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Sample records for hannes hagu siim

  1. 22 CFR 97.2 - Application for a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention case). 97.2 Section 97.2 Foreign Relations... HAGUE CONVENTION ADOPTION CASES § 97.2 Application for a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention case). (a) Once the Convention has entered into force for the United...

  2. 22 CFR 97.4 - Issuance of a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention case).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention case). 97.4 Section 97.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... CONVENTION ADOPTION CASES § 97.4 Issuance of a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention case). (a) Once the Convention has entered into force for the United States,...

  3. 78 FR 71869 - Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...Title I of the Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (``PLTIA'') amends the patent laws to implement the provisions of the 1999 Geneva Act of the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs (``Hague Agreement'') and is to take effect on the entry into force of the Hague Agreement with respect to the United States. The Hague Agreement provides that an......

  4. Waste treatment at the La Hague and Marcoule sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In this report, an overview of waste treatment and solidification facilities located at the La Hague and Marcoule sites, which are owned and/or operated by Cogema, provided. The La Hague facilities described in this report include the following: The STE3 liquid effluent treatment facility (in operation); the AD2 solid waste processing facility (also in operation); and the UCD alpha waste treatment facility (under construction). The Marcoule facilities described in this report, both of which are in operation, include the following: The STEL-EVA liquid effluent treatment facilities for the entire site; and the alpha waste incinerator of the UPI plant. This report is organized into four sections: this introduction, low-level waste treatment at La Hague, low-level waste treatment at Marcoule, and new process development. including the solvent pyrolysis process currently in the development stage for Cogema`s plants.

  5. Tables of square-law signal detection statistics for Hann spectra with 50 percent overlap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Stanley R.; Cullers, D. Kent

    1991-01-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, currently being planned by NASA, will require that an enormous amount of data be analyzed in real time by special purpose hardware. It is expected that overlapped Hann data windows will play an important role in this analysis. In order to understand the statistical implication of this approach, it has been necessary to compute detection statistics for overlapped Hann spectra. Tables of signal detection statistics are given for false alarm rates from 10(exp -14) to 10(exp -1) and signal detection probabilities from 0.50 to 0.99; the number of computed spectra ranges from 4 to 2000.

  6. 78 FR 77621 - Forum To Discuss Proposed Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Designs, 78 FR 71870 (Nov. 29, 2013). Public comments will not be solicited for the forum. However... To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs AGENCY... International Registration of Industrial Designs (``Hague Agreement'') and is to take effect on the entry...

  7. Measuring progress: the Cairo Plus 5 Hague Forum.

    PubMed

    Shannon, D

    1999-01-01

    While much remains to be done, slow but steady progress is being made to realize the type of social change called for at the UN's 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). 5 years old, the ICPD remains a key theme for parties interested in women's status, reproductive health, and sexuality. The conference and its program of action, a 20-year plan to ethically manage issues related to population and development, represent a new direction which places women's needs at the center of development efforts and human dignity over demographic targets to population policies. The 5-year review and appraisal of the implementation of the ICPD program of action conducted in February 1999 at The Hague was attended by approximately 2000 participants, including nongovernmental representatives, government officials, youth delegates, and UN agency representatives. Participants focused upon evaluating progress to date and improving prospects for future implementation. Much of the discussion in all of the venues focused upon resource mobilization. Developing countries reached 70% of their share of the year 2000 goal for total spending, but grant assistance from donor countries reached only 25% of their commitments for the first 5 years. Few concrete results came out of The Hague events. PMID:12178921

  8. Hague Forum on ICPD noted gains, outlined obstacles.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    In February 1999, delegates from 177 governments, UN agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the media convened for a forum in The Hague to assess the five-year country-level progress in implementing the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The Forum was organized to provide plenary sessions for all delegates and sessions for committees. The agenda was so full that the Forum did not allow as much time for discussion on implementation techniques and lessons learned as delegates had hoped. The summary report of The Hague Forum notes that several countries are implementing broad-based population policies grounded in a human rights framework, but that funding for implementation has been diverted by various crises. The director of international programs at the Population Reference Bureau reported that Iran offered a good example of a government working in partnership with local-level communities to devise culturally-acceptable programs to provide sexual and reproductive health programs for adolescents. In the area of resource allocation, developing countries have fulfilled 70% of their commitment, while developed countries have provided only 35% of their share. Many innovative schemes were proposed for mobilizing implementation resources. PMID:12295085

  9. La Hague Continuous Improvement Program: Enhancement of the Vitrification Throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Petitjean, V.; De Vera, R.; Hollebecque, J.F.; Tronche, E.; Flament, T.; Pereira Mendes, F.; Prod'homme, A.

    2006-07-01

    The vitrification of high-level liquid waste produced from nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out industrially for over 25 years by AREVA/COGEMA, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. At the 'La Hague' plant, in the 'R7' and 'T7' facilities, vitrified waste is obtained by first evaporating and calcining the nitric acid feed solution-containing fission products in calciners. The product-named calcinate- is then fed together with glass frit into induction-heated metallic melters to produce the so-called R7/T7 glass, well known for its excellent containment properties. Both facilities are equipped with three processing lines. In the near future the increase of the fuel burn-up will influence the amount of fission product solutions to be processed at R7/T7. As a consequence, in order to prepare these changes, it is necessary to feed the calciner at higher flow-rates. Consistent and medium-term R and D programs led by CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission, the AREVA/COGEMA's R and D and R and T provider), AREVA/COGEMA (Industrial Operator) and AREVA/SGN (AREVA/COGEMA's Engineering), and associated to the industrial feed back of AREVA/COGEMA operations, have allowed continuous improvement of the process since 1998: - The efficiency and limitation of the equipment have been studied and solutions for technological improvements have been proposed whenever necessary, - The increase of the feeding flow-rate has been implemented on the improved CEA test rig (so called PEV, Evolutional Prototype of Vitrification) and adapted by AREVA/SGN for the La Hague plant using their modeling studies; the results obtained during this test confirmed the technological and industrial feasibility of the improvements achieved, - After all necessary improved equipments have been implemented in R7/T7 facilities, and a specific campaign has been performed on the R7 facility by AREVA/COGEMA. The flow-rate to the

  10. ASTER Observations of 2000-2007 Thermal Features at Pavlof Volcano and Mt. Hague (Emmons Lake Volcanic Center), Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, R. L.; Schneider, D.; Ramsey, M.; Mangan, M. T.

    2007-12-01

    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) is a 15 km by 30 km area of nested calderas, stratovolcanoes, lava domes, hyaloclastite rings, and cinder cones aligned along the arc axis. Pavlof Volcano is the most active volcano along the ELVC, with more than 40 historic eruptions since 1790. The most recent eruption of Pavlof Volcano began in August 2007 after almost 11 years of quiescence. Mount Hague is a prominent intracaldera vent with no known historical eruptions that lies approximately 7 kilometers to the southwest of Pavlof. The southern crater of Mount Hague commonly fluctuates between a crater-filling lake to a dry crater floor with vigorously steaming fumaroles. Mount Hague has another fumarole field on the southeast flank at nearly the same elevation as the crater floor. To better document the behavior of persistent thermal features at these remote volcanoes, we have compiled temperature and dimension data using a seven-year long time series of satellite data. Over 25 daytime and 40 nighttime clear thermal infrared (TIR) images (90 m resolution) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) have recorded variations in the thermal activity at both volcanic vents since July 2000. All cloud-free ASTER TIR observations document persistent low- temperature features at both Pavlof Volcano and Mount Hague during this period. The size and temperature of each thermal feature varies throughout the study period. The data show that the 2518 m summit of Pavlof Volcano is occasionally snow-free in early summer whereas neighboring peaks at lower elevations are still snow-clad. FLIR data acquired near the summit of Pavlof in 2004 show that the majority of warm ground was at 20°C to 40°C. These warm areas commonly persist snow-free into the winter. Temperature variations observed at Mt Hague crater usually correlate to the size of the ephemeral crater lake. As the lake grows, the pixel-integrated ASTER TIR temperature increases. Measurements

  11. 22 CFR 97.5 - Certification of Hague Convention Compliance in an incoming convention case where final adoption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) A copy of the certificate issued by a consular officer pursuant to 22 CFR 42.24(j) certifying that... decree, when based upon the certificate issued by a consular officer pursuant to 22 CFR 42.24(j... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of Hague Convention Compliance...

  12. La Hague Legacy Waste Recovery Program: Scope, Progress and Issues -12080

    SciTech Connect

    Chabeuf, Jean-Michel

    2012-07-01

    A significant inventory of process waste of varying natures and quantities has been generated during the thirty years of operation of UP2 400 facility on the site of La Hague, France. The retrieval, packaging and final storage of such an inventory has never been achieved before in France and thus requires the design and qualification of new processes, equipment, and waste packages. Following AREVA strategic decisions and French safety authority requirements, the legacy waste program has begun around the year 2000 and is scheduled to be completed around the year 2025. It is under the responsibility of AREVA Site Value Development Project teams. For each category of waste to be recovered, AREVA teams conducted detailed investigations, defined recovery modes, treatment processes, as well as final waste package forms, which they subsequently submitted to French safety and waste management authorities. A Task force initiative was subsequently launched to optimize the program cost and scenario, and lead to an optimization of about 15% of the entire program. The qualification of processes and waste packages required a significant amount of research and development which is now well under way for processes, and scheduled to be completed in 2015. Preparation work has begun on several installations to clear space for the construction of future retrieval facilities, scheduled to begin in the coming three years. La Hague Legacy waste retrieval program represents a significant challenge in the sense that it covers a significant variety and quantity of waste needing recovery and reconditioning, with tight financial objectives and a binding recovery schedule. During the past five years, AREVA SVD successfully conducted design, research, development, and qualification activities which lead to the definition of qualified processes and waste packages for each retrieval program. Preparation work and supplier consultations are now on-going, in order to meet our objectives of beginning

  13. What parental characteristics can predict child maltreatment at the Emergency Department? Considering expansion of the Hague Protocol.

    PubMed

    Diderich, Hester M; Dechesne, Mark; Fekkes, Minne; Verkerk, Paul H; Buitendijk, Simone E; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-01

    The Hague Protocol considers three parental characteristics of Emergency Department adult patients to identify child abuse: (a) domestic violence, (b) intoxication, and (c) suicide attempt or auto mutilation. This study investigated whether additional parental characteristics could be included to improve the chance of detection. Using a nested case-control design, we compared parents identified as child abusers who were missed by the Protocol with a matched group of nonabusing parents. The parental characteristics used were, among others, all physical injuries possibly resulting from domestic violence, psychological, or mental complaints that might indicate elevated domestic stress levels and the number of Emergency Department visits during the previous year. None of the characteristics were statistically significantly associated with child abuse. The Hague Protocol will not be improved by adding one or more of the characteristics that were investigated. PMID:24892419

  14. Polyvalent fuel treatment facility (TCP): shearing and dissolution of used fuel at La Hague facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brueziere, J.; Tribout-Maurizi, A.; Durand, L.; Bertrand, N.

