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1

Geothermal resources of the Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley Basins, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general discussion of how geothermal resources occur; a discussion of the temperatures, distribution, and possible applications of geothermal resources in Wyoming and a general description of the State's thermal setting; and a discussion of the methods used in assessing the geothermal resources are presented. The discussion of the geothermal resources of the Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley Basins includes material

B. S. Hinckley; H. P. Heasler

1984-01-01

2

Quality and petrographic characteristics of Paleocene coals from the Hanna basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal beds from the Ferris and Hanna Formations, in the Hanna basin, south-central Wyoming, exhibit distinct differences in ash yield, sulfur content, and petrographic and palynologic constituents. These differences are interpreted to be controlled by tectonic changes of the Hanna basin and adjoining uplifts during evolutionary development, which, in turn, controlled mire chemistry and sedimentation. These conditions created two very

Brenda S. Pierce

1996-01-01

3

Geothermal resources of the Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley Basins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A general discussion of how geothermal resources occur; a discussion of the temperatures, distribution, and possible applications of geothermal resources in Wyoming and a general description of the State's thermal setting; and a discussion of the methods used in assessing the geothermal resources are presented. The discussion of the geothermal resources of the Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley Basins includes material on heat flow and conductive gradients, stratigraphy and hydrology, structure and water movement, measured temperatures and gradients, areas of anomalous gradient (including discussion of the warm spring systems at Alcova and Saratoga), temperatures of the Cloverly Formation, and summary and conclusions. 23 references, 9 figures, 5 tables. (MHR)

Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

1984-01-01

4

Geology and petroleum potential of Hanna basin, Carbon County, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanna basin is one of the world's deeper intracratonic depressions. It contains exceptionally thick sequences of mature, hydrocarbon-rich Eocene through Paleozoic sediments, and has the requisite structural and depositional history to become a major petroleum province. Stratigraphic traps exist within the deeper central parts of the basin in low permeability, possibly overpressured Eocene, Paleocene, and Upper Cretaceous rocks. The

Matson

1984-01-01

5

Tectogenic sedimentary fill and subsidence history of Hanna Basin, southeastern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanna basin in southeastern Wyoming if unique because of its small size, and great depth, and extremely thick upper Cretaceous through Tertiary tectogenic sedimentary fill. The basin filled from the north, where proximal conglomeratic sediments were shed by the rising Sweetwater arch, and from the southwest, where more distal sandy sediments prograded into the basin. At the same time,

G. B. Lefebre; J. R. Steidtmann; D. A. McElhaney

1986-01-01

6

Water-quality data for the Hanna and Carbon basins, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality data for the Hanna and Carbon Basins, south-central Wyoming, are presented in tables with no interpretation. Common-constituent, trace-element, and radiochemical data for ground and surface water and sediment concentrations for surface water are included. Ground water at 53 sites and surface water at 3 gaging stations were sampled. (Kosco-USGS)

Freudenthal, Pamela B.

1979-01-01

7

Tectonic evolution of Hanna Basin, Wyoming: Laramide block rotation in the Rocky Mountain foreland  

SciTech Connect

From late Early Cretaceous through late Early Eocene time the Hanna Basin area of south-central Wyoming developed in response to regional and local tectonic forces. Subsidence history, flexural modeling, depositional setting and history, coal moisture content of Tertiary coal and fission-track thermochronology document the evolutionary history of this small ({approx}2600 km{sup 2}), deep ({approx}16 km offset on the Precambrian basement) intermontane basin. The present geologic configuration of Hanna Basin is the result of five evolutionary phases: (1) initial regional subsidence ({approx}119 Ma) as part of the expanding foredeep in front of the Sevier Orogenic belt, (2) breakup of this foredeep into discrete depocenters and nascent uplifts began between 88.5 Ma and 97.5 Ma (locally, uplift of the Sweetwater Arch and downwarp of the Hanna trough are most important), (3) breakup of the Hanna trough and development of the Hanna Basin by basement block rotation facilitated by sediment loading (began at 68-70 Ma and continued through {approx}52 Ma), (4) late Early Eocene - early Middle Eocene uplift of Shirley Mountains area and final destruction of the old Hanna trough (final movement on the Shirley Thrust) and (5) post Early Eocene sedimentary fill of about 2.4 km and its subsequent erosion prior to {approx}29 Ma.

LeFebre, G.B.

1988-01-01

8

Tectogenic sedimentary fill and subsidence history of Hanna Basin, southeastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Hanna basin in southeastern Wyoming if unique because of its small size, and great depth, and extremely thick upper Cretaceous through Tertiary tectogenic sedimentary fill. The basin filled from the north, where proximal conglomeratic sediments were shed by the rising Sweetwater arch, and from the southwest, where more distal sandy sediments prograded into the basin. At the same time, vast coal deposits were accumulating in the center of the basin. Subsidence analysis, together with detailed stratigraphic and structural studies along the northern basin margin, show that the Hanna basin did not form as a flexural response to tectonic loading by the Shirley thrust. Constraints on potential mechanisms for Hanna basin evolution include (1) approximately 43,000 ft of basement offset adjacent to the Shirley thrust, (2) nearly 25,000 ft of basement relief adjacent to Simpson Ridge, (3) deposition of about 30,000 ft of Late Cretaceous through Tertiary tectogenic sedimentary fill, and (4) a pre-Shirley fault source for feldspathic sediments from the north. Their current modeling suggests that the present basin configuration is the result of at least three evolutionary phases: (1) initial uplift of the Sweetwater arch and associated downwarping of the adjacent syncline to the south, (2) breakup and deepening of the synclinal depression, possibly by basement-block rotation and associated extension, and (3) post-early Eocene compression that activated the Shirley thrust and molded the present structural configuration of the Hanna basin.

Lefebre, G.B.; Steidtmann, J.R.; McElhaney, D.A.

1986-08-01

9

Geology of the Hanna Formation, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanna Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) study area consists of the SW1/4 of Section 29 and the E1/2SE1/4 of Section 30 in Township 22 North, Range 81 West, Wyoming. Regionally, this is located in the coal-bearing Hanna Syncline of the Hanna Basin in...

R. L. Oliver A. D. Youngberg

1984-01-01

10

Coal spoil and groundwater chemical data from two coal mines; Hanna basin and Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents data describing chemical and mineralogical composition of spoil material and chemical quality of groundwater at two Wyoming mine sites. Samples were collected at the Medicine Bow-Seminoe Number 1 mining area in the Hanna basin and at the Cordero mine in the Powder River basin. The data collected from these sites, along with similar data from other coal-mining

1988-01-01

11

Tectonic evolution of Hanna Basin, Wyoming: Laramide block rotation in the Rocky Mountain foreland  

Microsoft Academic Search

From late Early Cretaceous through late Early Eocene time the Hanna Basin area of south-central Wyoming developed in response to regional and local tectonic forces. Subsidence history, flexural modeling, depositional setting and history, coal moisture content of Tertiary coal and fission-track thermochronology document the evolutionary history of this small (â2600 km²), deep (â16 km offset on the Precambrian basement) intermontane

LeFebre

1988-01-01

12

Geology of the Hanna Formation, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanna Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) study area consists of the SW1\\/4 of Section 29 and the E1\\/2SE1\\/4 of Section 30 in Township 22 North, Range 81 West, Wyoming. Regionally, this is located in the coal-bearing Hanna Syncline of the Hanna Basin in southeast Wyoming. The structure of the site is characterized by beds dipping gently to the northeast. An

R. L. Oliver; A. D. Youngberg

1984-01-01

13

Petrographic and chemical studies of the Hanna IV Burn, Hanna UCG Site, Wyoming. [Hanna Basin; post burn sampling and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples were removed from five cores which had been drilled at the Hanna IV A and Hanna IV B burn sites. Strata in four of the cores included paralava and\\/or coke or semicoke. The fifth core contained coal which had been visibly altered, but there was no other thermally metamorphosed rock. All samples were analyzed by four techniques, including white

Rich

1985-01-01

14

Geothermal Resources of the Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley Basins, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general discussion of how geothermal resources occur; a discussion of the temperatures, distribution, and possible applications of geothermal resources in Wyoming and a general description of the State's thermal setting; and a discussion of the methods ...

B. S. Hinckley H. P. Heasler

1984-01-01

15

Geothermal Resources of the Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley Basins, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This introduction contains (1) a general discussion of how geothermal resources occur, (2) a discussion of the temperatures, distribution, and possible applications of geothermal resources in Wyoming and a general description of the state's thermal settin...

B. S. Hinckley H. P. Heasler

1984-01-01

16

Petrographic and chemical studies of the Hanna IV Burn, Hanna UCG Site, Wyoming. [Hanna Basin; post burn sampling and analysis  

SciTech Connect

Samples were removed from five cores which had been drilled at the Hanna IV A and Hanna IV B burn sites. Strata in four of the cores included paralava and/or coke or semicoke. The fifth core contained coal which had been visibly altered, but there was no other thermally metamorphosed rock. All samples were analyzed by four techniques, including white light and blue light maceral analyses, vitrinite reflectivity, and fluorescence spectroscopy. All methods of analysis confirmed the presence of distinct vertical thermal gradients in Cores 1, 2, 12, and 14. A lateral thermal gradient between Cores 2 and 8 was also deduced. White light maceral analyses and fluorescence spectroscopy provided qualitative evidence that sharp thermal gradients existed between altered and unaltered strata beneath burn cavities and that much broader gradients existed above the burn zones. No absolute range of temperatures could be postulated, though. Blue light maceral analyses and vitrinite reflectivity provided much core quantitative evidence for the levels of thermal alteration. Heat transfer to rocks lying below the zone of combustion in a UCG chamber is apparently negligible. Much greater heat penetration and thermal alteration occurs laterally and vertically above the zone of combustion. 19 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Rich, F.J.

1985-03-01

17

Tectonic setting and depositional environments of Hanna Formation, south-central Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paleocene Hanna Formation was deposited during tectonic events that lead ultimately to the development of the Hanna and Carbon structural basins of south-central Wyoming. Early Paleocene uplift prior to deposition of the Hanna Formation resulted in a regional unconformity as observed in the Carbon basin, on the east side of the Hanna basin, and in the area south of

Dan E. Hansen

1983-01-01

18

Role of hydrogeology in Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification test, Hanna basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Experience has shown that the designs and implementation of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) operations that are technically sound and environmentally safe require a thorough understanding of the hydrogeology of the UCG site, complemented by an understanding of the potential interactions between the elements of the hydrogeologic system and UCG process. This is significant because UCG is conducted in the saturated zone, consumes large volumes of ground water, and has the potential to adversely affect ground water quality and flow. The textural, mineralogical, chemical, and structural character of the geologic materials constituting the UCG reactor, as well as the occurrence, flow, and quality of fluids moving through that three-dimensional matrix of geologic materials, must be understood. The US Department of Energy and an industry consortium led by the Gas Research Institute recently conducted the Rocky Mountain 1 Test in the Hanna basin of Wyoming. For this test, the hydrogeologic aspects of the site were characterized to an extent unprecedented in UCG testing. This information was then used to develop and evaluate operating strategies intended to prevent or minimize contamination. Such strategies included gasifying at less than hydrostatic pressure to enhance ground water flow toward the gasification modules and to restrict contamination to the module area. Hydrogeologic information also allowed a more complete evaluation of process-setting interactions. For example, a substantial and widespread drop in elevation heat noted for the ground water in the target coal emphasized the importance of an adequate water supply for UCG, particularly in a long-term commercial operation.

Daly, D.J.; Schmit, C.R.; Beaver, F.W.; Evans, J.M. (North Dakota Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute, Grand Forks (USA))

1989-09-01

19

Petrography and fluorescence spectral analysis of resinite macerals from coals of Hanna basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrographic analysis of coals of the Ferris and Hanna Formations of Wyoming show these coals to have a high total vitrinite content (average 84.2%) and a modest liptinite content (average 5.9%). Compared to coals of similar rank (0.45-0.55% reflectance) from central Utah, these coals have about twice as much pseudovitrinite and about half as much total liptinite. Although sporinite is

S. C. Teerman; J. C. Crelling

1984-01-01

20

Selected upper Cretaceous and Paleocene reservoirs in Hanna basin, Carbon County, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central Hanna basin offers multiple hydrocarbon targets in the Mesaverde Group (Campanian Stage), Lewis, Medicine Bow, and Ferris formations (Upper Campanian, Maestrichtian, and Danian Stages). Reservoirs within these formations are found in siltstone, sandstone, coal, an lignitic facies. Permeability is associated with intergranular porosity, microporosity in clays, cleating in coal and lignite, and fracture fields which may be independent

Ronald W. Pritchett

1984-01-01

21

Internal architecture of an Upper Cretaceous shelf-ridge sandstone, Hanna basin, southern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The informally named Seminoe sandstone constitutes a Campanian-age shelf-ridge sandstone within the Haystack Mountains Formation, Mesaverde Group, of the Hanna basin. To determine its external geometry, vertical sequence organization, and internal lithofacies architecture, thirty vertical sections with a lateral spacing of 0.3 to 4 km were made along a section line perpendicular to the paleocurrent trend of the sand body.

H. U. W

1991-01-01

22

Coal spoil and groundwater chemical data from two coal mines; Hanna basin and Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data describing chemical and mineralogical composition of spoil material and chemical quality of groundwater at two Wyoming mine sites. Samples were collected at the Medicine Bow-Seminoe Number 1 mining area in the Hanna basin and at the Cordero mine in the Powder River basin. The data collected from these sites, along with similar data from other coal-mining States in the West, will be used to evaluate methods used in predicting post-mining groundwater quality. The data collected from these sites, along with similar data from other coal-mining States in the West, will be used to evaluate methods used in predicting post-mining groundwater quality. The data include mineral-composition analyses, past-extract analyses, and sulfur-forms analyses of coal spoil; chemical analyses of water from batch-mixing experiments; and analyses of water samples collected from wells in the coal aquifers and from wells in the saturated spoil. 10 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Larson, L.R.

1988-01-01

23

Petrography and fluorescence spectral analysis of resinite macerals from coals of Hanna basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Petrographic analysis of coals of the Ferris and Hanna Formations of Wyoming show these coals to have a high total vitrinite content (average 84.2%) and a modest liptinite content (average 5.9%). Compared to coals of similar rank (0.45-0.55% reflectance) from central Utah, these coals have about twice as much pseudovitrinite and about half as much total liptinite. Although sporinite is generally the most abundant type of liptinite maceral, resinite and sporinite occur in about equal amounts in these Wyoming coals, and resinite greatly exceeds sporinite in the central Utah coals. Results of fluorescence spectral analysis of resinite macerals in the Wyoming coals show that there are five distinct resinite types present. Four types occur in primary globular forms exhibiting scratches and fractures indicating a brittle solid substance. In places, these four types also occur as secondary fracture fillings. Two of the four types fluoresce with a green color; one a dark green peaking at less than 440 nm and the other a yellow-green peaking at 500 nm. The third type fluoresces yellow and peaks at 580 nm, and the fourth type fluoresces orange-brown and peaks at 610 nm. These yellow and orange-brown resinites are similar to those found in central Utah coals except that the Wyoming resinites peak 30-40 nm higher. In the Utah coals, only one green resinite peaks at 460 nm; however, its spectrum has a shoulder at 470-490 nm. The fifth resinite type fluoresces a red-brown and peaks at 690 nm. It occurs only as a void-filling substance showing no brittle properties. It is indistinguishable from a similar resinite type in the central Utah coals.

Teerman, S.C.; Crelling, J.C.

1984-07-01

24

Selected upper Cretaceous and Paleocene reservoirs in Hanna basin, Carbon County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The central Hanna basin offers multiple hydrocarbon targets in the Mesaverde Group (Campanian Stage), Lewis, Medicine Bow, and Ferris formations (Upper Campanian, Maestrichtian, and Danian Stages). Reservoirs within these formations are found in siltstone, sandstone, coal, an lignitic facies. Permeability is associated with intergranular porosity, microporosity in clays, cleating in coal and lignite, and fracture fields which may be independent of stratigraphic boundaries. The quality of reservoirs, as determined by logs, is similar to known gas and condensate producing areas of the Red Desert, Washakie, and Wind River basins, in Mesaverde, Lewis, and Medicine Bow (Lance) formations. Mature oil source is indicated in Medicine Bow and Ferris transitional marine and lacustrine facies (Lance and Fort Union time equivalents). Oil source and sandstone depositional style may be similar to oil productive Fort Union strata in the Wind River and southern Powder River basins. Source rock studies and time vs. temperature relationships of the Upper Cretaceous lithologic package suggest an area of over 250 mi/sup 2/ (650 km/sup 2/) prospective for tight sands gas in Mesaverde and Lewis formations to 15,000 ft (4570 m) and deeper. Lithologic studies of clay and matrix chemistry suggest that specific drilling and treatment fluids are necessary to minimize damage and achieve commercial recovery of gas and condensate. Recent drilling and modern logging in the Seminoe Unit, T24N, R83-84W, have revealed anomalous gas saturation in Lewis and Mesaverde reservoirs. Numerous reservoirs containing hydrocarbons in the Upper Cretaceous section remain to be evaluated, and the volume of hydrocarbons to be recovered provides reason to proceed.

Pritchett, R.W.

1984-04-01

25

Hydrocarbon maturation, source rock potential, and thermal evolution of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary rocks of Hanna Basin, southeastern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanna basin is a small (1000 mi² or 2600 km²), anomalously deep (38,000 ft or 11.5 km), intermontane basin in the Rocky Mountain foreland province that contains an extremely thick Late Cretaceous through early Tertiary sedimentary sequence. This sequence resulted from a large influx of sediments during abrupt basin subsidence associated with Laramide tectonism. Active-basin-subsidence curves (backstripping) suggest that

M. A. Bierei; R. C. Surdam

1986-01-01

26

The thermal and structural properties of a Hanna Basin Coal  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to understand the cavity growth mechanisms occurring during an Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test, a study of the thermomechanical effects has been initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. The first phase of this study has been the determination of the intrinsic thermal and structural properties of the Hanna Basin Coal that was utilized in a series of four UCG tests near the town of Hanna, Wyoming. The result of this study is a consistent set of thermal and structural properties of a Hanna Basin coal. This set has been used in a model that successfully simulated the growth of the cavity observed during the Hanna II UCG test.

Glass, R.E.

1984-06-01

27

Tectonic setting and depositional environments of Hanna Formation, south-central Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Paleocene Hanna Formation was deposited during tectonic events that lead ultimately to the development of the Hanna and Carbon structural basins of south-central Wyoming. Early Paleocene uplift prior to deposition of the Hanna Formation resulted in a regional unconformity as observed in the Carbon basin, on the east side of the Hanna basin, and in the area south of these two basins. Subsequent movement of the thrust-fault system on the north side of the present Hanna basin resulted in southward filling of this asymmetrical foreland basin by clastic wedges, which make up facies associations. The Hanna Formation deposited in the Carbon basin has the same facies associations that occur in the southern part of the Hanna basin. Facies associations in the Hanna Formation of the Hanna basin suggest deposition in alluvial-fan and alluvial-plain environments. The alluvial-plain facies in the Hanna Formation can be divided into two subfacies on the basis of thickness and the occurrence of coal and carbonaceous shale. Analysis of the alluvial-plain sequences in Hanna basin is hampered by poor outcrops and a lack of subsurface correlation. Complete analysis of the coal-bearing subfacies has been possible in the Carbon basin where a stratigraphic framework has been established. From this stratigraphic framework, a sequential strata model has been constructed. Analysis of several coal-bed bounded sequences in the Carbon basin confirms the sandstone domination of the sequences as shown by the sequential strata model. Also, mapped southeasterly trends of the sandstone bodies indicate the fluvial channel systems of the Hanna basin were continuous into the Carbon basin.

Hansen, D.E.

1983-08-01

28

National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas, Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey?s (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins Province in Wyoming and northeastern Colorado. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined three TPSs and seven assessment units (AUs) within them; undiscovered resources for three of the seven AUs were quantitatively assessed.

U.S. Geological Survey Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins Province Assessment Team

2007-01-01

29

Postburn evaluation for Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3, underground coal gasification experiments, Hanna, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1980 and 1981 the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) conducted a post-burn study at the Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3 underground coal gasification (UCG) site, Hanna, Wyoming. This report contains a summary of the field and laboratory results from the study. Lithologic and geophysical well log data from twenty-two (22) drill holes, combined with high resolution seismic data

A. D. Youngberg; D. J. Sinks; G. N. II Craig; F. G. Ethridge; L. K. Burns

1983-01-01

30

Role of site characteristics in coal gasification. [Hanna, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field test data for a series of four underground coal gasification tests (UCG) at a site near Hanna, Wyoming are presented. Results of these field tests were combined with modeling efforts to identify site selective parameters broadly identified as the flow and mechanical properties of a coal seam that can help determine the degree to which any UCG test would

B. E. Bader; R. E. Glass

1981-01-01

31

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 5. Hanna III field test research report  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna III was conducted during the spring and summer of 1977. The test involved only two process wells but also had twelve water monitoring wells, eight in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and four in an aquifer above the coal seam. The test was designed to obtain information regarding the effects of the process on groundwater within the target seam and the overlying aquifer. The site for Hanna III had a low productivity aquifer above the Hanna No. 1 seam. The wells within the seam and the overlying aquifer were placed in such a manner that maximum information on groundwater flow and quality could be obtained. This report covers: (1) site selection and characterization; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 4 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

32

Depositional environments, subsurface stratigraphy, and post-burn characterization of the Paleocene-Eocene Hanna Formation at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal-gasification site: Hanna II Phase 1 experiment. [Hanna II; post mortem examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 1981, the Laramie Energy Technology Center conducted a post-burn coring program at the Hanna II, Phase 1, Underground Coal Gasification site, Hanna, Wyoming. Detailed geologic studies were conducted on the altered and unaltered overburden as well as an analysis of the burn cavity. The overburden consists of about 80 meters of Paleocene-Eocene Hanna formation above the

A. D. Youngberg; J. E. McClurg; J. G. Schmitt

1983-01-01

33

State-of-the-art techniques used in Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aggressive exploration program using state-of-the-art seismic and stratigraphic techniques may find new reserves of oil and gas in the Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley basins of Southeastern Wyoming. An examination of the stratigraphy in the three basins has indicated that the Jurassic Sundance and the Cretaceous Dakota, Muddy, Steele, and Mesaverde strata have significant stratigraphic trapping potential.

1979-01-01

34

Results of the groundwater restoration project, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Test Site, Wyoming: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments conducted during the 1970s at the Department of Energy (DOE) site near Hanna, Wyoming, formed six underground cavities in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam, an aquifer of low permeability. When the first Hanna UCG experiment began in March 1973, researchers had little information about what effects the geologic or hydrologic characteristics of the area

1988-01-01

35

What Does Energy Development Mean for Wyoming? A Community Study at Hanna, Wyoming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The enormous but often overlooked impact of energy resource development on small Western United States communities can be illustrated by the experiences of the traditional coal mining town of Hanna, Wyoming. Coal development doubled the population between 1970 and 1972, and required the addition of a sewer system and a police force, plus the…

Nellis, Lee

36

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 3. The Hanna II, Phase I field test  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phase I was conducted during the spring and summer of 1975, at a site about 700 feet up dip (to the southwest) of the Hanna I test. The test was conducted in two stages - Phase IA and IB. Phase IA consisted of linking and gasification operations between Wells 1 and 3 and Phase IB of linking from the 1-3 gasification zone to Well 2, followed by a short period of gasification from Well 2 to Well 3 over a broad range of air injection rates, in order to determine system turndown capabilities and response times. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operational testing; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

37

Postburn evaluation for Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3, underground coal gasification experiments, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

During 1980 and 1981 the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) conducted a post-burn study at the Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3 underground coal gasification (UCG) site, Hanna, Wyoming. This report contains a summary of the field and laboratory results from the study. Lithologic and geophysical well log data from twenty-two (22) drill holes, combined with high resolution seismic data delineate a reactor cavity 42.7m (140 ft.) long, 35.1 m (115 ft.) and 21.3 m (70 ft.) high that is partially filled with rubble, char and pyrometamorphic rock. Sedimentographic studies were completed on the overburden. Reflectance data on coal samples within the reactor cavity and cavity wall reveal that the coal was altered by temperatures ranging from 245/sup 0/C to 670/sup 0/C (472/sup 0/-1238/sup 0/F). Overburden rocks found within the cavity contain various pyrometamorphic minerals, indicating that temperatures of at least 1200/sup 0/C (2192/sup 0/F) were reached during the tests. The calcite cemented fine-grained sandstone and siltstone directly above the Hanna No. 1 coal bed formed a strong roof above the cavity, unlike other UCG sites such as Hoe Creek which is not calcite cemented. 30 references, 27 figures, 8 tables.

Youngberg, A.D.; Sinks, D.J.; Craig, G.N. II; Ethridge, F.G.; Burns, L.K.

1983-12-01

38

Status of the Fourth Underground Coal Gasification Experiment at Hanna, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fourth underground coal gasification experiment conducted by the Laramie Energy Technology Center is currently underway at a site near Hanna, Wyoming. The Hanna IV experiment, as originally conceived, was significantly larger than the three previous experiments. The experiment was designed to meet the following objectives: determination of the interrelationships of well spacing, air injection rate, and areal sweep efficiency;

Theodore Bartke; Leroy Dockter; Thomas Sterner; Joseph Virgona

1978-01-01

39

High Resolution Seismic Survey of the Hanna, Wyoming Underground Coal Gasification Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In June 1983 a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center's underground coal gasification test site near Hanna, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to locate and characterize undergrou...

1983-01-01

40

Role of site characteristics in coal gasification. [Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Field test data for a series of four underground coal gasification tests (UCG) at a site near Hanna, Wyoming are presented. Results of these field tests were combined with modeling efforts to identify site selective parameters broadly identified as the flow and mechanical properties of a coal seam that can help determine the degree to which any UCG test would be successful. Specifically, the characteristics shown to be important are concluded to be: (1) permeability structure and mobile water, which play a crucial role in determining air flow paths; (2) high permeability zones at midstream and above to act as the primary air flow path; (3) spacing of injection and production wells can be varied to enhance the chance of keeping the air flow paths low in the coal seam; (4) completion of the process wells in a manner that minimizes neighboring permeability inhibits the chance of override; (5) the orthotropic permeability of coal improve UCG results; (6) thermochemical properties of coal are important with respect to the manner of combustion front propogation; and (7) heating will result in stress dependent anisotropic strength characteristics of the coal. Other properties characteristic of a given coal, petrographic constitutents of a coal, chemistry of combustion and the in situ stress distribution are also pointed out as significant factors to be considered in the most efficient use of UCG technique. 14 references, (BLM)

Bader, B.E.; Glass, R.E.

1981-12-01

41

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 1. General information and executive summary  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation. This report covers: (1) history of underground coal gasification leading to the Hanna tests; (2) area characteristics (basic meteorological and socioeconomic data); (3) site selection history; (4) site characteristics; (5) permitting; and (6) executive summary. 5 figs., 15 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

42

Petrographic and Chemical Studies of the Hanna IV Burn, Hanna UCG Site, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples were removed from five cores which had been drilled at the Hanna IV A and Hanna IV B burn sites. Strata in four of the cores included paralava and/or coke or semicoke. The fifth core contained coal which had been visibly altered, but there was no ...

F. J. Rich

1985-01-01

43

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 6. Hanna IVA and IVB field test research report  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. The reports in this series include: The Hanna IV test was designed as the first underground coal gasification test using commercial well spacings of 100 and 150 feet between well pairs in a linear 3-well pattern. The test was initiated in late 1977 and completed in late 1979. This long duration was due to unfavorable geologic conditions (faulting) which could not be successfully overcome resulting in the test being split into Hanna IVA and Hanna IVB with about one year between the conduct of each. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facility description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 5 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

44

Rocky Mountain 1: Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming. Volume 1. Groundwater Evaluation. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted at the Rocky Mountain 1 site near Hanna, Wyoming in late 1987 and early 1988. Groundwater sampling and analyses were performed to provide information on the effects of the test on the aquifer and t...

S. R. Lindblom V. E. Smith

1993-01-01

45

Depositional environments, subsurface stratigraphy, and post-burn characterization of the Paleocene-Eocene Hanna Formation at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal-gasification site: Hanna II Phase 1 experiment. [Hanna II; post mortem examination  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1981, the Laramie Energy Technology Center conducted a post-burn coring program at the Hanna II, Phase 1, Underground Coal Gasification site, Hanna, Wyoming. Detailed geologic studies were conducted on the altered and unaltered overburden as well as an analysis of the burn cavity. The overburden consists of about 80 meters of Paleocene-Eocene Hanna formation above the Hanna No. 1 coal bed used in the burn. The overburden contains three basic lithologic units: Unit A consists of very fine-grained sandstones, siltstones, and claystones deposited as a lacustrine delta. Unit A is immediately above the Hanna No. 1 coal. Unit B is above Unit A and consists of carbonaceous shales and mudstones containing isolated lenticular and tabular sandstone bodies deposited in a meandering fluvial system. Unit C is above Unit B and contains coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates deposited in a braided river system. The Hanna No. 1 coal bed accumulated in a poorly drained swamp that was subject to clastic flooding from an adjacent fluvial system. A reactor cavity 26m x 16m x 15m was formed during the Hanna II, Phase 1 burn and partially filled with rubble and three types of pyrometamorphic rock: paralava, paralava breccia, and buchite. The lithology, thickness, and lateral continuity of Unit A had a definite influence on the success of the experiment as the growth of the reactor cavity was contained completely within the unit. Temperatures up to 1200/sup 0/C were reached during the UCG test.

Youngberg, A.D.; McClurg, J.E.; Schmitt, J.G.

1983-02-01

46

The thermal and structural properties of a Hanna Basin Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to understand the cavity growth mechanisms occurring during an Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test, a study of the thermomechanical effects has been initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. The first phase of this study has been the determination of the intrinsic thermal and structural properties of the Hanna Basin Coal that was utilized in a series of four

1984-01-01

47

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 4. Hanna II, Phases II and III field test research report  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phases II and III, were conducted during the winter of 1975 and the summer of 1976. The two phases refer to linking and gasification operations conducted between two adjacent well pairs as shown in Figure 1 with Phase II denoting operations between Wells 5 and 6 and Phase III operations between Wells 7 and 8. All of the other wells shown were instrumentation wells. Wells 7 and 8 were linked in November and December 1975. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 16 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

48

Geothermal resources of Wyoming sedimentary basins  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal resources of Wyoming sedimentary basins have been defined through analysis of over 14,000 oil well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logging of 380 wells, measurement of rock thermal conductivities, calculation of 60 heat-flow values, drilling of 9 geothermal exploratory wells, conductive thermal modeling, and the study of existing geologic, hydrologic, and thermal spring data. All data have been integrated into interpretations of the thermal structure of the Big Horn, Wind River, Washakie, Great Divide, Green River, Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley basins of Wyoming. Controlling factors for the formation of geothermal resources in these basins are regional heat flow, rock thermal conductivity values, depths to regional aquifers, and hydrologic flow directions. Regional basin heat-flow values range from about 40 to 80 milliwatts/m/sub 2/; measured thermal conductivities are in the general range of 1.5 to 4.0 watts/m/sup 0/K; and depths to aquifers are up to 11,000 m (36,000 ft). This results in regional geothermal gradients for Wyoming basins in the range of 15/sup 0/ to 40/sup 0/C/km (44/sup 0/ to 116/sup 0/F/mi) with predicted maximum aquifer temperatures near 300/sup 0/C (570/sup 0/F). Anomalous geothermal areas within the basins contain measured thermal gradients as high as 400/sup 0/C/km (1,160/sup 0/F/mi) over shallow depth intervals. These anomalous areas are the combined result of local geologic structures and hydrologic flow. A simplified model for such areas requires water movement through a syncline with subsequent heating due to regional heat flow and thermal conductivities of overlying rock units. Consequent flow of the heated water up over an anticline produces a localized area of anomalous geothermal gradients.

Heasler, H.P.

1983-08-01

49

Rocky Mountain 1: Underground coal gasification test, Hanna, Wyoming. Volume 1. Operations. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted near Hanna, Wyoming during the period January 1986 through March 1988. The report focuses on operations phases that included site selection, facility design, facility construction, well drilling, gasification and environmental monitoring. Two technologies were evaluated as separate modules: the Extended Linked Well (ELW) and the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) processes. The test results, along with a discussion of the key test parameters and conclusions of the gasification phase, are provided. A bibliography and schematics are included.

Not Available

1989-03-01

50

Postburn evaluation of the Hanna IV A and B UCG (underground coal gasification) experiments, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Data from process monitoring, geophysical surveys, and postburn core studies were integrated to delineate the extent of affected coal and overburden at the Hanna IV A and B underground coal gasification experiment sites in southeastern Wyoming. The experiments were conducted from December 1977 to September 1979 in the Hanna No. 1 coal bed of the Eocene Hanna Formation. A postburn coring and well logging program was initiated in the fall of 1983. Well locations were selected using cavity boundary predictions determined by process monitor wells, a high-resolution seismic survey (June 1983). Detailed coal and overburden core studies were completed, including petrographic and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray analyses, strength tests, maceral analyses, vitrinite reflectance, fluorescence analyses, and proximate analyses. The Hanna IV A and B experiments apparently produced two distinct, temperature-stratified cavities separated by a fault zone of minor total displacement. Maximum coal consumption occurred near the west end of the IV A pattern, producing an asymmetrical cavity. Overburden collapse reached 45 ft. (14 m) above the top of the coal seam. Zones of maximum roof collapse are commonly bounded by minor faults that act as planes of weakness along which overburden fails. Override was a significant problem at the IV B pattern, primarily caused by faulting. A high percentage of calcite cement and sufficient porosity in the overburden contributed to limited roof collapse away from the faults. High-temperature mineral assemblages and fluorescence spectral parameters indicate that burn temperatures exceeded 2191/sup 0/F (1200/sup 0/C). The zone of reaction apparently is narrow (approx.6 in. (0.15 m)). 41 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

Oliver, R.L.; Sinks, D.J.; Berdan, G.

1986-06-01

51

Sampling and analyses report for June 1992 semiannual postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG site, Hanna, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RMl) underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted from November 16, 1987 through February 26, 1988 (United Engineers and Constructors 1989) at a site approximately one mile south of Hanna, Wyoming. The test consisted of dual module operation to evaluate the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) technology, the elongated linked well (ELW) technology, and the interaction

Lindblom

1992-01-01

52

High resolution seismic survey of the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification area  

SciTech Connect

In November 1980 a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center's underground coal gasification test site near Hanna, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to determine the feasibility of utilizing high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize underground coal burn zones and to identify shallow geologic faults at the test site. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow, 61 to 91 meter (200 to 300 foot) depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3 burn zone. Processing included time varying filters, deconvolution, trace composition, and two-dimensional, areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was clearly discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse void above the burn zone which was studied in detail and compared to synthetic models. It is felt, based on these results, that the seismic method can be used to define similar burns if great care is taken in both acquisition and processing phases of an investigation. The fault studies disclosed faults at the test site of hitherto unsuspected complexity. The fault system was found to be a graben complex with numerous antithetic faults. The antithetic faults also contain folded beds. One of the faults discovered may be responsible for the unexpected problems experienced in some of the early in-situ gasification tests at the site. A series of anomalies were discovered on the northeast end of one of the seismic lines, and these reflections have been identified as adits from the old Hanna No. 1 Coal Mine.

Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.

1982-01-01

53

Meeteetse field, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower Cretaceous Muddy and Upper Cretaceous Frontier sandstone reservoirs remain popular objectives for new energy reserves in the Bighorn basin of northwestern Wyoming. Predominantly structural reserves approximate 1 million bbl of oil and 20 bcf of gas from six Muddy fields, and 210 million bbl of oil and 100 bcf of gas from 16 Frontier fields. Newly established structural-stratigraphic gas

R. Wolff; R. Roy

1984-01-01

54

Remanent and rock magnetic properties at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site: Hanna II phases 2 and 3 experiment  

SciTech Connect

Several underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments have been conducted in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam. During the fall, 1980, the Laramie Energy Technology Center performed a post-burn field study of the Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3 experiment at the Hanna UCG site. The field work consisted of high resolution seismic, drilling, coring, and geophysical logging. The Paleomagnetism Laboratory, Department of Geology, Colorado School of Mines, contributed to the post-burn study by doing remanent and rock magnetic measurement laboratory work on the core material. Funding was provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center. The purpose of the study was to determine the nature of the remanent magnetism of the overburden Hanna Formation and changes in the remanence and magnetic mineralogy attending underground coal gasification experiments. With this information, further estimates of the thermal and chemical conditions reached during the conversion experiment could be made. The magnetization data, together with previous petrographic observations, suggest that magnetite is being formed in a reducing process at the expense of detrital ferromagnesian silicates and possible hematite and geothite in the overburden sediments. Thermal gradients immediately above the burn cavity are difficult to estimate; changes in magnetic properties of unaltered Hanna Formation overburden are activated at temperatures as low as 300/sup 0/C. The magnetic expression of the burn cavity should be able to be modelled as being due to a thin slab overlying the cavity. Pyrometamorphosed material that has collapsed into the cavity, should have any magnetization which is randomized due to collapse and therefore should be able to be incorporated into a magnetic anomaly model. 32 references, 27 figures.

Geissman, J.W.; Callian, J.; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-09-01

55

Analyses and measured sections of 25 coal samples from the Hanna Coal Field of southcentral Wyoming (collected between 1975 and 1979)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1975 and 1979, personnel of the Geological Survey of Wyoming collected 25 face-channel coal samples from active mines or outcrops located in the Hanna Coal Field in southcentral Wyoming. Representative splits of these samples were sent to the US Department of Energy in Pittsburgh, PA, and to the US Geological Survey in Denver, CO, for analysis. One sample (79-1)

G. B. Glass; J. T. Roberts

1984-01-01

56

Meeteetse field, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Lower Cretaceous Muddy and Upper Cretaceous Frontier sandstone reservoirs remain popular objectives for new energy reserves in the Bighorn basin of northwestern Wyoming. Predominantly structural reserves approximate 1 million bbl of oil and 20 bcf of gas from six Muddy fields, and 210 million bbl of oil and 100 bcf of gas from 16 Frontier fields. Newly established structural-stratigraphic gas production from these reservoirs is at Meeteetse field (T48-49N, R99W) on the west flank of the basin where Muddy Frontier bar sandstones trend across a long, narrow, horst-associated anticline. Terra Resources 1-33 Federal (Sec. 33, T49N, R99W) established the shallower pool discovery in 1979. Ten wells are now drilled along or near the axis of the structure. Production history is only now beginning because wells were shut in during field development due to absence of a gas line. The Frontier is productive in the middle two of its four units. Most initial production rates are between 1 and 2 MMCFGD; small amounts of oil, condensate, and water have been produced from some wells. The Muddy is a discrete sandstone unit with thin shale interbeds. Most initial production rates are between 1 and 3 MMCFGD; small amounts of oil, condensate, and water are also produced. Some production is from commingled Frontier zones and from commingled Frontier and Muddy.

Wolff, R.; Roy, R.

1984-07-01

57

Report on the successful development of underground coal gasification at Hanna, Wyoming. [17 refs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hanna II yielded several outstanding accomplishments in the field of UCG using air injection. These were the following: production of the highest gross heating value product gas over the longest duration ever reported; operation at the highest thermal efficiencies ever reported; highest production rate from any UCG test in the Free World; high overall sweep efficiency for parallel two-well patterns;

D. D. Fischer; S. B. King; A. E. Humphrey

1977-01-01

58

Coals and coal-bearing rocks of the Hanna Coal Field, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewed interest in Wyoming's vast coal deposits began in the late 1960's as power plant demands for inexpensive, low sulfur coals increased. Because of this demand, Wyoming's coal companies have set new production records every year since 1972. Table 1 summarizes annual production for the last 19 years on a county basis. Wyoming's 1978 tonnage set yet another record at

G. B. Glass; J. T. Roberts

1980-01-01

59

Gravity measurements in Wyoming and central Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravity surveys made by personnel from the University of Wyoming include the Laramie Mountains, the Medicine Bow Mountains, the Hanna Basin, and the South Pass area in Wyoming and the mountainous area west of Aspen in Colorado. These surveys are made with a Worden Master model gravimeter and are tied into gravity base stations established by the U.S. Air Force;

Scott B. Smithson

1969-01-01

60

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site  

SciTech Connect

In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the study was to characterize the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock and to determine and evaluate the mineralogical and textural changes that were imposed by the experiment. Within the burn cavity the various sedimentary units have been brecciated and thermally altered to form several pyrometamorphic rock types of paralava rock, paralava breccia, buchite, buchite breccia and hornfels. High temperature minerals of mullite, cordierite, oligo-clase-andesine, tridymite, cristobalite, clinopyroxenes, and magnetite are common in the pyrometamorphic rocks. The habit of these minerals indicates that they crystallized from a melt. These minerals and textures suggest that the rocks were formed at temperatures between 1200/sup 0/ and 1400/sup 0/C. A comparison of geologic and geological-technological factors between the Hoe Creek III site, which experienced substantial roof collapse, and the Hanna II site, which had only moderate roof collapse, indicates that overburden thickness relative to coal seam thickness, degree of induration of overburden rock, injection-production well spacing, and ultimate cavity size are important controls of roof collapse in the structural setting of the two sites.

Ethridge, F.C.; Burns, L.K.; Alexander, W.G.; Craig, G.N. II; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-01-01

61

Geothermal resources of Wyoming sedimentary basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal resources of Wyoming sedimentary basins have been defined through analysis of over 14,000 oil well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logging of 380 wells, measurement of rock thermal conductivities, calculation of 60 heat-flow values, drilling of 9 geothermal exploratory wells, conductive thermal modeling, and the study of existing geologic, hydrologic, and thermal spring data. All data have been integrated into interpretations

Heasler

1983-01-01

62

Tectonic loading and subsidence of intermontane basins: Wyoming foreland province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of two-dimensional flexural modeling of the northern Bighorn and northern Green River basins in the Wyoming foreland province suggest that these basins formed as flexures in response to loading by basin-margin uplifts and basin sedimentary sequences. The northern Bighorn Basin subsided due to loading by the Beartooth uplift along its western margin. The northern Green River Basin developed as

E. Sven Hagen; Mark W. Shuster; Kevin P. Furlong

1985-01-01

63

New Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Wind River Basin, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range and Owl Creek and southern Bighorn Mountain...

M. J. Pawlewicz T. M. Finn

2013-01-01

64

Mesaverde Group (Upper Cretaceous), southeastern Wyoming: Allostratigraphy versus sequence stratigraphy in a tectonically active area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanna basin of south-central Wyoming is one of several Cretaceous and Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins originally part of the broad foreland crustal flexure cratonward of the Sevier thrust belt and later subject to Laramide deformation. In the Campanian (Late Cretaceous), the Mesaverde Group filled the basin by two depositional sequences separated by an unconformity at the base of the

O. J. Martinsen; R. S. Martinsen; J. R. Steidtmann

1993-01-01

65

Tectonic loading and subsidence of intermontane basins: Wyoming foreland province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of two-dimensional flexural modeling of the northern Bighorn and northern Green River basins in the Wyoming foreland province suggest that these basins formed as flexures in response to loading by basin-margin uplifts and basin sedimentary sequences. The northern Bighorn Basin subsided due to loading by the Beartooth uplift along its western margin. The northern Green River Basin developed as a result of concurrent loading by the Wyoming thrust belt to the west and the Wind River uplift to the east. Tectonic loading from basement-involved uplifts played a major role in subsidence and sedimentation, as evidenced by isopach patterns within each basin. Lithospheric flexural rigidities of 1021 to 1022 newton metres (N·m) can adequately explain subsidence in both basins.

Sven Hagen, E.; Shuster, Mark W.; Furlong, Kevin P.

