Johnson (1945) as Oryzopsis hyraenoides var. contracta. This taxon Occurs only in the Big Hollow area of southern Wyoming, where it exists sympatrically with O.

Yaakov Shechter; B. Lennart Johnson

1966-01-01

387

SAVANNAH SPARROWS NESTING IN ALPINE HABITAT IN WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) nests were found in alpine willow habitat at 3150 m elevation in the Beartooth Mountains of northern Wyoming, USA during July 1988. These are the first documented alpine nests for this species south of Canada. The nesting conditions are described and discussed in terms of a recent colonization of alpine habitat by a small, expanding

PAUL HENDRICKS; COLEEN PIDGEON

388

Sage Grouse Conservation in Wyoming: A Case Study in Cooperation  

E-print Network

Sage Grouse Conservation in Wyoming: A Case Study in Cooperation Bob Budd, Chairman Governor of Endangered Species Act · Broad distribution of Sage-grouse #12;History of the Issue · Petitioning under: "Not Warranted" · 2007: Sage Grouse Summit led to establishment of SGIT · 2007: December decision

Wyoming, University of

389

Body Measuremenls of Western Jumping Mice from Northwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of tlrc western jumping mouse (Z.tpn( priniept aabeufu) was investigated by Clark (1971) in Grand Teton Narional Park, \\\\Fyoming. In conjunction with rhar study, body measure- ments were made on 115 mice. This paper reports those data (Table 1). The only previously published morphological data on Z. p. utdhensir from Wyoming were by Iong (1965). He listed average

Tim W. Clark

390

Abundance of Adult Saugers across the Wind River Watershed, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of adult saugers Sander canadensis was estimated over 179 km of continuous lotic habitat across a watershed on the western periphery of their natural distribution in Wyoming. Three-pass depletions with raft-mounted electrofishing gear were conducted in 283 pools and runs among 19 representative reaches totaling 51 km during the late summer and fall of 2002. From 2 to

Craig J. Amadio; Wayne A. Hubert; Kevin Johnson; Dennis Oberlie; David Dufek

2006-01-01

391

INVESTIGATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION NEAR PAVILLION, WYOMING  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to complaints by domestic well owners regarding objectionable taste and odor problems in well water, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a ground water investigation near the town of Pavillion, Wyoming under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental ...

392

The Oregon Trail: Wyoming Students Construct a CD-ROM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the work of four Wyoming high school students who created a CD-ROM collection of Oregon Trail documents for use by fourth graders. The students reviewed 60 boxes of diaries, government documents, prints, and artifacts, becoming historians themselves as they created the electronic database. Includes photographs and illustrations. (MJP)

Holt, Pol William

1998-01-01

393

Comprehensive System of Personnel Development: Wyoming Statewide Needs Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the outcomes of a review of the Wyoming Department of Education's Comprehensive System of Personnel Development (CSPD) in meeting the professional development needs of special education. There were two phases of the 1997-1998 CSPD needs assessment process. Phase One consisted of telephone interviews with both regular (n=26)…

Olson, Christine; Azin-Manley, Mariam

394

FURTHER STUDIES ON TRYPANOSOMES IN GAME ANIMALS IN WYOMING 1100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (Alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in Wyoming by blood culture. Two free-ranging moose from Utah were negative. One of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. Trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 American bison (Bison bison) being brought

NEWTON KINGSTON; E. TOM; GEORGE M. THOMAS; B LINDA McHOLLANDand; MALCOLM S. TRUEBLOOD

395

Use of Spatial Resources by Fishes in Grayrocks Reservoir, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative abundance of fishes in different habitat types and sampling areas of a reservoir in eastern Wyoming was assessed with experimental gill nets during summer 1989. Seven of 12 species captured in the gill nets were numerous enough to enable statistical evaluation: quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum),

Wayne A. Hubert; Daniel T. OShea

1992-01-01

396

Seeded Native Shrub Establishment on Disturbed Sites in Southwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical wildlife habitat supporting mule deer, antelope, and sage grouse in high elevation rangeland and sagebrush ecosystems of southwest Wyoming is threatened by an expanding population and energy exploration and development. Our objective was to evaluate native shrub species establishment for restoration after disturbance. In October 2005, on a well-pad disturbance, 16 accessions of 13 native shrub species were drill-seeded