    2013-07-01

    Although many used nuclear fuel types have already been recycled, recycling plants are generally optimized for Light Water Reactor (LWR) UO{sub x} fuel. Benefits of used fuel recycling are consequently restricted to those fuels, with only limited capacity for the others like LWR MOX, Fast Reactor (FR) MOX or Research and Test Reactor (RTR) fuel. In order to recycle diverse fuel types, an innovative and polyvalent shearing and dissolving cell is planned to be put in operation in about 10 years at AREVA's La Hague recycling plant. This installation, called TCP (French acronym for polyvalent fuel treatment) will benefit from AREVA's industrial feedback, while taking part in the next steps towards a fast reactor fuel cycle development using innovative treatment solutions. Feasibility studies and R/Development trials on dissolution and shearing are currently ongoing. This new installation will allow AREVA to propose new services to its customers, in particular in term of MOX fuel, Research Test Reactors fuel and Fast Reactor fuel treatment. (authors)

  15. The "Prince of Medicine": Yūhannā ibn Māsawayh and the foundations of the western pharmaceutical tradition.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Paula

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines three medieval pharmaceutical treatises purportedly authored by Yūhannā ibn Māsawayh (anglicized to John Mesue) and traces their immense influence on the development of pharmacy in early modem Europe and the Hispanic world. Despite the importance of these works throughout the early modern period, Mesue is relatively unknown in the history of pharmacy and medicine, and his exact identity remains unclear. This essay argues that "Mesue" was most likely a pseudonym used by an unknown author of the Latin West and that the three works were crafted to meet the demands of the developing "medical marketplace" of late thirteenth-century Europe, where the manuscripts first appeared. At the same time, however, as the Arabic reference of the pseudonym suggests, these treatises were clearly products of the medieval Islamic world, including many innovations that would provide the basis for the theory and practice of pharmacy for centuries and arguably formed part of the artisanal epistemological influence on the Scientific Revolution. PMID:24783490

  16. Computerized Analytical Data Management System and Automated Analytical Sample Transfer System at the COGEMA Reprocessing Plants in La Hague

    SciTech Connect

    Flament, T.; Goasmat, F.; Poilane, F.

    2002-02-25

    Managing the operation of large commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, such as UP3 and UP2-800 in La Hague, France, requires an extensive analytical program and the shortest possible analysis response times. COGEMA, together with its engineering subsidiary SGN, decided to build high-performance laboratories to support operations in its plants. These laboratories feature automated equipment, safe environments for operators, and short response times, all in centralized installations. Implementation of a computerized analytical data management system and a fully automated pneumatic system for the transfer of radioactive samples was a key factor contributing to the successful operation of the laboratories and plants.

  17. The Voice of THIMUN Youth: Action Papers of the Annual Session (2nd, The Hague, Netherlands, January 27-February 1, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L., Ed.; Munstermann, Ulrich, Ed.; Gamble, Helen E. W., Ed.

    These Action Papers of seven committees of The Hague International Model United Nations (THIMUN) Youth Assembly represent the efforts of young people, who have been given the opportunity to voice their personal opinions on issues permanently on the international agenda. The Committee on Education and Employment analyzes improving quality of…

  18. Van Koetsveld and His "School for Idiots" in the Hague (1855-1920): Gender and the History of Special Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Drenth, Annemieke

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how one of the first initiatives in what now is known as "special education" came into existence in the historical context of the Netherlands. It focuses on the first private and autonomous institution for mentally retarded pupils, the so-called "School for Idiots", established in 1855 in The Hague by the Reverend Cornelis…

  19. Mental Boundaries and Medico-Pedagogical Selection: Girls and Boys in the Dutch "School for Idiots", the Hague 1857-1873

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Drenth, Annemieke

    2007-01-01

    In the wake of developments in France and the United States where early psychiatrists such as Pinel, Esquirol, Belhomme and Seguin advocated "moral treatment" of the insane and classified"idiots" and "imbeciles" as incurable though educable, the Revd C. E. Van Koetsveld initiated his "School for Idiots" in The Hague in 1855. Within two years, he…

  20. Case-control study of leukaemia among young people near La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant: the environmental hypothesis revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Pobel, D.; Viel, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between childhood leukaemia and established risk factors or other factors related to La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Area within a 35 km radius of La Hague, Normandy, France. SUBJECTS: Twenty seven cases of leukaemia diagnosed during the period 1978-93 in people aged under 25 years and 192 controls matched for sex, age, place of birth, and residence at time of diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Antenatal and postnatal exposure to x rays and viral infections, occupational exposure of parents (particularly ionising radiation), living conditions, lifestyle of parents and children. RESULTS: Increased trends were found for use of local beaches by mothers and children (P < or = 0.01); relative risks 2.87 (95% confidence intervals 1.05 to 8.72) and 4.49 (1.52 to 15.23) when categories were aggregated in two levels (more or less than once a month). Consumption of local fish and shellfish also showed an increased trend (P 0.01); relative risk 2.66 (0.91 to 9.51) when categories were grouped in two levels (more or less than once a week). A relative risk of 1.18 a year (1.03 to 1.42) was observed for length of residence in a granite-built house or in a granitic area. No association was shown with occupational radiation exposure in parents. CONCLUSIONS: There is some convincing evidence in childhood leukaemia of a causal role for environmental radiation exposure from recreational activities on beaches. New methods for identifying the environmental pathways, focusing on marine ecosystems, are warranted. PMID:9006467

  1. Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Connan, O; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Maro, D; Lamotte, M; Voiseux, C; Laguionie, P; Cazimajou, O; Le Cavelier, S; Godinot, C; Morillon, M; Thomas, L; Percot, S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the near-field dispersion of (85)Kr around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (AREVA NC La Hague - France) under stable meteorological conditions. Twenty-two (85)Kr night-time experimental campaigns were carried out at distances of up to 4 km from the release source. Although the operational Gaussian models predict for these meteorological conditions a distance to plume touchdown of several kilometers, we almost systematically observed a marked ground signal at distances of 0.5-4 km. The calculated atmospheric transfer coefficients (ATC) show values (1) higher than those observed under neutral conditions, (2) much higher than those proposed by the operational models, and (3) higher than those used in the impact assessments. PMID:25078471

  2. Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel-industry demonstration program. Task I. Hague forge furnaces. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lownie, H.W.; Holden, F.C.

    1982-06-01

    A program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing particular types of energy-conserving devices and equipment was carried out. One of these types of equipment and the results obtained under production conditions in commercial plants are described. The equipment under consideration includes improved forge furnaces and associated heat-recovery components. They are used to heat steel to about 2300 F prior to hot forging. The energy-conserving devices include improved insulation, automatic air-fuel ratio control, and a ceramic recuperator that recovers heat from hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature recirculating burners. Twelve Hague furnaces and retrofit packages were purchased and installed by eleven host forge shops that agree to furnish performance data for the purpose of demonstrating the energy and economic savings that can be achieved in comparison with existing equipment. Fuel savings were reported by comparing the specific energy consumption (Btu's per pound of steel heated) for each Hague furnace with that of a comparison furnace. Economic comparisons were made using payback period based on annual after-tax cash flow. Payback periods for the Hague equipment varied from less than two years to five years or more. In several cases, payback times were high only because the units were operated at a small fraction of their available capacity.

  3. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal.

    PubMed

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-02-01

    Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled "trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal." Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a "Writers' Conference" in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. PMID:27500254

  4. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled “trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.” Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a “Writers' Conference” in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. PMID:27500254

  5. Modelling the transfer of 14C from the atmosphere to grass: a case study in a grass field near AREVA-NC La Hague.

    PubMed

    Aulagnier, C; Le Dizès, S; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Lardy, R; Martin, R; Gonze, M-A

    2012-10-01

    Radioactive (14)C is formed as a by-product of nuclear power generation and from operation of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants like AREVA-NC La Hague (North France), which releases about 15 TBq per year of (14)C into the atmosphere. Since the autumn of 2006, (14)C activity concentrations in samples from the terrestrial environment (air, grass and soil) have been monitored monthly on grassland 2 km downwind of the reprocessing plant. The monitoring data provides an opportunity to validate radioecology models used to assess (14)C transfer to grassland ecosystems. This article compares and discusses the ability of two different models to reproduce the observed temporal variability in grass (14)C activity in the vicinity of AREVA-NC La Hague. These two models are the TOCATTA model which is specifically designed for modelling transfer of (14)C and tritium in the terrestrial environment, and PaSim, a pasture model for simulating grassland carbon and nitrogen cycling. Both TOCATTA and PaSim tend to under-estimate the magnitude of observed peaks in grass (14)C activity, although they reproduce the general trends. PaSim simulates (14)C activities in substrate and structural pools of the plant. We define a mean turn-over time for (14)C within the plant, which is based on both experimental data and the frequency of cuts. An adapted PaSim result is presented using the 15 and 20 day moving average results for the (14)C activity in the substrate pool, which shows a good match to the observations. This model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by nearly 40% in comparison to TOCATTA. PMID:22537618

  6. Available, accessible and affordable. Malaysia. The Hague Forum.

    PubMed

    Ismail, P Z

    1999-01-01

    While Malaysia already had policies for a balanced, equitable, and sustainable development before the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the conference gave Malaysia the chance to pursue specific and more complex issues. Reproductive health services including family planning have been integrated and are available, accessible, and affordable within the existing health care system, both public and private. Since Malaysia's government needs help implementing Cairo's goals, regular consultations are held with advocacy groups, the private sector, and community groups on program design and implementation. Annual grants to nongovernmental organizations are made to ensure that programs and services ultimately reach the various target groups. While Malaysia has made progress implementing the ICPD program of action, it has more to accomplish. Economic conditions leading to a 20% across-the-board budget cut in July 1998 have not adversely affected the country's population and reproductive health programs. PMID:12322184

  7. Increasing its allocations for development cooperation. Sweden. The Hague Forum.

    PubMed

    Edstrom, L O

    1999-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Fourth World Conference on Women, and ICPD+5 are but markers along a more long-term path and process of cooperation and dialogue between the world's governments and civil society organizations. Some groups are involved in implementing action, while others focus upon advocacy or act as watchdogs and pathfinders. Civil society organizations need space and financial resources to work upon their issues. In some areas, the ICPD program of action has not achieved what was expected. In particular, almost all countries have considerable work to do on gender equality, the needs of young people, the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and maternal mortality. These issues are discussed. More resources must be allocated to the social services in order to achieve the goals of the Cairo program of action. To that end, the government of Sweden is planning to increase its allocations for development cooperation over the next few years, moving upward from the 0.7 level adopted by the UN. PMID:12322191

  8. Metastability of collisionless current sheets. Hannes Alfven Lecture on behalf of Albert Galeev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, L.; Galeev, A.

