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1

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING  

E-print Network

quality data distribution in the Hanna and Carbon Basins. HQ-3. Ash yield in the Ferris 25 coal zone, Ferris coalfield, Hanna Basin. HQ-4. Ash yield in the Ferris 50 coal zone, Ferris coalfield, Hanna Basin. HQ-5. Ash yield in the Hanna 77 coal zone, Hanna coalfield, Hanna Basin. HQ-6. Ash yield in the Hanna

2

Potential for deep basin-centered gas accumulation in Hanna Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for a continuous-type basin-centered gas accumulation in the Hanna Basin in Carbon County, Wyoming, is evaluated using geologic and production data including mud-weight, hydrocarbon-show, formation-test, bottom-hole-temperature, and vitrinite reflectance data from 29 exploratory wells. This limited data set supports the presence of a hypothetical basin-centered gas play in the Hanna Basin. Two generalized structural cross sections illustrate our interpretations of possible abnormally pressured compartments. Data indicate that a gas-charged, overpressured interval may occur within the Cretaceous Mowry, Frontier, and Niobrara Formations at depths below 10,000 ft along the southern and western margins of the basin. Overpressuring may also occur near the basin center within the Steele Shale and lower Mesaverde Group section at depths below 18,000 to 20,000 ft. However, the deepest wells drilled to date (12,000 to 15,300 ft) have not encountered over-pressure in the basin center. This overpressured zone is likely to be relatively small (probably 20 to 25 miles in diameter) and is probably depleted of gas near major basement reverse faults and outcrops where gas may have escaped. Water may have invaded reservoirs through outcrops and fracture zones along the basin margins, creating an extensive normally pressured zone. A zone of subnormal pressure also may exist below the water-saturated, normal-pressure zone and above the central zone of overpressure. Subnormal pressures have been interpreted in the center of the Hanna Basin at depths ranging from 10,000 to 25,000 ft based on indirect evidence including lost-circulation zones. Three wells on the south side of the basin, where the top of the subnormally pressured zone is interpreted to cut across stratigraphic boundaries, tested the Niobrara Formation and recovered gas and oil shows with very low shut-in pressures.

Wilson, Michael S.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Nuccio, Vito F.

2001-01-01

3

Ground-water data for the Hanna and Carbon basins, south-central Wyoming, through 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater resources in the Hanna and Carbon Basins of Wyoming were assessed in a study from 1974 through 1980 because of the development of coal mining in the area. Data collected from 105 wells during that study, including well-completion records, lithologic logs, and water levels, are presented. The data are from stock wells, coal-test holes completed as observation wells by the U.S. Geological Survey. The data are mostly from mined coal-bearing formations: the Tertiary Hanna Formation and the Tertiary and Cretaceous Ferris Formation. Well-completion data and lithologic logs were collected on-site during drilling of the wells or from U.S. Geological Survey files, company records, Wyoming State Engineer well-permit files, and published reports. (USGS)

Daddow, P.B.

1986-01-01

4

Geology of the Hanna Formation, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Hanna Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) study area consists of the SW1/4 of Section 29 and the E1/2SE1/4 of Section 30 in Township 22 North, Range 81 West, Wyoming. Regionally, this is located in the coal-bearing Hanna Syncline of the Hanna Basin in southeast Wyoming. The structure of the site is characterized by beds dipping gently to the northeast. An east-west fault graben complex interrupts this basic trend in the center of the area. The target coal bed of the UCG experiments was the Hanna No. 1 coal in the Hanna Formation. Sedimentary rocks comprising the Hanna Formation consist of a sequence of nonmarine shales, sandstones, coals and conglomerates. The overburden of the Hanna No. 1 coal bed at the Hanna UCG site was divided into four broad local stratigraphic units. Analytical studies were made on overburden and coal samples taken from cores to determine their mineralogical composition. Textural and mineralogical characteristics of sandstones from local stratigraphic units A, B, and C were analyzed and compared. Petrographic analyses were done on the coal including oxides, forms of sulfur, pyrite types, maceral composition, and coal rank. Semi-quantitative spectrographic and analytic geochemical analyses were done on the overburden and coal and relative element concentrations were compared. Trends within each stratigraphic unit were also presented and related to depositional environments. The spectrographic analysis was also done by lithotype. 34 references, 60 figures, 18 tables.

Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

1984-01-01

5

Coal-spoil and ground-water chemical data from two coal mines; Hanna Basin and Powder River basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data are presented describing chemical and mineralogical composition of spoil material and chemical quality of groundwater at 2 Wyoming mine sites. Samples were collected at Medicine Bow-Seminoe Number 1 mining area in the Hanna basin and at the Cordero Mine in the Powder River basin. The data collected from these sites, along with similar data from other coal-mining states in the West, are used to evaluate methods used in predicting post-mining groundwater quality. The data include mineral-composition analyses, paste-extract analyses, and sulfur-forms analyses of coal spoil, chemical analyses of water from batch-mixing experiments; and analyses of water samples collected from wells in the coal aquifers and from wells in the saturated spoils. (USGS)

Larson, L.R.

1988-01-01

6

National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas, Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey?s (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins Province in Wyoming and northeastern Colorado. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined three TPSs and seven assessment units (AUs) within them; undiscovered resources for three of the seven AUs were quantitatively assessed.

U.S. Geological Survey Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins Province Assessment Team

2007-01-01

7

Postburn evaluation for Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3, underground coal gasification experiments, Hanna, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1980 and 1981 the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) conducted a post-burn study at the Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3 underground coal gasification (UCG) site, Hanna, Wyoming. This report contains a summary of the field and laboratory results from the study. Lithologic and geophysical well log data from twenty-two (22) drill holes, combined with high resolution seismic data

A. D. Youngberg; D. J. Sinks; G. N. II Craig; F. G. Ethridge; L. K. Burns

1983-01-01

8

What Does Energy Development Mean for Wyoming? A Community Study at Hanna, Wyoming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enormous but often overlooked impact of energy resource development on small Western United States communities can be illustrated by the experiences of the traditional coal mining town of Hanna, Wyoming. Coal development doubled the population between 1970 and 1972, and required the addition of a sewer system and a police force, plus the…

Nellis, Lee

9

Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins, Wyoming: Chapter C in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used for the national CO2 assessment is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of twelve storage assessment units (SAUs) in six separate packages of sedimentary rock within the Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins of Wyoming. It focuses on the particular characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, net porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed, as specified in the methodology, to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage space in the various SAUs. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through the sealing unit into the top of the storage formation. Cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of incompletely attributed well data in a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling. The USGS does not expect to know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the amount of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on cell maps.

Merrill, Matthew D.; Covault, Jacob A.; Craddock, William H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; Lohr, Celeste D.

2012-01-01

10

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 1. General information and executive summary  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation. This report covers: (1) history of underground coal gasification leading to the Hanna tests; (2) area characteristics (basic meteorological and socioeconomic data); (3) site selection history; (4) site characteristics; (5) permitting; and (6) executive summary. 5 figs., 15 tabs.

Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

1985-08-01

11

Sampling and analyses report for June 1992 semiannual postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG site, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RMl) underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted from November 16, 1987 through February 26, 1988 (United Engineers and Constructors 1989) at a site approximately one mile south of Hanna, Wyoming. The test consisted of dual module operation to evaluate the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) technology, the elongated linked well (ELW) technology, and the interaction of closely spaced modules operating simultaneously. The test caused two cavities to be formed in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and associated overburden. The Hanna No. 1 coal seam is approximately 30 ft thick and lays at depths between 350 ft and 365 ft below the surface in the test area. The coal seam is overlain by sandstones, siltstones and claystones deposited by various fluvial environments. The groundwater monitoring was designed to satisfy the requirements of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) in addition to providing research data toward the development of UCG technology that minimizes environmental impacts. The June 1992 semiannual groundwater.sampling took place from June 10 through June 13, 1992. This event occurred nearly 34 months after the second groundwater restoration at the RM1 site and was the fifteenth sampling event since UCG operations ceased. Samples were collected for analyses of a limited suite set of parameters as listed in Table 1. With a few exceptions, the groundwater is near baseline conditions. Data from the field measurements and analysis of samples are presented. Benzene concentrations in the groundwater were below analytical detection limits.

Lindblom, S.R.

1992-08-01

12

Sampling and analyses report for December 1991 semiannual postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG site, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted from November 16, 1987, through February 26, 1988 at a site approximately one mile south of Hanna, Wyoming. The test consisted of a dual-module operation to evaluate the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) technology, the elongated linked well (ELW) technology, and the interaction of closely spaced modules operating simultaneously. The test caused two cavities to form in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and associated overburden. The Hanna No. 1 coal seam was approximately 30 ft thick and lay at depths between 350 and 365 ft below the surface in the test area. The coal seam was overlain by sandstones, siltstones, and claystones deposited by various fluvial environments. The groundwater monitoring was designed to satisfy the requirements of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) in addition to providing research data toward the development of UCG technology that minimizes environmental impacts. Further background material and the sampling and analytical procedures associated with the sampling task are described in the Rocky Mountain 1 Postburn Groundwater Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan (Mason and Johnson 1988).

Lindblom, S.R.

1992-01-01

13

Sampling and analyses report for December 1992 semiannual postburn sampling at the RMI UCG Site, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

During December 1992, groundwater was sampled at the site of the November 1987--February 1988 Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification test near Hanna, Wyoming. The groundwater in near baseline condition. Data from the field measurements and analyzes of samples are presented. Benzene concentrations in the groundwater are below analytical detection limits (<0.01 mg/L) for all wells, except concentrations of 0.016 mg/L and 0.013 mg/L in coal seam wells EMW-3 and EMW-1, respectively.

Lindblom, S.R.

1993-03-01

14

Sampling and analyses report for December 1991 semiannual postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG site, Hanna, Wyoming. [Quarterly report, January--March 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted from November 16, 1987, through February 26, 1988 at a site approximately one mile south of Hanna, Wyoming. The test consisted of a dual-module operation to evaluate the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) technology, the elongated linked well (ELW) technology, and the interaction of closely spaced modules operating simultaneously. The test caused two cavities to form in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and associated overburden. The Hanna No. 1 coal seam was approximately 30 ft thick and lay at depths between 350 and 365 ft below the surface in the test area. The coal seam was overlain by sandstones, siltstones, and claystones deposited by various fluvial environments. The groundwater monitoring was designed to satisfy the requirements of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) in addition to providing research data toward the development of UCG technology that minimizes environmental impacts. Further background material and the sampling and analytical procedures associated with the sampling task are described in the Rocky Mountain 1 Postburn Groundwater Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan (Mason and Johnson 1988).

Lindblom, S.R.

1992-01-01

15

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

1984-11-01

16

Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: Work Plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The overall goal of the Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing the cumulative effects of a variety of land uses. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and partners for the ecoregion, identify the information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant aquatic and terrestrial species and communities that are to be conserved and (or) restored. The REA also will evaluate major drivers of ecosystem change (Change Agents) currently affecting or likely to affect the status of Conservation Elements. We selected 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages to be included as Conservation Elements. We will address the four primary Change Agents—development, fire, invasive species, and climate change—required for the REA. The purpose of the work plan for the Wyoming Basin REA is to document the selection process for, and final list of, Management Questions, Conservation Elements, and Change Agents. The work plan also presents the overall assessment framework that will be used to assess the status of Conservation Elements and answer Management Questions.

Carr, Natasha B.; Garman, Steven L.; Walters, Annika; Ray, Andrea; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wesner, Jeff S.; O’Donnell, Michael S.; Sherrill, Kirk R.; Babel, Nils C.; Bowen, Zachary H.

2013-01-01

17

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA  

E-print Network

distribution in the Wyodak- Anderson coal zone in the Powder River Basin. PQ-3. Ash yield in the WyodakChapter PQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA By G.D. Stricker Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey

18

Petroleum exploration in Absaroka basin of northwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, virtually unexplored petroleum province with large potential resources can be defined in northwestern Wyoming. Structurally, the Absaroka basin is bounded on the north by the Beartooth uplift, to the west by the Gallatin and Washakie uplifts, to the south by the Washakie and Owl Creek uplifts, and to the east by the Cody arch. The Cody arch connects

Sundell

1986-01-01

19

New vitrinite reflectance data for the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range and Owl Creek and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, and the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected mainly from Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin to better characterize their thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential.

Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

20

72 FR 9302 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forest and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Wyoming; Thunder Basin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bow-Routt National Forest and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Wyoming; Thunder Basin Analysis Area Vegetation...Management AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA...on the National Forest Service (NSF) lands within the Thunder Basin National...

2007-03-01

21

Thermal history determined by fission-track dating for three sedimentary basins in California and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of fission-tracks is demonstrated in studies of time-temperature relationships in three sedimentary basins in the western United States; in the Tejon Oil Field area of the southern San Joaquin Valley, California; in the northeastern Green River basin, Wyoming, and in drill holes in the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming.

Naeser, Nancy D.

1984-01-01

22

Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site  

SciTech Connect

Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

1983-12-01

23

72 FR 11323 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Wyoming; Thunder Basin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Wyoming; Thunder...Supervisor, Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, 2468...

2007-03-13

24

An analysis of stream temperatures, Green River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for estimating temperatures of streams in the Green River basin, Wyoming, utilizes a regional model for estimating mean daily temperatures of streams at unmeasured sites. The regional model was developed by describing annual temperature patterns at 43 measured sites and by applying the harmonic function T = M + A -sin (0.0172 t + C)- where: T is mean daily temperature; M, A, and C are harmonic coefficients calculated from data for each stream-temperature station; and t is the day of the water year. Application of the equation for estimating temperatures at unmeasured sites requires regionalized estimates of M, A, and C. Regional estimates were developed with the aid of multiple-regression techniques, whereby the calculated harmonic coefficients were regressed against physical and climatic characteristics of the stream-temperature stations. Stream elevation was a significant factor affecting water temperature. Analysis of areal and temporal variations in temperature showed that springs, irrigation return flows, and reservoir storage were affecting reaches of several major streams. (Woodard-USGS)

Lowham, H.W.

1978-01-01

25

Gas desorption and adsorption isotherm studies of coals in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG), of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper (Wyoming), investigated the coalbed methane resources (CBM) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, from 1999 to the present. Beginning in late 1999, the study also included the Williston Basin in Montana and North and South Dakota and Green River Basin and Big Horn Basin in Wyoming. The rapid development of CBM (referred to as coalbed natural gas by the BLM) during the early 1990s, and the lack of sufficient data for the BLM to fully assess and manage the resource in the Powder River Basin, in particular, gave impetus to the cooperative program. An integral part of the joint USGS-BLM project was the participation of 25 gas operators that entered individually into confidential agreements with the USGS, and whose cooperation was essential to the study. The arrangements were for the gas operators to drill and core coal-bed reservoirs at their cost, and for the USGS and BLM personnel to then desorb, analyze, and interpret the coal data with joint funding by the two agencies. Upon completion of analyses by the USGS, the data were to be shared with both the BLM and the gas operator that supplied the core, and then to be released or published 1 yr after the report was submitted to the operator.

Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; McGarry, Dwain E.; Stillwell, Dean P.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Stillwell, Cathy R.; Ochs, Alan M.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Osvald, Karl S.; Taylor, Sharon L.; Thorvaldson, Marjorie C.; Trippi, Michael H.; Grose, Sherry D.; Crockett, Fred J.; Shariff, Asghar J.

2006-01-01

26

Megascopic lithologic studies of coals in the Powder River basin in Wyoming and in adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between 1999 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated coalbed methane (CBM) resources in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin. The study also included the CBM resources in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin of North Dakota and the Wyoming portion of the Green River Basin of Wyoming. This project involved the cooperation of the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG) of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper, Wyo., and 16 independent gas operators in the Powder River, Williston, and Green River Basins. The USGS and BLM entered into agreements with these CBM operators to supply samples for the USGS to analyze and provide the RMG with rapid, timely results of total gas desorbed, coal quality, and high-pressure methane adsorption isotherm data. This program resulted in the collection of 963 cored coal samples from 37 core holes. This report presents megascopic lithologic descriptive data collected from canister samples extracted from the 37 wells cored for this project.

Trippi, Michael H.; Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stanton, Ronald W.; Chiehowsky, Lora A.; Moore, Timothy A.

2010-01-01

27

Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the northern Wyoming Powder River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The abundance of new borehole data from recent coal bed natural gas development in the Powder River Basin was utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey for the most comprehensive evaluation to date of coal resources and reserves in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. It is the second area within the Powder River Basin to be assessed as part of a regional coal assessment program; the first was an evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coal field, adjacent to and south of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. There are no active coal mines in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area at present. However, more than 100 million short tons of coal were produced from the Sheridan coal field between the years 1887 and 2000, which represents most of the coal production within the northwestern part of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. A total of 33 coal beds were identified during the present study, 24 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. Given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining, seven of the beds were evaluated for potential reserves. The restrictions included railroads, a Federal interstate highway, urban areas, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as depth, thickness of coal beds, mined-out areas, and areas of burned coal, were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area for all 24 coal beds assessed, with no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 285 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 263 billion short tons (92.3 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is that portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined for seven coal beds with a stripping ratio of 10:1 or less. After mining and processing losses were subtracted, a total of 50 billion short tons of recoverable coal was calculated. Coal reserves are the portion of the recoverable coal that can be mined, processed, and marketed at a profit at the time of the economic evaluation. With a discounted cash flow at 8 percent rate of return, the coal reserves estimate for the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area is 1.5 billion short tons of coal (1 percent of the original resource total) for the seven coal beds evaluated.

Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

28

Tailings basin reclamation: Atlantic City Iron Mine, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

An 81 ha (200 ac) tailings impoundment at a taconite operation in Wyoming abandoned in 1985 has been a source of blowing dust. The site qualified for reclamation under Wyoming's Abandoned Mine Land program. The reclamation design included: incorporating commercially available organic amendments and fertilizers into a 300 mm (12 in.) thick cap of a sterile gravelly clay loam cover material, planting trees in the protective wind/snow shadows of rock beams and rock snow fences, lowering the water level n a flooded mine pit that was feeding uncontrolled seeps, and constructing a wide tailings pond spillway that allows flood control while minimizing seasonal water level fluctuations in the pond. The construction of the earthwork aspects of the design were completed over two construction seasons, including work during the winter at this high-altitude (2,470 m [8,100 ft.]) site. This occurred because snow from an early winter storm that collected behind the rock beams and rock snow fences was slow to melt. Furthermore, the increased snow catch made the site too wet the following spring to allow seeding during the normal seeding window; a fall planting was necessary. The rocky nature of the cover material prompted the development of innovative reclamation approaches, including fabricating a rock rake bulldozer blade and applying organic soil amendments by aerial spraying. A randomly-configured two-acre test plot was installed to evaluate the benefits of various soil amendments as the site matures. Future work on the site will include tree seedling planting and plugging of a decant pipeline.

Gusek, J.J.; Richmond, T.C.

1999-07-01

29

Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

U.S. Geological Survey

2006-01-01

30

Results of Phase 1 postburn drilling and coring, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in the Western Research Institute's (WRI) annual project plan for 1988--1989. The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed in the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. In relation to the seven objectives, WRI determined that (1) the ELW cavity extends farther to the west and the CRIP cavity was located 5--10 feet farther to the south than anticipated; (2) roof collapse was contained within unit A in both modules; (3) samples of all major rock types were recovered; (4) insufficient data were obtained to characterize the outflow channels, but cavity stratigraphy was well defined; (5) bore holes near the CRIP points and ignition point did not exhibit characteristics significantly different from other bore holes in the cavities; (6) a fault zone was detected between VIW=1 and VIW-2 that stepped down to the east; and (7) PW-1 was only 7--12 feet below the top of the coal seam in the eastern part of the ELW module area; and CIW-1 was located 18--20 feet below the top of the coal seam in the CRIP module area. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.; Oliver, R.L.

1990-09-01

31

Results of Phase 1 postburn drilling and coring, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in the Western Research Institute's (WRI) annual project plan for 1988--1989. The seven objectives

S. R. Lindblom; J. R. Covell; R. L. Oliver

1990-01-01

32

Geological remote sensing of Palaeogene rocks in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing studies of Palaeogene sediments in the Wind River Basin (Wyoming) were used for mapping stratigraphic units, sedimentary features and facies, and structural patterns. Thematic Mapper principal component images for the central and eastern Wind River Basin along with geological investigations and spectral analyses allowed: mapping of the Fort Union, Wind River, and Wagon Bed formations (Fm) and their subunits; recognition of two subunits in the Wind River Fm, one of which can be traced for 75 km; determination of sediment source and depositional environment of units within the Wind River Fm; correlation of the Wagon Bed Fm across the basin; and apparent confirmation of different sources of volcanic debris in the western and southeastern exposures of the Wagon Bed Fm.

Krishtalka, L.; Stucky, R. K.; Redline, A. D.

1988-01-01

33

Geologic application of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Two night-time thermal images of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming distinctly show a major thermal feature. This feature is substantially coincident with a drainage divide and the southward facing slope appears cooler, suggesting a lower thermal inertia. An initial examination of regional geologic maps provides no clear evidence to suggest what type of geologic feature or structure may be present, although it can be noted that its northeastern end passes directly through Lead, South Dakota where the Homestake Gold Mine is located.

Offield, T. W. (principal investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

1980-01-01

34

Geologic applications of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. After digitization, a noise rejection filter was applied to data obtained by USGS aircraft. An albedo image was formed by combining three bands of visible data. Along with the day and nighttime thermal data, the albedo image was used to construct a relative thermal-inertia image. This image, registered to a topographic base, shows there are thermal property differences in the vicinity of the contact between the Fort Union and Wasatch formations in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming.

Offield, T. W. (principal investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

1979-01-01

35

Depositional history of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Wind River basin area, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-three measured sections of the Dinwoody Formation, including five from the literature, provide information on thickness, lithology, paleontology, and stratigraphic relations within the Wind River basin and immediately adjacent areas of Wyoming. Most of these sections are in Fremont County, and some lie within the Wind River Indian Reservation. The Dinwoody becomes progressively thinner eastward, from a maximum thickness of 54.6 m in the northwestern Wind River Mountains to zero near the Natrona County line. The formation is characterized by yellowish-weathering, gray siltstone and silty shale. Variable amounts of limestone, sandstone, gypsum, and claystone are also present. Marine bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods (Lingula), and conodonts are common in the western part of the study area, but are absent to the northeast in gypsiferous strata, and near the eastern limit of Dinwoody deposition. The Dinwoody in the Wind River Basin area was deposited unconformably on the Upper Permian Ervary Member of the Park City Formation during the initial Mesozoic flood onto the Wyoming shelf during the Griesbachian, and represents the first of three Lower Triassic transgressive sequences in the western miogeocline. Conodonts of the Isarcica Chronozone document the rapid nature of this eastward transgression. The Permian surface underlying the Dinwoody rarely shows evidence of the long hiatus separating rocks of this age and earliest Triassic deposits. The Dinwoody transgression was followed by westward progradation of the Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group across the study area.

Paul, R.K.; Paull, R.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States))

1993-04-01

36

Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range, Owl Creek, and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, the Granite Mountains on the south, and the Wind River Range on the west. Important conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Mississippian through Tertiary. It has been suggested that various Upper Cretaceous marine shales are the principal hydrocarbon source rocks for many of these accumulations. Numerous source rock studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales throughout the Rocky Mountain region have led to the conclusion that these rocks have generated, or are capable of generating, oil and (or) gas. With recent advances and success in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation there has been an increase in exploration and completion of wells in these marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were traditionally thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters that control hydrocarbon production from shales include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a structural cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin.

Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

2013-01-01

37

Depositional history of Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana records the northeasternmost extent of the widespread and rapid Griesbachian transgression onto the Wyoming shelf. Depositional patterns document a progressive change from sparsely fossiliferous, inner-shelf marine conditions in the southwest and west to restricted, marginal-marine environments to the north and east. Characteristic lithologies include greenish-gray calcareous or dolomitic mudstone and siltstone, very thin to thick beds of gypsum, and thin-bedded, commonly laminated dolomite. A formation thickness of approximately 20 m persists throughout most of the basin but diminishes abruptly near the northern and eastern limits of deposition. The Dinwoody is disconformable on the Ervay Member of the Permian Park City Formation except in the northeasternmost part of the basin, where it locally overlies the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone. Considering the significant time interval involved, physical evidence at the Permian-Triassic boundary is generally limited to an abrupt lithologic change from light-colored shallow marine or intertidal Permian dolomite to greenish-gray Dinwoody siltstone. The Dinwoody grades vertically as well as laterally to the east and north into red beds of the Lower Triassic Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group. The Early Triassic depositional environment in the present-day Bighorn basin was hostile. A sparse molluscan fauna was observed at only one of the 20 sections studied, and no conodonts were recovered from Dinwoody carbonates. Significant amounts of gypsum within the Dinwoody suggest periodic high evaporation from hypersaline waters on a low-energy shallow shelf during intervals of reduced terrigenous sediment supply from the north and east. However, sufficient organic material was present to create reducing conditions, as evidenced by greenish rock color and abundant pyrite.

Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K.

1986-08-01

38

Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bighorn Basin is one of many structural and sedimentary basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny, a period of crustal instability and compressional tectonics that began in latest Cretaceous time and ended in the Eocene. The basin is nearly 180 mi long, 100 mi wide, and encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. The basin is bounded on the northeast by the Pryor Mountains, on the east by the Bighorn Mountains, and on the south by the Owl Creek Mountains). The north boundary includes a zone of faulting and folding referred to as the Nye-Bowler lineament. The northwest and west margins are formed by the Beartooth Mountains and Absaroka Range, respectively. Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary. In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs in the deeper parts of the basin. It has been suggested by numerous authors that various Cretaceous marine shales are the principal source rock for these accumulations. Numerous studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Rocky Mountain region have led to the general conclusion that these rocks have generated or are capable of generating oil and (or) gas. In recent years, advances in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation have resulted in increased exploration and completion of wells in Cretaceous marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were previously thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters controlling hydrocarbon production from these shale reservoirs include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for selected Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Bighorn Basin.

Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

2014-01-01

39

Distinguishing Long-Term Controls on Fluvial Architecture in the Lance Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Allogenic processes are considered a prime control on the stratigraphic distribution of channel bodies, however, recent studies have indicated that autogenic stratigraphic organization may occur within fluvial systems on basin- filling time scales (105-106 years). Groupings or clusters of closely-spaced channel bodies can be produced by several different mechanisms, including both allogenic and autogenic processes. Commonly, sand- dominated intervals in stratigraphic successions are interpreted as incised-valley fills produced by base-level changes. In contrast, long-timescale organization of river avulsion can generate similar stratigraphic patterns. For example, sand-dominated intervals in the fluvial Lance Formation (Maastrichtian; Bighorn Basin, WY) have been interpreted as incised-valley fills formed during sea-level lowstand. However, closely-spaced sand bodies in the Ferris Formation (Lance equivalent; Hanna Basin, WY) are interpreted as aggradational in origin, and have been compared to autogenic avulsion stratigraphy produced in experimental basins. We evaluate the Lance Formation in the southern Bighorn Basin in an effort to determine whether these sand-dominated intervals are truly incised- valley fills resulting from sea-level changes, or if they were generated by autogenic processes. The Lance Formation crops out in the western and southern margins of the basin, exposing relatively proximal and distal portions of the system. By comparing alluvial architecture between exposures, we evaluate similarities and differences from upstream to downstream and look for evidence of intrinsic and extrinsic controls on deposition. In both localities, the Lance Formation comprises multi-story sheet sandstones and smaller, single-story sandstones. Observed changes from upstream to downstream in the system include: 1) increasing paleoflow depths (from ~30-60 cm to ~70-120 cm); 2) decreasing preservation of fine-grained material within channel bodies; 3) increasing proportion of amalgamated, multi-story sand bodies; and 4) increasing lateral continuity of multi-story sand bodies. These results indicate that upstream, channel-body spacing is dominantly controlled by aggradational processes and may be the result of autogenic avulsion clustering, whereas downstream, evidence of incision and amalgamation indicate that base-level may have limited and controlled sand-body architecture.

McHarge, J. L.; Hajek, E. A.; Heller, P. L.

2007-12-01

40

Chapter 1: Executive Summary - Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 2.4 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 41 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 20.5 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Wind River Basin Province of Wyoming.

USGS Wind River Basin Province Assessment Team

2007-01-01

41

MAJOR SOURCES OF NITROGEN INPUT AND LOSS IN THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, 1990.  

EPA Science Inventory

Total nitrogen input and loss from cattle manure, fertilizer, legume crops, precipitation, and domestic septic systems in the upper Snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming (1704), were estimated by county for water year 1990. The purpose of these estimations was to rank inp...

42

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, 1980-92.  

EPA Science Inventory

Data summarized in this report are used in companion reports to help define the relations among land use, water use, water quality, and biological conditions. The upper Snake River Basin (1704) is located in southeastern Idaho and northwestern Wyoming and includes small parts of...

43

Estimate of underflow in the Niobrara River Basin across the Wyoming-Nebraska state line  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to estimate the amount of ground water flowing across the Wyoming-Nebraska State line within the Niobrara Rive basin and to evaluate the accuracy of that estimate. The approximate effort involed in obtaining additional data to determine the underflow more accurately also is discussed. This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer and Director of the Conservation and Survey Division of the University of Nebraska, at the request of the Niobrara River Compact Commission. The following paragraph requesting the work is quoted from the report of the Engineering Subcommittee to the Niobrara River Compact Commission, Ainsworth, Nebr., October 29, 1956: Need for additional data under this item is confined to ground-water data since surface-water data discussions are covered under item 1. It is recommended that the Commission request the Geological Survey in cooperation with each of the three states to develop estimates of ground-water flows across state lines, together with ground-water contour maps extending adequate distanced into each state, such estimates and maps to be based on existing data and qualified by their evaluation of resultant percentage degree of accuracy. In addition they should be requested to furnish an estimate of cost to obtain additional data necessary to bring the estimate to within a more acceptable degree of accuracy as may be desired by the Commission.

Babcock, H.M.; Keech, Charles F.

1957-01-01

44

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

The new exploration technology for basin center gas accumulations developed by R.C. Surdam and Associates at the Institute for Energy Research, University of Wyoming, was applied to the Riverton Dome 3-D seismic area. Application of the technology resulted in the development of important new exploration leads in the Frontier, Muddy, and Nugget formations. The new leads are adjacent to a major north-south trending fault, which is downdip from the crest of the major structure in the area. In a blind test, the drilling results from six new Muddy test wells were accurately predicted. The initial production values, IP, for the six test wells ranged from < one mmcf/day to four mmcf/day. The three wells with the highest IP values (i.e., three to four mmcf/day) were drilled into an intense velocity anomaly (i.e., anomalously slow velocities). The well drilled at the end of the velocity anomaly had an IP value of one mmcf/day, and the two wells drilled outside of the velocity anomaly had IP values of < one mmcf/day and are presently shut in. Based on these test results, it is concluded that the new IER exploration strategy for detecting and delineating commercial, anomalously pressured gas accumulation is valid in the southwestern portions of the Wind River Basin, and can be utilized to significantly reduce exploration risk and to increase profitability of so-called basin center gas accumulations.

Ronald C. Surdam; Zunsheng Jiao; Nicholas K. Boyd

1999-11-01

45

Invasive species and coal bed methane development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the fastest growing areas of natural gas production is coal bed methane (CBM) due to the large monetary returns and increased demand for energy from consumers. The Powder River Basin, Wyoming is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of CBM development with projections of the establishment of up to 50,000 wells. CBM disturbances may make the native ecosystem more susceptible to invasion by non-native species, but there are few studies that have been conducted on the environmental impacts of this type of resource extraction. To evaluate the potential effects of CBM development on native plant species distribution and patterns of non-native plant invasion, 36 modified Forest Inventory and Analysis plots (each comprised of four 168-m2 subplots) were established in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. There were 73 168-m2 subplots on control sites; 42 subplots on secondary disturbances; 14 on major surface disturbances; eight on well pads; and seven on sites downslope of CBM wells water discharge points. Native plant species cover ranged from 39.5 ?? 2.7% (mean ?? 1 SE) in the secondary disturbance subplots to 17.7 ?? 7.5% in the pad subplots. Non-native plant species cover ranged from 31.0 ?? 8.4% in the discharge areas to 14.7 ?? 8.9% in the pad subplots. The control subplots had significantly less non-native species richness than the combined disturbance types. The combined disturbance subplots had significantly greater soil salinity than the control sites. These results suggest that CBM development and associated disturbances may facilitate the establishment of non-native plants. Future research and management decisions should consider the accumulative landscape-scale effects of CBM development on preserving native plant diversity. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

Bergquist, E.; Evangelista, P.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Alley, N.

2007-01-01

46

Characterization and fluid flow simulation of naturally fractured Frontier sandstone, Green River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Significant gas reserves are present in low-permeability sandstones of the Frontier Formation in the greater Green River Basin, Wyoming. Successful exploitation of these reservoirs requires an understanding of the characteristics and fluid-flow response of the regional natural fracture system that controls reservoir productivity. Fracture characteristics were obtained from outcrop studies of Frontier sandstones at locations in the basin. The fracture data were combined with matrix permeability data to compute an anisotropic horizontal permeability tensor (magnitude and direction) corresponding to an equivalent reservoir system in the subsurface using a computational model developed by Oda (1985). This analysis shows that the maximum and minimum horizontal permeability and flow capacity are controlled by fracture intensity and decrease with increasing bed thickness. However, storage capacity is controlled by matrix porosity and increases linearly with increasing bed thickness. The relationship between bed thickness and the calculated fluid-flow properties was used in a reservoir simulation study of vertical, hydraulically-fractured and horizontal wells and horizontal wells of different lengths in analogous naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The simulation results show that flow capacity dominates early time production, while storage capacity dominates pressure support over time for vertical wells. For horizontal wells drilled perpendicular to the maximum permeability direction a high target production rate can be maintained over a longer time and have higher cumulative production than vertical wells. Longer horizontal wells are required for the same cumulative production with decreasing bed thickness.

Harstad, H. [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM (United States); Teufel, L.W.; Lorenz, J.C.; Brown, S.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.

1996-08-01

47

Trace element chemistry of coal bed natural gas produced water in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Coal bed natural gas (CBNG) produced water is usually disposed into nearby constructed disposal ponds. Geochemistry of produced water, particularly trace elements interacting with a semiarid environment, is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to collect produced water samples at outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds and monitor pH, iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), boron (B), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), and barium (Ba). Outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds were sampled from five different watersheds including Cheyenne River (CHR), Belle Fourche River (BFR), Little Powder River (LPR), Powder River (PR), and Tongue River (TR) within the Powder River Basin (PRB), Wyoming from 2003 to 2005. Paired tests were conducted between CBNG outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds for each watershed. Results suggest that produced water from CBNG outfalls is chemically different from the produced water from corresponding disposal ponds. Most trace metal concentrations in the produced water increased from outfall to disposal pond except for Ba. In disposal ponds, Ba, As, and B concentrations increased from 2003 to 2005. Geochemical modeling predicted precipitation and dissolution reactions as controlling processes for Al, Cu, and Ba concentrations in CBNG produced water. Adsorption and desorption reactions appear to control As, Mo, and B concentrations in CBNG water in disposal ponds. Overall, results of this study will be important to determine beneficial uses (e.g., irrigation, livestock/wildlife water, and aquatic life) for CBNG produced water in the PRB, Wyoming. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Richard E. Jackson; K.J. Reddy [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Department of Renewable Resources

2007-09-15

48

Middle Jurassic (Bajocian and Bathonian) dinosaur megatracksites, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two previously unknown rare Middle Jurassic dinosaur megatracksites are reported from the Bighorn Basin of northern Wyoming in the Western Interior of the United States. These trace fossils occur in carbonate units once thought to be totally marine in origin, and constitute the two most extensive Middle Jurassic dinosaur tracksites currently known in North America. The youngest of these occurs primarily along a single horizon at or near the top of the "basal member" of the "lower" Sundance Formation, is mid-Bathonian in age, and dates to ??? 167 ma. This discovery necessitates a major change in the paleogeographic reconstructions for Wyoming for this period. The older tracksites occur at multiple horizons within a 1 m interval in the middle part of the Gypsum Spring Formation. This interval is uppermost Bajocian in age and dates to ??? 170 ma. Terrestrial tracks found, to date, have been all bipedal tridactyl dinosaur prints. At least some of these prints can be attributed to the theropods. Possible swim tracks of bipedal dinosaurs are also present in the Gypsum Spring Formation. Digitigrade prints dominate the Sundance trackways, with both plantigrade and digitigrade prints being preserved in the Gypsum Spring trackways. The Sundance track-bearing surface locally covers 7.5 square kilometers in the vicinity of Shell, Wyoming. Other tracks occur apparently on the same horizon approximately 25 kilometers to the west, north of the town of Greybull. The Gypsum Spring megatracksite is locally preserved across the same 25 kilometer east-west expanse, with the Gypsum Spring megatracksite more extensive in a north-south direction with tracks occurring locally across a 100 kilometer extent. Conservative estimates for the trackway density based on regional mapping in the Sundance tracksite discovery area near Shell suggests that over 150, 000 in situ tracks may be preserved per square kilometer in the Sundance Formation in this area. Comparable estimates have not been made for other areas. Similarities between the two megatracksites include their formation and preservation in upper intertidal to supratidal sediments deposited under at least seasonally arid conditions. Microbial mat growth on the ancient tidal flats apparently initiated the preservation of these prints.

Kvale, E.P.; Johnson, G.D.; Mickelson, D.L.; Keller, K.; Furer, L.; Archer, A.

2001-01-01

49

Evaporite replacement within the Permian strata of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and the Delaware Basin, west Texas and New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Park City and Goose Egg Formations of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming and the Seven Rivers, Yates and Tansill Formations of west Texas and New Mexico contain numerous examples of silicified and calcitized evaporites. Both areas show significant preserved interstitial evaporite, but on outcrop the discrete crystals and nodular evaporites have been extensively replaced. These replacements appear to be a multistage phenomenon. Field and petrographic evidence (matted fabrics in nodules; evaporite inclusions) indicate that silicification involved direct replacement of evaporites and probably occurred during earlier stages of burial. Calcitization, however, appears to be a much later phenomenon and involved precipitation of coarse crystals within evaporite molds. The calcites are typically free of evaporite inclusions. Isotopic analyses of these calcites give a wide range of values from [minus]6.04 to [minus]25.02 [per thousand] [delta][sup 18]O and +6.40 to [minus]25.26 [per thousand] [delta][sup 13]C, reflecting their complex diagenetic histories. In both localities, silicification of evaporites was completed by the end of hydrocarbon migration and emplacement. The extremely broad isotopic range of the calcites indicates that the calcitization occurred during a long period of progressive uplift and increased groundwater circulation associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting. The very light oxygen values within the Bighorn Basin were produced by thermochemical sulfate reduction during deepest burial of the region. Evaporite diagenesis in both the Bighorn and Delaware Basins is an ongoing process that started prior to hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to do significant porosity change.

Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States))

1992-01-01

50

Slattery field, Powder River basin, Wyoming: a multidisciplinary approach leading to improved interpretation of a complex Minnelusa (Permian) field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slattery field was discovered in 1963 on the eastern flank of the Powder River basin. The field has produced over 6.5 million bbl of oil in the past 22 years. Located 10 mi south-southeast of Gillette, Wyoming, T49N, R68, 69W, it is 2 mi long and 1.4 mi wide. Although there is minor Cretaceous Muddy production, the sandstones of the

Richard J. Sheppy

1986-01-01

51

Fluvial deposits of Yellowstone tephras: Implications for late Cenozoic history of the Bighorn basin area, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several deposits of tephra derived from eruptions in Yellowstone National Park occur in the northern Bighorn basin area of Wyoming and Montana. These tephra deposits are mixed and interbedded with fluvial gravel and sand deposited by several different rivers. The fluvial tephra deposits are used to calculate stream incision rates, to provide insight into drainage histories and Quaternary tectonics, to infer the timing of alluvial erosion-deposition cycles, and to calibrate rates of soil development. ?? 1992.

Reheis, M.C.

1992-01-01

52

In-place oil shale resources underlying Federal lands in the Green River and Washakie Basins, southwestern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geologic-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated an in-place oil shale resource of 906 billion barrels under Federal mineral rights, or 62 percent of the total oil shale in place, in the Green River and Washakie Basins, Wyoming. More than 67 percent of the total oil shale in-place resource, or 969 billion barrels, is under Federal surface management.

Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

2011-01-01

53

An oxygen isotope model for interpreting carbonate diagenesis in nonmarine rocks (Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A closed-system model is used for predicting the ??18O of formation waters in the deep portions of the northern Green River basin, Wyoming. ??18Ocalcite is calculated from this modeled water and compared with the ??18O of measured calcites to help interpret diagenesis in the basin. The modification of ??18Owater which may be caused by diagenetic reactions at elevated temperatures, is modeled from two mass-balance equations. Three diagenetic reactions used to modify ??18Owater include: detrital limestone???calcite cement; detrital quartz???quartz cement; and detrital clay???authigenic illite/smectite. A weighted average ??18Owater and ??18O of calcite, quartz and illite/smectite in equilibrium with this water are calculated at 500-m increments. For a closed-system model, calculated variables at one depth are used for input variables at the next depth. An open system can be crudely simulated by adjusting the input variables at each depth. Petrographic and hydrologic data suggest that throughout much of the basin an open hydrochemical system overlies a relatively closed system which is below 3000 m. From the surface to 3000 m deep, ??18Ocalcite measured in sandstone cements deviates from calculated ??18Ocalcite for the closed-system model. Below 3000 m, ??18Ocalcite of cement and bulk shale converge from opposite directions with increasing depth toward the calculated ??18Ocalcite. Adjusting the calculated ??18Ocalcite to match the measured ??18Ocalcite indicates that the deviation above 3000 m results from mixing of meteoric waters with 18O-rich formation water. ?? 1987.

Dickinson, W.W.

1987-01-01

54

Irrigated acreage in the Bear River Basin as of the 1975 growing season. [Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The irrigated cropland in the Bear River Basin as of the 1975 growing season was inventoried from satellite imagery. LANDSAT color infrared images (scale 1:125,000) were examined for early, mid, and late summer dates, and acreage was estimated by use of township/section overlays. The total basin acreage was estimated to be 573,435 acres, with individual state totals as follows: Idaho 234,370 acres; Utah 265,505 acres; and Wyoming 73,560 acres. As anticipated, wetland areas intermingled among cropland appears to have produced an over-estimation of irrigated acreage. According to a 2% random sample of test sites evaluated by personnel from the Soil Conservation Service such basin-wide over-estimation is 7.5%; individual counties deviate significantly from the basin-wide figure, depending on the relative amount of wetland areas intermingled with cropland.

Ridd, M. K.; Jaynes, R. A.; Landgraf, K. F.; Clark, L. D., Jr. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

55

Preliminary digital model of the Arikaree aquifer in the Sweetwater River basin, central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In central Wyoming, Potentially large supplies of ground water are available in the Sweetwater River basin from the Arikaree aquifer, which consists of the upper part of the White River, the Arikaree, and the Ogallala Formations. A preliminary digital model was developed for the Arikaree aquifer using a small amount of poorly distributed data, an estimated distribution of recharge, and a conceptual model of the Arikaree aquifer flow system. Calibration of the model was based on reproduction of the potentiometric surface and the base flow of the Sweetwater River in November 1975. Calculated steady-state hydraulic heads were within 50 feet of the observed heads in about 98 percent of the nodes. The calculated leakage from the Arikaree aquifer to he Sweetwater River in the western area was within about 12 percent of the leadage determined by gain and loss studies. In order to develop a comprehensive digital model that would respond to hydraulic stress in nearly the same manner as the actual aquifer flow system, measured responses of the aquifer to stress are needed. Also needed are additional data on aquifer characteristics, recharge to the aquifer, and stream-aquifer relationships. (Woodard-USGS)

Borchert, W.B.

1977-01-01

56

Subsurface stratigraphic cross sections of cretaceous and lower tertiary rocks in the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming: Chapter 9 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The stratigraphic cross sections presented in this report were constructed as part of a project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize and evaluate the undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Wind River Basin (WRB) in central Wyoming. The primary purpose of the cross sections is to show the stratigraphic framework and facies relations of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary rocks in this large, intermontane structural and sedimentary basin, which formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous through early Eocene time). The WRB is nearly 200 miles (mi) long, 70 mi wide, and encompasses about 7,400 square miles (mi2) (fig. 1). The basin is structurally bounded by the Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east, the Granite Mountains on the south, and the Wind River Range on the west.

Finn, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

57

Magnetostratigraphy of the Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: new constraints on the location of Paleocene/Eocene boundary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Eocene Willwood Formation in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming preserves a rich and diverse mammalian and floral record. The paleomagnetic behavior of the sequence of floodplain paleosols of varying degrees of maturation ranges from excellent to poor. We present a magnetostratigraphic section for a composite section near Worland, Wyoming, by using a set of strict criteria for interpreting the step-wise alternating field and thermal demagnetization data of 266 samples from 90 sites throughout the composite section. Correlation to the geomagnetic reversal time scale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from this section, from a section in the Clark's Fork Basin in northern Wyoming, and from DSDP Site 550, with the isotopic data determined on a tuff near the top of our section. Our correlation suggests that the Bighorn Basin composite section in the Worland area spans from within Chron C24r to near the top of Chron C24n, or from approximately 55 to 52 Ma. This correlation places the Paleocene/Eocene boundary within the vicinity of the base of the section. Cryptochron C24r.6 of Cande and Kent is tentatively identified some 100 m above the base of the section. The temporal framework provided here enables correlation of the mammalian biostratigraphy of the Bighorn Basin to other continental sequences as well as to marine records. It also provides independent chronological information for the calculation of sediment accumulation rates to constrain soil maturation rates. We exclude an age as young as 53 Ma for the Paleocene/Eocene boundary and support older ages, as recommended in recent time scales. The location of a tuff dated at 52.8 ?? 0.3 Ma at the older boundary C24n.1 is consistent with the age of 52.5 Ma estimated by Cande and Kent and inconsistent with that of 53.7 Ma, from Harland et al. ?? 1994.