James S. Jacobs; MT Bozeman; R. Winslow; Karen J. Clause; Pinedale WY; Roger Hybner

397

Browsing Effects on Wyoming Big Sagebrush Plants and Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of likely yearlong browsing by several wild ungulate species on individual Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) plants and communities was studied. The investigation was conducted near Gardiner, MT, in the ungu- late-rich boundary line area of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Plant level responses were measured in this study and related to reported community responses. Individual

Carl L. Wambolt; Trista Hoffman

398

Enhancing Wyoming Big Sagebrush Establishment with Cultural Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) has proven difficult to re- establish by direct seeding on mined lands in the western U.S. This paper reviews research accomplishments over the last decade that address ecological and cultural practices to enhance big sagebrush establishment. Direct-placed topsoil, mulching and arbuscular mycorrhizae have been shown to positively influence seedling establishment of this species

G. E. Schuman; D. T. Booth; R. A. Olson

399

Cumulative hydrologic impact assessments on surface-water in northeastern Wyoming using HEC-1; a pilot study  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires that areas in which multiple mines will affect one watershed be analyzed and the cumulative impacts of all mining on the watershed be assessed. The purpose of the subject study was to conduct a cumulative hydrologic impact assessment (CHIA) for surface-water on a watershed in northeastern Wyoming that is currently being impacted by three mines. An assessment of the mining impact`s affect on the total discharge of the watershed is required to determine whether or not material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur as a result of surface mining and reclamation. The surface-water model HEC-1 was used to model four separate rainfall-runoff events that occurred in the study basin over three years (1978-1980). Although these storms were used to represent pre-mining conditions, they occurred during the early stages of mining and the models were adjusted accordingly. The events were selected for completeness of record and antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). Models were calibrated to the study events and model inputs were altered to reflect post-mining conditions. The same events were then analyzed with the new model inputs. The results were compared with the pre-mining calibration. Peak flow, total discharge and timing of flows were compared for pre-mining and post-mining models. Data were turned over to the State of Wyoming for assessment of whether material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur.

Anderson, A.J.; Eastwood, D.C.; Anderson, M.E. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

1997-12-31

400

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL AND GAS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five sub-contractors that have taken place during the first six months (January 1, 2003--June 30, 2003) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Gnomon, Inc. and all five (5) subcontractors have agreed on a process for the framework of this two-year project. They have also started gathering geomorphological information and entering cultural resource data into databases that will be used to create models later in the project. This data is being gathered in both the Power River Basin of Wyoming, and the Southeastern region of New Mexico. Several meetings were held with key players in this project to explain the purpose of the research, to obtain feedback and to gain support. All activities have been accomplished on time and within budget with no major setbacks.