    2009-04-01

    Complicated magnetic configurations containing numerous magnetic field reversals are widespread in nature. Each of such reversals is supported by corresponding current sheet (CS) which could often have very small thickness comparable to ion skin depth. Since the beginning of Space Age "in situ" investigations of current sheets in the Earth's magnetosphere (magnetopause and magnetotail) acquired one of the highest priorities in national space programs and became one of the cornerstones of various international activities, like ISTP, IACG, and ILWS, which appeared to be very effective. Intense theoretical efforts were undertaken by theorists all over the world to develop both equilibrium models of current sheets and analyze its stability and further nonlinear evolution. Lack of collisions and smallness of many characteristic scales in comparison with ion Larmor radius made an application of straightforward MHD approach dramatically questionable. Professor Alfven was one of the first who suggested in 1968 simple but very physical self-consistent particle model of CS. One of the most intriguing features of current sheets in collisionless plasma is their ability to accumulate tremendous amounts of magnetic energy (1015 J for magnetospheric substorms , 1024 J for solar flare associated sheets) and then suddenly sometimes almost explosively release them. We will demonstrate in this talk that such METASTABILITY is a principal intrinsic feature of current sheets in hot plasma. Very intense theoretical debates of 80-ies and late 90-ies resulted in some consensus that current sheets with the small component of magnetic field normal to their plane become overstable for spontaneous reconnection (i.e. versus the development of ion tearing mode). Analysis of INTERBALL and especially 4- point CLUSTER data have shown that real current sheets observed in the Earth's magnetotail very rarely resemble simplistic HARRIS current sheets which have been used for an early stability calculations. Realistic effects taken into account (anisotropy, embedding, layering, bifurcations) already produce picture consistent with observations. Metastable sheets acquire narrow, but finite windows of instability, which once started produces at its nonlinear stage irreversible modification of magnetic topology resulting finally to the release of a stored magnetic energy. Satellite observations could verify this concept potentially very important for other applications in space and laboratory. This work was supported by HUMBOLDT Foundation and Russian Foundation for basic research (N 07 02 00319) and Russian Ministry of Science program (HIII-472.2008.2)

  9. Alfvén Waves and the Aurora (Hannes Alfvén Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysak, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The most compelling visual evidence of plasma processes in the magnetosphere of Earth as well as the other magnetized planets is the aurora. Over 40 years of research have indicated that the aurora is a consequence of the acceleration of charged particles toward the neutral atmosphere, where the excitation of neutral atoms and their subsequent relaxation to the ground state produces the auroral light. Much of this acceleration can be described by acceleration in a quasi-static electric field parallel to the geomagnetic field, producing nearly monoenergetic beams of electrons. While a variety of quasi-static models to describe such parallel electric fields have been developed, the dynamics of how these fields evolve is still an open question. Satellite measurements have indicated that a primary source of energy to support these fields is the Poynting flux associated with shear Alfvén waves propagating along auroral field lines. These Alfvén waves are generated in the magnetosphere and reflect from the ionosphere. On closed field lines, Alfvén waves bouncing between conjugate ionospheres produce field line resonances that have be observed both in space and by ground magnetometers. However, some auroral emissions do not follow this scenario. In these cases, the accelerated electrons are observed to have a broad energy spectrum, rather than a monoenergetic peak. Such a spectrum is suggestive of a time-dependent acceleration process that operates on a time scale of a few seconds, comparable to the electron transit time across the acceleration region. While field line resonances have a time scale on the order of minutes, waves with periods of a few seconds can be produced by partial reflections in the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator, a resonant cavity formed by the rapid decrease of the plasma density and increase of the Alfvén speed above the ionosphere. In order to develop a parallel electric field that can accelerate auroral particles, these Alfvén waves must develop small spatial scales, where MHD theory breaks down. In this regime, the waves are called kinetic Alfvén waves. These small scales can be produced most simply be phase mixing, although ionospheric feedback and nonlinear effects may also be important. Since kinetic Alfvén waves require perpendicular wavelengths the order of a few kilometers, this model also provides a natural explanation of the narrow scales of discrete auroral arcs. These interactions between magnetosphere and ionosphere and the development of parallel electric fields have been described by means of numerical simulations that serve to illustrate these complex processes.

  10. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission development and initial results (Hannes Alfvén Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuselier, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    The MMS mission is a 4 spacecraft NASA mission designed to unlock the mysteries of magnetic reconnection. The spacecraft measure the ion and electron distributions and the electric and magnetic fields inside the electron and ion diffusion regions in the Earth's magnetosphere. In many ways, this mission is a natural follow-on to the highly successful European Space Agency Cluster mission. This talk focuses on the development of the MMS mission concept with emphasis on the connections to the Cluster mission. Preliminary results from the first phase of the MMS mission will be presented.

  11. Novel optoelectronic devices; Proceedings of the Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 31-Apr. 2, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Michael J. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The present conference on novel optoelectronics discusses topics in the state-of-the-art in this field in the Netherlands, quantum wells, integrated optics, nonlinear optical devices and fiber-optic-based devices, ultrafast optics, and nonlinear optics and optical bistability. Attention is given to the production of fiber-optics for telecommunications by means of PCVD, lifetime broadening in quantum wells, nonlinear multiple quantum well waveguide devices, tunable single-wavelength lasers, an Si integrated waveguiding polarimeter, and an electrooptic light modulator using long-range surface plasmons. Also discussed are backward-wave couplers and reflectors, a wavelength-selective all-fiber switching matrix, the impact of ultrafast optics in high-speed electronics, the physics of low energy optical switching, and all-optical logical elements for optical processing.

  12. Optical interconnections and networks; Proceedings of the Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 14, 15, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartelt, Hartmut (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The conference presents papers on interconnections, clock distribution, neural networks, and components and materials. Particular attention is given to a comparison of optical and electrical data interconnections at the board and backplane levels, a wafer-level optical interconnection network layout, an analysis and simulation of photonic switch networks, and the integration of picosecond GaAs photoconductive devices with silicon circuits for optical clocking and interconnects. Consideration is also given to the optical implementation of neural networks, invariance in an optoelectronic implementation of neural networks, and the recording of reversible patterns in polymer lightguides.

  13. ALPHA WASTE MINIMIZATION IN TERMS OF VOLUME AND RADIOACTIVITY AT COGEMA'S MELOX AND LA HAGUE PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    ARSLAN, M.; DUMONT, J.C.; LONDRES, V.; PONCELET, F.J.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the management of alpha waste that cannot be stored in surface repositories under current French regulations. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of COGEMA's Integrated Waste Management Strategy. The topics discussed include primary waste minimization, from facility design to operating feedback; primary waste management by the plant operator, including waste characterization; waste treatment options that led to building waste treatment industrial facilities for plutonium decontamination, compaction and cement solidification; and optimization of industrial tools, which is strongly influenced by safety and financial considerations.

  14. To implement the provisions of the Hague Agreement and the Patent Law Treaty.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Lamar [R-TX-21

    2012-09-19

    09/19/2012 Referred to the House Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3486, which became Public Law 112-211 on 12/18/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Progress in holography; Proceedings of the Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 31-Apr. 2, 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbeni, Jean

    1987-01-01

    Materials and fabrication methods for holographic devices are discussed in reviews and reports. The current status of optical technology in the Netherlands is surveyed, and particular attention is given to the optimization of photorefractive sillenites, four-wave interaction phenomena in holographic scattering, the photorefractive effect due to holes in undoped Be12GeO20 crystals, a holographic optical-element fiber coupler for the NIR, holographic secondaries for telescopes, and a binary synthetic phase-only filter with a random mask. Also considered are real-time holographic three-dimensional imaging based on multiplexing techniques and optoelectronic holograms, rainbow contouring by holographic multiplexing, optical pulse compression by a holographic method, and simulation of the thermal characteristics of substrates.

  16. Radar probing of ionospheric plasmas precisely confirms linear kinetic plasma theory (Hannes Alfvén Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Donald

    2010-05-01

    In 1958 W. E. Gordon first suggested that huge radars could probe the ionosphere via scattering from independent electrons, even though the radar cross section of a single electron is only 10-28 m2. This suggestion quickly led to the construction of two enormous radars in the early 1960s, one near Lima, Peru, and one near Arecibo, Puerto Rico. It soon became apparent that the theory of this scatter was more complicated than originally envisaged by Gordon. Although the new theory was more complicated, it was much richer: by measuring the detailed shape of the Doppler frequency spectrum (or alternatively the signal autocorrelation function, the ACF), a radar researcher could determine many, if not most, of the parameters of interest of the plasma. There is now a substantial network of major radar facilities scattered from the magnetic equator (Peru) to the high arctic latitudes (Svalbard and Resolute Bay), all doing important ionospheric research. The history of what is now called Incoherent Scatter (even though it is not truly incoherent) is fascinating, and I will touch on a few highlights. The sophisticated radar and data processing techniques that have been developed are also impressive. In this talk, however, I want to focus mainly on the details of the theory and on how the radar observations have confirmed the predictions of classical linear plasma kinetic theory to an amazingly high degree of precision, far higher than has any other technique that I am aware of. The theory can be, and has been, developed from two very different points of view. One starts with 'dressed particles,' or Coulomb 'clouds' around ions and electrons moving with a Maxwellian velocity distribution; the second starts by considering all the charged particles to be made up of a spectrum of density plane waves and then invokes a generalized version of the Nyquist Noise Theorem to calculate the thermal amplitudes of the waves. Both approaches give exactly the same results, results that allow us to predict exactly the scattered power and Doppler spectrum for any given set of plasma parameters (e.g., electron and ion temperatures, ionic composition, mean drifts and currents, the geomagnetic field, and particle collisions). So far, these predictions have not failed, although in recent years we have had to resort to numerical simulations to do a proper calculation of electron Coulomb collisions when the radar beam is pointed very nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. This is because no analytic way has yet been found to properly apply the Fokker-Planck Coulomb collision model to the scattering process. Of course the theory predicts the spectrum, given all the plasma parameters, when what we really want to do in ionospheric research is the inverse, namely find the parameters, given the radar data. This inverse process can be quite difficult to do optimally if there are too many unknown parameters. Statistical inverse theory can require enormous computing power, but progress is being made.

  17. Selected personal highlights from experimental space studies of the aurora (Hannes Alfvén Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, Göran

    2013-04-01

    Aurora is a most spectacular and frequently occurring scenery in the winter polar sky, occurring on Earth and many other planets. To further our understanding of the physics of the aurora, numerous sounding rocket and satellite projects have been carried out since the 1960's. Results are presented for a small selection of these where the author and his research team at KTH were strongly engaged in the research, namely a series of rocket experiments and small satellite missions, and the European Space Agency Cluster multi-satellite mission. The electric field plays a fundamental role in the physics of the magnetosphere and of the aurora, such as for the acceleration of electrons and ions producing bright aurora and outflow of energetic plasma. The results include: An arc classification scheme based on the electric field variation across arcs; A method to derive global distributions of electrodynamical parameters for a given auroral oval distribution; The discovery of intense diverging electric fields and of their characteristics in the auroral downward current region; Using Cluster data to reveal how such diverging electric fields evolve in time and are closely tied to the formation of ionospheric density cavities; Reconstruction of an experimentally verified acceleration potential pattern of the aurora, being stable on a 5 min time scale. Finally, acceleration signatures and electrodynamics of large-scale auroral forms, such as spirals, surges, and polar boundary intensifications are discussed based on recent Cluster and DMSP satellite conjunctions.

  18. Excerpt from "The Voice of THIMUN [The Hague International Model United Nations] Youth": Action Papers from the Annual Session of the THIMUN Youth Assembly (1st, The Hague, The Netherlands, January 21-26, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Hague International Model United Nations (Netherlands). Youth Assembly.