Tauxe, L.; Gee, J.; Gallet, Y.; Pick, T.; Bown, T.

1994-01-01

58

Map showing structure contours on the top of the upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 2,429 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

Crysdale, B.L.

1991-01-01

59

Hydrothermal alteration in research drill hole Y-3, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Y-3, a U.S. Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, reached a depth of 156.7 m. The recovered drill core consists of 42.2 m of surficial (mostly glacial) sediments and two rhyolite flows (Nez Perce Creek flow and an older, unnamed rhyolite flow) of the Central Plateau Member of the Pleistocene Plateau Rhyolite. Hydrothermal alteration is fairly extensive in most of the drill core. The surficial deposits are largely cemented by silica and zeolite minerals; and the two rhyolite flows are, in part, bleached by thermal water that deposited numerous hydrothermal minerals in cavities and fractures. Hydrothermal minerals containing sodium as a dominant cation (analcime, clinoptilolite, mordenite, Na-smectite, and aegirine) are more abundant than calcium-bearing minerals (calcite, fluorite, Ca-smectite, and pectolite) in the sedimentary section of the drill core. In the volcanic section of drill core Y-3, calcium-rich minerals (dachiardite, laumontite, yugawaralite, calcite, fluorite, Ca-smectite, pectolite, and truscottite) are predominant over sodium-bearing minerals (aegirine, mordenite, and Na-smectite). Hydrothermal minerals that contain significant amounts of potassium (alunite and lepidolite in the sediments and illitesmectite in the rhyolite flows) are found in the two drill-core intervals. Drill core y:.3 also contains hydrothermal silica minerals (opal, [3-cristobalite, chalcedony, and quartz), other clay minerals (allophane, halloysite, kaolinite, and chlorite), gypsum, pyrite, and hematite. The dominance of calcium-bearing hydrothermal minerals in the lower rhyolitic section of the y:.3 drill core appears to be due to loss of calcium, along with potassium, during adiabatic cooling of an ascending boiling water.

Bargar, Keith E.; Beeson, Melvin H.

1985-01-01

60

Gas, Oil, and Water Production in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were collected from the Fuller Reservoir, Cooper Reservoir, Frenchie Draw, Cave Gulch, and Madden fields in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. These fields produce from the Mississippian Madison Limestone, the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale and Mesaverde Formation, and the Paleocene lower unnamed member and Shotgun Member of the Fort Union Formation. Diagrams of water and gas production from tight gas accumulations in three formations in the Madden field show that (1) water production either increased or decreased with time in all three formations, (2) increases and decreases in water production were greater in the Cody Shale than in either the Mesaverde Formation or the lower unnamed member of the Fort Union Formation, (3) the gas production rate declined more slowly in the lower part of the Fort Union Formation than in the Cody Shale or the Mesaverde Formation, (4) changes in gas and water production were not related to their initial production rates, and (5) there appears to be no relation between well location and the magnitudes or trends of gas and water production. To explain the apparent independence of gas and water production in the Cody Shale and Mesaverde Formation, a two-step scenario is proposed: gas was generated and emplaced under the compressive stress regime resulting from Laramide tectonism; then, fractures formed during a subsequent period of stress relaxation and extension. Gas is produced from the pore and fracture system near the wellbore, whereas water is produced from a larger scale system of extension fractures. The distribution of gas and water in the lower Fort Union resulted from a similar scenario, but continued generation of gas during post-Laramide extension may have allowed its more widespread distribution.

Nelson, Philip H.; Trainor, Patrick K.; Finn, Thomas M.

2009-01-01

61

Volcanic ash dispersed in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minerals derived from air-fall volcanic ash were found in two zones in the upper Paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal bed of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, and are the first reported evidence of such volcanic material in this thick (> 20 m) coal bed. The volcanic minerals occur in zones that are not visually obvious because they contain little or no clay. These zones were located by geophysical logs of the boreholes and X-ray radiography of the cores. The zones correspond to two of a series of incremental core samples of the coal bed that have anomalous concentrations of Zr, Ba, Nb, Sr, and P2O5. Two suites of minerals were found in both of the high-density zones. A primary suite (not authigenic) consists of silt-sized quartz grains, biotite, and minor zircon. A minor suite consists of authigenic minerals, including calcite, pyrite, kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and an alumino-phosphate (crandallite?). The original volcanic ash is inferred to have consisted of silica glass containing phenocrysts of quartz, biotite, zircon, and possibly, associated feldspars, pyroxenes, and amphiboles. The glass, as well as the less stable minerals, probably dissolved relatively quickly and contributed to the minor authigenic mineral suite or was removed from the peat as a result of the prevailing hydrologic conditions present in a raised peat formation. This type of volcanic ash suggests that suggests that volcanic material could have rained on the peat; this fallout may have also had a fertilizing effect on the peat by providing nutrients essential for plant growth thus contributing to the thick accumulations of the Wyodak-Anderson bed. Notwithstanding, the presence of these minerals provides evidence for the contribution by volcanic sources to the mineral content of coal, but not as tonsteins. ?? 1991.

Triplehorn, D.M.; Stanton, R.W.; Ruppert, L.F.; Crowley, S.S.

1991-01-01

62

Paleocene deep basin coals related to a transpressional zone of the Laramide deformation front  

SciTech Connect

Mining in the Hanna Coal Field of south-central Wyoming has concentrated in the relatively small (about 450 sq mi) Hanna Basin. The basin, which appears to have developed in response to transpressional stresses associated with Laramide tectonic development, accumulated at least two miles of fluvial dominated, coal-bearing continental detritus during the Paleocene Epoch. The stratigraphic sequence of the basin consists of two major, overall fining-upward detrital cycles which constitute the Ferris and overlying Hanna Formations. A major change in detrital source direction indicates these cycles are of tectonic origin. The base of both cycles is characterized by the prevalence of pebbly to conglomeratic sandstone; these become generally less abundant and finer grained upward. Conglomeratic sequences occur near faulted basin margins. Most coal, including at least fifty seams that are greater than five feet in thickness, are concentrated in the upper portion of the Ferris and lower to middle portion of the Hanna interval. Analyses of thirty coal samples indicate a Btu range of 10,630 to 11,670, an ash range of 3.9 to 34.7%, and sulfur content ranging from 0.3 to 6.2%. Palynologic analyses of organic-rich shales provide correlation across the field area.

Cavaroc, V.V. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Flores, R.M. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

63

Assessment of Coal Geology, Resources, and Reserves in the Gillette Coalfield, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Gillette coalfield, within the Powder River Basin in east-central Wyoming, is the most prolific coalfield in the United States. In 2006, production from the coalfield totaled over 431 million short tons of coal, which represented over 37 percent of the Nation's total yearly production. The Anderson and Canyon coal beds in the Gillette coalfield contain some of the largest deposits of low-sulfur subbituminous coal in the world. By utilizing the abundance of new data from recent coalbed methane development in the Powder River Basin, this study represents the most comprehensive evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coalfield to date. Eleven coal beds were evaluated to determine the in-place coal resources. Six of the eleven coal beds were evaluated for reserve potential given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining. These restrictions included the presence of railroads, a Federal interstate highway, cities, a gas plant, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as thickness of overburden, thickness of coal beds, and areas of burned coal were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Gillette coalfield for all eleven coal beds assessed, and no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 201 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 164 billion short tons (81 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is the portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined for a stripping ratio of 10:1 or less. After mining and processing losses were subtracted, a total of 77 billion short tons of coal were calculated (48 percent of the original coal resource). Coal reserves are the portion of the recoverable coal that can be mined, processed, and marketed at a profit at the time of the economic evaluation. With a discounted cash flow at 8 percent rate of return, the coal reserves estimate for the Gillette coalfield is10.1 billion short tons of coal (6 percent of the original resource total) for the 6 coal beds evaluated.

Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Ellis, Margaret S.

2008-01-01

64

Paul Hanna and "Expanding Communities"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and promotion of the "expanding communities" curriculum design model for teaching elementary school social studies was a crucial episode in the history of social studies. This article profiles how the model developed in the mind of its most effective promoter, Paul Robert Hanna. Paul Hanna understood early in his career the…

Stallones, Jared R.

2004-01-01

65

Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: A Science-Management Partnership to Inform Public Land Management under Changing Climate Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) administers more public land in the U.S. West than any other Federal agency, including over 17.5 million acres of public lands and 40.7 million acres of federal mineral estate in Wyoming. BLM is developing Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs), to support ecoregion-based conservation strategies on public lands and to facilitate planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources, and will feed into a wide range management plans such as Resource Management Plans and National Environmental Policy Act documents. This analysis includes 'change agents' including climate and energy development. BLM Wyoming, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and US Geological Survey (USGS) are partnering to synthesize and create climate science to inform the BLM Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment, a landscape-scale ecological assessment for over 33 million acres in Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Montana. BLM needs to know vulnerabilities to climate of their resources, therefore, a primary focus of the assessment is to project the potential risks and vulnerabilities to the structure and functions of ecological communities posed by changing climate, and the associated management implications. In addition to synthesizing information from various downscaling efforts, NOAA is working to provide BLM with the translational information to provide an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of different downscaling datasets being used in ecological modeling. Primary among BLM's concerns is which among the global climate models reasonably represent the climate features of Wyoming. Another significant concern arises because ecological modelers have put substantial effort into studies using different downscaled climate datasets; BLM Wyoming is interested in how the ecological modeling results would be expected to be different, given these different climate datasets. For longer range decision making, BLM needs an understanding of what the confidence or uncertainty in trends and changes in climate for the region, and also which areas within the region have more or less certainty, if any. NOAA is working with BLM and USGS on the concept of 'Reasonably Foreseeable Climate Futures,' to commmunicate about scenarios we are more confident about and the range of scenarios. This term is a deliberate analogue to the Reasonably Foreseeable Development Futures that are created for energy development and familiar to BLM stakeholders. This presentation will discuss the science-management partnership between BLM, NOAA, and USGS and provide some results of our analyses to support their decisionmaking.

Ray, A. J.; Means, R.; Liebmann, B.; Carr, N. B.

2013-12-01

66

Revised Subsurface Stratigraphic Framework of the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Described in this report is an updated subsurface stratigraphic framework of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and Eocene Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This framework is graphically presented in 17 intersecting west-east and north-south cross sections across the basin. Also included are: (1) the dataset and all associated digital files and (2) digital files for all figures and table 1 suitable for large-format printing. The purpose of this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report is to provide rapid dissemination and accessibility of the stratigraphic cross sections and related digital data to USGS customers, especially the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), to facilitate their modeling of the hydrostratigraphy of the PRB. This report contains a brief summary of the coal-bed correlations and database, and is part of a larger ongoing study that will be available in the near future.

Flores, Romeo M.; Spear, Brianne D.; Purchase, Peter A.; Gallagher, Craig M.

2010-01-01

67

Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data are from analyses performed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, with some analyses made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet that is included in the CD-ROM. These Wyoming Fischer assays and histograms are part of a much larger collection of oil-shale information, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses on the Green River oil-shale deposits in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming held by the U.S. Geological Survey. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM containing Fischer assay data and oil-yield histograms for the Green River oil-shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming is being released to the public. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets included with Chapter 2 contain the Fischer assay data from the 426 holes and data on the company name and drill-hole name, and location. Histograms of the oil yields obtained from the Fischer assays are presented in both Grapher and PDF format. Fischer assay text data files are also included in the CD-ROM.

U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

2008-01-01

68

78 FR 65609 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Wyoming; Thunder Basin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Thunder Basin National Grassland Prairie Dog Amendment Environmental Impact Statement...Thunder Basin National Grassland Prairie Dog Amendment EIS. The EIS will form the basis...Thunder Basin National Grassland Prairie Dog Amendment. The Open House/...

2013-11-01

69

Burial History, Thermal Maturity, and Oil and Gas Generation History of Source Rocks in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for seven key source-rock units at eight well locations throughout the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana. Also modeled was the timing of cracking to gas of Phosphoria Formation-sourced oil in the Permian Park City Formation reservoirs at two well locations. Within the basin boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon; it is thought that the Phosphoria oil produced from Park City and other reservoirs migrated from the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt. Other petroleum source rocks include the Cretaceous Thermopolis Shale, Mowry Shale, Frontier Formation, Cody Shale, Mesaverde and Meeteetse Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the Bighorn Basin (Emblem Bench, Red Point/Husky, and Sellers Draw), three at intermediate depths (Amoco BN 1, Santa Fe Tatman, and McCulloch Peak), and two at relatively shallow locations (Dobie Creek and Doctor Ditch). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep central part of the basin and decreases to the south, east, and north toward the basin margins. The Thermopolis and Mowry Shales are predominantly gas-prone source rocks, containing a mix of Type-III and Type-II kerogens. The Frontier, Cody, Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Fort Union Formations are gas-prone source rocks containing Type-III kerogen. Modeling results indicate that in the deepest areas, (1) the onset of petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from early Paleocene through early Eocene time, (2) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred during Eocene time, and (3) onset of gas generation from the Fort Union Formation occurred during early Eocene time and peak generation occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Only in the deepest part of the basin did the oil generated from the Thermopolis and Mowry Shales start generating gas from secondary cracking, which occurred in the late Eocene to Miocene. Also, based on modeling results, gas generation from the cracking of Phosphoria oil reservoired in the Park City Formation began in the late Eocene in the deep part of the basin but did not anywhere reach peak generation.

Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

2008-01-01

70

Comparison of bulk and n-alkane PETM carbon isotope trends from the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a period of abrupt, short-term, and large-scale global warming fueled by a large release of isotopically light carbon, is recorded in terrestrial and marine carbonates and organic carbon as a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Here we present a composite stable carbon isotope record from n-alkanes and four bulk organic carbon records from individual sections spanning the PETM interval in the Cabin Fork area of the southeastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. The n-alkane curve shows an abrupt, negative shift in ?13C values, an extended CIE body, and a rapid recovery to pre-PETM ?13C values. While the bulk organic carbon records show similarly abrupt negative shifts in ?13C values, the CIE appears to be compressed as well as smaller in magnitude, and the return to more positive ?13C values is often more gradual. Furthermore, the stratigraphic thickness of the most negative CIE values and the pattern of the recovery phase are not consistent among the four bulk organic carbon records. The discrepancy between the bulk organic matter and n-alkane CIE may arise because of changes in soil organic matter cycling during the PETM. Bulk soil organic matter ?13C values are influenced by degradation and selective preservation whereas n-alkanes are resistant to diagenesis. Variations in sediment accumulation rates across the basin may be responsible for the differences between the four bulk organic carbon ?13C records. Sites with extended CIE bodies likely present more complete isotope records with greater time resolution and less time averaging than those with reduced CIEs. The shape of the high-resolution n-alkane curve presented here is similar to the newest 3He-based timescale for the PETM using data from Walvis Ridge, IODP site 1266 (Murphy et al., 2010). The most significant difference between this revised PETM timescale and previously published age models is the allocation of time within the PETM event. Murphy et al. suggest a prolonged and sustained core of the CIE (113 ka) followed by a more rapid initial recovery (33 ka) to near pre-PETM ?13C values. Improving the PETM age model and refining the allocation of time within the event has important implications for understanding the carbon cycle. Carbon isotope values of individual odd-carbon-numbered, long-chain (n-C21-n-C35) n-alkanes extracted from PETM sediments tend to become more negative with increasing chain length within a particular sample. In addition, the magnitude of the negative CIE also tends to increase with increasing n-alkane chain length. Using the empirical observation that ?13C values tend to increase with increasing chain length in conifers while ?13C values decrease with increasing chain length in angiosperms, Smith et al. (2007) has suggested that plant community composition shifted from 50% conifer to an exclusively angiosperm flora at the PETM. The additional n-alkane carbon isotope data presented here is similar to previously published data and supports the plant community change hypothesis suggested by Smith et al. (2007).

Baczynski, A. A.; McInerney, F. A.; Kraus, M. J.; Wing, S.

2010-12-01

71

Petrology and reservoir paragenesis in the Sussex B sandstone of the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale, House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This book of reservoir paragenesis includes detailed descriptions of the petrology of depositional facies of the Sussex B sandstone of the Sussex Sandstone Member of the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale in the House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming.

Not Available

1992-01-01

72

Stratigraphic positioning of the Lower Cretaceous conglomerates, Wind River basin, Wyoming and implications for possible hydrocarbon traps  

SciTech Connect

Most previous outcrop and subsurfaces studies of the Lower Cretaceous conglomerates and conglomeratic sandstones in Wyoming have assumed a time equivalency for these deposits. The conglomerates have been utilized to identify the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary and interpret tectonic conditions within the Sevier foreland basin. However, the authors integrated subsurface-outcrop correlations show that the conglomerates occur at distinctly different stratigraphic levels, thus invalidating their use in marking the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary and complicating interpretations of their tectonic significance. A chert-bearing conglomerate occurs at the base of the Cloverly Formation over the entire western flank of the Wind River basin except within a 30 km Cloverly outcrop belt near Lander. The zero edge of this unit lies just east of Muskrat field where it may be a facies equivalent with what has previously been interpreted as the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. In contrast, in the eastern quarter of the Wind River basin, a thick chert-bearing conglomerate occurs in the upper part of the Cloverly Formation. This conglomerate may be the time-stratigraphic equivalent to the transitional marine 'Rusty beds' present in the western margin of the basin. In both areas, the conglomerates and conglomeratic sandstones are encased in thick mudstones. Paleocurrent data suggest different source areas for the eastern and western conglomerates. The basal conglomerate was derived from the southwest, whereas the younger, eastern conglomerate was derived from the south. Their areal distributions have been useful in suggesting areas of potential structural-stratigraphic hydrocarbon plays.

Furer, L.C.; Kvale, E.P. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington (United States)); May, M.T.; Suttner, L.J. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (United States))

1991-03-01

73

Basin analysis of Upper Cretaceous strata of the Washakie and Red Desert basins, southwestern Wyoming, employing computer-generated maps and cross sections  

SciTech Connect

The Washakie and Red Desert basins comprise the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basins of southwestern Wyoming. Stratigraphically the basins are dominated by a thick package of Cretaceous clastic sediments, as much as 16,000 ft thick, which resulted from several major transgressive-regressive cycles. Upper Cretaceous strata deposited during the latest cycle contain extensive deposits of commercial hydrocarbons, particularly gas. Much of the present structural configuration of the area is the result of the Laramide Orogeny in Late Cretaceous time. To facilitate a comprehensive geological analysis of the area a computerized subsurface data base was constructed from available well logs for approximately 3,000 wells in the Washakie and Red Desert basins. This data base contains correlated tops for most of the major Upper Cretaceous stratigraphic units, including selected subdivisions and net sand thickness values. Consistent correlations were achieved through the use of a tight, loop-tied cross section and key well network containing over 400 correlated well-logs. A complete suite of structure contour maps on all correlated horizons was generated from the data base with commercially available software. These maps, along with selected computer-generated structural cross sections, reveal a detailed subsurface picture of the Washakie and Red Desert basins. Isopachous maps of selected intervals were also produced to illustrate the Late Cretaceous depositional history of the area.

Kohles, K.M.; Potts, J. (Geological Data Services, Dallas, TX (United States)); Reid, F.S.

1991-03-01

74

Geology of the Pumpkin Buttes Area of the Powder River Basin, Campbell and Johnson Counties, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

About 200 uranium occurrences have been examined in the Pumpkin Buttes area, Wyoming. Uranium minerals are visible at most of these places and occur in red and buff sandstone lenses in the Wasatch formation of Eocene age. The uranium minerals are disseminated in buff sandstone near red sandstone, and also occur in red sandstone in manganese oxide concretions and uraninite concretions.

Sharp, William Neil; White, Amos McNairy

1956-01-01

75

The history of dinosaur footprint discoveries in Wyoming with emphasis on the Bighorn basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dinosaur traces are well known from the western United States in the Colorado Plateau region (Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona). Utah contains the greatest abundance of known and documented dinosaur footprints and trackways. Far less well known, however, is the occurrence and distribution of dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons in Wyoming. Scientific studies over the past 10 years have shown that three of the four Middle and Upper Jurassic formations in northern Wyoming contain dinosaur footprints. Two of the footprint-bearing horizons are located in geologic intervals that were once thought to have been deposited in offshore to nearshore marine settings and represent rare North American examples of Middle Jurassic (Bajocian and Bathonian) dinosaur remains. Some of these new Wyoming sites can be correlated to known dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons or intervals in Utah. Wyoming has a great potential for additional discoveries of new dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons, and further prospecting and study is warranted and will ultimately lead to a much better understanding of the geographic distribution and behavior of the potential footprint-makers. ?? Taylor and Francis Inc.

Kvale, E.P.; Mickelson, D.L.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Johnson, G.D.

2003-01-01

76

Trapper Canyon Deposit, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming: tar sand or heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trapper Canyon Deposit (Battle Creek Deposit in US Bureau of Mines Monograph 12) is located on the western flank of the Bighorn Mountains approximately 30 mi (48 km) east of Greybull, Wyoming. The petroleum occurs in the upper eolian sequence of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone which dips from 5° to 8° to the southwest. The deposit was initially reported

A. J. Verploeg; R. H. Debruin

1983-01-01

77

Soil salinity patterns in Tamarix invasions in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) is an exotic, invasive shrub of riparian corridors in the western United States that can promote soil salinization via leaf exudates as Tamarix litter accumulates on the soil surface. Tamarix stands occur in association with big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus), and cottonwood (Populus deltoides) in northern Wyoming, depending on topographic position. Revegetation of Tamarix-invaded sites

C. G. Ladenburger; A. L. Hild; D. J. Kazmer; L. C. Munn

2006-01-01

78

Description and correlation of Eocene rocks in stratigraphic reference sections for the Green River and Washakie basins, southwest Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphic reference sections of the Wasatch, Green River, and Bridger (Washakie) Formations were measured on outcrops in the Green River and Washakie basins adjacent to the Rock Springs uplift in southwest Wyoming. The Washakie basin reference section is 7,939 feet thick and consists of 708 beds that were measured, described, and sampled to evaluate the origin, composition, and paleontology of the rocks. The reference section in the Green River basin is 6,587 feet thick and consists of 624 beds that were measured and described but were not sampled. Columnar sections that have been prepared combine information on the stratigraphic nomenclature, age, depositional environments, lithologies, and fossils of each bed in the reference sections. Eocene strata in the Green River and Washakie basins have been correlated biostratigraphically, chronostratigraphically, and lithostratigraphically. The time boundaries of the lower, middle, and upper Eocene rocks in the reference sections are located partly from biostratigraphic investigations and partly from chronostratigraphic investigations. The time boundaries agree with North American land mammal ages. Major stratigraphic units and key marker beds correlated between the reference sections appeared similar in thickness and lithology, which suggests that most depositional events were contemporaneous in both basins. Rocks sampled in the Washakie basin reference section were examined petrographically and were analyzed using heavy mineral separations, X-ray techniques, and assays. The mineralogy suggests that source rocks in the lower part of the Eocene were mostly of plutonic origin and that source rocks in the upper part of the Eocene were mostly of volcanic origin. Economically significant beds of oil shale and zeolite were identified by the analyses. 51 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

Roehler, H.W.

1992-01-01

79

Geophysical and Geochemical Characterization of Subsurface Drip Irrigation Sites, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming has increased rapidly since 1997. CBNG production involves the extraction of large amounts of water containing >2000 mg/L total dissolved solids, dominantly sodium bicarbonate. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a beneficial disposal method of produced waters, provided that waters and associated salts are managed properly. We are studying how water and solute distributions change in soils with progressive irrigation at two PRB sites using a combination of geophysical, geochemical, and mineralogical analyses. Perennial crops are grown at both sites, drip tapes are located at 92 cm depth, and water is applied year-round. The first SDI site is located at the confluence of Crazy Woman Creek and the Powder River. Baseline ground-based and helicopter-borne frequency domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys were completed in 2007 and 2008, respectively, prior to the installation of the SDI system. Since installation, additional ground-based EMI, resistivity, and downhole geophysical log surveys have been completed along with soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses. Determining baseline physical, chemical, and electrical soil characteristics at this study site is an important step in linking the EMI measurements to the soil characteristics they are intended to assess. EMI surveys indicate that soil conductivity has generally increased with irrigation, but lateral migration of water away from the irrigated blocks is minimal. Median downhole electrical conductivity was positively correlated with soil mass wetness but not correlated with soil mineralogy. Soil-water extract results indicate existing salts are chemically heterogeneous throughout the site and in depth. The observed EMI conductivity variations are therefore primarily attributed to water content changes and secondarily to soil texture. The second SDI site, located northeast of Sheridan, WY, has been operating for six years and includes irrigated alfalfa and grass and adjacent non-irrigated grass fields. A single ground-based EMI survey was performed in Feb. 2010, which helped direct subsequent soil sampling. Gypsum distribution can be differentiated into two soil zones: an upper, gypsum-poor zone and a lower gypsum-rich zone. The break between zones is 30 cm deeper in the irrigated soil and is probably due to dissolution and displacement of gypsum by SDI waters infiltrating from the drip tape. Resistivity profiles were acquired in June 2010 over the soil sampling sites and are consistent with the EMI data, which show higher conductivity values in the irrigated fields. In the SDI alfalfa field, there is a strong negative correlation between mass wetness and resistivity with a 75% increase in mass wetness (0.2-0.35 g/g) at 3 m depth corresponding to a 30% resistivity decrease (15-10 ohm-m). When compared to the non-irrigated field profile, the SDI alfalfa field data show a 50% resistivity decrease (20-10 ohm-m) below 3 m depth, indicating a possible accumulation of irrigated waters below the SDI system.

Burton, B. L.; Bern, C. R.; Sams, J. I., III; Veloski, G.; Minsley, B. J.; Smith, B. D.

2010-12-01

80

The application of geologic remote sensing to vertebrate biostratigraphy - General results from the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1986, remote sensing images derived from satellite and aircraft-borne sensor data have been used to study the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the vertebrate-bearing Wind River and Wagon Bed formations in the Wind River Basin (Wyoming). Landsat 5 TM and aircraft Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data were combined with conventional geologic analyses. The remote sensing data have contributed significantly to: (1) geologic mapping at the formation, member, and bed levels; (2) stratigraphic correlation; (3) reconstruction of ancient depositional environments; and (4) identification of structural complexity. This information is critical to vertebrate paleontology in providing the stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and structural framework required for evolutionary and paleoecologic studies. Of primary importance is the ability to map at minimal cost the geology of large areas (20,000 sq km or greater) at a high level of precision. Remote sensing data can be especially useful in geologically and paleontologically unexplored or poorly understood regions.

Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard

1991-01-01

81

Tectonic significance of lithicwacke-polymictic conglomerate petrofacies association within Upper Cretaceous torchlight sandstone, Big Horn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Torchlight Sandstone belonging to the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation in the Big Horn basin, Wyoming, shows a distinctive lithicwacke-polymictic conglomerate is composed of granule-cobble-sized clasts of quartzite, chert, andesite, and argillite, and phyllite. The survival of phyllite, argillite, and neovolcanic andesite clasts indicate that the detritus underwent very little subaerial transport before it was deposited along the proximal margin of the foreland basin. A petrologically heterogeneous upland source of high to moderate relief is indicated by the clast size and composition. Hydrodynamic structures, in conjunction with textural attributes, and compositional data indicate that detritus moved southeast from its source terrane and was deposited by a high-energy distributary complex. The lithicwacke petrofacies is dominated by higher chert and quartz content with a subordinate amount of labile components including paleovolcanic clasts and fine-grained matrix. The development of phyllosilicate matrix around quartz and chert grains preserved the primary porosity and permeability of the sandstone. Absence of any noticeable quartz overgrowth apparently contributed to the preservation of good reservoir quality in this petrofacies. Considering its (Torchlight Sandstone) close proximity to the thrust belt and to the locus of andesite volcanism in the northwest and west, it is suggested that the extrabasinal detritus within the foreland basin can provide significant clues as to the timing of the thrust events and volcanicity in the adjacent region. New perspectives for hydrocarbon exploration and regional correlation may be gained by employing this petrofacies association.

Khandaker, N.I.; Vondra, C.F.

1987-05-01

82

Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. As of January 2007, permits for more than 4000 impoundments had been issued within Wyoming. A study was conducted on changes in water and sediment chemistry as water from an impoundment infiltrated the subsurface. Sediment cores were collected prior to operation of the impoundment and after its closure and reclamation. Suction lysimeters were used to collect water samples from beneath the impoundment. Large amounts of chloride (12,300 kg) and nitrate (13,500 kg as N), most of which accumulated naturally in the sediments over thousands of years, were released into groundwater by infiltrating water. Nitrate was more readily flushed from the sediments than chloride. If sediments at other impoundment locations contain similar amounts of chloride and nitrate, impoundments already permitted could release over 48 x 106 kg of chloride and 52 x 106 kg of nitrate into groundwater in the basin. A solute plume with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations at times exceeding 100,000 mg/L was created in the subsurface. TDS concentrations in the plume were substantially greater than those in the CBNG water (about 2300 mg/L) and in the ambient shallow groundwater (about 8000 mg/L). Sulfate, sodium, and magnesium are the dominant ions in the plume. The elevated concentrations are attributed to cation-exchange-enhanced gypsum dissolution. As gypsum dissolves, calcium goes into solution and is exchanged for sodium and magnesium on clays. Removal of calcium from solution allows further gypsum dissolution.

Healy, R.W.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; McKinley, M.P.

2008-01-01

83

Geology of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River Basin is a structural and topographic basin occupying an area of about 20,000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming arid southeastern Montana. The Basin is about 230 miles long in a northwest-southeast direction and is about 100 miles wide. It is bounded on three sides by mountains in which rocks of Precambrian age are exposed. The Basin is asymmetrical with a steep west limb adjacent to the Bighorn Mountains and a gentle east limb adjacent to the Black Hills. Sedimentary rocks within the Basin have a maximum thickness of about 18,000 feet and rocks of every geologic period are represented. Paleozoic rocks are about 2,500 feet thick and consist of marine bonate rocks and sandstone; Mesozoic rocks are about 9,500 feet thick and consist of both marine and nonmarine siltstone and sandstone; and Cenozoic rocks are from 4,000 to 6,000 feet thick and consist of coal-bearing sandstone and shale. Radioactive waste could be stored in the pore space of permeable sandstone or in shale where space could be developed. Many such rock units that could be used for storing radioactive wastes are present within the Powder River Basin. Permeable sandstone beds that may be possible reservoirs for storage of radioactive waste are present throughout the Powder River Basin. These include sandstone beds in the Flathead Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Deadwood Formation, the Tensleep Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Minnelusa Formation and the Sundance Formation in rocks of pre-Cretaceous age. However, most of the possible sandstone reservoirs are in rocks of Cretaceous age and include sandstone beds in the Fall River, Lakota, Newcastle, Frontier, Cody, and Mesaverde Formations. Problems of containment of waste such as clogging of pore space and chemical incompatibility would have to be solved before a particular sandstone unit could be selected for waste disposal. Several thick sequences of impermeable shale such as those in the Skull Creek, Mowry, Frontier, Belle Fourche, Cody, Lewis, and Pierre Formations, occur in rocks of Cretaceous age in the Basin. Limited storage space for liquid waste might be developed in impermeable shale by fracturing the shale and space for calcined or fused waste could be developed by mining cavities.

Beikman, Helen M.

1962-01-01

84

After a century-Revised Paleogene coal stratigraphy, correlation, and deposition, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The stratigraphy, correlation, mapping, and depositional history of coal-bearing strata in the Paleogene Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Powder River Basin were mainly based on measurement and description of outcrops during the early 20th century. Subsequently, the quality and quantity of data improved with (1) exploration and development of oil, gas, and coal during the middle 20th century and (2) the onset of coalbed methane (CBM) development during the late 20th and early 21st centuries that resulted in the drilling of more than 26,000 closely spaced wells with accompanying geophysical logs. The closeness of the data control points, which average 0.5 mi (805 m) apart, made for better accuracy in the subsurface delineation and correlation of coal beds that greatly facilitated the construction of regional stratigraphic cross sections and the assessment of resources. The drillhole data show that coal beds previously mapped as merged coal zones, such as the Wyodak coal zone in the Wyoming part of the Powder River Basin, gradually thinned into several discontinuous beds and sequentially split into as many as 7 hierarchical orders westward and northward. The thinning and splitting of coal beds in these directions were accompanied by as much as a ten-fold increase in the thicknesses of sandstone-dominated intervals within the Wyodak coal zone. This probably resulted from thrust loading by the eastern front of the Bighorn uplift accompanied by vertical displacement along lineaments that caused subsidence of the western axial part of the Powder River Basin during Laramide deformation in Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Accommodation space was thereby created for synsedimentary alluvial infilling that controlled thickening, thinning, splitting, pinching out, and areal distribution of coal beds. Equally important was differential subsidence between this main accommodation space and adjoining areas, which influenced the overlapping, for example, of the Dietz coal zone in Montana, over the Wyodak coal zone in Wyoming. Correlation in a circular track of the Wyodak coal zone in the southern part of the basin also demonstrates overlapping with lower coal zones. Recognition of this stratigraphic relationship has led to revision of the correlations and nomenclature of coal beds because of inconsistency within these zones as well as those below and above them, which have long been subjects of controversy. Also, it significantly changes the traditional coal bed-to-bed correlations, and estimates of coal and coalbed methane resources of these coal zones due to thinning and pinching out of beds. More notably, thickness isopach, orientation, and distribution of the merged Wyodak coal bodies in the south-southeast part of the basin suggest that differential movement of lineament zones active during the Cretaceous was not a major influence on coal accumulation during the Paleocene. Improved knowledge of alluvial depositional environments as influenced by external and internal paleotectonic conditions within the Powder River Basin permits more accurate correlation, mapping, and resource estimation of the Fort Union and Wasatch coal beds. The result is a better understanding of the sedimentology of the basin infill deposits in relation to peat bog accumulation.

Flores, Romeo M.; Spear, Brianne D.; Kinney, Scott A.; Purchase, Peter A.; Gallagher, Craig M.

2010-01-01

85

Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin ofWyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam’s inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated to water salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin.

Lipinski, B.A.; Sams, J.I.; Smith, B.D. (USGS, Denver, CO); Harbert, W.P.

2008-05-01

86

Fluvial and glacial implications of tephra localities in the western Wind River basin, Wyoming, U. S. A  

SciTech Connect

Examination of Quaternary fluvial and glacial deposits in the western Wind River Basin allows a new understanding of the Quaternary Wind River fluvial system. Interbedded fluvial sediments and volcanic ashes provide important temporal information for correlation of Quaternary deposits. In the western Wind River Basin, six mid-Pleistocene localities of tephra, the Muddy Creek, Red Creek, Lander, Kinnear, Morton and Yellow Calf ashes are known. Geochronologic studies confirm the Muddy Creek, Red Creek, Kinnear and Lander ashes as the 620--650ka Lava Creek tephra from the Yellowstone region in northwestern Wyoming. The stratigraphic position and index of refraction of volcanic glass from the Morton and Yellow Calf ashes are consistent with identification as Lava Creek tephra. Approximately 350 feet (106 meters) above the Wind River and 13 miles downstream from Bull Lake, interbedded Wind River fluvial gravels, volcanic glass and pumice at the Morton locality correlate to late (upper) Sacajawea Ridge gravels mapped by Richmond and Murphy. Associated with the oxygen isotope 16--15 boundary, the ash-bearing terrace deposits reveal the nature of the Wind River fluvial system during late glacial-early interglacial times. The Lander and Yellow Calf ashes, are found in terrace deposits along tributaries of the Wind River. Differences in timing and rates of incision between the Wind River and its tributary, the Little Wind River, results in complex terrace development near their junction.

Jaworowski, C. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-04-01

87

A new Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary locality in the western powder River basin, Wyoming: biological and geological implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A newly discovered Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary locality in the western Powder River basin, Wyoming, is characterized by a palynologically defined extinction horizon, a fern-spore abundance anomaly, a strong iridium anomaly, and shock-metamorphosed quartz grains. Detailed microstratigraphic analyses show that about one third of the palynoflora (mostly angiosperm pollen) disappeared abruptly, placing the K-T boundary within a distinctive, 1- to 2-cm-thick claystone layer. Shocked quartz grains are concentrated at the top of this layer, and although fern-spore and iridium concentrations are high in this layer, they reach their maximum concentrations in a 2-cm-thick carbonaceous claystone that overlies the boundary claystone layer. The evidence supports the theory that the K-T boundary event was associated with the impact of an extraterrestrial body or bodies. Palynological analyses of samples from the K-T boundary interval document extensive changes in the flora that resulted from the boundary event. The palynologically and geochemically defined K-T boundary provides a unique time-line of use in regional basin analysis. ?? 1992.

Nichols, D.J.; Brown, J.L.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Orth, C.J.

1992-01-01

88

Predictive depositional models for eolian deposits of Leo member of Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, eastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A study of 980 wells, 24 outcrop sections, and 29 cores was conducted in the Powder River basin of northeastern Wyoming in order to develop predictive depositional models for the Leo sandstones of the middle member of the Minnelusa Formation. Given the limited amount of data available, an approach was devised that relied on synthesis of information from modern analogs with data derived from the ancient to predict regional patterns of deposition. This information was then used to determine genetic relationships between the patterns of regional sedimentation and proven stratigraphic traps. Six Leo oil and gas fields were examined in detail; the Qatar Peninsula and Um Said sabkhas serve as modern analogs. The results of the study show that the Leo member of the Minnelusa and equivalent units of the Powder River basin were deposited as dune sequences within and adjacent to the Lusk embayment, a northward-extending arm of a large epeiric sea that existed southeast of the study area. Situated approximately 15/sup 0/ north of the paleoequator, the study area was the site of accumulation of sands transported from a northerly source by northeasterly trade winds. Accumulation and distribution of these windblown sands in the area surrounding the Lusk embayment were controlled by the local depositional setting, tectonic framework, and a series of minor fluctuations of eustatic sea level. The greatest potential for preservation of these dune deposits occurred during periods of rising base level.

Domeracki, D.D.; McClurg, J.J.; Horne, J.C.

1985-02-01

89

Enigmatic uppermost Permian-lowermost Triassic stratigraphic relations in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen measured sections in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana provide the basis for an analysis of Permian-Triassic stratigraphic relations. This boundary is well defined to the south where gray calcareous siltstones of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody disconformably overlie the Upper Permian Ervay Member of the Park City Formation with little physical evidence of a significant hiatus. The Dinwoody is gradationally overlain by red beds of the Red Peak Formation. The Dinwoody this to zero near the state line. Northward, the erathem boundary is enigmatic because fossils are absent and there is no evidence of an unconformity. Poor and discontinuous exposures contribute to the problem. Up to 20 m of Permian or Triassic rocks or both overlie the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone in the westernmost surface exposures on the eastern flank of the Bighorn basin with physical evidence of an unconformity. East of the exposed Tensleep, Ervay-like carbonates are overlain by about 15 m of Dinwoody-like siltstones interbedded with red beds and thin dolomitic limestone. In both areas, they are overlain by the Red Peak Formation. Thin carbonates within the Dinwoody are silty, coarse algal laminates with associated peloidal micrite. Carbonates north of the Dinwoody termination and above probably Ervay are peloidal algal laminates with fenestral fabric and sparse coated shell fragments with pisoids. These rocks may be Dinwoody equivalents or they may be of younger Permian age than the Ervay. Regardless, revision of stratigraphic nomenclature in this area may bed required.

Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States))

1991-06-01

90

Evolutionary relationships of a new genus and three new species of Omomyid primates (Willwood Formation, Lower Eocene, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of new finds of omomyid primates from the lower Eocene Willwood Formation of northwest Wyoming reveal the presence of a new genus and two new species of anaptomorphines and a new species of omomyine. All were apparently short-lived immigrants into the Bighorn Basin. The new genus and speciesTatmanius szalayi is typified by a diminutive single-rooted p3 and a bilobed-rooted p4 with a crown smaller than ml. These traits were probably derived fromPseudotetonius and parallel similar conditions inTrogolemur andNannopithex. The new speciesArapahovius advena is the first occurrence ofArapahovius outside the Washakie Basin, where it appears to have also been a vagrant species.Steinius annectens, sp. nov., is larger than the olderSteinius vespertinus and strengthens the alliance between this genus and BridgerianOraorays carteri, although which species ofSteinius is closer toOmomys is not yet clear. The available evidence suggests a derivation ofOmomys (Omomyini) fromSteinius and all Washakiini from the anaptomorphineTeilhardina, which would indicate that Omomyinae were at least diphyletic. Preliminary evidence suggests that the geographic distributions of at least some Willwood omomyids correlate with paleosol distributions.

Bown, T.M.

1991-01-01

91

Frontier formation stratigraphy on the Moxa Arch, Green River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontier Formation terrigenous clastics record early Late Cretaceous shoreline progradation and cyclic marine and nonmarine sedimentation in a foreland basin. In this study well-log correlations and studies of core were used to establish the stratigraphic framework of the Frontier along the Moxa Arch, a north-trending intrabasin structure in the western Green River Basin. Regional marine flooding surfaces and surfaces of

Hamlin

1996-01-01

92

Geology and oil production of the Ervay (Phosphoria) reservoirs, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ervay consists of carbonate ramp sediments deposited under conditions of varying sea level. On the east flank of the Bighorn Basin, the Ervay displays two major, regionally correlative, shallowing-upward cycles that vary in lithofacies across the basin. West of this area, the Ervay contains four regional cycles. Within each cycle, lithofacies tracts lie subparallel to northwest-trending Permian uplifts. From

E. B. Coalson; R. F. Inden

1990-01-01

93

Geologic map and coal stratigraphy of the Doty Mountain quadrangle, eastern Washakie basin, Carbon County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides a geologic map of the Doty Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic formations and individual coal beds were mapped at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface. Detailed measured sections are provided for the type sections of the Red Rim Member of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation and China Butte and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. The data set was collected as part of a larger effort to acquire data on Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in the eastern Washakie Basin and southeastern Great Divide Basin. Regions in the eastern Washakie Basin and southeastern Great Divide Basin have potential for coal development and were considered previously for coal leasing by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.

Hettinger, R.D.; Honey, J.G.

2006-01-01

94

A point-infiltration model for estimating runoff from rainfall on small basins in semiarid areas of Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A physically based point-infiltration model was developed for computing infiltration of rainfall into soils and the resulting runoff from small basins in Wyoming. The user describes a 'design storm' in terms of average rainfall intensity and storm duration. Information required to compute runoff for the design storm by using the model include (1) soil type and description, and (2) two infiltration parameters and a surface-retention storage parameter. Parameter values are tabulated in the report. Rainfall and runoff data for three ephemeral-stream basins that contain only one type of soil were used to develop the model. Two assumptions were necessary: antecedent soil moisture is some long-term average, and storm rainfall is uniform in both time and space. The infiltration and surface-retention storage parameters were determined for the soil of each basin. Observed rainstorm and runoff data were used to develop a separation curve, or incipient-runoff curve, which distinguishes between runoff and nonrunoff rainfall data. The position of this curve defines the infiltration and surface-retention storage parameters. A procedure for applying the model to basins that contain more than one type of soil was developed using data from 7 of the 10 study basins. For these multiple-soil basins, the incipient-runoff curve defines the infiltration and retention-storage parameters for the soil having the highest runoff potential. Parameters were defined by ranking the soils according to their relative permeabilities and optimizing the position of the incipient-runoff curve by using measured runoff as a control for the fit. Analyses of runoff from multiple-soil basins indicate that the effective contributing area of runoff is less than the drainage area of the basin. In this study, the effective drainage area ranged from 41.6 to 71.1 percent of the total drainage area. Information on effective drainage area is useful in evaluating drainage area as an independent variable in statistical analyses of hydrologic data, such as annual peak frequency distributions and sediment yield.A comparison was made of the sum of the simulated runoff and the sum of the measured runoff for all available records of runoff-producing storms in the 10 study basins. The sums of the simulated runoff ranged from 12.0 percent less than to 23.4 percent more than the sums of the measured runoff. A measure of the standard error of estimate was computed for each data set. These values ranged from 20 to 70 percent of the mean value of the measured runoff. Rainfall-simulator infiltrometer tests were made in two small basins. The amount of water uptake measured by the test in Dugout Creek tributary basin averaged about three times greater than the amount of water uptake computed from rainfall and runoff data. Therefore, infiltrometer data were not used to determine infiltration rates for this study.

Rankl, James G.

1990-01-01

95

78 FR 56650 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Wyoming; Thunder Basin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Thunder Basin National Grassland Prairie Dog Amendment AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA...modify Categories 1 and 2 of the 2009 Prairie Dog Management Strategy. The amendment is being...address continuing concerns regarding prairie dog management, raised by the [[Page...