1985-08-01

66

Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site  

SciTech Connect

Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-12-01

67

Paleoenvironments of upper Cretaceous Lewis Shale and Fox Hills Formation, south-central Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maestrichtian Lewis Shale and Fox Hills Formation in south-central Wyoming were deposited during the final major transgression and regression of the North American epicontinental sea. Outcrops of these formations were examined along the margins of the Great Divide, Washakie, Hanna, and Carbon basins. Bore-hole logs from approximately 200 wells within these basins were studied and correlated with outcrops. Lists

Roseanne C. Perman

1988-01-01

68

Soil catenas of calcareous tills, Whiskey Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe catenas developed on calcareous moraines of Pinedale (?21–15 ka) and Bull Lake (>130–100 ka) ages at Whiskey Basin on the eastern flank of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA. We sampled one catena of each age from each of two separate moraine fields: the Jakey's Fork and Torrey Creek valleys. Soils of the Bull Lake catena at Jakey's

Michael T Applegarth; Dennis E Dahms

2001-01-01

69

Petroleum exploration in Absaroka basin of northwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, virtually unexplored petroleum province with large potential resources can be defined in northwestern Wyoming. Structurally, the Absaroka basin is bounded on the north by the Beartooth uplift, to the west by the Gallatin and Washakie uplifts, to the south by the Washakie and Owl Creek uplifts, and to the east by the Cody arch. The Cody arch connects

Sundell

1986-01-01

70

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the

F. C. Ethridge; L. K. Burns; W. G. Alexander; G. N. II Craig; A. D. Youngberg

1983-01-01

71

Magnetic Mineralogy of Continental Deposits, San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and Clark's Fork Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic concentrates were obtained from nine bulk samples from the Late Cretaceous through middle Paleocene continental sedimentary section in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and from two bulk samples from the late Paleocene and early Eocene section in the Clark's Fork Basin, Wyoming. Strong-field thermomagnetic (Js-T) curves of almost all the San Juan Basin concentrates show only a single

Robert F. Butler

1982-01-01

72

Dissolution of Permian salt and Mesozoic depositional trends, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt deposits in the Powder River basin of Wyoming occur in the Late Permian Ervay Member of the Goose Egg Formation which was deposited in a redbed-evaporite trend extending from the Williston basin of North Dakota to the Alliance basin of Nebraska and Wyoming. However, only remnants of the once extensive Ervay salt remain in the Powder River basin, with

D. L. Rasmussen; D. W. Bean

1983-01-01

73

Deltaic deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Dad Sandstone Member of the Lewis Shale, south-central Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dad Sandstone Member is a prograding unit of sandstone and minor mudstone that separates upper and lower shale members of the Lewis Shale. Outcrops of this Maestrichtian-age unit have been examined in south-central Wyoming along the eastern margin of the Great Divide basin north of Rawlins, and in the Hanna basin to the east. These outcrops form two groups

Perman

1987-01-01

74

Thermal regimes of the Southern Rocky Mountains and Wyoming Basin in Colorado and Wyoming in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat flow in the eastern ranges of the Southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado substantially exceeds that in the Wyoming Basin-Southern Rocky Mountains area in southeastern Wyoming. The transitions between these areas are narrow (? 60 km wide), estimated near-surface crustal radiogenic heat productions are different, and there is no evidence for young magmatism in the easternmost mountains in northern Colorado

Edward R Decker

1995-01-01

75

Oil springs and flat top anticlines, Carbon County Wyoming: An unusual fold pair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil Springs Anticline, northwest of Medicine Bow, Wyoming, and located at the northeast corner of the Hanna Basin, lies near the junction of the Freezeout Hills Anticline, the Shirley thrust fault and the Flat Top Anticline. The surface fold as defined by the outcrop of the Wall Creek Sandstone Member of the Frontier Formation is disharmonic to deeper structure at

Blackstone; D. L. Jr

1994-01-01

76

Analysis of runoff from small drainage basins in Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A flood-hydrograph study has defined the magnitude and frequency of flood volumes and flood peaks that can be expected from drainage basins smaller than 11 square miles in the plains and valley areas of Wyoming. Rainfall and runoff data, collected for 9 years on a seasonal basis (April through September), were used to calibrate a rainfall-runoff model on each of 22 small basins. Long-term records of runoff volume and peak discharge were synthesized for these 22 basins. Flood volumes and flood peaks of specific recurrence intervals (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years) were then related to basin characteristics with a high degree of correlation. Flood volumes were related to drainage area, maximum relief, and basin slope. Flood peaks were related to drainage area, maximum relief, basin slope, and channel slope. An investigation of ponding behind a highway embankment, with available storage capacity and with a culvert to allow outflow, has shown that the single fast-rising peak is most important in culvert design. Consequently, a dimensionless hydrograph defines the characteristic shape of flood hydrographs to be expected from small drainage basins in Wyoming. For design purposes, a peak and volume can be estimated from basin characteristics and used with the dimensionless hydrograph to produce a synthetic single-peak hydrograph. Incremental discharges of the hydrograph can be routed along a channel, where a highway fill and culvert are to be placed, to help determine the most economical size of culvert if embankment storage is to be considered. (Woodard-USGS)

Craig, Gordon S.; Rankl, James G.

1977-01-01

77

Petroleum exploration in Absaroka basin of northwestern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A new, virtually unexplored petroleum province with large potential resources can be defined in northwestern Wyoming. Structurally, the Absaroka basin is bounded on the north by the Beartooth uplift, to the west by the Gallatin and Washakie uplifts, to the south by the Washakie and Owl Creek uplifts, and to the east by the Cody arch. The Cody arch connects the southern Beartooth uplift with the northwesternmost Owl Creek uplift and separates the Bighorn basin to the east from the Absaroka basin to the west. The eastern flank of the cody arch is bounded by a major west-dipping thrust fault. The western flank is locally a subhorizontal shelf but overall gently dips to the west-southwest into deeper parts of the Absaroka basin. In contrast to most petroleum basins, the Absaroka basin is topographically a rugged mountain range, created by erosion of a thick sequence of Eocene volcanic rocks that fill the center of the basin and lap onto the adjacent uplifts. Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks that have produced several billion barrels of oil from the adjacent Bighorn and Wind River basins are probably present within the Absaroka basin and should have similar production capabilities. The Absaroka basin may have greater potential than adjacent basins because the volcanics provide additional traps and reservoirs. Domes in Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks beneath the volcanics and stratigraphic traps at the angular unconformity between the volcanics and underlying reservoirs are primary exploration targets. Unique geologic, geophysical, permitting, access, and drilling problems are encountered in all aspects of exploration.

Sundell, K.A.

1986-08-01

78

Laramide basin subsidence and basement uplift in Rocky Mountain foreland of Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the end of the Cretaceous through at least the early Eocene, the western US foreland basin in Wyoming evolved into discrete nonmarine basins separated by basement-involved uplifts. Their studies of basin subsidence and basement uplift indicate that major basins flanked by large Precambrian overhangs can be explained by tectonic loading of the basin margins. Specifically, their studies of tectogenic

J. R. Steidtmann; M. W. Shuster; G. B. Lefebre

1986-01-01

79

Basin-wide architecture of sandstone reservoirs in the Fort Union Formation, Wind River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architecture of hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoirs of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River basin, Wyoming, was studied using lithofacies, grain size, bounding surfaces, sedimentary structures, internal organization, and geometry. Two principal groups of reservoirs, both erosionally based and fining upward, consist of either conglomeratic sandstone or sandstone lithofacies. Two types of architecture were recognized in conglomeratic sandstone reservoirs:

R. M. Flores; C. W. Keighin; W. R. Keefer

1991-01-01

80

Thermal analysis of the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and geologic data from over 3,000 oil and gas wells within a 180 km x 30 km area that transect across the southern Powder River Basin in Wyoming, U.S.A., were used to determine the present thermal regime of the basin. Three-dimensional temperature fields within the transect, based on corrected bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs) and other geologic information, were assessed using: (1) A laterally constant temperature gradient model in conjunction with an L{sub 1} norm inversion method, and (2) a laterally variable temperature gradient model in conjunction with a stochastic inversion technique. The mean geothermal gradient in the transect is 29 C/km, but important lateral variations in the geothermal gradient exist. The average heat flow for the southern Powder River Basin is 52 mW/m{sup 2} with systematic variations between 40 mW/m{sup 2} and 60 mW/m{sup 2} along the transect. Extremely high local heat flow (values up to 225 mW/m{sup 2}) in the vicinity of the Teapot Dome and the Salt Creek Anticline and low heat flow of 25 mW/m{sup 2} occurring locally near the northeast end of the transect are likely caused by groundwater movement.

McPherson, B.J.O.L.; Chapman, D.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1996-11-01

81

Eocene sediment dispersal pattern records asymmetry of Laramide Green River basin, southwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provenance and paleocurrent data from synorogenic fluvial sandstones can be used to constrain theories about the timing and structural style of Laramide foreland uplifts and associated basins. The Green River basin of southwestern Wyoming is a large ellipsoidal basin bounded by uplifts with diverse orientations and basement rock compositions. Sandstone from the main body of the Eocene Wasatch Formation in

R. J. Baldwin; D. W. Andersen

1987-01-01

82

Isotopic identification of natural vs. anthropogenic sources of Pb in Laramie basin groundwaters, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water well samples, precipitation, and leachates of aquifer rock samples from the Laramie basin, Wyoming, were analyzed to test the suitability of Pb isotopes for tracing hydrologic processes in a basin where Sr isotopes had proven effective. Leachable Pb from host rocks to aquifers in this basin have isotopically distinct compositions and isotopic tracing would be effective in differentiating natural

R. N. Toner; C. D. Frost; K. R. Chamberlain

2003-01-01

83

Sandstone-carbonate cycles in Tensleep Formation, eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Outcrop and core study of the Tensleep Formation in the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin has revealed cyclic deposits of eolian sandstone and marine carbonate. These cycles, several meters to tens of meters thick, represent the rise and fall of sea level on the Wyoming shelf during Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time. Falling sea level was marked by development of a sharp scour surface at the base of each cycle and progradation of eolian dunes over an exposed, shallow carbonate shelf. Subsequent sea level rise resulted in the reworking of eolian sand through wave activity and burrowing organisms. Subtidal carbonates overlies the reworked eolian sands and are sandy at the base, grading upward into fossiliferous dolomite mudstones to wackestones. The sharp scour surface, normally present directly on the subtidal carbonates, indicates that erosion eliminated any regressive marine deposits by deflation to the ground-water table during shoreline progradation or by deflation related to abrupt drop in sea level. Relative sea level changes on the low-relief Wyoming shelf affected large areas during Tensleep deposition. This resulted in widespread sandstone-carbonate cycles that provide the basis for regional correlations of the Tensleep Formation throughout the eastern Bighorn basin and western Powder River basin.

Rittersbacher, D.J.; Wheeler, D.M.; Horne, J.C.

1986-08-01

84

Paleotectonic controls on reservoir distribution in Phosphoria formation and related strata, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porosity development and reservoir distribution in the Permian rocks of the Bighorn basin were strongly controlled by the first- and second-order paleotectonic elements active in the Wyoming shelf. First-order elements, including the Greybull arch, Bighorn high, and an extension of the Yellowstone high, defined the basin geometry and regional paleogeography, influenced the distribution of clastic vs. carbonate lithofacies, and controlled

J. S. Dean; R. F. Inden; S. D. Sturm

1986-01-01

85

A gravity study of the thermopolis anticline, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately three hundred gravity stations were measured in the area of the Thermopolis anticline along the southern margin of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Three broad anomaly patterns dominate the isostatic residual gravity map: a 10 mgal negative anomaly associated with sedimentary fill in the Bighorn Basin, a 20 mgal positive anomaly associated with the uplift of Precambrian basement in the

R. B. Grannell; P. K. Showalter

2008-01-01

86

Characterization and fluid flow simulation of naturally fractured Frontier sandstone, Green River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant gas reserves are present in low-permeability sandstones of the Frontier Formation in the greater Green River Basin, Wyoming. Successful exploitation of these reservoirs requires an understanding of the characteristics and fluid-flow response of the regional natural fracture system that controls reservoir productivity. Fracture characteristics were obtained from outcrop studies of Frontier sandstones at locations in the basin. The fracture

H. Harstad; L. W. Teufel; J. C. Lorenz; S. R. Brown

1996-01-01

87

Prediction of Abnormal Pressures in Wyoming Sedimentary Basins Using Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal formation pressures are present in lower tertiary - upper cretaceous formations of Wyoming sedimentary basins. Calibration curves for predicting pore pressures were established for these formations using conductivity and acoustic log responses from existing wells in these basins. Comparison was made between the predicted pore pressures using the calibration curves and some actual measured pressures. It was found that

J. F. Evers; Richard Ezeanyim

1983-01-01

88

SYSTEMATICS OF PALEOCENE VIVERRAVIDAE (MAMMALIA, CARNIVORA) IN THE BIGHORN BASIN AND CLARK'S FORK BASIN, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.-Four genera,and,ten species of Viverravidae,are known,in faunas representing,the Torrejonian,and,Tiffanian land-mammal,ages in the Bighorn and Clark's Fork basins, Wyoming. These are, in order of appearance: Simpsonictis tenuis (Simpson), S. pegus (n. sp.), Brjlanictis tnicrolestes (Simpson), and Protictis hajxdenianus Cope from the Torrejonian; Raphictis gausion (n. gen. and sp.), Protictisparalus Holtzman, and P. agastor (n. sp.) from($#$#$#CommaToBeDetIntjlrictis. Most Paleocene,viverravids,are represented,by dental remains.

PHILIP D. GINGERICH; DALE A. WINKLER

89

Gas desorption and adsorption isotherm studies of coals in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG), of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper (Wyoming), investigated the coalbed methane resources (CBM) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, from 1999 to the present. Beginning in late 1999, the study also included the Williston Basin in Montana and North and South Dakota and Green River Basin and Big Horn Basin in Wyoming. The rapid development of CBM (referred to as coalbed natural gas by the BLM) during the early 1990s, and the lack of sufficient data for the BLM to fully assess and manage the resource in the Powder River Basin, in particular, gave impetus to the cooperative program. An integral part of the joint USGS-BLM project was the participation of 25 gas operators that entered individually into confidential agreements with the USGS, and whose cooperation was essential to the study. The arrangements were for the gas operators to drill and core coal-bed reservoirs at their cost, and for the USGS and BLM personnel to then desorb, analyze, and interpret the coal data with joint funding by the two agencies. Upon completion of analyses by the USGS, the data were to be shared with both the BLM and the gas operator that supplied the core, and then to be released or published 1 yr after the report was submitted to the operator.

Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; McGarry, Dwain E.; Stillwell, Dean P.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Stillwell, Cathy R.; Ochs, Alan M.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Osvald, Karl S.; Taylor, Sharon L.; Thorvaldson, Marjorie C.; Trippi, Michael H.; Grose, Sherry D.; Crockett, Fred J.; Shariff, Asghar J.

2006-01-01

90

Depositional environments and petrology of the Felix coal interval (Eocene), Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of a 250 ft. stratigraphic interval that includes the Eocene-age Felix coal of the Wasatch Formation was undertaken in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to establish a depositional model based on the interrelations of coal-seam geometry, coal maceral composition, and spatial distribution of adjoining rocks. Regional cross sections and maps of major rock bodies were prepared from

1985-01-01

91

Holocene artiodactyl population histories and large game hunting in the Wyoming Basin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional paleoenvironmental reconstructions and data on artiodactyl response to climate change suggest that large game densities would have expanded during the late Holocene in the Wyoming Basin. Within this context, we use the prey model of foraging theory to predict a late Holocene increase in the hunting of artiodactyls, relative to lagomorphs and rodents. This prediction is then tested against

David A. Byers; Craig S. Smith; Jack M. Broughton

2005-01-01

92

Spectral stratigraphy: multispectral remote sensing as a stratigraphic tool, Wind River\\/Big Horn basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratigraphic and structural analyses of the Wind River and Big Horn basins areas of central Wyoming are in progress. One result has been the development of a new approach to stratigraphic and structural analysis that uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral image data to remotely characterize the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata. New multispectral systems that have only

H. R. Lang; E. D. Paylor

1987-01-01

93

Glacial Geology of the West Tensleep Drainage Basin, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The glacial deposits of the West Tensleep Basin in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming are mapped and a relative chromology established. The deposits are correlated with the regional model as defined in the Wind River Mountains. A statistical analysis is per...

G. B. Burggraf

1980-01-01

94

Geochronology and Mammalian Biostratigraphy of Middle and Upper Paleocene Continental Strata, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bighorn Basin of northwestern Wyoming preserves one of the most complete records of middle Paleocene to lower Eocene continental biota. The geochronology of this important interval depends partly on numerical calibration of the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS), but the middle and late Paleocene parts of the GPTS have been poorly constrained radioisotopically. A new volcanic ash from the

ROSS SECORD; PHILIP D. GINGERICH; M. ELLIOT SMITH; WILLIAM C. CLYDE; PETER WILF; BRAD S. SINGER

2006-01-01

95

Testing some models of foreland deformation at the Thermopolis anticline, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thermopolis anticline is a typical structure in the Rocky Mountain foreland, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Photogeologic interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper data, in combination with the evaluation of topographic, bore hole, seismic reflection, and field data were used to analyze structure and constrain tectonic models. The anticline is near-concentric, asymmetric with a southwest sense of vergence, and plunges to

E. D. Paylor; H. R. Lang; J. E. Conel; S. L. Adams; H. L. Muncy

1989-01-01

96

Depositional environments of the Middle Jurassic lower Sundance Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to historical interpretations, the Middle Jurassic lower Sundance Formation in the Bighorn Basin of north---central Wyoming was not the product of solely an open marine environment. This work integrated the influences of tectonics, paleogeography, paleoclimate, rapid sea level fluctuations, and periods of erosion. Nine distinct and laterally extensive facies were recognized through fieldwork and petrography, including shelf, nearshore, lagoon,

James Leonard Strasen

2008-01-01

97

Potential methods for resource recovery from black water of the Northern Green River Basin of Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black water is associated with interbedded lean and rich oil shales of the Northern Green River Basin of Wyoming. Oil shale development in the area would require that the black water be removed and processed in some manner. Black water consists primarily of 5 to 8 percent organic acids and 4 to 6 percent sodium carbonate and bicaronate dissolved in

1978-01-01

98

Status Report: USGS coal assessment of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication reports on the status of the current coal assessment of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This slide program was presented at the Energy Information Agency's 2006 EIA Energy Outlook and Modeling Conference in Washington, DC, on March 27, 2006. The PRB coal assessment will be the first USGS coal assessment to include estimates of

James A. Luppens; Timothy J. Rohrbacher; Jon E. Haacke; David C. Scott; Lee M. Osmonson

2006-01-01

99

Laramide thrusting of Bighorn Mountains onto Powder River basin near Buffalo, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent seismic surveys and exploratory drilling by industry for subthrust oil and gas prospects beneath the Bighorn Mountain front along the western edge of the Powder River basin near Buffalo, Wyoming, reveal a basement-involved thrust of considerable magnitude. A deep test for oil and gas, the ARCO 1-4 Kinney Ranch borehole, was drilled 13 km (8 mi) west of Buffalo

J. A. Grow; E. N. Hinrichs; J. J. Miller; M. W. Lee; S. L. Robbins

1988-01-01

100

Big Game Resource in the Powder River Basin Region, Montana--Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The big-game resource in the Powder River Basin Area of Wyoming and Montana is an integral part of the environment. Historically, big-game animals have fared badly as man-induced regional landscape changes have favored domestic livestock and cultivated cr...

W. H. Rickard

1977-01-01

101

Precipitation Reconstructions and Periods of Drought in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to recent drought and stress on water supplies in the Colorado River Compact States, more emphasis has been placed on the study of water resources in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) of Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. The research described here focuses on the creation of long-duration precipitation records for the UGRB using tree-ring chronologies. When combined with existing

M. Follum; A. Barnett; J. Bellamy; S. Gray; G. Tootle

2008-01-01

102

Results of Phase 1 postburn drilling and coring, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site ...

S. R. Lindblom J. R. Covell R. L. Oliver

1990-01-01

103

Results of Phase 1 postburn drilling and coring, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in the Western Research Institute's (WRI) annual project plan for 1988--1989. The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed in the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. In relation to the seven objectives, WRI determined that (1) the ELW cavity extends farther to the west and the CRIP cavity was located 5--10 feet farther to the south than anticipated; (2) roof collapse was contained within unit A in both modules; (3) samples of all major rock types were recovered; (4) insufficient data were obtained to characterize the outflow channels, but cavity stratigraphy was well defined; (5) bore holes near the CRIP points and ignition point did not exhibit characteristics significantly different from other bore holes in the cavities; (6) a fault zone was detected between VIW=1 and VIW-2 that stepped down to the east; and (7) PW-1 was only 7--12 feet below the top of the coal seam in the eastern part of the ELW module area; and CIW-1 was located 18--20 feet below the top of the coal seam in the CRIP module area. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.; Oliver, R.L.

1990-09-01

104

Results of Phase 1 postburn drilling and coring, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in the Western Research Institute's (WRI) annual project plan for 1988--1989. The seven objectives

S. R. Lindblom; J. R. Covell; R. L. Oliver

1990-01-01

105

Magnetostratigraphy of the Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: New constraints on the location of Paleocene\\/Eocene boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lower Eocene Willwood Formation in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming preserves a rich and diverse mammalian and floral record. The paleomagnetic behavior of the sequence of floodplain paleosols of varying degrees of maturation ranges from excellent to poor. We present a magnetostratigraphic section for a composite section near Worland, Wyoming, by using a set of strict criteria for interpreting

L. Tauxe; J. Gee; Y. Gallet; T. Pick; T. Bown

1994-01-01

106

Depositional environments, subsurface stratigraphy, and post-burn characterization of the Paleocene-Eocene Hanna formation at the Hanna, Wyo UCG site: Hanna III experiment. [Hanna III post mortem  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1981 the Laramie Energy Technology Center conducted a post-burn coring program at the Hanna III Underground Coal Gasification site, Hanna, Wyoming. Detailed geologic studies were conducted on the altered and unaltered overburden as well as an analysis of the burn cavity. The overburden consists of about 46m of Paleocene-Eocene Hanna formation above the Hanna No. 1 coal seam used in the burn. The overburden contains two basic lithologic units: Unit A consists of very fine-grained sandstones, siltstones, and claystones deposited as a lacustrine delta. Unit A is immediately above the Hanna No. 1 coal. Unit B is above Unit A and consists of carbonaceous shales and mudstones containing isolated lenticular and tabular sandstone bodies deposited in a meandering fluvial system. The Hanna No. 1 coal accumulated in a poorly drained swamp that was subject to clastic flooding from an adjacent fluvial system. A reactor cavity 26m x 16m x 15m was formed during the burn and partially filled with rubble and three types of pyrometamorphic rock: paralava, paralava breccia, and buchite. The lithology, thickness, and lateral continuity of Unit A had a definite influence on the success of the experiment as the growth of the reactor cavity was contained completely within the lithologic unit.

Youngberg, A.D.; McClurg, J.E.; Schmitt, J.G.

1983-01-01

107

Multidisciplinary analysis of pressure chambers in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. Part 1 and Part 2. Yearly report, second contract year, December 1991  

SciTech Connect

Table of Contents: The Regional Pressure Regime in Cretaceous Sandstones and Shales in the Powder River Basin; Pressure Compartments in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, as Determined from Drill; Geostatistical Methods for the Study of Pressure Compartments: A Case Study in the Hilight Oil Field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming; Stratigraphic Compartmentalization of Reservoir Sandstones: Examples from the Muddy Sandstone, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana; Stratigraphic/Diagenetic Pressure Seal in the Muddy Sandstone, Powder River Basin, Wyoming; Pressure Seal Permeability and Two-Phase Flow; Formation Water Chemistry of the Muddy Sandstone and Organic Geochemistry of the Mowry Shale, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evidence for Mechanism of Pressure Compartment Formation; Velocity Study of Abnormally-Pressured Zones in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming using Sonic Logs; Summary of Published Literature on Anomalous Pressures: Implications for the Study of Pressure Compartments.

Surdam, R.C.

1991-12-01

108

Preliminary Study of Uranium Favorability of Upper Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Lower Eocene Rocks of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an evaluation of the uranium favorability of continental sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Lance, Paleocene Polecat Bench, and lower Eocene Willwood Formations in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, an intermontane structural ba...

J. F. Dunagan S. L. Hesse

1978-01-01

109

Oil springs and flat top anticlines, Carbon County Wyoming: An unusual fold pair  

SciTech Connect

Oil Springs Anticline, northwest of Medicine Bow, Wyoming, and located at the northeast corner of the Hanna Basin, lies near the junction of the Freezeout Hills Anticline, the Shirley thrust fault and the Flat Top Anticline. The surface fold as defined by the outcrop of the Wall Creek Sandstone Member of the Frontier Formation is disharmonic to deeper structure at the level of the Jurassic Sundance Formation. The fold is wedged between two major folds and is the result of a space problem between larger structural elements. The controlling Flat Top Anticline is an excellent example of a fold controlled by a well constrained fault in the Precambrian crystalline basement. The basement is bowed upward and outward to the northwest in the hanging wall of the Flat Top Anticline. The purpose of this paper is to describe the geologic structure of the Oil Springs and Flat Top anticlines and their relationship to the Freezeout Hills and the Hanna Basin. Commercial production of petroleum and natural gas occurs on the west flank of the Laramie-Cooper Lake Basin as far north as the northeast corner of the Hanna Basin. Stone reviewed the producing formations in the Laramie and eastern Hanna basins and noted that 11 commercial accumulations of petroleum and natural gas are directly related to anticlinal structures. Production derived from the Permian-Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone in this region has a special geologic framework. Fields that produce from the Tensleep Sandstone are well defined anticlines bounded by faults or fault systems, a situation also reported by Biggs and Espach, Blackstone and in the Wyoming Geological Association Symposium. The Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in these faulted anticlines are in juxtaposition to potential source rocks of either Jurassic or Cretaceous age in the footwalls of the faults. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Blackstone, D.L. Jr. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States))

1994-04-01

110

ANOMALOUSLY PRESSURED GAS DISTRIBUTION IN THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalously pressured gas (APG) assets, typically called ''basin-center'' gas accumulations, represent either an underdeveloped or undeveloped energy resource in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB). Historically, the exploitation of these gas resources has proven to be very difficult and costly. In this topical report, an improved exploration strategy is outlined in conjunction with a more detailed description of new diagnostic

Ronald C. Surdam

2003-01-01

111

Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind

B. S. Hinckley; H. P. Heasler

1985-01-01

112

Tensleep sandstone stratigraphic-hydrodynamic traps, northeast Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trapping mechanism for the off-structure type of accumulation in the Bighorn Basin has been a controversial subject in geologic literature. The off-structure production in a number of Bighorn Basin fields has been attributed to one or more of the following mechanisms: an updip sand pinchout or loss of porosity, a paleo trap, an unconformity trap, a tar seal, a

Pedry

1975-01-01

113

Carbon and oxygen isotope records from paleosols spanning the Paleocene-Eocene boundary, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic composition of paleosol carbonate and organic matter were investi- gated in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming to explore changes in the carbon cycle and cli- mate across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. In three different measured sections, soil carbonate ? ?13C values change in phase with marine surface water carbonates on both long (?7 m.y.) and short (? ?100 k.y.) time

Paul L. Koch; Marilyn L. Fogel; James C. Zachos

114

Regional thermal-inertia mapping from an experimental satellite ( Powder River basin, Wyoming).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new experimental satellite has provided, for the first time, thermal data that should be useful in reconnaissance geologic exploration. Thermal inertia, a property of geologic materials, can be mapped from these data by applying an algorithm that has been developed using a new thermal model. A simple registration procedure was used on a pair of day and night images of the Powder River basin, Wyoming, to illustrate the method.-from Author

Watson, K.

1982-01-01

115

Conservation Opportunities for Securing In-Stream Flows in the Platte River Basin: A Case Study Drawing on Casper, Wyoming’s MunicipalWater Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Platte River Basin consists of tributaries largely in Wyoming, Colorado and Western Nebraska, with the main stem in Central Nebraska. Critical wildlife habitat on the main stem requires additional in-stream flows. The watershed is one hosting multiple resources, a variety of users, and managed by an array of state and federal agencies. This study proposes a basis for securing

Aaron Waller; Donald McLeod; David Taylor

2004-01-01

116

Analysis of sonic well logs applied to erosion estimates in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

An improved exponential model of sonic transit time data as a function of depth takes into account the physical range of rock sonic velocities. In this way, the model is more geologically realistic for predicting compaction trends when compared to linear or simple exponential functions that fail at large depth intervals. The improved model is applied to the Bighorn basin of northwestern Wyoming for calculation of erosion amounts. This basin was chosen because of extensive geomorphic research that constrains erosion models and because of the importance of quantifying erosion amounts for basin analysis and hydrocarbon maturation prediction. Thirty-six wells were analyzed using the improved exponential model. Seven of these wells, due to limited data from the Tertiary section, were excluded from the basin erosion analysis. Erosion amounts from the remaining 29 wells ranged from 0 to 5600 ft (1700 m), with an average of 2500 ft (800 m).

Heasler, H.P. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Kharitonova, N.A. [Samson International, Tulsa, OK (United States)

1996-05-01

117

New Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Bighorn Basin, North-Central Wyoming and South-Central Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered...

M. J. Pawlewicz T. M. Finn

2007-01-01

118

Detection of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon microseepage in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming using isotopic, biogeochemical, and spectral reflectance techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stable isotope, biogeochemical, and gebotanical reflectance study was conducted at five areas in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. Three of the areas are active hydrocarbon producing fields, including Little Buffalo Basin, Bonanza, and Enigma oil fields. One area contains no surface or subsurface hydrocarbons, the Cody Base area. One area, Trapper Canyon, is a surface tar sand deposit. In

Bammel

1992-01-01

119

Geothermal Resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which inc...

B. S. Hinckley H. P. Heasler

1985-01-01

120

Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind River Basin is generally insufficient to produce high conductive gradients. Only where hydrologic systems re-distribute heat through mass movement of water will high temperatures occur at shallow depths. Aquifers which may have the confinement and structural characteristics necessary to create such geothermal systems are the Lance/Fort Union, Mesa Verde, Frontier, Muddy, Cloverly, Sundance, Nugget, Park City, Tensleep, Amsden, Madison, Bighorn, and Flathead Formations. Of these the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone are the most attractive in terms of both productivity and water quality. Most of the identified geothermal anomalies in the Wind River Basin occur along complex structures in the southwest and south. The most attractive geothermal prospects identified are anomalous Areas 2 and 3 north of Lander, Sweetwater Station Springs west of Jeffrey City, and the thermal springs southwest of Dubois. Even in these areas, it is unlikely temperatures in excess of 130 to 150/sup 0/F can be developed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

1985-01-01

121

Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

1985-06-13

122

Candy Draw: significant new Minnelusa field, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Candy Draw field is located in T53N, R69W, Campbell County, Wyoming. It was discovered by Santa Fe Energy Company in June 1985. Production is from a stratigraphic trap in the lower B sandstone of the Permian Minnelusa Formation. Nine wells are capable of production, and further development is underway. Proven reserves are 9 million bbl of oil. Primary recoverable reserves are calculated at 1 million bbl, or 11% of oil in place. An additional 2 million bbl are estimated to be recoverable from secondary waterflood. Gross ultimate reserves from the nine producing wells are 3 million bbl, or 33% of oil in place. Candy Draw field was discovered by utilizing seismic stratigraphy to confirm regional geologic mapping of the lower B sandstone and overlying Opeche Shale. A lower B sandstone buildup was projected on trend and modeled after Wagonspoke field. Sonic logs were used to construct synthetic seismic models, which indicated that a lower B sandstone buildup could be seen on seismic data. Two seismic lines were acquired with data in the 55 to 65-Hz frequency range. A strike line showed a strong-amplitude anomaly present over the field which matched models that indicated 35 ft of lower B sandstone was present with 25% porosity. Computer modeling indicated that less than 20 ft of sandstone with porosity values of 10 to 12% could not be resolved due to the similar velocity of the Opeche Shale. This was confirmed by development drilling. Modeling from existing well control is critical due to the complex lithology of the Minnelusa Formation. Pitfalls exist, but seismic data have become a valuable tool for Minnelusa exploration.

Gallivan, L.B.; Bjorlie, S.C.

1986-08-01

123

National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Casper Quadrangle, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Casper Quadrangle, Wyoming, was evaluated for areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. Examination of surface exposures of known uranium occurrences, reconnaissance geochemical sampling, and ground radiometric surveys were conducted. Anomalous areas recognized from airborne radiometric surveys were ground checked. Electric and gamma logs were used to determine subsurface structure, stratigraphy, lithology, and areas of anomalous radioactivity. Fourteen areas were found to be favorable for uranium deposits. Nine of these are in sandstone: Wind River Formation of the Wind River and Shirley Basins; Battle Spring and Fort Union Formations of the Red Desert; Hanna Formation of the Hanna Basin; Arikaree Formation of the Granite Mountain area; and Mesaverde Formation at the Nine Mile Lake, North Platte-Clarkson Hill, and Lost Soldier areas. Two areas favorable for vein deposits are along the South Granite Mountain Fault and in the Shirley Mountains. The Wasatach Formation of the Red Desert is favorable for carbonaceous shale deposits, the Heath Peak area for orthomagmatic deposits, and the Moonstone Formation within the Granite Mountains for hydroallogenic deposits. Precambrian conglomerates, granites, and pegmatites, Paleozoic formations, pre-Mesaverde Mesozoic formations, and post-Wind River (Lower Eocene) formations are generally unfavorable.

Griffin, J.R.; Milton, E.J.

1982-09-01

124

Distinguishing Long-Term Controls on Fluvial Architecture in the Lance Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Allogenic processes are considered a prime control on the stratigraphic distribution of channel bodies, however, recent studies have indicated that autogenic stratigraphic organization may occur within fluvial systems on basin- filling time scales (105-106 years). Groupings or clusters of closely-spaced channel bodies can be produced by several different mechanisms, including both allogenic and autogenic processes. Commonly, sand- dominated intervals in stratigraphic successions are interpreted as incised-valley fills produced by base-level changes. In contrast, long-timescale organization of river avulsion can generate similar stratigraphic patterns. For example, sand-dominated intervals in the fluvial Lance Formation (Maastrichtian; Bighorn Basin, WY) have been interpreted as incised-valley fills formed during sea-level lowstand. However, closely-spaced sand bodies in the Ferris Formation (Lance equivalent; Hanna Basin, WY) are interpreted as aggradational in origin, and have been compared to autogenic avulsion stratigraphy produced in experimental basins. We evaluate the Lance Formation in the southern Bighorn Basin in an effort to determine whether these sand-dominated intervals are truly incised- valley fills resulting from sea-level changes, or if they were generated by autogenic processes. The Lance Formation crops out in the western and southern margins of the basin, exposing relatively proximal and distal portions of the system. By comparing alluvial architecture between exposures, we evaluate similarities and differences from upstream to downstream and look for evidence of intrinsic and extrinsic controls on deposition. In both localities, the Lance Formation comprises multi-story sheet sandstones and smaller, single-story sandstones. Observed changes from upstream to downstream in the system include: 1) increasing paleoflow depths (from ~30-60 cm to ~70-120 cm); 2) decreasing preservation of fine-grained material within channel bodies; 3) increasing proportion of amalgamated, multi-story sand bodies; and 4) increasing lateral continuity of multi-story sand bodies. These results indicate that upstream, channel-body spacing is dominantly controlled by aggradational processes and may be the result of autogenic avulsion clustering, whereas downstream, evidence of incision and amalgamation indicate that base-level may have limited and controlled sand-body architecture.

McHarge, J. L.; Hajek, E. A.; Heller, P. L.

2007-12-01

125

Thermal infrared survey of Sunlight Basin, Park County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Thermal infrared surveys were flown over the Sunlight mining region and Sulphur Camp area of the Sunlight Basin to substantiate whether reported fumaroles are indicative of contemporary geothermal activity in the area. Thermal infrared imagery shows areas of warm ground along and warm water discharge into Sunlight Creek and Sulphur Lake. Sulphur deposits are found on north- and south-facing hill slopes associated with a second warm ground anomaly adjacent to Gas Creek. Warming is also manifested in the thermal characteristics of vegetation, and several fumaroles are identifiable. Aeromagnetic data show a 200 gamma low at Sulphur Camp which cannot be explained topographically. Major northeast-trending lineaments provide potential conduits for thermal fluids from the magma plume in Yellowstone National Park, 50 km (30 mi) to the southwest. The floor of the Yellowstone caldera is topographically higher and could provide the necessary hydraulic head to move the fluids outward. Other geothermal resources may exhibit the same characteristics. This example suggests that geothermal resources may occur at considerable distances from a heat source.

Vice, D.H.; Crowley, J.P.; Vice, M.A.

1983-08-01

126

Big game resource in the Powder River Basin Region, Montana--Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The big-game resource in the Powder River Basin Area of Wyoming and Montana is an integral part of the environment. Historically, big-game animals have fared badly as man-induced regional landscape changes have favored domestic livestock and cultivated crops. The last stronghold of big-game animals is in the sparsely populated Western states. Large populations of pronghorned antelope, mule deer, and white-tailed deer reside in the Powder River Basin Area. The two major constraints that keep the present big-game populations in concert with the available range are severe winter weather and regulated hunter harvests. The annual hunter harvest of animals averages about 23,000 antelope and 60,000 deer. The probable effects of extensive coal mining in the region on big-game populations are postulated.

Rickard, W.H.

1977-07-01

127

Depositional history of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Wind River basin area, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-three measured sections of the Dinwoody Formation, including five from the literature, provide information on thickness, lithology, paleontology, and stratigraphic relations within the Wind River basin and immediately adjacent areas of Wyoming. Most of these sections are in Fremont County, and some lie within the Wind River Indian Reservation. The Dinwoody becomes progressively thinner eastward, from a maximum thickness of 54.6 m in the northwestern Wind River Mountains to zero near the Natrona County line. The formation is characterized by yellowish-weathering, gray siltstone and silty shale. Variable amounts of limestone, sandstone, gypsum, and claystone are also present. Marine bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods (Lingula), and conodonts are common in the western part of the study area, but are absent to the northeast in gypsiferous strata, and near the eastern limit of Dinwoody deposition. The Dinwoody in the Wind River Basin area was deposited unconformably on the Upper Permian Ervary Member of the Park City Formation during the initial Mesozoic flood onto the Wyoming shelf during the Griesbachian, and represents the first of three Lower Triassic transgressive sequences in the western miogeocline. Conodonts of the Isarcica Chronozone document the rapid nature of this eastward transgression. The Permian surface underlying the Dinwoody rarely shows evidence of the long hiatus separating rocks of this age and earliest Triassic deposits. The Dinwoody transgression was followed by westward progradation of the Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group across the study area.

Paul, R.K.; Paull, R.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States))

1993-04-01

128

Depositional history of Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana records the northeasternmost extent of the widespread and rapid Griesbachian transgression onto the Wyoming shelf. Depositional patterns document a progressive change from sparsely fossiliferous, inner-shelf marine conditions in the southwest and west to restricted, marginal-marine environments to the north and east. Characteristic lithologies include greenish-gray calcareous or dolomitic mudstone and siltstone, very thin to thick beds of gypsum, and thin-bedded, commonly laminated dolomite. A formation thickness of approximately 20 m persists throughout most of the basin but diminishes abruptly near the northern and eastern limits of deposition. The Dinwoody is disconformable on the Ervay Member of the Permian Park City Formation except in the northeasternmost part of the basin, where it locally overlies the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone. Considering the significant time interval involved, physical evidence at the Permian-Triassic boundary is generally limited to an abrupt lithologic change from light-colored shallow marine or intertidal Permian dolomite to greenish-gray Dinwoody siltstone. The Dinwoody grades vertically as well as laterally to the east and north into red beds of the Lower Triassic Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group. The Early Triassic depositional environment in the present-day Bighorn basin was hostile. A sparse molluscan fauna was observed at only one of the 20 sections studied, and no conodonts were recovered from Dinwoody carbonates. Significant amounts of gypsum within the Dinwoody suggest periodic high evaporation from hypersaline waters on a low-energy shallow shelf during intervals of reduced terrigenous sediment supply from the north and east. However, sufficient organic material was present to create reducing conditions, as evidenced by greenish rock color and abundant pyrite.

Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K.

1986-08-01

129

Origin of thick lower tertiary coal beds in the powder river basin, Wyoming and Montana. Some paleogeographic constraints (Chapter Q). Bulletin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The late Paleocene and early Eocene paleogeography of the Powder River Basin suggests that the thick coals in the basin formed from peat deposits in dip-elongate swamps near the basin-axis trunk streams. The Powder River Basin has more than 80 percent of the coal resources in Wyoming, and therefore factors not related to climate or subsidence rate must be unique

Seeland

1993-01-01

130

Astronomical climate control on paleosol stacking patterns in the upper Paleocene-lower Eocene Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Willwood Formation of the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA) isa thick succession of upper Paleocene and lower Eocene fluvial-floodplainsandstones and mudstones. Reddish paleosols, formed on the floodplainmudstones, alternate rhythmically on various scales with heterolithicintervals of small-channel sandstones and mudstones showingweak pedogenesis. Spectral analysis of redness in the Willwoodsuccessions at Polecat Bench and Red Butte reveals significantspectral peaks corresponding to cycle

Hayfaa Abdul Aziz; Frits J. Hilgen; Gerson M. van Luijk; Appy Sluijs; Mary J. Kraus; Josep M. Pares; Philip D. Gingerich

2008-01-01

131

Enigmatic uppermost Permian-lowermost Triassic stratigraphic relations in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen measured sections in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana provide the basis for an analysis of Permian-Triassic stratigraphic relations. This boundary is well defined to the south where gray calcareous siltstones of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody disconformably overlie the Upper Permian Ervay Member of the Park City Formation with little physical evidence of a significant hiatus. The

R. A. Paull; R. K. Paull

1991-01-01

132

Naktodemasis bowni: New Ichnogenus and Ichnospecies for Adhesive Meniscate Burrows (AMB), and Paleoenvironmental Implications, Paleogene Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesive meniscate burrows (AMB) are common in alluvial paleosols of the Paleogene Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. AMB are sinuous, variably oriented burrows composed of a nested series of distinct, ellipsoidal packets containing thin, tightly spaced menisci subparallel to the bounding packet. Menisci are non-pelleted and texturally homogeneous with each other and the surrounding matrix. AMB were constructed most likely

Jon J. Smith; Stephen T. Hasiotis; Mary J. Kraus; Daniel T. Woody

2008-01-01

133

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, 1980-92.  

EPA Science Inventory

Data summarized in this report are used in companion reports to help define the relations among land use, water use, water quality, and biological conditions. The upper Snake River Basin (1704) is located in southeastern Idaho and northwestern Wyoming and includes small parts of...

134

Genetic structure of cougar populations across the Wyoming basin: Metapopulation or megapopulation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the genetic structure of 5 Wyoming cougar (Puma concolor) populations surrounding the Wyoming Basin, as well as a population from southwestern Colorado. When using 9 microsatellite DNA loci, observed heterozygosity was similar among populations (HO = 0.49-0.59) and intermediate to that of other large carnivores. Estimates of genetic structure (FST = 0.028, RST = 0.029) and number of migrants per generation (Nm) suggested high gene flow. Nm was lowest between distant populations and highest among adjacent populations. Examination of these data, plus Mantel test results of genetic versus geographic distance (P ??? 0.01), suggested both isolation by distance and an effect of habitat matrix. Bayesian assignment to population based on individual genotypes showed that cougars in this region were best described as a single panmictic population. Total effective population size for cougars in this region ranged from 1,797 to 4,532 depending on mutation model and analytical method used. Based on measures of gene flow, extinction risk in the near future appears low. We found no support for the existence of metapopulation structure among cougars in this region.

Anderson, Jr. , C. R.; Lindzey, F. G.; Mcdonald, D. B.