    The education systems that are in place throughout the world were created for a society different from the one that exists now. These outdated educational systems lead to a lack of motivation on the part of teacher and student and stifle new initiatives. Actions to improve this situation include the following: (1) revising the current amount and…

  19. Industrial applications of holographic and speckle measuring techniques; Proceedings of the Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 12, 13, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jueptner, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    The present meeeting on industrial applications of holographic and speckle measuring techniques discusses applications of holographic interferometry, electro-optical holography, and new methods of interferometry. Attention is given to strategies for unwrapping noisy interferograms in phase-sampling interferometry, a spatial-carrier phase-shifting technique of fringe pattern analysis, synthetic wavelength interferometry for the extension of the dynamic range, and a universal interferometer with a synthesized reference wave. Topics addressed include industrial applications of self-diffraction phenomena in holography on photorefractive crystals, holographic soundfield visualization for nondestructive testing of hot surfaces, and determination of the adhesive load by holographic interferometry using the results of FEM calculations. Also discussed are plate vibrations by moire holography, fringe quality in pulsed TV-holography, and computerized vibration analysis of hot objects.

  20. 77 FR 51102 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application Under the Hague Convention on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    .... Department of State, CA/OCS/L, SA-29, 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20037- 3202. Fax: 202-736-9111. Hand Delivery or Courier: U.S. Department of State, CA/ OCSL 2100 Pennsylvania Avenue, 4th Floor, Washington, DC... Citizens Services (CA/OCS/L), U.S. Department of State, SA-29, 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20037-3202,...

  1. 77 FR 73731 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application Under the Hague Convention on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...The Department of State has submitted the information collection described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for approval. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 we are requesting comments on this collection from all interested individuals and organizations. The purpose of this Notice is to allow 30 days for public comment. DATES: Submit comments directly to......

  2. Postgraduate Training in Clinical Oncology. Report on a WHO Working Group (The Hague, The Netherlands, December 6-8, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The 1978 report of the Working Group of Postgraduate Training in Clinical Oncology, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe in collaboration with the government of The Netherlands, is presented. The groups analyzed models of postgraduate training in clinical oncology and evaluated their suitability in relation to…

  3. Applications of ultrashort laser pulses in science and technology; Proceedings of the Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 12, 13, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonetti, Andre (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics discussed are on the generation of high-intensity femtosecond lasers, the high-repetition and infrared femtosecond pulses, and physics of semiconductors and applications. Papers are presented on the femtosecond pulse generation at 193 nm; the generation of intense subpicosecond and femtosecond pulses; intense tunable subpicosecond and femtosecond pulses in the visible and infrared, generated by optical parametric oscillators; a high-efficiency high-energy optical amplifier for femtosecond pulses; and the generation of solitons, periodic pulsing, and nonlinearities in GaAs. Other papers are on ultrafast relaxation dynamics of photoexcited carriers in GaAs, high-order optical nonlinear susceptibilities of transparent glasses, subnanosecond risetime high-power pulse generation using photoconductive bulk GaAs devices, femtosecond studies of plasma formation in crystalline and amorphous silicon, and subpicosecond dynamics of hot carrier relaxation in InP and GaAs.

  4. Town of Hague landfill reclamation study: Research ways to increase waste heating value and reduce waste volume. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Salerni, E.

    1997-01-01

    Monitored composing was studied as a method for reducing the quantity of waste requiring disposed from a landfill reclamation project. After each of two re-screening steps, composted {open_quotes}soil{close_quotes} from a single long windrow of varying depths and moisture content was subjected to analytical testing to determine its suitability to remain as backfill in a reclaimed landfill site. The remaining uncomposted waste was combusted at a waste-to-energy facility to determine if Btu values were improved. Results indicate that a full-scale composting operation could result in a net decrease of approximately 11 percent in disposal costs. The Btu value of the reclaimed waste was calculated to be 4,500 to 5,000 Btu/lb. The feasibility of composting reclaimed waste at other landfill reclamation projects will depend upon site-specific technical and economic factors, including size and nature of the organic fraction of the waste mass, local processing costs, and the cost of waste disposal alternatives.

  5. Fiber optic sensors IV; Proceedings of the Third European Congress on Optics, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 13, 14, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersten, Ralf T. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber-optic sensor (FOS) technology are examined in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to components for FOSs, special fibers for FOSs, interferometry, FOS applications, and sensing principles and influence. Particular attention is given to solder glass sealing technology for FOS packaging, the design of optical-fiber current sensors, pressure and temperature effects on beat length in highly birefringent optical fibers, a pressure FOS based on vibrating-quartz-crystal technology, remote sensing of flammable gases using a fluoride-fiber evanescent probe, a displacement sensor with electronically scanned white-light interferometer, the use of multimode laser diodes in low-coherence coupled-cavity interferometry, electronic speckle interferometry compensated for environmentally induced phase noise, a dual-resolution noncontact vibration and displacement sensor based on a two-wavelength source, and fiber optics in composite materials.

  6. Transfer of radiocarbon liquid releases from the AREVA La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant in the English Channel.

    PubMed

    Fiévet, Bruno; Voiseux, Claire; Rozet, Marianne; Masson, Michel; Bailly du Bois, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The recent risk assessment by the North-Cotentin Radioecology Group (, 1999) outlined that (14)C has become one of the major sources of the low dose to man through seafood consumption. It was recommended that more data should be collected about (14)C in the local marine environment. The present study aims to respond to this recommendation. The estimation of (14)C activity in marine species is based on concentration factor values. The values reported here ranged from 1x10(3) to 5x10(3)Bqkg(-1)ww/BqL(-1). A comparison was made between the observed and predicted values. The accuracy of (14)C activity calculations was estimated between underestimation by a factor of 2 and over-estimation by 50% (95% confidence interval). However, the use of the concentration factor parameter is based on the biological and seawater compartments being in steady state. This assumption may not be met at short distances from the point of release of discharges, where rapid changes in seawater concentration may be smoothed out in living organisms due to transfer kinetics. The data processing technique, previously published by Fiévet and Plet (2003. Estimating biological half-lives of radionuclides in marine compartments from environmental time-series measurements. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 65, 91-107), was used to deal with (14)C transfer kinetics, and carbon half-lives between seawater and a few biological compartments were thus estimated. PMID:16920235

  7. Global change and relevant space observations; Proceedings of Symposium 1 of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellous, J. L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Topics discussed include the middle-atmosphere change, the detection of an enhanced greenhouse effect, large-scale biological/physical processes in the ocean and at the ocean/atmosphere interface, global to regional energy and water-balance parameters, physical/biological processes at the soil/atmosphere interface, and space systems' capabilities. Papers presented are on complications in determining trends in the stratosphere, changes in characteristics of planetary waves at 80-100 km over central and southern Europe since 1980, the 30-yr trend of observed greenhouse clouds over the tropical oceans, possible causes of enhanced greeenhouse effect as due to natural and anthropogenic phenomena, and advances in modeling ocean primary production and its role in the global carbon cycle. Attention is also given to a climatological analysis of rainfall for the wet pampa and northwest of the Buenos Aires province; the use of thermal IR remote sensing for water budget studies; hydrometeorological, oceanographic, and earth-resources satellite systems operated by USSR, and the NASA ocean data system at the JPL.

  8. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... described in paragraph (n), for purposes of this section, the definitions in 22 CFR 96.2 apply. (b) On or after the Convention effective date, as defined in 22 CFR 96.17, a child habitually resident in a... cannot take place unless the waiver is approved, and therefore the consular officer, pursuant to 8...

  9. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... described in paragraph (n), for purposes of this section, the definitions in 22 CFR 96.2 apply. (b) On or after the Convention effective date, as defined in 22 CFR 96.17, a child habitually resident in a... cannot take place unless the waiver is approved, and therefore the consular officer, pursuant to 8...

  10. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, the definitions in 22 CFR 96.2 apply. (b) On or after the Convention effective date, as defined in 22 CFR 96.17, a child habitually resident in a Convention country who is adopted by a United... therefore the consular officer, pursuant to 8 CFR 204.313(i)(3) and 8 CFR 212.7, will forward the...

  11. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... described in paragraph (n), for purposes of this section, the definitions in 22 CFR 96.2 apply. (b) On or after the Convention effective date, as defined in 22 CFR 96.17, a child habitually resident in a... cannot take place unless the waiver is approved, and therefore the consular officer, pursuant to 8...

  12. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section, the definitions in 22 CFR 96.2 apply. (b) On or after the Convention effective date, as defined in 22 CFR 96.17, a child habitually resident in a Convention country who is adopted by a United... therefore the consular officer, pursuant to 8 CFR 204.313(i)(3) and 8 CFR 212.7, will forward the...

  13. The Voice of THIMUN Youth: Action Papers of the Annual Session (1st, The Hague, Netherlands, January 21-26, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L., Ed.; Munstermann, Ulrich, Ed.; Bouwsma, Maria, Ed.; Dubock, Linda, Ed.; Rot, Karen, Ed.

    This document contains action paper reports from an international youth assembly that was held to enable young people from around the world to discuss a variety of social and economic issues and develop a common vision and plan of action. The report by the Committee on Youth Employment and Education examines the current state of education, its…

  14. Innovation in Geographical Education. Netherlands Geographic Studies 208. Proceedings of the International Geographic Congress (38th, The Hague, Netherlands, August 5-10, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schee, Joop van der, Ed.; Schoenmaker, Gerard, Ed.; Trimp, Henk, Ed.; Westrhenen, Hans van, Ed.

    This book examines trends in current educational literature and how they impact geography instruction. The volume contains 22 articles divided into 5 sections addressing geography innovation and educational research in geography. The introduction by Hans van Westrhenen and Gerard Schoenmaker delineates the foundation for the book and the theme…

  15. CO2 lasers and applications II; Proceedings of the Third European Congress on Optics, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 12-14, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opower, Hans (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in CO2 laser technology and its applications are examined. Topics discussed include the excitation of CO2 lasers by microwave discharge, a compact RF-excited 12-kW CO2 laser, a robotic laser for three-dimensional cutting and welding, three-dimensional CO2-laser material processing with gantry machine systems, and a comparison of hollow metallic waveguides and optical fibers for transmitting CO2-laser radiation. Consideration is given to an aerodynamic window with a pump cavity and a supersonic jet, cutting and welding Al using a high-repetition-rate pulsed CO2 laser, speckle reduction in CO2 heterodyne laser radar systems, high-power-laser float-zone crystal growth, melt dynamics in surface processing with laser radiation, laser hardfacing, surface melting of AlSi10Mg with CO2 laser radiation, material processing with Cu-vapor lasers, light-induced flow at a metal surface, and absorption measurements in high-power CW CO2-laser processing of materials.

  16. X-ray astronomy in the EXOSAT era; Proceedings of the Eighteenth ESLAB Symposium, The Hague, Netherlands, November 5-9, 1984. Parts 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, A.

    1985-04-01

    Among topics discussed are: X-ray observations of stellar coronae and isolated white dwarfs; cataclysmic variables; and low/mass and high/mass X-ray binary sources. Consideration is also given to: supernova remnants and X-ray emission in the interstellar medium; active galactic nuclei; galaxy clusters; and X-ray scattering by intergalactic dust. Among additional topics discussed are: the capabilities of the broadband X-ray telescope; the study of X-ray sources by analysis of archival plates; and Tenma observations of bright binary X-ray sources.