2013-09-13

96

Fluid pressure evolution in overpressured limestone reservoir at basin-scale: example of the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA) and lessons from comparison with other reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many natural cases, an hydrostatic gradient prevails in strata, and some oil-producing basins are the location of underpressured reservoirs. This contribution presents the fluid paleo-(over)pressure evolution in a carbonate reservoir, reconstructed using a paleo-stress dataset and novel methodology. The case study of the Madison-Phosphoria reservoir (Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA) is an interesting example to assess the problem of the fluid overpressure evolution in deforming media. Indeed it proposes among the first paleo-overpressure reconstruction in strata regarding both burial and subsequent compressional deformation. Results point out that in the Bighorn Basin, supra-hydrostatic pressure values prevail in the Madison-Phosphoria reservoir during most of its whole Sevier-Laramide history, except during the stage of Sevier foreland flexure/forebulge. At the basin-scale, the evolution of fluid overpressure can easily be related to large-scale fluid migrations characterized independently using geochemistry of vein-filling cements. We propose a comparison of the reconstructed fluid overpressure values with in situ measurements in various overpressured reservoirs in other oil-producing basins with respect to burial depth. The comparison with natural pressure data measured in several basins suggests the existence of a mean gradient of overpressure level in carbonates, and the pressure values reconstructed in vertical veins that accommodated the layer-parallel shortening respect this mean gradient. Strikingly, the fluid overpressure measured or recorded in porous media like sandstones are systematically beyond this mean gradient, as are the fluid pressure values related to extensional stress regimes. On the opposite, when the stress regime become compressional, we observe that fluid pressure is above the mean gradient, illustrating that during orogenic stress build-up, the supra-hydrostatic fluid pressure may gradually reach and exceed the lithostatic value, marked by the development of reverse faults and horizontal veins parallel to bedding. Thus, the difference between this mean gradient and the reconstructed pressure values may be related to three main parameters: the lithology and the vertical permeability of fractures (i.e. the mechanical stratigraphy), and the local stress regime. The hydraulic permeability related to mechanical stratigraphy and/or to stress regime seems to impact more the fluid pressure level than the chemical compaction related to hydrocarbon generation, or to differential compaction related to sedimentation rates.

Beaudoin, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Amrouch, Khalid; Daniel, Jean-Marc

2014-05-01

97

A critical review of published coal quality data from the southwestern part of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review of publicly available coal quality data during the coal resource assessment of the southwestern part of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming (SWPRB), revealed significant problems and limitations with those data. Subsequent citations of data from original sources often omitted important information, such as moisture integrity and information needed to evaluate the issue of representativeness. Occasionally, only selected data were quoted, and some data were misquoted. Therefore, it was important to try to resolve issues concerning both the accuracy and representativeness of each available dataset. The review processes demonstrated why it is always preferable to research and evaluate the circumstances regarding the sampling and analytical methodology from the original data sources when evaluating coal quality information, particularly if only limited data are available. Use of the available published data at face value would have significantly overestimated the coal quality for all the coal fields from both the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the SWPRB assessment area. However, by using the sampling and analytical information from the original reports, it was possible to make reasonable adjustments to reported data to derive more realistic estimates of coal quality.

Luppens, James A.

2011-01-01

98

Influences of fragmentation on three species of native warmwater fishes in a Colorado River Basin headwater stream system, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the effects of constructed instream structures on movements and demographics of bluehead suckers Catostomus discobolus, flannelmouth suckers C. latipinnis, and roundtail chub Gila robusta in the upstream portion of Muddy Creek, an isolated headwater stream system in the upper Colorado River basin of Wyoming. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate upstream and downstream movements of these three native species past a small dam built to divert irrigation water from the stream and a barrier constructed to prevent upstream movements of nonnative salmonids and (2) describe population characteristics in stream segments created by these structures. Our results indicated that upstream and downstream movements of the three target fishes were common. Fish of all three species moved frequently downstream over both structures, displayed some upstream movements over the irrigation diversion dam, and did not move upstream over the fish barrier. Spawning migrations by some fish into an intermittent tributary, which was not separated from Muddy Creek by a barrier, were observed for all three species. Both the irrigation diversion dam and the fish barrier contributed to fragmentation of the native fish populations, and considerable differences in population features were observed among segments. The instream structures may eventually cause extirpation of some native species in one or more of the segments created by the structures. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Compton, R.I.; Hubert, W.A.; Rahel, F.J.; Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.

2008-01-01

99

Preliminary report on coal resources of the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project by the U.S. Geological Survey is designed to assess US coal with the greatest potential for development in the next 20 to 30 years. Coal in the Wyodak-Anderson (WA) coal zone in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana is plentiful, clean, and compliant with EPA emissions standards. This coal is considered to be very desirable for development for use in electric power generation. The purpose of this NCRA study was to compile all available data relating to the Wyodak- Anderson coal, correlate the beds that make up the WA coal zone, create digital files pertaining to the study area and the WA coal, and produce a variety of reports on various aspects of the assessed coal unit. This report contains preliminary calculations of coal resources for the WA coal zone and is one of many products of the NCRA study. Coal resource calculations in this report were produced using both public and confidential data from many sources. The data was manipulated using a variety of commercially available software programs and several custom programs. A general description of the steps involved in producing the resource calculations is described in this report.

Ellis, Margaret S.; Gunther, Gregory L.; Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, Allen M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Roberts, Steven B.; Taber, Thomas T.; Bader, Lisa R.; Schuenemeyer, John H.

1998-01-01

100

Effects of coal-bed methane discharge waters on the vegetation and soil ecosystem in Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-bed methane (CBM) co-produced discharge waters in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, resulting from extraction of methane from coal seams, have become a priority for chemical, hydrological and biological research during the last few years. Soil and vegetation samples were taken from affected and reference sites (upland elevations and wetted gully) in Juniper Draw to investigate the effects of CBM discharge waters on soil physical and chemical properties and on native and introduced vegetation density and diversity. Results indicate an increase of salinity and sodicity within local soil ecosystems at sites directly exposed to CBM discharge waters. Elevated concentrations of sodium in the soil are correlated with consistent exposure to CBM waters. Clay-loam soils in the study area have a much larger specific surface area than the sandy soils and facilitate a greater sodium adsorption. However, there was no significant relation between increasing water sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values and increasing sediment SAR values downstream; however, soils exposed to the CBM water ranged from the moderate to severe SAR hazard index. Native vegetation species density was highest at the reference (upland and gully) and CBM affected upland sites. The affected gully had the greatest percent composition of introduced vegetation species. Salt-tolerant species had the greatest richness at the affected gully, implying a potential threat of invasion and competition to established native vegetation. These findings suggest that CBM waters could affect agricultural production operations and long-term water quality. ?? Springer 2005.

Stearns, M.; Tindall, J.A.; Cronin, G.; Friedel, M.J.; Bergquist, E.

2005-01-01

101

Computer modeling of Minnelusa (Pennsylvanian-Permian) paleotopography in eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming, with a case history  

SciTech Connect

Most Minnelusa Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) oil production in the Powder River basin is from paleotopographic traps. These traps occur where upper Minnelusa dune sands are encased in the overlying supratidal red Opeche Shale (Permian). The morphology of these sands suggests northwest-southeast-trending barchanoid sand ridges. Thickness variations in the Opeche mirror the relief on the Minnelusa surface. Opeche isopachous maps are one of the main methods used to explore for Minnelusa paleotopographic traps. Hand-contoured isopachous maps can be subject to ambiguous interpretations in areas of low-density control. This difficulty is partially overcome when the map is mathematically produced. Observations from oil tests in the area indicate that Minnelusa paleotopography is cyclic with a wavelength of approximately 3 mi (5 km). Double Fourier transforms are appropriate in modeling this kind of cyclic data. For a test township, the calculated double Fourier surfaces showed good correlation with the actual data values. This technique was then applied to a Minnelusa prospect in Campbell County, Wyoming. Double Fourier surfaces were calculated for several structural datums and isopach intervals. Additionally, regional dip was determined from a polynomial fit, the section was restored to horizontal, and then was modeled to reveal paleotopography. The paleotopographic-high axes and Opeche thin axes showed remarkable coincidence. This trend is believed to represent the trace of a paleo sand dune. A test well sited using conventional geologic methods plus input from the double Fourier maps confirmed the accuracy of the calculated surface.

Maslyn, R.M.; Phillips, F.J.

1984-04-01

102

Structural relationship of the Beartooth Mountains and Big Horn basin in south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Geologic structure along the Beartooth Mountain front and adjacent Big Horn basin in south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming has been the subject of considerable debate for many years. Directional drilling by Amoco Production Company, located on the northeast corner of the Beartooth block, indicates three things. (1) Western Big Horn basin Paleozoic and Mesozoic sections recumbently folded 2 mi (3.2 km) under the northeast corner of the Beartooth block, measured horizontally from the surface exposure of the Beartooth fault. (2) The main Beartooth fault dips 19{degrees} northwest at a depth of 8,300 to 8,400 ft (2,530 to 2,560 km), 1 mi (1.6 km) from the surface exposure of the main Beartooth fault. (3) The main Beartooth fault appears to be a component of a complex fault system which horizontally displaces and faults-out formations in both the Paleozoic and Mesozoic section on the upper limb of the recumbent fold. In addition to the drilling data, interior Beartooth Mountain faults, with dominant northeast and east-west structural orientation, show reactivation of left-lateral movement, intersecting the Beartooth front and offsetting Paleozoic and Mesozoic sections 1-2 mi (1.6-3.2 km) horizontally. Reactivation of some of these faults seems to coincide with the intrusion of Tertiary (Eocene ) igneous bodies along some of the same structural trends. Beartooth front fold orientation and fault movement correlated with a reexamination of internal block fault systems lend additional weight to the argument of horizontal compression as a major factor in late Laramide formation of geologic structure along the northeast face of the Beartooth Mountains.

Clark, D.M. (Exodus-Exploration Inc., Billings, MT (United States))

1991-06-01

103

Diagenesis of sandstones in Permian upper Minnelusa Formation, west Mellott field, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Dolomite-anhydrite-sandstone cycles of the Permian upper Minnelusa Formation, Wyoming, record multiple progradations of marine, siliciclastic sabkha, and eolian sediments. Heterogeneity in the sandstones, studied in five cores from present-day depths between 7100 and 7300 ft, is partly the result of diagenetic alterations. Late-stage dissolution of anhydrite produced irregularly distributed secondary sandstone porosity that ranged to approximately 30%; dissolution was most complete in the upper parts of eolian-dune and reworked-eolian sandstones, resulting in excellent reservoir properties. Late-stage dissolution of potassium feldspars also occurred, as evidenced by the lack of compaction of the partially dissolved grains. Hydrocarbons then migrated into and occupied the secondary porosity of the upper parts of eolian-dune sandstones and reworked-eolian sandstones at West Mellott. Small rhombs of authigenic dolomite grew along most of the secondary pores and partially replaced the remaining anhydrite. Quartz overgrowth cement formed subsequent to the dolomite, in some cases engulfing the dolomite rhombs in syntaxial overgrowths. Pyrite appears to be a late authigenic phase that automorphically replaced anhydrite, quartz, and dolomite.

Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Pollastro, R.M.

1988-02-01

104

Diagenesis of sandstones in Permian upper Minnelusa Formation, West Mellott field, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Dolomite-anhydrite-sandstone cycles of the Permian upper Minnelusa Formation, Wyoming, record multiple progradations of marine, siliciclastic sabkha, and eolian sediments. Heterogeneity in the sandstones, studied in five cores from present-day depths between 7,100 and 7,300 ft, is partly the result of diagenetic alterations. The earliest alternation was the formation of clay coatings on the detrital grains, particularly in siliciclastic sabkha and related eolian sandstones. Quartz cement formed small overgrowths, particularly in the siliciclastic sabkha sandstones. Carbonate clasts in the sandstones were pervasively dolomitized, as were the adjacent carbonate beds, possibly by reflux associated with brines that formed during the evaporitic stage of the next sedimentary cycle. The sandstones were then partially cemented with anhydrite (or gypsum). Clay coatings and partial cementation by anhydrite did not completely prevent a progressive loss of intergranular volume by pressure solution with burial. The illitization of early clay coatings was also a progressive process with burial. Late-stage dissolution of anhydrite produced irregularly distributed secondary sandstone porosity that ranged to approximately 30%; dissolution was most complete in the upper parts of eolian-dune and reworked-eolian sandstones, resulting in excellent reservoir properties. Late-stage dissolution of potassium feldspars also occurred, as evidenced by the lack of compaction of the partially dissolved grains. Hydrocarbons then migrated into and occupied the secondary porosity of the upper arts of eolian-dune sandstones and reworked-eolian sandstones at West Mellott.

Schenck, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Pollastro, R.M.

1988-01-01

105

Fault control of channel sandstones in Dakota Formation, southwest Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dakota Formation is an important oil reservoir in the southwestern Powder River basin and adjoining Casper arch. Two fields, Burke Ranch and South Cole Creek, are used as examples to show the depositional environments of the Dakota and to indicate the influence of tectonic control on the distribution of the environments. Burke Ranch field is a stratigraphic trap which

W. Richard Moore

1983-01-01

106

Geologic application of thermal-inertia mapping from satellite. [Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The proportional and linear relationship between absolute and relative thermal inertia was theoretically evaluated, and a more accurate expression for thermal inertia was proposed. Radiometric and meteorological data from three stations in the Powder River Basin were acquired, as well as 400 miles of low altitude scanner data between July 25-28.

Offield, T. W. (principal investigator); Miller, S. H.; Watson, K.

1978-01-01

107

Environmental Setting of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey report describes the natural and anthropogenic factors believed to influence water quality in the Yellowstone River Basin. Topics include physiography, climate, geology, vegetation, surface water, stream ecology, groundwater, anthropogenic factors, integrated environmental settings, and others. Text is supported by numerous maps, graphs, charts, diagrams, and tables.

Ronald Zelt

108

Geologic map and coal stratigraphy of the Blue Gap quadrangle, eastern Washakie Basin, Carbon County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides a geologic map of the Blue Gap 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic formations and individual coal beds were mapped at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface.

Hettinger, R.D.; Honey, J.G.

2005-01-01

109

Chapter A. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the South Platte River basin, Colorado and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 basins along an urban land-use gradient in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, from 2002 through 2003. Study basins were chosen to minimize natural variability among basins due to factors such as geology, elevation, and climate and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among basins. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated in a multimetric urban intensity index to represent the degree of urban development in each study basin. Physical characteristics studied included stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied included nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and fecal bacteria concentrations; and biological characteristics studied included algae, fish, and invertebrate communities. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin. Commonly observed effects of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased flashiness, higher magnitude and more frequent peak flows, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure, generally were not observed in this study. None of the hydrologic, temperature, habitat, or chemical variables were correlated strongly (Spearman's rho greater than or equal to 0.7) with urban intensity, with the exception of some of the SPMD-based toxicity and chemical variables. SPMD-based measures of potential toxicity and PAH concentrations were positively correlated with urban intensity. The PAH concentrations also were positively correlated with measures of road density and negatively correlated with distance to the nearest road, indicating that automobile exhaust is a major source of these compounds in the study area. This source may be localized enough that the transport of PAHs would be minimally affected by water-management practices such as diversion or storage upstream. In contrast, the predominant sources of nutrients, bacteria, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and pesticides may be more dispersed throughout the drainage area and, therefore, their transport to downstream sites may be subject to greater disruption by water regulation. Although no direct link was found between most water-chemistry characteristics and urbanization, invertebrate, algae, and fish-community characteristics were strongly associated with nutrients, pesticides, sulfate, chloride, and suspended sediment. None of the biological community variables were strongly correlated with the urban intensity index. Algal biomass predominantly was associated with total nitrogen concentrations, nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations, and the duration of high flows. Fish communities predominantly were associated with housing age, the percentage of suspended sediment finer than 0.063 millimeters and chloride concentrations. Invertebrate communities predominantly were associated with the frequency of rising and falling flow events, the duration of high flows, total nitrogen concentrations, nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations, and total herbicide concentrations. Historical records indicate that aquatic communities in the region may have been altered prior to any substantial urban development by early agricultural and water-management practices. Present-day aquatic communities ar

Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

2006-01-01

110

Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Southwestern Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A total of 37 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 23 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Southwestern Powder River Basin assessment area for these 23 coal beds, with no restrictions applied was calculated to be 369 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 341 billion short tons (92.4 percent of the total original resource). Approximately 61 percent are at depths between 1,000 and 2,000 ft, with a modeled price of about $30 per short ton. Therefore, the majority of coal resources in the South-western Powder River Basin assessment area are considered sub-economic.

Osmonson, Lee M.; Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.

2011-01-01

111

Depositional systems and petroleum potential, Mesaverde Formation southeastern Wind River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depositional environments and systems of the Wind River basin Mesaverde Formation were interpreted from an analysis of outcrops along the Casper arch and Rattlesnake Hills anticline and cores and wireline logs from the adjacent subsurface. The Fales Sandstone and Parkman Sandstone\\/unnamed middle member are deposits of eastward progradational, wave-dominated strand-plain and deltaic complexes. Basal portions of the Fales Sandstone and

D. J. Hippe; D. W. Needham; F. G. Ethridge

1986-01-01

112

Groundwater chemistry near an impoundment for produced water, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe Powder River Basin is one of the largest producers of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the United States. An important environmental concern in the Basin is the fate of the large amounts of groundwater extracted during CBNG production. Most of this produced water is disposed of in unlined surface impoundments. A 6-year study of groundwater flow and water chemistry at one impoundment, Skewed Reservoir, has produced the most detailed data set for any impoundment in the Basin. Data were collected from a network of 21 observation wells and three suction lysimeters. A groundwater mound formed atop bedrock within initially unsaturated, unconsolidated deposits underlying the reservoir. Heterogeneity in physical and chemical properties of sediments resulted in complex groundwater flow paths and highly variable groundwater chemistry. Sulfate, bicarbonate, sodium, and magnesium were the dominant ions in all areas, but substantial variability existed in relative concentrations; pH varied from less than 3 to more than 9, and total dissolved solids concentrations ranged from less than 5000 to greater than 100,000 mg/L. Selenium was a useful tracer of reservoir water; selenium concentrations exceeded 300 ?g/L in samples obtained from 18 of the 24 sampling points. Groundwater travel time from the reservoir to a nearby alluvial aquifer (a linear distance of 177 m) was calculated at 474 days on the basis of selenium concentrations. The produced water is not the primary source of solutes in the groundwater. Naturally occurring salts and minerals within the unsaturated zone, dissolved and mobilized by infiltrating impoundment water, account for most of the solute mass in groundwater. Gypsum dissolution, cation-exchange, and pyrite oxidation appear to be important reactions. The complex geochemistry and groundwater flow paths at the study site underscore the difficulty in assessing effects of surface impoundments on water resources within the Powder River Basin.

Healy, Richard W.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Rice, Cynthia A.; McKinley, Michael P.; Smith, Bruce D.

2011-06-01

113

Laramide deformation of the Rocky Mountain Foreland, southeastern corner of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

E-print Network

in the study area because subsurface control is very scattered and standard cross sections have failed to resolve questions regarding relative timing or subsurface configuration of structures, Balanced cross sections add constraint to subsurface... describing the Foreland Province (Berg, 1962; Osterwald, 1961; Prucha, et al. , 1965; Stearns, 1971; Brown, 1984) presenting contrasting models and interpretations of models which describe the foreland province. The area now encompassing the Bighorn Basin...

Derr, Douglas Neanion

1991-01-01

114

Geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Norris Geyser Basin is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone caldera at the common intersection of the caldera rim and the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. The dominant quartz sand is hydrothermally cemented by chalcedony and is extremely hard, thereby justifying the term hydrothermal quartzite. The fundamental water type in Norris Basin is nearly neutral in pH and high in Cl and SiO/sub 2/. Another common type of water in Norris Basin is high in SO/sub 4/ and moderately high in Cl, with Cl/SO/sub 4/ ratios differing considerably. This study provides no new conclusive data on an old problem, the source or sources of rare dissolved constitutents. An important part of this paper consists of examples of numerous changes in behavior and chemical composition of most springs and geysers, to extents not known elsewhere in the park and perhaps in the world. Hydrothermal mineralogy in core samples from three research holes drilled entirely in Lava Creek Tuff to a maximum depth of -331.6 m permits an interpretation of the hydrothermal alteration history. A model for large, long-lived, volcanic-hydrothermal activity is also suggested, involving all of the crust and upper mantle and using much recent geophysical data bearing on crust-mantle interrelations.

White, D.E.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Keith, T.E.C.

1988-01-01

115

Climate control on Quaternary coal fires and landscape evolution, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

Late Cenozoic stream incision and basin excavation have strongly influenced the modern Rocky Mountain landscape, but constraints on the timing and rates of erosion are limited. The geology of the Powder River basin provides an unusually good opportunity to address spatial and temporal patterns of stream incision. Numerous coal seams in the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations within the basin have burned during late Cenozoic incision, as coal was exposed to dry and oxygen-rich near-surface conditions. The topography of this region is dominated by hills capped with clinker, sedimentary rocks metamorphosed by burning of underlying coal beds. We use (U-Th)/He ages of clinker to determine times of relatively rapid erosion, with the assumption that coal must be near Earth's surface to burn. Ages of 55 in situ samples range from 0.007 to 1.1 Ma. Clinker preferentially formed during times in which eccentricity of the Earth's orbit was high, times that typically but not always correlate with interglacial periods. Our data therefore suggest that rates of landscape evolution in this region are affected by climate fluctuations. Because the clinker ages correlate better with eccentricity time series than with an oxygen isotope record of global ice volume, we hypothesize that variations in solar insolation modulated by eccentricity have a larger impact on rates of landscape evolution in this region than do glacial-interglacial cycles.

Riihimaki, C.A.; Reiners, P.W.; Heffern, E.L. [Drew University, Madison, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biology

2009-03-15

116

Variation in sedimentology and architecture of Eocene alluvial strata, Wind River and Washakie basins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Eocene continental, alluvial strata of the Wind River Formation (Wind River Basin) and the Cathedral Bluffs Member of the Wasatch Formation (Washakie basin) provide two examples of Laramide intermontane basin aggradation. These alluvial sediments primarily represent overbank flood deposits marginal to channel complexes. Their sedimentology and architecture, although grossly similar, appear to vary somewhat with proximity to Laramide uplifts. In both cases, repetitive sedimentation on the floodplain produced a succession of depositional couplets, each composed of a light-gray sand overlain by a red clay-rich silt or sand. The lower sands are tabular bodies that, near their distal margins, taper discernibly. They commonly display planar and ripple-drift laminations. Upper clay-rich layers, which are laminated, are also generally tabular. Those floodplain strata depositional proximal to Laramide uplifts show little evidence of scouring prior to deposition of the next, overlying couplet. Most of these sedimentary layers, therefore, are laterally continuous (up to 2 km). This alluvial architecture results in relatively uniform porosity laterally within depositional units but variable porosity stratigraphically through the sequence. In contrast, alluvial sediments deposited farther from the Laramide uplifts have undergone sporadic incision (either during rising flood stage or subsequently) followed by aggradation. As a result, many of these floodplain couplets are discontinuous laterally and, hence, exhibit large-scale lateral variability in porosity. Both alluvial sequences have undergone similar types and extents of burial diagenesis.

Patterson, P.E.; Larson, E.E. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

1991-03-01

117

Bighorn Basin Coring Project: Palynofloral changes and taphonomy through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Palaeogene hyperthermals provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the biotic responses to rapid and transient global warming events. As part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP), we have analyzed 182 sporomorph (pollen and spore) samples from three newly cored sites in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. Two sites, Basin Substation (121 samples) and Polecat Bench (41 samples), contain the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ETM1), and one early Eocene site, Gilmore Hill (20 samples), contains the ELMO (ETM2) event. We have focused initially on the Basin Substation section, because it is more organic rich, has demonstrated higher sporomorph recovery potential than the other two sites, and is the main focus of complementary geochemical analyses. Below 90 m core depth sporomorph concentrations are typically 1000 - 10 000 grains/gram, but between 90 and 60 m these decline to <100 grains/gram, before rising again to levels similar to those seen at the base of the core. Correlation between marker beds in the core and those at outcrop suggests that this zone of low recovery corresponds closely to the position of the PETM. Prior to this interval, the sporomorph assemblage is dominated by the gymnosperms Cupressacites hiatipites (cypress, Cupressaceae) and bisaccate pollen (Pinaceae and/or Podocarpaceae), and the angiosperm taxa Polyatriopollenites vermontensis (wingnut or wheel wingnut, Juglandaceae), Caryapollenites spp. (hickory, Juglandaceae), and Alnipollenites spp. (alder, Betulaceae). However, samples are heterogeneous in terms of the dominant taxon, with different taxa having the highest relative abundance in different samples. In the upper part of the core, the assemblage is similar to that in the lower part, but with a more consistent dominance of gymnosperm taxa, and with the addition of Eocene marker taxa Intratriporopollenites instructus (linden, Tilioideae) and Celtis spp. (hackberry, Cannabaceae). These both have their first appearance at 56.14 m in the core, just above the zone of low sporomorph recovery. These results point to (a) a decrease in sporomorph preservation that is linked to environmental change during the PETM event, and (b) repeated reorganizations of plant relative abundances prior to the PETM. Current research is focusing on the timing, and possible climatic control, of these floral changes in the lead up to the PETM event.

Harrington, G.; Jardine, P.

2012-12-01

118

Distribution of coarse- and fire-grained rocks in the Wasatch formation and their relationship to uranium deposits, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A brief study of the areal distribution of the various rock types of the Wasatch formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, was made during the summer of 1952. In the south and central parts if the basin, the Wasatch formation appears to contain coarser-grained rocks in contrast to the northern part, which contain relatively no coarser-grained rocks. The finer-grained rocks are abundant in the northern and central parts of the basin but relatively scare in the southern part. The known uranium deposits in the Wasatch are in the central area where coarser-grained sandstones are complemented by abundant finer-grained rocks such as shales and siltstones.

Davidson, David F.

1953-01-01

119

Isopach map of the interval from surface elevation to the top of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Minnelusa Formation and equivalents, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 1,480 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

Crysdale, B.L.

1990-01-01

120

Sequence stratigraphy of coal-bearing strata, upper cretaceous, Washakie Basin, Southwest Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

An integrated outcrop/well-log/seismic study of the sequence stratigraphy of the Blair and Rock Springs formations of the western Washakie basin provides criteria for recognition of sequences and systems tracts in marine to non-marine transition zones and enhances our understanding of the distribution of paralic coals. Isopach and isochron mapping reveal an overall radial thickening of this section off the flanks of the Rock Springs uplift. Shoreline trends are generally SW-NE with predominantly marine shales and sandstones in the southeastern part of the study area that change to non-marine, coaly coastal plain deposits and fluvial sandstones to the northwest.

Beaubouef, R.T.; Bohacs, K.M.; Suter, J.R. [and others

1995-12-31

121

Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

1987-01-01

122

Petrography and prediction of reservoir rock properties in the Sussex Sandstone, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

E-print Network

) Scale = 5 " 10 2 I L L I T E (001) 999 A ZO CHLORITE (0021 717 A 0 50 WOODS HURD SMECTITE ? VERMICULITE 2 104 A 5 le-5 !0 ZO CHLORITE (00(j f 13 8 A CHLORITE (002) 701 A !0 9 5 7 6 5 DEGREES 29 Fig. 19 -- X-ray diffractograms of IVoods... of the requirement for t1 e degree of MASTER OF SCIBICE August 1977 Major Subject: Geology PETROGRAPHY AND PREDICTION OF RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES IN THE SUSSEX SA1tIDSTOiNE, POWDER RIVER BASIN, 1'(YOMIiNG A Thesis by RICHARD HOYT SHIRLEY JR. Approved...

Shirley, Richard Hoyt

2012-06-07

123

Assessment of the Mowry Shale and Niobrara Formation as Continuous Hydrocarbon Systems, Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) oil and gas assessment of the Powder River Basin , Wyoming and Montana, identified the Upper Cretaceous Mowry Shale and Niobrara Formation as the primary hydrocarbon sources for Cretaceous conventional and unconventional reservoirs. Cumulative Mowry-sourced petroleum production is about 1.2 BBO (billion barrels of oil) and 2.2 TCFG (trillion cubic feet of gas) and cumulative Niobrara-sourced oil production is about 520 MMBO (million barrels of oil) and 0.95 TCFG. Burial history modeling indicated that hydrocarbon generation for both formations started at about 0.60 percent Ro at depths of about 8,000 ft. At maximum depths, Ro for the Mowry is about 1.2 to 1.3 percent and about 0.80 percent for the Niobrara. The Mowry and Niobrara continuous reservoirs were assessed using a cell-based methodology that utilized production data. The size of each cell was based on geologic controls and potential drainage areas in analog fields. Current and historical production data were used to determine the estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) distribution for untested cells. Only production data from unconventional fractured shale reservoirs with vertical wells were used. For the Mowry, the minimum, median, and maximum total recovery volumes per cell for untested cells are (1) 0.002, 0.25, and 0.35 MMBO, respectively; and for the Niobrara (2) 0.002, 0.028, and 0.5 MMBO. Sweet spots were identified by lineaments and faults, which are believed to be areas having the greatest petroleum potential; an upper limit of 8,000 ft depth was defined by overpressuring caused by hydrocarbon generation. Mean estimates of technically recoverable undiscovered continuous resource for the Mowry are 198 MMBO, 198 BCF (billion cubic feet of gas), and 11.9 MMBNGL (million barrels of natural gas liquid), and those for the Niobrara are 227 MMBO, 227 BCFG, and 13.6 MMBNGL.

Anna, Lawrence O.; Cook, Troy A.

2008-01-01

124

Competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on some native and reclamation species in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Four experiments were conducted to examine the competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on certain native and reclamation species. The first experiment was initiated by discing three sites in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, at three distances from introduced weed seed sources. Introduced weed colonization was greatest when a seed source was located nearby. Higher weed cover resulted in reductions of percent cover, density, and richness of the native species. The second experiment was conducted in the greenhouse and was designed to determine if there are changes in response of S. kali and the native grasses Agropyron smithii and Bouteloua gracilis to competition and water regime. Both grass species had lower biomass and higher stomatal resistance when growing in mixed culture with S. kali than in pure culture in the dry regime, but there were no significant differences in the wet regime. In general, the difference in plant response between mixed and pure cultures was more pronounced in the dry than in the wet regime. The third study was a greenhouse experiment on germination and competition of S. kali (a C/sub 4/ species) with native species Lepidium densiflorum (C/sub 3/), Chenopodium pratericola (C/sub 3/), A. smithii (C/sub 3/), and B. gracilis (C/sub 4/) under May, June, and July temperature regimes. Salsola kali germinated equally well in all three regimes, but the other C/sub 4/ species had highest germination in the July regime and the C/sub 3/ species in the May and June regimes. The fourth study was designed to examine the effect of weed colonization on the success of mine reclamation. Little effect was observed, but colonization by introduced annuals was very low. (ERB)

Allen, E.B.; Knight, D.H.

1980-01-01

125

Arsenic data for streams in the uppper Missouri River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although large concentrations of arsenic originating from geothermal sources within Yellowstone National Park have been known to be present in the Madison River for many years, systematic monitoring throughout the upper Missouri River basin had not been done. Therefore, a monitoring network consisting of 24 stations was established for the purpose of measuring arsenic concentrations and determining arsenic discharge. Included were 5 sites on mainstems of the Madison and Missouri Rivers and 19 sites on major and some minor tributaries from Yellowstone National Park to Canyon Ferry Lake. Fifteen of the 24 stations were sampled 12 times from November 1985 to October 1986. The remaining stations were sampled twice during the year, at high flow and at low flow. Total recoverable arsenic discharge (loading) in pounds per day was calculated for each sample by multiplying total recoverable arsenic concentration by water discharge (obtained at time of sample collection) and a conversion factor. This report presents data resulting from the monitoring program. (USGS)

Knapton, J.R.; Horpestad, A.A.

1987-01-01

126

Stratigraphy and depositional environments of middle member of Minnelusa formation, central Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Regional correlations, from the southern to northern Black Hills and across the central Powder River basin to the Bighorn Mountains, serve as the frame work for a depositional model of middle Minnelusa sediments. In the eastern part of the study area, deposition took place in a carbonate sabkha environment. During transgressive periods, most of this region was covered by a restricted shallow sea. In the northern Black Hills, close to the limit of the transgression, deposition occurred in a coastal dune setting. During regressions, the sabkha prograded westward toward the Lusk embayment. Coastal dune fields to the north and isolated dune complexes to the south migrated southwestward across this prograding sabkha. West of the Lusk embayment, deposition occurred in a sand dominated tidal-flat environment during transgressions and along the coastal edge of an eolian sand sea during regression.

Desmond, R.J.; Steidtmann, J.R.; Cardinal, D.F.

1985-05-01

127

Patterns and mechanisms of heat transport in the northern Denver Basin: Nebraska, South Dakota and Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite difference simulations of the hydrothermal system of the northern Denver Basin are suggestive of a correlation between anomalous heat flux and the presence of faults and structural lineaments mapped in the region. Geothermal, hydrogeological, lithological, and structural data available for the northern Denver Basin were compiled and analyzed in an effort to determine the hydrothermal mechanisms responsible for observed heat flow anomalies in the study area. Measurement of thermal conductivity was conducted for 82 solid core samples and 60 unconsolidated samples from drill cuttings, yielding a harmonic mean thermal conductivity value of 1.52 +/- 0.91W m-1 K -1 for the stratigraphic column of the study area. A total of 929 thermal gradient values compiled from several databases were incorporated with thermal conductivity data to produce a heat flow map of the study area, delineating prominent areas of anomalous heat flux. Data was processed using finite difference simulation software (Hydrotherm Interactive) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the purposes of modeling and predicting heat and fluid transport in porous media. Two-dimensional cross-sectional models were calibrated using heat flow profiles and available potentiometric surface data for the Madison and Dakota aquifers in the region. Although calibrated models resulted in accurate simulations of non-anomalous heat flow profiles, anomalous heat flow highs were not reproduced. Acknowledging the existence of several major faults and numerous structural lineaments documented in the study area, vertical pathways of fluid flow were added to simulations to recreate the effect of such structural features. Models which incorporated a hypothetical linear fracture sufficiently accounted for previous discrepancies, and indicate probable upward advective flow through existing vertical fractures.

Ochsner, Aaron Thomas

128

Ecosystem services and human culture Judith Hanna  

E-print Network

Ecosystem services and human culture Judith Hanna (Social science principal specialist) Judith.hanna@naturalengland.org.uk #12;Ecosystem services Constituents of well-beingSupporting­ecologicalprocesses:nutrient cycling:opportunityto achievewhatanindividualvaluesdoingandbeing Simplified from Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2003 #12;Source: MEA (2003) #12;Ecosystems

129

Chapter 4: The Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Wind River Basin Province includes all strata from the base of the Lower Cretaceous Cloverly Formation to the base of the Waltman Shale Member of the Paleocene age Fort Union Formation and, where the Waltman is absent, includes strata as young as the Eocene Wind River Formation. Locally, Cretaceous-sourced gas migrated into strata as old as the Mississippian Madison Limestone, and in these areas the TPS extends stratigraphically downward to include these reservoirs. The extensive vertical migration of gases in highly fractured areas of the Wind River Basin led to the commingling of gases from several Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sources, thus only two petroleum systems are recognized in these rocks, the Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite TPS, the subject of this report, and the Waltman Shale TPS described by Roberts and others (Chapter 5, this CD-ROM). The Cretaceous-lower Tertiary Composite TPS was subdivided into (1) seven continuous gas assessment units (AU): (a) Frontier-Muddy Continuous Gas AU, (b) Cody Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, (c) Mesaverde--Meeteetse Sandstone Gas AU, (d) Lance-Fort Union Sandstone Gas AU, (e) Mesaverde Coalbed Gas AU, (f) Meeteetse Coalbed Gas AU, and (g) Fort Union Coalbed Gas AU; (2) one continuous oil assessement unit--- Cody Fractured Shale Continuous Oil AU; and (3) one conventional assessment Unit--- Cretaceous-Tertiary Conventional Oil and Gas AU. Estimates of undiscovered resources having the potential for additions to reserves were made for all but the Cody Fractured Shale Continuous Oil AU, which is considered hypothetical and was not quantitively assessed. The mean estimate of the total oil is 41.99 million barrels, mean estimate of gas is 2.39 trillion cubic feet, and mean estimate of natural gas liquids is 20.55 million barrels. For gas, 480.66 billion cubic feet (BCFG) is estimated for the Frontier-Muddy Continuous Gas AU, 115.34 BCFG for the Cody Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, 383.16 BCFG for the Mesaverde-Meeteetse Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, 711.30 BCFG for the Lance-Fort Union Sandstone Gas AU, 107.18 BCFG for the Mesaverde Coalbed Gas AU, 21.29 BCFG for the Meeteetse Coalbed Gas AU, and 118.08 BCFG for the Fort Union Coalbed Gas AU. All the undiscovered oil and 98.94 BCFG of undiscovered gas is in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Conventional Oil and Gas AU.

Johnson, R.C.; Finn, Thomas M.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Roberts, Stephen B.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Cook, Troy; Taylor, David J.

2007-01-01

130

Extensional tectonic influence on lower and upper cretaceous stratigraphy and reservoirs, southern Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The southern Powder River basin has been influenced significantly by an extensional system affecting Lower Cretaceous, Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary units. The system is composed of small throw, nearly vertical normal faults which are identified in the Cretaceous marine shales and that we believe are basement derived. Resultant fractures were present at erosional/depositional surfaces, both marine and nonmarine, that, in part, controlled erosion and subsequent deposition of Lower and Upper Cretaceous rocks. The normal faults also affected coal deposition in the Tertiary, now exposed at the surface. The erosion and resultant deposition formed extensive stratigraphic traps in Cretaceous units in both conventional and unconventional reservoirs. These reservoirs are interbedded with mature source rocks that have generated and expelled large amounts of hydrocarbons. Resulting overpressuring in the Fall River through the Niobrara formations has kept fractures open and has preserved primary porosity in the reservoirs. The normal faults offset thin sandstone reservoirs forming permeability barriers. Associated fractures may have provided vertical pathways for organic acids that assisted development of secondary porosity in Upper Cretaceous sandstones. These normal...faults and fractures provide significant potential for the use of horizontal drilling techniques to evaluate fractured, overpressured conventional and unconventional reservoirs.

Mitchell, G.C.; Rogers, M.H.

1993-04-01

131

Stratigraphy and depositional environment of middle member of Minnelusa formation, Central Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Regional correlations of the middle member of the Minnelusa Formation (middle Upper Pennsylvanian) shed new light on the stratigraphic relationships of Pennsylvanian rocks in the central Powder River basin and serve as the basis for a regional depositional model. The two main factors influencing the depositional environments of the middle Minnelusa were paleogeography and sea level change. In the southeastern and south-central parts of the area, the proximity of the Lusk embayment and fluctuations in sea level caused frequent flooding of a broad, flat sabkha surface over which isolated dune complexes were migrating. The sediments deposited were subtidal carbonates and black shales interbedded with supratidal dolomites, evaporites, and eolian sandstones. Farther north, closer to the sand source, the dune complexes were larger, more continuous, and were affected only by major transgressive events. Laterally extensive eolian sands were also deposited to the west. The lack of black shales and presence of sandy dolomites with Skolithus burrow, however, suggests more normal marine conditions and deposition on a sand-dominated tidal flat.

Desmond, R.J. Jr.; Steidtmann, J.R.; Cardinal, D.F.

1984-07-01

132

COAL RESOURCES OF THE HANNA AND CARBON By M.S. Ellis,1  

E-print Network

Chapter HN COAL RESOURCES OF THE HANNA AND CARBON BASINS By M.S. Ellis,1 G.L. Gunther,2 A.M. Ochs,2, Delaware 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

133

Habitat Strategies Susan Hanna, Ph.D., Professor of Marine Economics, Oregon State University  

E-print Network

Habitat Strategies Susan Hanna, Ph.D., Professor of Marine Economics, Oregon State University susan-222-5161, ppaquet@nwcouncil.org This session provides an overview of the context of habitat changes in the Columbia River Basin and a discussion of some key issues affecting the protection and restoration of habitat

134

Preliminary digital model of ground-water flow in the Madison Group, Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital simulation model was used to analyze regional ground-water flow in the Madison Group aquifer in the Powder River Basin in Montana and Wyoming and adjacent areas. Most recharge to the aquifer originates in or near the outcrop areas of the Madison in the Bighorn Mountains and Black Hills, and most discharge occurs through springs and wells. Flow through the aquifer in the modeled areas was approximately 200 cubic feet per second. The aquifer can probably sustain increased ground-water withdrawals of up to several tens of cubic feet per second, but these withdrawals probably would significantly lower the potentiometric surface in the Madison aquifer in a large part of the basin. (Woodard-USGS)

Konikow, L.F.

1976-01-01

135

Groundwater well inventory and assessment in the area of the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project, Green River Basin, Wyoming, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During May through September 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, inventoried and assessed existing water wells in southwestern Wyoming for inclusion in a possible groundwater-monitor network. Records were located for 3,282 wells in the upper Green River Basin, which includes the U.S. Geological Survey study area and the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project area. Records for 2,713 upper Green River Basin wells were determined to be unique (not duplicated) and to have a Wyoming State Engineers Office permit. Further, 376 of these wells were within the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area. Of the 376 wells in the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area, 141 well records had sufficient documentation, such as well depth, open interval, geologic log, and depth to water, to meet many, but not always all, established monitor well criteria. Efforts were made to locate each of the 141 wells and to document their current condition. Field crews were able to locate 121 of the wells, and the remaining 20 wells either were not located as described, or had been abandoned and the site reclaimed. Of the 121 wells located, 92 were found to meet established monitor well criteria. Results of the field efforts during May through September 2012, and specific physical characteristics of the 92 wells, are presented in this report.

Sweat, Michael J.

2013-01-01

136

An assessment of cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology in part of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming; a progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality are involved in a cooperative effort to assess the probable cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology of a part of the Powder River Structural Basin in Wyoming. It was assumed that the principal impacts on the ground-water system due to mining will occur in the relatively shallow aquifers which can be grouped into three homogeneous aquifers, namely, the Wyodak coal, the overburden, and the under burden. Emphasis of this report is on the results of analysis of surface-water resources in the Caballo Creek drainage. A surface-water model of the Caballo Creek drainage was developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran model to help assess the impacts of mining activities on streamflow. The Caballo Creek drainage was divided into 10 land segments and 6 stream reaches in the modeling process. Three simulation runs show little, if any, change in streamflow between pre- and post-mining conditions and very little change between pre-mining and during-mining conditions. The principal reason for the absence of change is the high infiltration rate used in the model for all three conditions. (USGS)

Jordan, P.R.; Bloyd, R.M.; Daddow, P.B.

1984-01-01

137

A Synoptic Study of Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins, Wyoming, June-July 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A synoptic study of fecal-indicator bacteria was conducted during June and July 2000 in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins in Wyoming as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program for the Yellowstone River Basin. Fecal-coliform concentrations ranged from 2 to 3,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for 100 samples, and Escherichia coli concentrations ranged from 1 to 2,800 col/100 mL for 97 samples. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for recreational contact with water in 37.0 percent of the samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for moderate use, full-body recreational contact with water in 38.1 percent of the samples and the recommended limit for infrequent use, full-body recreational contact with water in 24.7 percent of the samples. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by basin. Samples from the Bighorn River Basin had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 340 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 300 col/100 mL. Samples from the Wind River Basin had the lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 50 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 62 col/100 mL. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by land cover. Samples from sites with an urban land cover had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 540 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 420 col/100 mL. Maximum concentrations for fecal coliform of 3,000 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 2,800 col/100 mL were in samples from sites with an agricultural land cover. The lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 130 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 67 col/100 mL were for samples from sites with a forested land cover. A strong and positive relation existed between fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (Spearman's Rho value of 0.976). The majority of the fecal coliforms were Escherichia coli during the synoptic study. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations were not correlated to streamflow, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conduc-tance, and alkalinity. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations were moderately correlated with turbidity (Spearman's Rho values of 0.662 and 0.640 for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli, respectively) and sediment (Spearman's Rho values of 0.628 and 0.636 for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli, respectively). Escherichia coli isolates analyzed by discriminant analysis of ribotype patterns for samples from the Bighorn River at Basin, Wyoming, and Bitter Creek near Garland, Wyoming, in the Bighorn River Basin were determined to be from nonhuman and human sources. Using a confidence interval of 90 percent, more of the isolates from both sites were classified as being from nonhuman than human sources; however, both samples had additional isolates that were classified as unknown sources. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Clark, Melanie L.; Gamper, Merry E.

2003-01-01

138

Structural and microstructural evolution of the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline (Wyoming, USA): New insights into the Sevier and Laramide orogenic stress build-up in the Bighorn Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rocky Mountains in western US provide among the best examples of thick-skinned tectonics: following a period of thin-skinned tectonics related to the Sevier orogeny, the compressional reactivation of basement faults gave birth to the so-called Laramide uplifts/arches. The Bighorn basin, located in Wyoming, is therefore a key place to study the transition from thin- to thick-skinned tectonics in orogenic forelands, especially in terms of microstructural and stress/strain evolution. Our study focuses on a classic Laramide structure: the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline (RMA, Wyoming, USA), a basement-cored anticline located in the western part of the Bighorn basin. Stress and strain evolution analysis in folded sedimentary layers and underlying faulted basement rocks were performed on the basis of combined analyses of fractures, fault-slip data and calcite twinning paleopiezometry. Most of the fractures are related to three main tectonic events: the Sevier thin-skinned contraction, the Laramide thick-skinned contraction, and the Basin and Range extension. Serial balanced cross-sections of RMA and displacement profiles suggest that all thrust faults were coeval, evidencing strain distribution in the basement during faulting. The comparison of RMA with another structure located in the eastern edge of the Bighorn basin, i.e. the Sheep Mountain Anticline (SMA), allows to propose a conceptual model for the geometric and kinematic evolution of Laramide-related basement-cored anticlines. Finally, the stress evolution is reconstructed at both the fold scale and the basin scale. We show that the evolution of stress trends and magnitudes was quite similar in both structures (RMA and SMA) during Laramide times (thick-skinned tectonics), in spite of different stress regimes. During Sevier (thin-skinned tectonics) and post-Laramide times, stress trends and fracture patterns were different in these two structures. These results suggest that the distance to the orogenic front influenced the fracture patterns but not the foreland stress magnitudes, which were likely controlled by the structural style.