2004-01-01

135

Thin-skinned shortening geometries of the South Fork fault: Bighorn basin, Park County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new interpretation of the South Fork fault in light of thin-skinned thrust theory. Cross sections and seismic data are presented which indicate that the South Fork fault is an allochthonous salient which was emplaced in the Bighorn basin during the early to middle Eocene. All observed structural geometries can be interpreted as developing under a compressional regime, similar to the Wyoming-Utah-Idaho thrust belt. Faults either follow bedding-plane surfaces, cut up section in the direction of tectonic transport or form backthrusts. A single decollement within the Jurassic Gypsum Spring Formation appears to dominate. Tectonic transport was approximately southeast, parallel to tear faults in the allochthonous plate.

Clarey, T.L. (Chevron USA, Inc., New Orleans, LA (USA))

1990-01-01

136

Kriging analysis of mean annual precipitation, Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Kriging is a statistical estimation technique for regionalized variables that exhibit an autocorrelation structure. Such structure can be described by a semi-variogram of the observed data. The punctual-kriging estimate at any point is a weighted average of the data, where the weights are determined by using the semi-variogram and an assumed drift, or lack of drift, in the data. Mean annual precipitation is an important variable when considering restoration of coal strip-mining lands in the Powder River basin, Montana and Wyoming. Two punctual-kriging analyses involving data at 60 stations were made--one assuming no drift in precipitation and one a partial quadratic drift simulating orographic effects. Contour maps of estimates of mean annual precipitation based on a period of 10 years of data were similar for both analyses, as were the corresponding kriging errors.

Karlinger, M.R.; Skrivan, J.A.

1981-05-01

137

Paleotectonic controls on reservoir distribution in Phosphoria formation and related strata, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Porosity development and reservoir distribution in the Permian rocks of the Bighorn basin were strongly controlled by the first- and second-order paleotectonic elements active in the Wyoming shelf. First-order elements, including the Greybull arch, Bighorn high, and an extension of the Yellowstone high, defined the basin geometry and regional paleogeography, influenced the distribution of clastic vs. carbonate lithofacies, and controlled the areal extent and degree of porosity enhancing dolomitization. Second-order tectonic features, related to drape and/or movement along syndepositional basement fault systems, also influenced patterns of Permian sedimentation by providing localized sites of differential subsidence and subtle but persistent paleobathymetric relief. Among the most significant exploration targets in the basin are the trends of peritidal and restricted marine reservoirs in the Franson and Ervay Members. Porous dolomites in these facies developed within and adjacent to two separate shoaling trends. Contrary to popular belief, these trends do not represent true carbonate shorelines. Rather, they define a fairway of discontinuous island-peninsula complexes bounded on the west by more open-marine carbonates and on the east by a broad, restricted lagoon or salina filled with subaqueous evaporites and siliciclastics. The trends of the peritidal facies are centered over underlying tectonic elements. The relatively unexplored fairway in the Franson Member is centered over a northwest-trending extension of the Yellowstone high. Equivalent facies in the Ervay are offset to the east, paralleling the faulted western margin of the ancestral Bighorn high.

Dean, J.S.; Inden, R.F.; Sturm, S.D.

1986-08-01

138

Status Report: USGS coal assessment of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This publication reports on the status of the current coal assessment of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This slide program was presented at the Energy Information Agency's 2006 EIA Energy Outlook and Modeling Conference in Washington, DC, on March 27, 2006. The PRB coal assessment will be the first USGS coal assessment to include estimates of both regional coal resources and reserves for an entire coal basin. Extensive CBM and additional oil and gas development, especially in the Gillette coal field, have provided an unprecedented amount of down-hole geological data. Approximately 10,000 new data points have been added to the PRB database since the last assessment (2002) which will provide a more robust evaluation of the single most productive U.S. coal basin. The Gillette coal field assessment, including the mining economic evaluation, is planned for completion by the end of 2006. The geologic portion of the coal assessment work will shift to the northern and northwestern portions of the PRB before the end of 2006 while the Gillette engineering studies are finalized. 7 refs.

James A. Luppens; Timothy J. Rohrbacher; Jon E. Haacke; David C. Scott; Lee M. Osmonson [USGS, Reston, VA (United States)

2006-07-01

139

Invasive species and coal bed methane development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the fastest growing areas of natural gas production is coal bed methane (CBM) due to the large monetary returns and increased demand for energy from consumers. The Powder River Basin, Wyoming is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of CBM development with projections of the establishment of up to 50,000 wells. CBM disturbances may make the native ecosystem more susceptible to invasion by non-native species, but there are few studies that have been conducted on the environmental impacts of this type of resource extraction. To evaluate the potential effects of CBM development on native plant species distribution and patterns of non-native plant invasion, 36 modified Forest Inventory and Analysis plots (each comprised of four 168-m2 subplots) were established in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. There were 73 168-m2 subplots on control sites; 42 subplots on secondary disturbances; 14 on major surface disturbances; eight on well pads; and seven on sites downslope of CBM wells water discharge points. Native plant species cover ranged from 39.5 ?? 2.7% (mean ?? 1 SE) in the secondary disturbance subplots to 17.7 ?? 7.5% in the pad subplots. Non-native plant species cover ranged from 31.0 ?? 8.4% in the discharge areas to 14.7 ?? 8.9% in the pad subplots. The control subplots had significantly less non-native species richness than the combined disturbance types. The combined disturbance subplots had significantly greater soil salinity than the control sites. These results suggest that CBM development and associated disturbances may facilitate the establishment of non-native plants. Future research and management decisions should consider the accumulative landscape-scale effects of CBM development on preserving native plant diversity. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

Bergquist, E.; Evangelista, P.; Stohlgren, T. J.; Alley, N.

2007-01-01

140

Laramide thrusting of Bighorn Mountains onto Powder River basin near Buffalo, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Recent seismic surveys and exploratory drilling by industry for subthrust oil and gas prospects beneath the Bighorn Mountain front along the western edge of the Powder River basin near Buffalo, Wyoming, reveal a basement-involved thrust of considerable magnitude. A deep test for oil and gas, the ARCO 1-4 Kinney Ranch borehole, was drilled 13 km (8 mi) west of Buffalo and penetrated 750 m (2460 ft) of Precambrian granite gneiss before penetrating the thrust and entering 1475 m (4838 ft) of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and another 2199 m (7214 ft) of Mesozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The Gulf Granite Ridge 1-9-2D borehole, which was drilled 31 km (19 mi) north-northwest of the ARCO borehole and 5 km (3 mi) northwest of Story, Wyoming, penetrated 1768 m (5800 ft) of granite before entering Upper Cretaceous strata. This borehole penetrated a total of 3021 m (9911 ft) of Mesozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. Chevron U.S.A., Inc., supplied to the USGS two very high-quality seismic reflection profiles near the Kinney Ranch and Granite Ridge boreholes. These profiles have been reprocessed by the USGS and integrated with surface geologic mapping, gravity surveys, and other geologic studies by the USGS in progress in the Powder River basin. The seismic profiles near the Kinney Ranch and Granite Ridge boreholes clearly show that sedimentary rocks of the Paleozoic through the Paleocene, which occur beneath the thrust fault, extend more than 11 km (7 mi) west ward from the eastern edge of the basement thrust. The fault plane at the base of the Precambrian granites and gneisses dips 30/degrees/ to the west.

Grow, J.A.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Miller, J.J.; Lee, M.W.; Robbins, S.L.

1988-07-01

141

Viability of underground coal gasification in the 'deep coals' of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to evaluate the PRB coal geology, hydrology, infrastructure, environmental and permitting requirements and to analyze the possible UCG projects which could be developed in the PRB. Project economics on the possible UCG configurations are presented to evaluate the viability of UCG. There are an estimated 510 billion tons of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. These coals are found in extremely thick seams that are up to 200 feet thick. The total deep coal resource in the PRB has a contained energy content in excess of twenty times the total world energy consumption in 2002. However, only approximately five percent of the coal resource is at depths less than 500 feet and of adequate thickness to be extracted by open pit mining. The balance is at depths between 500 and 2,000 feet below the surface. These are the PRB 'deep coals' evaluated for UCG in this report. The coal deposits in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming are thick, laterally continuous, and nearly flat lying. These deposits are ideal for development by Underground Coal Gasification. The thick deep coal seams of the PRB can be harvested using UCG and be protective of groundwater, air resources, and with minimum subsidence. Protection of these environmental values requires correct site selection, site characterization, impact definition, and impact mitigation. The operating 'lessons learned' of previous UCG operations, especially the 'Clean Cavity' concepts developed at Rocky Mountain 1, should be incorporated into the future UCG operations. UCG can be conducted in the PRB with acceptable environmental consequences. The report gives the recommended development components for UCG commercialization. 97 refs., 31 figs., 57 tabs., 1 app.

NONE

2007-06-15

142

Sedimentology, Detrital Zircon Geochronology, and Stable Isotope Paleoaltimetry of the Early Eocene Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large sedimentary basins in Wyoming archive information about tectonic setting and paleotopography during Laramide deformation. In the northwestern corner of the Wind River Basin, the early Eocene Indian Meadows Formation and overlying Wind River Formation are well exposed. Previous studies of fossil assemblages in the two formations place the depositional age in the Wasatchian Land Mammal Age (51-55 Ma). We present results of a multidisciplinary study of sedimentology, detrital geochronology, and isotope paleoaltimetry. Lithostratigraphic data from four measured sections show that the sedimentary environment changed from alluvial fan-debris flow to anastomosing river systems, with paleocurrent directions mostly southward. Clast counts and sandstone modal framework point counts show that the proportions of Precambrian granite clasts, feldspar and lithic fragments increase upsection, indicating the sediment source terrane experienced rapid unroofing during early Eocene. Detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra show that the majority of the sediment was recycled from Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the Sevier thrust belt. One sample from the top of the Indians Meadow Formation mainly contains zircons from Grenville-age basement, which were most likely recycled from Cambrian sandstone. Surprisingly, very few Archean zircons were found as the proportion of basement granite clasts is high. Late Cretaceous-early Paleocene zircons were derived from the magmatic arc, but no depositional age zircons were recovered. The ?18O values of unaltered paleosol carbonate range between -8.5 and -9.8 (VPDB), similar to ?18O values of paleosol carbonate in the Bighorn Basin during early Eocene. Correcting for warmer Eocene global temperature and lower ?18O values of seawater, the inferred ?18O value of early Eocene precipitation is -6.9± 0.7 (VSMOW). The inferred precipitation ?18O value is comparable to that of the modern summer precipitation of the same latitude in the Great Plains, suggesting that the paleoelevation of the early Eocene Wind River Basin and Bighorn Basin was on the order of 500 meters.

Fan, M.; Decelles, P. G.; Gehrels, G. E.; Dettman, D. L.; Peyton, S. L.

2008-12-01

143

William Hanna, 1910-2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Legendary cartoonist William Hanna has died at his home in Los Angeles at age 90. Hanna, along with his partner of over 50 years, Joseph Barbera, created some of the world's best known and most beloved cartoon characters, including Tom and Jerry, the Flintstones, Scooby-Doo, Snagglepuss, Yogi Bear, Huckleberry Hound, and many, many others. Hanna got his start as a lyricist and composer with Harmon-Ising Studios, the company that created the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoon series, in the early 1930s. In 1937 Hanna moved to MGM and soon afterward partnered with Barbera. Their first success was "Puss Gets the Boot," a cat and mouse cartoon that earned an Academy Award nomination and provided the genesis for Tom and Jerry. Between 1943 and 1952 the team won seven Oscars for their animated shorts. After MGM closed its animation division in the 1950s, Hanna and Barbera formed their own company and moved to television, producing numerous successful animated comedies. Probably the best known of these were the Flintstones, a parody of the Honeymooners and the first prime-time cartoon series, and Yogi Bear, who was modeled after Phil Silvers' Sergeant Bilko. Over the years since its creation in 1957 the Hanna-Barbera company developed over 150 cartoon and live-action television series and produced more than 5,000 TV animations, winning eight Emmys in the process. As a testament to the continued appeal of Hanna and Barbera's characters, the Cartoon Network recently created the Boomerang cable network, which exclusively showcases the Hanna-Barbera library.

De Nie, Michael W.

2001-01-01

144

Preliminary results on the characterization of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary low-permeability (tight) gas-bearing rocks in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wind River Basin is a structural and sedimentary basin in central Wyoming (Figure 1) that was created during the Laramide orogeny from Late Cretaceous through Eocene time. The objectives of the Wind River Basin tight gas sandstone project are to defin...

T. D. Fouch W. R. Keefer T. M. Finn

1993-01-01

145

Characterization and fluid flow simulation of naturally fractured Frontier sandstone, Green River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Significant gas reserves are present in low-permeability sandstones of the Frontier Formation in the greater Green River Basin, Wyoming. Successful exploitation of these reservoirs requires an understanding of the characteristics and fluid-flow response of the regional natural fracture system that controls reservoir productivity. Fracture characteristics were obtained from outcrop studies of Frontier sandstones at locations in the basin. The fracture data were combined with matrix permeability data to compute an anisotropic horizontal permeability tensor (magnitude and direction) corresponding to an equivalent reservoir system in the subsurface using a computational model developed by Oda (1985). This analysis shows that the maximum and minimum horizontal permeability and flow capacity are controlled by fracture intensity and decrease with increasing bed thickness. However, storage capacity is controlled by matrix porosity and increases linearly with increasing bed thickness. The relationship between bed thickness and the calculated fluid-flow properties was used in a reservoir simulation study of vertical, hydraulically-fractured and horizontal wells and horizontal wells of different lengths in analogous naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The simulation results show that flow capacity dominates early time production, while storage capacity dominates pressure support over time for vertical wells. For horizontal wells drilled perpendicular to the maximum permeability direction a high target production rate can be maintained over a longer time and have higher cumulative production than vertical wells. Longer horizontal wells are required for the same cumulative production with decreasing bed thickness.

Harstad, H. [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM (United States); Teufel, L.W.; Lorenz, J.C.; Brown, S.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.

1996-08-01

146

Middle Jurassic (Bajocian and Bathonian) dinosaur megatracksites, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two previously unknown rare Middle Jurassic dinosaur megatracksites are reported from the Bighorn Basin of northern Wyoming in the Western Interior of the United States. These trace fossils occur in carbonate units once thought to be totally marine in origin, and constitute the two most extensive Middle Jurassic dinosaur tracksites currently known in North America. The youngest of these occurs primarily along a single horizon at or near the top of the "basal member" of the "lower" Sundance Formation, is mid-Bathonian in age, and dates to ??? 167 ma. This discovery necessitates a major change in the paleogeographic reconstructions for Wyoming for this period. The older tracksites occur at multiple horizons within a 1 m interval in the middle part of the Gypsum Spring Formation. This interval is uppermost Bajocian in age and dates to ??? 170 ma. Terrestrial tracks found, to date, have been all bipedal tridactyl dinosaur prints. At least some of these prints can be attributed to the theropods. Possible swim tracks of bipedal dinosaurs are also present in the Gypsum Spring Formation. Digitigrade prints dominate the Sundance trackways, with both plantigrade and digitigrade prints being preserved in the Gypsum Spring trackways. The Sundance track-bearing surface locally covers 7.5 square kilometers in the vicinity of Shell, Wyoming. Other tracks occur apparently on the same horizon approximately 25 kilometers to the west, north of the town of Greybull. The Gypsum Spring megatracksite is locally preserved across the same 25 kilometer east-west expanse, with the Gypsum Spring megatracksite more extensive in a north-south direction with tracks occurring locally across a 100 kilometer extent. Conservative estimates for the trackway density based on regional mapping in the Sundance tracksite discovery area near Shell suggests that over 150, 000 in situ tracks may be preserved per square kilometer in the Sundance Formation in this area. Comparable estimates have not been made for other areas. Similarities between the two megatracksites include their formation and preservation in upper intertidal to supratidal sediments deposited under at least seasonally arid conditions. Microbial mat growth on the ancient tidal flats apparently initiated the preservation of these prints.

Kvale, E. P.; Johnson, G. D.; Mickelson, D. L.; Keller, K.; Furer, L.; Archer, A.

2001-01-01

147

Evaporite replacement within the Permian strata of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and the Delaware Basin, west Texas and New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Park City and Goose Egg Formations of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming and the Seven Rivers, Yates and Tansill Formations of west Texas and New Mexico contain numerous examples of silicified and calcitized evaporites. Both areas show significant preserved interstitial evaporite, but on outcrop the discrete crystals and nodular evaporites have been extensively replaced. These replacements appear to be a multistage phenomenon. Field and petrographic evidence (matted fabrics in nodules; evaporite inclusions) indicate that silicification involved direct replacement of evaporites and probably occurred during earlier stages of burial. Calcitization, however, appears to be a much later phenomenon and involved precipitation of coarse crystals within evaporite molds. The calcites are typically free of evaporite inclusions. Isotopic analyses of these calcites give a wide range of values from [minus]6.04 to [minus]25.02 [per thousand] [delta][sup 18]O and +6.40 to [minus]25.26 [per thousand] [delta][sup 13]C, reflecting their complex diagenetic histories. In both localities, silicification of evaporites was completed by the end of hydrocarbon migration and emplacement. The extremely broad isotopic range of the calcites indicates that the calcitization occurred during a long period of progressive uplift and increased groundwater circulation associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting. The very light oxygen values within the Bighorn Basin were produced by thermochemical sulfate reduction during deepest burial of the region. Evaporite diagenesis in both the Bighorn and Delaware Basins is an ongoing process that started prior to hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to do significant porosity change.

Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States))

1992-01-01

148

In-place oil shale resources underlying Federal lands in the Green River and Washakie Basins, southwestern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geologic-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated an in-place oil shale resource of 906 billion barrels under Federal mineral rights, or 62 percent of the total oil shale in place, in the Green River and Washakie Basins, Wyoming. More than 67 percent of the total oil shale in-place resource, or 969 billion barrels, is under Federal surface management.

Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

2011-01-01

149

Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water Budget at a Storage Impoundment Site, Beaver Creek Drainage, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of producing wells, from less than 300 in 1997 to more than 10,000 in 2002, with as many as 40,000 new wells projected to be drilled during the next decade. CBM development involves the co-production of large volumes of coalbed

A. A. Payne; D. M. Saffer; J. R. Wheaton; S. Bierbach

2003-01-01

150

Effects of Coal-Bed Methane Discharge Waters on the Vegetation and Soil Ecosystem in Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-bed methane (CBM) co-produced discharge waters in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, resulting from extraction of methane\\u000a from coal seams, have become a priority for chemical, hydrological and biological research during the last few years. Soil\\u000a and vegetation samples were taken from affected and reference sites (upland elevations and wetted gully) in Juniper Draw to\\u000a investigate the effects of

M. Stearns; J. A. Tindall; G. Cronin; M. J. Friedel; E. Bergquist

2005-01-01

151

Tree-Ring-Based Reconstruction of Precipitation in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, since 1260 A.D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cores and cross sections from 79 Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) trees at four sites in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana were used to develop a proxy for annual (June-June) precipitation spanning 1260-1998 A.D. The reconstruction exhibits considerable nonstationarity, and the instrumental era (post-1900) in particular fails to capture the full range

STEPHEN T. G RAY; CHRISTOPHER L. FASTIE; STEPHEN T. J ACKSON; JULIO L. BETANCOURT

2004-01-01

152

Tree-Ring-Based Reconstruction of Precipitation in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, since 1260 a.d  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cores and cross sections from 79 Douglas fir () and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) trees at four sites in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana were used to develop a proxy for annual (June June) precipitation spanning 1260 1998 A.D. The reconstruction exhibits considerable nonstationarity, and the instrumental era (post-1900) in particular fails to capture the full

Stephen T. Gray; Christopher L. Fastie; Stephen T. Jackson; Julio L. Betancourt

2004-01-01

153

Hydrocarbon maturation in Laramide basins - constraints from evolution of northern Big Horn basin, Wyoming and Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal and mechanical models were used to quantify the effects of Laramide uplifts and subsequent synorogenic deposition on the hydrocarbon maturation of Cretaceous source rocks in the Big Horn basin. Laramide deformation and resultant sedimentation has clearly affected hydrocarbon maturation of Cretaceous source rocks. (Thermopolis, Mowry, Frontier, Cody). Modified Lopatin-type reconstructions suggest that a significant region containing Cretaceous source rocks

E. S. Hagen; K. P. Furlong; R. C. Surdam

1984-01-01

154

An oxygen isotope model for interpreting carbonate diagenesis in nonmarine rocks (Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A closed-system model is used for predicting the ??18O of formation waters in the deep portions of the northern Green River basin, Wyoming. ??18Ocalcite is calculated from this modeled water and compared with the ??18O of measured calcites to help interpret diagenesis in the basin. The modification of ??18Owater which may be caused by diagenetic reactions at elevated temperatures, is modeled from two mass-balance equations. Three diagenetic reactions used to modify ??18Owater include: detrital limestone???calcite cement; detrital quartz???quartz cement; and detrital clay???authigenic illite/smectite. A weighted average ??18Owater and ??18O of calcite, quartz and illite/smectite in equilibrium with this water are calculated at 500-m increments. For a closed-system model, calculated variables at one depth are used for input variables at the next depth. An open system can be crudely simulated by adjusting the input variables at each depth. Petrographic and hydrologic data suggest that throughout much of the basin an open hydrochemical system overlies a relatively closed system which is below 3000 m. From the surface to 3000 m deep, ??18Ocalcite measured in sandstone cements deviates from calculated ??18Ocalcite for the closed-system model. Below 3000 m, ??18Ocalcite of cement and bulk shale converge from opposite directions with increasing depth toward the calculated ??18Ocalcite. Adjusting the calculated ??18Ocalcite to match the measured ??18Ocalcite indicates that the deviation above 3000 m results from mixing of meteoric waters with 18O-rich formation water. ?? 1987.

Dickinson, W. W.

1987-01-01

155

Oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales in the Eocene Green River in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. This CD-ROM includes reports, data, and an ArcGIS project describing the assessment. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. Total in-place resources for the three assessed units in the Green River Formation are: (1) Tipton Shale Member, 362,816 million barrels of oil (MMBO), (2) Wilkins Peak Member, 704,991 MMBO, and (3) LaClede Bed of the Laney Member, 377,184 MMBO, for a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place. This compares with estimated in-place resources for the Piceance Basin of Colorado of 1.53 trillion barrels and estimated in-place resources for the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado of 1.32 trillion barrels.

U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

2011-01-01

156

Ground-water and stream-water interaction in the Owl Creek basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding of the interaction of ground-water and surface-water resources is vital to water management when water availability is limited.Inflow of ground water is the primary source ofwater during stream base flow. The water chemistry of streams may substantially be affected by that inflow of ground water. This report is part of a study to examine ground-water and surface-water interaction in the Owl Creek Basin, Wyoming, completed by the U.S. Geological Survey incooperation with the Northern Arapaho Tribe and the Shoshone Tribe. During a low flow period between November\\x1113 - 17, 1991, streamflowmeasurements and water-quality samples were collected at 16 selected sites along major streams and tributaries in the Owl Creek Basin,Wyoming. The data were used to identify stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow and to examine causes of changes in stream chemistry.Streamflow measurements, radon-222 activity load, and dissolved solids load were used to identified stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow.Streamflow measurements identified three stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Analysis of radon-222 activity load identified five stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Dissolvedsolids load identified six stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. When these three methods were combined, stream reaches in two areas, theEmbar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area, were identified as receiving ground-water inflow.The Embar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area were then evaluated to determine the source of increased chemical load in stream water. Three potential sources were analyzed: tributary inflow, surficial geology, and anticlines. Two sources,tributary inflow and surficial geology, were related to changes in isotopic ratios and chemical load in the Embar Area. In two reaches in the Embar Area, isotopic ratios of 18O/16O, D/H, and 34S/32S indicated that tributary inflow affected stream-water chemistry. Increased chemical load of dissolved solids and dissolved sulfate in North Fork andSouth Fork Owl Creek appear to be related to the percentage of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits and of Cretaceous-Jurassic deposits in the drainage area. In the Thermopolis Anticline Area, changes in water chemistry in Owl Creek were not related to tributary inflow, surficial geology, or anticlines.The three tributaries that flow into Owl Creek in the Thermopolis Anticline Area did not substantially affect the isotopic ratios or contribute to the chemical load. Changes in the chemical load were not associated with changes in the surficial geologybetween the stream-water sampling sites. Water levels and chemical ratios indicate no ground-water inflow from the Thermopolis Anticline geothermal system to Owl Creek.

Ogle, K. M.

1996-01-01

157

Ecological Assessment of Streams in the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005-06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring. The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat and riparian zones as well as assessments of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities. All of the components were sampled at 47 sites in the PRB during 2005. A reduced set of components, consisting primarily of macroinvertebrate and fish community assessments, was sampled in 2006. Related ecological data, such as habitat and fish community data collected from selected sites in 2004, also are included in this report. The stream habitat assessment included measurement of channel features, substrate size and embeddedness, riparian vegetation, and reachwide characteristics. The width-to-depth ratio (bankfull width/bankfull depth) tended to be higher at sites on the main-stem Powder River than at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and at sites on tributary streams. The streambed substrate particle size was largest at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and smallest at sites on small tributary streams such as Squirrel Creek and Otter Creek. Total vegetative cover at the ground level, understory, and canopy layers ranged from less than 40 percent at a few sites to more than 90 percent at many of the sites. A bank-stability index indicated that sites in the Tongue River drainage were less at risk of bank failure than sites on the main-stem Powder River. Macroinvertebrate communities showed similarity at the river-drainage scale. Macroinvertebrate communities at sites with mountainous headwaters and snowmelt-driven hydrology, such as Clear Creek, Crazy Woman Creek, and Goose Creek, showed similarity with communities from the main-stem Tongue River. The data also indicated similarity among sites on the main-stem Powder River and among small tributaries of the Tongue River. Data analyses using macroinvertebrate observed/expected models and multimetric indices developed by the States of Wyoming and Montana indicated a tendency toward declining biological condition in the downstream direction along the Tongue River. Biological condition for the main-stem Powder River generally improved downstream, from below Salt Creek to near the Wyoming/Montana border, followed by a general decline downstream from the border to the confluence with the Yellowstone River. The biological condition generally was not significantly different between 2005 and 2006, although streamflow was less in 2006 because of drought. Algal communities showed similarity at the river-drainage scale with slight differences from the pattern observed in the macroinvertebrate communities. Although the algal communities from Clear Creek and Goose Creek were similar to those from the main-stem Tongue River, as was true of the macroinvertebrate communities, the algal communities from Crazy Woman Creek had more similarity to those of main-stem Powder River sites than to the Tongue River sites, contrary to the macroinvertebrates. Ordination of algal communities, as well as diatom metrics including salinity and dominant taxa, indicated substantial variation at two sites along the main stem of the Powder River. Fish communities of the PRB were most diverse in the Tongue River drainage. In part due to the effects of Tongue River Reservoir, 15 species of fish were found in the Tongue River drainage that were not found in the Cheyenne, Belle Fourche,

Peterson, D.A.; Wright P.R.; Edwards, G.P., Jr.; Hargett, E.G.; Feldman, D.L.; Zumberge, J.R.; Dey, Paul

2009-01-01

158

Kriging analysis of mean annual precipitation, Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kriging is a statistical estimation technique for regionalized variables which exhibit an autocorrelation structure. Such structure can be described by a semi-variogram of the observed data. The kriging estimate at any point is a weighted average of the data, where the weights are determined using the semi-variogram and an assumed drift, or lack of drift, in the data. Block, or areal, estimates can also be calculated. The kriging algorithm, based on unbiased and minimum-variance estimates, involves a linear system of equations to calculate the weights. Kriging variances can then be used to give confidence intervals of the resulting estimates. Mean annual precipitation in the Powder River basin, Montana and Wyoming, is an important variable when considering restoration of coal-strip-mining lands of the region. Two kriging analyses involving data at 60 stations were made--one assuming no drift in precipitation, and one a partial quadratic drift simulating orographic effects. Contour maps of estimates of mean annual precipitation were similar for both analyses, as were the corresponding contours of kriging variances. Block estimates of mean annual precipitation were made for two subbasins. Runoff estimates were 1-2 percent of the kriged block estimates. (USGS)

Karlinger, M. R.; Skrivan, James A.

1981-01-01

159

Spectral stratigraphy: multispectral remote sensing as a stratigraphic tool, Wind River/Big Horn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphic and structural analyses of the Wind River and Big Horn basins areas of central Wyoming are in progress. One result has been the development of a new approach to stratigraphic and structural analysis that uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral image data to remotely characterize the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata. New multispectral systems that have only been available since 1982 are used with topographic data to map upper paleozoic and Mesozoic strata exposed on the southern margin of the Bighorn Mountains. Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data together with topographic data are used to map lithologic contacts, measure dip and strike, and develop a stratigraphic column that is correlated with conventional surface and subsurface sections. Aircraft-acquired Airborne Imaging Spectrometer and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data add mineralogical information to the TM column, including the stratigraphic distribution of quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and gypsum. Results illustrate an approach that has general applicability in other geologic investigations that could benefit from remotely acquired information about areal variations in attitude, sequence, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the Earth's surface. Application of their methods elsewhere is limited primarily by availability of multispectral and topographic data and quality of bedrock exposures.

Lang, H.R.; Paylor, E.D.

1987-05-01

160

Testing some models of foreland deformation at the Thermopolis anticline, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Thermopolis anticline is a typical structure in the Rocky Mountain foreland, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Photogeologic interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper data, in combination with the evaluation of topographic, bore hole, seismic reflection, and field data were used to analyze structure and constrain tectonic models. The anticline is near-concentric, asymmetric with a southwest sense of vergence, and plunges to the northwest. The steeply dipping to overturned southwest limb of the fold is cut at the surface by several thrust faults dipping northeast. Approximately 25% of the stratigraphic section on the southwest limb is missing due to faulting. Two east to northeast-striking, basement-controlled compartmental faults segment the anticline into three blocks that apparently deformed simultaneously but probably independently from one another. Slickensides indicate a dominant southwest tectonic transport direction. Additionally, subtle northeast-trending folds are superposed on the dominant northwest structural trend. Structural patterns at Thermopolis anticline can be explained using models that propose a single phase of northeast Laramide compression, combined with shear-zone deformation.

Paylor, E.D.; Lang, H.R.; Conel, J.E.; Adams, S.L. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA)); Muncy, H.L. (Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production, Englewood, CO (USA))

1989-01-01

161

Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data from Wind River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data are limited by MSS spatial resolution (80 m or 262 ft) and bandwidth selection. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data have greatly enhanced spatial resolution (30 m or 98 ft) and TM operates in spectral bands suited to geologic interpretation. To compare the two systems, three images center over the Wind River basin of Wyoming were obtained. Two were TM images - a false color composite (FCC) and a natural color composite (NCC) - and the third was an MSS image. A systematic analysis of drainage, landforms, geologic structure, gross lithologic characteristics, lineaments, and curvilinears was performed on the three images. Drainage density and landform distinction were greatly enhanced on the TM images. Geologic features such as faults, strike and dip, folds, and lithologic characteristics are often difficult to distinguish on the MSS image but are readily apparent on the TM images. The lineament-curvilinear analysis of the MSS image showed longer but less distinct linear features. In comparison, the TM images allowed interpretation of shorter but more distinct linear elements, providing a more accurate delineation of the actual dimensions of the geologic features which these lineaments are thought to represent. An analysis of the oil production present in the study area showed 75% of the surface productive structures were delineated on the TM images, whereas only the most obvious structures were visible on the MSS image.

Geronsin, R.L.; Merry, M.C.

1984-07-01

162

Structural interpretation of the Horse Center anticline, western margin of the Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Horse Center anticline is an asymmetrical structure on the western flank of the Bighorn basin. This type of basin-flank anticline has created structural traps for hydrocarbons throughout the foreland region. While no commercial hydrocarbons have been discovered at Horse Center, significant shows have been found in the Paleozoic section. Cretaceous and Jurassic sands and shales are exposed on the flanks of the structure, with the red beds of the Triassic Chugwater exposed in the core. Seismic data indicate that the Precambrian basement forcing block moves along a high-angle reverse fault. Resultant compressional folding of the overlying sedimentary section creates volumetric adjustments along detachment zones in less competent units. One such feature, a cross-crestal structure, can be observed at the surface, where bedding plane slip in Jurassic shales offsets the southern crest of the anticline. Although the fold axis trends northwest-southeast, typical of many Wyoming foreland structures, there is a distinct shift in vergence from southwest to northeast along the axis of Horse Center. Detailed analysis of well data and seismic data also confirms this change in asymmetry. This change may indicate the presence of a 'compartmental' fault, localized over a zone of weakness in the Precambrian basement. Surface mapping indicates that north of this change, there is an anticlinal/synclinal structural development on the western side of Horse Center. These paired structural suggest a possible 'plunging out' of anticlines, reflecting an en echelon arrangement of structures at depth, rather than a continuity along the axis of Horse Center, as has been previously mapped.

Dutton, L.A. (Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

163

National uranium resource evaluation, Rawlins quadrangle, Wyoming and Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Rawlins Quadrangle (2/sup 0/), Wyoming and Colorado, was evaluated to identify areas that contain environments favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. Data from reconnaissance and detailed surface studies, aerial radiometric surveys, hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance surveys, and subsurface drill-hole log studies were collected and compared to favorability criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The authors delineated 15 areas containing 10 favorable environments as the result of the evaluation. Sandstone uranium environments occur in 11 areas. Two areas contain favorable carbonate uranium environments, and one is favorable for uraniferous lignites. Favorable plutonic environments occur in two areas, and favorable quartz-pebble conglomerates occur in two areas. Unevaluated environments include the Baggot Rocks Granite, the Frontier Formation, the Hanna Formation east of Elk Mountain, and the Medicine Bow and Mesaverde Formations in the Laramie Basin. All remaining areas in the quadrangle are considered unfavorable.

Dribus, J.R.; Nanna, R.F.

1982-06-01

164

Subsurface stratigraphic cross sections of cretaceous and lower tertiary rocks in the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming: Chapter 9 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The stratigraphic cross sections presented in this report were constructed as part of a project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize and evaluate the undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Wind River Basin (WRB) in central Wyoming. The primary purpose of the cross sections is to show the stratigraphic framework and facies relations of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary rocks in this large, intermontane structural and sedimentary basin, which formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous through early Eocene time). The WRB is nearly 200 miles (mi) long, 70 mi wide, and encompasses about 7,400 square miles (mi2) (fig. 1). The basin is structurally bounded by the Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east, the Granite Mountains on the south, and the Wind River Range on the west.

Finn, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

165

Magnetostratigraphy of the Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: New constraints on the location of Paleocene/Eocene boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lower Eocene Willwood Formation in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming preserves a rich and diverse mammalian and floral record. The paleomagnetic behavior of the sequence of floodplain paleosols of varying degrees of maturation ranges from excellent to poor. We present a magnetostratigraphic section for a composite section near Worland, Wyoming, by using a set of strict criteria for interpreting the step-wise alternating field and thermal demagnetization data of 266 samples from 90 sites throughout the composite section. Correlation to the geomagnetic reversal time scale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from this section, from a section in the Clark's Fork Basin in northern Wyoming, and from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 550, with the isotopic date determined on a tuff near the top of our section. Our correlation suggests that the Bighorn Basin composite section in the Worland area spans from within Chron C24r to near the top of Chron C24n, or from approximately 55 to 52 Ma. This correlation places the Paleocene/Eocene boundary within the vicinity of the base of the section. Cryptochron C24r.6 of Cande and Kent is tentatively identified some 100 m above the base of the section. The temporal framework provided here enables correlation of the mammalian biostratigraphy of the Bighorn Basin to other continental sequences as well as to marine records. It also provides independent chronological information for the calculation of sediment accumulation rates to constrain soil maturation rates. We exclude an age as young as 53 Ma for the Paleocene/Eocene boundary and support older ages, as recommended in recent time scales. The location of a tuff dated at 52.8 +/- 0.3 Ma at the older boundary C24n.1 is consistent with the age of 52.5 Ma estimated by Cande and Kent and inconsistent with that of 53.7 Ma, from Harland et al.

Tauxe, L.; Gee, J.; Gallet, Y.; Pick, T.; Bown, T.

1994-07-01

166

Evapotranspiration Retrieval through Optical/Thermal Satellite Imagery and Ground Measurements in the Green River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing methods are increasingly employed in combination with modeling for evapotranspiration estimation because they can provide multi-temporal, spatially-distributed estimates of key variables based on spatially distributed measurements. The approach for estimating evapotranspiration with remotely sensed data couples thermal and optical remote sensing with energy balance models such as: SEBAL, Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land, and METRICtm, Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution using Internalized Calibration. The objective of this study is to investigate how ground measurements and satellite imagery at different scales can be combined to retrieve actual evapotranspiration over large watersheds. Scales of ground measurements are: (1) point scale that is typical for regular meteorological measurements such as air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed; (2) footprint scale that varies from about 5,000 m2 for eddy-covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes to about 5,000,000 m2 for scintillometer sensible heat flux measurements when optical/thermal Landsat and MODIS satellites pass over around 10 am. In our analysis, we focused on evapotranspiration or consumptive use associated with irrigated agriculture in the Green River Basin in Wyoming that is the main headwater tributary of the entire Colorado River Basin. Ground-based meteorological stations, eddy-covariance and large-aperture scintillometers were set up in Pinedale, Green River basin, Wyoming to conduct the research. METRIC is used to retrieve evapotranspiration estimates from Landsat5 (30-120 m resolution) and MODIS (250-1000 m resolution) imagery.

Pradhan, N.; Hendrickx, J. M.; Ogden, F. L.; Wollf, S. W.

2010-12-01

167

Winter ozone formation and VOC incremental reactivities in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in Wyoming experiences ozone episodes in the winter when the air is relatively stagnant and the ground is covered by snow. A modeling study was carried out to assess relative contributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrous acid (HONO) in winter ozone formation episodes in this region. The conditions of two ozone episodes, one in February 2008 and one in March 2011, were represented using a simplified box model with all pollutants present initially, but with the detailed SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism adapted for the temperature and radiation conditions arising from the high surface albedo of the snow that was present. Sensitivity calculations were conducted to assess effects of varying HONO inputs, ambient VOC speciation, and changing treatments of temperature and lighting conditions. The locations modeled were found to be quite different in VOC speciation and sensitivities to VOC and NOx emissions, with one site modeled for the 2008 episode being highly NOx-sensitive and insensitive to VOCs and HONO, and the other 2008 site and both 2011 sites being very sensitive to changes in VOC and HONO inputs. Incremental reactivity scales calculated for VOC-sensitive conditions in the UGRB predict far lower relative contributions of alkanes to ozone formation than in the traditional urban-based MIR scale and that the major contributors to ozone formation were the alkenes and the aromatics, despite their relatively small mass contributions. The reactivity scales are affected by the variable ambient VOC speciation and uncertainties in ambient HONO levels. These box model calculations are useful for indicating general sensitivities and reactivity characteristics of these winter UGRB episodes, but fully three-dimensional models will be required to assess ozone abatement strategies in the UGRB.

Carter, William P. L.; Seinfeld, John H.

2012-04-01

168

Integrating geophysics and geochemistry to evaluate coalbed natural gas produced water disposal, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of methane from thick, extensive coalbeds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. More than 4.1 billion barrels of water have been produced with coalbed natural gas (CBNG) since 1997. Infiltration impoundments, which are the principal method used to dispose CBNG water, contribute to the recharge of underlying aquifers. Airborne electromagnetic surveys of an alluvial aquifer that has been receiving CBNG water effluent through infiltration impoundments since 2001 reveal produced water plumes within these aquifers and also provide insight into geomorphologic controls on resultant salinity levels. Geochemical data from the same aquifer reveal that CBNG water enriched in sodium and bicarbonate infiltrates and mixes with sodium-calcium-sulfate type alluvial groundwater, which subsequently may have migrated into the Powder River. The highly sodic produced water undergoes cation exchange reactions with native alluvial sediments as it infiltrates, exchanging sodium from solution for calcium and magnesium on montmorillonite clays. The reaction may ultimately reduce sediment permeability by clay dispersion. Strontium isotope data from CBNG wells discharging water into these impoundments indicate that the Anderson coalbed of the Fort Union Formation is dewatered due to production. Geophysical methods provide a broad-scale tool to monitor CBNG water disposal especially in areas where field based investigations are logistically prohibitive, but geochemical data are needed to reveal subsurface processes undetectable by geophysical techniques. The results of this research show that: (1) CBNG impoundments should not be located near streams because they can alter the surrounding hydraulic potential field forcing saline alluvial groundwater and eventually CBNG water into the stream, (2) point bars are poor impoundment locations because they are essentially in direct hydraulic communication with the associated stream and because plants readily transpire shallow groundwater within them creating vadose zone salt accumulations that will be dissolved by infiltrating CBNG water, and (3) cation exchange reactions in vadose zone sediments may reduce soil permeability beneath infiltration impoundments through clay dispersion lowering their designed disposal capacity.

Lipinski, Brian Andrew

169

3 Years of Ammonia Monitoring in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-year ammonia air monitoring study was conducted at Boulder, Wyoming, in the Upper Green River Basin - a region experiencing rapid natural gas development with potential consequences of air quality and visibility impacts in the adjacent Class I Bridger Wilderness. The objective of this study is to characterize the local airborne nitrogen budget, specifically concentrations of ammonia and related gases and particles over one year. Samples were collected twice per week beginning December 15, 2006, using coated annular denuders and stacked filters in a URG sampler, analyzed at Colorado State University’s Atmospheric Science Department. NH3 concentrations are variable throughout the year and below 1 ppbv for most of the monitoring period, peaking in August 2007 at 1.55 ppbv (2.8 ppbv in Aug 2008), with a yearly mean value of 0.24 ppbv in 2007 (0.30 pppv in 2008). Concentrations are below or near detectable limits from December through February in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Elevated NH3 concentrations coincide with warmer summer months. A shift in ammonium nitrate equilibrium toward the gas phase might be responsible for some of this increase, although an increase in total reduced nitrogen (ammonium + ammonia) during the summer suggests that changes in emissions and or transport patterns are likely also important contributors. Increasingly strong nitrate and nitric acid cycles lasting several days, characterize the winter months, coinciding with observations of elevated ozone. This phenomenon dies off quickly with the onset of snowmelt. Two special studies were conducted in August 2008 and February/March 2009, representing typical peak summer and late winter conditions. Summer data show diurnal patterns likely driven by photochemical reactions and temperature changes, while winter observations indicate a coincidence of increased nitrogen loading with high ozone periods during stagnant conditions lasting several days. Changes of wind direction and speed in all cases significantly lower this nitrogen burden and high ozone conditions alike.

Schwandner, F. M.; Sewell, H.; Collett, J. L.; Molenar, J. V.; Archuleta, C.; Tigges, M.; Sherman, L.; Li, Y.; Raja, S.

2009-12-01

170

Hydrothermal alteration in research drill hole Y-3, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Y-3, a U.S. Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, reached a depth of 156.7 m. The recovered drill core consists of 42.2 m of surficial (mostly glacial) sediments and two rhyolite flows (Nez Perce Creek flow and an older, unnamed rhyolite flow) of the Central Plateau Member of the Pleistocene Plateau Rhyolite. Hydrothermal alteration is fairly extensive in most of the drill core. The surficial deposits are largely cemented by silica and zeolite minerals; and the two rhyolite flows are, in part, bleached by thermal water that deposited numerous hydrothermal minerals in cavities and fractures. Hydrothermal minerals containing sodium as a dominant cation (analcime, clinoptilolite, mordenite, Na-smectite, and aegirine) are more abundant than calcium-bearing minerals (calcite, fluorite, Ca-smectite, and pectolite) in the sedimentary section of the drill core. In the volcanic section of drill core Y-3, calcium-rich minerals (dachiardite, laumontite, yugawaralite, calcite, fluorite, Ca-smectite, pectolite, and truscottite) are predominant over sodium-bearing minerals (aegirine, mordenite, and Na-smectite). Hydrothermal minerals that contain significant amounts of potassium (alunite and lepidolite in the sediments and illitesmectite in the rhyolite flows) are found in the two drill-core intervals. Drill core y:.3 also contains hydrothermal silica minerals (opal, [3-cristobalite, chalcedony, and quartz), other clay minerals (allophane, halloysite, kaolinite, and chlorite), gypsum, pyrite, and hematite. The dominance of calcium-bearing hydrothermal minerals in the lower rhyolitic section of the y:.3 drill core appears to be due to loss of calcium, along with potassium, during adiabatic cooling of an ascending boiling water.