  17. Adaptive optics and optical structures; Proceedings of the Meeting, European Congress on Optics, 3rd, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 12-14, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyson, Robert K. (Editor); Schulte In Den Baeumen, J. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on adaptive optics (AO) and optical structures addresses AO systems and controls, AO components, nonlinear optics applications to AO, astronomical applications of AO, large telescopes and optical alignment, as well as the wavefront control experiment for the use of AO in beam propagation. Specific references are made to applications of electromagnetic theory in optics, theoretical studies of system performance and design parameters, Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing, the use of ray-based techniques in cophasing segmented mirrors, the use of a phase-conjugating mirror for real-time phase visualization, and the absolute instability of oppositely directed waves with respect to a high-reflectivity phase-conjugate mirror. Also addressed are automatic control systems, precision segmented reflectors, AO system creation, the VLT's 8.2-m primary mirrors, an optical 12-m telescope, alignment optimization via the Talbot effect, and a combination of interferometry and ray-tracing analysis.

  18. 77 FR 72904 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Study Group on the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements The Office of the Assistant Legal... conducted exclusively by teleconference, of the Study Group on the Hague Convention on Choice of...

  19. Active experiments in space; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission D (Meeting D3) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, R.

    1992-12-01

    The present volume on active experiments in space discusses dynamic trapping of electrons in the Porcupine ionospheric ion beam experiment, plasma wave observations during electron gun experiments on ISEE-1, spatial coherence and electromagnetic wave generation during electron beam experiments in space, and recent experimental measurements of space platform charging at LEO altitudes. Attention is given to high voltage spheres in an unmagnetized plasma, energetic ion emission for active spacecraft control, the collective gyration of a heavy ion cloud in a magnetized plasma, and remote sensing of artificial luminous clouds by lidars. Topics addressed include modulation of the background flux of energetic particles by artificial injection, wave measurements in active experiments on plasma beam injection, field formation around negatively biased solar arrays in the LEO-plasma, and the registration of ELF waves in rocket-satellite experiments with plasma injection.

  20. Middle and upper atmosphere results; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission C (Meetings C2 and C3) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M. (Editor); Herrero, F. A. (Editor); Chakrabarti, S. (Editor); Gray, L. J. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers are first presented on atmospheric trace species, with particular attention given to stratospheric trace species and possible improvements to reference atmospheres. The equatorial thermosphere and aeronomy are considered with reference to models and San Marco satellite/ground-based observations. Papers on the coupling of dynamic, radiative, and chemical processes in the middle atmosphere are also presented.

  1. Space dust and debris; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission B (Meetings B2, B3, and B5) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Editor); Zarnecki, J. C. (Editor); Matson, D. L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on space dust and debris encompasses orbital debris, in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of space-dust particles, comparative studies of comets, asteroids, and dust, the protection and maneuvering of spacecraft in space-debris environments, and the out-of-elliptic distribution of interplanetary dust derived from near-earth flux. Specific issues addressed include asteroid taxonomy, the optical properties of dust from cometary and interplanetary grains, light scattering by rough surfaces on asteroidal/lunar regoliths, and the first results of particulate impacts and foil perforations on the Long Duration Exposure Facility. Also addressed are collision probability and spacecraft disposition in the geostationary orbit, a flash on the moon caused by orbital debris, the limits of population growth in low earth orbit due to collisional cascading, and the simulation of cosmic man-made dust effects on space-vehicle elements in rocket and laboratory experiments.

  2. High power lasers: Sources, laser-material interactions, high excitations, and fast dynamics in laser processing and industrial applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 31-Apr. 3, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutz, E. W. (Editor); Quenzer, Alain (Editor); Schuoecker, Dieter (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of high-power lasers for industrial applications are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include the status of optical technology in the Netherlands, laser design, the deposition of optical energy, laser diagnostics, nonmetal processing, and energy coupling and plasma formation. Consideration is given to laser-induced damage to materials, fluid and gas flow dynamics, metal processing, and manufacturing. Graphs, diagrams, micrographs, and photographs are provided.

  3. Migration and Health: Towards an Understanding of the Health Care Needs of Ethnic Minorities. Proceedings of a Consultative Group on Ethnic Minorities (The Hague, Netherlands, November 28-30, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colledge, M., Ed.; And Others

    This book addresses the research and policy issues that emerge from the interface of different cultures as a consequence of migration. It includes articles on the following issues: (1) the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of migrant health needs; (2) health care across cultural boundaries; (3) health care for labor…

  4. Opening frontiers in solar research; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission E (Meetings E6 and E9) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falciani, R.; Machado, M. E.; Mattig, W.; Simon, G. W.

    The present topical meeting on opening frontiers in solar research discusses scientific coordination of solar physics missions in the 1990s, cooperative projects related to solar activity, and high-resolution solar physics from space and the ground. Attention is given to the energy budget in active regions and flares, the solar activity-oriented Japanese program, imaging capabilities of the Soft X-ray Telescope for the Solar-A satellite, and plasma diagnostics with the Solar-A Bragg crystal spectrometer. Also discussed are high spatial resolution observations of solar flares at 3.3-mm wavelength, an investigation of turbulent kernels in solar flares, and needs and constraints for ground-based cooperative programs on solar flares and for solar-flare space-borne cooperative programs. Topics addressed include the German solar telescopes on Tenerife, the NASA Orbiting Solar Laboratory, high-resolution solar physics from rockets, high-resolution sunspot observations, and multiple flow velocities in the transition region.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... area? Other Names for This Condition PDGFRA-associated myeloproliferative neoplasm Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes ... Disorders Hanns A. Pielenz Clinical Research Center for Myeloproliferative Neoplasia, MD Anderson Cancer ... Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Idiopathic hypereosinophilic ...

  6. Hair Zinc Level in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenigun, Ayse; Ozkinay, Ferda; Cogulu, Ozgur; Coker, Canan; Cetiner, Nurten; Ozden, Gonca; Aksu, Oguz; Ozkinay, Cihangir

    2004-01-01

    Immunological, endocrinological, and haematological abnormalities are relatively common in people with Down syndrome (Cuadrado & Barrena, 1996; Decoq & Vincker, 1995; Hestnes et al., 1991; Sustrova & Strbak, 1994; Nespoli, Burgio, Ugazio & Maccario, 1993; Kempski, Chessells & Reeves, 1997; Kivivuori, Rajantie, & Siimes, 1996; David et al., 1996;…

  7. New Automated System Available for Reporting Safety Concerns | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    A new system has been developed for reporting safety issues in the workplace. The Environment, Health, and Safety’s (EHS’) Safety Inspection and Issue Management System (SIIMS) is an online resource where any employee can report a problem or issue, said Siobhan Tierney, program manager at EHS.

  8. 77 FR 5292 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Study Group on the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements The Office of the Assistant Legal... ACPIL Study Group on the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements. The meeting will take place on... federal legislation that has been developed to implement the Convention. It is proposed that...

  9. 76 FR 26333 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Study Group on the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements The Office of the Assistant Legal... ACPIL Study Group on the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements. The meeting will take place on... that has been developed to implement the Convention. It is proposed that the Federal legislation...

  10. 78 FR 49550 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...: Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, Laan van Nieuw Oost-Indi 300, The Hague, The Netherlands NL... Netherlands NL-2593 CE. This meeting will discuss applications for the Digging into Data Challenge grant... Hague, The Netherlands NL-2593 CE. This meeting will discuss applications for the Digging into...

  11. Life sciences and space research XXIV(4) - Natural and artificial ecosystems; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission F (Meetings F10, F11, F1 and F12) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Averner, M. M. (Editor); Tibbits, T. W. (Editor); Bugbee, B. B. (Editor); Horneck, G. (Editor); Dunlop, E. H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present conference on natural and artificial ecosystems and their application to space research encompasses both in-flight and ground-based issues of recycling and control in regenerative life support, the relationships of productivity and facility design in higher plant growth, life-support systems for manned missions to Mars, and biochemical engineering applications in space. Specific issues addressed include interface problems between material recycling systems and plants, temperature and humidity control on a lunar base, the CELSS Test-Facility Project, achieving closure in plant-growth facilities, and life-support systems for Mars transit. Also addressed are a closed equilibrated biological aquatic system, a simulated Mars outpost in the Antarctica dry valleys, analyses of human kidney-cell populations separated on the space shuttle, and the evolution of a phase-separated gravity-independent bioreactor.

  12. Recent results on Mars and Venus; Proceedings of Symposium 3 and the Topical Meetings of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission C (Meeting C1) and D (Meeting D1) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shorthill, R. W. (Editor); Keating, G. M. (Editor); Lundin, R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    In this volume, latest results on Mars and Phobos studies are discussed along with recent results on Venus and on Martian plasma environment. Papers are presented on the characteristics of aerosol phenomena in Martian atmosphere from KRFM-experiment data, Phobos map and Phobos globe, submicron-sized dust grains in the Martian environment, remote sensing of Venus atmospheric dynamics, the latitude structure of upper clouds of Venus, and Venus thermospheric response to short-term solar variations. Attention is also given to a comparison between the bow shocks and magnetotails of Venus and Mars, comparative studies of the solar wind interaction with weakly magnetized planets, the magnetic field environment of Mars as studied by Phobos-2, waves and cold plasmas near Mars, and multiple-ion effects at Martian plasma boundaries.

  13. Recent results and perspective instrumental developments in X- and gamma-ray astronomy; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission E (Meetings E4 and E8) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, L.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Vedrenne, G.

    The papers included in this volume discuss the results of the Mir-Kvant in 1987-1989, the energy spectrum and pulse profiles of the binary pulsar GX 1 + 4, the correlated X-ray and radio-flux variations in the Seyfert galaxy III Zw 2, and first observations with the Sigma Telescope. Consideration is given to recent results on celestial gamma radiation from SMM, the variable energy distribution of the gamma-ray emission from Geminga, the most recent results of gamma-ray burst observations with Ginga, and an observation of annihilation radiation from the Galactic center region. Attention is also given to the first soft gamma-ray image of the Galactic center with arcmin accuracy, two new X-ray transients near the Galactic center, gamma-ray lines from SN1987A, and the high-energy X-ray experiment Phoswich Detection System on board the SAX satellite. Other papers are on a Monte-Carlo study of a 3D position sensitive detector for gamma-ray astronomy, the Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer, techniques of coded aperture imaging for gamma-ray astronomy, and an ultrahigh-pressure Xe detector for hard X-ray astronomy.

  14. Life sciences and space research XXIV(1) - Gravitational biology; Proceedings of Symposia 10 and 13 of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission F (Meetings F1 and F2) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S. (Editor); Cogoli, A. (Editor); Planel, H. (Editor); Ubbels, G. A. (Editor); Sievers, A. (Editor); Oser, H. (Editor); Horneck, G. (Editor); Wagner, H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Topics presented include an introduction to theories and models of biological response to gravity, gravity effects on biological systems, the function of calcium in plant graviperception, developmental biology on unmanned spacecraft, and the effect of microgravity on the development of plant protoplasts flown on Biocosmos 9. Also presented are the mechanism by which an asymmetric distribution of plant growth hormone is attained, the perception of gravity by plants, an animal research facility for Space Station Freedom, the long-term effects of microgravity and possible countermeasures, and an experimental system for determining the influence of microgravity on B lymphocyte activation and cell fusion.