Beaudoin, Nicolas; Leprêtre, Rémi; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Amrouch, Khalid; Callot, Jean-Paul; Emmanuel, Laurent; Daniel, Jean-Marc

2012-11-01

139

Investigation of possible effects of surface coal mining on hydrology and landscape stability in part of the Powder River structural basin, northeastern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of surface coal mining on the surface- and groundwater systems in a 5,400 sq mi area in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, that includes 20 major coal mines were evaluated using three approaches: A surface water model, a landscape-stability analysis, and a groundwater model. A surface water model was developed for the Belle Fourche River basin. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran model was used to simulate changes in streamflow and changes in dissolved-solids and sulfate concentrations. Simulated streamflows resulting from less than average rainfall were small, changes in flow from premining to during-mining and postmining conditions were less than 2.5%, and changes in mean dissolved-solids and sulfate concentrations ranged from 1 to 7%. A landscape-stability analysis resulted in regression relations to aid in the reconstruction of reclaimed drainage networks. Hypsometric analyses indicate the larger basins are relatively stable, and statistical data from these basins may be used to design the placement of material within a mined basin to approximate natural, stable landscapes in the area. The attempt to define and simulate the groundwater system in the area using a groundwater-flow model was unsuccessful. The steady-state groundwater-flow model could not be calibrated. The modeling effort failed principally because of insufficient quantity and quality of data to define the spatial distribution of aquifer properties; the hydraulic-head distribution within and between aquifers; and the rates of groundwater recharge and discharge, especially for steady-state conditions. (USGS)

Bloyd, R.M.; Daddow, P.B.; Jordon, P.R.; Lowham, H.W.

1986-01-01

140

Chapter 3: Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in the Phosphoria Total Petroleum System of the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Phosphoria Total Petroleum System (TPS) encompasses the entire Wind River Basin Province, an area of 4.7 million acres in central Wyoming. The source rocks most likely are black, organic-rich shales of the Meade Peak and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Permian Phosphoria Formation located in the Wyoming and Idaho thrust belt to the west and southwest of the province. Petroleum was generated and expelled during Jurassic and Cretaceous time in westernmost Wyoming and is interpreted to have migrated into the province through carrier beds of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone where it was preserved in hypothesized regional stratigraphic traps in the Tensleep and Permian Park City Formation. Secondary migration occurred during the development of structural traps associated with the Laramide orogeny. The main reservoirs are in the Tensleep Sandstone and Park City Formation and minor reservoirs are in the Mississippian Madison Limestone, Mississippian-Pennsylvanian Amsden Formation, Triassic Chugwater Group, and Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Sundance Formation. The traps are sealed by shale or evaporite beds of the Park City, Amsden, and Triassic Dinwoody Formations, Triassic Chugwater Group, and Jurassic Gypsum Spring Formation. A single conventional oil and gas assessment unit (AU), the Tensleep-Park City AU, was defined for the Phosphoria TPS. Both the AU and TPS cover the entire Wind River Basin Province. Oil is produced from 18 anticlinal fields, the last of which was discovered in 1957, and the possibility of discovering new structural oil accumulations is considered to be relatively low. Nonassociated gas is produced from only two fields, but may be underexplored in the province. The discovery of new gas is more promising, but will be from deep structures. The bulk of new oil and gas accumulations is dependent on the discovery of hypothesized stratigraphic traps in isolated carbonate reservoirs of the Park City Formation. Mean resource estimates for the Tensleep-Park City Conventional Oil and Gas AU total 18 million barrels of oil, 294 billion cubic feet of gas, and 5.9 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

Kirschbaum, M.A.; Lillis, P.G.; Roberts, L.N.R.

2007-01-01

141

General hydrogeology of the aquifers of Mesozoic age, upper Colorado River basin; excluding the San Juan Basin; Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Geologic maps and sections, structure contours, and lines of equal thickness describe the size and shape of formations that have the potential of being aquifers. Potentiometric contours indicate occurrence and movement of water in selected formations. Distribution of concentration of dissolved solids indicates water quality in the Mesaverde, San Rafael, and Glen Canyon Group aquifers. The study area includes about 100,000 square miles in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

Freethey, G.W.; Kimball, B.A.; Wilberg, D.E.; Hood, J.W.

1988-01-01

142

Evaluating controls on fluvial sand-body clustering in the Ferris Formation (Cretaceous/Paleogene, Wyoming, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of sedimentary geologists is to interpret past tectonic, climatic, and eustatic conditions from the stratigraphic record. Stratigraphic changes in alluvial-basin fills are routinely interpreted as the result of past tectonic movements or changes in climate or sea level. Recent physical and numerical models have shown that sedimentary systems can exhibit self-organization on basin-filling time scales, suggesting that structured stratigraphic patterns can form spontaneously rather than as the result of changing boundary conditions. The Ferris Formation (Upper Cretaceous/Paleogene, Hanna Basin, Wyoming) exhibits stratigraphic organization where clusters of closely-spaced channel deposits are separated from other clusters by intervals dominated by overbank material. In order to evaluate the role of basinal controls on deposition and ascertain the potential for self-organization in this ancient deposit, the spatial patterns of key channel properties (including sand-body dimensions, paleoflow depth, maximum clast size, paleocurrent direction, and sediment provenance) are analyzed. Overall the study area lacks strong trends sand-body properties through the stratigraphic succession and in cluster groups. Consequently there is no indication that the stratigraphic pattern observed in the Ferris Formation was driven by systematic changes in climate or tectonics.

Hajek, E. A.; Heller, P.

2009-12-01

143

Coal Quality and Major, Minor, and Trace Elements in the Powder River, Green River, and Williston Basins, Wyoming and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Wyoming Reservoir Management Group (RMG) of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and nineteen independent coalbed methane (CBM) gas operators in the Powder River and Green River Basins in Wyoming and the Williston Basin in North Dakota, collected 963 coal samples from 37 core holes (fig. 1; table 1) between 1999 and 2005. The drilling and coring program was in response to the rapid development of CBM, particularly in the Powder River Basin (PRB), and the needs of the RMG BLM for new and more reliable data for CBM resource estimates and reservoir characterization. The USGS and BLM entered into agreements with the gas operators to drill and core Fort Union coal beds, thus supplying core samples for the USGS to analyze and provide the RMG with rapid, real-time results of total gas desorbed, coal quality, and high pressure methane adsorption isotherm data (Stricker and others, 2006). The USGS determined the ultimate composition of all coal core samples; for selected samples analyses also included proximate analysis, calorific value, equilibrium moisture, apparent specific gravity, and forms of sulfur. Analytical procedures followed those of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM; 1998). In addition, samples from three wells (129 samples) were analyzed for major, minor, and trace element contents. Ultimate and proximate compositions, calorific value, and forms of sulfur are fundamental parameters in evaluating the economic value of a coal. Determining trace element concentrations, along with total sulfur and ash yield, is also essential to assess the environmental effects of coal use, as is the suitability of the coal for cleaning, gasification, liquefaction, and other treatments. Determination of coal quality in the deeper part (depths greater than 1,000 to 1,200 ft) of the PRB (Rohrbacher and others, 2006; Luppens and others, 2006) is especially important, because these coals are targeted for future mining and development. This report contains summary tables, histograms, and isopleth maps of coal analyses. Details of the compositional internal variability of the coal beds are based on the continuous vertical sampling of coal sequences, including beds in the deeper part of the PRB. Such sampling allows for close comparisons of the compositions of different parts of coal beds as well as within the same coal beds at different core hole locations within short distances of each other.

Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Olson, Carol M.; Sullivan, Jonah E.; Takahashi, Kenneth I.

2007-01-01

144

Temporal and Spatial Distributions of Volatile Organic Compounds Associated with Oil and Gas Development in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil and gas development has in recent years become associated with the phenomenon of wintertime ground level ozone. Here we present the results of research performed in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming. This basin is associated with the Jonah and Pinedale Anticline (PAPA) developments. The focus of our research in this area has been to determine spatial and temporal variations of key ozone precursor compounds. We present temporal VOC data, from our background air sampling location Boulder South Road, that is located 4 miles from the edge of PAPA for 2011. Our linked spatial assessments using canister and passive sampling methods show variations that indicate the importance of different emission sources for a variety of compound classes. For VOC we identify two areas with relatively high VOC concentrations. One is associated with oil and gas production, the other with water treatment. We highlight the importance of the compositional profile of emission processes, as those with higher levels of aromatic VOC have relatively high ozone creation potentials. Effective policy decisions require an understanding of the relationship between air quality measurements and meteorology with emission inventories and modeling. We discuss the problem of gaining a clear focus on a problem that has ever changing conditions.ater Treatment Survey et Gas vs Water Treatment Emission Carbon Distribution

Field, R. A.; Soltis, J.; Montague, D. C.

2012-12-01

145

72 FR 67882 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Wyoming; Inyan Kara...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...objectives in the Thunder Basin National Grassland Land...Proposed Action The Forest Service proposes the following...Analysis Area of the Thunder Basin National Grasslands...Preliminary Issues The Forest Service has identified...dismissed by the courts. City of Angoon v....

2007-12-03

146

Coal-bed methane in Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming: Resources, reserves, and production  

SciTech Connect

Coal-bed methane reserves of 10 tcf, in-place resources up to 250 tcf, and dramatically increased production rates from Cretaceous and Tertiary formations affirm the importance of the Rocky Mountain gas province well into the 21st century. These resources have been calculated for the individual states and basins using a variety of criteria and methods and the resource numbers are not necessarily comparable. The Book Cliffs, Emery, Wastach Plateau, Kaiparowits Plateau, and Sego coal fields in Utah contain a coal-bed methane resource of 10.4 tcf. The Book Cliffs and Emery coal fields contain 8.3 tcf or 80% of this resource. The San Juan basin, New Mexico and Colorado, has 10 tcf (reserves), 40 tcf (resources) in the Fruitland Formation, and 28 tcf (resources) in the Menefee Formation. The Raton basin, Colorado and New Mexico, has 10.2 tcf of resources in the Raton and Vermejo Formations. The Piceance and Sand Wash basins in Colorado have estimated resources of more than 96 tcf. The Powder River, Green River, Hams Fork, Wind River, Hanna, Rock Creek, and Bighorn coal fields in Wyoming have resources of 54.4 tcf. The Powder River, Wind River, Green River, and Hams Fork coal fields contain 87% of this resource. In August, 1992, coal-bed methane production accounted for 49% of all gas produced from the San Juan basin (New Mexico) and 30% of all New Mexico production. For 1991, coal-bed methane production in Colorado from the San Juan and Piceance basins was 16% of all Colorado gas production.

Sommer, S.N. (Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); DeBruin, R.H. (Geological Survey of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)); Tremain, C.M. (Colorado Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Whitehead, N.H. III (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States))

1993-08-01

147

Heat flow studies in Wyoming: 1979 to 1981  

SciTech Connect

Heat flow values and updated maps of flux in Wyoming, northern Colorado, and southern Montana are presented. It is concluded that most of the heat flow values in the Wyoming Basin-Southern Rocky Mountains region in Southern Wyoming are low or normal, excluding the Saratoga Valley; that the regional flux in the Owl Creek Mountains area is above normal; and that the Meadow Creek Basin area is in a zone of high flux. (MJF)

Heasler, H.P.; Decker, E.R.; Buelow, K.L.; Ruscetta, C.A. (ed.)

1982-05-01

148

Glacial Change in the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper Green River Basin (GRB) [located in the upper Colorado River Basin] and the upper Wind-Bighorn River Basin (WBRB) [located in the upper Missouri-Mississippi River Basin] are separated by the Wind River Range (WRR) of Wyoming. The WRR is an unbroken 160-kilometer barrier in west central Wyoming that is host to 63 glaciers, the largest concentration of glaciers in

K. Cheesbrough; J. Edmunds; G. Kerr; L. Pochop; G. Tootle

2007-01-01

149

Determining erodibility, critical shear stress, and allowable discharge estimates for cohesive channels: case study in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The continuous discharge of coalbed natural gas-produced (CBNG-produced) water within ephemeral, cohesive channels in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming can result in significant erosion. A study was completed to investigate channel stability in an attempt to correlate cohesive soil properties to critical shear stress. An in situ jet device was used to determine critical shear stress (tau{sub c}) and erodibility (k{sub d}); cohesive soil properties were determined following ASTM procedures for 25 reaches. The study sites were comprised of erodible to moderately resistant clays with tau{sub c} ranging from 0.11 to 15.35 Pa and k{sub d} ranging from 0.27 to 2.38 cm{sup 3}/N s. A relationship between five cohesive soil characteristics and tau{sub c} was developed and presented for use in deriving tau{sub c} for similar sites. Allowable discharges for CBNG-produced water were also derived using tau{sub c} and the tractive force method. An increase in the allowable discharge was found for channels in which vegetation was maintained. The information from this case study is critical to the development of a conservative methodology to establish allowable discharges while minimizing flow-induced instability.

Thoman, R.W.; Niezgoda, S.L. [Lowham Engineering LLC, Lander, WY (United States)

2008-12-15

150

Activities and summary statistics of radon-222 in stream- and ground-water samples, Owl Creek basin, north-central Wyoming, September 1991 through March 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radon-222 activity was measured for 27 water samples from streams, an alluvial aquifer, bedrock aquifers, and a geothermal system, in and near the 510-square mile area of Owl Creek Basin, north- central Wyoming. Summary statistics of the radon- 222 activities are compiled. For 16 stream-water samples, the arithmetic mean radon-222 activity was 20 pCi/L (picocuries per liter), geometric mean activity was 7 pCi/L, harmonic mean activity was 2 pCi/L and median activity was 8 pCi/L. The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is 29 pCi/L. The activities in the stream-water samples ranged from 0.4 to 97 pCi/L. The histogram of stream-water samples is left-skewed when compared to a normal distribution. For 11 ground-water samples, the arithmetic mean radon- 222 activity was 486 pCi/L, geometric mean activity was 280 pCi/L, harmonic mean activity was 130 pCi/L and median activity was 373 pCi/L. The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is 500 pCi/L. The activity in the ground-water samples ranged from 25 to 1,704 pCi/L. The histogram of ground-water samples is left-skewed when compared to a normal distribution. (USGS)

Ogle, K.M.; Lee, R.W.

1994-01-01

151

Hydraulic fracturing and wellbore completion of coalbed methane wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Implications for water and gas production  

SciTech Connect

Excessive water production (more than 7000 bbl/month per well) from many coalbed methane (CBM) wells in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming is also associated with significant delays in the time it takes for gas production to begin. Analysis of about 550 water-enhancement activities carried out during well completion demonstrates that such activities result in hydraulic fracturing of the coal. Water-enhancement activities, consists of pumping 60 bbl of water/min into the coal seam during approximately 15 min. This is done to clean the well-bore and to enhance CBM production. Hydraulic fracturing is of concern because vertical hydraulic fracture growth could extend into adjacent formations and potentially result in excess CBM water production and inefficient depressurization of coals. Analysis of the pressure-time records of the water-enhancement tests enabled us to determine the magnitude of the least principal stress (S{sub 3}) in the coal seams of 372 wells. These data reveal that because S{sub 3} switches between the minimum horizontal stress and the overburden at different locations, both vertical and horizontal hydraulic fracture growth is inferred to occur in the basin, depending on the exact location and coal layer. Relatively low water production is observed for wells with inferred horizontal fractures, whereas all of the wells associated with excessive water production are characterized by inferred vertical hydraulic fractures. The reason wells with exceptionally high water production show delays in gas production appears to be inefficient depressurization of the coal caused by water production from the formations outside the coal. To minimize CBM water production, we recommend that in areas of known vertical fracture propagation, the injection rate during the water-enhancement tests should be reduced to prevent the propagation of induced fractures into adjacent water-bearing formations.

Colmenares, L.B.; Zoback, M.D. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics

2007-01-15

152

Structure and kinematic genesis of the Quealy wrench duplex: Transpressional reactivation of the Precambrian Cheyenne belt in the Laramie Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Seismic and borehole data in the southern Laramie basin of southeastern Wyoming outline a fault-bordered pop-up structure that is central to the Quealy wrench duplex and the site of the Quealy Dome oil field. This contractional duplex formed at a restraining fault offset between two parallel, laterally extensive, northeast-trending fault zones-the South and North Quealy faults. Spaced about 2 mi (3.2 km) apart, these parallel fault zones are interpreted as wrench straights, equivalent to the floor and roof thrusts of a duplex in a fold and thrust belt, but described in map view rather than in cross section. The Quealy wrench duplex is comprised of three east-vergent, basement-involved thrust imbricates and a west-vergent, antithetic thrust, detached in Permian shales. Duplex thrusts strike at high angles to the bordering South and North Quealy fault zones. Measurements based on interpretive piercing-point evidence and fault-parallel, differential shortening indicate that net slip on the dominant shortening indicate that net slip on the dominant South Quealy fault zone is dextraloblique. A component of dextral slip is also indicated on the North Quealy fault zone. The South Quealy fault and North Quealy/Overland fault trends can be traced southwesterly into the footwall of the north-trending Arlington (basin-boundary) thrust and projected into the Precambrian Cheyenne belt of the Medicine Bow Mountains in the hanging wall of the Arlington thrust. It is proposed that the Quealy wrench duplex is a product of Precambrian shear zone reactivation along the Cheyenne belt under Permian and Laramide (Tertiary) transpression.

Stone, D.S.

1995-09-01

153

Expression of syndepositional tectonic uplift in Permian Goose Egg formation (Phosphoria equivalent) carbonates and red beds of Sheep Mountain anticline, Bighorn basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Based on detailed field observations at Sheep Mountain, a doubly plunging anticline in the northeastern Bighorn basin in Wyoming, there appears to have been active tectonic uplift at this site contemporaneous with Pennsylvanian and Permian sedimentation. The Permian (Leonardian to Guadalupian) Goose Egg Formation at Sheep Mountain consists of 25-60 m of silty red beds (including minor carbonate and evaporite units) capped by 15-30 m of dominantly intertidal carbonates (the Ervay Member). A strong lateral variation of facies normal to the trend of the anticline is found within the red-bed sequence: carbonate beds on the anticline flanks are transitional with a gypsum/anhydrite facies along the crest. Similarly, shales on the anticline limbs grade into sandstones near the fold axis, indicating a paleohigh roughly coincidental with the present-day anticline crest. Ervay deposition (late Guadalupian) was marked by a more extensive uplifted structure in a marginal marine setting. On Sheep Mountain the unit is typified by intertidal fenestral carbonates, whereas outcrops to the east suggest a restricted marine facies and outcrops to the west reflect a more open marine environment. Thin sand lenses present in the Ervay are thought to represent terrigenous sediments blown onto the sometimes emergent bank which were then captured through adhesion and cementation. Anticlinal features similar to Sheep Mountain are common along the eastern margin of the Bighorn basin. When found in the subsurface, these structures are often associated with hydrocarbon production from the Ervay Member. Tectonic uplift contemporaneous with deposition of this unit may explain the localization of the productive fenestral facies on the present-day anticlines.

Simmons, S.P.; Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A.

1989-03-01

154

Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry - article no. W06424  

SciTech Connect

Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. A study was conducted on changes in water and sediment chemistry as water from an impoundment infiltrated the subsurface. Sediment cores were collected prior to operation of the impoundment and after its closure and reclamation. Suction lysimeters were used to collect water samples from beneath the impoundment. Large amounts of chloride (12,300 kg) and nitrate (13,500 kg as N), most of which accumulated naturally in the sediments over thousands of years, were released into groundwater by infiltrating water. Nitrate was more readily flushed from the sediments than chloride. If sediments at other impoundment locations contain similar amounts of chloride and nitrate, impoundments already permitted could release over 48 x 10{sup 6} kg of chloride and 52 x 10{sup 6} kg of nitrate into groundwater in the basin. A solute plume with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations at times exceeding 100,000 mg/L was created in the subsurface. TDS concentrations in the plume were substantially greater than those in the CBNG water (about 2300 mg/L) and in the ambient shallow groundwater (about 8000 mg/L). Sulfate, sodium, and magnesium are the dominant ions in the plume. The elevated concentrations are attributed to cation-exchange-enhanced gypsum dissolution. As gypsum dissolves, calcium goes into solution and is exchanged for sodium and magnesium on clays. Removal of calcium from solution allows further gypsum dissolution.

Healy, R.W.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; McKinley, M.P. [US Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center

2008-06-15

155

Source rock potential of upper cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming: Chapter 8 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

/S3 ratios indicate that it is capable of generating both oil and gas. Maps showing the distribution of kerogen types and organic richness for the lower shaly member of the Cody Shale are similar to the Mowry and show that lower shaly member of the Cody is more organic rich and more oil-prone in the eastern part of the basin. Analyses of samples of the upper sandy member of the Cody Shale indicate that it has little or no potential as a source rock. Thermal maturity mapping based on vitrinite reflectance measurements in the coal-bearing post-Cody Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks shows that Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the deeper parts of the Wind River Basin are thermally mature to overmature with respect to hydrocarbon generation.

Finn, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

156

Coal availability in the Hilight Quadrangle, Powder River Basin, Wyoming; a prototype study in a western coal field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Geological Survey of Wyoming, and U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM), has produced an estimate of the amount of available coal in an area about 35 miles south of Gillette, Wyo., where the Wyodak coal bed is, in places, more than 100 ft thick. Available coal is the quantity of the total coal resource that is accessible for mine development under current regulatory, land-use, and technologic constraints. This first western coal availability study, of the Hilight 7 1/2-minute quadrangle, indicates that approximately 60 percent (2.7 billion short tons) of the total 4.4 billion tons of coal in-place in the quadrangle is available for development. (There has been no commercial mining in the Hilight quadrangle.) Approximately 67 percent (1.9 billion tons) of the Main Wyodak coal bed is considered available. All tonnage measurements in this report are given in short tons. Coal-development considerations in the quadrangle include dwellings, railroads, pipelines, power lines, wildlife habitat (eagles), alluvial valley floors, cemeteries, and the Hilight oil and gas field and gas plant. Some of these considerations could be mitigated so that surface mining of the coal may proceed; others could not be mitigated and would preclude mining in their vicinity. Other technological constraints that influence the availability of the coal include overburden thickness, coal beds too thin, and areas of clinker.

Molnia, Carol L.; Biewick, Laura R.H.; Blake, Dorsey; Tewalt, Susan J.; Carter, M. Devereaux; Gaskill, Charlie

1997-01-01

157

Upper part of Minnelusa Formation in outcrop near Beulah, Wyoming, and at West Mellott field, Powder River basin  

SciTech Connect

The upper part of the Minnelusa Formation near Beulah, Wyoming, consists of dolomite, gypsum (anhydrite in the subsurface), and sandstone units that provide a three-dimensional sedimentologic and structural analog for upper Minnelusa oil fields such as West Mellott. Each dolomite records the initiation of marine transgression across relict topography of the previous cycle. Gypsum (anhydrite) above the dolomite records restriction of the water body as sea level began to fall. Low-energy marine, sabkha, and eolian-dune sandstones record continued regression. The extent and distribution of eolian dunes differ from cycle to cycle. Where eolian sandstones were not preserved, marine and sabkha sandstones are directly overlain by marine dolomites of the next cycle. At Beulah, gypsum onlaps and covers an eolian-dune complex tens of feet thick, forming a visual model of the reservoir-trap system at West Mellott field. Original intergranular pore space of the eolian-dune complex at West Mellott was about 40-45% and was probably pervasively filled with early gypsum (anhydrite) cement. Relatively late dissolution of anhydrite cement has preceded and overshadowed burial compaction, resulting in an increase of fluid-filled pore space (to as high as 30%) and a concurrent and somewhat incongruous decrease of intergranular pore space. At West Mellott, intergranular pore space is reduced from original levels but is still relatively high, and reservoir quality of sandstones is limited by incomplete anhydrite dissolution rather than by burial compaction.

Schmoker, J.W.; Schenk, C.J.; Pollastro, R.M.

1988-07-01

158

Estimates of monthly streamflow characteristics at selected sites, Wind River and part of Bighorn River drainage basins, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monthly streamflow records from gaging stations with more than 5 years of record were extended to a 50-year base period, 1941-90, using a mixed- station, record-extension model. Monthly streamflow characteristics were computed from the extended record. Four statistical methods--basin characteristics, active-channel width, concurrent measurement, and weighted average were used to estimate monthly streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites and at streamflow-gaging stations with fewer than 5 years of record. Linear- regression models were used with the basin characteristic and active-channel-width methods to define the relations between the monthly streamflow characteristics and physical basin, climatic, and channel characteristics. The concurrent-measurement method used a Maintenance of Variance Extension, Type 1 curve-fitting technique to correlate discharge at active streamflow-gaging stations, which had computed streamflow characteristics, with discharge measured at ungaged sites. The weighted-average method is a weighted combination of estimates from any two or all three of the other methods. For the basin-characteristics method, the standard errors of estimate ranged from 37 to 83 percent and for the active-channel-width method, 34 to 100 percent. Standard errors for the concurrent- measurement method ranged from 27 to 151 percent. The standard error for the weighted-average method, ranged from 18 to 82 percent, which was lower than any individual method. Application of the equations for estimating monthly streamflow characteristics is limited to perennial streams with physical-basin, climatic, and active channel- width characteristics that are within the range of values used in the study. The equations are not applicable to estimate flow for ephemeral streams.

Rankl, J.G.; Montague, Ellen; Lenz, B.N.

1994-01-01

159

Hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of the Paleozoic rocks in the upper Colorado River basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, excluding the San Juan Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin were investigated under the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey in anticipation of the development of water supplies from bedrock aquifers to fulfill the region's growing water demands. The study area, in parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, covers about 100,000 square miles. It includes parts of four physiographic provinces--the Middle Rocky Mountains, Wyoming Basin, Southern Rocky Mountains, and Colorado Plateaus. A variety of landforms, including mountains, plateaus, mesas, cuestas, plains, badlands, and canyons, are present. Altitudes range from 3,100 to 14,500 feet. Precipitation is distributed orographically and ranges from less than 6 inches per year at lower altitudes to more than 60 inches per year in some mountainous areas. Most of the infrequent precipitation at altitudes of less than 6,000 feet is consumed by evapotranspiration. The Colorado and Green Rivers are the principal streams: the 1964-82 average discharge of the Colorado River where it leaves the Upper Colorado River Basin is 12,170 cubic feet per second (a decrease of 5,680 cubic feet per second since construction of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963). On the basis of their predominant lithologic and hydrologic properties, the Paleozoic rocks are classified into four aquifers and three confining units. The Flathead aquifer, Gros Ventre confining unit, Bighorn aquifer, Elbert-Parting confining unit, and Madison aquifer (Redwall-Leadville and Darwin-Humbug zones) make up the Four Corners aquifer system. A thick sequence, composed mostly of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian shale, anhydrite, halite, and carbonate rocks--the Four Corners confining unit (Belden-Molas and Paradox-Eagle Valley subunits)--overlies the Four Corners aquifer system in most areas and inhibits vertical ground-water flow between the Four Corners aquifer system and the overlying Canyonlands aquifer. Composed of the uppermost Paleozoic rocks, the Canyonlands aquifer consists, in ascending order, of the Cutler-Maroon, Weber-De Chelly, and Park City-State Bridge zones. The Paleozoic rocks are underlain by a basal confining unit consisting of Precambrian sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks and overlain throughout most of the Upper Colorado River Basin by the Chinle-Moenkopi confining unit, which consists of Triassic formations composed mostly of shale. The largest values of porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, and artesian yield are exhibited by the Redwall-Leadville zone of the Madison aquifer and the Weber-De Chelly zone of the Canyonlands aquifer. The former consists almost entirely of Devonian and Mississippian carbonate rocks: the latter consists mostly of Pennsylvanian and Permian quartz sandstone. Unit-averaged porosity in hydrogeologic units composed of Paleozoic rocks ranges from less than 1 to 28 percent. Permeability ranges from less than 0.0001 to 3,460 millidarcies. Unit-averaged hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.000005 to 200 feet per day. The composite transmissivity of Paleozoic rocks ranges from 0.0005 to 47,000 feet squared per day. Artesian yields to wells and springs (excluding atypical springflows) from these hydrogeologic units range from less than 1 to 10,000 gallons per minute. The permeability and watersupply capabilities of all hydrogeologic units progressively decrease from uplifted areas to structural basins. Recharge to the Paleozoic rocks is provided by direct infiltration of precipitation, leakage from streams, and ground-water inflows from structurally continuous areas west and north of the Upper Colorado River Basin. The total recharge available flom ground-water systems in the basin from direct precipitation and stream leakage is estimated to be 6,600,000 acre-feet per year. However, little of this recharge directly enters the Paleozoic rocks

Geldon, Arthur L.

2003-01-01

160

Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide degassing and cryptic thermal input to Brimstone Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brimstone Basin is a remote area of intense hydrothermal alteration a few km outside the southeast boundary of the Yellowstone Caldera. The area has long been considered to be a cold remnant of an ancient hydrothermal system. A 2008 field campaign confirmed that emissions from discrete gas vents were cold and that soil temperatures in the altered area were at background levels. Accumulation chamber measurements across the altered ground revealed a surprisingly large diffuse flux of CO2 and H2S, ~277 and 0.6 tonnes per day, respectively, comparable to those from Yellowstone's thermal areas. The acidic nature and low discharge of the creeks that drain the basin preclude a significant flux of dissolved magmatic carbon. Diffuse gas flux is clearly the main component of the magmatic volatile efflux from Brimstone Basin. The cold waters of Alluvium Creek flow through the active degassing areas at Brimstone Basin. On average, the isotopic composition of the waters in the degassing areas are shifted about 3.5 permil off the global meteoric water line to lighter ?18O values without an apparent shift in ?D. We used the measured diffuse CO2 discharge from Brimstone Basin and stable isotope mass balance modeling to show that the observed ?18O shift can be plausibly linked to isotopic equilibration with CO2 from an underlying thermal reservoir at 88±17°C. Results from analyses of Brimstone gases indicate that although there are no surface thermal anomalies, a clear connection to a heat source remains. The ?13C-CO2 values of -2.9 and -3.0 per mil (3 sites) are typical of CO2 in Yellowstone high-temperature gas, and the helium isotope ratio of 3.0 RA (2 sites) clearly indicates that some of the helium is from a magmatic source. Relations between C2H6 and CH4 concentrations and ?13C-CH4 values (3 sites; -46.4 to -42.8 per mil) reveal the gases have a distinct thermogenic signature. Findings from gas and water chemistry when combined with the diffuse gas flux suggest that the hydrothermal system at Brimstone Basin is likely fed by thermal waters that migrate out from the high-temperature, gas-rich system within the caldera, but then mix with non-thermal groundwaters to reach a temperature <90°C. The results from this study emphasize that cold emissions may be a significant component of the total CO2 output from Yellowstone.

Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.

2012-12-01

161

Sedimentology of Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming, and a comparison to the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Outcrops of the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation near Beulah, Wyoming consist of dolomite, gypsum, and sandstone units deposited in transgressive-regressive cycles. Three depositional cycles are partly exposed in the Simons Ranch anticline near Beulah, and provide an opportunity to view fades of the upper Minnelusa Formation in three dimensions. The cycles observed in outcrop were informally labelled cycle 1, cycle 2, and cycle 3 in ascending stratigraphic order. Cycle 2 contains a basal, laterally extensive sabkha sandstone and an overlying, laterally restricted sandstone that represents a preserved eolian-dune complex. The eolian-dune sandstone of cycle 2 was partially reworked during the marine transgression that initiated cycle 3. The eolian-dune deposit grades laterally into an apron of contorted and massive-bedded sandstones that formed as water-saturated sands liquified and slumped from the margins of the eolian dune. The partially reworked eolian-dune topography was covered by gypsum beds of cycle 3. The sandstone of cycle 3 is interpreted as a laterally continuous sabkha sandstone. West Mellott field (secs. 8, 9, T52N, R68W) represents a subsurface example of the facies and facies relationships observed in outcrop. The eolian-dune sandstone of the C cycle, which was partially reworked by the transgression of the B cycle, produces oil at West Mellott. The draping of dolomite and anhydrite of the B cycle on the eolian-dune sandstone of the C cycle is analogous to the draping of gypsum on dune sand in cycle 2 in outcrop.

Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.

1993-04-01

162

Facies and fracture architecture of the Tensleep Sandstone, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: Preliminary result of an outcrop and subsurface study  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Tensleep Sandstone has been the most prolific producer in the state of Wyoming. Now in its advanced stages of production. it is critical to accurately characterize the Tensleep facies and fracture architecture. Two outcrop locations have been selected: Alkali Creek has cross-strata dip parallel exposures at close spacings for eolian facies architecture Ziesman Dome is an NW-SE trending asymmetric anticlinal closure with the SE axis having a marked dextral dislocation, and is selected for analysis of fracture architecture. Byron Field is also an anticlinal closure with NW-SE trend which is selected for location of subsurface study. Methods of study for outcrop includes high- precision electronic surveying, photomosaics, geologic mapping, and fracture spacing and orientation measurements. The subsurface study includes conventional wireline logs, cores, and porosity and permeability data. In addition, a microresistivity log was evaluated from the Lindsay 3H horizontal well. Tensleep facies architecture is defined by a hierarchy of elements. Parasequences are made up of marine to marginal marine dolomitic sandstones and sandy dolostones (<10{sup -2} to 10{sup 2} md) in the lower 20-50%, and eolian dune, interdune and large-scale deformed sandstones in the upper part. Eolian dune sandstones, the primary reservoir (2 to 3x10{sup 2} md), am characterized by very large-scale (up to 40 ft thick) tabular-planar cross strata with lower permeability wind ripple strata (1 to 2x10{sup 2} md, strongly anisotropic) concentrated above 1st- and 2nd-order bounding surfaces. Medium-scale trough cross stratified intrasets are common; however, their spatial dimensions and distribution pattern are uncertain at this time.

Aviantara, A. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

1996-12-31

163

Origin of high-permeability reservoirs in Upper Minnelusa Sandstone (Permian) Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

Petrographic analysis of samples from 8 Minnelusa cores from Campbell County, Wyoming, and Powder River County, Montana, reveals that high-permeability reservoirs (up to 3200 md) are the result of extensive dissolution of early precipitated gypsum or anhydrite cement. The Minnelusa reservoirs are in eolian sandstones (dune and interdune facies) that are very fine to coarse-grained, moderately to bimodally sorted quartz-arenites, subarkoses, and sublitharenites. Dune and interdune sandstones exhibit differences in detrital mineralogy that are the result of postdepositional dissolution of labile grains. The most common cements in the sandstone are anhydrite (0-30%), quartz overgrowths (0-10%), dolomite (0-10%), Kaolinite (< 5%), and illite (< 1%). Most cementation occurred during the pre-Jurassic when the sandstones were buried less than 1500 ft. The porosity network within the sandstone is a combination of primary and secondary porosity created by the dissolution of anhydrite cement. Burial history curves suggest that anhydrite dissolution occurred during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, when the top of the sandstones was still near the surface. During this time, 3 periods of uplift and erosion occurred in which meteoric waters undersaturated in calcium sulfate may have flowed through the sandstones. The distribution of the reservoirs is probably controlled by the regional structure during the periods of flushing. Dune sandstones are the most productive facies in the high-permeability reservoirs. Porosity in the dune facies averages 21% compared with an average of 9% in the interdune facies. This difference is the result of both lower depositional porosity and greater quartz and dolomite cementation in the interdune sandstones. Porosity loss due to mechanical compaction is similar for both facies.

Helmold, K.P.; Loucks, R.G.

1985-02-01

164

Facies and fracture architecture of the Tensleep Sandstone, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: Preliminary result of an outcrop and subsurface study  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Tensleep Sandstone has been the most prolific producer in the state of Wyoming. Now in its advanced stages of production. it is critical to accurately characterize the Tensleep facies and fracture architecture. Two outcrop locations have been selected: Alkali Creek has cross-strata dip parallel exposures at close spacings for eolian facies architecture Ziesman Dome is an NW-SE trending asymmetric anticlinal closure with the SE axis having a marked dextral dislocation, and is selected for analysis of fracture architecture. Byron Field is also an anticlinal closure with NW-SE trend which is selected for location of subsurface study. Methods of study for outcrop includes high- precision electronic surveying, photomosaics, geologic mapping, and fracture spacing and orientation measurements. The subsurface study includes conventional wireline logs, cores, and porosity and permeability data. In addition, a microresistivity log was evaluated from the Lindsay 3H horizontal well. Tensleep facies architecture is defined by a hierarchy of elements. Parasequences are made up of marine to marginal marine dolomitic sandstones and sandy dolostones (<10[sup -2] to 10[sup 2] md) in the lower 20-50%, and eolian dune, interdune and large-scale deformed sandstones in the upper part. Eolian dune sandstones, the primary reservoir (2 to 3x10[sup 2] md), am characterized by very large-scale (up to 40 ft thick) tabular-planar cross strata with lower permeability wind ripple strata (1 to 2x10[sup 2] md, strongly anisotropic) concentrated above 1st- and 2nd-order bounding surfaces. Medium-scale trough cross stratified intrasets are common; however, their spatial dimensions and distribution pattern are uncertain at this time.

Aviantara, A. (Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States))

1996-01-01

165

Systematics of Water Temperature and Flow at Tantalus Creek During Calendar Year 2005, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyze data for stream flow and water temperature from Tantalus Creek in the Norris Geyser Basin and their relationship to air temperature, precipitation, and geyser eruptions during calendar year 2005. The creek is of interest because it is the primary drainage of the Norris Geyser Basin and carries a very high proportion of thermal water derived directly from hot springs. Two separate diurnal patterns emerge - (1) a winter pattern where increases in water temperature and stream flow closely track those of air temperature and (2) a summer pattern where water and air temperature are closely aligned but stream flow declines once water temperature reaches its daily maximum. The winter pattern is present when the daily average temperature consistently drops below 0 ?C whereas the summer pattern is recognizable when the daily average temperature regularly exceeds 0 ?C. Spring and fall systematics are much more irregular, although both summer and winter patterns can be discerned occasionally during those seasons. We interpret increases in stream flow associated with the winter pattern to result from addition of locally sourced melt water (both snow and soil-bound ice) that increases in abundance once temperatures increase in the morning. Melting is facilitated by the warm ground temperatures in the geyser basin, which are significantly higher than air temperatures in the winter. The summer pattern appears to be strongly affected by increased evaporation in the afternoon, decreasing flow and cooling the remaining water. Discharge from eruptions at Echinus Geyser are clearly visible as peaks in the hydrograph, and indicate that water from this geyser reach the Tantalus weir in 80 to 90 minutes, reflecting a slug of water that travels about 0.4 m s-1.

Clor, Laura E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Heasler, Henry P.

2007-01-01

166

Remote Stratigraphic Analysis: Combined TM and AIS Results in the Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An in-progress study demonstrates the utility of airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data for unraveling the stratigraphic evolution of a North American, western interior foreland basin. AIS data are used to determine the stratigraphic distribution of mineralogical facies that are diagnostic of specific depositional environments. After wavelength and amplitude calibration using natural ground targets with known spectral characteristics, AIS data identify calcite, dolomite, gypsum and montmorillonite-bearing strata in the Permian-Cretaceous sequence. Combined AIS and TM results illustrate the feasibility of spectral stratigraphy, remote analysis of stratigraphic sequences.

Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Adams, S.

1985-01-01

167

Geochemical processes and the effects of natural organic solutes on the solubility of selenium in coal-mine backfill samples from the Powder River basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical processes and the effects of natural organic solutes on the solubility of selenium in coal-mine backfill aquifers were investigated. Backfill and ground-water samples were collected at coal mines in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Backfill was generally dominated by aluminum (14,400 to 49,000 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram)), iron (3,330 to 23,200 mg/kg), and potassium (7,950 to 18,000 mg/kg). Backfill saturated-paste selenium concentrations ranged from 1 to 156 mg/kg (microsiemens per kilogram). Ground-water total selenium concentrations ranged from 3 to 125 mg/L. Dissolved organic carbon in all ground-water samples was dominated by hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids (38 to 84 percent). Selenite sorption/desorption experiments were conducted using background solutions of distilled-deionized water, 0.1 molar calcium chloride, and isolated hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids. Selenite sorption was larger when 0.1 molar calcium chloride was used. The addition of hydrophilic acid decreased selenite sorption more than the addition of hydrophobic acids. Geochemical modelling was used to predict the solid phases controlling dissolved selenium concentrations and to evaluate the effects of dissolved organic carbon on selenium solubility. Results suggested that 55 to 90 percent of selenium in backfill precipitation/dissolution extracts was dominated by magnesium selenate ion pairs. Dissolved organic carbon had little effect on selenium speciation. A redox chamber was constructed to control Eh and pH in water and backfill-core sample suspensions. The response of selenite and selenate in water samples to redox conditions did not follow thermodynamic predictions. Reduction of selenate in water samples did not occur at any of the redox levels tested.

See, R.B.; Reddy, K.J.; Vance, G.F.; Fadlelmawla, A.A.; Blaylock, M.J.

1995-01-01

168

Selenium and mining in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Phase III - a preliminary survey of selenium concentrations in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) livers  

SciTech Connect

Samples of liver tissue from deer mice trapped on not-yet-mined areas and reclaimed areas at five surface coal mines in the Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming were analyzed for selenium. The overall mean concentration of selenium in wet weight liver tissue was 1.685 ppm. The mean value from not-yet-mined areas was 1.437 ppm; the mean value from reclaimed areas was 1.910 ppm (significant at p<0.1016). When one not-yet-mined outlier was removed, significance rose to p<0.0004. Mine-to-mine comparison of samples stratified by type (that is, by not-yet-mined or reclaimed), showed average tissue concentrations from the reclaimed area of Mine 1 were also higher (p<0.0143) then not-yet-mined area samples at Mine 1. No statistically significant differences were found between mines for samples from not-yet-mined areas, and no statistically significant differences were found between Mines 2, 3, 4, and 5 for samples from reclaimed areas. Multiple analysis of variance using the factors: site (mine) and type (not-yet-mined or reclaimed) was not significantly significant (p<0.2115). Simple linear regression showed that selenium concentrations in dry tissue could easily be predicted from wet tissue selenium (r2=0.9775), demonstrating that percent water in the samples was relatively constant. Animal body weight in general was not a predictor for either wet or dry tissue selenium concentrations, but was related to body weight at the higher tissue concentrations of selenium encountered in samples from the reclaimed area at Mine 1. Mouse body weights at Mine 1 were higher on the reclaimed area than mouse body weights from the not-yet-mined area.

Raisbeck, M.L.; Vance, G.F. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Steward, D.G. [AMAX Coal West, Inc., Gillette, WY (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

169

Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major Paleozoic artesian aquifers in the southeastern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming area, in descending order, the Tensleep Sandstone; the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite, which together form the Madison-Bighorn aquifer; and the Flathead Sandstone. Operating yields commonly are more than 1,000 gallons per minute from flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. The initial test of one well indicated a flow of 14,000 gallons per minute. Wellhead pressures range from less than 50 to more than 400 pounds per square inch. Transmissivities are 500-1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and 90-325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Despite extensive development for irrigation there have been few decreases in pressure. Some decreases in pressure have occurred in wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone. Fractures along linear structural features result in significant secondary permeability and allow upward interformational movement of water that affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces in the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Upward-moving water from the Tensleep and other formations discharges at the land surface as springs along or near these lineations. Water from the aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but has excessive hardness. The water is satisfactory for irrigation and other purposes when hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 degrees to 27.5 degrees C, giving a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 degrees C per 100 feet. (USGS)

Cooley, M.E.

1985-01-01

170

Lower Eocene alluvial paleosols (Willwood Formation, Northwest Wyoming, U.S.A.) and their significance for paleoecology, paleoclimatology, and basin analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Eocene Willwood Formation of northwest Wyoming is a 700 m thick accumulation of alluvial floodplain and channel mudstones and sandstones, nearly all of which show paleopedogenic modifications. Pedogenesis of Willwood sandstones is indicated by taproot and vertebrate and invertebrate bioturbation, early local cementation by calcium carbonate, and thin illuviation cutans on clastic grains. Pedogenesis in Willwood mudstones is indicated by plant bioturbation, insect and other invertebrate burrow casts and lebensspuren; free iron, aluminum, and manganese mobilization, including hydromorphic gleying; sesquioxide and calcareous glaebule formation in lower parts of the solum; presence of clay-rich and organic carbon-rich zones; and well differentiated epipedons and albic and spodic horizons. Probable A horizons are also locally well developed. Occurrence of variegated paleosol units in thick floodplain mudstone deposits and their association with thin, lenticular, and unconnected fluvial sandstones in the Willwood Formation of the central and southeast Bighorn Basin suggest that these soils formed during times of rapid sediment accumulation. The tabular geometry and lateral persistence of soil units as well as the absence of catenization indicate that Willwood floodplains were broad and essentially featureless. All Willwood paleosols were developed on alluvial parent materials and are complex in that B horizons of younger paleosols were commonly superimposed upon and mask properties of suspected A and B horizons of the next older paleosols. The soils appear to be wet varieties of the Spodosol and Entisol groups (aquods and ferrods, and aquents, respectively), though thick, superposed and less mottled red, purple, and yellow paleosols resemble some ultisols. Most Willwood paleosols resemble warm temperate to subtropical alluvial soils that form today under alternating wet and dry conditions and (or) fluctuating water tables. The up-section decrease in frequency of gley mottles, increase in numerical proportion and thickness of red versus orange coloration, and increase in abundance of calcrete glaebules indicate better drained soils and probably drier climate in late Willwood time. This drying is believed to be related to creation of rain shadows and spacing of rainfall (but not necessarily decrease in absolute rainfall) due to progressive tectonic structural elevation of the mountainous margins of the Bighorn Basin. ?? 1981.

Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

1981-01-01

171

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Annual report, September 15, 1993--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The principal focus of this project is to evaluate the importance of relative permeability anisotropy with respect to other known geologic and engineering production concepts. This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. The Tensleep Sandstone contains the largest potential reserves within reservoirs which are candidates for EOR processes in the State of Wyoming. Although this formation has produced billions of barrels of oil, in some fields, as little as one in seven barrels of discovered oil is recoverable by current primary and secondary techniques. Because of the great range of {degree}API gravities of the oils produced from the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs, the proposed study concentrates on establishing an understanding of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability within the Tensleep Sandstone. This research is to associate those spatial distributions and anisotropies with the depositional subfacies and zones of diagenetic alteration found within the Tensleep Sandstone. In addition, these studies are being coupled with geochemical modeling and coreflood experiments to investigate the potential for wellbore scaling and formation damage anticipated during EOR processes (e.g., C0{sub 2} flooding). This multidisciplinary project will provide a regional basis for EOR strategies which can be clearly mapped and efficiently applied to the largest potential target reservoir in the State of Wyoming. Additionally, the results of this study have application to all eolian reservoirs through the correlations of relative permeability variation and anisotropy with eolian depositional lithofacies.

Dunn, T.L.

1995-07-01

172

Erosion and deposition as indicated by sediment accumulation in stock reservoirs in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report gives the results of an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of sediment accumulation in stock reservoirs in the powder River drainage basin upstream from Arvada, Wyo. The study was made to determine the net rates of erosion in the upland areas and the effects of the reservoirs on the amount of sediment transported to the parent stream. The climate of the area ranges from cold and humid on the high mountains to warm and semiarid on the plains. The average annual precipitation ranges from less than 15 inches on the plains to more than 27 inches in the high mountains, which have a maximum altitude of 13,165 feet. The rocks in the Powder River drainage basin range in age from Precambrian to Recent. The 25 stock reservoirs that were used in the study have drainage areas of 0.09 to 3.53 square miles, are from 3 to 51 years old, and impound water from areas that have land slopes averaging from about 3 to 41 percent. The ratio of average reservoir capacity to drainage area ranges from about 2 to nearly 200 acre-feet per square mile. After adjustment for trap efficiency the average annual sediment yield to the 25 reservoirs ranged from 0.04 to 1.49 acre-feet per square mile and averaged 0.50 acre-foot per square mile of drainage area. The average sediment yield from 6 drainage areas mostly underlain by shale was 0.80 acre-foot per year, 2.3 times greater than yields from the areas underlain by sandstone or sandy shales. Correlations show that the sediment yield increased approximately as the 1.5 power of the channel density, the 0.4 power oif the shape factor, the 0.7 power of the average land slope, and the -0.25 power of the age of the reservoir. Empirical equations for sediment yield and trap efficiency for the area studied are given.

Roach, Carl H.; Colby, Bruce R.

1957-01-01

173

Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide degassing and cryptic thermal input to Brimstone Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brimstone Basin, a remote area of intense hydrothermal alteration a few km east of the Yellowstone Caldera, is rarely studied and has long been considered to be a cold remnant of an ancient hydrothermal system. A field campaign in 2008 confirmed that gas emissions from the few small vents were cold and that soil temperatures in the altered area were at background levels. Geochemical and isotopic evidence from gas samples (3He/4He ~ 3RA, ?13C-CO2 ~ ? 3‰) however, indicate continuing magmatic gas input to the system. Accumulation chamber measurements revealed a surprisingly large diffuse flux of CO2 (~ 277 t d-1) and H2S (0.6 t d-1). The flux of CO2 reduces the 18O content of the overlying cold groundwater and related stream waters relative to normal meteoric waters. Simple isotopic modeling reveals that the CO2 likely originates from geothermal water at a temperature of 93 ± 19 °C. These results and the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons (C1:C2 ~ 100 and ?13C-CH4 = ? 46.4 to ? 42.8‰) in gases require some heat source at depth and refute the assumption that this is a “fossil” hydrothermal system.

Bergfeld, D.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.

2012-01-01

174

Occurrence and flux of selected pesticides in surface water of the upper snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During May and June 1994, 37 water samples were collected at 31 sites in the upper Snake River Basin and analyzed for 83 pesticides and pesticide metabolites. EPTC, atrazine, and the atrazine metabolite deethylated atrazine were the most frequently detected and were found in 30, 20, and 13 of the samples, respectively. Fifteen additional pesticides were detected at least once. All the compounds detected were at concentrations of less than 1 microgram per liter. Total annual applications of EPTC and atrazine within subbasins and their instantaneous instream fluxes have a logarithmic relation with coefficients of determination (R2 values) of 0.55 and 0.62, respectively. At the time of sampling, the median daily flux of EPTC was about O. 0001% of the annual amount applied in a subbasin, whereas the median daily flux of atrazine was between 0.001 and 0.01%. The difference in fluxes between EPTC and atrazine probably results from differences in their physical properties and in the method and timing of application.

Clark, G.M.

1997-01-01

175

Chapter 5: Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources in the Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System,Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System encompasses about 3,400 square miles in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming, and includes accumulations of oil and associated gas that were generated and expelled from oil-prone, lacustrine shale source rocks in the Waltman Shale Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Much of the petroleum migrated and accumulated in marginal lacustrine (deltaic) and fluvial sandstone reservoirs in the Shotgun Member of the Fort Union, which overlies and intertongues with the Waltman Shale Member. Additional petroleum accumulations derived from Waltman source rocks are present in fluvial deposits in the Eocene Wind River Formation overlying the Shotgun Member, and also might be present within fan-delta deposits included in the Waltman Shale Member, and in fluvial sandstone reservoirs in the uppermost part of the lower member of the Fort Union Formation immediately underlying the Waltman. To date, cumulative production from 53 wells producing Waltman-sourced petroleum exceeds 2.8 million barrels of oil and 5.8 billion cubic feet of gas. Productive horizons range from about 1,770 feet to 5,800 feet in depth, and average about 3,400 to 3,500 feet in depth. Formations in the Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System (Fort Union and Wind River Formations) reflect synorogenic deposition closely related to Laramide structural development of the Wind River Basin. In much of the basin, the Fort Union Formation is divided into three members (ascending order): the lower unnamed member, the Waltman Shale Member, and the Shotgun Member. These members record the transition from deposition in dominantly fluvial, floodplain, and mire environments in the early Paleocene (lower member) to a depositional setting characterized by substantial lacustrine development (Waltman Shale Member) and contemporaneous fluvial, and marginal lacustrine (deltaic) deposition (Shotgun Member) during the middle and late Paleocene. Waltman Shale Member source rocks have total organic carbon values ranging from 0.93 to 6.21 weight percent, averaging about 2.71 weight percent. The hydrocarbon generative potential of the source rocks typically exceeds 2.5 milligrams of hydrocarbon per gram of rock and numerous samples had generative potentials exceeding 6.0 milligrams of hydrocarbon per gram of rock. Waltman source rocks are oil prone, and contain a mix of Type-II and Type-III kerogen, indicating organic input from a mix of algal and terrestrial plant matter, or a mix of algal and reworked or recycled material. Thermal maturity at the base of the Waltman Shale Member ranges from a vitrinite reflectance value of less than 0.60 percent along the south basin margin to projected values exceeding 1.10 percent in the deep basin west of Madden anticline. Burial history reconstructions for three wells in the northern part of the Wind River Basin indicate that the Waltman Shale Member was well within the oil window (Ro equal to or greater than 0.65 percent) by the time of maximum burial about 15 million years ago; maximum burial depths exceeded 10,000 feet. Onset of oil generation calculated for the base of the Waltman Shale member took place from about 49 million years ago to about 20 million years ago. Peak oil generation occurred from about 31 million years ago to 26 million years ago in the deep basin west of Madden anticline. Two assessment units were defined in the Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System: the Upper Fort Union Sandstones Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (50350301) and the Waltman Fractured Shale Continuous Oil Assessment Unit (50350361). The conventional assessment unit primarily relates to the potential for undiscovered petroleum accumulations that are derived from source rocks in the Waltman Shale Member and trapped within sandstone reservoirs in the Shotgun Member (Fort Union Formation) and in the lower part of the overlying Wind River Formation. The potential for Waltman-sourced oil accumulations in fan-delta depos

Roberts, Steve B.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Cook, Troy

2007-01-01

176

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Annual report, October 1, 1994-- September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Because of the great range of API gravities of the oils produced from these reservoirs, the proposed study concentrates on understanding the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability within the Tensleep Sandstone. This research will associate those spatial distributions and anisotropies with the depositional subfacies and zones of diagenetic alteration found within the sandstone. The associations of the above with pore geometry will link relative permeability with the dimensions of lithofacies and authigenic mineral facies. Hence, the study is to provide criteria for scaling this parameter on a range of scales, from the laboratory to the basin-wide scale of subfacies distribution. Effects of depositional processes and burial diagenesis will be investigated. Image analysis of pore systems will be done to produce algorithms for estimating relative permeability from petrographic analyses of core and well cuttings. In addition, these studies are being coupled with geochemical modeling and coreflood experiments to investigate the potential for wellbore scaling and formation damage anticipated during EOR, eg., CO{sub 2} flooding. This will provide a regional basis for EOR strategies for the largest potential target reservoir in Wyoming; results will have application to all eolian reservoirs through correlations of relative permeability variation and anisotropy with eolian depositional lithofacies.

Dunn, T.L.

1996-03-01

177

STATUS REVIEW OF THE BEAR LODGE MEADOW JUMPING MOUSE ( Zapus hudsonius campestris ) IN WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Bear Lodge meadow jumping mouse ( Zapus hudsonius campestris ) is one of 2 subspecies of the meadow jumping mouse that occur in Wyoming. It occurs in northeastern Wyoming (Crook and Weston counties) and adjacent portions of South Dakota. In Wyoming, it has been documented only in the Belle Fourche River basin. The second subspecies, Preble's meadow jumping

Gary P. Beauvais

2000-01-01

178

Small mammal faunal stasis in Natural Trap Cave (Pleistocene-Holocene), Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming  

E-print Network

of dentary and maxilla occlusal length measurements 32 from Natural Trap Cave Tamias and from three modern Tamias species from NW Wyoming. Figure 6. p4 analysis of Natural Trap Cave Urocitellus. 36... classification parallel Long's (1965) Wyoming mammal faunal divisions. Common mammals of the western Wyoming basins are: White-tailed Jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii), Wyoming Ground Squirrel (Urocitellus elegans), White-tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys leucurus...

Williams, Daniel Ryan

2009-01-01

179

A new approach to fluid flow modeling of directional permeability in a faulted anticline, Little Sand Draw Field, Big Horn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little Sand Draw field, Hot Springs County, Wyoming, is a fractured and faulted asymmetric anticlinal oil reservoir. The main producing formation is the Permian Phosphoria Formation. Numerical simulation of this reservoir is important for evaluating reservoir quality and past and future performance. This study presents a new integrated methodology which combines reservoir engineering with geology to improve reservoir characterization, simulation,

Ali Saleh Bin Raba'A

2001-01-01

180

Burial history, thermal maturity, and oil and gas generation history of petroleum systems in the Wind River Basin Province, central Wyoming: Chapter 6 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for eight key source rock units at nine well locations throughout the Wind River Basin Province. Petroleum source rocks include the Permian Phosphoria Formation, the Cretaceous Mowry Shale, Cody Shale, and Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Lance Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation, including the Waltman Shale Member. Within the province boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon. Phosphoria oil produced from reservoirs in the province is thought to have migrated from the Wyoming and Idaho thrust belt. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the province (Adams OAB-17, Bighorn 1-5, and Coastal Owl Creek); three at intermediate depths (Hells Half Acre, Shell 33X-10, and West Poison Spider); and three at relatively shallow locations (Young Ranch, Amoco Unit 100, and Conoco-Coal Bank). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep northern and central parts of the province and decreases to the south and east toward the basin margins. The results of the modeling indicate that, in the deepest areas, (1) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from Late Cretaceous through middle Eocene time, and (2) onset of oil generation from the Waltman Shale Member occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Based on modeling results, gas generation from the cracking of Phosphoria oil reservoired in the Park City Formation reached a peak in the late Paleocene/early Eocene (58 to 55 Ma) only in the deepest parts of the province. The Mowry Shale and Cody Shale (in the eastern half of the basin) contain a mix of Type-II and Type-III kerogens. Oil generation from predominantly Type-II source rocks of these units in the deepest parts of the province reached peak rates during the latest Cretaceous to early Eocene (65 to 55 Ma). Only in these areas of the basin did these units reach peak gas generation from the cracking of oil, which occurred in the early to middle Eocene (55 to 42 Ma). Gas-prone source rocks of the Mowry and Cody Shales (predominantly Type-III kerogen), and the Mesaverde, Meeteetse, Lance, and Fort Union Formations (Type –III kerogen) reached peak gas generation in the latest Cretaceous to late Eocene (67 to 38 Ma) in the deepest parts of the province. Gas generation from the Mesaverde source rocks started at all of the modeled locations but reached peak generation at only the deepest locations and at the Hells Half Acre location in the middle Paleocene to early Eocene (59 to 48 Ma). Also at the deepest locations, peak gas generation occurred from the late Paleocene to the early Eocene (57 to 49 Ma) for the Meeteetse Formation, and during the Eocene for the Lance Formation (55 to 48 Ma) and the Fort Union Formation (44 to 38 Ma). The Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation contains Type-II kerogen. The base of the Waltman reached a level of thermal maturity to generate oil only at the deep-basin locations (Adams OAB-17 and Bighorn 1-5 locations) in the middle Eocene to early Miocene (36 to 20 Ma).

Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

2007-01-01

181

Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The major Paleozoic artesian aquifers, the aquifers most favorable for continued development, in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming are the Tensleep Sandstone, the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite (Madison-Bighorn aquifer), and the Flathead Sandstone. The minor aquifers include the Goose Egg and Park City Formations (considered in the Ten Sleep area to be the lateral equivalent of the Phosphoria Formation) and the Amsden Formation. Most wells completed in the major and minor aquifers flow at the land surface. Wellhead pressures generally are less than 50 pounds per square inch for the Tensleep Sandstone, 150-250 pounds per square inch for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, and more than 400 pounds per square inch for the Flathead Sandstone. Flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and the Flathead Sandstone yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. The initial test of one well completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer indicated a flow rate of 14,000 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 500 to 1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and from about 90 to 325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Significant secondary permeability from fracturing in the Paleozoic aquifers allows local upward interformational movement of water, and this affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Water moves upward from the Tensleep and other formations, through the Goose Egg Formation, to discharge at the land surface as springs. Much of the spring flow is diverted for irrigation or is used for rearing fish. Decreases from original well pressures were not apparent in wells completed in the Tensleep Sandstone or in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer in the study area except for a few wells in or near the town of Ten Sleep. Most wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone, which also are open to the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, show a decrease of pressure from the time of completion to 1978. The decrease of pressure is partly the result of water moving from the Flathead Sandstone into the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, which has a lower potentiometric surface than does the Flathead Sandstone, even during the time the wells are not in operation. Pressure in some small-capacity wells completed in the Goose Egg Formation also has decreased near Ten Sleep. Most of the wells, particularly the irrigation wells, show a progressive decrease in pressure during the irrigation season but recover during periods of nonuse. Measurements of the pressure were made principally in 1953, 1962, 1970, and 1975-78. Well water from the Paleozoic aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but excessive hardness. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water are less than 300 milligrams per liter in the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, less than 200 milligrams per liter in the Flathead Sandstone, and as much as 450 milligrams per liter in the Goose Egg Formation. Bicarbonate is the major constituent, followed by calcium and magnesium. Relatively large concentrations of sulfate, as much as 490 milligrams per liter, were found, mainly in water from the Goose Egg Formation. The water has low sodium (alkali) and medium salinity; therefore, the water is satisfactory for irrigation and most other uses, if excessive hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 ? to 27.5 ? Celsius (51 ? to 81.5 ? Fahrenheit) within a range in depth of approximately 250 to 4,000 feet. This gives a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 ? Celsius per 100 feet (0.79 ? Fahrenheit per 100 feet).

Cooley, Maurice E.

1986-01-01

182

Tectonically induced climate and its control on the distribution of depositional systems in a continental foreland basin, Cloverly and Lakota Formations (Lower Cretaceous) of Wyoming, U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental sediments of the Cloverly and Lakota Formations (Lower Cretaceous) in Wyoming are subdivided into three depositional systems: perennial to intermittent alluvial, intermittent to ephemeral alluvial, and playa. Chert-bearing sandstones, conglomerates, carbonaceous mudrocks, blocky mudrocks, and skeletal limestones were deposited by perennial to intermittent alluvial systems. Carbonaceous mudrocks contain abundant wood fragments, cuticle and cortical debris, and other vascular plant remains representing deposition in oxbow lakes, abandoned channels, and on floodplains under humid to seasonal conditions. Intraformational conglomerates, sandstones, bioturbated and blocky mudrocks with caliche nodules, and bioturbated limestones characterize deposition in intermittent to ephemeral alluvial systems. Bioturbated limestones are encased in bioturbated mudrocks with abundant pseudo-slickensides. The presence of caliche nodules in some of the blocky to bioturbated mudrocks is consistent with supersaturation and precipitation of calcium carbonate from groundwater under semi-arid conditions. Caliche nodules, pseudo-slickensides, and carbonate-rich floodplain sediments are interpreted to have been deposited by intermittent to ephemeral alluvial systems under seasonal to semi-arid climatic conditions. Laminated mudrocks, siltstones, vuggy carbonates, bedded to nodular evaporites, pebbly mudrocks, and diamictites were deposited in evaporative alkaline lakes or playas. Pebbly mudrocks and diamictites are interpreted to represent deposition from channelized and unchannelized hyperconcentrated flows on a playa, resulting from intense rain events within the basin. The areal abundance and distribution of these depositional systems change systematically across the overfilled portion of the Early Cretaceous Cordilleran foreland basin in Wyoming. The lower part (A-interval) of the Cloverly and Lakota Formations is characterized by deposits of perennial to intermittent rivers that existed 300 to 1000 km east of the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt. Proximal to the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt, the A-interval of the Cloverly Formation and upper Ephraim Formation of the Gannett Group are typified by deposits of intermittent to ephemeral rivers and their associated floodplains. In the middle part (B-interval) of the Cloverly Formation, intermittent to ephemeral alluvial systems expand to 600 km into the basin. The upper part (C-interval) of the Cloverly Formation is characterized by playa deposits in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins and intermittent to ephemeral alluvial deposits along the front of the ancestral Sevier Mountains. Deposits of perennial to intermittent alluvial systems in the C-interval of the Cloverly and Lakota Formations are restricted to the Black Hills region, almost 900 km to the east of the Sevier Mountains. The change in the areal distribution of depositional systems through time within this continental foreland basin may be attributed to the development of a rain shadow associated with the uplift of the Sevier Mountains in the Early Cretaceous.

Elliott, William S.; Suttner, Lee J.; Pratt, Lisa M.

2007-12-01

183

Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Denver Basin, Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska: Chapter G in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a report about the geologic characteristics of five storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Denver Basin of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. These SAUs are Cretaceous in age and include (1) the Plainview and Lytle Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Greenhorn Limestone, (4) the Niobrara Formation and Codell Sandstone, and (5) the Terry and Hygiene Sandstone Members. The described characteristics, as specified in the methodology, affect the potential carbon dioxide storage resource in the SAUs. The specific geologic and petrophysical properties of interest include depth to the top of the storage formation, average thickness, net-porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and the area of structural reservoir traps. Descriptions of the SAU boundaries and the overlying sealing units are also included. Assessment results are not contained in this report; however, the geologic information included here will be used to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage volume in the SAUs.

Drake, Ronald M.; Brennan, Sean T.; Covault, Jacob A.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

2014-01-01

184

Variations in fluvial deposition on an alluvial plain: an example from the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), southeastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation is an important coal-bearing sedimentary unit in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. We studied the depositional environments of a portion of this member at three sites 20 km apart in the southeastern part of the basin. Six lithofacies are recognized that we assign to five depositional facies categorized as either channel or interchannel-wetlands environments. (1) Type A sandstone is cross stratified and occurs as lenticular bodies with concave-upward basal surfaces; these bodies are assigned to the channel facies interpreted to be the product of low-sinuosity streams. (2) Type B sandstone occurs in parallel-bedded units containing mudrock partings and fossil plant debris; these units constitute the levee facies. (3) Type C sandstone typically lacks internal structure and occurs as tabular bodies separating finer grained deposits; these bodies represent the crevasse-splay facies. (4) Gray mudrock is generally nonlaminated and contains ironstone concretions; these deposits constitute the floodplain facies. (5) Carbonaceous shale and coal are assigned to the swamp facies. We recognize two styles of stream deposition in our study area. Laterally continuous complexes of single and multistoried channel bodies occur at our middle study site and we interpret these to be the deposits of sandy braided stream systems. In the two adjacent study sites, single and multistoried channel bodies are isolated in a matrix of finer-grained interchannel sediment suggesting deposition by anastomosed streams. A depositional model for our study area contains northwest-trending braided stream systems. Avulsions of these systems created anastomosed streams that flowed into adjacent interchannel areas. We propose that during late Paleocene a broad alluvial plain existed on the southeastern flank of the Powder River Basin. The braided streams that crossed this surface were tributaries to a northward-flowing, basin-axis trunk stream that existed to the west. ?? 1990.

Johnson, E.A.; Pierce, F.W.

1990-01-01

185

Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska: Chapter B in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents ten storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska. The Powder River Basin contains a thick succession of sedimentary rocks that accumulated steadily throughout much of the Phanerozoic, and at least three stratigraphic packages contain strata that are suitable for CO2 storage. Pennsylvanian through Triassic siliciclastic strata contain two potential storage units: the Pennsylvanian and Permian Tensleep Sandstone and Minnelusa Formation, and the Triassic Crow Mountain Sandstone. Jurassic siliciclastic strata contain one potential storage unit: the lower part of the Sundance Formation. Cretaceous siliciclastic strata contain seven potential storage units: (1) the Fall River and Lakota Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Frontier Sandstone and Turner Sandy Member of the Carlile Shale, (4) the Sussex and Shannon Sandstone Members of Cody Shale, and (5) the Parkman, (6) Teapot, and (7) Teckla Sandstone Members of the Mesaverde Formation. For each SAU, we discuss the areal distribution of suitable CO2 reservoir rock. We also characterize the overlying sealing unit and describe the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Case-by-case strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are presented. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed to calculate the potential storage space in the various SAUs.

Craddock, William H.; Drake, Ronald M.; Mars, John L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven A.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

2012-01-01

186

Geologic map of the Peach Orchard Flat quadrangle, Carbon County, Wyoming, and descriptions of new stratigraphic units in the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation and Paleocene Fort Union Formation, eastern Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming-Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides a geologic map of the Peach Orchard Flat 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic formations and individual coal beds were mapped at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface. In addition, four lithostratigraphic units were named: the Red Rim Member of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation, and the China Butte, Blue Gap, and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation.

Honey, J.D.; Hettinger, R.D.

2004-01-01

187

Regional implications of an extensive linear sediment-dispersal system along western margin of Cretaceous interior seaway: Second Wall Creek sand, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Second Wall Creek sand in the Powder River basin in Johnson and Natrona Counties is similar in clast lithology, primary sedimentary structures, and facies association to the Torchlight Sandstone at the top of the Frontier Formation in the northern Big Horn basin. The Second Wall Creek sand is predominantly composed of medium to coarse-grained, moderately sorted massive to cross-bedded

C. F. Vondra; N. I. Khandaker

1988-01-01

188

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - SUMMARY OF AQUATIC BIOLOGICAL DATA FOR SURFACE WATER THROUGH 1992  

EPA Science Inventory

The initial phase of this study involved compiling data to describe the current (1992) and historical aquatic biological conditions of surface water in the Snake River Basin (1704). To assess water quality of the basin, at least 26 different macroinvertebrate and fish community ...

189

Basin-margin depositional environments of the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations (Tertiary) in the Buffalo-Lake De Smet area, Johnson County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations along the east flank of the Bighorn Mountains in the Buffalo-Lake De Smet area, Wyoming, consist of continental alluvial fan, braided stream, and poorly drained alluvial plain deposits. The Fort Union conformably overlies the Cretaceous Lance Formation, which is marine in its lower units and nonmarine in its upper part. The formations dip steeply along the western margin of the study area and are nearly horizontal in the central and eastern portions. This structural configuration permits the reconstruction of depositional environments as an aid to understanding: (1) the evolution of the Bighorn uplift and its effects on the depositional patterns marginal to the uplift during Paleocene and Eocene time and (2) the changing depositional environments basinward from the margin of the uplift during a relatively small period of time in the Eocene.

Obernyer, Stanley L.

1979-01-01

190

Assessment of selected constituents in surface water of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, water years 1975-89  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A more extensive data-collection program in the upper Snake River Basin is needed to address a number of water-quality issues. These include an analysis of effects of land use on the quality of surface water; quantification of mass movement of nutrients and suspended sediment at key locations in the basin; distribution of aquatic organisms; and temporal and spatial distribution of pesticides in surface water, bottom sediment, and biota.

Clark, Gregory M.

1994-01-01

191

Conditional Random Fields: An Introduction Hanna M. Wallach  

E-print Network

Conditional Random Fields: An Introduction Hanna M. Wallach February 24, 2004 1 Labeling Sequential are a form of generative model, that defines a joint probability distribution p(X, Y ) where X and Y a model that defines a conditional probability p(Y |x) over label sequences given a particular observation

Wallach, Hanna M.

192

Conditional Random Fields: An Introduction # Hanna M. Wallach  

E-print Network

Conditional Random Fields: An Introduction # Hanna M. Wallach February 24, 2004 1 Labeling are a form of generative model, that defines a joint probability distribution p(X, Y ) where X and Y a model that defines a conditional probability p(Y |x) over label sequences given a particular observation

Willsky, Alan S.

193

Origin and diagenesis of clay minerals in relation to sandstone paragenesis: An example in eolian dune reservoirs and associated rocks, Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Eolian dune sandstones are the principal reservoir rocks in the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming. These sandstones formed as shorelines retreated and dunes migrated across siliciclastic sabkhas. Sandstones are mainly quartzarenites; on average, clay minerals constitute about 5 wt.% the whole rock. Although present in minor amounts, clay minerals play an important role in the diagenetic evolution of these sandstones. Allogenic clay minerals are present in shaly rock fragments and laminae. Early infiltration of clays into porous sabkha sands commonly form characteristic menisei or bridges between framework grains or, when more extensive, form coatings or rims on grain surfaces. Authigenic clays include nearly pure smectite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S), and late diagenetic illite and corrensite; these clay minerals are present as pore-lining cements. In addition to the deposition and neoformation of clay minerals throughout sandstone paragenesis, the conversion of smectite to illite occurred as temperatures increased with progressive burial. A temperature of 103C is calculated at a present depth of 3,200 m using a geothermal gradient of 30C/km and a mean annual surface temperature of 7C. After correction for uplift and erosion (250 m), the maximum calculated temperature for the conversion of all random I/S to ordered I/S is 100C. This calculated temperature is in excellent agreement with temperatures of 100-110C implied from I/S geothermometry.

Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1991-06-01

194

Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Chapter A in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of twelve storage assessment units (SAUs) in six separate packages of sedimentary rocks within the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana and focuses on the particular characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU such as depth to top, gross thickness, net porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included here will be employed, as specified in the methodology of earlier work, to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage space in the various SAUs. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through the sealing unit into the top of the storage formation. Wells sharing the same well borehole are treated as a single penetration. Cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of incompletely attributed well data, a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling. The USGS does not expect to know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the amount of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on cell maps.

Covault, Jacob A.; Buursink, Mark L.; Craddock, William H.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, Philip A.

2012-01-01

195

SUMMER FOOD HABITS AND TROPHIC OVERLAP OF ROUNDTAIL CHUB AND CREEK CHUB IN MUDDY CREEK, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial de- clines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. latipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because

Michael C. Quist; Michael R. Bower; Wayne A. Hubert; Kevin Bestgen

2006-01-01

196

Delineating producing trends within plays by the use of computer-generated drill intensity maps, Denver basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-generated exploration intensity maps were constructed for the Lower Cretaceous J and D sandstones of the Dakota Group in the Denver basin as part of the US Geological Survey's Federal Lands Assessment Program (FLAP). These maps illustrate producing and non-producing areas, distribution of hydrocarbon shows, and explored areas. They were compared with existing or generated maps of depositional environment, structure,

D. K. Higley; R. F. Mast; D. L. Gautier

1986-01-01

197

ANALYSIS OF DATA ON NUTRIENTS AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GROUND WATER IN THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, 1980-91  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground-water quality in the upper Snake River Basin (17...

198

Burial, thermal, and petroleum generation history of the Upper Cretaceous Steele Member of the Cody Shale (Shannon Sandstone Bed Horizon), Powder River Basin, Wyoming (Chapter A). Bulletin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of the study are to (1) present burial histories representative of the northwestern and southwestern parts of the Powder River Basin (south of lat 45 N.), (2) show the maximum level of thermal maturity for the Steele Member and its Shannon Sandstone Bed, and (3) show the source-rock potential and timing of petroleum generation for the Steele. It

Nuccio

1990-01-01

199

Characteristics of fish assemblages and related environmental variables for streams of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1993-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

limited designation for the middle reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill and provide a framework for developing indices of biotic integrity by using fish assemblages to evaluate water quality of streams in the upper Snake River Basin.

Maret, Terry R.

1997-01-01

200

Characterization of Habitat and Biological Communities at Fixed Sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, Water Years 1999-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat and biological communities were sampled at 10 sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program to assess the occurrence and distribution of biological organisms in relation to environmental conditions. Sites were distributed among the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River basins and were selected to represent stream conditions in different land-use settings that are prominent within the basins, including agriculture, rangeland, urban, and forested. High-gradient streams had more diverse habitat conditions with larger substrates and more dynamic flow characteristics and were typically lower in discharge than low-gradient streams, which had a higher degree of siltation and lacked variability in geomorphic channel characteristics, which may account for differences in habitat. Habitat scores were higher at high-gradient sites with high percentages of forested land use within their basins. Sources and causes of stream habitat impairment included effects from channel modifications, siltation, and riparian land use. Effects of hydrologic modifications were evident at many sites. Algal sites where colder temperatures, less nutrient enrichment, and forest and rangeland uses dominated the basins contained communities that were more sensitive to organic pollution, siltation, dissolved oxygen, and salinity than sites that were warmer, had higher degrees of nutrient enrichment, and were affected by agriculture and urban land uses. Sites that had high inputs of solar radiation and generally were associated with agricultural land use supported the greatest number of algal species. Invertebrate samples collected from sites where riffles were the richest-targeted habitat differed in species composition and pollution tolerance from those collected at sites that did not have riffle habitat (nonriffle sites), where samples were collected in depositional areas, woody snags, or macrophyte beds. Invertebrate taxa richness, pollution tolerance, and trophic interactions at riffle and nonriffle sites responded differently to environmental variables. Fish communities were assessed in relation to the designated beneficial use for aquatic life for each site. Fish-community sites in basins where agriculture and urbanization were prevalent consistently had poorer conditions than sites with forest and rangeland uses. Warm temperatures appear to be limiting most native fish species, and more introduced, warm-water fish species were present at sites with warmer temperatures. Ranges of environmental conditions where native species were present or absent were identified. The farthest-upstream site in each of the three basins had better ecological condition overall, as indicated by the integrity of habitat and the presence of more sensitive algae, invertebrate, and fish species than were observed at sites downstream. The farthest-downstream site in each of the three basins showed the poorest ecological condition, with more tolerant organisms present, degraded habitat and water-quality conditions, and a high degree of effects from agriculture, grazing, and urbanization. Of the mid-basin sites, the site most affected by urbanization had more degraded biological condition than the agricultural indicator site of similar basin size.

Albano, Christine M.; Giddings, Elise M.P.

2007-01-01

201

Einstein in Wyoming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "Einstein's Adventurarium," a science center housed in an empty shopping mall in Gillette, Wyoming, created through school, business, and city-county government partnership. Describes how interactive exhibits allow exploration of life sciences, physics, and paleontology. (KDFB)

Elliot, Ian

1996-01-01

202

Hydrologic and geochemical data collected near Skewed Reservoir, an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas produced water, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Powder River Structural Basin is one of the largest producers of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the United States. An important environmental concern in the Basin is the fate of groundwater that is extracted during CBNG production. Most of this produced water is disposed of in unlined surface impoundments. A 6-year study of groundwater flow and subsurface water and soil chemistry was conducted at one such impoundment, Skewed Reservoir. Hydrologic and geochemical data collected as part of that study are contained herein. Data include chemistry of groundwater obtained from a network of 21 monitoring wells and three suction lysimeters and chemical and physical properties of soil cores including chemistry of water/soil extracts, particle-size analyses, mineralogy, cation-exchange capacity, soil-water content, and total carbon and nitrogen content of soils.

Healy, Richard W.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Bartos, Timothy T.

2012-01-01

203

Diversity and distribution of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), and caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming, 1873-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado), compiled collection record data to document the historical and present-day occurrence of mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly species in the South Platte River Basin. Data were compiled from records collected between 1873 and 2010 to identify where regional knowledge about species occurrence in the basin is lacking and to encourage future researchers to locate additional populations of these poorly understood but very important organisms. This report provides a description of how data were compiled, a map of approximate collection locations, a listing of the most recent collection records from unique locations, general remarks for each species, a species list with selected summary information, and distribution maps of species collection records.

Zuellig, Robert E.; Heinold, Brian D.; Kondratieff, Boris C.; Ruiter, David E.

2012-01-01

204

CO 2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery: Reservoir characterization and fluid flow simulations of the Big George coal, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coalbeds are an attractive geological environment for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) because CO2 is retained in the coal as an adsorbed phase and the cost of injection can be offset by enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production. This paper presents the findings of a CO2 storage feasibility study on coalbeds in the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone of the Powder River Basin,

Hannah E. Ross; Paul Hagin; Mark D. Zoback

2009-01-01

205

Experimental study of shortite (Na2Ca2(CO3)3) formation and application to the burial history of the Wilkins Peak Member, Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature at which shortite (Na2Ca2(CO3)3) forms from pirssonite (Na2Ca(CO3)2·2H2O) and calcite using pure synthetic phases in the system Na2CO3-CaCO3-H2O has been experimentally determined. At ˜1 atm pressure, shortite forms via the reaction Na2Ca(CO3)2·2H2O + CaCO3 = Na2Ca2(CO3)3 + 2H2O above 55 ± 2 °C. This equilibrium temperature is lower than determined previously (90 ± 25 °C) by Bradley and Eugster (1969). The solution in equilibrium with synthetic shortite, pirssonite, and calcite approximates a binary H2O-Na2CO3 brine with 1.1 m Na2CO3 (10.6 wt% Na2CO3). The equilibrium temperature is lowered to 52 ± 2 °C with 5 m NaCl added to the system, which shows that this reaction is weakly dependent on the activity of H2O, aO. This study suggests that shortite does not occur in surficial alkaline saline environments because temperatures are too low. Shortite is abundant in the Wilkins Peak Member (WPM) of the Eocene Green River Formation, Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA (>78 million tons/km2), where it occurs as diagenetic displacive crystals, fracture fills, and pseudomorphous replacements of a precursor Na-Ca-carbonate. The large area over which shortite occurs in the WPM indicates that saline pore fluids once existed in the buried lacustrine sediments, and thus, at times, large Na-CO3-rich saline alkaline lakes or laterally extensive saline groundwaters existed in the Green River Basin during WPM time. The thermal stability of shortite, together with vitrinite reflectance data and inferred regional geothermal gradients, establish that the shortite-bearing intervals of the WPM were buried to maximum depths of ˜1000 m in the Green River Basin, and since experienced ˜800 m of erosional exhumation.

Jagniecki, Elliot A.; Jenkins, David M.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Carroll, Alan R.

2013-08-01

206

Subsurface geology and porosity distribution, Madison Limestone and underlying formations, Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana and adjacent areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To evaluate the Madison Limestone and associated rocks as potential sources for water supplies in the Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, an understanding of the geologic framework of these units, their lithologic facies patterns, the distribution of porosity zones, and the relation between porosity development and stratigraphic facies is necessary. Regionally the Madison is mainly a fossiliferous limestone. However, in broad areas of the eastern Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains, dolomite is a dominant constituent and in places the Madison is almost entirely dolomite. Within these areas maximum porosity development is found and it seems to be related to the coarser crystalline dolomite facies. The porosity development is associated with tabular and fairly continuous crystalline dolomite beds separated by non-porous limestones. The maximum porosity development in the Bighorn Dolomite, as in the Madison, is directly associated with the occurrence of a more coarsely crystalline sucrosic dolomite facies. Well data indicate, however, that where the Bighorn is present in the deeper parts of the Powder River Basin, it may be dominated by a finer crystalline dolomite facies of low porosity. The 'Winnipeg Sandstone' is a clean, generally well-sorted, medium-grained sandstone. It shows good porosity development in parts of the northern Powder River Basin and northwestern South Dakota. Because the sandstone is silica-cemented and quartzitic in areas of deep burial, good porosity is expected only where it is no deeper than a few thousand feet. The Flathead Sandstone is a predominantly quartzose, slightly feldspathic sandstone, commonly cemented with iron oxide. Like the 'Winnipeg Sandstone,' it too is silica-cemented and quartzitic in many places so that its porosity is poor in areas of deep burial. Illustrations in this report show the thickness, percent dolomite, and porosity-feet for the Bighorn Dolomite and the Madison Limestone and its subdivisions. The porosity-feet for the 'Winnipeg' and Flathead Sandstones and four regional geologic sections are also shown.

Peterson, James A.

1978-01-01

207

Activities of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1991-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the water quality of a large part of the Nation's rivers and aquifers and to improve understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect water-quality conditions. In meeting these goals, the program will produce water-quality, ecological, and geographic information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, upon which national-level assessment activities are based. The program's 60 study-unit investigations are associated with principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. Study units encompass areas from 1,200 to more than 65,000 mi2 (square miles) and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the upper Snake River Basin was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for implementation. From 1991 to 1995, a high-intensity data-collection phase of the upper Snake River Basin study unit (fig. 1) was implemented and completed. Components of this phase are described in a report by Gilliom and others (1995). In 1997, a low-intensity phase of data collection began, and work continued on data analysis, report writing, and data documentation and archiving activities that began in 1996. Principal data-collection activities during the low-intensity phase will include monitoring of surface-water and ground-water quality, assessment of aquatic biological conditions, and continued compilation of environmental setting information.

Low, Walton H.

1997-01-01

208

In-place oil shale resources examined by grade in the major basins of the Green River Formation, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a total of 4.285 trillion barrels of oil in-place in the oil shale of the three principal basins of the Eocene Green River Formation. Using oil shale cutoffs of potentially viable (15 gallons per ton) and high grade (25 gallons per ton), it is estimated that between 353 billion and 1.146 trillion barrels of the in-place resource have a high potential for development.

Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

2013-01-01

209

Description of Wyoming coal fields and seam analyses  

SciTech Connect

Introductory material describe coal-bearing areas, coal-bearing rocks, and the structural geology of coal-bearing areas, discussing coal rank, proximate analyses, sulfur content, heat value, trace elements, carbonizing properties, coking coal, coking operations, in-situ gasification, coal mining, and production. The paper then gives descriptions of the coal seams with proximate analyses, where available, located in the following areas: Powder River coal basin, Green River region, Hanna field, Hams Fork coal region, and Bighorn coal basin. Very brief descriptions are given of the Wind River coal basin, Jackson Hole coal field, Black Hills coal region, Rock Creek coal field, and Goshen Hole coal field. Finally coal resources, production, and reserves are discussed. 76 references.

Glass, G.B.

1983-01-01

210

Impact of fracture stratigraphy on the paleo-hydrogeology of the Madison Limestone in two basement-involved folds in the Bighorn basin, (Wyoming, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the study of the Madison Limestone at Sheep Mountain and Rattlesnake Mountain, a unique outcrop dataset including (1) facies and diagenetic analyses, (2) vertical persistence and cement stratigraphy of vein sets and (3) fluid inclusions thermometry are used to demonstrate the impact of folding and fracturing on paleo-hydrogeology. Quantification of the vertical persistence of fractures shows that Sheep Mountain and Rattlesnake Mountain differ by the vertical persistence of the pre-folding Laramide vein sets, which are strictly bed-confined in Sheep Mountain but cut across bedding at Rattlesnake Mountain, whereas the syn-folding veins are through-going in both. The emplacement chronology and the various sources of the fluids responsible for the paragenetic sequence are based on isotope chemistry and fluid inclusions analysis of the matrix and vein cements. At Sheep Mountain and Rattlesnake Mountain, the cements related to the burial are characterized by isotopic signatures of marine formation waters that were diluted during the karstification of the Madison Platform at the end of Mississippian. Meteoric fluids, presumably migrating during the Cenomanian from Wind River Range and Teton Range, recharge zones located in the south-west of the Bighorn Basin, were remobilized in the early bed-confined and through-going syn-folding veins of the Sheep Mountain Anticline. The former vein set drained only local fluids whose isotopic signature relates to an increase of temperature of the meteoric fluids during their migration, whereas the latter set allowed quick drainage of basinal fluids.

Barbier, Mickael; Leprêtre, Rémi; Callot, Jean-Paul; Gasparrini, Marta; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Hamon, Youri; Lacombe, Olivier; Floquet, Marc

2012-11-01

211

Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

Thiagarajan, B.; Bal, Y.; Gage, K.L.; Cully, J.F., Jr.

2008-01-01

212

Water quality and environmental isotopic analyses of ground-water samples collected from the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations in areas of coalbed methane development : implications to recharge and ground-water flow, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses of ground-water samples were evaluated as part of an investigation of lower Tertiary aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin where coalbed methane is being developed. Ground-water samples were collected from two springs discharging from clinker, eight monitoring wells completed in the Wasatch aquifer, and 13 monitoring or coalbed methane production wells completed in coalbed aquifers. The ground-water samples were analyzed for major ions and environmental isotopes (tritium and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen) to characterize the composition of waters in these aquifers, to relate these characteristics to geochemical processes, and to evaluate recharge and ground-water flow within and between these aquifers. This investigation was conducted in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office and the Bureau of Land Management. Water quality in the different aquifers was characterized by major-ion composition. Samples collected from the two springs were classified as calcium-sulfate-type and calcium-bicarbonate-type waters. All ground-water samples from the coalbed aquifers were sodium-bicarbonate-type waters as were five of eight samples collected from the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Potential areal patterns in ionic composition were examined. Ground-water samples collected during this and another investigation suggest that dissolved-solids concentrations in the coalbed aquifers may be lower south of the Belle Fourche River (generally less than 600 milligrams per liter). As ground water in coalbed aquifers flows to the north and northwest away from an inferred source of recharge (clinker in the study area), dissolved-solids concentrations appear to increase. Variation in ionic composition in the vertical dimension was examined qualitatively and statistically within and between aquifers. A relationship between ionic composition and well depth was noted and corroborates similar observations by earlier investigators in the Powder River Basin in both Wyoming and Montana. This relationship results in two different water-quality zones with different characteristics - a shallow zone, comprising the upper part of the Wasatch aquifer, characterized by mixed cation composition and either sulfate or bicarbonate as the dominant anion; and a deeper zone, comprising the lower (deeper) part of the Wasatch aquifer and the underlying coalbed aquifers, characterized by sodium-bicarbonate-type waters. The zonation appears to be related to geochemical processes described by earlier investigators such as dissolution and precipitation of minerals, ion exchange, sulfate reduction, and mixing of waters. Qualitative and statistically significant differences were observed in sulfate concentrations between the coalbed aquifers and the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Ionic composition suggests that bacterially mediated redox processes such as sulfate reduction were probably the dominant geochemical processes in the anaerobic coalbed aquifers. Tritium was used to qualitatively estimate the time of ground-water recharge. Tritium concentrations in both springs suggests that both were recharged after 1952 and contain modern water. Tritium was not detected at concentrations suggestive of modern water in any ground-water samples collected from the coalbed aquifers or in six of eight ground-water samples collected from the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Tritium concentrations in the remaining two wells from the Wasatch aquifer suggest a mixture between submodern (recharged before 1952) and modern water, although the low concentrations suggest that ground water in these two wells have very little modern water. The relative absence of modern water in all aquifers in the study area suggests that recharge processes to these aquifers are probably very slow. Paired d2H (deuterium/hydrogen isotopic ratio) and d18O (oxygen-18/oxygen-16 isotopic ratio) values for samples collected from the springs and all aquifers are close to the Globa

Bartos, Timothy T.; Ogle, Kathy Muller

2002-01-01

213

Assessment of nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in surface water of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, water years 1991-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quality Assessment Program. As part of the investigation, intensive monitoring was conducted during water years 1993 through 1995 to assess surface-water quality in the basin. Sampling and analysis focused on nutrients, suspended sediments, and pesticides because of nationwide interest in these constituents. Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in water samples from 19 sites in the upper Snake River Basin, including nine on the main stem, were assessed. In general, concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment were smaller in water from the 11 sites upstream from American Falls Reservoir than in water from the 8 sites downstream from the reservoir where effects from land-use activities are most pronounced. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen at the 19 sites ranged from less than 0.05 to 1.60 milligrams per liter; total phosphorus as phosphorus, less than 0.01 to 0.11 milligrams per liter; and suspended sediment, 4 to 72 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in the main stem of the Snake River, in general, increased downstream. The largest concentrations in the main stem were in the middle reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and the outlet of the upper Snake River Basin at King Hill. Significant differences (p Nutrient and suspended sediment inputs to the middle Snake reach were from a variety of sources. During water year 1995, springs were the primary source of water and total nitrogen to the river and accounted for 66 and 60 percent of the total input, respectively. Isotope and water-table information indicated that the springs derived most of their nitrogen from agricultural activities along the margins of the Snake River. Aquacultural effluent was a major source of ammonia (82 percent), organic nitrogen (30 percent), and total phosphorus (35 percent). Tributary streams were a major source of organic nitrogen (28 percent) and suspended sediment (58 percent). In proportion to its discharge (less than 1 percent), the Twin Falls sewage-treatment plant was a major source of total phosphorus (13 percent). A comparison of discharge and loading in water year 1995 with estimates of instream transport showed a good correlation (relative difference of less than 15 percent) for discharge, total organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Estimates of dissolved ammonia and suspended sediment loads correlated poorly with instream transport; relative differences were about 79 and 61 percent, respectively. The pesticides EPTC, atrazine, desethylatrazine, metolachlor, and alachlor were the most commonly detected in the upper Snake River Basin and accounted for about 75 percent of all pesticide detections. All pesticides detected were at concentrations less than 1 microgram per liter and below water-quality criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In samples collected from two small agriculturally dominated tributary basins, the largest number and concentrations of pesticides were detected in May and June following early growing season applications. At one of the sites, the pesticide atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine were detected throughout the year. On the basis of 37 samples collected basinwide in May and June 1994, total annual subbasin applications and instantaneous instream fluxes of EPTC and atrazine showed logarithmic relations with coefficients of determination (R2 values) of 0.55 and 0.62, respectively. At the time of sampling, the median daily flux of EPTC was about 0.0001 percent of the annual quantity applied, whereas the median daily flux of atrazine was between 0.001 and 0.01 percent.