Bargar, Keith E.; Beeson, Melvin H.

1985-01-01

171

Depositional environments of the Middle Jurassic lower Sundance Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to historical interpretations, the Middle Jurassic lower Sundance Formation in the Bighorn Basin of north---central Wyoming was not the product of solely an open marine environment. This work integrated the influences of tectonics, paleogeography, paleoclimate, rapid sea level fluctuations, and periods of erosion. Nine distinct and laterally extensive facies were recognized through fieldwork and petrography, including shelf, nearshore, lagoon, reworked lagoon, shallow intertidal, tidal flat, supratidal sabkha, eolian, and reworked eolian environments. Three major results of the study are: (1) Petrologic evidence implies that distinctive large cross-stratified sets of ooids deposited during the late Callovian are of eolian origin caused by the deflation of the emergent ooid shoals after eustatic sea level fall. Primary indications for an eolian origin of the cross-strata are climbing translatent stratification produced by migrating wind ripples, pinstripe lamination in the cross-strata, coarsening-upward sequences, and intergranular micrite of vadose origin. The oolitic dunes are the first Mesozoic eolian carbonates ever documented in the Western Interior. (2) Measurements of finely laminated strata of a prevalent lagoonal facies appear to carry an overprint of lamination thickness variations due to climate fluctuations influenced by the 11 - year sunspot cycle. (3) Integrating high spectral resolution remote sensing data from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer) instrument with high spatial resolution NAPP (National Air Photography Program) images allowed the location of small (10m x 10m) but important outcrops of predictable lithology in advance of fieldwork. Although sea level was generally retreating during the Callovian, frequent small-scale transgressions and regressions of the Sundance Sea contributed to the depositional environments of the diverse facies. The Callovian's and climate affected deposition of subaerial and lagoonal facies. Active tectonics to the south and reactivation of Precambrian basement lineaments shaped the paleogeography and exposed new source areas for redistribution of sediments. The interplay of these factors contributed to the varied depositional environments of the lower Sundance Formation.

Strasen, James Leonard

172

Paleoenvironments of Upper Cretaceous Lewis Shale and Fox Hills Formation, south-central Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Maestrichtian Lewis Shale and Fox Hills Formation in south-central Wyoming were deposited during the final major transgression and regression of the North American epicontinental sea. Outcrops of these formations were examined along the margins of the Great Divide, Washakie, Hanna, and Carbon basins. Bore-hole logs from approximately 200 wells within these basins were studied and correlated with outcrops. Lists of fossils from nearly 300 localities were compiled to obtain information on paleoenvironments and to identify stratigraphic positions of fossils indicating ages of the formations. The Lewis Shale is divided into lower and upper, predominantly shale members and the intervening Dad Sandstone Member. The lower shale member contains mostly deep-water marine facies, except in the Hanna basin where it contains sandstone units representing barrier bar facies. The Dad Sandstone was deposited in deep-water to marginal marine environments. Sandstone and interbedded shale units include prodelta turbidite facies, storm-deposited delta front facies, and barrier bar/lagoon facies. The upper shale member represents relatively shallow-water shoreface and delta front facies.

Perman, R.C.

1988-01-01

173

Revised Subsurface Stratigraphic Framework of the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Described in this report is an updated subsurface stratigraphic framework of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and Eocene Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This framework is graphically presented in 17 intersecting west-east and north-south cross sections across the basin. Also included are: (1) the dataset and all associated digital files and (2) digital files for all figures and table 1 suitable for large-format printing. The purpose of this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report is to provide rapid dissemination and accessibility of the stratigraphic cross sections and related digital data to USGS customers, especially the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), to facilitate their modeling of the hydrostratigraphy of the PRB. This report contains a brief summary of the coal-bed correlations and database, and is part of a larger ongoing study that will be available in the near future.

Flores, Romeo M.; Spear, Brianne D.; Purchase, Peter A.; Gallagher, Craig M.

2010-01-01

174

New early eocene anaptomorphine primate (Omomyidae) from the Washakie Basin, Wyoming, with comments on the phylogeny and paleobiology of anaptomorphines.  

PubMed

Recent paleontological collecting in the Washakie Basin, southcentral Wyoming, has resulted in the recovery of over 100 specimens of omomyid primates from the lower Eocene Wasatch Formation. Much of what is known about anaptomorphine omomyids is based upon work in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins of Wyoming. This new sample documents greater taxonomic diversity of omomyids during the early Eocene and contributes to our understanding of the phylogeny and adaptations of some of these earliest North American primates. A new middle Wasatchian (Lysitean) anaptomorphine, Anemorhysis savagei, n. sp., is structurally intermediate between Teilhardina americana and other species of Anemorhysis and may be a sister group of other Anemorhysis and Trogolemur. Body size estimates for Anemorhysis, Tetonoides, Trogolemur, and Teilhardina americana indicate that these animals were extremely small, probably less than 50 grams. Analysis of relative shearing potential of lower molars of these taxa indicates that some were primarily insectivorous, some primarily frugivorous, and some may have been more mixed feeders. Anaptomorphines did not develop the extremes of molar specialization for frugivory or insectivory seen in extant prosimians. Incisor enlargement does not appear to be associated with specialization in either fruits or insects but may have been an adaptation for specialized grooming or food manipulation. PMID:8042695

Williams, B A; Covert, H H

1994-03-01

175

Jonah field, Sublette County, Wyoming: Gas production from overpressured Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Green River Basin  

SciTech Connect

Jonah field, located in the northwestern Green River basin, Wyoming, produces gas from overpressured fluvial channel sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation. Reservoirs exist in isolated and amalgamated channel facies 10-100 ft (3-30 m) thick and 150-4000 ft (45-1210 m) wide, deposited by meandering and braided streams. Compositional and paleocurrent studies indicate these streams flowed eastward and had their source area in highlands associated with the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt to the west. Productive sandstones at Jonah have been divided into five pay intervals, only one of which (Jonah interval) displays continuity across most of the field. Porosities in clean, productive sandstones range from 8 to 12%, with core permeabilities of .01-0.9 md (millidarcys) and in-situ permeabilities as low as 3-20 pd (microdarcys), as determined by pressure buildup analyses. Structurally, the field is bounded by faults that have partly controlled the level of overpressuring. This level is 2500 ft (758 in) higher at Jonah field than in surrounding parts of the basin, extending to the top part of the Lance Formation. The field was discovered in 1975, but only in the 1990s did the area become fully commercial, due to improvements in fracture stimulation techniques. Recent advances in this area have further increased recoverable reserves and serve as a potential example for future development of tight gas sands elsewhere in the Rocky Mountain region.

Montgomery, S.L.; Robinson, J.W. [Synder Oil Corp., Denver, CO (United States)

1997-07-01

177

Geothermal resources of the Green River Basin, Wyoming, including thermal data for the Wyoming portion of the Thrust Belt  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources of the Green River basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth is tabulated. It was concluded that large areas are underlain by water at temperatures greater than 120/sup 0/F. Although much of this water is too deep to be economically tapped solely for geothermal use, oil and gas wells presently provide access to this significant geothermal resource. Isolated areas with high temperature gradients exist. These areas - many revealed by hot springs - represent geothermal systems which might presently be developed economically. 34 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs. (ACR)

Spencer, S.A.; Heasler, H.P.; Hinckley, B.S.

1985-01-01

178

Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data are from analyses performed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, with some analyses made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet that is included in the CD-ROM. These Wyoming Fischer assays and histograms are part of a much larger collection of oil-shale information, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses on the Green River oil-shale deposits in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming held by the U.S. Geological Survey. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM containing Fischer assay data and oil-yield histograms for the Green River oil-shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming is being released to the public. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets included with Chapter 2 contain the Fischer assay data from the 426 holes and data on the company name and drill-hole name, and location. Histograms of the oil yields obtained from the Fischer assays are presented in both Grapher and PDF format. Fischer assay text data files are also included in the CD-ROM.

U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

2008-01-01

179

Mixed sediment deposition in a retro-arc foreland basin: Lower Ellis Group (M. Jurassic), Wyoming and Montana, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ``lower'' Ellis Group (M. Jurassic) of northern Wyoming and southern Montana affords an excellent opportunity to examine the influence of tectonics, sea-level change, and incipient topography on facies dynamics and the evolution of mixed sediment ramp deposits. The Sawtooth, Piper, and Gypsum Spring formations (Bajocian to Callovian) represent sedimentation along the forebulge of a retro-arc foreland basin. The ``lower''

William C. Parcell; Monica K. Williams

2005-01-01

180

Mixed sediment deposition in a retro-arc foreland basin: Lower Ellis Group (M. Jurassic), Wyoming and Montana, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “lower” Ellis Group (M. Jurassic) of northern Wyoming and southern Montana affords an excellent opportunity to examine the influence of tectonics, sea-level change, and incipient topography on facies dynamics and the evolution of mixed sediment ramp deposits. The Sawtooth, Piper, and Gypsum Spring formations (Bajocian to Callovian) represent sedimentation along the forebulge of a retro-arc foreland basin. The “lower”

William C. Parcell; Monica K. Williams

2005-01-01

181

Petrology and reservoir paragenesis in the Sussex B sandstone of the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale, House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This book of reservoir paragenesis includes detailed descriptions of the petrology of depositional facies of the Sussex B sandstone of the Sussex Sandstone Member of the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale in the House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming.

Not Available

1992-01-01

182

Petrology and reservoir paragenesis in the Sussex 'B' sandstone of the upper Cretaceous Cody Shale, House Creek and Porcupine Fields, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Using petrologic and sedimentologic studies, the paper characterizes the influence of sedimentologic and petrologic variations on reservoir heterogeneity in the Sussex 'B' sandstone in the House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Effects of authigenic minerals on reservoir properties are described in detail for selected inter-ridge and ridge facies sandstones.

Higley, D.K.

1991-05-03

183

Water Budget and Modeling of Stream Channel Infiltration of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water at a Storage Impoundment Site, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of producing wells, with as many as 40,000 new wells projected to drilled during the next decade. CBM development involves the co-production of large volumes of coalbed water, which is most commonly discharged to impoundments. Little is known about the

A. A. Payne; D. M. Saffer

2004-01-01

184

Basin analysis of Upper Cretaceous strata of the Washakie and Red Desert basins, southwestern Wyoming, employing computer-generated maps and cross sections  

SciTech Connect

The Washakie and Red Desert basins comprise the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basins of southwestern Wyoming. Stratigraphically the basins are dominated by a thick package of Cretaceous clastic sediments, as much as 16,000 ft thick, which resulted from several major transgressive-regressive cycles. Upper Cretaceous strata deposited during the latest cycle contain extensive deposits of commercial hydrocarbons, particularly gas. Much of the present structural configuration of the area is the result of the Laramide Orogeny in Late Cretaceous time. To facilitate a comprehensive geological analysis of the area a computerized subsurface data base was constructed from available well logs for approximately 3,000 wells in the Washakie and Red Desert basins. This data base contains correlated tops for most of the major Upper Cretaceous stratigraphic units, including selected subdivisions and net sand thickness values. Consistent correlations were achieved through the use of a tight, loop-tied cross section and key well network containing over 400 correlated well-logs. A complete suite of structure contour maps on all correlated horizons was generated from the data base with commercially available software. These maps, along with selected computer-generated structural cross sections, reveal a detailed subsurface picture of the Washakie and Red Desert basins. Isopachous maps of selected intervals were also produced to illustrate the Late Cretaceous depositional history of the area.

Kohles, K.M.; Potts, J. (Geological Data Services, Dallas, TX (United States)); Reid, F.S.

1991-03-01

185

Laramide basin subsidence and basement uplift in Rocky Mountain foreland of Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wind River Range in western Wyoming is an excellent natural laboratory for studying a Laramide uplift. A COCORP seismic profile provides geometric control, and tectogenic sediments record the history of uplift and erosion. The stratigraphy and provenance of these sediments indicate a complex Laramide and later tectonic history for the range and identify the timing and position of individual

Steidtmann

1988-01-01

186

The History of Dinosaur Footprint Discoveries in Wyoming with Emphasis on the Bighorn Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dinosaur traces are well known from the western United States in the Colorado Plateau region (Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona). Utah contains the greatest abundance of known and documented dinosaur footprints and trackways. Far less well known, however, is the occurrence and distribution of dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons in Wyoming. Scientific studies over the past 10 years have shown that

Erik P. Kvale; Debra L. Mickelson; Stephen T. Hasiotis; Gary D. Johnson

2004-01-01

187

Soil salinity patterns in Tamarix invasions in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) is an exotic, invasive shrub of riparian corridors in the western United States that can promote soil salinization via leaf exudates as Tamarix litter accumulates on the soil surface. Tamarix stands occur in association with big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus), and cottonwood (Populus deltoides) in northern Wyoming, depending on topographic position. Revegetation of Tamarix-invaded sites

C. G. Ladenburger; A. L. Hild; D. J. Kazmer; L. C. Munn

2006-01-01

188

The history of dinosaur footprint discoveries in Wyoming with emphasis on the Bighorn basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dinosaur traces are well known from the western United States in the Colorado Plateau region (Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona). Utah contains the greatest abundance of known and documented dinosaur footprints and trackways. Far less well known, however, is the occurrence and distribution of dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons in Wyoming. Scientific studies over the past 10 years have shown that three of the four Middle and Upper Jurassic formations in northern Wyoming contain dinosaur footprints. Two of the footprint-bearing horizons are located in geologic intervals that were once thought to have been deposited in offshore to nearshore marine settings and represent rare North American examples of Middle Jurassic (Bajocian and Bathonian) dinosaur remains. Some of these new Wyoming sites can be correlated to known dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons or intervals in Utah. Wyoming has a great potential for additional discoveries of new dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons, and further prospecting and study is warranted and will ultimately lead to a much better understanding of the geographic distribution and behavior of the potential footprint-makers. ?? Taylor and Francis Inc.

Kvale, E. P.; Mickelson, D. L.; Hasiotis, S. T.; Johnson, G. D.

2003-01-01

189

Geology of the Pumpkin Buttes Area of the Powder River Basin, Campbell and Johnson Counties, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

About 200 uranium occurrences have been examined in the Pumpkin Buttes area, Wyoming. Uranium minerals are visible at most of these places and occur in red and buff sandstone lenses in the Wasatch formation of Eocene age. The uranium minerals are disseminated in buff sandstone near red sandstone, and also occur in red sandstone in manganese oxide concretions and uraninite concretions.

Sharp, William Neil; White, Amos McNairy

1956-01-01

190

Trapper Canyon Deposit, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming: tar sand or heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trapper Canyon Deposit (Battle Creek Deposit in US Bureau of Mines Monograph 12) is located on the western flank of the Bighorn Mountains approximately 30 mi (48 km) east of Greybull, Wyoming. The petroleum occurs in the upper eolian sequence of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone which dips from 5° to 8° to the southwest. The deposit was initially reported

A. J. Verploeg; R. H. Debruin

1983-01-01

191

Streamflow Reconstructions and Periods of Drought in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper Green River represents a vital water supply region for southwestern Wyoming and Upper \\/ Lower Colorado River Compact states. Rapid development in the southwestern U.S. (e.g., Las Vegas, Phoenix) combined with the recent drought has greatly stressed the water supply system of the Colorado River. This has resulted in increased interest in the Colorado River Compact and related

A. Barnett; T. Watson; S. T. Gray; G. Tootle

2007-01-01

192

Description and correlation of Eocene rocks in stratigraphic reference sections for the Green River and Washakie basins, southwest Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphic reference sections of the Wasatch, Green River, and Bridger (Washakie) Formations were measured on outcrops in the Green River and Washakie basins adjacent to the Rock Springs uplift in southwest Wyoming. The Washakie basin reference section is 7,939 feet thick and consists of 708 beds that were measured, described, and sampled to evaluate the origin, composition, and paleontology of the rocks. The reference section in the Green River basin is 6,587 feet thick and consists of 624 beds that were measured and described but were not sampled. Columnar sections that have been prepared combine information on the stratigraphic nomenclature, age, depositional environments, lithologies, and fossils of each bed in the reference sections. Eocene strata in the Green River and Washakie basins have been correlated biostratigraphically, chronostratigraphically, and lithostratigraphically. The time boundaries of the lower, middle, and upper Eocene rocks in the reference sections are located partly from biostratigraphic investigations and partly from chronostratigraphic investigations. The time boundaries agree with North American land mammal ages. Major stratigraphic units and key marker beds correlated between the reference sections appeared similar in thickness and lithology, which suggests that most depositional events were contemporaneous in both basins. Rocks sampled in the Washakie basin reference section were examined petrographically and were analyzed using heavy mineral separations, X-ray techniques, and assays. The mineralogy suggests that source rocks in the lower part of the Eocene were mostly of plutonic origin and that source rocks in the upper part of the Eocene were mostly of volcanic origin. Economically significant beds of oil shale and zeolite were identified by the analyses. 51 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

Roehler, H.W.

1992-01-01

193

Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Bighorn Basin Province, which encompasses about 6.7 million acres in north-central Wyoming and southern Montana. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, petroleum generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined two total petroleum systems: (1) Phosphoria, and (2) Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite. Within these two systems, eight assessment units (AU) were defined, and undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated within each AU.

U.S. Geological Survey Bighorn Basin Assessment Team

2010-01-01

194

Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Wind River Basin Province which encompasses about 4.7 million acres in central Wyoming. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined three TPSs: (1) Phosphoria TPS, (2) Cretaceous-Tertiary TPS, and (3) Waltman TPS. Within these systems, 12 Assessment Units (AU) were defined and undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated within 10 of the 12 AUs.

U.S. Geological Survey Wind River Basin Assessment Team

2007-01-01

195

Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. As of January 2007, permits for more than 4000 impoundments had been issued within Wyoming. A study was conducted on changes in water and sediment chemistry as water from an impoundment infiltrated the subsurface. Sediment cores were collected prior to operation of the impoundment and after its closure and reclamation. Suction lysimeters were used to collect water samples from beneath the impoundment. Large amounts of chloride (12,300 kg) and nitrate (13,500 kg as N), most of which accumulated naturally in the sediments over thousands of years, were released into groundwater by infiltrating water. Nitrate was more readily flushed from the sediments than chloride. If sediments at other impoundment locations contain similar amounts of chloride and nitrate, impoundments already permitted could release over 48 x 106 kg of chloride and 52 x 106 kg of nitrate into groundwater in the basin. A solute plume with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations at times exceeding 100,000 mg/L was created in the subsurface. TDS concentrations in the plume were substantially greater than those in the CBNG water (about 2300 mg/L) and in the ambient shallow groundwater (about 8000 mg/L). Sulfate, sodium, and magnesium are the dominant ions in the plume. The elevated concentrations are attributed to cation-exchange-enhanced gypsum dissolution. As gypsum dissolves, calcium goes into solution and is exchanged for sodium and magnesium on clays. Removal of calcium from solution allows further gypsum dissolution.

Healy, R. W.; Rice, C. A.; Bartos, T. T.; McKinley, M. P.

2008-01-01

196

Element concentrations in bed sediment of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical data for bed sediment were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin in parts of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming. The primary data set consisted of about 13,000 samples collected during 1974-79 for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Data were available for 50 elements, although not all samples were analyzed for all elements. Element concentrations varied spatially and were associated with geologic settings or ecoregions. Factor analysis indicated three groups of associated elements: factor 1 elements were strongly correlated with basaltic rocks, factor 2 elements were strongly correlated with granitic rocks, and factor 3 elements were strongly correlated with carbonate rocks. Scores for factor 1 were highest for bed-sediment samples associated with volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age in the Absaroka volcanic field and crystalline rocks of Precambrian age in the Beartooth Mountains. Scores for factor 2 were highest for samples associated with volcanic rocks of Quaternary age on the Yellowstone Plateau, crystalline rocks of Precambrian age, and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age in the Wyoming Basin ecoregion. Scores for factor 3 were highest in samples associated with sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age and volcanic rocks of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Descriptive statistics are presented to serve as a baseline for element concentrations in bed sediment associated with eight geologic settings or ecoregions in the study unit. Some of the concentrations of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in bed-sediment samples from areas of crystalline rocks in the Beartooth Mountains and other formations in the western part of the study unit exceeded sediment-quality assessment values associated with toxic effects to aquatic life.

Peterson, D. A.; Zelt, R. B.

1999-01-01

197

The potential for coalbed gas exploration and production in the Greater Green River Basin, southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Coalbed gas is an important source of natural gas in the United States. In 1993, approximately 740 BCF of coalbed gas was produced in the United States, or about 4.2% of the nation`s total gas production. Nearly 96% of this coalbed gas is produced from just two basins, the San Juan (615.7 BCF; gas in place 84 TCF) and Black Warrior (105 BCF; gas in place 20 TCF), and current production represents only a fraction of the nation`s estimated 675 TCF of in-place coalbed gas. Coal beds in the Greater Green River Basin in southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado hold almost half of the gas in place (314 TCF) and are an important source of gas for low-permeability Almond sandstones. Because total gas in place in the Greater Green River Basin is reported to exceed 3,000 TCF (Law et al., 1989), the basin may substantially increase the domestic gas resource base. Therefore, through integrated geologic and hydrologic studies, the coalbed gas potential of the basin was assessed where tectonic, structural, and depositional setting, coal distribution and rank, gas content, coal permeability, and ground-water flow are critical controls on coalbed gas producibility. Synergism between these geologic and hydrologic controls determines gas productivity. High productivity is governed by (1) thick, laterally continuous coals of high thermal maturity, (2) basinward flow of ground water through fractured and permeable coals, down the coal rank gradient toward no-flow boundaries oriented perpendicular to the regional flow direction, and (3) conventional trapping of gas along those boundaries to provide additional sources of gas beyond that sorbed on the coal surface.

Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Scott, A.R.; Hamilton, D.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1997-01-01

198

Fold axis-parallel rotation within the Laramide Derby Dome Fold, Wind River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Derby Dome, a doubly plunging anticline (7×3 km) on the eastern flank of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, trends NW–SE in response to the regional NE–SW directed shortening of the Cretaceous–Eocene Laramide orogeny. Mesozoic sediments are exposed around the fold hinge above an east-dipping thrust fault that offsets Archean crystalline rocks at depth. Stress and strain ellipsoidal data were determined

John P Craddock; Monica Relle

2003-01-01

199

Subsurface cross section of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Powder River basin is one of the most actively explored Rocky Mountain basins for hydrocarbons, yet the lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) rocks of this interval remain little studied. As a part of a program studying the evolution of sedimentary basins, approximately 3200 km of cross section, based on more than 50 combined geophysical and lithologic logs, have been

David L. Macke

1988-01-01

200

Geology of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River Basin is a structural and topographic basin occupying an area of about 20,000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming arid southeastern Montana. The Basin is about 230 miles long in a northwest-southeast direction and is about 100 miles wide. It is bounded on three sides by mountains in which rocks of Precambrian age are exposed. The Basin is asymmetrical with a steep west limb adjacent to the Bighorn Mountains and a gentle east limb adjacent to the Black Hills. Sedimentary rocks within the Basin have a maximum thickness of about 18,000 feet and rocks of every geologic period are represented. Paleozoic rocks are about 2,500 feet thick and consist of marine bonate rocks and sandstone; Mesozoic rocks are about 9,500 feet thick and consist of both marine and nonmarine siltstone and sandstone; and Cenozoic rocks are from 4,000 to 6,000 feet thick and consist of coal-bearing sandstone and shale. Radioactive waste could be stored in the pore space of permeable sandstone or in shale where space could be developed. Many such rock units that could be used for storing radioactive wastes are present within the Powder River Basin. Permeable sandstone beds that may be possible reservoirs for storage of radioactive waste are present throughout the Powder River Basin. These include sandstone beds in the Flathead Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Deadwood Formation, the Tensleep Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Minnelusa Formation and the Sundance Formation in rocks of pre-Cretaceous age. However, most of the possible sandstone reservoirs are in rocks of Cretaceous age and include sandstone beds in the Fall River, Lakota, Newcastle, Frontier, Cody, and Mesaverde Formations. Problems of containment of waste such as clogging of pore space and chemical incompatibility would have to be solved before a particular sandstone unit could be selected for waste disposal. Several thick sequences of impermeable shale such as those in the Skull Creek, Mowry, Frontier, Belle Fourche, Cody, Lewis, and Pierre Formations, occur in rocks of Cretaceous age in the Basin. Limited storage space for liquid waste might be developed in impermeable shale by fracturing the shale and space for calcined or fused waste could be developed by mining cavities.

Beikman, Helen M.

1962-01-01

201

Stratigraphic overview of upper Cretaceous (early Campanian-Late Maestrichtian) Montana Group, Powder River basin, Wyoming: implications for complex interplay between eustatic sea level fluctuations, sedimentation rates, and intraforeland basin subsidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isopach maps of chronostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic units from the Late Cretaceous (early Campanian-late Maestrichtian) Montana Group of the Powder River basin, Wyoming, reveal a complex interplay between eustatic sea level fluctuations, sedimentation rates, and intraforeland basin subsidence rates. The Montana Group is characterized by numerous asymmetrical, coarsening- and thickening-upward, progradational deltaic, strand-plain, and\\/or shallow-marine deposits that thin eastward and merge

E. R. Gustason; P. E. Devine; J. McClurg; C. J. Rappold

1989-01-01

202

Stratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous Muddy Formation and the drainage pattern of its paleovalleys, Wind River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Valley-fill deposits of the Lower Cretaceous Muddy Sandstone contain significant stratigraphically trapped hydrocarbon accumulations and are an important exploration target in Wyoming's Bighorn, Powder River, and eastern Wind River basins. An integrated subsurface and outcrop study of the Muddy Sandstone in the western Wind River basin was conducted in order to determine (1) if Muddy paleovalleys and are present there, (2) if potential for stratigraphic traps exists, and (3) if source rocks of sufficient quality and maturity are able to charge the Muddy reservoirs. The results of the study reveal that the Muddy Sandstone (up to 100 ft thick) contains a series of unconformity bounded progradational shoreface deposits, separated by a valley-fill sequence (up to 60 ft thick). In general, the Muddy Formation is divided into three informal zones: (1) a lower marine zone, containing at least two progradational shoreface highstand parasequences; (2) a middle zone, which consists of a lowstand fluvial/estuarine valley-fill sequence (8-10 mi wide); and (3) an upper marine zone, containing at least three landward-stepping highstand shoreface parasequences. In the southwestern Wind River Basin, the Muddy paleovalley trend is north-northwest, parallel to the present-day structural trend of the Wind River thrust and its parasitic anticlines. However, instead of continuing into the potentially prospective northwestern Wind River basin, the paleovalley makes an abrupt 90{degree} turn westward, a few miles north of Ft. Washakie. A detailed understanding of how Muddy paleovalley drainage reacts to basement faults could become a key predictive tool for future Muddy exploration in the northern Rocky Mountains.

Bold, M.C. van den (BP Exploration, Houston, TX (United States)); Johnson, S.R.; Gustason, E.R. (BP Exploration, Anchorage, AK (United States))

1991-03-01

203

Tectonically influenced sedimentation in the Lance Formation eastern Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facies analyses of the Maastrichtian Lance Formation in two areas of the Wind River Basin indicate deposition in fluvio-deltaic environments. The facies architecture of the fluvial deposits in the upper Lance Formation was strongly influenced by Laramide basin subsidence. The lower Lance in the basin axis contains strata deposited in a prograding delta along a low-energy shoreline. Delta-front deposits are

J. M. Gillespie; J. E. Fox

2008-01-01

204

Fluvial and glacial implications of tephra localities in the western Wind River basin, Wyoming, U. S. A  

SciTech Connect

Examination of Quaternary fluvial and glacial deposits in the western Wind River Basin allows a new understanding of the Quaternary Wind River fluvial system. Interbedded fluvial sediments and volcanic ashes provide important temporal information for correlation of Quaternary deposits. In the western Wind River Basin, six mid-Pleistocene localities of tephra, the Muddy Creek, Red Creek, Lander, Kinnear, Morton and Yellow Calf ashes are known. Geochronologic studies confirm the Muddy Creek, Red Creek, Kinnear and Lander ashes as the 620--650ka Lava Creek tephra from the Yellowstone region in northwestern Wyoming. The stratigraphic position and index of refraction of volcanic glass from the Morton and Yellow Calf ashes are consistent with identification as Lava Creek tephra. Approximately 350 feet (106 meters) above the Wind River and 13 miles downstream from Bull Lake, interbedded Wind River fluvial gravels, volcanic glass and pumice at the Morton locality correlate to late (upper) Sacajawea Ridge gravels mapped by Richmond and Murphy. Associated with the oxygen isotope 16--15 boundary, the ash-bearing terrace deposits reveal the nature of the Wind River fluvial system during late glacial-early interglacial times. The Lander and Yellow Calf ashes, are found in terrace deposits along tributaries of the Wind River. Differences in timing and rates of incision between the Wind River and its tributary, the Little Wind River, results in complex terrace development near their junction.

Jaworowski, C. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-04-01

205

Enigmatic uppermost Permian-lowermost Triassic stratigraphic relations in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen measured sections in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana provide the basis for an analysis of Permian-Triassic stratigraphic relations. This boundary is well defined to the south where gray calcareous siltstones of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody disconformably overlie the Upper Permian Ervay Member of the Park City Formation with little physical evidence of a significant hiatus. The Dinwoody is gradationally overlain by red beds of the Red Peak Formation. The Dinwoody this to zero near the state line. Northward, the erathem boundary is enigmatic because fossils are absent and there is no evidence of an unconformity. Poor and discontinuous exposures contribute to the problem. Up to 20 m of Permian or Triassic rocks or both overlie the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone in the westernmost surface exposures on the eastern flank of the Bighorn basin with physical evidence of an unconformity. East of the exposed Tensleep, Ervay-like carbonates are overlain by about 15 m of Dinwoody-like siltstones interbedded with red beds and thin dolomitic limestone. In both areas, they are overlain by the Red Peak Formation. Thin carbonates within the Dinwoody are silty, coarse algal laminates with associated peloidal micrite. Carbonates north of the Dinwoody termination and above probably Ervay are peloidal algal laminates with fenestral fabric and sparse coated shell fragments with pisoids. These rocks may be Dinwoody equivalents or they may be of younger Permian age than the Ervay. Regardless, revision of stratigraphic nomenclature in this area may bed required.

Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States))

1991-06-01

206

Spatially Explicit Modeling of Grazing Effect on Soil Organic Carbon Change in the Green River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper grazing can improve ecosystem production and enhance carbon sequestration, while overgrazing can lead to net emission of carbon into the atmosphere. It is challenging to quantify the impacts of grazing at a regional scale owing to the spatial and temporal changes of biophysical settings and land management practices. In this study, we quantified and evaluated impacts of grazing intensity on the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) across the Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming using a biogeochemical model (EDCM--erosion-deposition-carbon model) and remotely sensed data. We simulated responses of ecosystem carbon stocks (including SOC) and fluxes to various grazing scenarios. Results based on these simulations indicate that: (1) sagebrush-dominated shrublands accumulated less soil carbon than did grass-dominated area; (2) grazing could lead to a greater decrease in production and SOC in the shrubland than in the grassland under the same intensity and (3) a grazing intensity of 0.03 animal units per hectare could reduce SOC at a rate of 3.1 gC/m2/yr in shrublands, but SOC changed little in grasslands during 30 years of simulated responses. Our model simulations also show that conversion of shrubland to grassland can enhance soil carbon sequestration in the Green River Basin.

Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Tan, Z.

2007-12-01

207

Genetic stratigraphy of the Williams Fork Formation, Sand Wash Basin, Colorado and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Williams Fork Formation forms the upper part of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Sand Wash basin. The formation can be divided into four genetic depositional sequences each bounded by regionally extensive, low-resistivity shale markers. The markers are continuous across the basin, extending from the southeastern margin to the southern Flank of the Rock Springs uplift. Recognizing these bounding surfaces

1993-01-01

208

Geology and oil production of the Ervay (Phosphoria) reservoirs, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ervay consists of carbonate ramp sediments deposited under conditions of varying sea level. On the east flank of the Bighorn Basin, the Ervay displays two major, regionally correlative, shallowing-upward cycles that vary in lithofacies across the basin. West of this area, the Ervay contains four regional cycles. Within each cycle, lithofacies tracts lie subparallel to northwest-trending Permian uplifts. From

E. B. Coalson; R. F. Inden

1990-01-01

209

Airborne Electromagnetic Surveys Coupled With Hydrogeochemical Data to Enhance Near Surface Aquifer Investigations in an Area of Active Coalbed Natural Gas Production, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing environmental effects from the disposal of water coproduced with coalbed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming is complex. Over 30,000 CBNG wells are currently in production with another 30,000 to be installed within the next 20 years. Each well pumps between 100-400 barrels of water per day over an average operating life of seven years. Produced

B. Lipinski; J. Sams; W. Harbert

2005-01-01

210

Geology and resource appraisal of the Felix coal deposits, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: a research project with the People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Felix coal bed in Eocene age rocks crops out on the eastern flank of the Powder River basin in northeastern Wyoming, where the outcrop trace of the Felix encompasses an area of 2,500 sq mi. To facilitate area resource assessment at a 1:100,000 scale, 'deposit' was defined as the principal resource unit of Felix coal. The deposit contains a

B. H. Kent; J. N. Weaver; S. B. Roberts; T. Ming; L. Shu

1988-01-01

211

Significance of Different Modes of Rhizolith Preservation to Interpreting Paleoenvironmental and Paleohydrologic Settings: Examples from Paleogene Paleosols, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different modes of preservation of root traces (rhizoliths) provide information on soil-moisture regimes in alluvial paleosols in the Paleogene Fort Union and Willwood formations of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A. This paper links different styles of rhizolith preservation to paleosols whose other pedogenic attributes provide information on ancient soil drainage. Consequently, the paleodrainage significance of different rhizolith preservation patterns is

MARY J. KRAUS; STEPHEN T. HASIOTIS

2006-01-01

212

PALEOCENE-EOCENE LAND MAMMALS FROM THREE NEW LATEST CLARKFORKIAN AND EARLIEST WASATCHIAN WASH SITES AT POLECAT BENCH IN THE NORTHERN BIGHORN BASIN, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractBMammals,are described from three wash sites in a 4-5 meter thick inter- val of brown paleosols,at the south end of Polecat bench,in the northern bighorn Basin, Wyoming. T he sites lie within the lower part of the Paleocene-Eocene carbon,isotope excursion (Cie) and,are intermediate stratigraphically between beds yielding late Clarkforkian and early Wasatchian mammals,known previous- ly. The first site, the SC-435

pHIlIp D. GInGERICH

213

Detection of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon microseepage in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming using isotopic, biogeochemical, and spectral reflectance techniques  

SciTech Connect

A stable isotope, biogeochemical, and gebotanical reflectance study was conducted at five areas in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. Three of the areas are active hydrocarbon producing fields, including Little Buffalo Basin, Bonanza, and Enigma oil fields. One area contains no surface or subsurface hydrocarbons, the Cody Base area. One area, Trapper Canyon, is a surface tar sand deposit. In each area numerous reflectance spectra were measured and leaf samples collected from sagebrush over and surrounding the fields. At Bonanza and Trapper Canyon, sagebrush plants were also growing directly in hydrocarbon impregnated formations. Unusually low [delta][sup 13]C values of calcite were found in calcite-bearing samples over the Little Buffalo Basin Field. The systematic distribution of these low [delta][sup 13]C values is correlated with the subsurface oil and gas production axis. Significant distinctions between the surface hydrocarbon occurrences at Trapper Canyon and Bonanza Seeps are highlighted by chemical differences in sagebrush leaves. At Trapper Canyon relatively high concentrations of aluminum and iron are found. Sagebrush leaves at the Bonanza Seeps contain relatively low concentrations of calcium and potassium, and a relatively high amount of organic material. Analyses from sagebrush growing over subsurface commercial hydrocarbon deposits tend to be relatively low in magnesium and relatively high in sodium. The increase in sodium may indicate subsurface reservoirs without regard to their hydrocarbon content. The results of the geobotanical reflectance study shows that a significant blue shift of the green peak and red trough positions is the most reliable indicator of hydrocarbon-induced stress in sagebrush plants, and can only be detected where the sage is actually growing in visible surface or near-surface hydrocarbons. Spectral reflectance intensity data have no significant correlation with the presence of surface or subsurface hydrocarbons.

Bammel, B.H.

1992-01-01

214

The geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Norris Geyser Basin is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone Caldera, one of the largest volcanic features of its type in the world. Hydrothermal activity may have been continuous for {gt}100,000 years B.P. Norris Basin includes the highest erupting geyser of recent water types, colors of organisms and inorganic precipitates, frequent changes in activity and chemistry, and very high subsurface temperatures ({gt}240{degrees}C). Norris Basin is only a part of the Norris-Mammoth Corridor that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. Norris Basin has a heat flow roughly 10 percent of that of the Yellowstone Caldera and requires an estimated 0.01 km{sup 3} of rhyolitic magma per year-a quantity far greater than the corridor's rate of eruption.

White, D.E.; Keith, T.E.C. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Hutchinson, R.A. (US National Park Service (US))

1988-01-01

215

Hydrogeologic features of the alluvial deposits in the Greybull River valley, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The alluvial aquifer along the Greybull River in Wyoming, consists principally of the Greybull terrace doposits and flood-plain alluvium but also includes Burlington terrace deposits east of Burlington, the McKinnie terrace, and the younger, generally undissected alluvial-fan deposits. Well-log data and 18 surface-resistivity measurements at four localities indicate that the thickness of the alluvial aquifer is as much as 60 feet thick only near Burlington and Otto. The most favorable area for development of ground water from the alluvial aquifer is near Burlington and Otto where relatively large amounts of water can be obtained from the Greybull terrace deposits and the flood-plain alluvium. Elsewhere, the deposits of the alluvial aquifer yield only small amounts of water to wells. (Woodard-USGS)

Cooley, M. E.; Head, W. J.

1979-01-01

216

Stress and strain evolution in foreland basins and its relation to the structural style : insights from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rocky Mountains in western US provide amongst the best examples of thick-skinned tectonics: following the thin-skinned Sevier orogeny, the subsequent compressional reactivation of basement faults gave birth to the so-called Laramide uplifts/arches. The Bighorn basin, located in Wyoming, is therefore a key place to study the stress evolution during the transition from thin- to thick-skinned tectonics in orogenic forelands in terms of structural, microstructural and stress/strain evolution. We report the results of the analyses of fracture populations, inversion of fault-slip data and calcite twin data for stress as well as of calcite twinning paleopiezometry performed in two famous Laramide basement-cored structures located on each side of the basin: the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline (RMA) and the Sheep Mountain Anticline (SMA). The comparison between the stress evolution in both folds allows to unravel (i) the pattern of both paleostress orientations and magnitudes and their evolution in time and space and (ii) the tectonic history at the basin scale. Structural and microstructural analyses show that both folds share similar kinematics. Most of the fractures are related to three main events: the Sevier thin-skinned contraction, the Laramide thick-skinned contraction, and the Basin and Range extension. During the thin-skinned period, in the innermost part of the foreland, the stress regime evolved from strike-slip to reverse while it remained strike-slip in the outermost part of the basin. Moreover, some fracture sets related to layer-parallel shortening during the early Sevier contraction formed only close to the Sevier deformation front and remained poorly expressed further away. Stress attenuation toward the craton interior is thus clearly shown by the dataset and illustrates the prominent role of the distance to the front of deformation in the way fracture sets developed in orogenic forelands. Alternatively, during the thick-skinned period, the evolution of stress trends and magnitudes is quite similar throughout the whole basin. In such context, differential stress magnitudes seem to be primarily controlled by the structure and the kinematics of the basement-cored anticlines themselves. This in turn suggests that basement faults were active since the very beginning of the Laramide shortening phase. In contrast to previous studies, our work thus supports the influence of the tectonic style on the evolution of stress magnitudes in orogenic forelands.

Beaudoin, N.; Leprêtre, R.; Bellahsen, N.; Lacombe, O.; Amrouch, K.; Callot, J.-P.; Emmanuel, L.; Daniel, J.-M.

2012-04-01

217

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends.

NONE

1998-08-28

218

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends.

Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

1999-02-01

219

Environmental setting of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural and anthropogenic factors influence water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin. Physiography parallels the structural geologic setting that is generally composed of several uplifts and structural basins. Contrasts in climate and vegetation reflect topographic controls and the midcontinental location of the study unit. Surface-water hydrology reflects water surpluses in mountainous areas that are dominated by snowmelt runoff, and arid to semiarid conditions in the plains that are dissected by typically irrigated valleys in the remainder of the study unit. Principal shallow aquifers are Tertiary sandstones and unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Human population, though sparsely distributed in general, is growing most rapidly in a few urban centers and resort areas, mostly in the northwestern part of the basin. Land use is areally dominated by grazing in the basins and plains and economically dominated by mineral-extraction activities. Forests are the dominant land cover in mountainous areas. Cropland is a major land use in principal stream valleys. Water use is dominated by irrigated agriculture overall, but mining and public-supply facilities are major users of ground water. Coal and hydrocarbon production and reserves distinguish the Yellowstone River Basin as a principal energy-minerals resources region. Current metallic ore production or reserves are nationally significant for platinum-group elements and chromium.The study unit was subdivided as an initial environmental stratification for use in designing the National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation that began in 1997. Ecoregions, geologic groups, mineral-resource areas, and general land-cover and land-use categories were used in combination to define 18 environmental settings in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is expected that these different settings will be reflected in differing water-quality or aquatic-ecological characteristics.

Zelt, Ronald B.; Boughton, G. K.; Miller, K. A.; Mason, J. P.; Gianakos, L. M.

1999-01-01

220

Mammalian community response to the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: An isotaphonomic study in the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New stratigraphic and paleontological information from the McCullough Peaks, northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, is incorporated into an isotaphonomic faunal database and used to investigate the impact of the latest Paleocene thermal maximum and coincident earliest Wasatchian immigration event on local mammalian community structure. Surface collections from Willwood Formation overbank deposits provide taphonomically consistent and stratigraphically resolved samples of the medium- to large-sized components of underlying mammalian communities. Rarefaction shows that the immigration event caused an abrupt and dramatic increase in species richness and evenness. After this initial increase, diversity tapered off to more typical Wasatchian levels that were still higher than those in the preceding Clarkforkian. Wasatchian immigrants were rapidly incorporated into the new community organization, representing ˜20% of the taxa and ˜50% of the individuals. Immigrant taxa generally had larger body sizes and more herbivorous and frugivorous dietary habits compared to endemic taxa, causing significant turnover in body-size structure and trophic structure. There was a significant short-term body-size decrease in many lineages that may have been prompted by the elevated temperatures and/or decreased latitudinal thermal gradients during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum. Rapid short-term climatic change (transient climates) and associated biotic dispersal can have abrupt and long-lasting effects on mammalian community evolution.

Clyde, William C.; Gingerich, Philip D.

1998-11-01

221

Astronomical climate control on paleosol stacking patterns in the upper Paleocene-lower Eocene Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Willwood Formation of the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA) isa thick succession of upper Paleocene and lower Eocene fluvial-floodplainsandstones and mudstones. Reddish paleosols, formed on the floodplainmudstones, alternate rhythmically on various scales with heterolithicintervals of small-channel sandstones and mudstones showingweak pedogenesis. Spectral analysis of redness in the Willwoodsuccessions at Polecat Bench and Red Butte reveals significantspectral peaks corresponding to cycle thicknesses of ~8 and~3 m. The ~8 m cycle reflects distinct clusters of 3-5paleosols. Age constraints show that the period of this cycleclosely matches the ~21 k.y. climatic precession cycle. The~3 m cycle corresponds to individual paleosols, with a periodof 7-8 k.y. This period is similar to millennial-scalesub-Milankovitch cycles found in marine and lacustrine successionsof Pliocene-Pleistocene age. Precession and millennial-scaleclimate variations probably affected paleosol development throughcyclic changes from predominantly overbank to predominantlychannel-avulsion deposition, with the latter periodically haltingsoil formation because of high sediment accumulation. A newage model was developed for the Paleocene-Eocene carbon isotopeexcursion (CIE) at Polecat Bench, based on the precessionalorigin of paleosol clusters. The main body of the CIE spans~5.5 precession cycles, or ~115 k.y., and the recovery tailof the CIE spans 2 precession cycles, or ~42 k.y. This outcomeis consistent with, and independently confirms, recent estimatesof CIE duration based on deep-sea cores.