  15. Transforming the radiological interpretation process: TRIP - Where are we now?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice

    2010-03-01

    In 2003, the Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine (SIIM) recognized the problem of rapidly increasing number of images in a radiology study as well as the growing number of studies per patient and the increasing number of patients. This produces a developing issue for radiologists, there was simply no way to efficiently manage the number of images that were produced per day with the available tools. SIIM members organized to help encourage research and development in areas that would transform the radiological interpretation process and trademarked the initiative TRIP™. Since the initiative was started, technology and development has advanced, but has it solved the problem? This paper reviews the literature published in the Journal of Digital Imaging from 2003 until now and analyzes the advances that have been made and what still needs to be done.

  16. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  17. "Parallel Leadership in an "Unparallel" World"--Cultural Constraints on the Transferability of Western Educational Leadership Theories across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin

    2009-01-01

    With the global economy becoming more integrated, the issues of cross-cultural relevance and transferability of leadership theories and practices have become increasingly urgent. Drawing upon the concept of parallel leadership in schools proposed by Crowther, Kaagan, Ferguson, and Hann as an example, the purpose of this paper is to examine the…

  18. Understanding Children's Drawings: The Path to Manhood. With "Notes on the Study of Man," By Wolfgang Schad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Michaela

    Based on the notes of Hanns Strauss and his collection of 6,000 drawings by 2- to 7-year-olds, this book describes the stages of development of children's drawings by using the framework of Rudolf Steiner's "anthroposophical" science. In the introduction, the early development of children's drawing is compared with works of art left by early…

  19. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Twelve. The Polish-English Contrastive Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    This volume contains six articles. In "Integrational Linguistics as a Basis for Contrastive Studies," Hans-Heinrich Lieb discusses the problems associated with complex contrastive analysis. Hanne Martinet's "A Functional and Contrastive Analysis of Attributive Adjectives Endings in '-ant' and in '-ende' in French and Danish, Respectively," shows…

  20. 5. PRELIMINARY SKETCH OF THE GUIDED MISSILE TEST FACILITIES FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PRELIMINARY SKETCH OF THE GUIDED MISSILE TEST FACILITIES FOR TEST AREA NUMBER 2. TODAY IR IS KNOWN AS MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER'S EAST TEST AREA. HANNES LUEHRSEN COLLECTION, MSFC MASTER PLANNING OFFICE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. Efficient computational methods to study new and innovative signal detection techniques in SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Stanley R.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the research reported here is to provide a rapid computational method for computing various statistical parameters associated with overlapped Hann spectra. These results are important for the Targeted Search part of the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Microwave Observing Project.

  2. Salt disposal effects found small

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Brine discharges into the Gulf of Mexico averaging more than 600,000 barrels per day for the past year have had ‘few significant effects‘ on the marine environment off the Texas coast, according to a preliminary analysis by scientists and engineers at the Texas A&M University. The brine, 8 times saltier than the surrounding seawater, is produced when salt from underground deposits on shore is dissolved and pumped into the Gulf as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program.Lead by Roy Hann, Jr., of the Texas Engineering Experiment Station, the team is analyzing discharge from Bryan Mound at Freeport, Tex., and from the West Hackberry site near Cameron, La. After a year of discharge off Freeport, the researchers found ‘no brine-caused differences in sediment temperatures and bottom-water dissolved-oxygen levels which accompany increased salinity,’ Hann said. In addition, overall compositions of fish and shrimp remained stable.

  3. Diatoms as food of larval sea lampreys in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The food and food preferences of sea lamprey ammocoetes have not been investigated. The food of the larval American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei, in the Great Lakes region consisted mainly of diatoms and desmids according to Creaser and Hann. Schroll discussed the biology of feeding of ammocoetes of Lampetra planeri and Eudontomyzon danfordi in Europe. This report presents data on the availability and use of diatoms by sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, ammocoetes in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan.

  4. When children seek asylum from their parents: a Canadian case study.

    PubMed

    Bossin, Michael; Demirdache, Laïla

    2012-01-01

    When children seek asylum from alleged abuse by a custodial parent, the notion that family reunification is always in the best interests of independent child migrants is undermined. In this chapter, the authors discuss the legal tensions between the Refugee Convention, the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (the "Hague Convention"), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child that arise in such cases. They recommend that the principle of expediency underlying the Hague Convention should not override the time and due process requirements necessary to adequately assess the best interests of the child involved. PMID:22689523

  5. International Child Abduction Act 1989 (No. 22 of 1989), 22 August 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Belize Act gives effect to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction of 1980. Among other things, it provides that the Family Court is authorized to give interim directions for the purpose of securing the welfare of a child or preventing changes in the circumstances relevant to the determination of an application. PMID:12344035

  6. Under Which Conditions Does ICT Have a Positive Effect on Teaching and Learning? A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.; Cox, M.; Knezek, D.; ten Brummelhuis, A.

    2013-01-01

    "Under which conditions does ICT have a positive effect on teaching and learning?" This was the leading question of the International EDUsummIT in The Hague, the Netherlands. The bases for the discussion were the scholarly findings of the International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education, a synthesis of research…

  7. 77 FR 75696 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting of the Study Group on Family Law The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department... and Policy Council of the Hague Conference on Private International Law, the Conference's...

  8. Revisiting the "Trans-Human" Gestalt: Discussing "Nature" and "Development" with Students of Sustainable Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopnina, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the perceptions of development through metaphor use by students of International Business Management Studies at The Hague University. Students' reflections upon the concepts of nature and development before and after educational intervention are examined through discourse analysis and narrative analysis. Results show…

  9. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  10. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  11. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  12. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  13. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  14. Semi-Direct Speech: Manambu and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.

    2008-01-01

    Every language has some way of reporting what someone else has said. To express what Jakobson [Jakobson, R., 1990. "Shifters, categories, and the Russian verb. Selected writings". "Word and Language". Mouton, The Hague, Paris, pp. 130-153] called "speech within speech", the speaker can use their own words, recasting the original text as their own,…

  15. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of disputes between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. 560.510... between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. (a) Except as otherwise... with awards, decisions or orders of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in The Hague,...

  16. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of disputes between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. 560.510... between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. (a) Except as otherwise... with awards, decisions or orders of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in The Hague,...

  17. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... resolution of disputes between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. 560... between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. (a) Except as otherwise... with awards, decisions or orders of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in The Hague,...

  18. 76 FR 53763 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Electronic Equivalents of Paper Forms, 74 FR 26933 (June 5, 2009) (``Filing Location Rule''). DHS is... Naturalization Benefits, 68 FR 23010 (April 29, 2003). The Secretary promulgates this final rule under the broad... Adoptions Under the Hague Convention,'' on October 4, 2007. See 72 FR 56831 (Oct. 4, 2007). The...

  19. The "Truth" about Idiocy: Revisiting Files of Children in the Dutch "School for Idiots" in the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Drenth, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    In 1855 the Revd C. E. Van Koetsveld established his "School for Idiots" in The Hague. Within two years, he had also opened a boarding facility that accommodated many of his pupils. Legal regulations demanded authorisation for a child to be placed in this asylum. This procedure included a questionnaire on the condition of the child. The…

  20. Six Species of Signs: Some Propositions and Strictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebeok, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with the relationship existing between the signifier and the signified components of signs, and with problems in the definition of signs. It is also concerned with recognizing the relationship of semiotics to developmental psychology and ethology. (Available from Semiotica, Co-Libri, P.O. Box 482, The Hague 2076, The Netherlands)

  1. 77 FR 74490 - Implementation of Immigrant Visa DHS Domestic Processing Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... the final rule titled, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Fee Schedule. 75 FR 58962. That final... admitted to the United States. See 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1)(i)(D); see also 75 FR at 58979 (public comments on the.../are seeking admission to the United States under the Orphan or Hague Process will be exempt from...

  2. Instruments of Science and Citizenship: Science Education for Dutch Orphans during the Late Eighteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the two most extensive instrument collections in the Netherlands during the second half of the eighteenth century--rivaling the much better known collection at the University of Leiden--belonged to an orphanage in The Hague that was specially established to mold hand-picked orphans into productive citizens. (The other was housed at the…

  3. Internal Quality Assurance--Facing Common Challenges. ENQA Workshop Report 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstock, Douglas; Harvey, Lee; Szanto, Tibor; Pyykko, Riitta; Aelterman, Guy; Lopez-Benitez, Mariano; Vera-Toscano, Esperanza; Fereres, Elias; Cassagne, Claude; Dhainaut, Jean-Francois; Lykova, Viktoriya; Babyn, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The annual meeting of the ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) IQA (internal quality assurance) Group gathered some 60 participants in the premises of the Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders (NVAO) in The Hague in June 2009. This seminar was a successful follow-up to the first ENQA IQA…

  4. A Global Look at Law and Order: The "World Court" at the UN's Fiftieth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Howard N.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that, although the United Nations and its New York headquarters is well-known, the location and activities of the World Court in the Hague, Netherlands, are seldom mentioned in the news. Discusses the origins, structure, and composition of the International Court of Justice, better known as the World Court. (CFR)

  5. How Adult Students in Information Studies Use a Scoring Rubric for the Development of Their Information Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Helvoort, A. A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to expand on a previous study on the development of a scoring rubric for information literacy. The present paper examines how students at the Department of Information Services and Information Management, The Hague University, use the scoring rubric for their school work and/or in their regular jobs and social life.…

  6. 22 CFR 99.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... The Hague on May 29, 1993. (b) Such other terms as are defined in 22 CFR 96.2 shall have the meaning... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES REPORTING ON CONVENTION AND NON-CONVENTION ADOPTIONS OF EMIGRATING CHILDREN § 99.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: (a) Convention...

  7. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  8. Human posture classification for intelligent visual surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2008-04-01

    Intelligent surveillance systems (ISS) have gained a significant attention in recent years due to the nationwide security concerns. Some of the important applications of ISS include: homeland security, border monitoring, battlefield intelligence, and sensitive facility monitoring. The essential requirements of an ISS include: (1) multi-modality multi-sensor data and information fusion, (2) communication networking, (3) distributed data/information processing,(4) Automatic target recognition and tracking, (5) Scenario profiling from discrete correlated/uncorrelated events, (6) Context-based situation reasoning, and (7) Collaborative resource sharing and decision support systems. In this paper we have addressed the problem of humanposture classification in crowded urban terrain environments. Certain range of human postures can be attributed to different suspicious acts of intruders in a constrained environment. By proper time analysis of human trespassers' postures in an environment, it would be possible to identify and differentiate malicious intention of the trespassers from other normal human behaviors. Specifically in this paper, we have proposed an image processing-based approach for characterization of five different human postures including: standing, bending, crawling, carrying a heavy object, and holding a long object. Two approaches were introduced to address the problem: template-matching and Hamming Adaptive Neural Network (HANN) classifiers. The former approach performs human posture characterization via binary-profile projection and applies a correlation-based method for classification of human postures. The latter approach is based a HANN technique. For training of the neural, the posture-patterns are initially compressed, thresholded, and serialized. The binary posture-pattern arrays were then used for training of the HANN. The comparative performance evaluation of both approaches the same set of training and testing examples were used to measure

  9. Trapped particle absorption by the ring of Jupiter

    SciTech Connect

    Fillius, W.