Clark, Gregory M.

1997-01-01

214

Analysis of data on nutrients and organic compounds in ground water in the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1980-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground-water quality in the upper Snake River Basin. Nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen; hereafter referred to as nitrate) concentrations exceeded the Federal drinking-water regulation of 10 milligrams per liter in three areas in Idaho" the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the area north of Pocatello (Fort Hall area), and the area surrounding Burley. Water from many wells in the Twin Falls area also contained elevated (greater than two milligrams per liter) nitrate concentrations. Water from domestic wells contained the highest median nitrate concentrations; water from industrial and public supply wells contained the lowest. Nitrate concentrations decreased with increasing well depth, increasing depth to water (unsaturated thickness), and increasing depth below water table (saturated thickness). Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations decreased with increasing well depth and depth below water table. The relation between kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations and depth to water was poor. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations in water from wells were correlated among three hydrogeomorphic regions in the upper Snake River Basin, Concentrations of nitrate were statistically higher in the eastern Snake River Plain and local aquifers than in the tributary valleys. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among the three hydrogeomorphic regions. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations were correlated with land-use classifications developed using the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System. Concentrations of nitrate were statistically higher in area of agricultural land than in areas of rangeland. There was no statistical difference in concentrations between rangeland and urban land and between urban land and agricultural land. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among any of the land-use classifications. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations also were correlated with land-use classifications developed by the Idaho Department of Water Resources for the Idaho part of the upper Snake River Basin. Nitrate concentrations were statistically higher in areas of irrigated agriculture than in areas of dryland agriculture and rangeland. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among any of the Idaho Department of Water Resources land-use classifications. Data were sufficient to assess long-term trends of nitrate concentrations in water from only eight wells: four wells north of Burley and four wells northwest of Pocatello. The trend in nitrate concentrations in water from all wells in upward. The following organic compounds were detected in ground water in the upper Snake River Basin: cyanazine, 2,4-D DDT, dacthal, diazinon, dichloropropane, dieldrin, malathion, and metribuzin. Of 211 wells sampled for organic compounds, water from 17 contained detectable concentrations.

Rupert, Michael G.

1994-01-01

215

Chemical and stable isotopic composition of water and gas in the Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Evidence for water/rock interaction and the biogenic origin of coalbed natural gas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Significant amounts (> 36 million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, ?DH2O and ?18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and ?DCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na–HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median < 1 mg/L) and little or no dissolved oxygen (< 0.15 mg/L), whereas shallow groundwater (depth generally < 120 m) is a mixed Ca–Mg–Na–SO4–HCO3 type; (2) water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation–reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270–3310 mg/L) and low SO4 (median < 0.15 mg/L) values; (4) fractionation between ?DCH4 (? 283 to ? 328 per mil) and ?DH2O (? 121 to ? 167 per mil) indicates that the production of methane is primarily by biogenic CO2 reduction; and (5) values of ?DH2O and ?18OH2O (? 16 to ? 22 per mil) have a wide range of values and plot near or above the global meteoric water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

Rice, Cynthia A.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Ellis, Margaret S.

2008-01-01

216

Chemical and stable isotopic evidence for water/rock interaction and biogenic origin of coalbed methane, Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana U.S.A  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Significant amounts (> 36??million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, ??DH2O and ??18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and ??DCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na-HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median < 1??mg/L) and little or no dissolved oxygen (< 0.15??mg/L), whereas shallow groundwater (depth generally < 120??m) is a mixed Ca-Mg-Na-SO4-HCO3 type; (2) water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation-reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270-3310??mg/L) and low SO4 (median < 0.15??mg/L) values; (4) fractionation between ??DCH4 (- 283 to - 328 per mil) and ??DH2O (- 121 to - 167 per mil) indicates that the production of methane is primarily by biogenic CO2 reduction; and (5) values of ??DH2O and ??18OH2O (- 16 to - 22 per mil) have a wide range of values and plot near or above the global meteoric water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

Rice, C.A.; Flores, R.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.

2008-01-01

217

Wyoming State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.

218

Irish Association of Social Care Educator's Lifetime Achievement Award Presentation to John Hanna  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the speech of Dr. Nial McElwee on his presentation of the Lifetime Achievement Award to John Hanna, formerly Director of St. Augustine's Special School in Limerick City, Ireland. Hanna provided excellent supervision and nurturing to the educators and practitioners of child and youth care. He is a constant advocate for change…

McElwee, Niall

2007-01-01

219

Impact of fracture stratigraphy on the paleohydrogeology of the Madison limestone in two basement involved folds in the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the study of the Madison Limestone at Sheep Mountain and Rattlesnake Mountain, a unique outcrop dataset including (1) facies and diagenenitc analyses, (2) vertical persistence and cement stratigraphy of vein sets and (3) fluid inclusions thermometry are used to demonstrate (i) the importance of the eo-diagenetic phases on reservoirs petrophysical and mechanical properties, and (ii) the impact of folding and fracturing on paleo-hydrogeology. The different phases of porosity and permeability development of the carbonates of the Madison Limestone occurred mainly during the syn-depositional eogenesis, the postponed eogenesis (reflux of brine during LFS3) and during the karstification at the end of the Mississippian. The early sealing by the Amsden Formation during the Early Pennsylvanian, limited the vertical exchanges and initiated the confinement of the Madison "aquifer". The burial of the Madison Limestone leaded to the occlusion of the pore network due to the calcite cementation in the distal parts of the platform whereas it leaded to the pore network development due to the crystallization of dolomite in proximal parts. Quantification of the vertical persistence of fractures shows that Sheep Mountain and Rattlesnake Mountain differ by the vertical persistence of the pre-folding Laramide vein sets, which are strictly bed-confined in Sheep Mountain but cut across bedding at Rattlesnake Mountain, whereas the syn-folding veins are through-going in both. The emplacement chronology and the various sources of the fluids responsible for the paragenetic sequence are based on isotope chemistry and fluid inclusions analysis of the matrix and vein cements. At Sheep Mountain and Rattlesnake Mountain, the two cements related to the burial are characterized by isotopic signatures of marine formation waters that were diluted during the karstification of the Madison Platform at the end of Mississippian. Meteoric fluids, presumably migrating during the Cenomanian from Wind River Range and Teton Range, recharge zones located in the south-west of the Bighorn Basin, were remobilized in the early bed-confined and through-going syn-folding veins of the Sheep Mountain Anticline. The former vein set drained only local fluids whose isotopic signature relates to an increase of temperature of the meteoric fluids during their migration, whereas the latter set allowed quick drainage of basinal fluids.

Barbier, Mickael; Leprêtre, Rémi; Hamon, Youri; Callot, Jean-Paul; Gasparrini, Marta; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Lacombe, Olivier

2013-04-01

220

Castle Geyser and Bobby Sox Trees: Pulses and Pauses in the Development of Hydrothermal Features in the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary 14-C dating of Castle Geyser, combined with observations of living and dead trees in hydrothermal areas, suggests that hydrothermal systems in Yellowstone have pulses of activity interspersed with pauses of little or no activity. Between the time scale of volcanic activity, with pulses and pauses over thousands to hundreds of thousands of years, and geyser eruptions, with pulses and pauses over minutes to decades, lies the time scale for pulses and pauses in the development of individual hydrothermal systems and large thermal basins. Castle Geyser has long been noted as being among the largest, and therefore probably oldest, geysers in Yellowstone. Watson (1961) proposed an age of 8000 years for the geyser cone, and Bryan (2001) suggested that it is 5000 to 15000 years old. Recent dating, accompanied by 3-D laser mapping, suggests a complex, multi- stage development of the geyser. AMS 14C dating of microbial and pollen carbon trapped in siliceous sinter that forms a broad, gently-sloping shield at the base of the geyser cone yields ages of 8787 +/- 60 years BP and 10472 +/- 70 years BP. Carbon from sinter on the cone of the geyser yields ages equal to or younger than 1038 +/- 35 years BP. No samples dated so far have ages between 8787 and 1038 years BP. The morphology of the geyser suggests that the pause after shield formation was followed at least one stage of terrace formation (from either hot spring or pool-type geyser activity), which in turn has been followed by the construction and partial destruction of a massive cone. Where thermal waters are high in silica, thermally killed trees may develop white lower trunks, informally known as "bobby sox." Forest growth implies a time of no thermal activity; forest death, where clear evidence of thermal activity exists, implies inception or rejuvenation of hydrothermal activity. Many thermal features, such as Castle and Old Faithful geysers, have evidence of trees that are now encrusted by silica. The duration from initial tree kill to complete desiccation may be long enough to provide a useful chronometer for thermal activity. The 14C date of a small bobby sox tree near Gem Pool in the Upper Geyser Basin yielded an age of 190 years BP. The pulses and pauses documented by 14C dating of Castle Geyser, and observed in the nature of tree growth and subsequent hydrothermal kill, may be combined to develop a chronology of hydrothermal activity which, when combined with other data sets, may help provide clues to deeper processes in the Yellowstone caldera.

Foley, D.

2007-12-01

221

Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final report for the period October 1992--October 1993  

SciTech Connect

Badger Basin Field, discovered in 1931, produces at stripper rates from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Only 15% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. This project will increase recoverable reserves through a better understanding of the reservoir and factors which control production. Characterization of the reservoir has been accomplished through an integrated engineering, geological and geophysical approach. Production data, drilling and completion techniques, and relative location of wells on the anticline were reviewed and related to productivity. Literature was reviewed for interpretations on preferred flow directions on anticlinal structures. A structure map of the producing Frontier reservoir was constructed. Porosity development and its relationship to fracture networks was examined petrographically. Fractures in core were described and oriented using paleomagnetic techniques. Azimuths of fractures in outcrop were compared to fracture azimuths measured in the core. A 17 square-mile 3D seismic survey was designed, acquired and processed. Interpretation is being performed on a Sun workstation using Landmark Graphics software. Time-structure and amplitude-distribution maps will be constructed on three Frontier horizons. A location for a high-angle well will be chosen. The slant/horizontal test will be drilled and completed to increase recovery of reserves. Transfer of successful technologies will be accomplished by technical publications and presentations, and access to project materials, data, and field facilities.

Walker, J.P.; Fortmann, R.G.

1994-12-01

222

Wyoming Indians, Unit II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the land.…

Robinson, Terry

223

Wyoming: Jackson Hole  

article title:  Green Knoll Forest Fire     View Larger Image ... the area around Jackson Hole, Wyoming, where the Green Knoll forest fire has raged for many days. Due to the year's low humidity, ... the Grand Teton National Park and Bridger-Teton National Forest Interagency Fire Management Office announced a high risk for the area. ...

2014-05-15

224

Wyoming Government, Unit VII.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit on Wyoming government presents concepts, activities, and stories for elementary school students. Concepts stress that the functions of government are determined according to the demands, needs, and traditions of the people; each part of government has a special function; as citizens, we should be loyal to the underlying concepts of our…

Robinson, Terry

225

Avulsion Clusters in Alluvial Systems: An Example of Large-Scale Self-Organization in Ancient and Experimental Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratigraphic record of at least some alluvial basins exhibits a spatial structure that may reflect long time- scale (103-105 yr in natural basins) autogenic organization of river avulsions. Current models of avulsion-dominated alluvial sequences emphasize the spatial and temporal distribution of coarse-grained channel-belt deposits amid fine-grained floodplain materials. These models typically assume that individual avulsions move, either randomly or deterministically, to low spots distributed throughout the model space. However, our observations of ancient deposits and experimental stratigraphy indicate a previously unrecognized pattern of channel-belt organization, where clusters of closely-spaced channel-belt deposits are separated from each other by extensive intervals of overbank deposits. We explore potential causes of and controls on avulsion clustering with outcrop and subsurface data from Late Cretaceous/Early Paleogene fluvial deposits in the Rocky Mountains (including the Ferris, Lance, and Fort Union formations of Wyoming) and results of physical stratigraphy experiments from the St. Anthony Falls Lab, University of Minnesota. We use Ripley's K-function to determine the degree and scales of clustering in these basins with results that show moderate statistical clustering in experimental deposits and strong clustering in the Ferris Formation (Hanna Basin, Wyoming). External controls (base level, subsidence rate, and sediment/water supplies) were not varied during the experiment, and therefore not factors in cluster formation. Likewise, the stratigraphic context of the ancient system (including the absence of incised valleys and lack of faulting) suggests that obvious extrinsic controls, such as base level change and local tectonics, were not major influences on the development of clusters. We propose that avulsion clusters, as seen in this study, reflect a scale of self-organization in alluvial basins that is not usually recognized in stratigraphy. However cursory examination of other ancient systems suggests that such structure may be common in the rock record. Understanding mechanisms driving avulsion clustering will shed light on the dominant processes in alluvial basins over long time scales. Furthermore, characterizing autogenic avulsion clusters will be an important factor to consider when interpreting allogenic signals in ancient basin fills.

Hajek, E.; Heller, P.; Huzurbazar, S.; Sheets, B.; Paola, C.

2006-12-01

226

Analysis of nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1980-98, National Water-Quality Assessment Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1995, ground water was the source of drinking water to about 52 percent of the population served by public drinking water systems in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit, which includes parts of Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming. Existing nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water collected in the study unit were compiled and summarized as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s objective to describe water-quality conditions in the Nation?s aquifers. Prerequisites for the inclusion of nitrate and volatile organic compound data into this retrospective analysis are that the data set is available in electronic form, the data were collected during 1980-98, the data set is somewhat regional in coverage, and the locations of the sampled sites are known. Ground-water data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Information Systemand the Idaho and Utah Public DrinkingWater Systems databases were reviewed. Only the most recent analysis was included in the data sets if more than one analysis was available for a site. The National Water Information System data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 480 wells. The median concentration of nitratewas 1.30 milligrams per liter for the 388 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was exceeded in water from 10 of the 200 wells less than or equal to 150 feet deep and in water from3 of 280 wells greater than 150 feet deep. The Public Drinking Water Systems data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 587 wells. The median concentration of nitrate was 1.12 milligrams per liter for the 548 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate was exceeded at 1 site and 22 sites had concentrations equal to or greater than 5 milligrams per liter. The types of land use surrounding a well and the well depth were related to measured nitrate concentrations in the sampled ground water. Overall, water sampled from wells in rangeland areas had a lowermedianmeasured nitrate concentration (0.76 milligrams per liter) than water from areas with an agricultural or urban/residential land use (1.41 and 1.20 milligrams per liter, respectively). In the NationalWater Information System data set, the median measured nitrate concentration in water from urban/residential areas varied from 1.00 milligrams per liter for wells greater than 150 feet deep to 1.84 milligrams per liter for wells less than or equal to 150 feet deep. The Public DrinkingWater Systems and the National Water Information System data sets contained analyses for most of the State and Federally regulated volatile organic compounds in water from about 368 and 74 wells, respectively. Fifteen different volatile organic compounds were detected at least once in ground water sampled from the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit. Water from 21 wells contained at least 1 volatile organiccompound at detectable concentrations. About 68 percent of the volatile organic compounds detected were in water sampled from wells in Salt Lake County, Utah. Tetrachloroethylene was the most commonly detected volatile organic compound in ground water sampled from the study unit, present in 8 out of 442 samples. Maximum contaminant levels for tetrachloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were exceeded in water from one well each.

Thiros, Susan A.

2000-01-01

227

Characterization and modes of occurrence of elements in feed coal and coal combustion products from a power plant utilizing low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana utility company to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products from a coal-fired power plant. The Indiana power plant utilizes a low-sulfur (0.23 to 0.47 weight percent S) and lowash (4.9 to 6.3 weight percent ash) subbituminous coal from the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Based on scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of feed coal samples, two mineral suites were identified: (1) a primary or detrital suite consisting of quartz (including beta-form grains), biotite, feldspar, and minor zircon; and (2) a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The primary mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be of volcanic origin, whereas the authigenic mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be the result of the alteration of the volcanic minerals. The mineral suites have contributed to the higher amounts of barium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, strontium, and titanium in the Powder River Basin feed coals in comparison to eastern coals. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that (1) fly ash is mostly aluminate glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals; and (2) bottom ash is predominantly quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite, and spinel group minerals. Microprobe and scanning electron microscope analyses of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, and monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, wollastonite, and periclase. The abundant calcium and magnesium mineral phases in the fly ash are attributed to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal and their alteration to new phases during combustion. The amorphous diffraction-scattering maxima or glass 'hump' appears to reflect differences in chemical composition of fly ash and bottom ash glasses. In Wyodak-Anderson fly and bottom ashes, the center point of scattering maxima is due to calcium and magnesium content, whereas the glass 'hump' of eastern fly ash reflects variation in aluminum content. The calcium- and magnesium-rich and alumino-phosphate mineral phases in the coal combustion products can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in peat-forming mires. Dissolution and alteration of these detrital volcanic minerals occurred either in the peat-forming stage or during coalification and diagenesis, resulting in the authigenic mineral suite. The presence of free lime (CaO) in fly ash produced from Wyodak-Anderson coal acts as a self-contained 'scrubber' for SO3, where CaO + SO3 form anhydrite either during combustion or in the upper parts of the boiler. Considering the high lime content in the fly ash and the resulting hydration reactions after its contact with water, there is little evidence that major amounts of leachable metals are mobilized in the disposal or utilization of this fly ash.

Brownfield, Michael E.; Cathcart, James D.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Rice, Cynthia A.; O'Connor, Joseph T.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Bullock, John H., Jr.; Hower, James C.; Meeker, Gregory P.

2005-01-01

228

A new Wyoming phytosaur  

E-print Network

THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS August, 1965 Paper 2 A NEW WYOMING PHYTOSAUR By THEODORE H. EATON, JR. [Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas I ABSTRACT The skull of a new species of Angistorhinus, family... fenestrae long and spindle-shaped, skull roof of medium height and broadly curved. The skull, including palate, is complete except for part of the roof. INTRODUCTION The phytosaurs are a suborder, Parasuchia, of large semiaquatic thecodont reptiles known...

Eaton, T. H., Jr.

1965-08-01

229

Reflections on the work of Hanna Segal (1918-2011).  

PubMed

This paper is based on a talk given at the conference to celebrate the Work of Hanna Segal and attempts to summarise her contribution to psychoanalysis. I suggest that in addition to being the important presenter of the work of Melanie Klein, she made major contributions to our understanding of many analytic ideas, for example, symbol formation, the usefulness of the concept of the death instinct and the relation between phantasy and reality. She was a pioneer in the analytic treatment of psychosis and sh wrote important papers on literature and aesthetics. She was a great teacher and emphasised the central role played by the analytic setting in representing the attitude of the analyst. PMID:25229672

Steiner, John

2014-09-17

230

Water Resources of Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S Geological Survey (USGS) website contains water data including water quality samples and water use data, information on USGS projects, links to USGS educational sites, and a bibliography of USGS water resource publications. Projects and studies covered include: the Wyoming Drought Watch, which contains maps of daily streamflow conditions and historical streamflow data; algal-nutrient relations in the Yellowstone River; county water resource studies; estimating peak-streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites; the Integrating Aquatic Ecosystem Data project of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP); an aquifer; water-quality issues associated with irrigation drainage; watershed delineation; urban hydrology; and a pathogen indicator synoptic study.

231

Expansion and Enhacement of the Wyoming Coalbed Methane Clearinghouse Website to the Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse.  

SciTech Connect

Energy development is expanding across the United States, particularly in western states like Wyoming. Federal and state land management agencies, local governments, industry and non-governmental organizations have realized the need to access spatially-referenced data and other non-spatial information to determine the geographical extent and cumulative impacts of expanding energy development. The Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse (WERIC) is a web-based portal which centralizes access to news, data, maps, reports and other information related to the development, management and conservation of Wyomingâ??s diverse energy resources. WERIC was established in 2006 by the University of Wyomingâ??s Ruckelshaus Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) and the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center (WyGISC) with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The WERIC web portal originated in concept from a more specifically focused website, the Coalbed Methane (CBM) Clearinghouse. The CBM Clearinghouse effort focused only on coalbed methane production within the Powder River Basin of northeast Wyoming. The CBM Clearinghouse demonstrated a need to expand the effort statewide with a comprehensive energy focus, including fossil fuels and renewable and alternative energy resources produced and/or developed in Wyoming. WERIC serves spatial data to the greater Wyoming geospatial community through the Wyoming GeoLibrary, the WyGISC Data Server and the Wyoming Energy Map. These applications are critical components that support the Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse (WERIC). The Wyoming GeoLibrary is a tool for searching and browsing a central repository for metadata. It provides the ability to publish and maintain metadata and geospatial data in a distributed environment. The WyGISC Data Server is an internet mapping application that provides traditional GIS mapping and analysis functionality via the web. It is linked into various state and federal agency spatial data servers allowing users to visualize multiple themes, such as well locations and core sage grouse areas, in one domain. Additionally, this application gives users the ability to download any of the data being displayed within the web map. The Wyoming Energy Map is the newest mapping application developed directly from this effort. With over a 100 different layers accessible via this mapping application, it is the most comprehensive Wyoming energy mapping application available. This application also provides the public with the ability to create cultural and wildlife reports based on any location throughout Wyoming and at multiple scales. The WERIC website also allows users to access links to federal, state, and local natural resource agency websites and map servers; research documents about energy; and educational information, including information on upcoming energy-relate conferences. The WERIC website has seen significant use by energy industry consultants, land management agencies, state and local decision-makers, non-governmental organizations and the public. Continued service to these sectors is desirable but some challenges remain in keeping the WERIC site viable. The most pressing issue is finding the human and financial resources to keep the site continually updated. Initially, the concept included offering users the ability to maintain the site themselves; however, this has proven not to be a viable option since very few people contributed. Without user contributions, the web page relied on already committed university staff to publish and link to the appropriate documents and web-pages. An option that is currently being explored to address this issue is development of a partnership with the University of Wyoming, School of Energy Resources (SER). As part of their outreach program, SER may be able to contribute funding for a full-time position dedicated to maintenance of WERIC.

Hulme, Diana; Hamerlinck, Jeffrey; Bergman, Harold; Oakleaf, Jim

2010-03-26

232

National uranium resource evaluation: Sheridan Quadrangle, Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

The Sheridan Quadrangle of north-central Wyoming was evaluated for uranium favorability according to specific criteria of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Procedures consisted of geologic and radiometric surveys; rock, water, and sediment sampling; studying well logs; and reviewing the literature. Five favorable environments were identified. These include portions of Eocene Wasatch and Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Powder River Basin and Lower Cretaceous Pryor sandstones of the Bighorn Basin. Unfavorable environments include all Precambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Permian, Triassic, and Middle Jurassic rocks; the Cretaceous Thermopolis, Mowry, Cody, Meeteetse, and Bearpaw Formations; the Upper Jurassic Sundance and Morrison, the Cretaceous Frontier, Meseverde, Lance, and the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Willwood Formations of the Bighorn Basin; the Wasatch Formation of the Powder River Basin, excluding two favorable areas and all Oligocene and Miocene rocks. Remaining rocks are unevaluated.

Damp, J N; Jennings, M D

1982-04-01

233

Results of Phase 2 postburn drilling, coring, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute's Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed during the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. A detailed description of Phase 1 results was presented in a separate report (Lindblom et al. 1990). Phase 2, completed during the summer of 1990, was designed to complete the seven objectives; more specifically, to further define the areal extent and location of the cavities, to evaluate the outflow channels for both modules, and to further characterize the structural geology in the ELW module area.

Oliver, R.L.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

1991-02-01

234

Results of Phase 2 postburn drilling, coring, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute`s Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed during the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. A detailed description of Phase 1 results was presented in a separate report (Lindblom et al. 1990). Phase 2, completed during the summer of 1990, was designed to complete the seven objectives; more specifically, to further define the areal extent and location of the cavities, to evaluate the outflow channels for both modules, and to further characterize the structural geology in the ELW module area.

Oliver, R.L.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

1991-02-01

235

Wyoming Community College Commission Annual Report, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC) collaborates with Wyoming's seven community colleges to provide educational experiences that strengthen, support and enrich communities and prepare students to successfully meet life's challenges and recognize and profit from opportunities. Wyoming's seven community colleges provide affordable,…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2009

2009-01-01

236

OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado,  

E-print Network

26-1 OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri, all embraced in the drainage basin-8 Environmental Page 24. Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, Lowe Brule Sioux Tribe and State of South Dakota Terrestrial

US Army Corps of Engineers

237

WILDLIFE MITIGATION TECHNIQUES AT SURFACE COAL MINES IN NORTHEAST WYOMING1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife issues at surface coal mines in the Powder River Basin of northeast Wyoming have been a topic of discussion since operations first began in the early 1970s. Since then, wildlife monitoring and mitigation programs have evolved to address changing concerns, and incorporate new information and techniques. Over the last 26 years, biologists with Thunderbird - Jones & Stokes (J&S)

Gwyn McKee

238

Aerodynamic roughness parameters for semi-arid natural shrub communities of Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of aerodynamic roughness length (z0) were calculated at nine sites for natural sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp.), saltbush (Atriplex nuttallii) and greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus) plant communities in two semi-arid basins in Wyoming, USA. Estimates were based on wind and temperature profiles measured above the plant canopies during summer (August) of 1994 and fall (September and October) of 1995. Values of

Kenneth L. Driese; William A. Reiners

1997-01-01

239

Soil CO2 production in upland tundra where permafrost is thawing Hanna Lee,1,2  

E-print Network

Soil CO2 production in upland tundra where permafrost is thawing Hanna Lee,1,2 Edward A. G. Schuur to understand the response of belowground C emissions for different soil depths from upland tundra as a result moist acidic tundra and highest where thawing of permafrost and thermokarst was most pronounced. We were

Wagner, Diane

240

Analysis of Duration Prediction Accuracy in HMM-Based Speech Synthesis Hanna Siln1  

E-print Network

database, and further, for generating speech representations cor- responding to the input phoneme sequencesAnalysis of Duration Prediction Accuracy in HMM-Based Speech Synthesis Hanna Silén1 , Elina speech synthesis. In hidden Markov model-based text-to- speech (HMM-TTS), durations are typically modeled

Gabbouj, Moncef

241

Conflict, fear, and social identity in Nagaland Hanna Zagefka & Limabenla Jamir  

E-print Network

Holloway University of London Correspondence address: Dr. Hanna Zagefka Dept. of Psychology Royal Holloway of this paper is to test psychological theories about intergroup conflict and identity processes, whilst also-being. The impact of armed conflict on physical and psychological health has received notably less attention than

Royal Holloway, University of London

242

Elimination of Orientation in Perfluorinated Ionomer J.A. Elliott, S. Hanna  

E-print Network

Elimination of Orientation in Perfluorinated Ionomer Membranes J.A. Elliott, S. Hanna H. H. Wills on microstructural orientation in the perfluorinated ionomer membrane, Nafion® (registered trademark of E. I. du Pont. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 46:228­234, 2006. © 2005 Society of Plastics Engineers INTRODUCTION Perfluorinated

Elliott, James

243

In Defense of Hanna and the "Expanding Communities" Approach to Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1930s and 1940s Paul R. Hanna advocated, for the elementary and junior high school student, a multidisciplinary, wholistic, and coordinated study of people in communities. This paper presents a defense of this approach to social studies, and shows how it can be adapted to include new teaching techniques. (Author/RM)

Baskerville, Roger A.; Sesow, F. William

1976-01-01

244

HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE SUCCESSION OF HURRICANES IN 2008: GUSTAV, HANNA, AND IKE  

E-print Network

HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE SUCCESSION OF HURRICANES IN 2008: GUSTAV, HANNA, AND IKE W. Lin of Atlantic hurricanes in August-September 2008 is used to assess the ability of the Weather Research and the eastern United States. The succession of the hurricanes in observation developed from either local

245

BIOSTRATIGRAPHY, EASTERN ROCK SPRINGS UPLIFT, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

conducted palynological studies of outcrop sections in the region, which established the biostratigraphic Tertiary in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming: Palynology, v. 2, p. 93-112. 1999 Resource assessment

246

Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

247

Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Final technical report, September 15, 1993--October 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This multidisciplinary study was designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal was accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, and depositional regional frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts were aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focused on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work establishes new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in wellbore scale damage. This task was accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends the at field scale; and chemical modeling of both the experimental and reservoir systems.

Dunn, T.L.

1996-10-01

248

Acid precipitation in southeastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Snowfall, snowpack, and rainfall samples were collected in Laramie, Wyoming and in the Snowy Range west of Laramie from March to June 1981 to determine the occurrence and sources of acid precipitation in southeast Wyoming. Electrodes measured different pH values in the samples; however, fast-response electrodes yielded higher and apparently more accurate pH measurements. The pH values in the Laramie precipitation and snowpack were typically greater than 5.0, but all the Snowy Range snowpack pH values were less than 5.0. The lower pH values in the Snowy Range snowpack were caused by higher concentrations of the acid-forming nitrate and lower concentrations of the neutralizing calcium. Two organic species, formate and acetate, were detected in the Laramie samples, but had no significant influence on the acidity of the samples. 33 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

Ahern, J.; Baird, C.

1983-09-01

249

Wyoming DOE EPSCoR  

SciTech Connect

All of the research and human resource development projects were systemic in nature with real potential for becoming self sustaining. They concentrated on building permanent structure, such as faculty expertise, research equipment, the SEM Minority Center, and the School of Environment and Natural Resources. It was the intent of the DOE/EPSCoR project to permanently change the way Wyoming does business in energy-related research, human development for science and engineering careers, and in relationships between Wyoming industry, State Government and UW. While there is still much to be done, the DOE/EPSCoR implementation award has been successful in accomplishing that change and enhancing UW's competitiveness associated with coal utilization, electrical energy efficiency, and environmental remediation.

Gern, W.A.

2004-01-15

250

University of Wyoming Digital Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 2002, the University of Wyoming's Digital Initiatives program has been crafting carefully considered collections from their vast storehouse of historical ephemera. The Initiative is a member of the Collaborative Digitization Program, and they have worked on projects such as the Rocky Mountain Online Archive and the Wyoming Memory Portal. This site provides access to all of their digital collections, which include document archives related to the career of noted historian and national activist Grace Raymond Hebard and the travels of Thomas Kennet-Were, an English gentleman who wandered across the United States and Canada in 1868 and 1869. Visitors can search through all of the collections here as they see fit, and educators will also want to click on over to the "Teacher Resources" area for a selection of high quality lesson plans and activities.

251

Cretaceous biostratigraphy in the Wyoming thrust belt.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Cretaceous section of the thrust belt, fossils are especially useful for dating and correlating repetitive facies of different ages in structurally complex terrain. The biostratigraphic zonation for the region is based on megafossils (chiefly ammonites) , which permit accurate dating and correlation of outcrop sections, and which have been calibrated with the radiometric time scale for the Western Interior. Molluscan and vertebrate zone fossils are difficult to obtain from the subsurface, however, and ammonites are restricted to rocks of marine origin. Palynomorphs (plant microfossils) have proven to be the most valuable fossils in the subsurface because they can be recovered from drill cuttings. Palynomorphs also are found in both marine and nonmarine rocks and can be used for correlation between facies. Stratigraphic ranges of selected Cretaceous marine and nonmarine palynomorphs in previously designated reference sections in Fossil Basin, Wyoming are correlated with the occurrence of ammonites and other zone fossils in the same sections. These correlations can be related to known isotopic ages, and they contribute to the calibration of palynomorph ranges in the Cretaceous of the Western Interior. -from Authors

Nichols, D.J.; Jacobson, S.R.

1982-01-01

252

Surface Geometry of C60 on Ag(111) K. J. Hanna,1  

E-print Network

Surface Geometry of C60 on Ag(111) H. I. Li,1 K. Pussi,2 K. J. Hanna,1 L.-L. Wang,3 D. D. Johnson,3 Kingdom (Received 16 April 2009; published 27 July 2009) The geometry of adsorbed C60 influences its the geometry of a C60 monolayer, Agð111�-ð2 ffiffiffi 3 p � 2 ffiffiffi 3 p �30-C60, and related density

Curtarolo, Stefano

253

Excess energies of n-and i-octane molecular clusters Hanna Vehkamakia)  

E-print Network

­7 the number of molecules of n-octane, nn* , in the critical cluster is given by nn* ln J ln Sn Si ,T ln J0 ln Sn Si ,T , 1 and a similar equation provides a relation between ni* , the number of molecules of i-octaneExcess energies of n- and i-octane molecular clusters Hanna Vehkama¨kia) and Ian J. Ford Department

Ford, Ian

254

76 FR 80310 - Wyoming Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation...requirements of this Act * * *; and rules...pursuant to this Act.'' See 30 U...OSM identified in response to Wyoming's formally...adding the term ``surface'' back into Wyoming's...the 1:24,000 scale requirement...

2011-12-23

255

78 FR 13004 - Wyoming Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation...requirements of this Act * * *; and rules...pursuant to this Act.'' See 30 U...OSM identified in response to Wyoming's formally...Adding the term ``surface'' back into Wyoming's...the 1:24,000 scale requirement...

2013-02-26

256

40 CFR 81.351 - Wyoming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. Wyoming—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...Entire State X Wyoming—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2010-07-01

257

SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING  

E-print Network

SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING US EPA Project Meeting April 7 2011April 7, 2011/Titan Uranium, VP Development · Deborah LebowAal/EPA Region 8 Air Program Introduction to Titan Uranium USA;PROJECT OVERVIEW ·Site Location·Site Location ·Fremont , Wyoming ·Existing Uranium Mine Permit 381C

258

Sedimentary facies and reservoir characteristics of Cretaceous J Sandstone at Torrington field (North), Goshen County, Wyoming, exploration and development implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torrington field (North) is productive from the Lower Cretaceous J sandstone in the Wyoming portion of the Denver basin. The trapping mechanism is stratigraphic, with reservoir sandstones enveloped laterally and updip by shale-dominated lithofacies. The field has produced 13,000 bbl of oil from two wells since its discovery in late 1981. Three major sedimentary environments and their associated facies, characteristic

D. L. Mikesh; R. F. Lafollette

1983-01-01

259

Agricultural land-use classification using landsat imagery data, and estimates of irrigation water use in Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, and Minidoka counties, 1992 water year, Upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin study unit, land- and water-use data were used to describe activities that have potential effects on water quality, including biological conditions, in the basin. Land-use maps and estimates of water use by irrigated agriculture were needed for Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, and Minidoka Counties (south-central Idaho), four of the most intensively irrigated counties in the study unit. Land use in the four counties was mapped from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery data for the 1992 water year using the SPECTRUM computer program. Land-use data were field verified in 108 randomly selected sections (640 acres each); results compared favorably with land-use maps from other sources. Water used for irrigation during the 1992 water year was estimated using land-use and ancillary data. In 1992, a drought year, estimated irrigation withdrawals in the four counties were about 2.9 million acre-feet of water. Of the 2.9 million acre-feet, an estimated 2.12 million acre-feet of water was withdrawn from surface water, mainly the Snake River, and nearly 776,000 acre-feet was withdrawn from ground water. One-half of the 2.9 million acre-feet of water withdrawn for irrigation was considered to be lost during conveyance or was returned to the Snake River; the remainder was consumptively used by crops during the growing season.

Maupin, Molly A.

1997-01-01

260

Preliminary Assessment of Burrowing Owl Population Status in Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, little is known about Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) abundance in Wyoming. The Wyoming Game and Fish Department (WCFD) classifies the Burrowing Owl as a Species of Special Concern. We identified available data sources to assess Burrowing Owl distribution and population trends in Wyoming and conducted a population survey in eastern Wyoming. The WGFD's Wildlife Observation System (WOS), initiated in

NICOLE M. KORFANTA; LOREN W. AYERS; STANLEY H. ANDERSON; DAVID B. MCDONALD

2001-01-01

261

Two Traditions in the Social Studies Curriculum for the Elementary Grades: The Textbooks of Paul R. Hanna and Harold O. Rugg  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 1920s and 1930s, Paul R. Hanna and Harold O. Rugg developed new textbooks that integrated social studies curriculum in the elementary grades for the first time. Each author's curriculum; Hanna's expanding environments framework and Rugg's recurring concepts with a focus on contemporary issues has significantly impacted today's elementary…

Bisland, Beverly Milner

2009-01-01

262

A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN,  

E-print Network

Chapter SB A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN, WYOMING assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U...........................................................................................................................SB-1 Coal Production History

263

Seismic exploration for oil and gas traps in Wind River Basin: a Laramide example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wind River Basin in central Wyoming is typical of the large sedimentary and structural basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain region during the Laramide deformation in latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary times. Northeast-southwest-oriented seismic profiles across the Wind River basin and flanking Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains illustrate the structural configuration and correspondent stratigraphic development of a typical

R. R. Ray; W. R. Keefer

1985-01-01

264

POPO AGIE PRIMITIVE AREA, WYOMING.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource appraisal was made of the Popo Agie Primitive Area and some adjoining lands. This scenic mountainous region of the Wind River Range in west-central Wyoming is composed largely of ancient granitic rocks in which virtually no evidence of mineral deposits was found. Deep crustal seismic-reflection profiles obtained across the southern Wind River Range suggest the possibility that young sedimentary rocks, similar to those at the surface along the northeast flank of the range, are present at depth beneath the granite in the Popo Agie primitive Area. If present, such buried sedimentary rocks could be petroleum bearing. Additional seismic and gravity studies would probably add valuable information, but ultimately very expensive, very deep drilling will be necessary to test this possibility.

Pearson, Robert C.; Patten, L.L.

1984-01-01

265

Hydrology of the Bear Lake Basin, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bear Lake’s natural watershed is made up of relatively low mountains covered with sagebrush at lower elevations and southern exposures and fir-aspen forests at higher elevations and northern exposures. The basin is traversed by the Bear River that begins high in the Unita Mountains and flows through Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming before feeding the Great Salt Lake. The Bear River

Patsy Palacios; Chris Luecke; Justin Robinson

2007-01-01

266

77 FR 34894 - Wyoming Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement...Wyoming program) and its coal rules and regulations...regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations...regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation...

2012-06-12

267

Original Article Burning and Mowing Wyoming Big  

E-print Network

, WY 82071, USA ABSTRACT Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis) treatments are often Artemisia tridentata, Centrocercus urophasianus, early brood-rearing, greater sage-grouse, habitat man sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) has generally been conducted to restore or enhance sagebrush communities

Beck, Jeffrey L.

268

30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 950.30...WYOMING § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan, as...

2011-07-01

269

30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 950.30...WYOMING § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan, as...

2013-07-01

270

30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 950.30...WYOMING § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan, as...

2012-07-01

271

30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

...2014-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 950.30...WYOMING § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan, as...

2014-07-01

272

30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 950.30...WYOMING § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan, as...

2010-07-01

273

Effect of Hyperconjugation on Ionization Energies of Hydroxyalkyl Radicals Boris Karpichev, Hanna Reisler, Anna I. Krylov, and Kadir Diri*  

E-print Network

Effect of Hyperconjugation on Ionization Energies of Hydroxyalkyl Radicals Boris Karpichev, Hanna to hydroxyethyl radical. The effect is attributed to hyperconjugative interactions between the CH orbitals of oxygen. Analyses of vertical and adiabatic IEs and hyperconjugation energies computed by the natural bond

Krylov, Anna I.

274

The Cretaceous record in a northeast-trending transect, northern Utah to east-central Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the Laramide basins of the middle Rocky Mountains include 16,600 ft (5060 m) of predominantly siliciclastic strata in the thrust-belt of northern Utah and 7800 ft (2380 m) of mainly siliciclastic and calcareous strata near the craton in east central Wyoming. Regional changes in the thickness of the strata indicate that crustal subsidence during the Cretaceous was generally greatest in northern Utah and western Wyoming where it was associated with tectonic and sediment loading. However, the considerable thickness of uppermost Cretaceous nonmarine beds in several other areas reflects pronounced basin subsidence during early stages of the Laramide orogeny. In a transect from northern Utah to east-central Wyoming, based on outcrop sections, borehole logs, and chronostratigraphic data, Cretaceous rocks grade northeastward from mainly fluvial and nearshore marine synorogenic conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, coal, and bentonite to mostly nearshore and offshore marine sandstone, mudstone, calcareous shale, and bentonite. Lateral changes in the lithofacies and in the extent of enclosed unconformities indicate marine transgressions and regressions that were effected by structural deformation, sedimentation, and eustatic events. Significant unconformities have been found at the base of the Cretaceous strata, at two horizons within beds of Albian age, at two horizons within rocks of Cenomanian and Turonian ages, at one horizon within Coniacian strata, and at two horizons within Campanian beds. Most of these unconformities are either flooding surfaces or sequence boundaries.

Merewether, E.A. (U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1991-03-01

275

210Pb as a tracer of shelf-basin transport and sediment focusing in the Chukchi Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activities of dissolved, particulate, and sedimentary 210Pb were measured in the shelf-slope region of the Chukchi Sea. Samples were collected as part of the Shelf-Basin Interactions (SBI) Phase II process study (6 May-15 June, 2002) along three shelf-basin transects identified as West Hanna Shoal, East Hanna Shoal, and Barrow Canyon. Distributions of 210Pb and suspended particulate matter indicate efficient removal of 210Pb over the shelf by particle scavenging. Low 210Pb activities measured throughout the halocline of the Canada Basin are attributed to shelf scavenging and subsequent advective transport into the interior basin. Additionally, 210Pb inventories were used to construct a water-column-sediment budget of 210Pb and determine regions of particle export and deposition on the continental shelf and slope. Sediment focusing calculated with this 210Pb budget was observed throughout the shelf-slope region, particularly in shallow (˜100 m) shelf waters at Barrow Canyon. Despite elevated concentrations of suspended particulate matter in Barrow Canyon, the 210Pb budget does not indicate that sediment transport occurred from the West and East Hanna Shoals into Barrow Canyon.

Lepore, K.; Moran, S. B.; Smith, J. N.

2009-08-01

276

Reclamation techniques in southwestern wyoming.  

PubMed

Bridger Coal Company operates a 5.8 million tpy surface coal mine thrity five miles northeast of Rock Springs. Wyoming. Approximately 20.000 acres are under permit, with disturbance over the life of the mine projected to reach 10,000 acres. Located on the western rim of the continental divide, the mine receives less than 8.5 inches of precipitation annually. Soils in the area are coarse-textured. and problems associated with elevated salinity and sodicity arc encountered.A variety of common reclamation techniques have been modified to reflect these conditions. Soil horizons are segregated during salvage operations (the surface six inches as topsoil and the balance as subsoil). Unsuitable materials are not salvaged. Direct application of soil is used (over 130 acres in 1983) to maximize native plant regeneration and conserve soil fertility. Inter-seeding of seeding failures has proven to be significantly more successful than chisel plowing and reseeding. Broadcast seeding has been ineffective because of strong winds, and a no till drill has been modified to handle diverse seed mixes and rock conditions. The utility of fertilization under typically xeric moisture regimes is being evaluated. A research project has been initiated to assess establishment of a predominately native, diverse seed mix under irrigation, as well as to determine irrigation rates and duration. PMID:24221682

Parady, F E

1985-03-01

277

Hydrogeologic data from a test well at Kathryn Abbey Hanna Park, City of Jacksonville, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 2,026-foot test well was drilled at Hanna Park, City of Jacksonville, Florida, to obtain hydrogeologic data. Drill cuttings and water samples were collected, and water-level measurements and lithologic and geophysical logs were made. The well is constructed with 6-inch diameter casing from land surface to a depth of 1,892 feet and cement grouted in place. The remainder is open hole. The uppermost 411 feet of material penetrated by the well consists of sand, clayey sand, phosphatic sandy clay, coquina, sandy limestone, and dolostone. In the remainder of the hole, the material consists of limestone and dolostone, which comprise the Floridan aquifer in the area. (USGS)

Brown, D.P.; Johnson, R.A.; Baker, J.S.

1984-01-01

278

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

E-print Network

coal quality data distribution in the Deadman coal zone, Jim Bridger area of the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coalfield. GQ-3. Index map showing coal quality data distribution in the Deadman coal zone, Black Butte area of the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coalfield. GQ-4. Ash yield in the Jim Bridger area

279

Structural analysis of the Sheep Mountain anticline, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

E-print Network

. Observation and measurement of deformation mechanisms at all scales in the fold provides evidence for interpretation of subsurface structure and fold mechanisms at depth. The structural setting at Sheep Mountain anticline is characteristic of folds exposed..., and minor structures throughout the study area, At least five bedding measurements were taken to enhance accuracy at each station. Well log data provided the only source of subsurface data available for use in the study. Oriented samples of carbonates...