Aziz, Hayfaa Abdul; Hilgen, Frits J.; van Luijk, Gerson M.; Sluijs, Appy; Kraus, Mary J.; Pares, Josep M.; Gingerich, Philip D.

2008-07-01

222

Preliminary report on coal resources of the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project by the U.S. Geological Survey is designed to assess US coal with the greatest potential for development in the next 20 to 30 years. Coal in the Wyodak-Anderson (WA) coal zone in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana is plentiful, clean, and compliant with EPA emissions standards. This coal is considered to be very desirable for development for use in electric power generation. The purpose of this NCRA study was to compile all available data relating to the Wyodak- Anderson coal, correlate the beds that make up the WA coal zone, create digital files pertaining to the study area and the WA coal, and produce a variety of reports on various aspects of the assessed coal unit. This report contains preliminary calculations of coal resources for the WA coal zone and is one of many products of the NCRA study. Coal resource calculations in this report were produced using both public and confidential data from many sources. The data was manipulated using a variety of commercially available software programs and several custom programs. A general description of the steps involved in producing the resource calculations is described in this report.

Ellis, Margaret S.; Gunther, Gregory L.; Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, Allen M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Roberts, Steven B.; Taber, Thomas T.; Bader, Lisa R.; Schuenemeyer, John H.

1998-01-01

223

Age of uranium mineralization at the Highland mine, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, as indicated by U-Pb isotope analyses  

SciTech Connect

Most of the uranium deposits in the Powder River basin occur at various stratigraphic levels in the Wasatch Formation of Eocene age, but pollen and spores found in the Highland mine host rocks indicate that the deposits here may be in the upper part of the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age. Analyses of U-Pb isotopes in several samples of ore from the Highland mine were made in order to compare the apparent age of mineralization of this deposit with that of host rocks of equivalent age at Gas Hills, Crooks Gap, and Shirley basin, Wyoming. The samples used for age determinations were collected in the southernmost of a series of open pit mines and in the uppermost of the three host units. All samples contain only reduced uranium minerals which are mainly coprecipitated mixtures of pitchblende and coffinite. Sample EP17-7 consists of ore at the boundary with oxidized yellow sandstone and sample EP17-8 of ore 6 m (20 ft) from the interface with oxidized sandstone. Sample J represents calcite-cemented ore from a thin zone at the base of the upper host sandstone unit (lower limb ore). The others are randomly selected grab samples of mineralized material in the ore deposit at the same level as EP-17-7. With the exception of sample J, all samples were collected from exposures of ore on the pit floor 60 m (200 ft) below the original land surface and at an elevation of 5,060 feet. Sample J came from the pit floor at an elevation of about 5,040 ft.

Santos, E.S.; Ludwig, K.R.

1983-05-01

224

Structural relationship of the Beartooth Mountains and Big Horn basin in south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Geologic structure along the Beartooth Mountain front and adjacent Big Horn basin in south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming has been the subject of considerable debate for many years. Directional drilling by Amoco Production Company, located on the northeast corner of the Beartooth block, indicates three things. (1) Western Big Horn basin Paleozoic and Mesozoic sections recumbently folded 2 mi (3.2 km) under the northeast corner of the Beartooth block, measured horizontally from the surface exposure of the Beartooth fault. (2) The main Beartooth fault dips 19{degrees} northwest at a depth of 8,300 to 8,400 ft (2,530 to 2,560 km), 1 mi (1.6 km) from the surface exposure of the main Beartooth fault. (3) The main Beartooth fault appears to be a component of a complex fault system which horizontally displaces and faults-out formations in both the Paleozoic and Mesozoic section on the upper limb of the recumbent fold. In addition to the drilling data, interior Beartooth Mountain faults, with dominant northeast and east-west structural orientation, show reactivation of left-lateral movement, intersecting the Beartooth front and offsetting Paleozoic and Mesozoic sections 1-2 mi (1.6-3.2 km) horizontally. Reactivation of some of these faults seems to coincide with the intrusion of Tertiary (Eocene ) igneous bodies along some of the same structural trends. Beartooth front fold orientation and fault movement correlated with a reexamination of internal block fault systems lend additional weight to the argument of horizontal compression as a major factor in late Laramide formation of geologic structure along the northeast face of the Beartooth Mountains.

Clark, D.M. (Exodus-Exploration Inc., Billings, MT (United States))

1991-06-01

225

Exploration for shallow compaction-induced gas accumulations in sandstones of the Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Commercial quantities of gas have been produced from shallow sandstone reservoirs of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin. The two largest accumulations discovered to date, Oedekoven and Chan pools, were drilled on prospects which invoked differential compaction as a mechanism for gas entrapment and prospect delineation. Coal-sourced bacterial gas may have accumulated in localized structural highs early in the burial history of lenticular sand bodies and associated sediments. Structural relief is due to the compaction contrast between sand and stratigraphically equivalent fine-grained sediments. A shallow gas play targeting sandstones as potential reservoirs was initiated in the Recluse area in response as sources for bacterial gas, and the presence of lenticular sandstones that may have promoted the development of compaction structures early in the burial process, to which early-formed bacterial gas migrated. Prospects were ranked based on a number of geologic elements related to compaction-induced trap development. Drilling of the Oedekoven prospect, which possessed all prospect elements, led to the discovery and development of the Oedekoven Fort Union gas pool, which has produced nearly 2 BCF of gas from a depth of 340 ft. Production figures from the Oedekoven and Chan pools demonstrate the commercial gas potential of Fort Union sandstone reservoirs in the Powder River Basin. The shallow depths of the reservoirs, coupled with low drilling and completion costs, an abundance of subsurface control with which to delineate prospects, and an existing network of gas-gathering systems, make them attractive primary targets in shallow exploration efforts as well as secondary objectives in deeper drilling programs.

Oldham, D.W. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1997-01-01

226

Thin-skinned shortening geometries of the South Fork fault: Bighorn basin, Park County, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new interpretation of the South Fork fault in light of thin-skinned thrust theory. Cross sections and seismic data are presented which indicate that the South Fork fault is an allochthonous salient which was emplaced in the Bighorn basin during the early to middle Eocene. All observed structural geometries can be interpreted as developing under a compressional

Clarey

1990-01-01

227

Tectonic controls on deposition and preservation of Pennsylvanian Tensleep Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

During deposition of the Tensleep Formation, a shallow, semirestricted portion of a major seaway that occupied the geosynclinal area to the west extended into the area of the present-day Bighorn basin. Limiting the transgression of this sea was the Beartooth high on the north and the Bighorn high on the east and southeast. On the western side of the area,

O. Kelly Anne; J. C. Horne; D. M. Wheeler; C. E. Musgrave

1986-01-01

228

Distinguishing Long-Term Controls on Fluvial Architecture in the Lance Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allogenic processes are considered a prime control on the stratigraphic distribution of channel bodies, however, recent studies have indicated that autogenic stratigraphic organization may occur within fluvial systems on basin- filling time scales (105-106 years). Groupings or clusters of closely-spaced channel bodies can be produced by several different mechanisms, including both allogenic and autogenic processes. Commonly, sand- dominated intervals in

J. L. McHarge; E. A. Hajek; P. L. Heller

2007-01-01

229

Facies and facies architecture of Paleogene floodplain deposits, Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleogene deposits of the Willwood Formation were analyzed in two areas of the Bighorn Basin to provide a better understanding of the facies and facies arrangement of floodplain deposits and the various processes that influence floodplain construction and facies variability. Despite similar facies and facies organization, floodplain deposits in the two areas differ in grain size, hydromorphy and maturity of

Mary J. Kraus; Brian Gwinn

1997-01-01

230

Little Buffalo Basin, Wyoming, Tensleep heterogeneity--its influence on infill drilling and secondary recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heterogeneity study of the Tensleep reservoir in the Little Buffalo Basin field, Wyo., revealed that extensive cross-bedding, permeability variation, and fracture orientation have influenced and will continue to influence recovery from the reservoir. Well spacing has been reduced from 40 to 20 acres in areas of the field that would not otherwise have been efficiently depleted. The infill development

W. R. Emmett; K. W. Beaver; J. A. McCaleb

1969-01-01

231

A history of the oil business in the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a historical account of the discovery and development of the Big Horn Basin. It discusses the exploration and drilling history; government purchases and leasing programs; development of geophysical survey techniques; oil and gas market history; impacts of World War II; and production history.

Hares, C.J.

1988-01-01

232

Trapper Canyon Deposit, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming: tar sand or heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

The Trapper Canyon Deposit (Battle Creek Deposit in US Bureau of Mines Monograph 12) is located on the western flank of the Bighorn Mountains approximately 30 mi (48 km) east of Greybull, Wyoming. The petroleum occurs in the upper eolian sequence of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone which dips from 5/sup 0/ to 8/sup 0/ to the southwest. The deposit was initially reported by N.H. Darton in US Geological Survey Professional Paper 51 in 1906. A characterization study was made on the deposit which included mapping the deposit and surrounding area, measuring three stratigraphic sections in the Tensleep Sandstone, and sampling 13 outcrop localities. Thickness of the deposit ranged from 0 to 22.5 ft (6.8 m) in the 13 sample localities. Preliminary analyses of outcrop samples indicate API gravities and viscosities consistent with the definition of a tar sand. Oil properties are similar to those published for Phosphoria-sourced oils produced from the Tensleep Sandstone in fields to the west. Lateral pinch-out of the deposit, tight characteristics of upper and lower bounding units, and the lack of any apparent structural controls in the area, are all evidence for a stratigraphic trapping mechanism. Recoverable reserves are estimated at 1.96 million bbl over a 67-acre (27 ha) area.

Verploeg, A.J.; Debruin, R.H.

1983-08-01

233

The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Norris Geyser Basin, normally shortened to Norris Basin, is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone caldera at the common intersection of the caldera rim and the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. An east-west fault zone terminates the Gallatin Range at its southern end and extends from Hebgen Lake, west of the park, to Norris Basin. No local evidence exists at the surface in Norris Basin for the two oldest Yellowstone volcanic caldera cycles (~2.0 and 1.3 m.y.B.P.). The third and youngest cycle formed the Yellowstone caldera, which erupted the 600,000-year-old Lava Creek Tuff. No evidence is preserved of hydrothermal activity near Norris Basin during the first 300,000.years after the caldera collapse. Glaciation probably removed most of the early evidence, but erratics of hot-spring sinter that had been converted diagenetically to extremely hard, resistant chalcedonic sinter are present as cobbles in and on some moraines and till from the last two glacial stages, here correlated with the early and late stages of the Pinedale glaciation <150,000 years B.P.). Indirect evidence for the oldest hydrothermal system at Norris Basin indicates an age probably older than both stages of Pinedale glaciation. Stream deposits consisting mainly of rounded quartz phenocrysts of the Lava Creek Tuff were subaerial, perhaps in part windblown and redeposited by streams. A few small rounded pebbles are interpreted as chalcedonic sinter of a still older cycle. None of these are precisely dated but are unlikely to be more than 150,000 to 200,000 years old. ...Most studies of active hydrothermal areas have noted chemical differences in fluids and alteration products but have given little attention to differences and models to explain evolution in types. This report, in contrast, emphasizes the kinds of changes in vents and their changing chemical types of waters and then provides models for explaining these differences. Norris Basin is probably not an independent volcanic-hydrothermal system. The basin and nearby acid-leached areas (from oxidation of H2S-enriched vapor) are best considered as parts of the same system, extending from Norris Basin to Roaring Mountain and possibly to Mammoth. If so, are they parts of a single large system centered within the Yellowstone caldera, or are Norris Basin and the nearby altered areas both parts of one or more young independent corridor systems confined, at least in the shallow crust, to the Norris-Mammoth Corridor? Tentatively, we favor the latter relation, probably having evolved in the past ~300,000 years. A model for large, long-lived, volcanic-hydrothermal activity is also suggested, involving all of the crust and upper mantle and using much recent geophysical data bearing on crust-mantle interrelations. Our model for large systems is much superior to previous suggestions for explaining continuing hydrothermal activity over hundreds of thousands of years, but is less attractive for the smaller nonhomogenized volcanic system actually favored here for the Norris-Mammoth Corridor.

White, Donald Edward; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E. C.

1988-01-01

234

Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface waters in the Wind River basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report gives results of an investigation by the U. S. Geological Survey of chemical quality of surface waters and sedimentation in the Wind River Basin, Wyo. The sedimentation study was begun in 1946 to determine the quantity of sediment that is transported by the streams in the basin; the probable sources of the sediment; the effect of large irrigation projects on sediment yield, particularly along Fivemile Creek; and the probable specific weight of the sediment when initially deposited in a reservoir. The study of the chemical quality of the water was begun in 1945 to obtain information on the sources, nature, and amounts of dissolved material that is transported by streams and on the suitability of the waters for different uses. Phases of geology and hydrology pertinent to the sedimentation and chemical quality were studied. Results of the investigation through September 30, 1952, and some special studies that were made during the 1953 and 1954 water years are reported. The rocks in the Wind River Basin are granite, schist, and gneiss of Precambrian age and a thick series of sedimentary strata that range in age from Cambrian to Recent. Rocks of Precambrian and Paleozoic age are confined to the mountains, rocks of Mesozoic age crop out along the flank of the Wind River and Owl Creek Mountains and in denuded anticlines in the floor of the basin, and rocks of Tertiary age cover the greater part of the floor of the basin. Deposits of debris from glaciers are in the mountains, and remnants of gravel-capped terraces of Pleistocene age are on the floor of the basin. The lateral extent and depth of alluvial deposits of Recent age along all the streams are highly variable. The climate of the floor of the basin is arid. The foothills probably receive a greater amount of intense rainfall than the areas at lower altitudes. Most precipitation in the Wind River Mountains falls as snow. The foothill sections, in general, are transitional zones between the cold, humid climate of the high mountains and the warmer, drier climate of the basin floor. Average annual runoff in the basin is about 3.6 inches on the basis of adjusted streamflow records for the Bighorn River near Thermopolis. Runoff from the mountains is high and is mostly from melting of snow and from spring and early summer rains. It does not vary greatly from year to year because annual water losses are small in comparison to annual precipitation. In the areas on the floor of the basin, where runoff is low, the runoff is mostly the result of storms in late spring and early summer. The annual water losses nearly equal the annual precipitation; therefore, runoff is extremely variable, in terms of percentage changes, from year to year and from point to point during any 1 year.

Colby, B. R.; Hembree, C. H.; Rainwater, F. H.

1956-01-01

235

Chapter A. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the South Platte River basin, Colorado and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 basins along an urban land-use gradient in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, from 2002 through 2003. Study basins were chosen to minimize natural variability among basins due to factors such as geology, elevation, and climate and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among basins. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated in a multimetric urban intensity index to represent the degree of urban development in each study basin. Physical characteristics studied included stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied included nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and fecal bacteria concentrations; and biological characteristics studied included algae, fish, and invertebrate communities. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin. Commonly observed effects of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased flashiness, higher magnitude and more frequent peak flows, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure, generally were not observed in this study. None of the hydrologic, temperature, habitat, or chemical variables were correlated strongly (Spearman's rho greater than or equal to 0.7) with urban intensity, with the exception of some of the SPMD-based toxicity and chemical variables. SPMD-based measures of potential toxicity and PAH concentrations were positively correlated with urban intensity. The PAH concentrations also were positively correlated with measures of road density and negatively correlated with distance to the nearest road, indicating that automobile exhaust is a major source of these compounds in the study area. This source may be localized enough that the transport of PAHs would be minimally affected by water-management practices such as diversion or storage upstream. In contrast, the predominant sources of nutrients, bacteria, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and pesticides may be more dispersed throughout the drainage area and, therefore, their transport to downstream sites may be subject to greater disruption by water regulation. Although no direct link was found between most water-chemistry characteristics and urbanization, invertebrate, algae, and fish-community characteristics were strongly associated with nutrients, pesticides, sulfate, chloride, and suspended sediment. None of the biological community variables were strongly correlated with the urban intensity index. Algal biomass predominantly was associated with total nitrogen concentrations, nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations, and the duration of high flows. Fish communities predominantly were associated with housing age, the percentage of suspended sediment finer than 0.063 millimeters and chloride concentrations. Invertebrate communities predominantly were associated with the frequency of rising and falling flow events, the duration of high flows, total nitrogen concentrations, nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations, and total herbicide concentrations. Historical records indicate that aquatic communities in the region may have been altered prior to any substantial urban development by early agricultural and water-management practices. Present-day aquatic communities ar

Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

2006-01-01

236

A Prototype Hydrothermal Monitoring System, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal explosions are a prominent geologic hazard in Yellowstone National Park and are of consideration for park infrastructure and visitor safety. It is estimated that small rock-hurling phreatic explosions occur somewhere in the park almost every year and larger basin-wide events on the order of several hundred years. The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (U.S. Geological Survey, University of Utah, and the

J. M. Farrell; G. P. Waite; C. M. Puskas; W. Chang; R. B. Smith; H. Heasler; J. Lowenstern

2007-01-01

237

Riverton Dome Gas Exploration and Stimulation Technology Demonstration, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends. The Institute for Energy Research has taken a unique approach to building a new exploration strategy for low-permeability gas accumulations in basins characterized by anomalously pressured, compartmentalized gas accumulations. Key to this approach is the determination and three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes, and the detection and delineation of areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability below this boundary. This new exploration strategy will be demonstrated in the Riverton Dome? Emigrant Demonstration Project (RDEDP) by completing the following tasks: 1) detect and delineate the anomalous pressure boundaries, 2) delineate surface lineaments, fracture and fault distribution, spacing, and orientation through remote sensing investigations, 3) characterize the internal structure of the anomalous pressured volume in the RDEDP and determine the scale of compartmentalization using produced water chemistry, 4) define the prospects and well locations as a result on this new exploration technology, and 5) utilize new completion techniques that will minimize formation damage and optimize production.

Ronald C. Surdam

1998-11-15

238

Application of Landsat imagery to oil exploration in Niobrara Formation, Denver basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Niobrara Formation produces oil from fractures in several places in the Denver basin. The Niobrara is an oil-prone, mature source rock that entered the oil-generating window during the Laramide orogeny. The Laramide orogeny began with maximum compressive stress oriented east-northeast during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene, and ended with maximum stress oriented to the northeast in the Eocene. The

I. S. Merin; W. R. Moore

1986-01-01

239

An empirical method for determining average soil infiltration rates and runoff, Powder River structural basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes a method to estimate infiltration rates of soils for use in estimating runoff from small basins. Average rainfall intensity is plotted against storm duration on log-log paper. All rainfall events are designated as having either runoff or nonrunoff. A power-decay-type curve is visually fitted to separate the two types of rainfall events. This separation curve is an incipient-ponding curve and its equation describes infiltration parameters for a soil. For basins with more than one soil complex, only the incipient-ponding curve for the soil complex with the lowest infiltration rate can be defined using the separation technique. Incipient-ponding curves for soils with infiltration rates greater than the lowest curve are defined by ranking the soils according to their relative permeabilities and optimizing the curve position. A comparison of results for six basins produced computed total runoff for all events used ranging from 16.6 percent less to 2.3 percent more than measured total runoff. (USGS)

Rankl, James G.

1982-01-01

240

Climate control on Quaternary coal fires and landscape evolution, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

Late Cenozoic stream incision and basin excavation have strongly influenced the modern Rocky Mountain landscape, but constraints on the timing and rates of erosion are limited. The geology of the Powder River basin provides an unusually good opportunity to address spatial and temporal patterns of stream incision. Numerous coal seams in the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations within the basin have burned during late Cenozoic incision, as coal was exposed to dry and oxygen-rich near-surface conditions. The topography of this region is dominated by hills capped with clinker, sedimentary rocks metamorphosed by burning of underlying coal beds. We use (U-Th)/He ages of clinker to determine times of relatively rapid erosion, with the assumption that coal must be near Earth's surface to burn. Ages of 55 in situ samples range from 0.007 to 1.1 Ma. Clinker preferentially formed during times in which eccentricity of the Earth's orbit was high, times that typically but not always correlate with interglacial periods. Our data therefore suggest that rates of landscape evolution in this region are affected by climate fluctuations. Because the clinker ages correlate better with eccentricity time series than with an oxygen isotope record of global ice volume, we hypothesize that variations in solar insolation modulated by eccentricity have a larger impact on rates of landscape evolution in this region than do glacial-interglacial cycles.

Riihimaki, C.A.; Reiners, P.W.; Heffern, E.L. [Drew University, Madison, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biology

2009-03-15

241

Geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Norris Geyser Basin is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone caldera at the common intersection of the caldera rim and the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. The dominant quartz sand is hydrothermally cemented by chalcedony and is extremely hard, thereby justifying the term hydrothermal quartzite. The fundamental water type in Norris Basin is nearly neutral in pH and high in Cl and SiO/sub 2/. Another common type of water in Norris Basin is high in SO/sub 4/ and moderately high in Cl, with Cl/SO/sub 4/ ratios differing considerably. This study provides no new conclusive data on an old problem, the source or sources of rare dissolved constitutents. An important part of this paper consists of examples of numerous changes in behavior and chemical composition of most springs and geysers, to extents not known elsewhere in the park and perhaps in the world. Hydrothermal mineralogy in core samples from three research holes drilled entirely in Lava Creek Tuff to a maximum depth of -331.6 m permits an interpretation of the hydrothermal alteration history. A model for large, long-lived, volcanic-hydrothermal activity is also suggested, involving all of the crust and upper mantle and using much recent geophysical data bearing on crust-mantle interrelations.

White, D.E.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Keith, T.E.C.

1988-01-01

242

Variation in sedimentology and architecture of Eocene alluvial strata, Wind River and Washakie basins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Eocene continental, alluvial strata of the Wind River Formation (Wind River Basin) and the Cathedral Bluffs Member of the Wasatch Formation (Washakie basin) provide two examples of Laramide intermontane basin aggradation. These alluvial sediments primarily represent overbank flood deposits marginal to channel complexes. Their sedimentology and architecture, although grossly similar, appear to vary somewhat with proximity to Laramide uplifts. In both cases, repetitive sedimentation on the floodplain produced a succession of depositional couplets, each composed of a light-gray sand overlain by a red clay-rich silt or sand. The lower sands are tabular bodies that, near their distal margins, taper discernibly. They commonly display planar and ripple-drift laminations. Upper clay-rich layers, which are laminated, are also generally tabular. Those floodplain strata depositional proximal to Laramide uplifts show little evidence of scouring prior to deposition of the next, overlying couplet. Most of these sedimentary layers, therefore, are laterally continuous (up to 2 km). This alluvial architecture results in relatively uniform porosity laterally within depositional units but variable porosity stratigraphically through the sequence. In contrast, alluvial sediments deposited farther from the Laramide uplifts have undergone sporadic incision (either during rising flood stage or subsequently) followed by aggradation. As a result, many of these floodplain couplets are discontinuous laterally and, hence, exhibit large-scale lateral variability in porosity. Both alluvial sequences have undergone similar types and extents of burial diagenesis.

Patterson, P.E.; Larson, E.E. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

1991-03-01

243

The Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming : a preview to expanded coal-resource development and its impacts on regional water resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Expanded coal production and conversion in the Yampa River basin , Colorado and Wyoming, may have substantial impacts on water resources, environmental amenities, and socioeconomic conditions. Preliminary results of a 3-year basin assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey are given for evaluation of surface- and ground-water resources using available data, modeling analysis of waste-load capacity of a Yampa River reach affected by municipal wastewater-treatment plant effluents, and semiquantitative descriptions of ambient air- and water-quality conditions. Aspects discussed are possible constraints on proposed development due to basin compacts and laws regulating water resources, possible changes in environmental-control regulations, and policies on energy-resource leasing and land use that will influence regional economic development. (Woodard-USGS)

Steele, Timothy Doak; Bauer, D. P.; Wentz, D. A.; Warner, J. W.

1979-01-01

244

A Prototype Hydrothermal Monitoring System, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal explosions are a prominent geologic hazard in Yellowstone National Park and are of consideration for park infrastructure and visitor safety. It is estimated that small rock-hurling phreatic explosions occur somewhere in the park almost every year and larger basin-wide events on the order of several hundred years. The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (U.S. Geological Survey, University of Utah, and the National Park Service) has deployed a prototype network of GPS and seismic stations in Norris Geyser Basin. The monitoring system consists of five GPS stations and one broadband seismograph that were installed and operated for a year (October 2006 through September 2007) including during Yellowstone's harsh winter. The five GPS stations operated remarkably well over the survey period with at least 3 stations operating 98% of the time. The general southwest horizontal motion and subsidence of the 5 GPS stations are consistent with observations from nearby permanent GPS stations and InSAR. However, local transient signals of uplift and subsidence up to 6 cm are observed. Various long-period signals are observed in the seismic data, ranging from 2 to 100 seconds, which may be indicative of the transport of hydrothermal fluids within the basin. GPS and seismic data will be analyzed and compared to available temperature (air and water), rainfall, and barometric pressure data to try and isolate signals that can be attributed to the hydrothermal system. Ground deformation data can be used to determine the interdependence between regional deformation and hydrothermal activity. Seismic data can be used to help determine the interdependence between regional earthquakes and hydrothermal activity. These data will be valuable to YVO to help us better monitor Yellowstone's many hydrothermal systems to both gain a greater understanding of how they work as well as to be able to better understand the safety hazards involved to both park employees and visitors.

Farrell, J. M.; Waite, G. P.; Puskas, C. M.; Chang, W.; Smith, R. B.; Heasler, H.; Lowenstern, J.

2007-12-01

245

From fold-related fracture population analysis to paleofluid flow reconstruction at basin-scale : a case study in the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While fluid flows associated with thin-skinned folded structures have been extensively studied, reconstructions of paleofluid systems associated with thick-skinned tectonics remain scarce. In addition, major thrusts are usually considered as the preferential channels for fluids: investigating the role of diffuse fracture sets as potential drains for fluids has received poor attention. In this work, we tentatively reconstruct the paleofluid system related to the Bighorn basin (Wyoming, USA), a Sevier-Laramide foreland basin affected by large basement uplifts during the Laramide thick-skinned tectonic event. Fracture pattern and related paleofluid flow were studied in selected folds within this basin. For this purpose, Oxygen, Carbon and Strontium isotopic studies were performed on host rocks as well as on pre-folding and on fold-related calcite veins; these studies were combined to fluid inclusion chemical and microthermometric analysis. The results suggest a strong control of fluid chemistry by the tectonic style: our work evidences migration of exotic hydrothermal fluids (temperatures of homogenisation of fluid inclusion reaching 140°C) in basement-cored, thrust-related folds, while in detachment folds, only intra-formational fluids were characterized.At the scale of the entire basin, the open paleofluid system reconstructed in basement-cored folds appears to be consistent, with oxygen isotopic signature ranging from -25‰ to -5‰ PDB. Indeed, the scattering of oxygen isotopic signatures in cemented veins shows different degree of mixing between local basinal fluids and exotic hydrothermal fluids remaining unequilibrated with surrounding limestones. Strontium isotopic analyses suggest that these exotic hydrothermal fluids are a mixing of meteoric fluids and basinal fluids that havemigrated in basement rocks, likely deeper than the basement/cover interface. The timing of the fast upward flow of these fluids through the cover is given by, and related to, different fracturing events and the associated sudden increase of hydraulic permeability (related to the vertical persistence of the fractures). The local opening of the fluid system to the fast hydrothermal fluid flow is however diachronic: it occurs as early as Sevier in age in the western part of the basin (in foreland flexure-related fractures) and later, during the Laramide phase, in the eastern part (in the fold curvature-related fractures). This raise of hydraulic permeability allows fluid to flow vertically, which caused a fluid pressure drop in the Paleozoic strata, as demonstrated independently by the combined analysis of striated microfaults and fracture sets in terms of stress with calcite twinning paleopiezometry. The timing of the vertical hydraulic permeability increase also suggests that mode I fractures due to strata bending, either related to far-field (plate flexure) or local (strata curvature) stresses, were more efficient vertical drains than mode I fractures opened during layer-parallel shortening phases and connected the fracture pattern to allow lateral fluid flow.

Beaudoin, N.; Bellahsen, N.; Lacombe, O.; Emmanuel, L.; Pironon, J.

2012-04-01

246

Application of Landsat imagery to oil exploration in Niobrara Formation, Denver basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Niobrara Formation produces oil from fractures in several places in the Denver basin. The Niobrara is an oil-prone, mature source rock that entered the oil-generating window during the Laramide orogeny. The Laramide orogeny began with maximum compressive stress oriented east-northeast during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene, and ended with maximum stress oriented to the northeast in the Eocene. The authors believe the Eocene phase activated northeast-trending extension fractures that may have acted as pathways for migration and loci for storage of oil, locally generated in the Niobrara. Theoretically, the fracture pressures related to oil generation in the Niobrara would preferentially open and fill this northeast-trending fracture system. Using Landsat imagery to map fractures in the northern part of the Denver basin, they have identified areas prospective for Niobrara oil production within an exploration fairway that is based on subsurface isopach and resistivity mapping. Support for this concept is the location of wells, reported to produce oil from the Niobrara, along a zone of northeast-trending lineaments. 15 figures.

Merin, I.S.; Moore, W.R.

1986-04-01

247

Cumulative potential hydrologic impacts of surface coal mining in the eastern Powder River structural basin, northeastern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There are 16 existing and six proposed surface coal mines in the eastern Powder River structural basin of northeastern Wyoming. Coal mining companies predict water level declines of 5 ft or more in the Wasatch aquifer to extend form about 1,000 to about 2,000 ft beyond the mine pits. The predicted 5 ft water level decline in the Wyodak coal aquifer generally extends 4-8 mi beyond the lease areas. About 3,000 wells are in the area of potential cumulative water level declines resulting from all anticipated mining. Of these 3,000 wells, about 1,200 are outside the areas of anticipated mining: about 1,000 wells supply water for domestic or livestock uses, and about 200 wells supply water for municipal, industrial, irrigation, and miscellaneous uses. The 1,800 remaining wells are used by coal mining companies. Future surface coal mining probably will result in postmining groundwater of similar quality to that currently present in the study area. By use of geochemical modeling techniques, the results of a hypothetical reaction path exercise indicate the potential for marked improvements in postmining water quality because of chemical reactions as postmining groundwater with a large dissolved solids concentration (3,540 mg/L) moves into a coal aquifer with relatively small dissolved solids concentrations (910 mg/L). Results of the modeling exercise also indicate geochemical conditions that are most ideal for large decreases in dissolved solids concentrations in coal aquifers receiving recharge from a spoil aquifer. (Lantz-PTT)

Martin, L. J.; Naftz, D. L.; Lowham, H. W.; Rankl, J. G.

1988-01-01

248

Phospholipid Evidence for Methanogenic Archaea and Sulfate-reducing Bacteria in Coalbed Methane Wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Powder River Basin (PRB) comprises roughly 22,000 mi2 in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana; it is a major source of coal and natural gas in the Rocky Mountain and Great Plains regions. The coalbed methane (CBM) produced from Paleocene Fort Union Formation coals in the PRB is thought primarily to be of bacterial origin due to its low ?13C values of -51 to -82 permil. Determination of the timing of methanogenesis, however, requires a methodology suitable for distinguishing viable methanogenic microorganisms. Here we provide evidence of living methanogenic Archaea and sulfate- reducing bacteria collected from co-produced water from CBM wells using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and phospholipid ether lipid (PLEL) analyses. Twelve producing wells were sampled in May, 2007, using a high- pressure filtering apparatus. PLFAs were analyzed as fatty acid methyl esters and PLELs analyzed by their liberated core components using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Phospholipid analyses revealed an ecosystem dominated by Archaea, as the Archaeal isoprenoid, phytane, was the dominant phospholipid observed in nine of the wells sampled. Total microbial biomass estimates ranged from 1.1 ×106 cells/L to 8.3 ×107 cells/L, with the proportion of Archaeal cells ranging from 77.5 to 99.7 percent. In addition, the biomarkers 10me16:0, and cy17:0, considered to be biomarkers for genera of sulfate-reducing bacteria, were observed in several wells. The dominance of lipids from living Archaea in co- produced waters from CBM wells provides evidence supporting a recent origin of gas in the PRB coals.

Glossner, A.; Flores, R. M.; Mandernack, K.

2008-12-01

249

Stratigraphy and depositional environments of middle member of Minnelusa formation, central Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Regional correlations, from the southern to northern Black Hills and across the central Powder River basin to the Bighorn Mountains, serve as the frame work for a depositional model of middle Minnelusa sediments. In the eastern part of the study area, deposition took place in a carbonate sabkha environment. During transgressive periods, most of this region was covered by a restricted shallow sea. In the northern Black Hills, close to the limit of the transgression, deposition occurred in a coastal dune setting. During regressions, the sabkha prograded westward toward the Lusk embayment. Coastal dune fields to the north and isolated dune complexes to the south migrated southwestward across this prograding sabkha. West of the Lusk embayment, deposition occurred in a sand dominated tidal-flat environment during transgressions and along the coastal edge of an eolian sand sea during regression.

Desmond, R.J.; Steidtmann, J.R.; Cardinal, D.F.

1985-05-01

250

Geology and oil production of the Ervay (Phosphoria) reservoirs, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Ervay consists of carbonate ramp sediments deposited under conditions of varying sea level. On the east flank of the Bighorn Basin, the Ervay displays two major, regionally correlative, shallowing-upward cycles that vary in lithofacies across the basin. West of this area, the Ervay contains four regional cycles. Within each cycle, lithofacies tracts lie subparallel to northwest-trending Permian uplifts. From southwest to northeast, the lithofacies are open-marine limestones, restricted-subtidal dolomites, peritidal (island) dolomites, and lagoon/salina deposits. Each Ervay lithofacies displays characteristic ranges in matrix permeability. The most permeable reservoirs are lower-intertidal dolomite boundstones containing well-connected laminoid-fenestral pores. As a result, lower matrix permeabilities are seen in upper-intertidal to supratidal dolomites containing poorly-connected irregular fenestral pores and vugs. Restricted-subtidal dolomites contain mainly small intercrystalline pores and poorly-connected vugs and molds, and therefore also display poor reservoir quality. Vertical tectonic macrofractures probably make a significant contribution to primary production in relatively few wells, while negatively affecting secondary recovery. Microfractures, on the other hand, may be important to primary production throughout the study area. Thus, the major factors determining Ervay Member producibility are stratigraphic and diagenetic, even though may traps are structural. In the Cottonwood Creek area, many wells with thick sequences of lower-intertidal rocks produce more than 250,000 BO, irrespective of whether or not they are structurally high. By contrast, upper-intertidal, restricted-subtidal, and fractured reservoirs generally produce fewer than 100,000 BO per well.

Coalson, E.B. (Bass Enterprises Production, Co., Denver, CO (USA)); Inden, R.F. (LSSI, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-07-01

251

Water-quality characteristics, including sodium-adsorption ratios, for four sites in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming and Montana, water years 2001-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, monitors streams throughout the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and parts of Montana for potential effects of coalbed natural gas development. Specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios may be larger in coalbed waters than in stream waters that may receive the discharge waters. Therefore, continuous water-quality instruments for specific conductance were installed and discrete water-quality samples were collected to characterize water quality during water years 2001-2004 at four sites in the Powder River drainage basin: Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming; Crazy Woman Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; Clear Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; and Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. During water years 2001-2004, the median specific conductance of 2,270 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm) in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming, was larger than the median specific conductance of 1,930 ?S/cm in discrete samples collected downstream from the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The median specific conductance was smallest in discrete samples from Clear Creek (1,180 ?S/cm), which has a dilution effect on the specific conductance for the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The daily mean specific conductance from continuous water-quality instruments during the irrigation season showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance values for the discrete samples. Dissolved sodium, sodium-adsorption ratios, and dissolved solids generally showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance. The largest median sodium concentration (274 milligrams per liter) and the largest range of sodium-adsorption ratios (3.7 to 21) were measured in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming. Median concentrations of sodium and sodium-adsorption ratios were substantially smaller in Crazy Woman Creek and Clear Creek, which tend to decrease sodium concentrations and sodium-adsorption ratios at the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. Dissolved-solids concentrations in discrete samples were closely correlated with specific conductance values; Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.98 or greater for all four sites. Regression equations for discrete values of specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were statistically significant (p-values <0.001) at all four sites. The strongest relation (R2=0.92) was at the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming. Relations on Crazy Woman Creek (R2=0.91) and Clear Creek (R2=0.83) also were strong. The relation between specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios was weakest (R2=0.65) at the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana; however, the relation was still significant. These data indicate that values of specific conductance are useful for estimating sodium-adsorption ratios. A regression model called LOADEST was used to estimate dissolved-solids loads for the four sites. The average daily mean dissolved-solids loads varied among the sites during water year 2004. The largest average daily mean dissolved-solids load was calculated for the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. Although the smallest concentrations of dissolved solids were in samples from Clear Creek, the smallest average daily mean dissolved-solids load was calculated for Crazy Woman Creek. The largest loads occurred during spring runoff, and the smallest loads occurred in late summer, when streamflows typically were smallest. Dissolved-solids loads may be smaller than average during water years 2001-2004 because of smaller than average streamflow as a result of drought conditions.

Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

2006-01-01

252

Potential for Minnelusa-type truncation traps in Tensleep Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvanian Tensleep Formation in the Bighorn basin has potential for Minnelusa-type truncation traps. A dendritic drainage pattern on the upper Tensleep surface formed as a result of two regional unconformities. Subtle movements along basement faults locally controlled the orientation of drainages and valleys cut as these drainages were subsequently filled with Permian Goose Egg and Park City lithofacies. These later impermeable deposits may have acted as lateral barriers to petroleum migration within the Tensleep Formation. Reservoir potential of the Tensleep Formation depends upon both the environment of deposition and the degree of post-Tensleep erosion. The Tensleep consists of a dominantly marine lower member and a dominantly eolian upper member. This overall regressive sequence is punctuated by many transgressive surfaces. As a result, porous and permeable eolian sandstones are intercalated with marine carbonates and sandstones. These marine carbonates may act as permeability barriers, dividing the Tensleep into a series of discrete reservoirs as well. Depending upon the depth of incisement of the valleys and the amount of regional truncation, multiple reservoir systems are possible. Minnelusa-type truncation traps may exist in the Tensleep Formation where paleovalleys are oriented normal to regional dip. The best lateral seals would be provided by concave-downdip curves in valley trends or by intersections of primary and secondary drainages.

Wheeler, D.M.; Baldwin, D.E.; Sares, M.A.

1986-08-01

253

A Geographic Information System to Identify Areas for Alternative Crops in Northwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the third largest industry in Wyoming after mining and tourism (R. Micheli, Wyoming Department of Agriculture Director, pers. commun. ). The Bighorn Basin, located in northwestern Wyoming, is one of the largest agricultural production areas of the state. This area accounts for 27% of the value of crops produced in Wyoming (Wyoming Agricultural Statistics Service 1998). The Bighorn

J. A. Young; B. M. Christensen; M. S. Schaad; M. E. Herdendorf; G. F. Vance; L. C. Munn

1999-01-01

254

Tectonic controls on deposition and preservation of Pennsylvanian Tensleep Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

During deposition of the Tensleep Formation, a shallow, semirestricted portion of a major seaway that occupied the geosynclinal area to the west extended into the area of the present-day Bighorn basin. Limiting the transgression of this sea was the Beartooth high on the north and the Bighorn high on the east and southeast. On the western side of the area, a southerly extension of the Yellowstone high restricted circulation. The lower Tensleep Formation (Desmoinesian), characterized by extensive marine influence, was deposited as coastal sand dunes and interdunes over subaerially exposed structural highs. These deposits grade basinward into shoreface sandstones, which in turn grade into sandstones and carbonates of the shelf environment. During deposition of upper Tensleep strata (Missourian through Virgilian), marine waters were less widespread. The Greybull arch, a northeast-trending feature in the northern part of the area, was uplifted, dividing the shallow sea into two parts. The upper Tensleep Formation was deposited as a terrestrial sand sea over the Bighorn high. Coastal dunes and interdunes were deposited seaward of the sand seas and over the Beartooth high, the Greybull arch, and the southerly extension of the Yellowstone high. These deposits grade basinward into clastic shoreface deposits. Following Tensleep deposition, the region underwent southward tilting, which caused exposure and erosion of the Tensleep Formation. The resulting unconformity surface was deeply incised by a dendritic drainage system that controlled the thickness of the formation. The Greybull arch and the Bighorn high acted as significant drainage divides, over which very little of the formation was preserved.

Kelly Anne, O.; Horne, J.C.; Wheeler, D.M.; Musgrave, C.E.

1986-08-01

255

Hydrothermal alteration in research drill hole Y-2, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Y-2, a US Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, was drilled to a depth of 157.4 meters. The hole penetrated interbedded siliceous sinter and travertine to 10.2 m, glacial sediments of the Pinedale Glaciation interlayered with pumiceous tuff from 10.2 to 31.7 m, and rhyolitic lavas of the Elephant Back flow of the Central Plateau Member and the Mallard Lake Member of the Pleistocene Plateau Rhyolite from 31.7 to 157.4 m. Hydrothermal alteration is pervasive in most of the nearly continuous drill core. Rhyolitic glass has been extensively altered to clay and zeolite minerals (intermediate heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite, montmorillonite, mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite, and illite) in addition to quartz and adularia. Numerous veins, vugs, and fractures in the core contain these and other minerals: silica minerals (opal, ..beta..-cristobalite, ..cap alpha..-cristobalite, and chalcedony), zeolites (analcime, wairakite, dachiardite, laumontite, and yugawaralite), carbonates (calcite and siderite), clay (kaolinite and chlorite), oxides (hematite, goethite, manganite, cryptomelane, pyrolusite, and groutite), and sulfides (pyrhotite and pyrite) along with minor aegirine, fluorite, truscottite, and portlandite. Interbedded travertine and siliceous sinter in the upper part of the drill core indicate that two distinct types of thermal water are responsible for precipitation of the surficial deposits, and further that the water regime has alternated between the two thermal waters more than once since the end of the Pinedale Glaciation (approx. 10,000 years B.P.). Alternation of zones of calcium-rich and sodium- and potassium-rich hydrothermal minerals also suggests that the calcium-rich and sodium- and potassium-rich hydrothermal minerals also suggests that the water chemistry in this drill hole varies with depth.

Bargar, K.E.; Beeson, M.H.

1981-05-01

256

Groundwater well inventory and assessment in the area of the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project, Green River Basin, Wyoming, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During May through September 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, inventoried and assessed existing water wells in southwestern Wyoming for inclusion in a possible groundwater-monitor network. Records were located for 3,282 wells in the upper Green River Basin, which includes the U.S. Geological Survey study area and the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project area. Records for 2,713 upper Green River Basin wells were determined to be unique (not duplicated) and to have a Wyoming State Engineers Office permit. Further, 376 of these wells were within the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area. Of the 376 wells in the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area, 141 well records had sufficient documentation, such as well depth, open interval, geologic log, and depth to water, to meet many, but not always all, established monitor well criteria. Efforts were made to locate each of the 141 wells and to document their current condition. Field crews were able to locate 121 of the wells, and the remaining 20 wells either were not located as described, or had been abandoned and the site reclaimed. Of the 121 wells located, 92 were found to meet established monitor well criteria. Results of the field efforts during May through September 2012, and specific physical characteristics of the 92 wells, are presented in this report.