    1985-08-01

    The ring systems of Jupiter and Saturn and their interaction with the magnetosphere were studied. Opportunities to improve the understanding of the sweeping effect of orbiting material on trapped radiation and the use of this process to gain insight on both the trapped radiation and the target material are outlined. Within the cosmogony of Hannes Alfven, this mechanism is also the key to understanding the formation of many of the features of the Saturnian rings. A better understanding of the sweeping effect would also help to clarify this process.

  10. Trapped particle absorption by the ring of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, W.

    1985-01-01

    The ring systems of Jupiter and Saturn, and their interaction with the magnetosphere were studied. Opportunities to improve the understanding of the sweeping effect of orbiting material on trapped radiation, and the use of this process to gain insight on both the trapped radiation and the target material are outlined. Within the cosmogony of Hannes Alfven, this mechanism is also the key to understanding the formation of many of the features of the Saturnian rings. A better understanding of the sweeping effect would also help to clarify this process.

  11. Fred Plaut in conversation with Andrew Samuels. Interview by Andrew Samuels.

    PubMed

    Plaut, Fred

    2010-02-01

    This is a reprint of an interview of Fred Plaut (who died in June 2009) conducted by Andrew Samuels in mid-1988 and first published in April 1989 in the Journal, 34, 2, pp. 159-83. The interview covers Plaut's early life, his career, and historical observations of the development of the Society of Analytical Psychology from its beginnings, and of the wider community of Jungian analysis. Plaut reflects uninhibitedly on such topics as the role of leadership in analytical psychology, discussing the parts played by Michael Fordham in London and Hannes Dieckmann in Berlin. Plaut explains his thinking concerning individuation. PMID:20433496

  12. Tearing Down Disciplinary Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Juan G.

    1988-05-01

    Profesor Hannes Alfvén's life-long battle against scientific narrow-mindedness and parochial approaches to the solution of scientific problems is well known and deeply appreciated by this author. In this article the new interdisciplinary trends in science are critically examined and the psychological impacts of crumbling disciplinary barriers on the participating scientists are analyzed. Several examples of interdisciplinary research programs are discussed and some thoughts on the structural reform of scientific organizations, agencies, and universities needed to face these trends are given.

  13. The 1922 Einstein Film: Cinematic Innovation and Public Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wazeck, Milena

    2010-06-01

    In 1922 Hanns Walter Kornblum produced a long and comprehensive educational film on Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity that made extensive use of trick shots. His film was considered to be a milestone in the history of film and also in the popularization of science. Although the original film has been lost, I have reconstructed its content and its reception by members of the German film industry and cultural sector, laymen, scientists and academics, and politically motivated opponents based upon the large collection of newspaper clippings that was assembled by the antirelativist physicist Ernst Gehrcke.

  14. Sharing Experiences within AREVA D and D Project Portfolio: Four Illustrations - 13049

    SciTech Connect

    Chabeuf, Jean-Michel; Varet, Thierry; AREVA Site Value Development Business Unit, La Hague Site

    2013-07-01

    Over the past ten years, AREVA has performed D and D operations on a wide range of nuclear sites, such as Marcoule and La Hague recycling plants, to Cadarache MOX fuel fabrication plant or Veurey and Annecy metallic Uranium machining plants. Each site is different from the other but some lessons can be shared through this D and D portfolio. In that respect, knowledge management is one of AREVA D and D Technical Department main missions. Four illustrations demonstrate the interest of knowledge share. Waste management is one of the key activities in D and D; It requires a specific characterization methodology, adapted logistics, and optimized waste channels, all of which have been developed over the years by AREVA teams on the site of Marcoule while they are rather new to La Hague, whose main activity remains fuel reprocessing despite the launch of UP2 400 D and D program. The transfer of know how has thus been organized over the past two years. Plasma cutting has been used extensively in Marcoule for years, while prohibited on the site of La Hague following questions raised about the risks associated wit Ruthenium sublimation. La Hague Technical Department has thus developed an experimental protocol to quantify and contain the Ruthenium risk, the result of which will then be applied to Marcoule where the Ruthenium issue has appeared in recent operations. Commissioning and operating fission products evaporators is a rather standard activity on UP2 800 and UP3, while the associated experience has been decreasing in Marcoule following final shutdown in 1998. When the French atomic Energy commission decided to build and operate a new evaporator to concentrate rinsing effluents prior to vitrification in 2009, AREVA La Hague operators were mobilized to test and commission the new equipment, and train local operators. Concrete scabbling is the final stage prior to the free release of a nuclear facility. In the context of Veurey and Annecy final cleanup and declassification

  15. High titer gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger from dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover without detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongsen; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    This study reported a high titer gluconic acid fermentation using dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover (DDAP) hydrolysate without detoxification. The selected fermenting strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M276 was capable of inhibitor degradation thus no detoxification on pretreated corn stover was required. Parameters of gluconic acid fermentation in corn stover hydrolysate were optimized in flasks and in fermentors to achieve 76.67 g/L gluconic acid with overall yield of 94.91%. The sodium gluconate obtained from corn stover was used as additive for extending setting time of cement mortar and similar function was obtained with starch based sodium gluconate. This study provided the first high titer gluconic acid production from lignocellulosic feedstock with potential of industrial applications. PMID:26724553

  16. ART-SCIENCE OF THE SPACE AGE: towards a platform for art-science collaborations at ESTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnitch, E.; Gelfand, D.

    2015-10-01

    In 2013, in collaboration with ESTEC scientist Bernard Foing and the ArtScience Interfaculty (Royal Academy of the Arts, The Hague), Synergetica Lab (Amsterdam) developed a course, which was repeated in 2015, for bachelor's and master's students aimed at seeding interactions with ESA researchers. The participants created artworks investigating space travel, radio astronomy, microgravity, ecosynthesis as well as extraterrestrial physics and architecture [1] [2]. After their initial presentation at the Royal Academy, these artworks were shown at ESTEC, TodaysArt Festival (The Hague), and TEC ART (Rotterdam). These presentations prompted diverse future collaborations and outreach opportunities, including the European Planetary Science Congress 2014 (Cascais) and the AxS Festival (Los Angeles).

  17. New developments in RTR fuel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lelievre, F.; Brueziere, J.; Domingo, X.; Valery, J.F.; Leroy, J.F.; Tribout-Maurizi, A.

    2013-07-01

    As most utilities in the world, Research and Test Reactors (RTR) operators are currently facing two challenges regarding the fuel, in order to comply with local safety and waste management requirements as well as global non-proliferation obligation: - How to manage used fuel today, and - How fuel design changes that are currently under development will influence used fuel management. AREVA-La-Hague plant has a large experience in used fuel recycling, including traditional RTR fuel (UAl). Based on that experience and deep knowledge of RTR fuel manufacturing, AREVA is currently examining possible options to cope with both challenges. This paper describes the current experience of AREVA-La-Hague in UAl used fuels recycling and its plan to propose recycling for various types of fuels such as U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel or UMo fuel on an industrial scale. (authors)

  18. Virioplankton distribution and activity in a tropical eutrophicated bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettarel, Yvan; Arfi, Robert; Bouvier, Thierry; Bouvy, Marc; Briand, Enora; Colombet, Jonathan; Corbin, Daniel; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2008-11-01

    The study of lysogeny in aquatic systems is an often overlooked aspect of microbial ecology, especially in tropical environments. Herein, the fraction of lysogenized cells (FLC) was detected in the surface waters of 20 coastal stations distributed from the eutrophicated shoreline to seaward waters of Hann Bay (Senegal). Concurrently, viral lytic infection rates were extrapolated from the frequency of visibly infected bacterial cells (FVIC), as determined from transmission electron microscopy observations. The experimental induction of prophage was observed in less than 3% of indigenous marine bacteria, suggesting that lysogenic stages of infection are rare in Hann Bay. Similarly, only 0.5-4.7% of bacteria showed visible signs of lytic infection. However, the positive correlation between the fraction of lysogenic and lytic cells ( r = 0.67, p < 0.05, n = 20) may actually indicate that the coexistence of both lifestyles may be due to the massive and rapid induction of lysogens, potentially from the high levels of local UV radiation. Overall, we suggest that the determination of FVIC and FLC to examine the predominance of one type of cycle versus the other may be a source of misinterpretation in some particular aquatic environments.

  19. [Two Dutch sisters in analysis with Freud].

    PubMed

    Stroeken, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The author provides persuasive or at least plausible data for the identity of two patients recorded by Freud in his working season of 1910/11. They were two sisters, living in The Hague/Leiden, who came from a rich banker's family, the van der Lindens. Whereas the treatment does not seem to have led to any decisive improvement for the older of the two, it may have encouraged the younger sister to seek divorce. PMID:20503771

  20. Huygens, Christiaan (1629-95)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in The Hague, Netherlands, to a prominent Dutch family, tutored at home, and came under the influence of DESCARTES who was an occasional visitor at the Huygens' home. Studied law and mathematics at Leiden, turned to scientific studies of nature. Made microscopes and telescopes, and in 1655, using one of his own lenses, Huygens detected Titan, the first moon of Saturn. He discovered the tr...

  1. Highlights of the Dallas ACS Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeman, Thomas R.; Freilich, Mark; Kelter, Paul B.

    1998-06-01

    Without a doubt, a primary feature of the 1998 Spring National Meeting in Dallas was the High School Program, which was organized by George Hague, and the impact that the Texas teachers had on other participants. Over 150 teachers registered for the meeting and participated in the program. Their organizational skills were used to reinstitute the High School/College Interface Luncheon. (The High School/College Interface Luncheon will also be held at the Fall ACS Meeting in Boston.)

  2. US technical assistance to two specialized agencies of the UN

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, A.W.; Parsick, R.J.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Specialized agencies of the United Nations are a part of the functioning of the existing world order. Those agencies which verify compliance with specific international treaties will be more important in the future. Two such agencies illustrate UN activities in the area of disarmament and have received special attention: the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria; the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague, Holland.

  3. "Cairo-Plus-Five" review is finding political will strong -- but funds lacking.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S A

    1999-04-01

    Last year, the UN Population Fund initiated a 5-year review of progress in attaining the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The review included a series of meetings, including a forum in The Hague involving 2000 people, and will culminate in a special session of the UN General Assembly that will endorse the Secretary-General's progress report. The message that has emerged from these meetings is that countries have made a political commitment to implement the ICPD agenda but some of the largest donor countries, including the US, have failed to fulfill their pledges. The final report from the Hague Forum focuses on progress and constraints in: 1) creating an enabling environment for achieving sustainable development; 2) achieving gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women; 3) promoting reproductive health and rights; 4) strengthening partnerships; and 5) mobilizing and monitoring resources. The Hague Forum was marked by a lack of controversy even though it recommended that: 20% of all donor allocations for reproductive health be earmarked for adolescent-oriented initiatives, postcoital contraception be promoted to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion, and laws punishing women for undergoing illegal abortions be reviewed. The most significant obstacle to implementing the ICPD goals is the fact that total funding is only half of the $17 billion promised for the year 2000. To date, the US has provided only about a third of its pledged amount. PMID:12349123

  4. Distribution and inventories of some artificial and naturally occurring radionuclides in medium to coarse-grained sediments of the channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boust, Dominique

    1999-12-01

    Concentrations of artificial ( 60Co, 137Cs, 238Pu and 239,240Pu) and naturally occurring radionuclides ( 40K, 212Pb and 214Pb, daughter nuclides of the 232Th and 238U series) in bottom sediments of the Channel are reported. They are grain-size modulated but usual grain-size normalisation methods fail due to the strong heterogeneity of the sediment admixture and/or the occurrence of rock debris in the area of concern. When plotted versus distance from Cap La Hague, 60Co and Pu isotope concentrations display a maximum in the Central Channel, but 137Cs do not. This is further explained by the contribution of the releases from the La Hague plant relative to other radionuclide inputs, especially Atlantic inflow and direct atmospheric fallout. Apparent transit times from Cap La Hague are derived from Pu isotopic ratios and yield average sediment velocities ranging from some kilometres to some tens of kilometres per year. Sediment inventories of artificial radionuclides show that a significant part of the input of 60Co and Pu isotopes is immobilised in the Channel seabed while most of the 137Cs input has been evacuated by water mass circulation.