Hennier, Jeffrey Hugh

1984-01-01

280

77 FR 24176 - Bridger-Teton National Forest; Wyoming; Long Term Special Use Authorization for Wyoming Game and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forest; Wyoming; Long Term Special Use Authorization for Wyoming Game and Fish Commission To Use National Forest System Land for Their...Bridger-Teton National Forest received a request from the Wyoming Game and Fish Commission (WGFC) to continue to use facilities...

2012-04-23

281

Paleoecology of Early eocene strata near Buffalo, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Palynological investigation has helped illustrate the paleoecology of a vertical section of strata from the Wasatch Formation between the Healy and Walters coal burns near Buffalo, Wyoming. Numerous silicified logs and stumps of cypress and sequoia have been preserved at the site and drew initial attention to it. Flood-basin deposits enclose the trees and include sandstones, siltstones, shale, and coal beds that accumulated as channel, levee, crevasse-splay, and swamp/marsh sediments. Detrital sediments were probably derived from the Bighorn Mountains and accumulated as they were carried into the Powder River basin fluvial system. One hundred five polynomorph taxa have been distinguished, as well as 10 types of fungal spores. Platycarya, Tilia, Sparganium, and Platanus pollen indicate an early Eocene age for the strata. Other pollen, as well as the genera of trees and megafossil remains from a clinker bed several miles from the study area, reinforce the interpretation of a warm-temperature or subtropical climate at the time of deposition. The megafossil assemblage includes pinnae of the aquatic fern Marsilea, never before described from the fossil record. Variations in the species composition of the polynomorph assemblages show that several plant communities existed in succession at the site. These varied from pond or marsh types to mature forests.

Durkin, T.V.; Rich, F.J.

1986-08-01

282

Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: Regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush\\/grasses\\/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle

Mark E. Eiswerth; Karl Krauter; Sherman R. Swanson; Mike Zielinski

2009-01-01

283

Wyoming: The State and Its Educational System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wyoming is a state of great natural beauty with only five people per square mile and a unique way of life that deserves to be preserved. The economy, though, is almost totally dependent on energy extraction, an area that has not done well of late. The state's small population makes "boutique" products and services not very profitable, and efforts…

Hodgkinson, Harold L.

284

Wyoming Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Wyoming Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 1999 Introduction Research Program In the west, water is critical to survival. Data and information concerning this resource are very valuable by the Water Research Program. Basic Project Information Category Data Title Water Resources Data System Water

285

Cretaceous References: Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site supplies a comprehensive list of references relevant to Cretaceous stratigraphy, paleogeography, tectonics and petroleum exploration in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and Montana. The references range from the 1930's to the 1990's cover a variety of specific topics. Additional information and references are available on the site's home page under resources.

PetroDynamics Inc.

286

Report to Joint Education Committee, Wyoming Legislature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wyoming Community College Commission was established in 1951 as a result of a legislative act to extend the offering of higher education beyond the secondary level in qualified school districts. Seven community colleges were created by the Commission, resulting in a system that presently continues to serve thousands of citizens and their…

Henry, Thomas C.; Lovejoy, William H.

287

DISTRIBUTION OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN WYOMING LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents the species and abundance of phytoplankton in the 14 lakes sampled by the National Eutrophication Survey in the State of Wyoming. Results from the calculation of several water quality indices are also included (Nygaard's Trophic State Index, Palmer's Organic P...

288

78 FR 43061 - Wyoming Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation...baseline surface water data on acidity. Wyoming subsequently...levels of government.'' Data Quality Act In developing...peer review under the Data Quality Act (Pub. L...Intergovernmental relations, Surface mining, Underground...

2013-07-19

289

Wyoming Deaf/Blind Grant. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes activities and accomplishments of the Wyoming Deaf-Blind Grant, a 3-year federally supported project to identify children who have deaf-blindness and to provide technical assistance in the development of educational services for these children. Major accomplishments of the project included: identification of more…

Whitson, Joanne B.

290

76 FR 45643 - Wyoming Disaster #WY-00017  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assistance Only for the State of Wyoming (FEMA- 4007-DR), dated 07/22/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, and Landslides. Incident Period: 05/18/2011 through 07/08/2011. Effective Date: 07/22/2011. Physical Loan Application...

2011-07-29

291

Wyoming: Open Range for Library Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of library technology and the need for telecommunications in a state with a lack of population density. Topics include the state library's role; shared library resources and library networks; government information; the Wyoming State Home Page on the World Wide Web; Ariel software; network coordinating; and central…

Maul, Helen Meadors

1996-01-01

292

Wyoming Community College Commission Agency Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on outcomes of community college programs monitored by the Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC). The document covers the following WCCC objectives: (1) Study of tuition rates for the community colleges; (2) Negotiation of contracts and provision of financial support for administrative computing system components and…

Wyoming Community Coll. Commission, Cheyenne.

293

Mineral resources of the Bobcat Draw Badlands Wilderness Study Area, Bir Horn and Washakie Counties, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Bobcat Draw Wilderness Study Area is in the Bighorn Basin about 45 mi west of Worland, Wyoming, and is underlain by early Tertiary sedimentary rocks. No resources were identified in this study area, which lacks mines or prospects, but is mostly under lease for oil and gas. This study area has a high potential for oil and gas and for subeconomic resources of coal and a moderate potential for a deep-seated geothermal energy resource. The resource potential for oil shale and metals, including uranium, is low.

Gibbons, A.B.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

1989-01-01

294

Interpretation of planetary stress systems: Determination of tectonic over-printing in Northwest Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural and tectonic interpretations of planetary surfaces rely strongly on visual determination of regional structural grain. This grain can be very complex and confusing, and sorting out of discrete trends in time and space is of utmost importance. This study is a test of these techniques applied to a well known area having several discrete structural grains. In the Bighorn Basin region of Wyoming, a largely overlooked N10E structural grain has been verified with detailed structural analysis and indicates a significant change in stress orientation at the end of the Laramide orogeny.

Wise, D. U.; Allison, M. L.

1984-01-01

295

HYDROTHERMAL MINERALOGY OF RESEARCH DRILL HOLE Y-3, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, WYOMING.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The approximate paragenetic sequence of hydrothermal minerals in the Y-3 U. S. Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, is: hydrothermal chalcedony, hematite, pyrite, quartz, clay minerals (smectite and mixed-layer illite-smectite), calcite, chlorite, fluorite, pyrite, quartz, zeolite minerals (analcime, dachiardite, laumontite, stilbite, and yugawaralite), and clay minerals (smectite and mixed-layer illite-smectite). A few hydrothermal minerals that were identified in drill core Y-3 (lepidolite, aegirine, pectolite, and truscottite) are rarely found in modern geothermal areas. The alteration minerals occur primarily as vug and fracture fillings that were deposited from cooling thermal water. Refs.

Bargar, Keith E.; Beeson, Melvin H.

1984-01-01

296

Photogeologic maps of the Miles Ranch and Love Ranch quadrangles, Fremont and Natrona Counties, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Love Ranch and Miles Ranch quadrangles are in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming (fig. 1). The rocks exposed in the quadrangles are sedimentary, and range in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary. The youngest formation in the quadrangles, the Wind River formation of Eocene age, is uranium bearing in adjacent areas. Within the two quadrangles the Wind River formation unconformably overlies all the older rocks. In Miles Ranch quadrangle the Wind River formation is divided, on the basis of photointerpretation, into an upper and lower unit; the relationship of these units to units of the Wind River formation, as mapped in adjoining areas, has not been determined.

Minard, James Pierson

1957-01-01

297

SIMULATION MODELING OF LIMITED IRRIGATION CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTH PLATTE RIVER BASIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The South Platte River Basin is located primarily in Northeastern Colorado, with lesser parts in Nebraska and Wyoming. Agriculture is the predominant water user in the basin and demand frequently exceeds supply, particularly in times of drought. Further exacerbating the problem is water demand from ...

298

SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES  

E-print Network

in the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, Sheridan coalfield, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. PH-11. Ash yieldChapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U

299

Heat flow, radioactivity, gravity, and geothermal resources in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The surface heat flow values in the Sierra Madre-Medicine Bow-Laramie Mountains region are in the range 0.6 to 1.5 HFU. When the heat from local bedrock radioactivity is considered, the reduced flux in these mountains is low to normal (0.6 to 1.2 HFU). These data and the low to normal gradients (10 to 25/sup 0/C/km) in the studied drill holes strongly suggest that the resource potential of the Southern Rockies in Wyoming is low. The geothermal resource potential of the sedimentary basins in Wyoming that border these mountains also appears to be low because preliminary estimates for the flux in these areas are less than or equal to 1.5 HFU and the average gradients in analyzed drill holes are generally less than or equal to 30/sup 0/C/km. In contrast to southern Wyoming, the high surface and reduced heat flows strongly suggest that the Park areas and other parts of the Southern Rockies in northern Colorado are potentially valuable geothermal resource areas. The narrow northerly borders (less than or equal to 50 km) of these positive anomalies suggest that some of the resources could be shallow, as does the evidence for regional igneous and tectonic activity in the late Cenozoic. The small number of combined heat flow and radioactivity stations precludes detailed site-specific evaluations in these regions, but a few generalizations are made.

Decker, E.R.; Buelow, K.L.

1981-12-01

300

Thermochronology of lower Cretaceous source rocks in the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt  

SciTech Connect

Lower Cretaceous organic-rich source rocks that are thermally mature to postmature crop out on the Absaroka, Darby, and Prospect plates in linear belts that run parallel to the trace of the thrusts in the Idaho-Wyoming portion of the Idaho-Wyoming-Utah thrust belt. Although the common assumption is that burial by thrust plates and the synorogenic sediments derived from them have been responsible for thermal maturation of the organic-rich strata, commercial amounts of hydrocarbons have not been found in structural traps in this portion of the thrust belt. In a companion paper, Burtner and Nigrini demonstrated that gravity-driven fluid flow in the Idaho-Wyoming portion of the thrust belt was responsible for moving large amounts of heat from the depths of the Early Cretaceous foreland basin eastward toward the stable platform. In this paper we demonstrate, through the application of organic maturation indicators and a new refinement of the apatite fission track technique, that this process heated Lower Cretaceous organic-rich source rocks to temperatures sufficient to generate hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon generation and migration occurred prior to the development of the thrusts that are often assumed to have played a major role in the generation and entrapment of hydrocarbons in this portion of the thrust belt.

Burtner, R.L. [TerraSpec Associates, Fullerton, CA (United States); Nigrini, A. [TerraSpec Associates, La Habra Heights, CA (United States); Donelick, R.A. [Donelick Analytical, Katy, TX (United States)

1994-10-01

301

Basin-scale relations via conditioning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A rainfall-runoff model is used in conjunction with a probabilistic description of the input to this model to obtain simple regression-like relations for basin runoff in terms of basin and storm characteristics. These relations, similar to those sought in regionalization studies, are computed by evaluating the conditional distribution of model output given basin and storm characteristics. This method of conditioning provides a general way of examining model sensitivity to various components of model input. The resulting relations may be expected to resemble corresponding relations obtained by regionalization using actual runoff to the extent that the rainfall-runoff model and the model input specification are physically realistic. The probabilistic description of model input is an extension of so-called "random-model" of channel networks and involves postulating an ensemble of basins and associated probability distributions that mimic the variability of basin characteristics seen in nature. Application is made to small basins in the State of Wyoming. Parameters of the input variable distribution are estimated using data from Wyoming, and basin-scale relations are estimated both, parametrically and nonparametrically using model-generated runoff from simulated basins. Resulting basin-scale relations involving annual flood quantiles are in reasonable agreement with those presented in a previous regionalization study, but error estimates are smaller than those in the previous study, an artifact of the simplicity of the rainfall-runoff model used in this paper. We also obtain relations for peak of the instantaneous unit hydrograph which agree fairly well with theoretical relations given in the literature. Finally, we explore the issues of sensitivity of basin-scale, relations and error estimates to parameterization of the model input probability distribution and of how this sensitivity is related to making inferences about a particular ungaged basin. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.; Guertin, D.P.

1989-01-01

302

30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SPECIAL BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

2010-07-01

303

76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository...control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository...was made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

2011-03-15

304

76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository...control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository...was made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

2011-03-15

305

30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SPECIAL BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

2013-07-01

306

30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.  

...2014-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SPECIAL BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

2014-07-01

307

30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SPECIAL BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

2012-07-01

308

30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SPECIAL BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

2011-07-01

309

Implications of an eolian sandstone unit of Basal Morrison Formation, central Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A laterally discontinuous fine-grained quartzarenite occurs at the base of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the southern Big Horn and Powder River basins and in the Wind River basin. The sandstone unit is interpreted to be an eolianite. Evidence for this includes high-angle (20-35/sup 0/), medium to large-scale planar cross-beds that are tangential at the base, inversely graded foresets, and discrete dune formation in some areas. Cross-bed set thickness ranges from 1 to 10 m. Soft sediment deformation in the form of small-scale contortions is common in dune cross-stratification. The eolianite is 10-55 m thick and conformably overlies the transitional marine Windy Hill Sandstone Member of the upper Sundance Formation. Paleocurrent data suggest a northward transportation direction. On exposed planar surfaces of foresets, nonmarine ichnofauna are present including small vertebrate trackways. This eolian facies represents a unique setting within the predominantly fluvial and lacustrine mudstones of the Morrison Formation and may be indicative of localized small-scale uplifts associated with Sevier compressional activity to the west. Based upon lithology and stratigraphic position of the eolianite, the geological history of central Wyoming during late Oxfordian to early Kimmeridgian time can be reconstructed as follows: as the Sundance sea withdrew from central Wyoming, a blanket of lagoonal, lacustrine, and flood-plain mudstones and small channel sandstones were deposited in an area of very low topographical relief. In response to compression to the west, subtle uplifts occurred locally in south-central and southeastern Wyoming, resulting in erosion of the upper Sundance marine sandstones. Patches of windblown eroded fine sands were subsequently deposited within the nonmarine mudstones in nearby eolian environments to the north.

Weed, D.D.; Vondra, C.F.

1987-05-01

310

Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of Wyoming and its application to evaluation of Wyoming's natural resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the Wyoming investigation during the first six months include: (1) successful segregation of Precambrian metasedimentary/metavolcanic rocks from igneous rocks; (2) discovery of iron formation within the metasedimentary sequence; (3) mapping of previously unreported tectonic elements of major significance; (4) successful mapping of large scale fractures of the Wind River Mountains; (5) sucessful distinction of some metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary lithologies by color-additive viewing of ERTS images; (6) mapping and interpretation of glacial features in western Wyoming; and (7) development of techniques for mapping small urban areas.

Marrs, R. W.

1973-01-01

311

Multidisciplinary study of Wyoming test sites. [hydrology, biology, geology, lithology, geothermal, and land use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Investigation of a variety of applications of EREP photographic data demonstrated that EREP S-190 data offer a unique combination of synoptic coverage and image detail. The broad coverage is ideal for regional geologic mapping and tectonic analysis while the detail is adequate for mapping of crops, mines, urban areas, and other relatively small features. The investigative team at the University of Wyoming has applied the EREP S-190 data to: (1) analysis of photolinear elements of the Powder River Basin, southern Montana, and the Wind River Mountains; (2) drainage analysis of the Powder River Basin and Beartooth Mountains; (3) lithologic and geologic mapping in the Powder River Basin, Black Hills, Green River Basin, Bighorn Basin and Southern Bighorn Mountains; (4) location of possible mineralization in the Absaroka Range; and (5) land use mapping near Riverton and Gillette. All of these applications were successful to some degree. Image enhancement procedures were useful in some efforts requiring distinction of small objects or subtle contrasts.

Houston, R. S. (principal investigator); Marrs, R. W.; Agard, S. S.; Downing, K. G.; Earle, J. L.; Froman, N. L.; Gordon, R.; Kolm, K. E.; Tomes, B.; Vietti, J.

1974-01-01

312

Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

2005-12-30

313

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault,  

E-print Network

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault, Wind River Basin, Fremont County Wyoming Robert G. McWilliams, Professor Emeritus, Department Indian Meadows and lower Wind River Formations. Love (1987) described in detail this fold-thrust fault

Lee Jr., Richard E.

314

RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN  

SciTech Connect

Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to understand and quantify the resource itself and to develop technologies that will permit commercial exploitation. This study is a contribution to that process.

Robert Caldwell

1998-04-01

315

Ground-water resources of Natrona County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natrona County covers an area of 5.369 square miles in central Wyoming. The climate is arid except in the mountainous areas. The county includes parts of the Great Plains, Middle Rocky Mountains, Wyoming Basin, and Southern Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces. There is wide variation of topography. More than 30 geologic formations are exposed in the county, 28 of which are known to yield water to wells and springs. The formations range in age from Precambrian to Holocene. Ground water in approximately 40 percent of the county contains more than 1.000 mg/l (milligrams per liter) of dissolved solids. Water chemically suitable for livestock can be developed at depths of less than 1,000 feet throughout most of the area. Many of the geologic formations were deposited under similar conditions and have similar water-bearing properties; also. water from these rocks deposited under similar conditions tends to have similar chemical characteristics. For this report, the stratigraphic section has been arbitrarily divided into six rock units based on similarity of deposition. The igneous and metamorphic rock unit includes rocks of Precambrian age and igneous intrusives and extrusives of Tertiary age. These rocks probably would not yield more than about 5 gpm (gallons per minute) to wells. The water is usually calcium bicarbonate type and contains less than 500 mg/l of dissolved solids. The marine rock unit includes formations of Cambrian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian and Permian age, having a maximum total thickness of about 1,900 feet. The Madison Limestone of Mississippian age and the Tensleep Sandstone and the Casper Formation of Pennsylvanian and Permian age supply the largest yields to wells and springs in the county. In the northeastern part of the county, flow from each of three wells in the Madison reportedly is more than 4.000 gpm. Each of three wells in the Tensleep in the same area flows more than 400 gpm. Yields of springs in the Casper Formation near Casper Mountain range from about 1.0 to 17 cubic feet per second. Ground water from near the outcrop of all these formations usually contains less than 500 rag/l of dissolved solids. The dissolved-solids content increases with distance from the outcrop and in places is more than 3.200 mg/l. Several types of water were found in this unit including sodium sulfate, calcium sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, sodium calcium sulfate, sodium chloride, and calcium bicarbonate.

Crist, Marvin A.; Lowry, Marlin E.

1972-01-01

316

75 FR 19886 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wyoming; Revisions to the Wyoming...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...disagree; suggest alternatives...concerns, and suggest alternatives...submitted to EPA two formal revisions...Credible evidence--to Chapter...emissions that occurred during malfunctions...Credible Evidence Wyoming has...to limit the types of credible...state may take two...

2010-04-16

317

Wyoming Community College System Spring 2004 Enrollment Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains enrollment information in tabular form from the Wyoming Community College System for the Spring of 2004. Enrollment information on each of the counties in Wyoming can be found in this document. Data is broken down by: college; full-time, part-time, total, and percent credit headcount (includes on-campus, distance education,…

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2004

2004-01-01

318

Seeds and Seedling Establishment of Wyoming Big Sagebrush  

Microsoft Academic Search

Success with Wyoming sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) depends on good seed vigor, and rapid seedling development. These characteristics are influenced by harvesting, processing, storing, and sowing. In this paper we discuss research findings related to those activities: (1) It appears that Wyoming big sagebrush growing on the western edge of the Great Plains might hold viable seed longer into

D. T. Booth; Y. Bai

319

Observing team from the University of Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

July 19, 1994An observing team from the University of Wyoming , the University of Rochester, and the University of Minnesota is obtaining infrared images of the recent comet impacts on Jupiter. The observations are being made with the Wyoming Infrared Observatory 2.3-meter telescope near Laramie, using an infrared camera developed at Rochester. The accompanying image of Jupiter, obtained on the evening of Sunday July 17, shows three bright spots near the lower left. These are the impact sites of (from left to right) fragments C, A, and E. The other features visible are the bright polar and equatorial regions, and also the Great Red Spot, located below the equator and somewhat to the right.At this relatively short infrared wavelength (2.2 micrometers) the planet it mostly dark because the methane in the Jupiter atmosphere absorbs any sunlight which passes through a significant depth of that atmosphere. Bright regions usually correspond to high altitude clouds which reflect the sunlight before it can penetrate the deeper atmosphere and be absorbed. The bright nature of the impact spots therefore indicates the presence of high altitude haze or clouds -- material carried up from the lower atmosphere by the fireball and plume from the comet impact. More detailed measurements at a variety of wavelengths should reveal the chemical composition of the haze material. The observing team will be continuing their work throughout the comet impact period and expect to obtain images of the plumes from the other comet fragments which will be striking Jupiter later this week.Co ntact: Robert R. Howell Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Wyoming Laramie, WY 82070 307-766-6150

2002-01-01

320

Healthy Wyoming: Start with Youth Today. Results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior and School Health Education Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1991 Wyoming School Health Education Survey (SHES). Thirty-five schools participated in the YRBS, with 3,513 students in grades 9-12; 92 public schools with students in grades 7-12 participated in the SHES. Statistical data from the YRBS are provided in the…

Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Behavior Lab.

321

Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage Institute  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the accomplishments of the Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology Institute (WCTI), including creating a website and online course catalog, sponsoring technology transfer workshops, reaching out to interested parties via news briefs and engaging in marketing activities, i.e., advertising and participating in tradeshows. We conclude that the success of WCTI was hampered by the lack of a market. Because there were no supporting financial incentives to store carbon, the private sector had no reason to incur the extra expense of training their staff to implement carbon storage. ii

Nealon, Teresa

2014-06-30

322

Specific Conductance and Dissolved-Solids Characteristics for the Green River and Muddy Creek, Wyoming, Water Years 1999-2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southwestern Wyoming is an area of diverse scenery, wildlife, and natural resources that is actively undergoing energy development. The U.S. Department of the Interior's Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative is a long-term science-based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale, while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Green River near Green River, Wyoming, and Muddy Creek near Baggs, Wyoming. This monitoring, which is being conducted in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies and as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative, is in response to concerns about potentially increased dissolved solids in the Colorado River Basin as a result of energy development. Because of the need to provide real-time dissolved-solids concentrations for the Green River and Muddy Creek on the World Wide Web, the U.S. Geological Survey developed regression equations to estimate dissolved-solids concentrations on the basis of continuous specific conductance using relations between measured specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations. Specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations were less varied and generally lower for the Green River than for Muddy Creek. The median dissolved-solids concentration for the site on the Green River was 318 milligrams per liter, and the median concentration for the site on Muddy Creek was 943 milligrams per liter. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 187 to 594 milligrams per liter in samples collected from the Green River during water years 1999-2008. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 293 to 2,485 milligrams per liter in samples collected from Muddy Creek during water years 2006-08. The differences in dissolved-solids concentrations in samples collected from the Green River compared to samples collected from Muddy Creek reflect the different basin characteristics. Relations between specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations were statistically significant for the Green River (p-value less than 0.001) and Muddy Creek (p-value less than 0.001); therefore, specific conductance can be used to estimate dissolved-solids concentrations. Using continuous specific conductance values to estimate dissolved solids in real-time on the World Wide Web increases the amount and improves the timeliness of data available to water managers for assessing dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River Basin.

Clark, Melanie L.; Davidson, Seth L.

2009-01-01

323

Geologic structure and altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation, northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning in 1981, a 3-yr project was conducted to determine the availability and quality of groundwater in the sedimentary bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. The project was limited to three bedrock units in order of increasing age: the Cretaceous Inyan kara Group, Permian and Pennsylvanian Minnelusa Formation, and Mississippian Madison (or Pahasapa) Limestone. This map shows the altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation in the northern Black Hills, and shows the configuration of the structural features in the northern part of the Black Hills and the eastern part of the Bear Lodge Mountains. In general, the Minnelusa Formation dips away from the Black Hills uplift, either to the northeast and the Williston Basin or, south of the Bear Lodge Mountains, to the southwest and the Powder River basin, which is outside the map area. In the map area, the upper beds of the Minnelusa Formation are an aquifer and the lower beds are a confining or semi-confining unit. The upper part of the Minnelusa Formation has a greater percentage of coarse-grained sandstone beds than the lower part. Furthermore, solution and removal of anhydrite, brecciation, and solution of cement binding the sandstone grains may have increased the permeability of the upper part of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills. Wells completed in the upper part of the Minnelusa have yields that exceed 100 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min. Flowing wells have been completed in the Minnelusa aquifer in most of the study area in South Dakota and in about the northern one-half of Crook County, Wyoming. (Lantz-PTT)

Peter, Kathy D.; Kyllonen, David P.; Mills, K.R.

1987-01-01

324

Stream Characteristics and Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Following Wildland Fire in Western Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined fire effects on aquatic habitat and benthic macroinvertebrates in streams of the Little Granite Creek watershed, Wyoming, where a wildfire burned approximately 75% of one basin, while an adjacent (reference) basin remained largely unburned. Embeddedness (% of channel surface covered by fines) was substantially greater in the burned stream (92%) than in the reference stream (59%). Stream temperatures were consistently higher in summer and lower in fall in the burned drainage, reflecting basin differences in vegetative cover. Although macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness was similar in both streams (45 families), benthic communities in the burned stream were dominated by Dipterans (77% total abundance) with 22% EPT, while communities in the unburned stream were composed of 46% Dipterans and 53% EPT. Benthic communities in both streams had similar proportions of generalist feeders (mostly Chironomidae, 31 to 33%), and collector-gatherers and scrapers (mostly Baetidae, 17%). However, collector-filterers (mostly Simulidae) accounted for over 40% of the total abundance in the burned stream, and only 3% in the unburned stream. Despite differences between the study basins, fire effects in the Little Granite Creek watershed are less dramatic than those reported from other regions.

Dwire, K. A.; Monroe, J.; Rhodes, H.; Dixon, M. K.; Ryan, S. E.

2005-05-01

325

Water quality of two streams near Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, following the 1988 Clover-Mist wildfire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1988, wildfire burned over 50% of the Jones Creek watershed near Yellowstone Park, Wyoming. Crow Creek, an adjacent watershed, was unburned. Water quality data collected from 1989-1993 may show the fire's effect on weathering and nutrient transport. Jones Creek had 25-75% larger concentration of dissolved solids than Crow Creek during the sampling period. Both streams revealed molar ratios consistent with the stoichiometry of andesine and pyroxene hydrolysis in the trachyandesites that underlie the basins. During 1989, nitrate transported from the unburned Crow Creek basin peaked at 2 mmol ha-1 s-1. This was twice as much as Jones Creek, possibly indicating a source from ash fallout. By 1992 these rates diminished to 0.1 mmol ha-1 s-1 in Crow Creek and increased to 1.8 mmol ha-1 s-1 in Jones Creek, suggesting later nitrate mobilization in the burned watershed. Phosphorus transported from Jones Creek basin averaged 0.011 mmol ha-1 s-1 during summer 1989, but fell to 0.004 mg ha-1 s-1 in subsequent years.In 1988, wildfire burned over 50% of the Jones Creek watershed near Yellowstone Park, Wyoming. Crow Creek, an adjacent watershed, was unburned. Water quality data collected from 1989-1993 may show the fire's effect on weathering and nutrient transport. Jones Creek had 25-75% larger concentrations of dissolved solids than Crow Creek during the sampling period. Both streams revealed molar ratios consistent with the stoichiometry of andesine and pyroxene hydrolysis in the trachyandesites that underlie the basins. During 1989, nitrate transported from the unburned Crow Creek basin peaked at 2 mmol ha-1 s-1. This was twice as much as Jones Creek, possibly indicating a source from ash fallout. By 1992 these rates diminished to 0.1 mmol ha-1 s-1 in Crow Creek and increased to 1.8 mmol ha-1 s-1 in Jones Creek, suggesting later nitrate mobilization in the burned watershed. Phosphorus transported from Jones Creek basin averaged 0.011 mmol ha-1 s-1 during summer 1989, but fell to 0.004 mg ha-1 s-1 in subsequent years.

Gerla, P.J.; Galloway, J.M.

1998-01-01

326

Relative Validity of the Orleans-Hanna Algebra Prognosis Test in the Prediction of Girls' and Boys' Grades in First-Year Algebra.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative predictive validity of girls' and boys' success in algebra is examined. Eighth-grade students completed the Orleans-Hanna Algebra Prognosis Test. These prognosis test scores were correlated with grades that students subsequently earned in first-year algebra. Algebra grades of girls proved to be the more predictable. (Author/DWH)

Hanna, Gerald S.; Sonnenschein, Joan L.

1985-01-01

327

A Symbolic Execution Framework for JavaScript Prateek Saxena, Devdatta Akhawe, Steve Hanna, Feng Mao, Stephen McCamant, Dawn Song  

E-print Network

A Symbolic Execution Framework for JavaScript Prateek Saxena, Devdatta Akhawe, Steve Hanna, Feng gain popularity, client-side JavaScript code is becoming increasingly complex. However, few automated vulnerability analysis tools for JavaScript exist. In this paper, we describe the first system for exploring

California at Irvine, University of

328

Clues from Dinosaurs, Mules, and the Bull Snake: Our Field in the 21st Century. The Second Delphine Hanna Interdisciplinary Lecture 1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Delphine Hanna was a pioneer in interdisciplinary scholarship and establishment of professional programs in physical education. The paper suggests physical education must follow her example to survive in the future, noting how the profession got where it is, where it is going, and how it can get there. (SM)

Corbin, Charles B.

1993-01-01

329

Annotated bibliography of selected references on shoreline barrier island deposits with emphasis on Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains 290 annotated references on barrier island and associated depositional environments and reservoirs. It is not an exhaustive compilation of all references on the subject, but rather selected papers on barrier islands, and the depositional processes of formation. Papers that examine the morphology and internal architecture of barrier island deposits, exploration and development technologies are emphasized. Papers were selected that aid in understanding reservoir architecture and engineering technologies to help maximize recovery efficiency from barrier island oil reservoirs. Barrier islands from Wyoming, Montana and the Rocky Mountains basins are extensively covered.

Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Schatzinger, R.A.

1993-07-01

330

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

Peggy Robinson

2005-07-01

331

Geologic map of the Sand Creek Pass quadrangle, Larimer County, Colorado, and Albany County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New geologic mapping within the Sand Creek Pass 7.5 minute quadrangle defines geologic relationships within the northern Front Range of Colorado along the Wyoming border approximately 35 km south of Laramie, Wyo. Previous mapping within the quadrangle was limited to regional reconnaissance mapping; Eaton Reservoir 7.5 minute quadrangle to the east (2008), granite of the Rawah batholith to the south (1983), Laramie River valley to the west (1979), and the Laramie 30' x 60' quadrangle to the north (2007). Fieldwork was completed during 1981 and 1982 and during 2007 and 2008. Mapping was compiled at 1:24,000-scale. Minimal petrographic work was done and no isotope work was done in the quadrangle area, but detailed petrographic and isotope studies were performed on correlative map units in surrounding areas as part of a related regional study of the northern Front Range. Stratigraphy of Proterozoic rocks is primarily based upon field observation of bulk mineral composition, macroscopic textural features, and field relationships that allow for correlation with rocks studied in greater detail outside of the map area. Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic rocks is primarily based upon correlation with similar rocks to the north in the Laramie Basin of Wyoming and to the east in the Front Range of Colorado.

Workman, Jeremiah B.; Braddock, William A.

2010-01-01

332

Overview of Energy Development Opportunities for Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

An important opportunity exists for the energy future of Wyoming that will • Maintain its coal industry • Add substantive value to its indigenous coal and natural gas resources • Improve dramatically the environmental impact of its energy production capability • Increase its Gross Domestic Product These can be achieved through development of a carbon conversion industry that transforms coal and natural gas to synthetic transportation fuels, chemical feedstocks, and chemicals that are the building blocks for the chemical industry. Over the longer term, environmentally clean nuclear energy can provide the substantial energy needs of a carbon conversion industry and be part of the mix of replacement technologies for the current fleet of aging coal-fired electric power generating stations.

Larry Demick

2012-11-01

333

Gravity interpretation of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming  

E-print Network

Mtns. Atlantic City, Wyoming Age/Rock Recent Tertiary Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian Carboniferous Devonian Ordovician Cambrian Ordovician biotite gneiss qtz. plag. gneiss amphbl. gneiss amphibolite granodiorite hnbld. qtz...

Parks, Pamela Hennis

1979-01-01

334

76 FR 11258 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...be submitted to the Cashier, BLM Wyoming State Office, at the address given above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mavis Love, Land Law Examiner, or Tyson Sackett, Acting Coal Coordinator, [[Page 11259

2011-03-01

335

Reconnaissance examination of selected oil-sand outcrops in Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous surface occurrences of oil sands and oil seeps have been reported in the geologic literature for Wyoming. Seventy-eight reported occurrences are listed in Wyoming Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-5. Most of the listed deposits are taken from old references with vague descriptions and locations. Field reconnaissance examinations of selected oil-sand occurrences were conducted to describe them better and to

Ver Ploeg

1986-01-01

336

Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming.

Borgman, L.E.; Sever, C.; Quimby, W.F.; Andrew, M.E.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.

1981-03-01

337

Effect of fungicide on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different water potentials (-0.033 and -0.7 MPa) and found that treating

Robert D Cox; Lance H Kosberg; Nancy L Shaw; Stuart P Hardegree

2011-01-01

338

Effect of fungicide on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different water potentials (-0.033 and -0.7 MPa) and found that treating

Robert D Cox; Lance H Kosberg; Nancy L Shaw; Stuart P Hardegree

2011-01-01

339

Behavioral and catastrophic drift of invertebrates in two streams in northeastern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invertebrate drift samples were collected in August 1977 from two streams in the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming. The streams are Clear Creek, a mountain stream, and the Little Powder River, a plains stream. Two major patterns of drift were recognized. Clear Creek was sampled during a period of normal seasonal conditions. High drift rates occurred during the night indicating a behavioral drift pattern that is related to the benthic invertebrate density and carrying capacity of the stream substrates. The mayfly genes Baetis, a common drift organism, dominated the peak periods of drift in Clear Creek. The Little Powder River has a high discharge during the study period. Midge larvae of the families Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae, ususally not common in drift, dominated the drift community. The dominance of midge larvae, the presence of several other organisms not common in drift, and the high discharge during the study period caused a catastrophic drift pattern. (USGS)

Wangsness, David J.; Peterson, David A.

1980-01-01

340

2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean supercontinent at ???2480 Ma. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

2006-01-01

341

Identification and Implementation of Native Fish Conservation Areas in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater fishes continue to decline at a rapid rate despite substantial conservation efforts. Native fish conservation areas (NFCAs) are a management approach emphasizing persistent native fish communities and healthy watersheds while simultaneously allowing for compatible human uses. We identified potential NFCAs in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Wyoming—focusing on Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus

Daniel C. Dauwalter; John S. Sanderson; Jack E. Williams; James R. Sedell

2011-01-01

342

Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for

B. B. DeJarnett; L. F. Krystinik; R. H. Mead; S. C. Poe

1996-01-01

343

Spatial Patterns of Fish Assemblage Structure in a Tributary System of the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to describe the distributions of both native and nonnative fishes and to identify spatial patterns in fish assemblage structure of Muddy Creek in the upper Colorado River basin of Wyoming using data collected from 77 reaches during 1999–2004. Fish assemblages in high-elevation reaches were characterized by brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and represented a coldwater faunal zone.

Michael C. Quist; Michael R. Bower; Wayne A. Hubert; Frank J. Rahel

2006-01-01

344

Provenance, dispersal, and tectonic significance of the Evanston Formation and Sublette Range Conglomerate, Idaho-Wyoming-Utah thrust belt  

SciTech Connect

Tectogenic sediments of the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene Evanston Formation were deposited in proximal braided streams in northeastern Utah, and in distal gravelly rivers in the Fossil basin of southwestern Wyoming. Paleocurrent data provide evidence for a north-to-south axial drainage system in both areas. The ubiquitous presence of Precambrian-Cambrian clast types throughout the Evanston Formation indicates a source area in the present day Bear River Range (Paris and Willard thrust plates). The Sublette Range Conglomerate is a crudely stratified, clast-supported, proximal braided stream deposit. Paleocurrent data and clast lithology also indicate a north-westerly source area on the Paris and Willard plates. It is proposed that the undated Sublette Range Conglomerate is a remnant of a proximal deposit which linked distal Evanston sediments in the Fossil basin with their source area on the Paris and Willard plates. Early Eocene reactivation of the Crawford thrust resulted in the present elevated position of the Sublette Range Conglomerate.

Salat, T.S. (ARCO Alaska, Inc., Anchorage (United States)); Steidtmann, J.R. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States))

1991-01-01

345

Petrology of greenstones in southern Wyoming Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archean greenstones occur in South Pass area and southern Wind River Canyon area in central Wyoming State, U.S.A. These two areas are near about 100 km away from each other and belong to the same sub- province named Wyoming greenstone province (WGP, composed of meta-mafic rocks and meta- sedimentary rocks) (Mueller et al., 1998). The South Pass area is one of the greenstone belts in the southern Wyoming Province and is located in the northwestern part of the WGP. The greenstones (15 km long) occur along the later Archean granitic batholith (Louis Lake batholith, 2.63 Ga) and are composed of meta-pillow lavas, meta diabasic rocks, meta-gabbroic rocks, meta basaltic tuffs, and other meta sediments. The meta diabasic rocks occur as dykes. Banded iron formation lies along the contact between these greenstones and the batholith. Several previous studies suggested that these greenstones were metamorphosed under conditions of amphibolite, and locally greenschist (Harper et al., 1985; Wilks and Harper, 1997; Frost et al., 2000). However we found evidence indicating limited distribution of the amphibolite facies zone which is restricted along the batholith. Greenstones in this area were regionally metamorphosed under low-grade and the amphibolite facies greenstones were formed by the thermal effects by the batholith. Many characteristics of the protolith are well preserved. The following textures are preserved; pillow lava structure, relic igneous augite grains in meta basaltic rocks, relic igneous brown hornblende grains in meta diabasic rocks, gabbroic textures, and some sedimentary textures. The pillow lavas (5-10 cm x 15-30 cm) are composed of pale green core and thin dark gray rim (about 0.5 cm wide) and the core domain is rich in carbonate. The southern Wind River Canyon area is located in the northern part of the WGP. Archean greenstones in this area are composed of meta pillow lavas, meta gabbroic rocks, and meta pelites. From south toward north, mafic rocks generally grade into pelitic rocks. All the greenstones were metamorphosed under a condition of amphibolite and no relic of protolith minerals are preserved. Ring structures suggesting pillow lavas (core, 20- 30 cm x 30-50 cm; rim, 1.0-3.0 cm wide) occur in fine-grained mafic greenstones. Skarn (several cm to several tens cm in scale) occurs only near these ring structures and cuts the greenstones. This skarn is cut by granite intrusions. Both the South Pass area and the southern Wind River Canyon area are possibly regarded as upper part of Archean oceanic crust. The South Pass greenstones were regionally metamorphosed under low-grade (lower greenschist facies). Amphibolite facies greenstones were formed by thermal effects by the granitic batholith. The southern Wind River Canyon greenstones were subjected to amphibolite facies regional metamorphism and no thermal effect by the granites was observed. Archean skarn occurs only in the southern Wind River Canyon area. What did make these differences between Archean greenstones in the South Pass area and the southern Wind River Canyon area? Comparisons of greenstones between these two areas are significant for the formation of the Archean greenstones and the formation of Archean skarn in these areas.

Takeuchi, Y.; Yuasa, T.; Ogasawara, Y.

2006-12-01

346

77 FR 15387 - Notice of Invitation To Participate; Coal Exploration License Application WYW180710, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and BLM, Wyoming State Office, Branch of Solid Minerals, Attn: Mavis Love, P.O. Box 1828, Cheyenne, Wyoming 82003. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mavis Love, Land Law Examiner, at 307- 775-6258. Persons who use a...

2012-03-15

347

77 FR 32665 - Notice of Invitation To Participate; Coal Exploration License Application WYW180763, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and BLM, Wyoming State Office, Branch of Solid Minerals, Attn: Mavis Love, P.O. Box 1828, Cheyenne, Wyoming 82003. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mavis Love, Land Law Examiner, at 307- 775-6258. Persons who use a...

2012-06-01

348

78 FR 55694 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-ORD-2011-0895] Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming AGENCY: Environmental...draft research report titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The...

2013-09-11

349

Review of Machine Learning, written by A. AbuHanna. Appeared in Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 16, 1999, pp. 201--204.  

E-print Network

Review of Machine Learning, written by A. Abu­Hanna. Appeared in Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 16, 1999, pp. 201--204. Tom M. Mitchell Machine Learning McGraw­Hill, 1997 ISBN 0­07­115467­1 Paperback, 414 pages Price $21.99 An old dream of Machine Learning has been to teach computers how to solve

Mitchell, Tom

350

Multidisciplinary study on Wyoming test sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Ten EREP data passes over the Wyoming test site provided excellent S190A and S190B coverage and some useful S192 imagery. These data were employed in an evaluation of the EREP imaging sensors in several earth resources applications. Boysen Reservoir and Hyattsville were test areas for band to band comparison of the S190 and S192 sensors and for evaluation of the image data for geologic mapping. Contrast measurements were made from the S192 image data for typical sequence of sedimentary rocks. Histograms compiled from these measurements show that near infrared S192 bands provide the greatest amount of contrast between geologic units. Comparison was also made between LANDSAT imagery and S190B and aerial photography for regional land use mapping. The S190B photography was found far superior to the color composite LANDSAT imagery and was almost as effective as the 1:120,000 scale aerial photography. A map of linear elements prepared from LANDSAT and EREP imagery of the southwestern Bighorn Mountains provided an important aid in defining the relationship between fracture and ground water movement through the Madison aquifer.

Houston, R. S. (principal investigator); Marrs, R. W.; Borgman, L. E.

1975-01-01

351

A study of alteration associated with uranium occurrences in sandstone and its detection by remote sensing methods, volume 1. [spectral reflectance of rocks in Utah and Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalous coloration of altered rocks associated with tabular uranium occurrences in the San Raphael Swell, Utah, and remnants of roll-front type deposits in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming was studied. Field and Laboratory spectral reflectance studies on these uranium deposits or occurrences were carried out and supplemented with mineralogical and chemical analyses to determine the origin of spectral features observed. The principal alteration products are geothite/limonite (Utah deposits) and geothite/limonite and hematite (Wyoming deposits). The principal clay mineral present in the deposits is montomorillonite. Statistical analysis of the field data was performed using a stepwise linear discriminant function analysis computer program that determines which combinations of input wavelength bands provide best separation of specified groupings of data. Altered and unaltered rocks could be repeated with 95% accuracy using spectral data including all wavelength bands. Of the satellite-simulated wavelength region tests, LANDSAT D bands gave the best classification accuracy.

Conel, J. E.; Abrams, M. J.; Goetz, A. F. H.

1978-01-01

352

An assessment of low flows in streams in northeastern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Low flows were assessed and summarized in the following basins in northeastern Wyoming: Little Bighorn, Tongue, Powder, Little Missouri, Belle Fourche, Cheyenne, and Niobrara River, and about 200 river miles of the North Platte River and its tributaries. Only existing data from streamflow stations and miscellaneous observation sites during the period, 1930-80, were used. Data for a few stations in Montana and South Dakota were used in the analysis. Data were available for 56 perennial streams, 38 intermittent streams, and 34 ephemeral streams. The distribution of minimum observed flows of record at all stations and sites and the 7-day, 10-year low flows at mountain stations and main-stem plains stations are shown on a map. Seven day low flows were determined by fitting the log Pearsons Type III distribution to the data; results are tabulated only for the stations with at least 10 years of record that included at least one major drought. Most streams that originate in the foothills and plains have no flow during part of every year, and are typical of much of the study area. For stations on these streams , the frequency of the annual maximum number of consecutive days of no flow was determined, as an indicator of the likelihood of extended periods of no flow or drought. For estimates at ungaged sites on streams in the Bighorn Mountains only, a simple regression of 7-day, 10-year low flow on drainage area has a standard error of 64%, based on 19 stations with drainage areas of 2 to 200 sq mi. The 7-day, 10-year low flow in main-stem streams can be interpolated from graphs of 7-day, 10-year low flow versus distance along the main channel. Additional studies of low flow are needed. The data base, particularly synoptic baseflow information, needs considerable expansion. Also, the use of storage-analysis procedures should be considered as a means of assessing the availability of water in streams that otherwise are fully appropriated or that are ephemeral. (Author 's abstract)

Armentrout, G.W.; Wilson, J.F.

1987-01-01

353

The Physical Education Standards Movement in Wyoming: An Effort in Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how Wyoming developed and implemented content standards, benchmarks, and performance standards (state standards) in health and physical education. The effort involved Wyoming's health/physical education coalition member plus three University of Wyoming faculty members with expertise in health, physical education, physical education…

Deal, Tami Benham; Byra, Mark; Jenkins, Jayne; Gates, Ward E.

2002-01-01

354

The Spirit and Influence of the Wyoming Resolution: Looking Back to Look Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the 1986 Wyoming Conference on English, a group of graduate students and part-time and tenure-line faculty formulated a statement known as the Wyoming Resolution, a rallying cry to improve composition teachers' pay, benefits, and working conditions. Adopted by the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in 1987, the Wyoming

McDonald, James C.; Schell, Eileen E.