Sweat, Michael J.

2013-01-01

257

Preliminary results on the characterization of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary low-permeability (tight) gas-bearing rocks in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Wind River Basin is a structural and sedimentary basin in central Wyoming (Figure 1) that was created during the Laramide orogeny from Late Cretaceous through Eocene time. The objectives of the Wind River Basin tight gas sandstone project are to define the limits of the tight gas accumulation in the basin and to estimate in-place and recoverable gas resources. The approximate limits of the tight gas accumulation are defined from available drillhole information. Geologic parameters, which controlled the development of the accumulation, are studied in order to better understand the origins of tight gas accumulations, and to predict the limits of the accumulation in areas where little drillhole information is available. The architecture of sandstone reservoirs are studied in outcrop to predict production characteristics of similar reservoirs within the tight gas accumulation. Core and cuttings are used to determine thermal maturities, quality of source rocks, and diagenetic histories. Our work thus far has concentrated in the Wind River Indian Reservation in the western part of the basin.

Fouch, T.D.; Keefer, W.R.; Finn, T.M. [and others

1993-12-31

258

Carbon dioxide sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in unmineable coalbeds of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first problem addressed in this thesis is global warming, where it has been shown that the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm to present levels of ˜380 ppm. This increase in atmospheric CO2 is attributed to the world's expanding use of fossil fuels and is believed to be one of the primary causes of global warming. To examine the feasibility of sequestering CO2 in unmineable coalbeds of the Powder River Basin (PRB), Wyoming, a reservoir characterization study and fluid flow simulations have been carried out. The results suggest that after 13 years of CO2 injection, ˜99% of the total CO 2 injected into the Big George coal would be sequestered (assuming the coalbed is overlain by an impermeable caprock), that methane production would be ˜5-8 times greater with CO2 injection than without, and that one injection well would be able to sequester ˜9 kt of CO2 a year. The second issue addressed in this thesis is the disposal of coalbed methane (CBM) water, which is co-produced with CBM in the PRB. CBM water poses a serious environmental hazard to the PRB because the water has high saline and sodium contents, making it unsuitable for agricultural use and damaging to wildlife habitats. One option for the disposal of CBM water is injection into aquifers. To determine if pore pressures in aquifers are low enough to allow for significant CBM water injection and to determine whether the coals and sands are in hydraulic communication with each other, pore pressures in 250 wells that monitor water levels in coalbeds and adjacent sands within the PRB have been calculated. The analysis indicates that both sands and coalbeds have sub-hydrostatic pore pressures and that at present all sand aquifers in hydraulic communication with a producing coalbed are within ˜200 ft of the coalbed. Therefore, in order to be sure that disposed CBM water does not migrate back into producing coalbeds over time, CBM water disposal should be undertaken in sub-hydrostatic sand aquifers that are not in hydraulic communication with a coalbed.

Ross, Hannah Elizabeth

259

Chemical and stable isotopic evidence for water\\/rock interaction and biogenic origin of coalbed methane, Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant amounts (>36 million m3\\/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water

C. A. Rice; R. M. Flores; G. D. Stricker; M. S. Ellis

2008-01-01

260

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Annual report, October 1, 1994-- September 30, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Because of the great range of API gravities of the oils produced from these reservoirs, the proposed study concentrates on understanding the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability within the Tensleep Sandstone. This research

Dunn

1996-01-01

261

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Annual report, September 15, 1993September 30, 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal focus of this project is to evaluate the importance of relative permeability anisotropy with respect to other known geologic and engineering production concepts. This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. The Tensleep Sandstone contains the largest potential reserves within reservoirs

Dunn

1995-01-01

262

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Annual report, October 1, 1994-- September 30, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Because of the great range of API gravities of the oils produced from these reservoirs, the...

T. L. Dunn

1996-01-01

263

Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However,

James Bauder

2008-01-01

264

Evaluation of the rhenium-osmium geochronometer in the Phosphoria petroleum system, Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronometry is applied to crude oils derived from the Permian Phosphoria Formation of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana to determine whether the radiogenic age reflects the timing of petroleum generation, timing of migration, age of the source rock, or the timing of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The oils selected for this study are interpreted to be derived from the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Phosphoria Formation based on oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations utilizing bulk properties, elemental composition, ?13C and ?34S values, and biomarker distributions. The ?34S values of the oils range from -6.2‰ to +5.7‰, with oils heavier than -2‰ interpreted to be indicative of TSR. The Re and Os isotope data of the Phosphoria oils plot in two general trends: (1) the main trend (n = 15 oils) yielding a Triassic age (239 ± 43 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 0.85 ± 0.42 and a mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) of 1596, and (2) the Torchlight trend (n = 4 oils) yielding a Miocene age (9.24 ± 0.39 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 1.88 ± 0.01 and a MSWD of 0.05. The scatter (high MSWD) in the main-trend regression is due, in part, to TSR in reservoirs along the eastern margin of the basin. Excluding oils that have experienced TSR, the regression is significantly improved, yielding an age of 211 ± 21 Ma with a MSWD of 148. This revised age is consistent with some studies that have proposed Late Triassic as the beginning of Phosphoria oil generation and migration, and does not seem to reflect the source rock age (Permian) or the timing of re-migration (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) associated with the Laramide orogeny. The low precision of the revised regression (±21 Ma) is not unexpected for this oil family given the long duration of generation from a large geographic area of mature Phosphoria source rock, and the possible range in the initial 187Os/188Os values of the Meade Peak and Retort source units. Effects of re-migration may have contributed to the scatter, but thermal cracking and biodegradation likely have had minimal or no effect on the main-trend regression. The four Phosphoria-sourced oils from Torchlight and Lamb fields yield a precise Miocene age Re-Os isochron that may reflect the end of TSR in the reservoir due to cooling below a threshold temperature in the last 10 m.y. from uplift and erosion of overlying rocks. The mechanism for the formation of a Re-Os isotopic relationship in a family of crude oils may involve multiple steps in the petroleum generation process. Bitumen generation from the source rock kerogen may provide a reset of the isotopic chronometer, and incremental expulsion of oil over the duration of the oil window may provide some of the variation seen in 187Re/188Os values from an oil family.

Lillis, Paul G.; Selby, David

265

Evaluating controls on fluvial sand-body clustering in the Ferris Formation (Cretaceous/Paleogene, Wyoming, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of sedimentary geologists is to interpret past tectonic, climatic, and eustatic conditions from the stratigraphic record. Stratigraphic changes in alluvial-basin fills are routinely interpreted as the result of past tectonic movements or changes in climate or sea level. Recent physical and numerical models have shown that sedimentary systems can exhibit self-organization on basin-filling time scales, suggesting that structured stratigraphic patterns can form spontaneously rather than as the result of changing boundary conditions. The Ferris Formation (Upper Cretaceous/Paleogene, Hanna Basin, Wyoming) exhibits stratigraphic organization where clusters of closely-spaced channel deposits are separated from other clusters by intervals dominated by overbank material. In order to evaluate the role of basinal controls on deposition and ascertain the potential for self-organization in this ancient deposit, the spatial patterns of key channel properties (including sand-body dimensions, paleoflow depth, maximum clast size, paleocurrent direction, and sediment provenance) are analyzed. Overall the study area lacks strong trends sand-body properties through the stratigraphic succession and in cluster groups. Consequently there is no indication that the stratigraphic pattern observed in the Ferris Formation was driven by systematic changes in climate or tectonics.

Hajek, E. A.; Heller, P.

2009-12-01

266

Stratigraphy of Blair formation, an Upper Cretaceous slope and basin deposit, eastern flank of the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Blair Formation (Upper Cretaceous) is the lowermost unit of the Mesaverde Group in southwestern Wyoming. Outcrop study of the Blair exposures on the east flank of the Rock Springs uplift reveals 1,100 ft (330 m) of sandstone, siltstone, and shale. The formation has a sharp conformable to locally erosional basal contact and contains intraformational channeling, syndepositional slumping, and high-energy

Lee T. Shannon

1985-01-01

267

Facies and fracture architecture of the Tensleep Sandstone, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: Preliminary result of an outcrop and subsurface study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Tensleep Sandstone has been the most prolific producer in the state of Wyoming. Now in its advanced stages of production. it is critical to accurately characterize the Tensleep facies and fracture architecture. Two outcrop locations have been selected: Alkali Creek has cross-strata dip parallel exposures at close spacings for eolian facies architecture Ziesman Dome

Aviantara

1996-01-01

268

Proposed Lyman-Torrington 115-KV Transmission Line and Torrington Substation, Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program. Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project entails constructing, from the Lyman Substation in the vicinity of Yoder to Torrington (Goshen County), Wyoming, a 115-kv transmission line with 12.5 miles of wood pole and 0.7 of a mile of aesthetically designed steel structures; and construc...

1972-01-01

269

Conservation opportunities for securing in-stream flows in the Platte River Basin: a case study drawing on Casper, Wyoming's municipal water strategy.  

PubMed

The Platte River Basin consists of tributaries largely in Wyoming, Colorado and Western Nebraska, with the main stem in Central Nebraska. Critical wildlife habitat on the main stem requires additional in-stream flows. The watershed is one hosting multiple resources, a variety of users, and managed by an array of state and federal agencies. This study proposes a basis for securing in-stream flows for the Platte River. Candidate water supply mechanisms are suggested based on the way in which Casper, Wyoming secured water for its municipal needs. Canal lining is compared to a dam project, increasing reservoir storage, and purchasing water rights, with consideration also made for water pricing to reduce municipal use. Comparisons are based on economic efficiency, potential water conservation, and property rights criteria. Canal lining, coupled with demand management, is shown to conserve water best, given the set of efficiency and cost criteria for in-stream flow enhancement. The approach offers an opportunity to organize the water supply choice context in a transboundary watershed when quantitative information is limited. PMID:15696304

Waller, Aaron; Mcleod, Donald; Taylor, David

2004-11-01

270

Coal-bed methane in Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming: Resources, reserves, and production  

SciTech Connect

Coal-bed methane reserves of 10 tcf, in-place resources up to 250 tcf, and dramatically increased production rates from Cretaceous and Tertiary formations affirm the importance of the Rocky Mountain gas province well into the 21st century. These resources have been calculated for the individual states and basins using a variety of criteria and methods and the resource numbers are not necessarily comparable. The Book Cliffs, Emery, Wastach Plateau, Kaiparowits Plateau, and Sego coal fields in Utah contain a coal-bed methane resource of 10.4 tcf. The Book Cliffs and Emery coal fields contain 8.3 tcf or 80% of this resource. The San Juan basin, New Mexico and Colorado, has 10 tcf (reserves), 40 tcf (resources) in the Fruitland Formation, and 28 tcf (resources) in the Menefee Formation. The Raton basin, Colorado and New Mexico, has 10.2 tcf of resources in the Raton and Vermejo Formations. The Piceance and Sand Wash basins in Colorado have estimated resources of more than 96 tcf. The Powder River, Green River, Hams Fork, Wind River, Hanna, Rock Creek, and Bighorn coal fields in Wyoming have resources of 54.4 tcf. The Powder River, Wind River, Green River, and Hams Fork coal fields contain 87% of this resource. In August, 1992, coal-bed methane production accounted for 49% of all gas produced from the San Juan basin (New Mexico) and 30% of all New Mexico production. For 1991, coal-bed methane production in Colorado from the San Juan and Piceance basins was 16% of all Colorado gas production.

Sommer, S.N. (Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); DeBruin, R.H. (Geological Survey of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)); Tremain, C.M. (Colorado Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Whitehead, N.H. III (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States))

1993-08-01

271

Dynamic analysis of the environmental and social impacts of coal development in the eastern Powder River Basin of Wyoming, 1960--2010  

SciTech Connect

A dynamic regional coal development model is constructed for the Eastern Powder River Basin of Wyoming. Using this model, alternative development schedules from a recent environmental impact statement submitted to the Department of the Interior are simulated. These alternatives include different mixes of export capacity, different coal conversion techniques within the region, as well as various levels of coal production. Exportation of 70 to 80 percent of an ultimate coal production of 180 million tons per year and the careful phasing of additional public services with population growth effectively reduce the social and environmental impacts of coal development. The alternative involving the addition of 43,000 megawatts of electrical generation capacity has very significant adverse social and environmental impacts on the region.

Jacobsen, J.J.

1976-07-01

272

Using extant patterns of dental variation to identify species in the primate fossil record: a case study of middle Eocene Omomys from the Bridger Basin, southwestern Wyoming.  

PubMed

Patterns of extant primate dental variation provide important data for interpreting taxonomic boundaries in fossil forms. Here I use dental data from several well-known living primates (as well as data from selected Eocene forms) to evaluate dental variation in Middle Eocene Omomys, the first North American fossil primate identified by paleontologists. Measurements were collected from a sample of 148 omomyid dental specimens recovered from Bridger B localities in the Bridger Basin, Wyoming. Most of these specimens have not previously been described. Nonmetric traits were also scored for this sample. Lower molar coefficients of variation range from 4.01 for M2 length (n = 80) to 6.73 for M3 talonid width (n = 57). All of the nonmetric traits scored exhibit less than 100% presence in the overall sample, including traits previously described as representative of Omomys (e.g., P4 metaconids present in 91%, n = 55; M2 pericones present in 80%, n = 15). Dental traits also vary in a set of spatially restricted localities from the same fossil horizon and in a separate, single fossil locality (DMNH 868, P4 metaconids present in 67%, n = 6). An increasing frequency in several premolar traits across time in these more restricted samples suggests an anagenetic change in Bridger B Omomys. However, this degree of morphological variability is consistent with that seen in extant primate species from single locations. Metric variation in this sample is comparable to that seen in other Eocene primates, such as new data presented here for the omomyid Arapahovius gazini from the Washakie Basin, southern Wyoming. Omomys metric variation is also comparable to that found in several samples of well-known extant primates from single localities (e.g., ring-tailed lemurs and gray-brown mouse lemurs). These metric data also correspond to the patterns of variability described in previously published studies of Omomyscarteri. In sum, a single species interpretation (O. carteri) for this new Bridger B Omomys sample from southern Wyoming is affirmed, and this study illustrates the usefulness of dental data from extant primates for evaluating primate fossil samples. PMID:18246298

Cuozzo, Frank P

2008-02-02

273

General hydrogeology of the aquifers of Mesozoic age, upper Colorado River basin; excluding the San Juan Basin; Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Geologic maps and sections, structure contours, and lines of equal thickness describe the size and shape of formations that have the potential of being aquifers. Potentiometric contours indicate occurrence and movement of water in selected formations. Distribution of concentration of dissolved solids indicates water quality in the Mesaverde, San Rafael, and Glen Canyon Group aquifers. The study area includes about 100,000 square miles in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

Freethey, G.W.; Kimball, B.A.; Wilberg, D.E.; Hood, J.W.

1988-01-01

274

Mixed sediment deposition in a retro-arc foreland basin: Lower Ellis Group (M. Jurassic), Wyoming and Montana, U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “lower” Ellis Group (M. Jurassic) of northern Wyoming and southern Montana affords an excellent opportunity to examine the influence of tectonics, sea-level change, and incipient topography on facies dynamics and the evolution of mixed sediment ramp deposits. The Sawtooth, Piper, and Gypsum Spring formations (Bajocian to Callovian) represent sedimentation along the forebulge of a retro-arc foreland basin. The “lower” Ellis Group records deposition during two transgressive regressive cycles, (1) a Bajocian-age cycle dominated by evaporites and red shales, and (2) a Bathonian-age cycle characterized by carbonates, evaporites, and red shales. These cycles are capped by a Callovian-age cycle distinguished by carbonates and red shales that is represented by the “lower” Sundance and Rierdon Formations. Transgressive episodes favored intensified chemical sediment production resulting in thick units deposited in subtidal to peritidal environments. Regressive periods are characterized by supratidal redbed progradation and subsequent shallowing upward cycles. The depositional cycles in the lower Ellis Group developed due the interplay between sea-level change and tectonic subsidence related to the evolution of a retro-arc foreland basin. Differential subsidence before, during, and after deposition created paleohighs that locally influenced accommodation space and, thereby, complicated depositional and erosional patterns. This paper provides a regional framework for further analysis of the depositional history of the lower Ellis Group by addressing the stratigraphic relationships between the Sawtooth, Piper, and Gypsum Spring Formations.

Parcell, William C.; Williams, Monica K.

2005-06-01

275

Thrust controlled sedimentation patterns of the earliest Cretaceous nonmarine sequence of the Montana-Idaho-Wyoming Sevier foreland basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research on the Upper Jurassic\\/Lower Cretaceous nonmarine deposits of the central Rocky Mountain Foreland indicate that the sedimentary-tectonic model developed for Laramide intermontane basins is valid for the Sevier foreland basin as well. Episodes of thin-skinned thrusting and tectonic stacking caused asymmetric subsidence of the foreland and the localization of its structural axis adjacent to the fold-thrust belt. A

E. P. Kvale; R. A. Beck

1985-01-01

276

Deltaic deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Dad Sandstone Member of the Lewis Shale, south-central Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Dad Sandstone Member is a prograding unit of sandstone and minor mudstone that separates upper and lower shale members of the Lewis Shale. Outcrops of this Maestrichtian-age unit have been examined in south-central Wyoming along the eastern margin of the Great Divide basin north of Rawlins, and in the Hanna basin to the east. These outcrops form two groups with very different characteristics, including thickness of sandstone and interbedded mudstone units, sedimentary structures, and fossils. In the western part of the area studied, the Dad Sandstone is interpreted to represent progradation in the lower delta-front region of the Sheridan delta that existed to the northwest. In the eastern portion of the study area the Dad Sandstone probably represents upper shoreface facies of interdistributary barrier bars. These deposits may be related to either the Sheridan delta to the north, or a north-trending uplift to the south. The Dad Sandstone in the eastern part of the study area is probably slightly younger than in the western part of the study area.

Perman, R.C.

1987-01-01

277

Early Eocene paleogeography of the Bighorn Basin, northwest Wyoming, inferred from paleocurrent and particle shape and size analyses  

SciTech Connect

Drainage patterns of the Bighorn Basin in early Eocene time have been reconstructed from studies of crossbedding and of particle sizes and shapes in the fluvial Willwood Formation. These patterns were inferred from (1) a moving-average paleocurrent map based on crossbedding vector means for 104 localities, (2) size and shape isopleth maps based on sand grains from 88 other localities, and (3) maximum pebble length at each crossbedding locality. The shape and size factors determined for each locality, using an electronic image analyzer, were regularity (area/perimeter/sup 2/), elongation (width/length), and mean sand-grain length. The resulting isopleth maps reveal areas of maximum stream competence. The reconstruction suggests a system of three major basin-margin tributary streams and one trunk stream. Two of these tributaries entered the western side of the basin: one near Clarks Fork Canyon, the other near the Shoshone River west of Cody. A third tributary, which drained the highest part of the Bighorn Mountains, entered the eastern side of the basin near Paint Rock Creek. These present major drainages and some others seem to have had similar positions since early Eocene time. The Eocene trunk stream, however, entered the southwestern part of the basin, flowed northward west of the present Bighorn River but east of the basin's structural axis, and crossed the northern Bighorn Mountains along a course that essentially coincided with the present Bighorn Canyon. It carried minor amounts of locally derived sedimentary and igneous clasts and an influx of very coarse quartzite roundstones (as large as 0.7 m) derived from older conglomerates in Jackson Hole. Small amounts of fine-grained gold were found in almost every panned concentrate of the resulting quartzite conglomerate.

Seeland, D.

1985-01-01

278

Activities and summary statistics of radon-222 in stream- and ground-water samples, Owl Creek basin, north-central Wyoming, September 1991 through March 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radon-222 activity was measured for 27 water samples from streams, an alluvial aquifer, bedrock aquifers, and a geothermal system, in and near the 510-square mile area of Owl Creek Basin, north- central Wyoming. Summary statistics of the radon- 222 activities are compiled. For 16 stream-water samples, the arithmetic mean radon-222 activity was 20 pCi/L (picocuries per liter), geometric mean activity was 7 pCi/L, harmonic mean activity was 2 pCi/L and median activity was 8 pCi/L. The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is 29 pCi/L. The activities in the stream-water samples ranged from 0.4 to 97 pCi/L. The histogram of stream-water samples is left-skewed when compared to a normal distribution. For 11 ground-water samples, the arithmetic mean radon- 222 activity was 486 pCi/L, geometric mean activity was 280 pCi/L, harmonic mean activity was 130 pCi/L and median activity was 373 pCi/L. The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is 500 pCi/L. The activity in the ground-water samples ranged from 25 to 1,704 pCi/L. The histogram of ground-water samples is left-skewed when compared to a normal distribution. (USGS)

Ogle, K. M.; Lee, R. W.

1994-01-01

279

Determining erodibility, critical shear stress, and allowable discharge estimates for cohesive channels: case study in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The continuous discharge of coalbed natural gas-produced (CBNG-produced) water within ephemeral, cohesive channels in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming can result in significant erosion. A study was completed to investigate channel stability in an attempt to correlate cohesive soil properties to critical shear stress. An in situ jet device was used to determine critical shear stress (tau{sub c}) and erodibility (k{sub d}); cohesive soil properties were determined following ASTM procedures for 25 reaches. The study sites were comprised of erodible to moderately resistant clays with tau{sub c} ranging from 0.11 to 15.35 Pa and k{sub d} ranging from 0.27 to 2.38 cm{sup 3}/N s. A relationship between five cohesive soil characteristics and tau{sub c} was developed and presented for use in deriving tau{sub c} for similar sites. Allowable discharges for CBNG-produced water were also derived using tau{sub c} and the tractive force method. An increase in the allowable discharge was found for channels in which vegetation was maintained. The information from this case study is critical to the development of a conservative methodology to establish allowable discharges while minimizing flow-induced instability.

Thoman, R.W.; Niezgoda, S.L. [Lowham Engineering LLC, Lander, WY (United States)

2008-12-15

280

Expression of syndepositional tectonic uplift in Permian Goose Egg formation (Phosphoria equivalent) carbonates and red beds of Sheep Mountain anticline, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Based on detailed field observations at Sheep Mountain, a doubly plunging anticline in the northeastern Bighorn basin in Wyoming, there appears to have been active tectonic uplift at this site contemporaneous with Pennsylvanian and Permian sedimentation. The Permian (Leonardian to Guadalupian) Goose Egg Formation at Sheep Mountain consists of 25-60 m of silty red beds (including minor carbonate and evaporite units) capped by 15-30 m of dominantly intertidal carbonates (the Ervay Member). A strong lateral variation of facies normal to the trend of the anticline is found within the red-bed sequence: carbonate beds on the anticline flanks are transitional with a gypsum/anhydrite facies along the crest. Similarly, shales on the anticline limbs grade into sandstones near the fold axis, indicating a paleohigh roughly coincidental with the present-day anticline crest. Ervay deposition (late Guadalupian) was marked by a more extensive uplifted structure in a marginal marine setting. On Sheep Mountain the unit is typified by intertidal fenestral carbonates, whereas outcrops to the east suggest a restricted marine facies and outcrops to the west reflect a more open marine environment. Thin sand lenses present in the Ervay are thought to represent terrigenous sediments blown onto the sometimes emergent bank which were then captured through adhesion and cementation. Anticlinal features similar to Sheep Mountain are common along the eastern margin of the Bighorn basin. When found in the subsurface, these structures are often associated with hydrocarbon production from the Ervay Member. Tectonic uplift contemporaneous with deposition of this unit may explain the localization of the productive fenestral facies on the present-day anticlines.

Simmons, S.P.; Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A.

1989-03-01

281

Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry - article no. W06424  

SciTech Connect

Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. A study was conducted on changes in water and sediment chemistry as water from an impoundment infiltrated the subsurface. Sediment cores were collected prior to operation of the impoundment and after its closure and reclamation. Suction lysimeters were used to collect water samples from beneath the impoundment. Large amounts of chloride (12,300 kg) and nitrate (13,500 kg as N), most of which accumulated naturally in the sediments over thousands of years, were released into groundwater by infiltrating water. Nitrate was more readily flushed from the sediments than chloride. If sediments at other impoundment locations contain similar amounts of chloride and nitrate, impoundments already permitted could release over 48 x 10{sup 6} kg of chloride and 52 x 10{sup 6} kg of nitrate into groundwater in the basin. A solute plume with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations at times exceeding 100,000 mg/L was created in the subsurface. TDS concentrations in the plume were substantially greater than those in the CBNG water (about 2300 mg/L) and in the ambient shallow groundwater (about 8000 mg/L). Sulfate, sodium, and magnesium are the dominant ions in the plume. The elevated concentrations are attributed to cation-exchange-enhanced gypsum dissolution. As gypsum dissolves, calcium goes into solution and is exchanged for sodium and magnesium on clays. Removal of calcium from solution allows further gypsum dissolution.

Healy, R.W.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; McKinley, M.P. [US Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center

2008-06-15

282

Hydraulic fracturing and wellbore completion of coalbed methane wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Implications for water and gas production  

SciTech Connect

Excessive water production (more than 7000 bbl/month per well) from many coalbed methane (CBM) wells in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming is also associated with significant delays in the time it takes for gas production to begin. Analysis of about 550 water-enhancement activities carried out during well completion demonstrates that such activities result in hydraulic fracturing of the coal. Water-enhancement activities, consists of pumping 60 bbl of water/min into the coal seam during approximately 15 min. This is done to clean the well-bore and to enhance CBM production. Hydraulic fracturing is of concern because vertical hydraulic fracture growth could extend into adjacent formations and potentially result in excess CBM water production and inefficient depressurization of coals. Analysis of the pressure-time records of the water-enhancement tests enabled us to determine the magnitude of the least principal stress (S{sub 3}) in the coal seams of 372 wells. These data reveal that because S{sub 3} switches between the minimum horizontal stress and the overburden at different locations, both vertical and horizontal hydraulic fracture growth is inferred to occur in the basin, depending on the exact location and coal layer. Relatively low water production is observed for wells with inferred horizontal fractures, whereas all of the wells associated with excessive water production are characterized by inferred vertical hydraulic fractures. The reason wells with exceptionally high water production show delays in gas production appears to be inefficient depressurization of the coal caused by water production from the formations outside the coal. To minimize CBM water production, we recommend that in areas of known vertical fracture propagation, the injection rate during the water-enhancement tests should be reduced to prevent the propagation of induced fractures into adjacent water-bearing formations.

Colmenares, L.B.; Zoback, M.D. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics

2007-01-15

283

Geohydrology and Potential Effects of Coal Mining in 12 Coal-Lease Areas, Powder River Structural Basin, Northeastern Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to describe the geohydrology of 12 coal-lease areas in the Powder River structural basin in relation to the mining proposed for each area. The description of the geohydrology of each of the lease areas focuses on the shallow g...

J. L. Fogg M. W. Martin P. B. Daddow

1991-01-01

284

Flexure and sedimentation in Sevier foreland: Part 3, a model for distal foreland sedimentation, Big Horn basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower Cretaceous nonmarine deposits in the Big Horn basin consist of mudstones, limestones, and sandstones of the upper Cloverly Formation and conglomerates of the basal Cloverly Formation. These conglomerates are part of an extensive network of fluvial gravels spread throughout the Western Interior. Flexural and paleohydraulic modeling has shown that it is difficult to derive the basal Cloverly conglomerates in

N. S. Winslow; P. L. Heller

1986-01-01

285

Depositional systems and coal occurrence in the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Powder River Basin is a Laramide foreland basin which was formed as a structural and depositional entity in the Paleocene and was filled by fluvial-deltaic, paludal, and lacustrine sediments of the Fort Union Formation. A regional subsurface study shows that, as a result of rapid subsidence in the middle paleocene, a lake (Lebo Shale Member) formed along the axis of the Powder River Basin and rapidly transgressed an area greater than 10,000 sq mi. (25,900 sq km). From middle through late Paleocene, Lake Lebo was filled peripherally by fluvially dominated deltas (Tongue River Member). Primary fill was from: (1) the east by elongate deltas fed by suspended-load fluvial systems issuing from the Black Hills and; (2) the southwest by lobate deltas fed by mixed-to-bed-load streams sourced to the west. Secondary fill was from the northwest by an elongate delta fed by a suspended-load fluvial system flowing through the Bull Mountain trough. A detailed study of Tongue River coal seams near the center of the basin shows that coal occurrence is facies controlled.

Ayers, W. B., Jr.

286

The formation of beds underlying carbonaceous shales as aquic paleosols: examples from the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drab, grey mudrocks consistently occur below carbonaceous shales in lower Tertiary alluvial sediments of the Western Interior basins of the USA. Superficially these mudrocks, here termed underbeds, look similar to underclays commonly found below coal beds. However, it is unclear whether the association between the carbonaceous shales and the underbeds is genetic, or whether underbed features developed independently, before the

K. Sian Davies-Vollum

1999-01-01

287

Quantitative approach in the spectral reflectance-lithostratigraphy of the Wind River and southern Bighorn basins, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure developed for quantifying spectral variability was applied to visible and near-infrared spectra from a database of the Wind River and Bighorn basins. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of 94 sedimentary rock spectra distinguished shales, sandstones, limestones, dolostones, bedded gypsum and bentonites from 25 stratigraphic units. However, only twelve spectrally distinct groups were delineated because of lithological homogeneity. Albedo and

L. S. Galvao; J. Vitorello

1995-01-01

288

Sedimentology of Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming, and a comparison to the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Outcrops of the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation near Beulah, Wyoming consist of dolomite, gypsum, and sandstone units deposited in transgressive-regressive cycles. Three depositional cycles are partly exposed in the Simons Ranch anticline near Beulah, and provide an opportunity to view fades of the upper Minnelusa Formation in three dimensions. The cycles observed in outcrop were informally labelled cycle 1, cycle 2, and cycle 3 in ascending stratigraphic order. Cycle 2 contains a basal, laterally extensive sabkha sandstone and an overlying, laterally restricted sandstone that represents a preserved eolian-dune complex. The eolian-dune sandstone of cycle 2 was partially reworked during the marine transgression that initiated cycle 3. The eolian-dune deposit grades laterally into an apron of contorted and massive-bedded sandstones that formed as water-saturated sands liquified and slumped from the margins of the eolian dune. The partially reworked eolian-dune topography was covered by gypsum beds of cycle 3. The sandstone of cycle 3 is interpreted as a laterally continuous sabkha sandstone. West Mellott field (secs. 8, 9, T52N, R68W) represents a subsurface example of the facies and facies relationships observed in outcrop. The eolian-dune sandstone of the C cycle, which was partially reworked by the transgression of the B cycle, produces oil at West Mellott. The draping of dolomite and anhydrite of the B cycle on the eolian-dune sandstone of the C cycle is analogous to the draping of gypsum on dune sand in cycle 2 in outcrop.

Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.

1993-04-01

289

Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Powder River Basin Province of Wyoming and Montana, 2002  

SciTech Connect

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 16.5 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 1.5 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 86.5 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Powder River Basin Province. About 14.3 trillion cubic feet is estimated to be coal-bed gas in three AUs of the Tertiary Upper Cretaceous Coal-Bed Methane TPS. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

NONE

2002-11-15

290

A debris flow deposit in alluvial, coal-bearing facies, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA: Evidence for catastrophic termination of a mire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal and clastic facies investigations of a Paleocene coal-bearing succession in the Grass Creek coal mine, southwestern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, suggest that disruption of peat accumulation in recurrent mires was caused by the repetitive progradation of crevasse splays and, ultimately, by a catastrophic mass movement. The mass movement, represented by deposits of debris flow, marked the termination of significant peat accumulation in the Grass Creek coal mine area. Megascopic and microscopic analyses of coal beds exposed along the mine highwalls suggest that these deposits developed in low-lying mires, as evidenced primarily by their ash yields and maceral composition. Disruption of peat accumulation in successive mires was caused by incursions of sediment into the mire environments. Termination by crevasse splay progradation is represented by coarsening-upward successions of mudrock and tabular, rooted sandstone, which overlie coal beds in the lower part of the coal-bearing interval. A more rapid process of mire termination by mass movement is exemplified by a debris flow deposit of diamictite, which overlies the uppermost coal bed at the top of the coal-bearing interval. The diamictite consists of a poorly sorted, unstratified mixture of quartzite cobbles and pebbles embedded in a claystone-rich or sandy mudstone matrix. Deposition of the diamictite may have taken place over a matter of weeks, days, or perhaps even hours, by catastrophic flood, thus reflecting an instantaneous process of mire termination. Coarse clastics and mud were transported from the southwest some 20-40 km as a viscous debris flow along stream courses from the ancestral Washakie Range to the Grass Creek area, where the flow overrode a low-lying mire and effectively terminated peat accumulation. ?? 1994.

Roberts, S. B.; Stanton, R. W.; Flores, R. M.

1994-01-01

291

Geochemistry of inorganic nitrogen in waters released from coal-bed natural gas production wells in the powder river basin, wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A. study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 ??M. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n = 13), DIN concentrations were >300 ??M, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25-30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day-1 entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

Smith, R. L.; Repert, D. A.; Hart, C. P.

2009-01-01

292

Geochemistry of Inorganic Nitrogen in Waters Released from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production Wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 µM. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n = 13), DIN concentrations were >300 µM, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25-30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day-1 entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day.

Richard L Smith;Deborah A Repert;Charles P Hart

2009-01-01

293

Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen isotope records of Cenozoic sea water temperatures indicate that a rapid warming event known as the Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM) occurred during the otherwise gradual increase in world temperatures during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene. Oxygen isotope analysis of the carbonate and phosphate components of hydroxyapatite found in mammalian tooth enamel and body scales of river-dwelling fish from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming were made to investigate corresponding changes in the terrestrial climate. A comparison of carbonate and phosphate isotope data from modern and fossil material indicates that some diagenetic alteration of the fossil material has occurred, although systematically larger intra-tooth ranges in the oxygen isotope composition of carbonate indicate that it is more likely to have been affected than phosphate. Carbonate and phosphate from the ecologically diverse mammals and fishes both record a shift to higher oxygen isotope ratios at the same time and of the same duration as the LPTM. These shifts reflect a change in the isotopic composition of regional precipitation, which in turn provides the first evidence for continental climate change during the LPTM. Assuming the present-day relation between the oxygen isotope composition of precipitation and temperature applies to conditions in the past, and that animal physiology and behavior is relatively invariant over time, the isotopic shift is equivalent to an increase of surface temperature in western North America of several degrees. This result is consistent with the magnitude of high-latitude ocean warming, and provides a basis for relating marine and terrestrial oxygen isotope records to records of terrestrial biotic change.

Fricke, Henry C.; Clyde, William C.; O'Neil, James R.; Gingerich, Philip D.

1998-07-01

294

Airborne Electromagnetic Surveys Coupled With Hydrogeochemical Data to Enhance Near Surface Aquifer Investigations in an Area of Active Coalbed Natural Gas Production, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing environmental effects from the disposal of water coproduced with coalbed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming is complex. Over 30,000 CBNG wells are currently in production with another 30,000 to be installed within the next 20 years. Each well pumps between 100-400 barrels of water per day over an average operating life of seven years. Produced waters are generally of sodium-bicarbonate type with high sodium adsorption ratios and moderate salinity levels. A commonly used disposal method is through evaporation and infiltration impoundments. Downgradient subsurface hydrogeochemical changes are determined from groundwater monitoring wells. These methods are costly and provide limited data. Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) geophysical techniques present a viable alternative to current assessment protocols. Frequency domain AEM surveys were flown over an actively producing CBNG field along the Powder River in 2003 and 2004. Multifrequency inphase/quadrature responses were analyzed using Occam inversion techniques. Inversions were constrained using sounding specific starting models generated by the differential parameter method. Observed geochemical differences in the alluvial aquifer were successfully imaged using the geophysical data. Furthermore, geophysical responses interpreted as produced water mixing zones were consistent with results from strontium isotope data. AEM data will also be used to develop improved groundwater models. Discrete layer geoelectrical models derived from inversions yield depths that correlate with observed hydraulic head data. Additionally, AEM derived electrical conductivity distributions correspond to observed geomorphologic features allowing for delineation of hydrostratigraphic units. Results of this research are expected to provide policy makers with a better tool to manage impoundment permitting while also serving as an abundant source of data for groundwater model development and calibration.

Lipinski, B.; Sams, J.; Harbert, W.

2005-12-01

295

Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major Paleozoic artesian aquifers in the southeastern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming area, in descending order, the Tensleep Sandstone; the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite, which together form the Madison-Bighorn aquifer; and the Flathead Sandstone. Operating yields commonly are more than 1,000 gallons per minute from flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. The initial test of one well indicated a flow of 14,000 gallons per minute. Wellhead pressures range from less than 50 to more than 400 pounds per square inch. Transmissivities are 500-1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and 90-325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Despite extensive development for irrigation there have been few decreases in pressure. Some decreases in pressure have occurred in wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone. Fractures along linear structural features result in significant secondary permeability and allow upward interformational movement of water that affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces in the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Upward-moving water from the Tensleep and other formations discharges at the land surface as springs along or near these lineations. Water from the aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but has excessive hardness. The water is satisfactory for irrigation and other purposes when hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 degrees to 27.5 degrees C, giving a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 degrees C per 100 feet. (USGS)

Cooley, M. E.

1985-01-01

296

Lower Eocene alluvial paleosols (Willwood Formation, Northwest Wyoming, U.S.A.) and their significance for paleoecology, paleoclimatology, and basin analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Eocene Willwood Formation of northwest Wyoming is a 700 m thick accumulation of alluvial floodplain and channel mudstones and sandstones, nearly all of which show paleopedogenic modifications. Pedogenesis of Willwood sandstones is indicated by taproot and vertebrate and invertebrate bioturbation, early local cementation by calcium carbonate, and thin illuviation cutans on clastic grains. Pedogenesis in Willwood mudstones is indicated by plant bioturbation, insect and other invertebrate burrow casts and lebensspuren; free iron, aluminum, and manganese mobilization, including hydromorphic gleying; sesquioxide and calcareous glaebule formation in lower parts of the solum; presence of clay-rich and organic carbon-rich zones; and well differentiated epipedons and albic and spodic horizons. Probable A horizons are also locally well developed. Occurrence of variegated paleosol units in thick floodplain mudstone deposits and their association with thin, lenticular, and unconnected fluvial sandstones in the Willwood Formation of the central and southeast Bighorn Basin suggest that these soils formed during times of rapid sediment accumulation. The tabular geometry and lateral persistence of soil units as well as the absence of catenization indicate that Willwood floodplains were broad and essentially featureless. All Willwood paleosols were developed on alluvial parent materials and are complex in that B horizons of younger paleosols were commonly superimposed upon and mask properties of suspected A and B horizons of the next older paleosols. The soils appear to be wet varieties of the Spodosol and Entisol groups (aquods and ferrods, and aquents, respectively), though thick, superposed and less mottled red, purple, and yellow paleosols resemble some ultisols. Most Willwood paleosols resemble warm temperate to subtropical alluvial soils that form today under alternating wet and dry conditions and (or) fluctuating water tables. The up-section decrease in frequency of gley mottles, increase in numerical proportion and thickness of red versus orange coloration, and increase in abundance of calcrete glaebules indicate better drained soils and probably drier climate in late Willwood time. This drying is believed to be related to creation of rain shadows and spacing of rainfall (but not necessarily decrease in absolute rainfall) due to progressive tectonic structural elevation of the mountainous margins of the Bighorn Basin. ?? 1981.

Bown, T. M.; Kraus, M. J.

1981-01-01

297

Clinker deposits, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A new source of high-fidelity paleomagnetic data for the Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinker, rock baked and fused by in situ burning of underlying coal, posesses a thermoremanent and/or thermochemical magnetization that resides in magnetite, hematite, and goethite. Data from individual sites imply that clinker may provide a high resolution recording of the geomagnetic field (e.g., within-site virtual geomagnetic pole angular standard deviations are usually less than 10°) , but this is dependent on its thermal history and the time over which magnetic phases formed. Data from 17 sites in the Powder River Basin (13 normal polarity, 4 reverse) yield a mean of Decl. = 348°, Incl. = 62°, ?95 = 5°, k = 42 and a corresponding pole position of 81° lat., 158° long. with a virtual geomagnetic pole angular standard deviation of 17.3°. The mechanism of clinker formation, the wide geographic distribution, and the range of available fission-track ages suggest that clinker may contain a nearly complete geomagnetic field record for much of the Quaternary.

Jones, Alison H.; Geissman, John W.; Coates, Donald A.

1984-12-01

298

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Annual report, September 15, 1993--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The principal focus of this project is to evaluate the importance of relative permeability anisotropy with respect to other known geologic and engineering production concepts. This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. The Tensleep Sandstone contains the largest potential reserves within reservoirs which are candidates for EOR processes in the State of Wyoming. Although this formation has produced billions of barrels of oil, in some fields, as little as one in seven barrels of discovered oil is recoverable by current primary and secondary techniques. Because of the great range of {degree}API gravities of the oils produced from the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs, the proposed study concentrates on establishing an understanding of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability within the Tensleep Sandstone. This research is to associate those spatial distributions and anisotropies with the depositional subfacies and zones of diagenetic alteration found within the Tensleep Sandstone. In addition, these studies are being coupled with geochemical modeling and coreflood experiments to investigate the potential for wellbore scaling and formation damage anticipated during EOR processes (e.g., C0{sub 2} flooding). This multidisciplinary project will provide a regional basis for EOR strategies which can be clearly mapped and efficiently applied to the largest potential target reservoir in the State of Wyoming. Additionally, the results of this study have application to all eolian reservoirs through the correlations of relative permeability variation and anisotropy with eolian depositional lithofacies.

Dunn, T.L.

1995-07-01

299

Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide degassing and cryptic thermal input to Brimstone Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brimstone Basin, a remote area of intense hydrothermal alteration a few km east of the Yellowstone Caldera, is rarely studied and has long been considered to be a cold remnant of an ancient hydrothermal system. A field campaign in 2008 confirmed that gas emissions from the few small vents were cold and that soil temperatures in the altered area were at background levels. Geochemical and isotopic evidence from gas samples (3He/4He ~ 3RA, ?13C-CO2 ~ ? 3‰) however, indicate continuing magmatic gas input to the system. Accumulation chamber measurements revealed a surprisingly large diffuse flux of CO2 (~ 277 t d-1) and H2S (0.6 t d-1). The flux of CO2 reduces the 18O content of the overlying cold groundwater and related stream waters relative to normal meteoric waters. Simple isotopic modeling reveals that the CO2 likely originates from geothermal water at a temperature of 93 ± 19 °C. These results and the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons (C1:C2 ~ 100 and ?13C-CH4 = ? 46.4 to ? 42.8‰) in gases require some heat source at depth and refute the assumption that this is a “fossil” hydrothermal system.

Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W. C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.

2012-01-01

300

Organic compounds in produced waters from coalbed natural gas wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The organic composition of produced water samples from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wells in the Powder River Basin, WY, sampled in 2001 and 2002 are reported as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from coal. The quality of CBNG produced waters is a potential environmental concern and disposal problem for CBNG producers, and no previous studies of organic compounds in CBNG produced water have been published. Organic compounds identified in the produced water samples included: phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, various non-aromatic compounds, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are probably coal-derived. PAHs represented the group of organic compounds most commonly observed. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged up to 23 ??g/L. Concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 18 to <0.01 ??g/L. Temporal variability of organic compound concentrations was documented, as two wells with relatively high organic compound contents in produced water in 2001 had much lower concentrations in 2002. In many areas, including the PRB, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in produced water are also likely present in drinking water supplied from wells in the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the produced water samples are potentially toxic, but at the levels measured in these samples are unlikely to have acute health effects. The human health effects of low-level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water are currently unknown. Continuing studies will evaluate possible toxic effects from low level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water supplies.

Orem, W. H.; Tatu, C. A.; Lerch, H. E.; Rice, C. A.; Bartos, T. T.; Bates, A. L.; Tewalt, S.; Corum, M. D.