Peggy Robinson

2003-07-25

401

Hellas: A double-impact basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the major axis to minor axis ratio of about 1.3, Hellas is probably the most elliptical giant impact basin on Mars, even more elliptical than the basin fits to the northern lowland [1]. Because less than 4% of the impacts in the solar system have occurred at impact angles greater than 80o relative to the planet surface [2] Hellas is perceived to be formed by a single oblique impact at the first glance. Numerical simulations of oblique impacts have lead to contradictory conclusions. For 1 km size projectile the shape of a resulting crater is found indistinguishable from circle as long as the impact angle is greater than 30o [3], whereas for a putative planetary scale impact that has created the northern lowland the impact angle as high as 60 degrees fundamentally affects the ellipticity of the supergiant basin [4]. Despite these contradicting results the two numerical models are in agreement in that a single impact creates a single cavity characterized by a single bowel shape with a maximum depth located beneath the basin. The subsequent basin collapse, impact induced melt and later volcanism have resulted in a smooth floor of Hellas, to a point that the present topography does not provide any viable information about the structure of the excavated cavity. Unlike these surface processes, the mantle plug created in the process of isostatic uplift of the mantle, has likely been less modified. Based on this premise, I calculated the shape of the mantle plug beneath Hellas basin using MOLA surface topography [5] and most recent gravity field of Mars, MRO110B2 of Jet Propulsion Laboratory [6], assuming that the gravity field arises from the surface topography and the crust-mantle density contract associated with the mantle plug. Spherical harmonics coefficients of degree 2-20 are retained to suppress small scale features. The resulting crust-mantle boundary shows two distinct mantle plugs one at the northwest and the other at the southeast of the center of the basin, indicating that Hellas basin may have been actually formed by two comparable impacts with a center to center distance of about 640 km. At this harmonic band the floor of Hellas also shows two distinct but slight depressions exactly over the mantle uplifts, but the free Air anomaly is almost featureless indicating that the basin is highly compensated. . [1] Andrews-Hanna, J.C., et al., Nature, 453, 1212-1215, 2008. [2] Shoemaker, E.M., In: Kopal, Z. (Ed.), Physics and Astronomy of the Moon. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 283-359, 1962. [3] Elbeshausen, D., et al., Icarus, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.07.018, 2009, [4] Marinova, M.M., et al., Nature, 453, 1216-1219, 2008. [5] Smith, D., et al., NASA Planetary Data System, MGS-M-MOLA-5-MEGDR-L3-V1.0, 2003. [6] Konopliv, A.S., personal communication, 2010.

Arkani-Hamed, J.

2010-12-01

402

Coalbed Methane Product Water Chemistry in Three Wyoming Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Powder River Basin in Wyoming has become one of the most active areas of coalbed methane (CBM) development in the western United States. Extraction of methane from coalbeds requires pumping of aquifer water, which is called product water. Two to ten extraction wells are manifolded into one discharge point and product water is released into nearby unlined holding ponds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemistry, salinity, and sodicity of CBM product water at discharge points and associated holding ponds as a function of watershed. The product water samples from the discharge points and associated holding ponds were collected from the Cheyenne River (CHR), Belle Fourche River (BFR), and Little Powder River (LPR) watersheds during the summers of 1999 and 2000. These samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sulfate (SO4 2-), and chloride (Cl-). From the chemical data, practical sodium adsorption ratio (SARp) and true sodium adsorption ratio (SARt) were calculated for the CBM discharge water and pond water. The pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, Na, Ca, Mg, K, SARp, and SARt of CBM discharge water increased significantly moving north from the CHR watershed to the LPR watershed. CBM discharge water in associated holding ponds showed significant increases in EC, TDS, alkalinity, Na, K, SARp, and SARt moving north from the CHR to the LPR watershed. Within watersheds, the only significant change was an increase in pH from 7.21 to 8.26 between discharge points and holding ponds in the LPR watershed. However, the LPR and BFR exhibited larger changes in mean chemistry values in pH, salinity (EC, TDS), and sodicity (SAR) between CBM product water discharges and associated holding ponds than the CHR watershed. For instance, the mean EC and TDS of CBM product water in LPR increased from 1.93 to 2.09 dS/m, and from1,232 to 1,336 mg/L, respectively, between discharge and pond waters. The CHR exhibited no change in EC, TDS, Na, or SAR between discharge water and pond water. Also, while not statistically significant, mean alkalinity of CBM product water in BFR and LPR watersheds decreased from 9.81 to 8.01 meq/L and from 19.87 to 18.14 meq/L, respectively, between discharge and pond waters. The results of this study suggest that release of CBM product water onto the rangelands of BFR and LPR watersheds may precipitate calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in soils, which in turn may decrease infiltration and increase runoff and erosion. Thus, use of CBM product water for irrigation in LPR and BFR watersheds may require careful planning based on water pH, EC, alkalinity, Na, and SAR, as well as local soil physical and chemical properties.

McBeth, Ian H.; Reddy, Katta J.; Skinner, Quentin D.