2011-01-01

355

Survival of Male Merriam's Turkeys in the Wyoming Black Hills Samuel J. Cahoy  

E-print Network

Survival of Male Merriam's Turkeys in the Wyoming Black Hills BY Samuel J. Cahoy A thesis submitted South Dakota State University 2009 #12;11 Survival of Male Merriam's Turkeys in the Wyoming Black Hills possible without financial support from the following agencies: National Wild Turkey Federation, Wyoming

356

Canopy Growth and Density of Wyoming Big Sagebrush Sown with Cool-Season Perennial Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-mining revegetation efforts often require grass seeding and mulch applications to stabilize the soils at the same time as shrub seeding, creating intraspecific competition between seeded shrubs and grasses that is not well understood. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) is the dominant premining shrub on many Wyoming mines. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality,

Ann L. Hild; Gerald E. Schuman; Laurel E. Vicklund; Mary I. Williams

2006-01-01

357

Stratigraphic sections of the Phosphoria formation in Wyoming, 1952  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has measured and sampled the Phosphoria formation of Permian age at many localities in Wyoming and adjacent states. These data will not be fully synthesized for many years, but segments of the data, accompanied by little or no interpretation, are published as preliminary reports as they are assembled. This report, which contains abstracts of the sections measured in western Wyoming (fig. 1), during 1952, is the fourth Wyoming report of this series. The field and laboratory procedures adopted in these investigations are described rather fully in a previous report (McKelvey and others, 1953a). Many people have taken part in this investigation. T. M. Cheney participated in the description of strata and the collection of samples referred to in this report and T. K. Rigby assisted in the collection of samples. The laboratory preparation of samples for chemical analysis was done in Denver, Colo., under the direction of W. P. Huleatt.

Sheldon, R.P.; Cressman, E.R.; Carswell, L.D.; Smart, R.A.

1953-01-01

358

An evaluation of the Wyoming gauge system for snowfall measurement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wyoming snow fence (shield) has been widely used with precipitation gauges for snowfall measurement at more than 25 locations in Alaska since the late 1970s. This gauge's measurements have been taken as the reference for correcting wind-induced gauge undercatch of snowfall in Alaska. Recently, this fence (shield) was tested in the World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation Measurement Intercomparison Project at four locations in the United States of America and Canada for six winter seasons. At the Intercomparison sites an octagonal vertical Double Fence with a Russian Tretyakov gauge or a Universal Belfort recording gauge was installed and used as the Intercomparison Reference (DFIR) to provide true snowfall amounts for this intercomparison experiment. The intercomparison data collected were compiled at the four sites that represent a variety of climate, terrain, and exposure. On the basis of these data sets the performance of the Wyoming gauge system for snowfall observations was carefully evaluated against the DFIR and snow cover data. The results show that (1) the mean snow catch efficiency of the Wyoming gauge compared with the DFIR is about 80-90%, (2) there exists a close linear relation between the measurements of the two gauge systems and this relation may serve as a transfer function to adjust the Wyoming gauge records to obtain an estimate of the true snowfall amount, (3) catch efficiency of the Wyoming gauge does not change with wind speed and temperature, and (4) Wyoming gauge measurements are generally compatible to the snowpack water equivalent at selected locations in northern Alaska. These results are important to our effort of determining true snowfall amounts in the high latitudes, and they are also useful for regional hydrologic and climatic analyses.

Yang, D.; Kane, D.L.; Hinzman, L.D.; Goodison, B.E.; Metcalfe, J.R.; Louie, P.Y.T.; Leavesley, G.H.; Emerson, D.G.; Hanson, C.L.

2000-01-01

359

Geochemistry of the Cretaceous shales and its implication on regional tectonics and correlation: Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

The Cretaceous strata of north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana consist of shale, mudstone, and sandstone with minor conglomerate, coal, and bentonite. The primary objective in this paper is to utilize the mineralogical and geochemical data of the critical and dominant lithofacies group comprised of shale and mudstone to reevaluate regional tectonics, provenance aspects, and correlation of the Cretaceous foreland basin sediments. Relative abundances of nickel, zinc, lanthanum, and cerium in the marine samples can be attributed largely to the organic-rich nature and presence of mineral phase apatite in the marine group. The abundance of these trace elements is presumably related to the proximity of local bedrock source region and distinctive clay mineral suite in the marine sediments. Low concentrations of zirconium, titanium, and chromium in nonmarine Cloverly mudrock indicate an alkaline to peralkaline original sediment (ash) composition as opposed to trachytic to dacitic component for the marine group. Furthermore, the marine sequences in the Cretaceous foreland basin are related to thrust load-induced flexure. Overall geochemical behavior of the analyzed samples seems to be related more to confidently to tectonism rather than different provenance. This geochemical classification can be utilized for stratigraphic correlation of the several lenticular sandstone members encased within the various Cretaceous units and offers an excellent opportunity for future oil and gas exploration in this region.

Khandker, N.I. (Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States)); Vondra, C.F. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

1991-03-01

360

Groundwater availability and flow processes in the Williston and Powder River basins in the Northern Great Plains  

E-print Network

Groundwater availability and flow processes in the Williston and Powder River basins Center, Cheyenne, WY 4 Office of Groundwater, Denver, CO 5 Oklahoma Water Science Center, Oklahoma City in Montana and Wyoming, provides an opportunity to study the water-energy nexus within a groundwater context

Torgersen, Christian

361

A summary of the U.S. Geological Survey 1999 resource assessment of selected coal zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, 1,100 million short tons of coal were produced in the United States, 38 percent from the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This coal has low ash content, and sulfur content is in compliance with Clean Air Act standards (U.S. Statutes at Large, 1990).The National Coal Resource Assessment for this region includes geologic, stratigraphic, palynologic, and geochemical studies and resource calculations for 18 major coal zones in the Powder River, Williston, Green River, Hanna, and Carbon Basins. Calculated resources are 660,000 million short tons. Results of the study are available in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625?A (Fort Union Coal Assess-ment Team, 1999) and Open-File Report 99-376 (Flores and others, 1999) in CD-ROM format.

Ellis, M.S.; Nichols, D.J.

2002-01-01

362

Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush/grasses/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young)), dominated area largely devoid of herbaceous perennials burns, it often transitions to an annual dominated and highly flammable plant community that thereafter excludes sagebrush and native perennials. Considerable effort is devoted to revegetating rangeland following fire, but to date there has been very little analysis of the factors that lead to the success of this revegetation. This paper utilizes a revegetation monitoring dataset to examine the densities of three key types of vegetation, specifically nonnative seeded grasses, nonnative seeded forbs, and native Wyoming big sagebrush, at several points in time following seeding. We find that unlike forbs, increasing the seeding rates for grasses does not appear to increase their density (at least for the sites and seeding rates we examined). Also, seeding Wyoming big sagebrush increases its density with time since fire. Seeding of grasses and forbs is less successful at locations that were dominated primarily by annual grasses (cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)), and devoid of shrubs, prior to wildfire. This supports the hypothesis of a "closing window of opportunity" for seeding at locations that burned sagebrush for the first time in recent history. PMID:18790557

Eiswerth, Mark E; Krauter, Karl; Swanson, Sherman R; Zielinski, Mike

2009-02-01

363

An evaluation of the Wyoming Gauge System for snowfall measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wyoming snow fence (shield) has been widely used with precipitation gauges for snowfall measurement at more than 25 locations in Alaska since the late 1970s. This gauge's measurements have been taken as the reference for correcting wind-induced gauge undercatch of snowfall in Alaska. Recently, this fence (shield) was tested in the World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation Measurement Intercomparison Project

Daqing Yang; Douglas L. Kane; Larry D. Hinzman; Barry E. Goodison; John R. Metcalfe; Paul Y. T. Louie; George H. Leavesley; Douglas G. Emerson; Clayton L. Hanson

2000-01-01

364

76 FR 18240 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L13200000-EL0000; WYW177903] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of...Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the West Antelope II...

2011-04-01

365

76 FR 64099 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L13200000-EL0000; WYW174596] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of...Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the South Hilight Field...

2011-10-17

366

77 FR 22607 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L57000000-BX0000; WYW176095] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the South Porcupine Coal Tract described below in Campbell County,...

2012-04-16

367

77 FR 3790 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L13200000-EL0000; WYW176095] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the South Porcupine Coal Tract described below in Campbell County,...

2012-01-25

368

77 FR 31385 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L57000000.BX0000; WYW173408] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the North Porcupine Coal Tract described below in Campbell County,...

2012-05-25

369

76 FR 28063 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L13200000-EL0000; WYW161248] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the Belle Ayr North Coal Tract described below in Campbell County,...

2011-05-13

370

76 FR 35465 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLWY922000-L51100000-GA0000-LVEMK09CK36; WYW172657] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of...Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the Caballo West Coal...

2011-06-17

371

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL AND VEGETATION CHARACTERISTICS: WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH ALLIANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. wyomingenis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh) alliance is the most extensive of the big sagebrush complex in the Intermountain West and is characterized by a wide range of environments and vegetation heterogeneity. However, the influence of environ...

372

Wyoming Community College System Summer 2005 Enrollment Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes Summer 2005 semester enrollment information for Wyoming's seven comprehensive community colleges. Selected data includes student counts by credit hours, county, full-time students (FTE), program or study, ethnicity and a ten-year history. (Contains 11 tables.) [For Spring 2005 enrollment report, see ED502747.

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2006

2006-01-01

373

Wyoming Community College System Fall 2005 Enrollment Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes Fall 2005 semester enrollment information for Wyoming's seven comprehensive community colleges. Selected data includes student counts by credit hours, county, full-time students (FTE), program or study, ethnicity and a ten-year history. (Contains 12 tables.) [For Summer 2005 enrollment report, see ED502746.

Wyoming Community College Commission, 2006

2006-01-01

374

Archaeological trash: Geomorphology and early human occupation in Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste products of stone tool making and isolated artifacts found on land surfaces can illuminate aspects of human culture and of landscape evolution even though they lack stratigraphic context. Quartzite artifacts and debris occurring on pediments near Pinedale (Wyoming) include cobbles from which multiple flakes have been removed by percussion. Some of the specimens have been polished and abraded

Luna B. Leopold; Claudio Vita-Finzi

2005-01-01

375

Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative data management and integration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six Federal agencies, two State agencies, and two local entities formally support the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) and work together on a landscape scale to manage fragile habitats and wildlife resources amidst growing energy development in southwest Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was tasked with implementing targeted research and providing scientific information about southwest Wyoming to inform the development of WLCI habitat enhancement and restoration projects conducted by land management agencies. Many WLCI researchers and decisionmakers representing the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the State of Wyoming, and others have overwhelmingly expressed the need for a stable, robust infrastructure to promote sharing of data resources produced by multiple entities, including metadata adequately describing the datasets. Descriptive metadata facilitates use of the datasets by users unfamiliar with the data. Agency representatives advocate development of common data handling and distribution practices among WLCI partners to enhance availability of comprehensive and diverse data resources for use in scientific analyses and resource management. The USGS Core Science Informatics (CSI) team is developing and promoting data integration tools and techniques across USGS and partner entity endeavors, including a data management infrastructure to aid WLCI researchers and decisionmakers.

Latysh, Natalie; Bristol, Sky

2011-01-01

376

Accelerating the College and Career Readiness of Wyoming's Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wyoming is in the process of transitioning to new English language arts and mathematics standards that will better prepare students to be successful in college and their careers. Time, effort, and resources must be dedicated to effective implementation in order to realize the promise of these new common core state standards. This paper captures…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

2011-01-01

377

Geology Fieldnotes: Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Montana/Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area information, including geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, and links for additional facts about this area of Wyoming and Montana. Included are details about the geologic history of the area, formations, the Pryar and Bighorn Mountains, and the exploration history of the land.

378

INVESTIGATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION NEAR PAVILLION, WYOMING  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to complaints by domestic well owners regarding objectionable taste and odor problems in well water, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a ground water investigation near the town of Pavillion, Wyoming under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental ...

379

Sage Grouse Conservation in Wyoming: A Case Study in Cooperation  

E-print Network

Sage Grouse Conservation in Wyoming: A Case Study in Cooperation Bob Budd, Chairman Governor of Endangered Species Act · Broad distribution of Sage-grouse #12;History of the Issue · Petitioning under: "Not Warranted" · 2007: Sage Grouse Summit led to establishment of SGIT · 2007: December decision

Wyoming, University of

380

U.S. in the World: Wyoming/Algeria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wyoming and Algeria help power the world as major providers of energy. Although energy production forms the backbone of both regions, agricultural production --both farming and livestock--dominates the landscape. Read about how energy development and agriculture challenge both places' environmental quality.

Population Reference Bureau

381

LEVEL IV ECOREGION DELINEATION FOR THE STATE OF WYOMING  

EPA Science Inventory

Level III ecoregions were refined and subdivided into level IV for the state of Wyoming in a manner consistent with ecoregion revision and subdivision that has been completed or is on-going in 37 of the conterminous United States. The project was collaborative, involving the scie...

382

Body Measuremenls of Western Jumping Mice from Northwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of tlrc western jumping mouse (Z.tpn( priniept aabeufu) was investigated by Clark (1971) in Grand Teton Narional Park, \\\\Fyoming. In conjunction with rhar study, body measure- ments were made on 115 mice. This paper reports those data (Table 1). The only previously published morphological data on Z. p. utdhensir from Wyoming were by Iong (1965). He listed average

Tim W. Clark

383

The Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)of Wyoming, USA, Revisited.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This survey of the earthworms from 22 of the 23 counties of Wyoming recorded 13 species of terrestrial Oligochaeta, all members of the family Lumbricidae. One of these species, Aporrectodea limicola, is reported for the first time from the state. Current nomenclature is applied to historical records...

384

SAVANNAH SPARROWS NESTING IN ALPINE HABITAT IN WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) nests were found in alpine willow habitat at 3150 m elevation in the Beartooth Mountains of northern Wyoming, USA during July 1988. These are the first documented alpine nests for this species south of Canada. The nesting conditions are described and discussed in terms of a recent colonization of alpine habitat by a small, expanding

PAUL HENDRICKS; COLEEN PIDGEON

385

Wyoming Water Resources Research Centter Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Changes Project Number: B-01 Start Date: 3/1/2000 End Date: 2/28/2001 Research Category: Climate of this magnitude should also influence groundwater recharge and, as part of on going work, changes in groundwaterWyoming Water Resources Research Centter Annual Technical Report FY 2000 Introduction None Research

386

FURTHER STUDIES ON TRYPANOSOMES IN GAME ANIMALS IN WYOMING 1100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (Alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in Wyoming by blood culture. Two free-ranging moose from Utah were negative. One of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. Trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 American bison (Bison bison) being brought

NEWTON KINGSTON; E. TOM; GEORGE M. THOMAS; B LINDA McHOLLANDand; MALCOLM S. TRUEBLOOD

387

Enhancing Wyoming Big Sagebrush Establishment with Cultural Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) has proven difficult to re- establish by direct seeding on mined lands in the western U.S. This paper reviews research accomplishments over the last decade that address ecological and cultural practices to enhance big sagebrush establishment. Direct-placed topsoil, mulching and arbuscular mycorrhizae have been shown to positively influence seedling establishment of this species

G. E. Schuman; D. T. Booth; R. A. Olson

388

Browsing Effects on Wyoming Big Sagebrush Plants and Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of likely yearlong browsing by several wild ungulate species on individual Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) plants and communities was studied. The investigation was conducted near Gardiner, MT, in the ungu- late-rich boundary line area of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Plant level responses were measured in this study and related to reported community responses. Individual

Carl L. Wambolt; Trista Hoffman

389

Seeded Native Shrub Establishment on Disturbed Sites in Southwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical wildlife habitat supporting mule deer, antelope, and sage grouse in high elevation rangeland and sagebrush ecosystems of southwest Wyoming is threatened by an expanding population and energy exploration and development. Our objective was to evaluate native shrub species establishment for restoration after disturbance. In October 2005, on a well-pad disturbance, 16 accessions of 13 native shrub species were drill-seeded

James S. Jacobs; MT Bozeman; R. Winslow; Karen J. Clause; Pinedale WY; Roger Hybner

390

The boron isotope systematics of the Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming) hydrothermal system: A reconnaissance  

SciTech Connect

Boron concentrations and isotope compositions have been measured in fourteen hot spring waters, two drill hole waters, an unaltered rhyolite flow, and hydrothermally altered rhyolite from the geothermal system in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The samples are representative of the major thermal areas within the park and span the range of fluid types. For the fluids, the B concentrations range from 0.043-2.69 mM/kg, and the {delta}{sup 11}B values range from {minus}9.3 to +4.4{per thousand}. There is no relationship between the dissolved B concentrations or isotope compositions with the concentration of any major element (other than Cl) or physical property. Each basin is characterized by a restricted range in B/Cl ratios and {delta}{sup 11}B values. Hot spring waters from the Norris Basin, Upper Geyser Basin, Calcite Springs, and Clearwater have {delta}{sup 11}B values close to that of unaltered rhyolite ({minus}5.2{per thousand}) and are interpreted to have derived their B from this source. Waters from Mammoth Hot Springs, Sheepeater, and Rainbow Springs have lower {delta}{sup 11}B values close to {minus}8{per thousand}. These lower values may reflect leaching of B from sedimentary rocks outside the Yellowstone caldera, but they are similar to the {delta}{sup 11}B value of hydrothermally altered rhyolite ({minus}9.7{per thousand}). Hence, the light boron isotope compositions recorded in these hot spring waters may reflect leaching of previously deposited hydrothermal minerals. Cooler springs along the Yellowstone River just outside the park boundary have lower B concentrations and higher {delta}{sup 11}B values that may reflect mixing with shallow meteoric water.

Palmer, M.R. (Bristol Univ. (England)); Sturchio, N.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-10-01

391

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL AND GAS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five sub-contractors that have taken place during the first six months (January 1, 2003--June 30, 2003) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Gnomon, Inc. and all five (5) subcontractors have agreed on a process for the framework of this two-year project. They have also started gathering geomorphological information and entering cultural resource data into databases that will be used to create models later in the project. This data is being gathered in both the Power River Basin of Wyoming, and the Southeastern region of New Mexico. Several meetings were held with key players in this project to explain the purpose of the research, to obtain feedback and to gain support. All activities have been accomplished on time and within budget with no major setbacks.

Peggy Robinson

2003-07-25

392

Seismic model study of Patrick Draw field, Wyoming: a stratigraphic trap in the Upper Cretaceous Almond Formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Patrick Draw field, located on the eastern flank of the Rock Springs uplift in the Washakie basin of southwestern Wyoming, was discovered in 1959 without the use of geophysical methods. The field is a classic example of a stratigraphic trap, where Upper Cretaceous porous sandstone units pinch out on a structural nose. Two-dimensional seismic modeling was used to construct the seismic waveform expressions of the Patrick Draw field, and to better understand how to explore for other 'Patrick Draw' fields. Interpretation of the model shows that the detection of the reservoir sand is very difficult, owing to a combination of acoustic contrasts and bed thickness. Because the model included other major stratigraphic units in the subsurface, several stratigraphic traps are suggested as potential exploration targets.

Anderson, Robert C.; Ryder, Robert T.

1978-01-01

393

Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

SciTech Connect

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

Not Available

1993-10-01

394

Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation in Wyoming (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Wyoming is a significant energy exporter, producing nearly 40% of the nation's coal and 10% of the nation's natural gas. However, opportunities to add new energy exports in the form of power generation are limited by insufficient transmission capacity. This fact sheet summarizes results from a recent analysis conducted by NREL for the Wyoming Infrastructure Authority (WIA) that estimates jobs and economic development activity that could occur in Wyoming should the market support new investments in power generation and transmission in the state.

Not Available

2011-05-01

395

Land and federal mineral ownership coverage for southern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Arc/Info coverage contains land status and Federal mineral ownership for approximately 37,800 square miles in southern Wyoming. The polygon coverage (which is also provided here as a shapefile) contains two attributes of ownership information for each polygon. One attribute indicates where the surface is State owned, privately owned, or, if Federally owned, which Federal agency manages the land surface. The other attribute indicates which minerals, if any, are owned by the Federal govenment. This coverage is based on land status and Federal mineral ownership data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wyoming State Bureau of Land Management (BLM) at a scale of 1:24,000. This coverage was compiled primarily to serve the USGS National Oil and Gas Resource Assessment and National Coal Resource Assessment Projects in the Northern Rocky Mountains/Great Plains Region.

Biewick, L.H.; Mercier, T.J.; Saber, T.T.; Urbanowski, S.R.; Neasloney, Larry

1999-01-01

396

Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These two radar images show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color radar images obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at the left was obtained using the L-band radar channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the image (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow indicates areas of canopy burn and mixed burn with a biomass of between 12 to 20 tons per hectare; light green is mixed burn and on-burn forest with a biomass of 20 to 35 tons per hectare; and green is non-burned forest with a biomass of greater than 35 tons per hectare. Forest recovery from the fire seems to depend on fire intensity and soil conditions. In areas of severe canopy burn and poor soil conditions, crown biomass was still low in 1994 (indicated by the brown areas at the center left), whereas in areas of mixed burn with nutrient-rich soils, seen west of Yellowstone Lake, crown biomass has increased significantly in six years (indicated by the yellow and light green areas). Imaging fire-affected regions with spaceborne radar illustrates SIR-C/X-SAR's keen abilities to monitor regrowth after a fire. Knowing the amount of carbon accumulated in the atmosphere by regenerating forest in the 20 to 50 years following a fire disturbance is also a significant factor in understanding the global carbon cycle. Measuring crown biomass is necessary to evaluate the effects of past and future fires in specific regions. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm), and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes that are caused by nature and those changes that are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italian

1994-01-01

397

Foreland structure - Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of public drilling records from the AMOCO Beartooth Number 1 and 1 A sidetrack boreholes (SW1/4, SE1/4, Section 19, T.8 S., R.20 E., Carbon County, Montana) continues. Several additional inferences are made about this large foreland structure, and subsequent interpretation of the structural model of the northeast corner of the Beartooth Mountain Block and structural relationship with the Big Horn Basin. The structure is described as a large recumbent to sub-horizontal, synclinal fold with the overturned upper limb out diagonally by the Beartooth Thrust or Thrust Zone and a complex thrust fault zone below the Beartooth Thrust. The single recorded dip angle and direction of the Beartooth Thrust at depth was 19 degrees to the northwest(?). The dipmeter dip angle on the Beartooth Thrust, 19 degrees, validates foreland structural theory of decreasing dip angles at a vertical depth of 8,232 feet (2,509 m), in the Precambrian crystalline basement. The northwest dip direction may be attributable to secondary structural folding. The record of northwest, southeast, and southwest dip of bedding surfaces and faults in sections of the overturned upper limb, in both boreholes, suggests possible, less intense secondary folding, after thrust fault deformation. Given the overall geometry of this large foreland structure, there is little doubt that the average direction of maximum principal stress (sigma 1) was oriented in a northeast - southwest direction.

Clark, D.M. [Exodus - Exploration, Inc., Billings, MT (United States)

1996-06-01

398

U.S. Geological Survey Science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative: 2012 annual report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southwest Wyoming contains abundant energy resources, wildlife, habitat, open spaces, and outdoor recreational opportunities. Although energy exploration and development have been taking place in the region since the late 1800s, the pace of development for fossil fuels and renewable energy increased significantly in the early 2000s. This and the associated urban and exurban development are leading to landscape-level environmental and socioeconomic changes that have the potential to diminish wildlife habitat and other natural resources, and the quality of human lives, in Southwest Wyoming. The potential for negative effects of these changes prompted Federal, State, and local agencies to undertake the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative for Southwest Wyoming.

Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Bern, Carleton R.; Biewick, Laura R.H.; Boughton, Gregory K.; Carr, Natasha B.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Chong, Geneva W.; Clark, Melanie L.; Fedy, Bradford C.; Foster, Katharine; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephen; Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Homer, Collin; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Keinath, Douglas; Latysh, Natalie; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Montag, Jessica; Potter, Christopher J.; Schell, Spencer; Shafer, Sarah L.; Smith, David B.; Sweat, Michael J.; Wilson, Anna B.

2014-01-01

399

Response of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) to defoliation of understory grasses and drought.  

E-print Network

??Water potential, leaf conductance, growth, nitrogen content, and seedling survival of Wyoming Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) following defoliation of the herbaceous understory were… (more)

Purrington, Teal Mackenzie

1992-01-01

400

[DOE/EPSCoR traineeship program for Wyoming: Progress report  

SciTech Connect

In the first year of the traineeship program supported by the Department of Energy EPSCoR funding, the University of Wyoming has made outstanding progress toward the objective of increasing the supply of highly trained engineers and scientists with interests in energy related disciplines. The scope of the traineeship program has already broadened to encompass both more departments than originally expected and nearly twice as many graduate students as expected. Further, since the primary emphasis was on new students, most of those recruited have developed ties to the DOE labs that would not have otherwise existed. This portion of this Progress Report gives an overall summary of the University of Wyoming`s approach to the DOE Traineeship Program implementation. It also provides an overview of the results so far and vision of how this program fits with the broader objectives for development of the University and its academic programs. Subsequent sections describe very briefly the impact of the traineeship students in each department that was successful in obtaining funds through the competitive process that was adopted. Finally, the report ends with a summary of both the academic status of the participants and the budget expenditures to date.

Not Available

1992-08-01

401

Habitat use and movements of repatriated Wyoming toads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied habitat use and movements of a repatriated population of federally endangered Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) after the breeding season at Mortenson Lake, Albany County, Wyoming, USA. We followed 8 adult toads using telemetry (n = 68 relocations) during periods of activity and observed 59 post-metamorphic juvenile toads (n = 59 locations). Adult toads used habitat with a greater mean vegetation canopy cover (mean = 52.6%) than juveniles (mean = 39.20%). We found adults farther from the shoreline (mean = 1.32 m) than juveniles (mean = 1.04 m). Substrates used by toads had a mean surface temperature of 20.31??C for adults and 23.05??C for juveniles. We found most adult and juvenile toads on saturated substrates. All adult toads sampled did not move outside of a 30 x 500 m area along the east-to-south shore where they were captured. Toads were active diurnally through the end of October. We found toads torpid at night. We compared our results to a similar study of the historic population and found that adult toads of the current population used denser vegetation than those of the historic population. Unlike many bufonids, terrestrial stages of the Wyoming toad appear to depend on saturated substrates. The best logistic regression predictors of adult and juvenile toad presence were surface temperature and distance to shore. Survey transects within the moist margin of the lake (???10 m from water) and after substrates have reached temperatures ???20??C will likely yield more detections.

Parker, J.M.; Anderson, S.H.

2003-01-01

402

Further studies on trypanosomes in game animals in Wyoming II.  

PubMed

Further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (Alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in Wyoming by blood culture. Two free-ranging moose from Utah were negative. One of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. Trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 American Bison (Bison bison) being brought into Wyoming from Nebraska. Nineteen additional bison were negative for trypanosomes by blood cultures. Identification of species was not possible due to the failure to obtain bloodstream trypomastigotes from this host. Trypanosomes were recovered from 8 of 57 pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). This is the first report of Trypanosoma sp. from bison and from pronghorn; the trypanosome from moose was identified as Trypanosoma cervi from bloodstream trypomastigotes. In 1978, natural transplacental transmission of trypanosomes was found to occur in 1 of 15 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fetuses, examined near term by blood culture. No trypanosomes were found in 18 male deer fetuses examined in 1979. Of 100 free-ranging elk from western Wyoming examined by blood culture in 1979, 71 were infected. These data are compared with data from 1973-74. PMID:7338978

Kingston, N; Thorne, E T; Thomas, G M; McHolland, L; Trueblood, M S

1981-10-01

403

Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part A - Coal and wind  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To further advance the objectives of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wyoming State Geological Survey (WSGS) have compiled Part A of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming. Focusing primarily on electrical power sources, Part A of the energy map is a compilation of both published and previously unpublished coal (including coalbed gas) and wind energy resources data, presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package. Energy maps, data, documentation and spatial data processing capabilities are available in a geodatabase, published map file (pmf), ArcMap document (mxd), Adobe Acrobat PDF map (plate 1) and other digital formats that can be downloaded at the USGS website. Accompanying the map (plate 1) and the geospatial data are four additional plates that describe the geology, energy resources, and related infrastructure. These tabular plates include coal mine (plate 2), coal field (plate 3), coalbed gas assessment unit (plate 4), and wind farm (plate 5) information with hyperlinks to source publications and data on the internet. The plates can be printed and examined in hardcopy, or accessed digitally. The data represent decades of research by the USGS, WSGS, BLM and others, and can facilitate landscape-level science assessments, and resource management decisionmaking.

Biewick, Laura R.H.; Jones, Nicholas R.

2012-01-01

404

Limnology of the Upper North Platte Reservoir System, Wyoming. Final report, 1976-1979  

SciTech Connect

The baseline limnology of Seminoe, Kortes, Pathfinder, and Alcova Reservoirs, on the North Platte River in Wyoming, was studied by Bureau limnologists during 1976-79. The study period included 2 years of severe drought followed by two of higher than average runoff in the North Platte basin. The reservoirs differ greatly in volume and operating patterns: Seminoe (1.25 x 10 to the 9th power/cu m) is mainly for power production; Kortes (5.88 x 10 to the 6th power cu m) and Alcova (2.27 x 10 to the 8th power cu m), flow regulation; and Pathfinder (1.25 x 10 to the 9th power cu m), for storage. The three major system tributaries, the North Platte, Medicine Bow, and Sweetwater Rivers, differ significantly in chemical composition and annual flow volume. Limnology of the Upper North Platte reservoir system is typical in many ways of the High Plains Region of the Western U.S.; i.e., the reservoir waters are dimictic and alkaline, with salinity averaging 369 mg/l and calcium carbonate hardness averaging 184 mg/l. Also, the bluegreen alga, Aphanizomenon flox-aquae, blooms in late summer. Study results showed that this annual bloom depends on a shift from phosphorus-limiting conditions in early summer to more nitrogen-limiting conditions by late summer.

Sartoris, J.J.; LaBounty, J.F.; Campbell, S.G.; Boehmke, J.R.

1981-07-01

405

Late Quaternary Vegetation and Climate of the Wind River Range, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments from Rapid Lake document glacial and vegetation history in the Temple Lake valley of the Wind River Range, Wyoming over the past 11,000 to 12,000 yr. Radiocarbon age determinations on basal detrital organic matter from Rapid Lake (11,770 ± 710 yr B.P.) and Temple Lake (11,400 ± 630 yr B.P.) bracket the age of the Temple Lake moraine, suggesting that the moraine formed in the late Pleistocene. This terminal Pleistocene readvance may be represented at lower elevations by the expansion of forest into intermontane basins 12,000 to 10,000 yr B.P. Vegetation in the Wind River Range responded to changing environmental conditions at the end of the Pleistocene. Following deglaciation, alpine tundra in the Temple Lake valley was replaced by a Pinus albicaulis parkland by about 11,300 14C yr B.P. Picea and Abies, established by 10,600 14C yr B.P., grew with Pinus albicaulis in a mixed conifer forest at and up to 100 m above Rapid Lake for most of the Holocene. Middle Holocene summer temperatures were about 1.5°C warmer than today. By about 5400 14C yr B.P. Pinus albicaulis and Abies became less prominent at upper treeline because of decreased winter snowpack and higher maximum summer temperatures. The position of the modern treeline was established by 3000 14 C yr B.P. when Picea retreated downslope in response to Neoglacial cooling.

Fall, Patricia L.; Davis, P. Thompson; Zielinski, Gregory A.

1995-05-01

406

Depositional and tectonic setting of Quadrant and Tensleep Sandstone, Montana and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Quadrant Sandstone in southwestern Montana and the equivalent Tensleep Sandstone in northwestern Wyoming reflect transition from marine to nonmarine depositional settings. Thickness and facies relationships were influenced by tectonic events that preceded and followed deposition. Three important tectonic events are indicated in the Carboniferous strata: (1) separation of the Big Snowy Group and older Mississippian rocks from the overlying Amsden Group, (2) separation of the Amsden from the overlying Quadrant-Tensleep, and (3) separation of the latter from overlying Permian rocks. Locally, the Quadrant and Tensleep were deposited above rocks of significantly different ages within relatively short distances, owing to differential uplift and erosion of older rocks during the second tectonic event. Initial Quadrant and Tensleep deposition occurred as coastal dunes and as littoral sands in a shallow epeiric sea. Marine deposition was succeeded by progradation of a sand sea, characterized by extensive eolian dune and minor interdune facies. The dune facies seems more extensive in areas of subsidence, but this may be due to erosion of the eolian facies from positive areas during the third (pre-Permian) tectonic event. Some thickness and facies differences of the Quadrant are coincident with linear structural trends such as the northeast-trending Greenhorn lineament in southwestern Montana. Similar structural trends may also have affected deposition of the Tensleep Sandstone in the Bighorn basin.

Saperstone, H.I.; Maughan, E.K.

1986-08-01

407

Eolian evidence for climatic fluctuations during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of eolian features, particularly sand dunes, in the Ferris-Lost Solider area of south-central Wyoming demonstrates the dynamic character of late Pleistocene and Holocene climatic fluctuations in a high altitude, intermontane basin. Directly- and indirectly-dated stratigraphic, sedimentary, and geomorphic evidence documents recurrent late Quaternary eolian activity as well as the timing and severity of episodic aridity during the Altithermal. Eolian activity in the Ferris-Lost Solider area began under cool and arid conditions by the late Pleistocene. Radiocarbon-dated dune and interdune strata reveal that Holocene sand dune building at Ferris-Lost Solider peaked between ca. 7660 and 4540 years b.p. The first phase of dune building was the most extensive and lasted until ca. 6460 years b.p. Warm, persistently arid conditions during this time favored active dunes with slipfaces, even in historically well-vegetated locales subject to high water tables. Increased effective moisture from ca. 6460 to 5940 years b.p. promoted dune stabilizing vegetation; but renewed dune building, lasting until ca. 4540 years b.p., followed this climatic moderation. Subsequent dune and interdune deposits reveal a return to climatic conditions where only sporadic and localized dune reactivations have interrupted overall dune stability. The most significant recent reactivation, probably associated with a regional decrease in effective moisture, occurred ca. 290 years b.p.

Gaylord, D.R.

1985-01-01

408

Morphometric and Meristic Differences among Bluehead Suckers, Flannelmouth Suckers, White Suckers, and Their Hybrids: Tools for the Management of Native Species in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization with nonnative fishes is a major factor influencing the status of native catostomids in the Colorado River basin. In Wyoming, hybridization with nonnative white suckers Catostomus commersonii is a particular concern in the conservation of native bluehead suckers C. discobolus and flannelmouth suckers C. latipinnis. The purpose of this study was to describe the meristic and morphometric characteristics of

Michael C. Quist; Michael R. Bower; Wayne A. Hubert; Thomas L. Parchman; David B. McDonald

2009-01-01

409

Random versus Fixed-Site Sampling When Monitoring Relative Abundance of Fishes in Headwater Streams of the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native fishes of the upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) have declined in distribution and abundance due to habitat degradation and interactions with nonnative fishes. Consequently, monitoring populations of both native and nonnative fishes is important for conservation of native species. We used data collected from Muddy Creek, Wyoming (2003–2004), to compare sample size estimates using a random and a fixed-site

Michael C. Quist; Kenneth G. Gerow; Michael R. Bower; Wayne A. Hubert

2006-01-01

410

Radium isotope geochemistry of thermal waters, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radium isotope activities ( 226Ra, 228Ra, and 224Ra), chemical compositions, and sulfur isotope ratios in sulfate were determined for water samples from thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Activities of 226Ra in these waters range from <0.2 to 37.9 dpm/kg. Activity ratios of 228Ra /226Ra range from 0.26 to 14.2, and those of 224Ra /228Ra range from 0.73 to 3.1. Radium concentrations are inversely correlated with aquifer equilibration temperatures (estimated from dissolved silica concentrations), while[ Ra/Ba] aq and 228Ra /226Ra activity ratios depend upon U/Ba and Th/U ratios in aquifer rocks. Major controls on Ra concentration in Yellowstone thermal waters are inferred to be (1) barite saturation (at Morris Geyser Basin, Mammoth Hot Springs, and other northern areas) and (2) zeolitewater ion exchange (at Upper Geyser Basin). The data are consistent with a model in which (1) radium and barium are supplied to water by bulk dissolution of aquifer rock, and (2) chemical equilibration of water with rock is rapid relative to the 1602 year half-life of 226Ra. The 228Ra /226Ra activity ratios of the waters may in some cases reflect surface enrichments of 232Th and/or may indicate that ?-recoil input of 228Ra is rapid relative to water-rock chemical equilibration. Activity ratios of 224Ra /228Ra indicate a nearly ubiquitous 224Ra excess that generally increases with decreasing pH. Near-surface (?100 m) thermal water flow velocities at Mammoth Hot Springs are estimated from 224Ra /228Ra variation to be ? 1 m h -1.

Sturchio, N. C.; Bohlke, J. K.; Markun, F. J.

1993-03-01

411

Geology of the Carnegie museum dinosaur quarry site of Diplodocus carnegii, Sheep Creek, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The holotype of Diplodocus carnegii Hatcher, 1901, consists of a partial skeleton (CM 84) that was recovered, along with a second partial skeleton of the same species (CM 94), from the upper 10 m of the Talking Rock facies of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation exposed along Bone Quarry Draw, a tributary of Sheep Creek in Albany County, Wyoming. A composite measured section of the stratigraphic interval exposed adjacent to the quarry indicates that the Brushy Basin Member in this area is a stacked succession of lithofacies consisting of hackly, greenish gray, calcareous mudstone and greenish brown, dense, fine-grained limestone. The more erosion resistant limestone layers can be traced over many hundreds of meters. Thus, these strata do not appear to represent a highly localized deposit such as a stream channel, oxbow lake, or backwater pond. The Sheep Creek succession is interpreted as representing a clastic-dominated lake where high turbidity and sediment influx produced deposition of calcareous mudstone. During drier periods the lake's turbidity decreased and limestone and dolomite precipitation replaced mud deposition. Microkarsting at the top of some limestone/ dolomite layers suggests subaerial deposition may have prevailed during these dry episodes. The quarry of D. carnegii was excavated within the top strata of one of the numerous intervals of hackly, greenish gray, calcareous mudstone that represent an ephemeral freshwater lake. The quarry strata are directly overlain by 0.3 m of dolomite-capped limestone that was deposited shortly after interment of D. carnegii in the lake mudstones. The close vertical proximity of the overlying limestone to the skeleton's stratigraphic: level suggests that the animal's carcass may have been buried beneath the drying lake deposits during a period of decreased rainfall.

Brezinski, D.K.; Kollar, A.D.

2008-01-01

412

Distribution of bromine in bedded halite in the Green River Formation, southwestern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wilkins Peak Member of the Eocene Green River Formation of southwestern Wyoming contains a series of halite-trona beds deposited in ancestral Lake Gosiute. X-ray fluorescence analysis of 311) salt samples from 10 core holes revealed bromine contents ranging from 11 to 174 ppm. The average concentration, corrected to 100 percent sodium chloride, is approximately 80 ppm. The bromine content of most halite beds increases from the base upward. Variations or 'spikes' in the bromine profile and reversals of the upward increase in bromine are evidenced within several salt beds. Bromine of bed 10 salt zones exhibits a high degree of correlation laterally. No increase in bromine concentration for correlated salt zones was noted from the basin margins to the depositional center in the northeastern part of the study area. A great disparity in salt thickness from the depositional center to the margins suggests stratified lake conditions in which denser, sodium-chloride-saturated bottom brines did not extend to the margins during part of the depositional history of bed 10. Paleosalinity trends of Lake Gosiute determined from the bromine distribution include the following: (1) chemically stratified lake conditions with dense, highly saline bottom waters and a fresher water zone above during much of the depositional history of the halites, (2) gradual evaporation of lake waters in a closed basin with resultant upward increase in salinity for most intervals studied, and (3) absence of lateral lake-bottom salinity gradients or postdepositional salt alteration as determined by the lateral constancy of bromine concentrations for correlated bed 10 halite.

Higley, D.K.

1983-01-01

413

Leachate migration from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated through models of ground-water flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed ? mile downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-foot sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Ground-water flow in the study area is complexly three dimensional and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute-transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where ground water discharges to the land surface. Leachate with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 milligrams per liter or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--was estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. This report describes many of th3 advantages, as well as the problems, of site-specific studies. Data such as the distribution of thin, permeable beds or fractures might introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily into site-specific models. Solute migration in the study area occurs primarily in thin, permeable beds rather than in oil-shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site-specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site-specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and ground-water velocity will be poorly estimated.

Glover, Kent C.

1988-01-01

414

Leachate migration from an in situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geohydrologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in situ oil shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated by developing models of groundwater flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed 1/2 mi downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-ft sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Groundwater flow in the study area is complexly 3-D and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where groundwater discharges to the land surface. Leachates with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 mg/L or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--were estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. Advantages as well as the problems of site specific studies are described. Data such as the distribution of thin permeable beds or fractures may introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily in site specific models. Solute migration in the study area primarily occurs in thin permeable beds rather than in oil shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and groundwater velocity will be estimated poorly. (Author 's abstract)

Glover, K.C.

1986-01-01

415

Dyslexia and the failure to form a perceptual anchor Merav Ahissar1,2, Yedida Lubin3, Hanna Putter-Katz2,6 & Karen Banai4,5  

E-print Network

Dyslexia and the failure to form a perceptual anchor Merav Ahissar1,2, Yedida Lubin3, Hanna Putter with previously suggested static models of dyslexia. Instead, we propose that D-LDs' core deficit is a general and mechanisms at the level of specific neuronal circuits. Developmental dyslexia was first documented more than

Joskowicz, Leo

416

Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts of the project, water from domestic use is obtained chiefly from the sandstone beds of the Wind River formation although some is obtained from the alluvium underlying the bottom land and from the unconsolidated deposits underlying the lower terraces along the Wind River. Although adequate quantities if water for domestic use are available from the Wind River formation, there quantities are not considered to be large enough to warrant pumping of ground water for irrigation. Only a few wells are in the nonirrigated part of the area. When this new land is irrigated, a body of ground water will gradually form in the terrace deposits and the alluvial and colluvial-alluvial deposits. Eventually, the terrace deposits may yield adequate quantities of water for domestic and stock use, but only locally are the alluvial and colluvial-alluvial deposits likely to become suitable aquifers. In the Riverton irrigation project area, ground water occurs under water-table conditions near the surface and under artesian conditions in certain strata at both shallow and greater depths. Irrigation is the principal source of recharge to the shallow aquifers; the water level in wells that tap these aquifers fluctuates with irrigation. The depth to water in the shallow wells ranges from less than 1 foot to about 30 feet below the land surface, depending on the season of the year and on the length of time the land has been irrigated. The water level in the wells that tap the deep confined aquifers , which receive recharge indirectly from surface sources, fluctuates only slightly because the recharge and discharge are more constant. In most places the depth to water in wells penetrating the deep confined aquifers is mush greater than that in shallow wells. but in certain low areas water from the deep aquifers flows at the surface from wells. Ground water moves from the area of recharge in the direction of the hydraulic gradient and is discharges either by evapotranspiration; by inflow into streams, drains, or lakes; by pumping or flow of wells; or by flow of springs. Waterlogging and the a

Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

1959-01-01

417

77 FR 25664 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...would not apply in these areas (Chapter 47, section 4(a)). Although some hunting is currently allowed in the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway under the Parkway's enabling legislation and Wyoming law, Wyoming's hunting...

2012-05-01

418

Hellas: A double-impact basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the major axis to minor axis ratio of about 1.3, Hellas is probably the most elliptical giant impact basin on Mars, even more elliptical than the basin fits to the northern lowland [1]. Because less than 4% of the impacts in the solar system have occurred at impact angles greater than 80o relative to the planet surface [2] Hellas is perceived to be formed by a single oblique impact at the first glance. Numerical simulations of oblique impacts have lead to contradictory conclusions. For 1 km size projectile the shape of a resulting crater is found indistinguishable from circle as long as the impact angle is greater than 30o [3], whereas for a putative planetary scale impact that has created the northern lowland the impact angle as high as 60 degrees fundamentally affects the ellipticity of the supergiant basin [4]. Despite these contradicting results the two numerical models are in agreement in that a single impact creates a single cavity characterized by a single bowel shape with a maximum depth located beneath the basin. The subsequent basin collapse, impact induced melt and later volcanism have resulted in a smooth floor of Hellas, to a point that the present topography does not provide any viable information about the structure of the excavated cavity. Unlike these surface processes, the mantle plug created in the process of isostatic uplift of the mantle, has likely been less modified. Based on this premise, I calculated the shape of the mantle plug beneath Hellas basin using MOLA surface topography [5] and most recent gravity field of Mars, MRO110B2 of Jet Propulsion Laboratory [6], assuming that the gravity field arises from the surface topography and the crust-mantle density contract associated with the mantle plug. Spherical harmonics coefficients of degree 2-20 are retained to suppress small scale features. The resulting crust-mantle boundary shows two distinct mantle plugs one at the northwest and the other at the southeast of the center of the basin, indicating that Hellas basin may have been actually formed by two comparable impacts with a center to center distance of about 640 km. At this harmonic band the floor of Hellas also shows two distinct but slight depressions exactly over the mantle uplifts, but the free Air anomaly is almost featureless indicating that the basin is highly compensated. . [1] Andrews-Hanna, J.C., et al., Nature, 453, 1212-1215, 2008. [2] Shoemaker, E.M., In: Kopal, Z. (Ed.), Physics and Astronomy of the Moon. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 283-359, 1962. [3] Elbeshausen, D., et al., Icarus, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.07.018, 2009, [4] Marinova, M.M., et al., Nature, 453, 1216-1219, 2008. [5] Smith, D., et al., NASA Planetary Data System, MGS-M-MOLA-5-MEGDR-L3-V1.0, 2003. [6] Konopliv, A.S., personal communication, 2010.

Arkani-Hamed, J.