2007-01-01

301

Unraveling the multiple origins of heterogeneity within Lower Mississippian Madison reservoirs: Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana, USA  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Fracture-controlled{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}karst-controlled{close_quotes} contributions to reservoir heterogeneity tend to be viewed as non-fabric selective in nature. Given such an outlook, predictions of fracture and karst overprints depend on an awareness of extrinsic controls such as past and present stress-fields, structural curvature, fault proximity, and the positions and movements of paleo-water tables. The hierarchical sequence stratigraphy of the 300 m Madison provides the stratigraphic framework necessary to characterize the vertical distribution of early, fabric-selective platformal dolomite; additionally, this framework assists in discriminating between fabric-selective and non-fabric-selective styles of karst and fracturing. In the case of Madison karst, early meteoric lithification and subtle Mississippian tectonics resulted in a vertically oriented fracture-controlled karst on top of the Madison, yet this non fabric-selective system channeled waters into several fabric-selective, regionally widespread solution collapse zones and cave systems. The horizontally oriented regional dissolution was stratigraphically controlled by soluble evaporitic zones and/or argillaceous aquitards overlying intra-Madison sequence boundaries rather than occurring at various unconfined water-table stillstands. Evaporite solution collapse breccias presently form partial to complete barriers to vertical fluid flow depending on thickness and degree of associated argillaceous influx, while cave-roof {open_quotes}fracture breccias{close_quotes} were preferential sites of late dolomitization within the giant Elk Basin Madison reservoir. In the case of Madison fracturing, stratigraphic cycles of several scales provide effective scales of analysis in the quest for true mechanical stratigraphic units defined by common fracture styles.

Sonnenfeld, M.D. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

1995-08-01

302

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Annual report, October 1, 1994-- September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Because of the great range of API gravities of the oils produced from these reservoirs, the proposed study concentrates on understanding the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability within the Tensleep Sandstone. This research will associate those spatial distributions and anisotropies with the depositional subfacies and zones of diagenetic alteration found within the sandstone. The associations of the above with pore geometry will link relative permeability with the dimensions of lithofacies and authigenic mineral facies. Hence, the study is to provide criteria for scaling this parameter on a range of scales, from the laboratory to the basin-wide scale of subfacies distribution. Effects of depositional processes and burial diagenesis will be investigated. Image analysis of pore systems will be done to produce algorithms for estimating relative permeability from petrographic analyses of core and well cuttings. In addition, these studies are being coupled with geochemical modeling and coreflood experiments to investigate the potential for wellbore scaling and formation damage anticipated during EOR, eg., CO{sub 2} flooding. This will provide a regional basis for EOR strategies for the largest potential target reservoir in Wyoming; results will have application to all eolian reservoirs through correlations of relative permeability variation and anisotropy with eolian depositional lithofacies.

Dunn, T.L.

1996-03-01

303

Geologic and hydrologic controls on coalbed methane: Sand wash basin, Colorado and Wyoming. Topical report, August 1, 1991April 30, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents: tectonic evolution, stratigraphic setting, and coal fracture patterns of the sand wash basin; stratigraphy and coal occurrence of the upper cretaceous mesaverde group, sand wash basin; coal rank, gas content, and composition and origin of coalbed gases, mesaverde group, sand wash basin; hydrologic setting of the upper mesaverde group, sand wash basin; stratigraphy and coal occurrence of the paleocene

W. R. Kaiser; A. R. Scott; D. S. Hamilton; R. Tyler; R. G. McMurry

1993-01-01

304

Anisotropy and Spatial Variation of Relative Permeability and Lithologic Character of Tensleep Sandstone Reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques

Dunn; Thomas L

1996-01-01

305

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone Reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: An examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation

Dunn

1995-01-01

306

210Pb as a tracer of shelf–basin transport and sediment focusing in the Chukchi Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities of dissolved, particulate, and sedimentary 210Pb were measured in the shelf-slope region of the Chukchi Sea. Samples were collected as part of the Shelf–Basin Interactions (SBI) Phase II process study (6 May–15 June, 2002) along three shelf–basin transects identified as West Hanna Shoal, East Hanna Shoal, and Barrow Canyon. Distributions of 210Pb and suspended particulate matter indicate efficient removal

K. Lepore; S. B. Moran; J. N. Smith

2009-01-01

307

Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The major Paleozoic artesian aquifers, the aquifers most favorable for continued development, in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming are the Tensleep Sandstone, the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite (Madison-Bighorn aquifer), and the Flathead Sandstone. The minor aquifers include the Goose Egg and Park City Formations (considered in the Ten Sleep area to be the lateral equivalent of the Phosphoria Formation) and the Amsden Formation. Most wells completed in the major and minor aquifers flow at the land surface. Wellhead pressures generally are less than 50 pounds per square inch for the Tensleep Sandstone, 150-250 pounds per square inch for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, and more than 400 pounds per square inch for the Flathead Sandstone. Flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and the Flathead Sandstone yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. The initial test of one well completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer indicated a flow rate of 14,000 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 500 to 1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and from about 90 to 325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Significant secondary permeability from fracturing in the Paleozoic aquifers allows local upward interformational movement of water, and this affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Water moves upward from the Tensleep and other formations, through the Goose Egg Formation, to discharge at the land surface as springs. Much of the spring flow is diverted for irrigation or is used for rearing fish. Decreases from original well pressures were not apparent in wells completed in the Tensleep Sandstone or in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer in the study area except for a few wells in or near the town of Ten Sleep. Most wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone, which also are open to the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, show a decrease of pressure from the time of completion to 1978. The decrease of pressure is partly the result of water moving from the Flathead Sandstone into the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, which has a lower potentiometric surface than does the Flathead Sandstone, even during the time the wells are not in operation. Pressure in some small-capacity wells completed in the Goose Egg Formation also has decreased near Ten Sleep. Most of the wells, particularly the irrigation wells, show a progressive decrease in pressure during the irrigation season but recover during periods of nonuse. Measurements of the pressure were made principally in 1953, 1962, 1970, and 1975-78. Well water from the Paleozoic aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but excessive hardness. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water are less than 300 milligrams per liter in the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, less than 200 milligrams per liter in the Flathead Sandstone, and as much as 450 milligrams per liter in the Goose Egg Formation. Bicarbonate is the major constituent, followed by calcium and magnesium. Relatively large concentrations of sulfate, as much as 490 milligrams per liter, were found, mainly in water from the Goose Egg Formation. The water has low sodium (alkali) and medium salinity; therefore, the water is satisfactory for irrigation and most other uses, if excessive hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 ? to 27.5 ? Celsius (51 ? to 81.5 ? Fahrenheit) within a range in depth of approximately 250 to 4,000 feet. This gives a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 ? Celsius per 100 feet (0.79 ? Fahrenheit per 100 feet).

Cooley, Maurice E.

1986-01-01

308

SCREECHOWL DISTRIBUTION IN WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

information. Authors writing about Wyoming's bird life have mentioned Screech-Owls sparingly. Cary (1901) reported seeing a single Eastern Screech-Owl (Otus asio maxwelliae) in the Black Hills, part of which extends into northeastern Wyoming. Knight (1902:82) lamented, in the first popular treatment of birds of the state, that after 18 years of extensive travel throughout Wyoming he had \\

SAM FITTON

1993-01-01

309

Geologic and Hydrologic Controls on Coalbed Methane: Sand Wash Basin, Colorado and Wyoming. Topical Report, August 1, 1991-April 30, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Tectonic Evolution, Stratigraphic Setting, and Coal Fracture Patterns of the Sand Wash Basin; Stratigraphy and Coal Occurrence of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Sand Wash Basin; Coal Rank, Gas Content, and Composition and Origin of Coalbe...

W. R. Kaiser A. R. Scott D. S. Hamilton R. Tyler R. G. McMurry

1993-01-01

310

The sequence stratigraphy of the latest Cretaceous sediments of northern Wyoming: The interplay of tectonic and eustatic controls on foreland basin sedimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A west-east chronostratigraphic correlation has been made of the latest Cretaceous sediments of northern Wyoming. Five sections from Jackson Hole to Red Bird have been dated magnetostratigraphically (C34N-C26R) and radiometrically (81-68 Ma), and integrated with the ammonite biostratigraphy of the Niobrara and Pierre Shale. Four major sequence surfaces have been identified in section and the time missing within the unconformities

J. F. Hicks; L. Tauxe

1992-01-01

311

DOE Underground-Coal-Conversion-Program field-test activities for 1979 and 1980. [Pricetown 1, Hoe Creek 3, Hanna IV, and SDB 1  

SciTech Connect

Under the US Department of Energy's Underground-Coal-Conversion program, four field tests were completed in 1979 and preparations were begun in 1980 for two additional field tests to be operated in 1981. The Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) completed Hanna IV, an air gasification test in Wyoming subbituminous coal. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) completed Pricetown 1, an air gasification test in West Virginia bituminous coal. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) completed Hoe Creek 3, a steam-oxygen gasification test in Wyoming subbituminous coal. Gulf Research and Development Co. completed Steeply Dipping Beds (SDB) Test 1, primarily an air gasification test in Wyoming subbituminous coal and the first SDB test in the US. In 1980, Gulf R and D Co. began preparation of SDB Test 2, scheduled for operation in the fall of 1981. The DOE project teams at LETC, METC, LLNL, and SNL, in association with the Washington Irrigation and Development Co. (WIDCo), Washington Water Power (WWP), and the State of Washington, are preparing a field test site in the Centralia-Chehalis coal district of Washington. A series of large coal block tests will be completed prior to the field test, scheduled for operation in 1982 or 1983. This field test will utilize a directionally drilled link and steam-oxygen gasification system. This paper summarizes the results of the four recently completed field tests and the plans for additional tests.

Bartke, T.C.

1983-08-01

312

Fluvial systems in the Siwalik Miocene and Wyoming Paleogene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3 km thick Miocene Siwalik Group (Himalayan foredeep in northern Pakistan) and the 2 km thick Paleogene Fort Union\\/Willwood formations (Bighorn Basin in Wyoming) both preserve long records of fluvial deposition adjacent to rising mountain belts. Depositional environments and associated habitats change across large basins along with changing physiography and with the location of different river systems that may

B. J. Willis; A. K. Behrensmeyer

1995-01-01

313

Northeast-southwest structural transect: Rocky Mountain foreland, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A northeast-southwest structural transect has been constructed across the Rocky Mountain foreland in Wyoming, a distance of about 400 mi. The line of transect begins in the northern Black Hills and traverses the northern Powder River basin, the Bighorn Mountains from Buffalo to Bonanza, the Big Horn basin from Worland to Hamilton dome, the Owl Creek Mountains, the northern Wind

1987-01-01

314

Quality of Economically Extractable Coal Beds in the Gillette Coal Field as Compared with Other Tertiary Coal Beds in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Powder River Basin, and specifically the Gillette coal field, contains large quantities of economically extractable coal resources. These coal resources have low total sulfur content and ash yield, and most of the resources are subbituminous in rank. ...

M. S. Ellis

2002-01-01

315

Anisotropy and Spatial Variation of Relative Permeability and Lithologic Character of Tensleep Sandstone Reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery; and (5) a geochemical investigation of the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery processes.

Dunn, Thomas L.

1996-10-01

316

Law in Wyoming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is intended to give students an overview of laws in Wyoming. Subjects covered include civil and criminal law; courts in Wyoming; juvenile law, juvenile court procedure; rights of children; family law; employment law; automobile-related law; laws affecting the schools; and citizenship rights and responsibilities. The laws and courts…

Wyoming Law-Related Education Advisory Council, Cheyenne.

317

Description of Wyoming coal fields and seam analyses  

SciTech Connect

Introductory material describe coal-bearing areas, coal-bearing rocks, and the structural geology of coal-bearing areas, discussing coal rank, proximate analyses, sulfur content, heat value, trace elements, carbonizing properties, coking coal, coking operations, in-situ gasification, coal mining, and production. The paper then gives descriptions of the coal seams with proximate analyses, where available, located in the following areas: Powder River coal basin, Green River region, Hanna field, Hams Fork coal region, and Bighorn coal basin. Very brief descriptions are given of the Wind River coal basin, Jackson Hole coal field, Black Hills coal region, Rock Creek coal field, and Goshen Hole coal field. Finally coal resources, production, and reserves are discussed. 76 references.

Glass, G.B.

1983-01-01

318

Assessment of nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in surface water of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, water years 1991-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A water-quality investigation of the upper Snake River Basin began in 1991 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Sampling and analysis focused on nutri-ents, suspended sediments, and pesticides. Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in the upper Snake River Basin, in general, increased towards the outlet of the basin. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate at 19sites ranged from less than 0.05 to 1.60 milligrams per liter; total phosphorus as phosphorus, less than 0.01 to 0.11 milligrams per liter; and suspended sediment, 4 to 72 milligrams per liter. Significantdifferences (p<0.05) in nutrient and suspended sediment concentrations were noted among groups of sites categorized by the quantity of agri-cultural land in their upstream drainage basins. Concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate were largest during the nonirrigation season, October through March. Concentrations of total phosphorus and suspended sediment, in general, were largest during high streamflow, April through June. The pesticides EPTC (eptam), atrazine, desethylatrazine, metolachlor (dual), and alachlor (lasso) were the most commonly detected in theupper Snake River Basin and accounted for about 75 percent of all pesticide detections. All pesticides detected were at concentrations less than 1 microgram per liter and below maximum contaminant levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The largestnumber and concentrations of pesticides were detected in May and June following early growing season applications.

Clark, G. M.

1997-01-01

319

Energy Development Opportunities for Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Wyoming Business Council, representing the state’s interests, is participating in a collaborative evaluation of energy development opportunities with the NGNP Industry Alliance (an industry consortium), the University of Wyoming, and the US Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory. Three important energy-related goals are being pursued by the State of Wyoming: Ensuring continued reliable and affordable sources of energy for Wyoming’s industries and people Restructuring the coal economy in Wyoming Restructuring the natural gas economy in Wyoming

Larry Demick

2012-11-01

320

Geostatistical study of coal and overburden data from the Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. [R-squared statistics used as measure of correlation between drill cutting samples and core samples  

SciTech Connect

A statistical analysis was performed with overburden characterization data that was obtained from a US Forest Service study site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. The drilling and overburden characterization program had been performed during 1977 and 1978 and this information was provided to the Laramie Energy Technology Center by the US Forest Service. There were three basic goals that were accomplished during this study. First, find out how overburden data obtained from drill cuttings compares with overburden data obtained from core samples. Second, determine the basic chemical and physical characteristics of the overburden. Third, determine the minimum drill hole spacing required to adequately characterize the overburden. The R-Squared statistic was used as a measure of correlation between drill cutting samples and core samples. Most R-Squared values were less than 50%, therefore, it was concluded that geostatistical structure cannot be predicted accurately during an overburden study when drill cuttings are used. Principal component R-Mode factor analysis with Varimax rotation was used to characterize the overburden. Thirty-one variables were used in the factor analysis. The factor analysis yielded twelve distinct factors which explained ninety percent of the total variation. A two state sequential drilling procedure was developed that moves in a stepwise manner towards the goal of a predetermined level of accuracy until that level is reached. Thus, the desired level of accuracy can be reached without over-drilling an area. 7 figures, 11 tables.

Borgman, L.; Quimby, W.; Sever, C.; Andrew, M.; Youngberg, D.; Davis, F.

1983-05-01

321

Depositional environments, sequence stratigraphy, and trapping mechanisms of Fall River Formation in Donkey Creek and Coyote Creek oil fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donkey Creek and Coyote Creek fields contain combined reserves of approximately 35 million bbl of oil and are within a trend of fields on the eastern flank of the Powder River basin that totals over 100 million bbl of reserves. The principal producing formation is the Lower Cretaceous Fall River Sandstone. A study of 45 cores and 248 logs from

Paul R. Knox

1989-01-01

322

Stratigraphy, depositional history, and trapping mechanisms of Lone Tree Creek and Lodgepole Creek oil fields, Lower Cretaceous Fall River formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratigraphically trapped accumulations of oil in the Lone Tree Creek and Lodgepole Creek fields occur within and just updip from a fluvial meander belt within the Fall River Formation. The meander belt can be mapped north-to-south over a distance of at least 100 mi (161 km) in the eastern part of the Powder River basin. The northern part of the

E. R. Gustason; T. A. Ryer

1985-01-01

323

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone Reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: An examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recover. Concurrent efforts are aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery processes. This work focuses on quantifying the relationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization (in terms of changes in relative permeability, wettability, and pore structure) and with fluid characterization (in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties.) This work will establish new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to production-induced formation alteration that results in change in relative permeability and in wellbore scale damage.

Dunn, T.L.

1995-07-20

324

Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments when water supplies sourced from coalbed methane extraction are plentiful. Constructed wetlands, planted to native, salt tolerant species demonstrated potential to utilize substantial volumes of coalbed methane product water, although plant community transitions to mono-culture and limited diversity communities is a likely consequence over time. Additionally, selected, cultured forage quality barley varieties and native plant species such as Quail bush, 4-wing saltbush, and seaside barley are capable of sustainable, high quality livestock forage production, when irrigated with coalbed methane product water sourced from the Powder River Basin. A consequence of long-term plant water use which was enumerated is elevated salinity and sodicity concentrations within soil and shallow alluvial groundwater into which coalbed methane product water might drain. The most significant conclusion of these investigations was the understanding that phytoremediation is not a viable, effective technique for management of coalbed methane product water under the present circumstances of produced water within the Powder River Basin. Phytoremediation is likely an effective approach to sodium and salt removal from salt-impaired sites after product water discharges are discontinued and site reclamation is desired. Coalbed methane product water of the Powder River Basin is most frequently impaired with respect to beneficial use quality by elevated sodicity, a water quality constituent which can cause swelling, slaking, and dispersion of smectite-dominated clay soils, such as commonly occurring within the Powder River Basin. To address this issue, a commercial-scale fluid-bed, cationic resin exchange treatment process and prototype operating treatment plant was developed and beta-tested by Drake Water Technologies under subcontract to this award. Drake Water Technologies secured U.S. Patent No. 7,368,059-B2, 'Method for removal of benevolent cations from contaminated water', a beta Drake Process Unit (DPU) was developed and deployed for operation in the Powder River Basin. First year operatio

James Bauder

2008-09-30

325

Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

326

Avulsion Clusters in Alluvial Systems: An Example of Large-Scale Self-Organization in Ancient and Experimental Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratigraphic record of at least some alluvial basins exhibits a spatial structure that may reflect long time- scale (103-105 yr in natural basins) autogenic organization of river avulsions. Current models of avulsion-dominated alluvial sequences emphasize the spatial and temporal distribution of coarse-grained channel-belt deposits amid fine-grained floodplain materials. These models typically assume that individual avulsions move, either randomly or deterministically, to low spots distributed throughout the model space. However, our observations of ancient deposits and experimental stratigraphy indicate a previously unrecognized pattern of channel-belt organization, where clusters of closely-spaced channel-belt deposits are separated from each other by extensive intervals of overbank deposits. We explore potential causes of and controls on avulsion clustering with outcrop and subsurface data from Late Cretaceous/Early Paleogene fluvial deposits in the Rocky Mountains (including the Ferris, Lance, and Fort Union formations of Wyoming) and results of physical stratigraphy experiments from the St. Anthony Falls Lab, University of Minnesota. We use Ripley's K-function to determine the degree and scales of clustering in these basins with results that show moderate statistical clustering in experimental deposits and strong clustering in the Ferris Formation (Hanna Basin, Wyoming). External controls (base level, subsidence rate, and sediment/water supplies) were not varied during the experiment, and therefore not factors in cluster formation. Likewise, the stratigraphic context of the ancient system (including the absence of incised valleys and lack of faulting) suggests that obvious extrinsic controls, such as base level change and local tectonics, were not major influences on the development of clusters. We propose that avulsion clusters, as seen in this study, reflect a scale of self-organization in alluvial basins that is not usually recognized in stratigraphy. However cursory examination of other ancient systems suggests that such structure may be common in the rock record. Understanding mechanisms driving avulsion clustering will shed light on the dominant processes in alluvial basins over long time scales. Furthermore, characterizing autogenic avulsion clusters will be an important factor to consider when interpreting allogenic signals in ancient basin fills.

Hajek, E.; Heller, P.; Huzurbazar, S.; Sheets, B.; Paola, C.

2006-12-01

327

Tar Sand Occurrences in the Bush Butte Quadrangle, Wyoming, with Emphasis on the Trapper Canyon Deposit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit is located in the eastern Bighorn Basin, approximately 25 miles east of Greybull, Wyoming. This project not only involved detailed geologic mapping of the Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit, but also sampling and describin...

A. J. VerPloeg R. H. DeBruin

1983-01-01

328

The Biology of Salt Wells Creek and Its Tributaries, Southwestern Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description of biological communities in Salt Wells Creek, a plains stream in the Green River Basin of Wyoming, is presented. The description includes population distribution patterns, community edge effects, the food pyramid, and nutrition (trophic) le...

M. J. Engelke

1978-01-01

329

Diversity and distribution of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), and caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming, 1873-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado), compiled collection record data to document the historical and present-day occurrence of mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly species in the South Platte River Basin. Data were compiled from records collected between 1873 and 2010 to identify where regional knowledge about species occurrence in the basin is lacking and to encourage future researchers to locate additional populations of these poorly understood but very important organisms. This report provides a description of how data were compiled, a map of approximate collection locations, a listing of the most recent collection records from unique locations, general remarks for each species, a species list with selected summary information, and distribution maps of species collection records.

Zuellig, Robert E.; Heinold, Brian D.; Kondratieff, Boris C.; Ruiter, David E.

2012-01-01

330

Water-Quality Assessment of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana and Wyoming-Water Quality of Fixed Sites, 1999-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an assessment in 1997 of the quality of water resources in the Yellowstone River Basin. Water-quality samples regularly were collected during 1999-2001 at 10 fixed sites on streams representing the major environmental settings of the basin. Integrator sites, which are heterogeneous in land use and geology, were established on the mainstem of the Yellowstone River (4 sites) and on three major tributaries?Clarks Fork Yellowstone River (1 site), the Bighorn River (1 site), and the Powder River (1 site). Indicator sites, which are more homogeneous in land use and geology than the integrator sites, were located on minor tributaries with important environmental settings?Soda Butte Creek in a mineral resource area (1 site), the Tongue River in a forested area (1 site), and the Little Powder River in a rangeland area (1 site). Water-quality sampling frequency generally was at least monthly and included field measurements and laboratory analyses of fecal-indicator bacteria, major ions, dissolved solids, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Median concentrations of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were largest for basins that were predominantly rangeland and smallest for basins that were predominantly forested. Concentrations of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli significantly varied by season (p-value <0.001); the smallest median concentrations were during January?March and the largest median concentrations were during April?June. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended limit for a single sample of 400 colonies per 100 milliliters in 2.6 percent of all samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended limit for a single sample of 298 colonies per 100 milliliters for moderate use, full-body contact recreation in 7.6 percent of all samples. Variations in water type in the basin are reflective of the diverse geologic terrain in the Yellowstone River Basin. The water type of Soda Butte Creek and the Tongue River was calcium bicarbonate. These two sites are in forested and mountainous areas where igneous rocks and Paleozoic-era and Mesozoic-era sedimentary rocks are the dominant geologic groups. The water type of the Little Powder River was sodium sulfate. The Little Powder River originates in the plains, and geology of the basin is nearly homogenous with Tertiary-period sedimentary rocks. Water type of the Yellowstone River changed from a mixed-cation bicarbonate type upstream to a mixed-cation sulfate type downstream. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from fairly dilute in Soda Butte Creek, which had a median concentration of 118 milligrams per liter, to concentrated in the Little Powder River, which had a median concentration of 2,840 milligrams per liter. Nutrient concentrations generally were small and reflect the relatively undeveloped conditions in the basin; however, some correlations were made with anthropogenic factors. Median dissolved-nitrate concentrations in all samples from the fixed sites ranged from 0.04 milligram per liter to 0.54 milligram per liter. Flow-weighted mean dissolved-nitrate concentrations were positively correlated with increasing agricultural land use and rangeland on alluvial deposits upstream from the sites and negatively correlated with increasing forested land. Ammonia concentrations generally were largest in samples collected from the Yellowstone River at Corwin Springs, Montana, which is downstream from Yellowstone National Park and receives discharge from geothermal waters that are high in ammonia. Median total-phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 0.18 milligram per liter. Median total-phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended goal of 0.10 milligram per liter for preventing nuisance plant growth for samples collec

Miller, Kirk A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Wright, Peter R.

2005-01-01

331

Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final report for the period October 1992October 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Badger Basin Field, discovered in 1931, produces at stripper rates from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Only 15% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. This project will increase recoverable reserves through a better understanding of the reservoir and factors which control production. Characterization

J. P. Walker; R. G. Fortmann

1994-01-01

332

CO 2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery: Reservoir characterization and fluid flow simulations of the Big George coal, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coalbeds are an attractive geological environment for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) because CO2 is retained in the coal as an adsorbed phase and the cost of injection can be offset by enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production. This paper presents the findings of a CO2 storage feasibility study on coalbeds in the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone of the Powder River Basin,

Hannah E. Ross; Paul Hagin; Mark D. Zoback

2009-01-01

333

Quality of economically extractable coal beds in the Gillette coal field as compared with other Tertiary coal beds in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River Basin, and specifically the Gillette coal field, contains large quantities of economically extractable coal resources. These coal resources have low total sulfur content and ash yield, and most of the resources are subbituminous in rank. A recent U.S Geological Survey study of economically extractable coal in the Gillette coal field focused on five coal beds, the Wyodak rider, Upper Wyodak, Canyon, Lower Wyodak-Werner, and Gates/Kennedy. This report compares the coal quality of these economically extractable coal beds to coal in the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Powder River Basin and in the Gillette coal field (Flores and others, 1999) and other produced coal in the Gillette coal field (Glass, 2000). The Upper Wyodak, Canyon, and Lower Wyodak/Werner beds are within the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone. Compared with all coal in the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, both throughout the Powder River Basin and just within the Gillette coal field; the thick, persistent Upper Wyodak coal bed in the Gillette coal field has higher mean gross calorific value (8,569 Btu/lb), lower mean ash yield (5.8 percent), and lower mean total sulfur content (0.46 percent).

Ellis, Margaret S.

2002-01-01

334

Bitter bonanza in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Mineral and energy-related exploration, such as the drilling activity in the Overthrust Belt for petroleum, has made Wyoming a leading energy supplier in the U.S. The energy boom has had many unfortunate effects on the state's environment. Environmental degradation caused by exploration and production in Wyoming includes loss of habitat, poaching of wildlife, water pollution from oil dumping and erosion, and impacts from squatter's camps.

Randall, D.

1980-12-01

335

Trace Elements and Organic Compounds in Sediment and Fish Tissue from the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study to determine the occurrence and distribution of trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semivolatile organic compounds in sediment and in fish tissue was conducted in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program during 1998-99. Streambed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were collected concurrently at 11 sites and analyzed for trace-element concentration. An additional four sites were sampled for streambed sediment only and one site for fish tissue only. Organic compounds were analyzed from streambed-sediment and fish-tissue samples at 15 sites concurrently. Bed-sediment cores from lakes, reservoirs, and Farmington Bay collected by the NAWQA program in 1998 and by other researchers in 1982 were used to examine historical trends in trace-element concentration and to determine anthropogenic sources of contaminants. Cores collected in 1982 from Mirror Lake, a high-mountain reference location, showed an enrichment of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, tin, and zinc in the surface sediments relative to the deeper sediments, indicating that enrichment likely began after about 1900. This enrichment was attributed to atmospheric deposition during the period of metal-ore mining and smelting. A core from Echo Reservoir, in the Weber River Basin, however, showed a different pattern of trace-element concentration that was attributed to a local source. This site is located downstream from the Park City mining district, which is the most likely historical source of trace elements. Cores collected in 1998 from Farmington Bay show that the concentration of lead began to increase after 1842 and peaked during the mid-1980s and has been in decline since. Recent sediments deposited during 1996-98 indicate a 41- to 62-percent reduction since the peak in the mid-1980s. The concentration of trace elements in streambed sediment was greatest at sites that have been affected by historic mining, including sites on Little Cottonwood Creek in the Jordan River basin, Silver Creek in the Weber River basin, and the Weber River below the confluence with Silver Creek. There was significant correlation of lead concentrations in streambed sediment and fish tissue, but other trace elements did not correlate well. Streambed sediment and fish tissue collected from sites in the Bear River basin, which is predominantly rangeland and agriculture, generally had low concentrations of most elements. Sediment-quality guidelines were used to assess the relative toxicity of streambed-sediment sites to aquatic communities. Sites affected by mining exceeded the Probable Effect Concentration (PEC), the concentration at which it is likely there will be a negative effect on the aquatic community, for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, silver, mercury, and zinc. Sites that were not affected by mining did not exceed these criteria. Concentrations of trace elements in samples collected from the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit (GRSL) are high compared to those of samples collected nationally with the NAWQA program. Nine of 15 streambed-sediment samples and 11 of 14 fish-tissue samples had concentrations of at least one trace element greater than the concentration of 90 percent of the samples collected nationally during 1993-2000. Organic compounds that were examined in streambed sediment and fish-tissue samples also were examined in bed-sediment cores. A bed-sediment core from Farmington Bay of Great Salt Lake showed an increase in total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations coincident with the increase in population in Salt Lake Valley, which drains into this bay. Analysis of streambed-sediment samples showed that the highest concentrations of PAHs were detected at urban sites, including two sites in the lower Jordan River (the Jordan River flows into Farmington Bay), the Weber River at Ogden Bay, and the Provo River near Provo. Other organic compounds detected i

Waddell, Kidd M.; Giddings, Elise M.

2004-01-01

336

Activities of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1991-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the water quality of a large part of the Nation's rivers and aquifers and to improve understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect water-quality conditions. In meeting these goals, the program will produce water-quality, ecological, and geographic information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, upon which national-level assessment activities are based. The program's 60 study-unit investigations are associated with principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. Study units encompass areas from 1,200 to more than 65,000 mi2 (square miles) and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the upper Snake River Basin was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for implementation. From 1991 to 1995, a high-intensity data-collection phase of the upper Snake River Basin study unit (fig. 1) was implemented and completed. Components of this phase are described in a report by Gilliom and others (1995). In 1997, a low-intensity phase of data collection began, and work continued on data analysis, report writing, and data documentation and archiving activities that began in 1996. Principal data-collection activities during the low-intensity phase will include monitoring of surface-water and ground-water quality, assessment of aquatic biological conditions, and continued compilation of environmental setting information.

Low, Walton H.

1997-01-01

337

Subsurface geology and porosity distribution, Madison Limestone and underlying formations, Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana and adjacent areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To evaluate the Madison Limestone and associated rocks as potential sources for water supplies in the Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, an understanding of the geologic framework of these units, their lithologic facies patterns, the distribution of porosity zones, and the relation between porosity development and stratigraphic facies is necessary. Regionally the Madison is mainly a fossiliferous limestone. However, in broad areas of the eastern Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains, dolomite is a dominant constituent and in places the Madison is almost entirely dolomite. Within these areas maximum porosity development is found and it seems to be related to the coarser crystalline dolomite facies. The porosity development is associated with tabular and fairly continuous crystalline dolomite beds separated by non-porous limestones. The maximum porosity development in the Bighorn Dolomite, as in the Madison, is directly associated with the occurrence of a more coarsely crystalline sucrosic dolomite facies. Well data indicate, however, that where the Bighorn is present in the deeper parts of the Powder River Basin, it may be dominated by a finer crystalline dolomite facies of low porosity. The 'Winnipeg Sandstone' is a clean, generally well-sorted, medium-grained sandstone. It shows good porosity development in parts of the northern Powder River Basin and northwestern South Dakota. Because the sandstone is silica-cemented and quartzitic in areas of deep burial, good porosity is expected only where it is no deeper than a few thousand feet. The Flathead Sandstone is a predominantly quartzose, slightly feldspathic sandstone, commonly cemented with iron oxide. Like the 'Winnipeg Sandstone,' it too is silica-cemented and quartzitic in many places so that its porosity is poor in areas of deep burial. Illustrations in this report show the thickness, percent dolomite, and porosity-feet for the Bighorn Dolomite and the Madison Limestone and its subdivisions. The porosity-feet for the 'Winnipeg' and Flathead Sandstones and four regional geologic sections are also shown.

Peterson, James A.

1978-01-01

338

3D seismic studies of unconventional reservoirs, Badger Basin Wyoming; and Viking Group Turbidite systems, Norwegian Block 35/11, northern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By integrating geologic and geophysical interpretations it is possible to form an accurate, high resolution, 3D model of the subsurface. The primary purpose of this model is to characterize heterogeneities within a potential reservoir and locate anomalous zones that correspond to potential high-quality reservoir intervals. Individual techniques used to create the final reservoir model include 3D seismic fault and horizon mapping, continuity analysis, and detailed velocity modeling from seismic stacking velocity analysis. The final model is centered around geologic interpretations from well log and core analysis. The methodology described above for Badger Basin was successful in identifying a regional abnormal underpressured compartment and locating a "sweet spot" corresponding to the best know production in the field. Integrating all of these interpretations confirmed previous analysis and has significantly reduced the uncertainty of the reservoir model for the Frontier Formation in Badger Basin. If this model was available prior to drilling the field it could have been more efficiently and cost effectively produced. The final proposed model for the Upper Jurassic Turbidites systems in Norwegian Block 35/11 suggests the presence of both axially and transversely transported turbidite systems within the elongated, fault-controlled sub-basins that developed during Late Jurassic extension. These systems appear to be sourced from the same updip depositional system, most likely from an Upper Jurassic Sognefjord Formation equivalent system. Detailed descriptions of these systems show that the architecture and shape of the turbidite systems vary greatly with respect to local tectonic setting. Comparison of the axial and transverse systems shows that although the two systems have the same transport and depositional elements, and were sourced from the same system, each has a different architecture. The axial turbidite system is represented by thinner, low width/length ratio geometry versus the more isolated, high width/length ratio geometry of the transverse system. This appears to correspond to the shape of the individual half-grabens within the sub-basin and the orientation of feeder systems associated with each fan. A major question that is left unanswered is the influence of bottom currents on the formation and preservation of these systems. This problem can only be answered by drilling new wells designed to test the present model.

Buggenhagen, John Edmund

339

Water quality and environmental isotopic analyses of ground-water samples collected from the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations in areas of coalbed methane development : implications to recharge and ground-water flow, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses of ground-water samples were evaluated as part of an investigation of lower Tertiary aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin where coalbed methane is being developed. Ground-water samples were collected from two springs discharging from clinker, eight monitoring wells completed in the Wasatch aquifer, and 13 monitoring or coalbed methane production wells completed in coalbed aquifers. The ground-water samples were analyzed for major ions and environmental isotopes (tritium and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen) to characterize the composition of waters in these aquifers, to relate these characteristics to geochemical processes, and to evaluate recharge and ground-water flow within and between these aquifers. This investigation was conducted in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office and the Bureau of Land Management. Water quality in the different aquifers was characterized by major-ion composition. Samples collected from the two springs were classified as calcium-sulfate-type and calcium-bicarbonate-type waters. All ground-water samples from the coalbed aquifers were sodium-bicarbonate-type waters as were five of eight samples collected from the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Potential areal patterns in ionic composition were examined. Ground-water samples collected during this and another investigation suggest that dissolved-solids concentrations in the coalbed aquifers may be lower south of the Belle Fourche River (generally less than 600 milligrams per liter). As ground water in coalbed aquifers flows to the north and northwest away from an inferred source of recharge (clinker in the study area), dissolved-solids concentrations appear to increase. Variation in ionic composition in the vertical dimension was examined qualitatively and statistically within and between aquifers. A relationship between ionic composition and well depth was noted and corroborates similar observations by earlier investigators in the Powder River Basin in both Wyoming and Montana. This relationship results in two different water-quality zones with different characteristics - a shallow zone, comprising the upper part of the Wasatch aquifer, characterized by mixed cation composition and either sulfate or bicarbonate as the dominant anion; and a deeper zone, comprising the lower (deeper) part of the Wasatch aquifer and the underlying coalbed aquifers, characterized by sodium-bicarbonate-type waters. The zonation appears to be related to geochemical processes described by earlier investigators such as dissolution and precipitation of minerals, ion exchange, sulfate reduction, and mixing of waters. Qualitative and statistically significant differences were observed in sulfate concentrations between the coalbed aquifers and the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Ionic composition suggests that bacterially mediated redox processes such as sulfate reduction were probably the dominant geochemical processes in the anaerobic coalbed aquifers. Tritium was used to qualitatively estimate the time of ground-water recharge. Tritium concentrations in both springs suggests that both were recharged after 1952 and contain modern water. Tritium was not detected at concentrations suggestive of modern water in any ground-water samples collected from the coalbed aquifers or in six of eight ground-water samples collected from the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Tritium concentrations in the remaining two wells from the Wasatch aquifer suggest a mixture between submodern (recharged before 1952) and modern water, although the low concentrations suggest that ground water in these two wells have very little modern water. The relative absence of modern water in all aquifers in the study area suggests that recharge processes to these aquifers are probably very slow. Paired d2H (deuterium/hydrogen isotopic ratio) and d18O (oxygen-18/oxygen-16 isotopic ratio) values for samples collected from the springs and all aquifers are close to the Globa

Bartos, Timothy T.; Ogle, Kathy Muller

2002-01-01

340

Analysis of data on nutrients and organic compounds in ground water in the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1980-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground- water quality in the upper Snake River Basin. Water from domestic wells contained the highest median nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen) concen- trations; water from industrial and public-supply wells contained the lowest. Nitrate concentrations decreased with increasing well depth, increasing depth to water (unsaturated thickness), and increasing depth below water table (saturated thickness). Nitrate concentrations were statistically higher in areas of irrigated agriculture than in areas of dryland agriculture and rangeland. Concentrations increased in areas north of Burley and northwest of Pocatello between 1980 and 1990. The following organic compounds were detected in ground water in the upper Snake River Basin: cyanazine, 2,4-D, DDT, dacthal, diazinon, dichloropropane, dieldrin, malathion, and metribuzin. Of 211 wells sampled for organic compounds, water from 17 contained detectable concentrations.

Rupert, M. G.

1994-01-01

341

Coal as a source rock of petroleum and gas - a comparison between natural and artificial maturation of the Almond Formation coals, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Organic petrological and geochemical studies demonstrate that the Almond Formation coals contain great unrecognized volumes of stored gas and oil. Oil is generated during maturation of hydrogen-rich vitrinite (desmocollinite) and liptinite macerals into exsudatinite (waxy oil) and inertinite solid residue. The waxy oil is initially stored in pores and vesicles. As the coal thermally matures, stored hydrocarbons are expelled from the pores and vesicles. This phase change causes a significant volume increase, which may overcome the storage capacity of these coals, fracturing them and allowing primary migration of hydrocarbons. Kinetic modeling, based on hydrous pyrolysis experiments, indicates that at the basin center, most oil generated and expelled from Almond coals has been thermally cracked to gas, whereas at the basin flank the oil-to-gas reaction is unimportant. During hydrous pyrolysis these coals expel up to 0.17 barrels of oil and 404 cubic feet of gas per ton of coal, indicating excellent generative capacity. Calculations of the volume of Upper Cretaceous coals in the Greater Green River at vitrinite reflectances between 0.9 and 1.7 percent indicate that these coals may have generated 24 billion barrels of oil and 66 trillion cubic feet of gas. 39 refs., 51 figs., 11 tabs.

Garcia-Gonzalez, M.; MacGowan, D.B.; Surdam, R.C. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States))

1993-01-01

342

Status of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in Wyoming Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most subspecies of interior cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki have suffered dramatic declines in range and number. We assessed the status of genetically pure Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. clarki bouvieri on predominantly public lands in three major watersheds of northwestern Wyoming (Greybull River and North and South Forks of the Shoshone River) between 1994 and 1997. These river basins encompass the

Carter G. Kruse; Wayne A. Hubert; Frank J. Rahel

2000-01-01

343

Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases in water production are rare in the upper part of the Almond, and a higher percentage of wells in the upper part of the Almond show water decreasing at the same rate as gas than in the main or combined parts of the Almond. In Stagecoach Draw field, the gas production rate after five years is about one-fourth that of the first sample, whereas in Pinedale, Jonah, and Greater Wamsutter fields, the production rate after five years is about one-half that of the first sample. The more rapid gas decline rate seems to be the outstanding feature distinguishing Stagecoach Draw field, which is characterized as a conventional field, from Pinedale, Jonah, and Greater Wamsutter fields, which are generally characterized as tight-gas accumulations. Oil-gas ratios are fairly consistent within Jonah, Pinedale, and Stagecoach Draw fields, suggesting similar chemical composition and pressure-temperature conditions within each field, and are less than the 20 bbl/mmcf upper limit for wet gas. However, oil-gas ratios vary considerably from one area to another in the Greater Wamsutter field, demonstrating a lack of commonality in either chemistry or pressure-temperature conditions among the six areas. In all wells in all four fields examined here, water production commences with gas production-there are no examples of wells with water-free production and no examples where water production commences after first-sample gas production. The fraction of records with water production higher in the second sample than in the first sample varies from field to field, with Pinedale field showing the lowest percentage of such cases and Jonah field showing the most. Most wells have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature.

Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

2010-01-01

344

The Effects of Atmospheric Deposition on High Alpine Lakes in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming: Predicting Lake Sensitivity Using Basin Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric deposition is the primary cause of acidification in lakes and streams in the United States. Mountainous watersheds tend to have a low buffering capacity for nitrogen-based acidifying compounds because of their sparse vegetation, short growing season, poor soil development and the presence of extensive areas of exposed bedrock. Consequently, lakes and streams in mountainous areas are especially vulnerable to the effects of atmospheric deposition. Increased population growth in the western U.S., resulting in increased deposition of atmospheric pollutants, means that acidification of high elevation lakes and streams is a concern for resource managers, particularly in previously pristine wilderness areas. Basin physical characteristics such as topography, geology and vegetation are oftentimes vehicles for other variables that influence water chemistry more directly. Twelve high-alpine lakes in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) were sampled to determine the responsiveness of aquatic systems to environmental input and to determine the controlling landscape parameters that regulate lake water chemistry. Limestone was the best predictor for alkalinity, conductivity and major cations. Granite also played a significant role in the prediction of alkalinity, conductivity and calcium. Median slope, metamorphic rock, and young debris served as the best predictors for nitrate concentrations. The amount of sedimentary rock (non-limestone) present in each basin had an influence on conductivity, calcium, magnesium and sulfate. Relations between measured and predicted concentrations were tested using data collected from surveys conducted in 1986 and 1996 in GRTE. The regression models for alkalinity, conductivity, Ca, Mg, and SO4 reasonably predict values when compared to observed data. Over-prediction was consistent with the Ca/Na ratio model with most of the values being significantly greater than the observed values. Nitrate values were underestimated.

Corbin, J. A.; Woods, S. W.

2004-05-01

345

Stratigraphy, depositional history, and trapping mechanisms of Lone Tree Creek and Lodgepole Creek oil fields, Lower Cretaceous Fall River formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphically trapped accumulations of oil in the Lone Tree Creek and Lodgepole Creek fields occur within and just updip from a fluvial meander belt within the Fall River Formation. The meander belt can be mapped north-to-south over a distance of at least 100 mi (161 km) in the eastern part of the Powder River basin. The northern part of the meander belt contains the oil fields of the Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend; the southern part contains only the relatively small Lone Tree Creek and Lodgepole Creek fields. These small fields are of considerable interest, as they display a style of stratigraphic trapping of hydrocarbons not observed in the prolific Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend. The stratigraphic traps of the Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend occur at updip facing convexities along the eastern edge of the meander belt, with abandonment clay plugs serving as lateral permeability barriers to hydrocarbon migration. Oil has been produced in part of the Lone Tree Creek field from a similar trap. The remaining part of Lone Tree Creek field and Lodgepole creek field produce from stratigraphic traps formed by lateral pinch-outs of delta-front sandstone bodies. These traps are situated updip from and apparently in continuity with the meander-belt deposits, indicating that they may have been charged with hydrocarbons that found their way through the clay-plug barriers along the margin of the meander belt. Similar, undiscovered traps may exist updip from Fall River meander belts elsewhere in the basin.