2003-06-01

403

Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age underlie the entire northern Great Plains of the United States. These rocks form 5 artesian aquifer systems that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming and extend more than 600 miles to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in the Canadian Province of Manitoba. Generally, the principal direction of flow in each aquifer is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of geologic structure, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Major fracture systems or lineaments traverse the geologic section and are either vertical or horizontal conduits, or barriers to, groundwater flow. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale of minimal permeability, halite beds, and stratigraphic traps or minimal-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. Interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments. During the Pleistocene Epoch, thick ice sheets completely covered the discharge areas of the bedrock aquifers. This effectively blocked flow northeastward from the system and, at some locations, it may have caused a reversal of flow. The existing flow, system therefore, may not have reached hydrologic equilibrium with the stress of the last glacial period. (USGS)

Downey, J. S.

1986-01-01

404

Wyoming LaW RevieW VOLUME 11 2011 NUMBER 2  

E-print Network

Wyoming LaW RevieW VOLUME 11 2011 NUMBER 2 RaceandameRicanindian TRibalnaTionhood Matthew L (1997). Member, Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians; Chief Justice, Poarch Band of Creek.S. 544, 565­66 (1981). #12;296 WyomIng LaW revIeW Vol. 11 consented to the judgments of tribal sovereigns

405

Economic Development from New Generation and Transmission in Wyoming and Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the potential economic impacts in Colorado and Wyoming of a 225 MW natural gas fired electricity generation facility and a 900 MW wind farm constructed in Wyoming as well as a 180 mile, 345 kV transmission line that runs from Wyoming to Colorado. This report and analysis is not a forecast, but rather an estimate of economic activity associated with a hypothetical scenario.

Keyser, D.; Lantz, E.

2013-03-01

406

Aquifer Protection and Community Viz™ in Albany County, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of an alternative futures analysis for implementation of a joint city\\/county aquifer protection plan in Albany County, southeastern Wyoming, U.S.A. The ArcView-based Community Viz™ planning support system software was used to evaluate major environmental, economic and social indicators impacted by three different scenarios: continuation of existing trends, aquifer protection, and density shift. Indicators were compared

Scott N. Lieske; Jeffrey D. Hamerlinck; Dennis M. Feeney; Alan Frank; Diana G. Hulme; Mike Knapp

407

Response of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) to defoliation of understory grasses and drought.  

E-print Network

??Water potential, leaf conductance, growth, nitrogen content, and seedling survival of Wyoming Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) following defoliation of the herbaceous understory were… (more)

Purrington, Teal Mackenzie

1992-01-01

408

Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part A - Coal and wind  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To further advance the objectives of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wyoming State Geological Survey (WSGS) have compiled Part A of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming. Focusing primarily on electrical power sources, Part A of the energy map is a compilation of both published and previously unpublished coal (including coalbed gas) and wind energy resources data, presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package. Energy maps, data, documentation and spatial data processing capabilities are available in a geodatabase, published map file (pmf), ArcMap document (mxd), Adobe Acrobat PDF map (plate 1) and other digital formats that can be downloaded at the USGS website. Accompanying the map (plate 1) and the geospatial data are four additional plates that describe the geology, energy resources, and related infrastructure. These tabular plates include coal mine (plate 2), coal field (plate 3), coalbed gas assessment unit (plate 4), and wind farm (plate 5) information with hyperlinks to source publications and data on the internet. The plates can be printed and examined in hardcopy, or accessed digitally. The data represent decades of research by the USGS, WSGS, BLM and others, and can facilitate landscape-level science assessments, and resource management decisionmaking.

Biewick, Laura R.H.; Jones, Nicholas R.

2012-01-01

409

Further studies on trypanosomes in game animals in Wyoming II.  

PubMed

Further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (Alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in Wyoming by blood culture. Two free-ranging moose from Utah were negative. One of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. Trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 American Bison (Bison bison) being brought into Wyoming from Nebraska. Nineteen additional bison were negative for trypanosomes by blood cultures. Identification of species was not possible due to the failure to obtain bloodstream trypomastigotes from this host. Trypanosomes were recovered from 8 of 57 pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). This is the first report of Trypanosoma sp. from bison and from pronghorn; the trypanosome from moose was identified as Trypanosoma cervi from bloodstream trypomastigotes. In 1978, natural transplacental transmission of trypanosomes was found to occur in 1 of 15 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fetuses, examined near term by blood culture. No trypanosomes were found in 18 male deer fetuses examined in 1979. Of 100 free-ranging elk from western Wyoming examined by blood culture in 1979, 71 were infected. These data are compared with data from 1973-74. PMID:7338978