Gustason, E.R.; Ryer, T.A.

1985-05-01

346

Late Cretaceous subsidence in Wyoming: Quantifying the dynamic component  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Cretaceous Western Interior Basin of North America is generally considered to have been a retroarc foreland basin. Flexural backstripping of the stratigraphic record from 97.2 Ma to 73.4 Ma, along a section perpendicular to the Wyoming-Idaho salient of the Sevier belt, clearly demonstrates that there were components of subsidence in addition to those driven by the thrust and

Shaofeng Liu; Dag Nummedal

2004-01-01

347

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques and is applied to the study of the Tensleep Sandstone reservoir in Wyoming. Investigations were performed on CO{sub 2} flooding.

Dunn, T.L.

1996-01-12

348

Wyoming State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.

349

Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final report for the period October 1992--October 1993  

SciTech Connect

Badger Basin Field, discovered in 1931, produces at stripper rates from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Only 15% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. This project will increase recoverable reserves through a better understanding of the reservoir and factors which control production. Characterization of the reservoir has been accomplished through an integrated engineering, geological and geophysical approach. Production data, drilling and completion techniques, and relative location of wells on the anticline were reviewed and related to productivity. Literature was reviewed for interpretations on preferred flow directions on anticlinal structures. A structure map of the producing Frontier reservoir was constructed. Porosity development and its relationship to fracture networks was examined petrographically. Fractures in core were described and oriented using paleomagnetic techniques. Azimuths of fractures in outcrop were compared to fracture azimuths measured in the core. A 17 square-mile 3D seismic survey was designed, acquired and processed. Interpretation is being performed on a Sun workstation using Landmark Graphics software. Time-structure and amplitude-distribution maps will be constructed on three Frontier horizons. A location for a high-angle well will be chosen. The slant/horizontal test will be drilled and completed to increase recovery of reserves. Transfer of successful technologies will be accomplished by technical publications and presentations, and access to project materials, data, and field facilities.

Walker, J.P.; Fortmann, R.G.

1994-12-01

350

Hydraulic Communication Between Coalbeds and Overlying Sands in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Implications for Re-injection of Coalbed Methane Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalbed methane (CBM) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is associated with the production of large volumes of CBM water. CBM water from the PRB has high saline and sodium contents, making it unsuitable for agriculture and environmentally damaging. One option for the disposal of CBM water is re-injection into aquifers, but for injection to be feasible the porosity and permeability of the sands needs to be high, the pore pressure needs to be low, and the aquifer cannot be in hydraulic communication with the coalbeds. In order to determine if pore pressures in the aquifers are low enough to allow for significant CBM water re-injection and to determine whether the coals and sands are in hydraulic communication with each other we have calculated pore pressures in 220 wells that monitor water levels in coalbeds and adjacent sands within the PRB. All 220 wells have pore pressures below hydrostatic pressure, implying that re-injection of CBM water should be feasible. However, by analyzing pore pressure changes with time for both the coals and their overlying sands, we find that sands less than 100 ft from coal appear to be in communication with the coalbed. Therefore, re- injection of CBM water should be carried out in sands further than 100 ft from adjacent coalbeds. It also follows that CO2 sequestration in PRB coalbeds should not be carried out in areas where sands and coals are hydraulically connected, as potential leakage pathways for CO2 maybe present.

Ross, H. E.; Zoback, M. D.

2006-12-01

351

Nutrient, suspended-sediment, and total suspended-solids data for surface water in the Great Salt Lake basins study unit, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1980-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected nitrogen and phosphorus (nutrient), suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids surface-water data were compiled from January 1980 through December 1995 within the Great Salt Lake Basins National Water-Quality Assessment study unit, which extends from southeastern Idaho to west-central Utah and from Great Salt Lake to the Wasatch and western Uinta Mountains. The data were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and the State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality database. The Division of Water Quality database includes data that are submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STOrage and RETrieval system. Water-quality data included in this report were selected for surface-water sites (rivers, streams, and canals) that had three or more nutrient, suspended-sediment, or total suspended-solids analyses. Also, 33 percent or more of the measurements at a site had to include discharge, and, for non-U.S. Geological Survey sites, there had to be 2 or more years of data. Ancillary data for parameters such as water temperature, pH, specific conductance, streamflow (discharge), dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, and turbidity also were compiled, as available. The compiled nutrient database contains 13,511 samples from 191 selected sites. The compiled suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids database contains 11,642 samples from 142 selected sites. For the nutrient database, the median (50th percentile) sample period for individual sites is 6 years, and the 75th percentile is 14 years. The median number of samples per site is 52 and the 75th percentile is 110 samples. For the suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids database, the median sample period for individual sites is 9 years, and the 75th percentile is 14 years. The median number of samples per site is 76 and the 75th percentile is 120 samples. The compiled historical data are being used in the basinwide sampling strategy to characterize the broad-scale geographic and seasonal water-quality conditions in relation to major contaminant sources and background conditions. Data for this report are stored on a compact disc.

Hadley, Heidi K.

2000-01-01

352

Organic compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediment from streams in the Yellowstone River basin, Montana and Wyoming, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A comprehensive water-quality investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin began in 1997, under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Twenty-four sampling sites were selected for sampling of fish tissue and bed sediment during 1998. Organic compounds analyzed included organochlorine insecticides and their metabolites and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples, and semivolatile organic compounds from bed-sediment samples. A broad suite of trace elements was analyzed from both fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples, and a special study related to mercury also was conducted. Of the 12 organochlorine insecticides and metabolites detected in the fish-tissue samples, the most compounds per site were detected in samples from integrator sites which represent a mixture of land uses. The presence of DDT, and its metabolites DDD and DDE, in fish collected in the Yellowstone Park area likely reflects long-term residual effects from historical DDT-spraying programs for spruce budworm. Dieldrin, chlordane, and other organic compounds also were detected in the fish-tissue samples. The compound p, p'-DDE was detected at 71 percent of the sampling sites, more than any other compound. The concentrations of total DDT in fish samples were low, however, compared to concentrations from historical data from the study area, other NAWQA studies in the Rocky Mountains, and national baseline concentrations. Only 2 of the 27 organochlorine insecticides and metabolites and total PCBs analyzed in bed sediment were detected. Given that 12 of the compounds were detected in fish-tissue samples, fish appeared to be more sensitive indicators of contamination than bed sediment.Concentrations of some trace elements in fish and bed sediment were higher at sites in mineralized areas than at other sites. Concentrations of selenium in fish tissue from some sites were above background levels. Concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, and lead in some of the bed-sediment samples potentially exceeded criteria for the protection of aquatic life.

Peterson, David A.; Boughton, Gregory K.

2000-01-01

353

Wyoming Government, Unit VII.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit on Wyoming government presents concepts, activities, and stories for elementary school students. Concepts stress that the functions of government are determined according to the demands, needs, and traditions of the people; each part of government has a special function; as citizens, we should be loyal to the underlying concepts of our…

Robinson, Terry

354

Health hazard evaluation report No. HHE-71-037, Hanna Coal Company, Cadiz, Ohio. Survey report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted to determine worker exposures to asbestos (1332214) dust at the Hanna Coal Company (SIC-1211) in Cadiz, Ohio, on November 22 and 23, 1971. The survey was requested by the director of the United Mine Workers Department of Occupational Health. Personal samples were taken in the breathing zones of eight welders, and 14 environmental samples were taken

LaPallo

1972-01-01

355

Health Hazard Evaluation Report No. HHE-71-037, Hanna Coal Company, Cadiz, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey was conducted to determine worker exposures to asbestos (1332214) dust at the Hanna Coal Company (SIC-1211) in Cadiz, Ohio, on November 22 and 23, 1971. The survey was requested by the director of the United Mine Workers Department of Occupationa...

F. J. LaPallo

1972-01-01

356

A Formstone of our Federalism: the Erie\\/Hanna Doctrine & Casebook Law Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The one I feel sorry for is John Ely. More than thirty years ago, in his classic article The Irrepressible Myth of Erie, he explained painstakingly, if not clearly, how thinking of the Erie\\/Hanna doctrine as a constitutional cornerstone of our federalism was just a mistake. Such a view, he pointed out, makes a major mystery out of what are

Robert J. Condlin

2005-01-01

357

The Hanna and Hoe Creek underground coal gasification test sites: Status report, (June 1986June 1987)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To comply with a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Western Research Institute (WRI) is required to submit an annual report summarizing the status of environmentally related work performed by WRI at the Hanna and Hoe Creek underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. The following is a summary of work performed at these two sites from June

G. L. Berdan; B. T. Nolan; W. L. Barteaux; W. Barrash

1987-01-01

358

Industrial Hygiene Survey of the Hanna Nickel Smelting Company, Riddle, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Worker exposures to airborne nickel (7440020) and free silica (7631869) were determined at the Hanna Nickel Smelting Company (SIC-3339), in Riddle, Oregon, on December 13 to 17, 1976. The company had a formal safety program and employed an environmental e...

H. M. Donaldson

1976-01-01

359

Reserves in western basins  

SciTech Connect

This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

1992-06-01

360

Reserves in western basins  

SciTech Connect

This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

1992-01-01

361

Proxies for Metabolic Carbon (CM) and\\/or Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) Contributions to Mollusk Shell Carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface waters reflect biogeochemical cycling of carbon, and therefore overall environmental conditions. Understanding past records of DIC can facilitate interpretations of ancient environmental conditions, and can be used to clarify effects of climate change in continental environments. The Hanna Formation, exposed in the Hanna Basin of south-central Wyoming, includes strata that

P. Higgins

2010-01-01

362

Analysis of nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1980-98, National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1995, ground water was the source of drinking water to about 52 percent of the population served by public drinking water systems in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit, which includes parts of Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming. Existing nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water collected in the study unit were compiled and summarized as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s objective to describe water-quality conditions in the Nation?s aquifers. Prerequisites for the inclusion of nitrate and volatile organic compound data into this retrospective analysis are that the data set is available in electronic form, the data were collected during 1980-98, the data set is somewhat regional in coverage, and the locations of the sampled sites are known. Ground-water data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Information Systemand the Idaho and Utah Public DrinkingWater Systems databases were reviewed. Only the most recent analysis was included in the data sets if more than one analysis was available for a site. The National Water Information System data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 480 wells. The median concentration of nitratewas 1.30 milligrams per liter for the 388 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was exceeded in water from 10 of the 200 wells less than or equal to 150 feet deep and in water from3 of 280 wells greater than 150 feet deep. The Public Drinking Water Systems data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 587 wells. The median concentration of nitrate was 1.12 milligrams per liter for the 548 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate was exceeded at 1 site and 22 sites had concentrations equal to or greater than 5 milligrams per liter. The types of land use surrounding a well and the well depth were related to measured nitrate concentrations in the sampled ground water. Overall, water sampled from wells in rangeland areas had a lowermedianmeasured nitrate concentration (0.76 milligrams per liter) than water from areas with an agricultural or urban/residential land use (1.41 and 1.20 milligrams per liter, respectively). In the NationalWater Information System data set, the median measured nitrate concentration in water from urban/residential areas varied from 1.00 milligrams per liter for wells greater than 150 feet deep to 1.84 milligrams per liter for wells less than or equal to 150 feet deep. The Public DrinkingWater Systems and the National Water Information System data sets contained analyses for most of the State and Federally regulated volatile organic compounds in water from about 368 and 74 wells, respectively. Fifteen different volatile organic compounds were detected at least once in ground water sampled from the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit. Water from 21 wells contained at least 1 volatile organiccompound at detectable concentrations. About 68 percent of the volatile organic compounds detected were in water sampled from wells in Salt Lake County, Utah. Tetrachloroethylene was the most commonly detected volatile organic compound in ground water sampled from the study unit, present in 8 out of 442 samples. Maximum contaminant levels for tetrachloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were exceeded in water from one well each.

Thiros, Susan A.

2000-01-01

363

Sampling and analyses report for the September 1989 postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG Site, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Between September 14, 1989 and September 19, 1989, Western Research Institute (WRI) completed the third quarterly Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) groundwater monitoring for the year 1989. This quarterly sample outing represents the first sampling since the completion of the second RM1 groundwater restoration in August 1989. Background material and the sampling and analytical procedures associated with this task are described in the Rocky Mountain 1 Postburn Groundwater Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan, prepared by Western Research Institute for the Gas Research Institute and the US Department of Energy.

Crader, S.E.

1989-09-01

364

Results of Phase 2 postburn drilling, coring, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute`s Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed during the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. A detailed description of Phase 1 results was presented in a separate report (Lindblom et al. 1990). Phase 2, completed during the summer of 1990, was designed to complete the seven objectives; more specifically, to further define the areal extent and location of the cavities, to evaluate the outflow channels for both modules, and to further characterize the structural geology in the ELW module area.

Oliver, R.L.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

1991-02-01

365

Results of Phase 2 postburn drilling, coring, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute`s Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The

R. L. Oliver; S. R. Lindblom; J. R. Covell

1991-01-01

366

Results of Phase 2 postburn drilling, coring, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute's Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The

R. L. Oliver; S. R. Lindblom; J. R. Covell

1991-01-01

367

Results of Phase 2 postburn drilling, coring, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute's Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed during the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. A detailed description of Phase 1 results was presented in a separate report (Lindblom et al. 1990). Phase 2, completed during the summer of 1990, was designed to complete the seven objectives; more specifically, to further define the areal extent and location of the cavities, to evaluate the outflow channels for both modules, and to further characterize the structural geology in the ELW module area.

Oliver, R.L.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

1991-02-01

368

Temperature Instrumentation for the Hanna Research Site Well 16 of the Laramie Energy Research Center in Situ Coal Gasification Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Laramie Energy Research Center (LERC) of the U. S. Bureau of Mines conducted a brief coal gasification experiment at Well 15 of the Hanna Research Site in April 1974. Sandia Laboratories emplaced special thermocouple instrumentation in adjacent instru...

R. P. Reed R. W. Morris O. J. Birdsong

1975-01-01

369

Estimation of Growing Season ET using Wyoming ET Calculator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimations of Evapotranspiration (ET) and Consumptive Irrigation Requirement (CIR) are essential for water resources planning and management. The Wyoming State Engineer's Office currently determines monthly reference evapotranspiration (ET) with an Excel Spreadsheet ET model using average monthly data from a nearby weather station (usually an airport weather station) for the irrigated area of interest, and interpolates them into daily reference ET using either linear or cubic functions. The purpose of this project is to replace the current Excel model with a GIS-based ET calculator. Our approach uses daily weather data to calculate daily reference and actual ET, and then aggregate actual ET into monthly and seasonal ET. Among many reference ET equations available, the ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation (ASCE-ET) and the Hargreaves-Samani equations were selected to calculate daily reference ET. Wyoming ET Calculator, a GIS-based ET tool, was developed to calculate daily potential ET, CIR, and actual ET, using daily reference ET, crop coefficients, effective precipitation ratios, and water stress factors. Total monthly and growing season ET and CIR were determined over the Upper Green River Basin in Wyoming. The long term trends of these totals from 1960-2009 were analyzed and compared to trends in weather data (minimum and maximum temperatures, wind speed, and dew point temperature). We also evaluated the total monthly and growing season ET from Wyoming ET Calculator against satellite-based ET (METRIC ET) estimations for June, July, and August of 2009 around an irrigated area near the Wind River Mountain Range in Wyoming. The total monthly ET from Wyoming ET Calculator agrees very well with total monthly ET from METRIC for well-watered crop areas. For other areas, the Wyoming ET Calculator tends to overestimate total monthly ET values than METRIC, because the tool assumes all NLCD crop area are being irrigated.

Rasmussen, R. W.; Park, G.

2011-12-01

370

Suckers in headwater tributaries, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus) and flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis) populations are declining throughout these species' native ranges in the Upper Colorado River Basin. In order to conserve these populations, an understanding of population dynamics is needed. Using age estimates from pectoral fin rays, we describe age and growth of these 2 species in 3 Wyoming stream systems: Muddy Creek, the Little Sandy River, and the Big Sandy River. Within all 3 stream systems, flannelmouth suckers were longer-lived than bluehead suckers, with maximum estimated ages of 16 years in Muddy Creek, 18 years in Little Sandy Creek, and 26 years in the Big Sandy River. Bluehead suckers had maximum estimated ages of 8 years in Muddy Creek, 10 years in Little Sandy Creek, and 18 years in the Big Sandy River. These maximum estimated ages were substantially greater than in other systems where scales have been used to estimate ages. Mean lengths at estimated ages were greater for flannelmouth suckers than for bluehead suckers in all 3 streams and generally less than values published from other systems where scales were used to estimate ages. Our observations of long life spans and slow growth rates among bluehead suckers and flannelmouth suckers were probably associated with our use of fin rays to estimate ages as well as the populations being in headwater tributaries near the northern edges of these species' ranges.

Sweet, D. E.; Compton, R. I.; Hubert, W. A.

2009-01-01

371

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Second quarterly, second year, technical progress report, January 1, 1995March 31, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to provide improvements in reservoir characterization techniques. Activities include: an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional and diagenic frameworks; the development of pore system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and reservoir simulations

Dunn

1995-01-01

372

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Final technical report, September 15, 1993October 31, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary study was designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal was accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, and depositional regional frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the

Dunn

1996-01-01

373

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994June 30, 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques

Dunn

1994-01-01

374

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. First quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994December 31, 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques

Dunn

1995-01-01

375

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. First quarterly technical progress report, September 15, 1993December 14, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques

Dunn

1993-01-01

376

A comparison of tectonic and eustatic control on Maastrichtian depositional sequences, south-central Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timing and geometry of Maastrichtian third-order sequences and systems tracts of south-central Wyoming were mostly controlled by rapid basin subsidence resulting from thrust loading of foreland basin crust. The basement of the Red Desert\\/Washakie basin was affected by thrusting in the Sevier belt to the west and by thrusting along the edge of the Wind River Mountains and Granite Mountains.

K. J. McMillen; R. D. Jr. Winn

1990-01-01

377

L.A. and “Lily Law”: A Talk with David Hanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the movie capital of the world for many decades, Hollywood has achieved an almost legendary status the world over. As a geographical location within southern California, however, it is also home to the many people who work within its film industry. The following interview with David Hanna (1917-1993) explores just what day-to-day life was like for the gay\\/lesbian\\/bisexual\\/transgender (GLBT)

Lester Strong

1999-01-01

378

National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Arminto Quadrangle, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Arminto Quadrangle in central Wyoming was evaluated for uranium favorability in accordance with specific criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Procedures consisted of geologic and radiometric surveying, rock and water sampling, studying well logs, and reviewing literature. Nine favorable environments were identified. Favorable environments include Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene sandstones of the Powder River Basin; Eocene sandstones of the Wind River Basin; the Cretaceous Cloverly Formation of the Casper Arch and Big Horn Basin; and Jurassic, Triassic, and Pennsylvanian sandstones of the Mayoworth area. Additional favorable environments include solution-breccia zones in the Madison Limestone at Mayoworth; Precambrian granites at Copper Mountain for authigenic deposits; and syngenetic uraniferous phosphates in lacustrine deposits at Lysite Mountain. Unfavorable environments include most Precambrian rocks; most lithologies of the Bighorn Basin; impermeable shales, silts, and carbonates; all strata of the Casper Arch, excluding the Cloverly Formation; and the Flathead Formation. Several Paleozoic and Mesozoic marine sands and the Madison limestone, excluding the Madison of the Mayoworth area, are unevaluated.

Damp, J.; Brown, L.

1982-06-01

379

Cretaceous biostratigraphy in the Wyoming thrust belt  

SciTech Connect

Biostratigraphy is essential to exploration for oil and gas in the Wyoming thrust belt because fossils provide a temporal framework for interpretation of events of faulting, erosion, sedimentation, and the development of hydrocarbon traps and migration pathways. In the Cretaceous section, fossils are especially useful for dating and correlating repetitive facies of different ages in structurally complex terrain. The biostratigraphic zonation for the region is based on megafossils (chiefly ammonites), which permit accurate dating and correlation of outcrop sections, and which have been calibrated with the radiometric time scale for the Western Interior. Molluscan and vertebrate zone fossils are difficult to obtain from the subsurface, however, and ammonities are restricted to rocks of margin origin. Palynomorphs (plant microfossils) have proven to be the most valuable fossils in investigations of stratigraphy and structures in the subsurface of the thrust belt because palynomorphs can be recovered from drill cuttings. Palynomorphs also are found in both marine and nonmarine rocks and can be used for correlation between facies. In this paper, stratigraphic ranges of selected Cretaceous marine and nonmarine palynomorphs in previously designated reference sections in Fossil Basin, Wyoming, are correlated with the occurrence of ammonities and other zone fossils in the same sections. These correlations can be related to known isotopic ages, and they contribute to the calibration of palynomorph ranges in the Cretaceous of the Western Interior.

Nichols, D.J. (U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO); Jacobson, S.R.

1982-07-01

380

Two Traditions in the Social Studies Curriculum for the Elementary Grades: The Textbooks of Paul R. Hanna and Harold O. Rugg  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 1920s and 1930s, Paul R. Hanna and Harold O. Rugg developed new textbooks that integrated social studies curriculum in the elementary grades for the first time. Each author's curriculum; Hanna's expanding environments framework and Rugg's recurring concepts with a focus on contemporary issues has significantly impacted today's elementary…

Bisland, Beverly Milner

2009-01-01

381

Preliminary heat flow and radioactivity studies in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Twelve new heat flow values in Wyoming are in the range 0.6--2.1 ..mu..cal/cm/sup 2/ s (25--88 mW/m/sup 2/). Radioactive heat productions at eight localities range from approx.0 to approx.1.3 ..mu mu..cal/cm/sup 3/ s (approx.0--5.4 ..mu..W/m/sup 3/). These data are consistent with the following interpretations: (1) The Laramie Mountains--eastern Wyoming Basin area is a zone of normal heat flow (0.6--1.6 ..mu..cal/cm/sup 2/ s (25--67 mW/m/sup 2/) that is characterized by low flux (approx.0.6 ..mu..cal/cm/sup 2/ s (approx.25 mW/m/sup 2/) from the lower crust and upper mantle. (2) The eastern boundary of the Yellowstone caldera heat flow high (> or =2.5 ..mu..cal/cm/sup 2/ s (> or =105 mW/m/sup 2/)) is narrow. (3) The heat flow is high (1.9--2.1 ..mu..cal/cm/sup 2/ s (79--88 mW/m/sup 2/)) in parts of the Black Hills in northeastern Wyoming and western South Dakota. From the data presented, a major heat flow transition occurs between the Medicine Bow and Laramie mountains in Wyoming (0.6--1.3 ..mu..cal/cm/sup 2/ s (25Pxn54 mW/m/sup 2/)) and the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado (2.2--3.0 ..mu..cal/cm/sup 2/ s (92--125 mW/m/sup 2/)). The high flux in this part of the Southern Rockies may mean that the zone of high heat flow associated with the Rio Grande rift extends to the Colorado-Wyoming Border. The normal heat flow in the Laramie Mountains--eastern Wyoming Basin area implies submelting temperatures in the upper mantle. In contrast, the very hgih flux in northern Colorado may be related to high-temperature, nonradiogenic heat sources in the lower crust and upper mantle because the width of the transition to normal flux in the Laramie Mountains in southern Wyoming is narrow (< or =70 km).

Decker, E.R.; Baker, K.R.; Bucher, G.J.; Heasler, H.P.

1980-01-10

382

Geologic and hydrologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, Great Green River Basin, Wyoming and Colorado. Topical report, January 1993January 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents: Executive summary and introduction; Tectonic and stratigraphic setting and coal occurrence of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lower Tertiary Fort Union Formation, Greater Green River Basin; Coal rank, gas content and composition, and origin of coalbed gases; Hydrology of the Mesaverde Aquifer and Tertiary Aquifer System, Greater Green River Basin; Coalbed methane resources, production, and exploration in the

R. Tyler; W. R. Kaiser; A. R. Scott; D. S. Hamilton; R. G. McMurry

1994-01-01

383

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work in conjunction with Marathon Oil Company in the Oregon Basin field utilizing Formation MicroImager and Formation MicroScanner logs has been completed. Tensleep outcrops on the western side of the Bighorn Basin are not of the quality necessary to do d...

T. L. Dunn

1996-01-01

384

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996March 31, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work in conjunction with Marathon Oil Company in the Oregon Basin field utilizing Formation MicroImager and Formation MicroScanner logs has been completed. Tensleep outcrops on the western side of the Bighorn Basin are not of the quality necessary to do detailed study of stratification. This made the use of borehole imaging logs, in which stratification can be recognized, particularly attractive

Dunn

1996-01-01

385

The trials of Hanna Porn: the campaign to abolish midwifery in Massachusetts.  

PubMed Central

The case of Hanna Porn affords an opportunity to examine how the laws that led to the abolition of midwifery in Massachusetts evolved and were applied to the midwife whose case set the state legal precedent. Mrs Porn served primarily a Finnish-Swedish clientele of wives of laborers. The outcomes of the births she attended appear to have been positive, and she maintained a neonatal mortality rate of less than half that of local physicians. She also repeatedly defied court orders to stop practicing. Her case exemplifies the efforts that occurred nationally to abolish midwifery in the United States.

Declercq, E R

1994-01-01

386

The Cretaceous record in a northeast-trending transect, northern Utah to east-central Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the Laramide basins of the middle Rocky Mountains include 16,600 ft (5060 m) of predominantly siliciclastic strata in the thrust-belt of northern Utah and 7800 ft (2380 m) of mainly siliciclastic and calcareous strata near the craton in east central Wyoming. Regional changes in the thickness of the strata indicate that crustal subsidence during the Cretaceous

1991-01-01

387

Macro and micromorphology of superimposed paleo-spodosols, Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), central Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interfluvial overbank deposits of the Paleocene Fort Union Fm. near Bison Basin, Wyoming, contain a series of superimposed paleo-spodosols. Soil horizon differentiation took place during periods of quiescence between flood events. Paleosols developed under a broad-leafed, deciduous forest cover and their mineralogy supports evidence of a humid, warm temperature climate with marked seasonality. Former land surfaces are defined by

E. H. Southwell; J. R. Steidtmann; L. C. Munn

1985-01-01

388

Tar sand occurrences in the Bush Butte Quadrangle, Wyoming, with emphasis on the Trapper Canyon Deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit is located in the eastern Bighorn Basin, approximately 25 miles east of Greybull, Wyoming. This project not only involved detailed geologic mapping of the Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit, but also sampling and describing the tar zone as well as the bounding barren zones. Samples were analyzed for porosity, permeability, oil saturation, and characteristics

A. J. VerPloeg; R. H. DeBruin

1983-01-01

389

Mineral resources of the Bobcat Draw Badlands Wilderness Study Area, Bir Horn and Washakie Counties, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bobcat Draw Wilderness Study Area is in the Bighorn Basin about 45 mi west of Worland, Wyoming, and is underlain by early Tertiary sedimentary rocks. No resources were identified in this study area, which lacks mines or prospects, but is mostly under lease for oil and gas. This study area has a high potential for oil and gas and

A. B. Gibbons; R. R. Carlson; D. M. Kulik; W. Lundby

1989-01-01

390

Invertebrate communities of small streams in northeastern Wyoming. Water Resources Investigation  

SciTech Connect

Invertebrate communities of small streams in an energy-mineral-development area, the Powder River structural basin of northeastern Wyoming, were studied during 1980-81. The purpose of the report is to describe the benthic invertebrate communities of streams in an energy-mineral-development area, in a manner useful to regulatory agencies, industry, and other groups.

Peterson, D.A.

1990-01-01

391

The biology of salt wells creek and its tributaries, southwestern Wyoming. Water-resources investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of biological communities in Salt Wells Creek, a plains stream in the Green River Basin of Wyoming, is presented. The description includes population distribution patterns, community edge effects, the food pyramid, and nutrition (trophic) levels between various types of plants and animals. Both algae and stream invertebrates were studied. Salt Wells Creek is a low-nutrient concentration system in

Engelke; M. J. Jr

1978-01-01

392

Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Laramie Range, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a detailed geochemical survey of part of the eastern flank of the Laramie Range and the northwestern edge of the Denver Basin in southeastern Wyoming are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 163 groundwater and 800 stream sediment samples, and field radiometric data are presented for 103 rock samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and

T. R. Butz; H. L. Mitchell; C. S. Bard; R. N. Helgerson; J. G. Grimes

1980-01-01

393

WILDLIFE MITIGATION TECHNIQUES AT SURFACE COAL MINES IN NORTHEAST WYOMING1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife issues at surface coal mines in the Powder River Basin of northeast Wyoming have been a topic of discussion since operations first began in the early 1970s. Since then, wildlife monitoring and mitigation programs have evolved to address changing concerns, and incorporate new information and techniques. Over the last 26 years, biologists with Thunderbird - Jones & Stokes (J&S)

Gwyn McKee

394

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Work in conjunction with Marathon Oil Company in the Oregon Basin field utilizing Formation MicroImager and Formation MicroScanner logs has been completed. Tensleep outcrops on the western side of the Bighorn Basin are not of the quality necessary to do detailed study of stratification. This made the use of borehole imaging logs, in which stratification can be recognized, particularly attractive for the western side of the Bighorn Basin. The borehole imaging logs were used to determine the dip angle and dip direction of stratification as well as to distinguish different lithologies. It is also possible to recognize erosional bounding surfaces and classify them according to a process-oriented hierarchy. Foreset and bounding surface orientation data was utilized to create bedform reconstructions in order to simulate the distribution of flow-units bounded by erosional surfaces. The bedform reconstructions indicate that the bedforms on the western side of the basin are somewhat different from those on the eastern side of the Bighorn Basin. A report has been submitted to Marathon Oil Company, the principal cost-share subcontractor. Marine dolomitic units initially identified and correlated in the Bighorn Basin have been correlated into the Wind River Basin. Gross and net sand maps have been produced for the entire upper Tensleep in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, as well as for each of the eolian units identified in the study. These maps indicate an overall thickening of the Tensleep to the west and south. This thickening is a result of both greater subsidence to the west and south and greater differential erosion to the north and east. An article documenting the North Oregon Basin field study will appear in the Gulf Coast Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Foundation Conference volume entitled {open_quotes}Stratigraphic Analysis Utilizing Advanced Geophysical, Wireline and Borehole Technology for Petroleum Exploration and Production{close_quotes}.

Dunn, T.L.

1996-04-26

395

New frontiers in old areas - Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first producing oil well in Wyoming was drilled in 1883 on Dallas dome in the central part of the state; in 1983 it was still capable of production. The first geologic map of Wyoming, published by W.C. Knight in 1900, showed 14 oil fields and oil seeps. The next map, Map of the Wyoming Oil fields, was published anonymously

J. D. Love; A. C. Christiansen

1986-01-01

396

Wyoming Wolf Recovery Annual Report, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The total gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in Wyoming increased approximately 23% from 252 wolves in 2005 to 311 wolves in 2006.The wolf population in Wyoming included Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and the entire state of Wyoming; however, wolf recove...

D. S. Guernsey D. W. Smith M. D. Jimenez R. F. Krischke

2007-01-01

397

Geologic and Hydrologic Assessment of Natural Gas from Coal Seams in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, Great Green River Basin, Wyoming and Colorado. Topical Report, January 1993-January 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Executive summary and introduction; Tectonic and stratigraphic setting and coal occurrence of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lower Tertiary Fort Union Formation, Greater Green River Basin; Coal rank, gas content and composition, and or...

R. Tyler W. R. Kaiser A. R. Scott D. S. Hamilton R. G. McMurry N. Zhou W. L. Fisher

1994-01-01

398

Tensleep, Minnelusa, and Casper Formations, Wyoming and adjacent states: study of Permian-Pennsylvanian oil occurrence and oil gravity distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an area covering the western Wind River basin, all of the Bighorn basin, and the northern half of the Wyoming part of the Powder River basin, the Tensleep\\/Minnelusa Formation contains vast quantities of oil. South of that line, very little Tensleep\\/Minnelusa\\/Casper Formation oil is found, even in large, closed structures. Examination of outcrops and correlations in the subsurface south

David A. Moore

1986-01-01

399

Northeast-southwest structural transect: Rocky Mountain foreland, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A northeast-southwest structural transect has been constructed across the Rocky Mountain foreland in Wyoming, a distance of about 400 mi. The line of transect begins in the northern Black Hills and traverses the northern Powder River basin, the Bighorn Mountains from Buffalo to Bonanza, the Big Horn basin from Worland to Hamilton dome, the Owl Creek Mountains, the northern Wind River basin at Maverick Springs, the Wind River Mountains to Pinedale in the Green River basin, the Moxa Arch at Big Piney and Riley Ridge, and into the thrust belt, ending at the Idaho border. In terms of a vertical and horizontal scale of 1 in. = 2000 ft, the section is about 90 ft long (i.e., the section is approximately 409 mi long). The data base for the transect includes published geologic maps, commercial photogeologic mapping, well data, and modern seismic data through critical parts of the basin areas. The data base provides an excellent found for analyzing structural relationships on both a regional and a local scale. Regional horizontal shortening of the foreland has occurred primarily through basement-involved displacements on basin-boundary megathrusts, which separate the mountain ranges from sedimentary basins, and on the smaller, intrabasin thrusts, which produced the anticlinal traps for Paleozoic oil accumulations.

Stone, D.S.

1987-08-01

400

Development of Lower Mississippian cyclic carbonates, Montana and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Mississippian Lodgepole\\/Madison formations of Wyoming and Montana consist of a 20 to 300-m upward-shallowing sequence of cyclic slope\\/basin, deep-ramp to shallow-ramp carbonate deposits. Shallow-ramp cycles (1-3 m) are composed of cross-bedded oolitic grainstone and pellet grainstone, overlain by rare algal laminite caps. Deep-ramp cycles (1-10 m) are characterized by thin-bedded, substorm-wave-base limestone\\/shale, nodular limestone\\/shale, and storm-deposited limestone overlain

M. Elrich; J. F. Read

1989-01-01

401

Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

402

Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because children entering kindergarten come with a variety of preschool and home experiences, and accordingly, with varying levels of school readiness, the Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards have been developed to provide a more consistent definition of school readiness. The goal for the Standards is to provide early childhood educators…

Wyoming State Dept. of Education, Cheyenne.

403

MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF WYOMING  

EPA Science Inventory

The ecoregions of Wyoming have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a national, hierarchical ecore...

404

Water Quality and Environmental Isotopic Analyses of Ground-Water Samples Collected from the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations in Areas of Coalbed Methane Development. Implications to Recharge and Ground-Water Flow, Eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical analyses of ground-water samples were evaluated as part of an investigation of lower Tertiary aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin where coalbed methane is being developed. Ground-water samples were collected from two springs discharging fr...

T. T. Bartos K. M. Ogle

2002-01-01

405

Water-quality assessment of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming; analysis of available nutrient, suspended-sediment, and pesticide data, water years 1980-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient, suspended-sediment, and pesticide data from surface- and ground-water sites in the South Platte River Basin for water years 1980-92 were compiled, screened, and interpreted. This activity is part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The analysis of existing water-quality data provides a perspective on recent water-quality conditions in the South Platte River Basin, evaluations of the strengths and weaknesses of available data, and implications for water-quality issues and future study priorities and design. Most data analyzed were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. Additionally, data from three local agencies were used in the analysis. A total of 3,484 samples from 54 surface-water sites and 107 wells were used in the analysis. The areal distribution of nutrient samples collected from surface-water and ground-water sites were sufficient in number and areal distribution to describe current water- quality conditions throughout the basin, but data were not sufficient to analyze factors and processes affecting water quality. However, suspended- sediment and pesticide data were sparse in their distribution with respect to time, space, and flow regime, and were sufficient only to provide a preliminary description of conditions in the basin.

Dennehy, K. F.; Litke, D. W.; McMahon, P. B.; Heiny, J. S.; Tate, C. M.

1995-01-01

406

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Final technical report, September 15, 1993--October 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study was designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal was accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, and depositional regional frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts were aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focused on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work establishes new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in wellbore scale damage. This task was accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends the at field scale; and chemical modeling of both the experimental and reservoir systems.

Dunn, T.L.

1996-10-01

407

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts are aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focuses on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization in terms of changes in relative permeability, wettability, and pore structure, and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work will establish new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in change in relative permeability and in wellbore scale damage. This task will be accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends at field scale; and chemical modeling of both the experimental and reservoir systems in order to scale up the experiments to field scales.

Dunn, T.L.

1994-07-22

408

Hydrogeologic data from a test well at Kathryn Abbey Hanna Park, City of Jacksonville, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 2,026-foot test well was drilled at Hanna Park, City of Jacksonville, Florida, to obtain hydrogeologic data. Drill cuttings and water samples were collected, and water-level measurements and lithologic and geophysical logs were made. The well is constructed with 6-inch diameter casing from land surface to a depth of 1,892 feet and cement grouted in place. The remainder is open hole. The uppermost 411 feet of material penetrated by the well consists of sand, clayey sand, phosphatic sandy clay, coquina, sandy limestone, and dolostone. In the remainder of the hole, the material consists of limestone and dolostone, which comprise the Floridan aquifer in the area. (USGS)

Brown, D. P.; Johnson, R. A.; Baker, J. S.

1984-01-01

409

Engineering and Geologic Evaluation of a Horizontal Gas Well Completion in the Almond Sandstone, Echo Springs Field, Greater Green River Basin. Topical Report, March 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Design, Implementation, and Completion of a Horizontal Tight Gas Wellbore Case Study: Green River Basin, Wyoming; Natural Fractures and Stress Orientations in the Almond Formation, Wamsutter Area, Green River Basin; Improvements to Reservoir Eva...

R. E. Hill L. W. E. Reinert R. Billingsley T. L. Dunn W. P. Iverson B. Aguado J. Humphreys R. C. Surdam P. T. Branagan B. M. Robinson

1995-01-01

410

Wyoming DOE EPSCoR  

SciTech Connect

All of the research and human resource development projects were systemic in nature with real potential for becoming self sustaining. They concentrated on building permanent structure, such as faculty expertise, research equipment, the SEM Minority Center, and the School of Environment and Natural Resources. It was the intent of the DOE/EPSCoR project to permanently change the way Wyoming does business in energy-related research, human development for science and engineering careers, and in relationships between Wyoming industry, State Government and UW. While there is still much to be done, the DOE/EPSCoR implementation award has been successful in accomplishing that change and enhancing UW's competitiveness associated with coal utilization, electrical energy efficiency, and environmental remediation.

Gern, W.A.

2004-01-15

411

Late Cretaceous subsidence in Wyoming: Quantifying the dynamic component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Cretaceous Western Interior Basin of North America is generally considered to have been a retroarc foreland basin. Flexural backstripping of the stratigraphic record from 97.2 Ma to 73.4 Ma, along a section perpendicular to the Wyoming-Idaho salient of the Sevier belt, clearly demonstrates that there were components of subsidence in addition to those driven by the thrust and associated sediment loads. The simulation demonstrates that the flexural foredeep is only ˜180 120 km wide and shows a forebulge located near the subsequent Laramide Rock Springs uplift. Foredeep strata between the Rock Springs uplift on the east and the thrust front to the west were mostly involved in the eastward- overlapping thrust belt or deeply truncated by inferred rebound after 78.5 Ma. The difference between the observed, decompacted, cumulative subsidence and the amount of subsidence that can be explained by simple flexural loading, the “residual” subsidence, increases from ˜800 m in eastern Wyoming to ˜1.8 km near the thrust belt. The westward-thickening Upper Cretaceous sediment wedge filled the accommodation space generated by downward tilting to the west of the North American cratonic margin by underplating and mantle flow associated with the shallowly subducted Farallon plate.

Liu, Shaofeng; Nummedal, Dag

2004-05-01

412

Cretaceous biostratigraphy in the Wyoming thrust belt.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Cretaceous section of the thrust belt, fossils are especially useful for dating and correlating repetitive facies of different ages in structurally complex terrain. The biostratigraphic zonation for the region is based on megafossils (chiefly ammonites) , which permit accurate dating and correlation of outcrop sections, and which have been calibrated with the radiometric time scale for the Western Interior. Molluscan and vertebrate zone fossils are difficult to obtain from the subsurface, however, and ammonites are restricted to rocks of marine origin. Palynomorphs (plant microfossils) have proven to be the most valuable fossils in the subsurface because they can be recovered from drill cuttings. Palynomorphs also are found in both marine and nonmarine rocks and can be used for correlation between facies. Stratigraphic ranges of selected Cretaceous marine and nonmarine palynomorphs in previously designated reference sections in Fossil Basin, Wyoming are correlated with the occurrence of ammonites and other zone fossils in the same sections. These correlations can be related to known isotopic ages, and they contribute to the calibration of palynomorph ranges in the Cretaceous of the Western Interior. -from Authors

Nichols, D. J.; Jacobson, S. R.

1982-01-01

413

Wyoming Geology and Geography, Unit I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit on the geology and geography of Wyoming for elementary school students provides activities for map and globe skills. Goals include reading and interpreting maps and globes, interpreting map symbols, comparing maps and drawing inferences, and understanding time and chronology. Outlines and charts are provided for Wyoming geology and…

Robinson, Terry

414

Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Annual Partnership Report is a collection of all established partnerships that Wyoming community colleges cultivated and maintained for fiscal year 2004. Serving as transfer preparation institutions, vocational educators, providers of workforce training and personal development education, and cultural centers, Wyoming comprehensive community…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2005

2005-01-01

415

Supervision and Evaluation: The Wyoming Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The intent of this study was to assess the perceptions and actions of Wyoming principals concerning their role in supervising and evaluating teachers. A survey was sent to all 286 principals in the state of Wyoming, of which, 143 returned surveys, a response rate of 50%. Findings suggested that principals utilized supervisory behaviors more often…

Range, Bret G.; Scherz, Susan; Holt, Carleton R.; Young, Suzanne

2011-01-01

416

Wyoming Geology and Geography, Unit I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit on the geology and geography of Wyoming for elementary school students provides activities for map and globe skills. Goals include reading and interpreting maps and globes, interpreting map symbols, comparing maps and drawing inferences, and understanding time and chronology. Outlines and charts are provided for Wyoming geology and…

Robinson, Terry

417

Laramide block uplifts and complementary basins in southern New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Laramide orogeny the foreland area of south-central and southwestern New Mexico was broken into several major, basement-cored, block uplifts and complementary basins. Geometry of the structures is similar in overall style to the Wind River and Owl Creek uplifts and Wind River basin of Wyoming. The southern New Mexico uplifts trend uniformly northwesterly and are asymmetric: they have

G. H. Mack; W. R. Seager

1988-01-01

418

Seismic exploration for oil and gas traps in Wind River Basin: a Laramide example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wind River Basin in central Wyoming is typical of the large sedimentary and structural basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain region during the Laramide deformation in latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary times. Northeast-southwest-oriented seismic profiles across the Wind River basin and flanking Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains illustrate the structural configuration and correspondent stratigraphic development of a typical

R. R. Ray; W. R. Keefer

1985-01-01

419

Mineral resources of the McCullough Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Park County, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the McCullough Peaks Wilderness Study Area (WY-010-335) located near the western edge of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. There has been neither mining activity nor oil and gas production within the study area. Total identified (sum of measured, indicated, and inferred) and undiscovered (hypothetical) subbituminous coal resources beneath the study area are estimated to be 805 million

D. G. Hadley; R. T. Ryder; R. H. Hill; D. M. Kulik; K. E. McLeod; R. E. Jeske

1990-01-01

420

Chemical weathering and related controls on surface water chemistry in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical relationships among surface waters, soils and rocks were investigated in the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Shoshone River in northwestern Wyoming. The area is underlain entirely by andesitic volcanic rocks. Smectite is the only clay mineral forming in soils over much of the area, although minor kaolinite occurs in a few areas of higher-than-average rainfall. Mass-balance

William R. Miller; James I. Drever

1977-01-01