Kingston, N; Thorne, E T; Thomas, G M; McHolland, L; Trueblood, M S

1981-10-01

410

Late Quaternary Vegetation and Climate of the Wind River Range, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments from Rapid Lake document glacial and vegetation history in the Temple Lake valley of the Wind River Range, Wyoming over the past 11,000 to 12,000 yr. Radiocarbon age determinations on basal detrital organic matter from Rapid Lake (11,770 ± 710 yr B.P.) and Temple Lake (11,400 ± 630 yr B.P.) bracket the age of the Temple Lake moraine, suggesting that the moraine formed in the late Pleistocene. This terminal Pleistocene readvance may be represented at lower elevations by the expansion of forest into intermontane basins 12,000 to 10,000 yr B.P. Vegetation in the Wind River Range responded to changing environmental conditions at the end of the Pleistocene. Following deglaciation, alpine tundra in the Temple Lake valley was replaced by a Pinus albicaulis parkland by about 11,300 14C yr B.P. Picea and Abies, established by 10,600 14C yr B.P., grew with Pinus albicaulis in a mixed conifer forest at and up to 100 m above Rapid Lake for most of the Holocene. Middle Holocene summer temperatures were about 1.5°C warmer than today. By about 5400 14C yr B.P. Pinus albicaulis and Abies became less prominent at upper treeline because of decreased winter snowpack and higher maximum summer temperatures. The position of the modern treeline was established by 3000 14 C yr B.P. when Picea retreated downslope in response to Neoglacial cooling.

Fall, Patricia L.; Davis, P. Thompson; Zielinski, Gregory A.

1995-05-01

411

Shallow Early Cretaceous oil production in Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Over 1.5 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Early Cretaceous Fall River and Lakota Formations on the east side of the Powder River basin in the Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming. Producing depths range from 42 ft at the Barton Ranch field to over 2528 ft at an unnamed field. The gravity of the gas-free oil ranges from 17/sup 0/ API at Barton Ranch to over 49/sup 0/ API in the deeper reservoir rocks located at an unnamed oil field. Oil has been trapped in Lakota channel sandstones and Fall River nearshore sandstones on the Black Hills monocline within a catchment area located on the northeast side of the large northeast-southwest-trending Gillette arch. Currently, the oldest producible oil on or east of the central Black Hills monocline is Early Cretaceous in age. This oil is the highest structural, active, primary production along the west-central flank of the Black Hills uplift. Two Permian-Pennsylvanian fields are located structurally higher, but one is a thermal tertiary project and the other has been abandoned.

Randall, A.G.

1986-08-01

412

Depositional and tectonic setting of Quadrant and Tensleep Sandstone, Montana and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Quadrant Sandstone in southwestern Montana and the equivalent Tensleep Sandstone in northwestern Wyoming reflect transition from marine to nonmarine depositional settings. Thickness and facies relationships were influenced by tectonic events that preceded and followed deposition. Three important tectonic events are indicated in the Carboniferous strata: (1) separation of the Big Snowy Group and older Mississippian rocks from the overlying Amsden Group, (2) separation of the Amsden from the overlying Quadrant-Tensleep, and (3) separation of the latter from overlying Permian rocks. Locally, the Quadrant and Tensleep were deposited above rocks of significantly different ages within relatively short distances, owing to differential uplift and erosion of older rocks during the second tectonic event. Initial Quadrant and Tensleep deposition occurred as coastal dunes and as littoral sands in a shallow epeiric sea. Marine deposition was succeeded by progradation of a sand sea, characterized by extensive eolian dune and minor interdune facies. The dune facies seems more extensive in areas of subsidence, but this may be due to erosion of the eolian facies from positive areas during the third (pre-Permian) tectonic event. Some thickness and facies differences of the Quadrant are coincident with linear structural trends such as the northeast-trending Greenhorn lineament in southwestern Montana. Similar structural trends may also have affected deposition of the Tensleep Sandstone in the Bighorn basin.

Saperstone, H.I.; Maughan, E.K.

1986-08-01