  5. Comparaison of 85Kr measurements with the ADMS model (Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System) on a coastal complex site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, C.; Maro, D.; Connan, O.; Hebert, D.; Rozet, M.

    2009-04-01

    Modelling atmospheric dispersion of radioactive plumes is a major issue for nuclear safety institutes to predict and estimate the radiological consequences to the population. The French Institute for the Radiological protection and the Nuclear Safety (IRSN) uses gaussian plume models, particularly adapted in accidental situations, because of short computation times. Due to the lack of experimental data, the reliability of these models is poorly documented and misunderstood for elevated sources in the near field and more particularly, in complex areas (topography, change of roughness). In order to improve the knowledge of dispersion mechanisms in such conditions, the IRSN ran a series of experimental campaigns between 1999 and 2002 in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (AREVA NC - France). The La Hague peninsula is very narrow and the plant is located at 2 km from the coastline, at 150 m above sea level. During the experiments, the krypton-85 (85Kr), a radionucleide, was used as a non-reactive tracer of the plumes released by the 100 m high stack. In this work, the Atmospheric Transfer Coefficients (ATC) obtained from 85Kr measurements at La Hague are compared with the computations of the "next generation" gaussian model ADMS (Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System) performed with "complex and coastal effects" ADMS modules.

  6. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Nordita, the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, was founded in 1957 by Niels Bohr and Torsten Gustafsson at Blegdamsvej in Copenhagen, joint to Bohr's legendary Institute. Today, memories of Bohr and his famous visitors -- Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, Lev Landau and many others -- strongly contribute to Nordita's genius loci and inspire next generations of her visitors. Nordita awards ``Nordic Project'' grants to individual Nordic physicists to help conduct a world-class research in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Island, Norway, and Sweden). Research reported here was generously supported by the Nordic Project "Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Black Hole and Neutron Star sources" awarded in 2005 to Marek Abramowicz. The Project supported the ``Nordita Workdays on QPO" (March 25 -- April 1, 2005) organized by Marek Abramowicz, Axel Brandenburg and Juri Poutanen with help of Hanne Bergen, Helle http://www.nordita.dk/positions/norproject.html

  7. Beam Tomography in Longitudinal Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, V.; Wei, J.; Peggs, S.

    1997-05-01

    Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitored by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in 2-D phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. In this paper, we discuss a filtered backprojection algorithm, with a high pass ramp or Hann filter, for phase space reconstruction. The algorithm uses several projections of the beam at equally spaced angles over half a synchrotron period. A computer program RADON has been developed to process digitized mountain range data and do the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Analysis has been performed to determine the sensitivity to machine parameters and data acquisition errors. During the Sextant test of RHIC in early 1997, this program has been successfully employed to reconstruct the motion of Au^77+ beam in the AGS.

  8. Forecasting SPEI and SPI Drought Indices Using the Integrated Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Maca, Petr; Pech, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The presented paper compares forecast of drought indices based on two different models of artificial neural networks. The first model is based on feedforward multilayer perceptron, sANN, and the second one is the integrated neural network model, hANN. The analyzed drought indices are the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI) and were derived for the period of 1948–2002 on two US catchments. The meteorological and hydrological data were obtained from MOPEX experiment. The training of both neural network models was made by the adaptive version of differential evolution, JADE. The comparison of models was based on six model performance measures. The results of drought indices forecast, explained by the values of four model performance indices, show that the integrated neural network model was superior to the feedforward multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer of neurons. PMID:26880875

  9. Appropriating the Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmor, C. Stewart

    Technology, it is said, is more parochial than science. In this view, technology is constructed by specific cultures to fit specific needs: while the science of physics is universal, there are a thousand ways to dig dirt from the ground or to build a house. But is this true? In his book, Friedman shows us that at least the study of science is approached differently from one culture to another and that social, political, and economic aspects lead one people or nation or world region to emphasize different areas of science. From Per Kalm (a Swedish naturalist who collected auroral observations before 1750) to Hannes Alfven, the Scandinavians have studied the Northern sea and the Northern sky.

  10. Forecasting SPEI and SPI Drought Indices Using the Integrated Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Maca, Petr; Pech, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The presented paper compares forecast of drought indices based on two different models of artificial neural networks. The first model is based on feedforward multilayer perceptron, sANN, and the second one is the integrated neural network model, hANN. The analyzed drought indices are the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI) and were derived for the period of 1948-2002 on two US catchments. The meteorological and hydrological data were obtained from MOPEX experiment. The training of both neural network models was made by the adaptive version of differential evolution, JADE. The comparison of models was based on six model performance measures. The results of drought indices forecast, explained by the values of four model performance indices, show that the integrated neural network model was superior to the feedforward multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer of neurons. PMID:26880875

  11. A revision of the subgenus Eurycercus (Teretifrons) Frey, 1975 (Crustacea: Cladocera) in the Holarctic with description of a new species from Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Eugeniya I; Kotov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    Our study is aimed at a taxonomic revision of the subgenus Eurycercus (Teretifrons) Frey, 1975 (Crustacea: Cladocera: Eurycercidae) in the Holarctic based on the morphology of parthenogenetic females. Three species were revealed and described: (1) E. glacialis Lilljeborg, 1887 which is relatively widely distributed in the north portion of Atlantic and Pacific regions; (2) E. nigracanthus Hann, 1990 which is apparently present in Labrador and Newfoundland, Cape Breton Island and Nova Scotia and (3) Eurycercus chernovi sp. nov. from Taimyr Peninsula in Siberia, Russia. Main differences of the latter taxon from other species are: (1) more proximal position of sensory seta on the antenna I and (2) surface of cuticle of major head pore forms a low projection in middle. A revision of this subgenus in Arctic Siberia and Canada needs to be continued. PMID:27515623

  12. COGEMA Experience in Uranous Nitrate Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Tison, E.; Bretault, Ph.

    2006-07-01

    Separation and purification of plutonium by PUREX process is based on a sequence of extraction and back extraction which requires reducing plutonium Pu IV (extractable form) into Pu III (inextractable form) Different reducers can be used to reduce Pu IV into Pu III. Early plants such as that for Magnox fuel at Sellafield used ferrous sulfamate while UP 1 at Marcoule used uranous sulfamate. These reducers are efficient and easy to prepare but generates ferric and/or sulphate ions and so complicates management of the wastes from the plutonium purification cycle. Recent plants such as UP3 and UP2 800 at La Hague, THORP at Sellafield, and RRP at Rokkasho Mura (currently under tests) use uranous nitrate (U IV) stabilized by hydrazinium nitrate (N{sub 2}H{sub 5}NO{sub 3}) and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN). In the French plants, uranous nitrate is used in U-Pu separation and alpha barrier and HAN is used in Pu purification. Compared to sulfamate, U IV does not generate extraneous chemical species and uranyl nitrate (U VI) generated by reducing Pu IV follows the main uranium stream. More over uranous nitrate is prepared from reprocessed purified uranyl nitrate taken at the outlet of the reprocessing plant. Hydrazine and HAN offer the advantage to be salt-free reagents. Uranous nitrate can be generated either by electrolysis or by catalytic hydrogenation process. Electrolytic process has been implemented in early plant UP 1 at Marcoule (when changing reducer from uranous sulfamate to uranous nitrate) and was used again in UP2 plant at La Hague. However, the electrolytic process presented several disadvantages such as a low conversion rate and problems associated with the use of mercury. Electrolysis cells with no mercury were developed for the Eurochemic plant in Belgium and then implemented in the first Japanese reprocessing plant in Tokai-Mura. But finally, in 1975, the electrolytic process was abandoned in favor of the catalytic hydrogenation process developed at La

  13. Plutonium purification cycle in centrifugal extractors: from flowsheet design to industrial operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, P.; Dinh, B.; Duhamet, J.; Drain, F.; Meze, F.; Lavenu, A.

    2008-07-01

    The extension of the UP2 plant at La Hague includes a new plutonium purification cycle using multistage centrifugal extractors to replace the previous cycle that used mixer/settler banks. This type of extractor is suitable for the treatment of fuel containing a high proportion of plutonium-238, as its short residence time limits solvent degradation. This paper deals with the research done to devise its flowsheet, the centrifugal extractors in which it is operated, as well as the feedback of six years of industrial operation.

  14. Incorporation of Fines and Noble Metals into HLW Borosilicate Glass: Industrial Responses to a Challenging Issue - 13056

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, E.; Chouard, N.; Prod'homme, A.; Boudot, E.; Gruber, Ph.; Pinet, O.; Grosman, R.

    2013-07-01

    During the early stages of spent fuel reprocessing, the fuel rods are cut and dissolved to separate the solid metallic parts of the rods (cladding and end pieces) from the radioactive nitric acid solution containing uranium, plutonium, minor actinides and fission products (FP). This solution contains small, solid particles produced during the shearing process. These small particles, known as 'fines', are then separated from the liquid by centrifugation. At the La Hague plant in France, the fines solution is transferred to the vitrification facilities to be incorporated into borosilicate glass along with the highly radioactive FP solution. These fines are also composed of Zr, Mo and other noble metals (i.e. Ru, Pd, Rh, etc.) that are added before vitrification to the the FP solution that already contained noble metals. As noble metals has the potential to modify the glass properties (including viscosity, electrical conductivity, etc.) and to be affected by sedimentation inside the melter, their behavior in borosilicate glass has been studied in depth over the years by the AREVA and CEA teams which are now working together in the Joint Vitrification Laboratory (LCV). At La Hague, the R7 vitrification facility started operation in 1989 using induction-heated metallic melter technology and was quickly followed by the T7 vitrification facility in 1992. Incorporating the fines into glass has been a challenge since operation began, and has given rise to several R and D studies resulting in a number of technological enhancements to improve the mixing capability of the melters (multiple bubbling technology and mechanical stirring in the mid-90's). Nowadays, the incorporation of fines into R7T7 glass is well understood and process adaptations are deployed in the La Hague facilities to increase the operating flexibility of the melters. The paper will briefly describe the fines production mechanisms, give details of the resulting fines characteristics, explain how the metallic

  15. ARCO and Sun agree to settle Iranian claims

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-24

    This paper reports that ARCO and Sun Co. Inc. have agreed to separate settlements totaling almost $261 million that resolve their claims over oil field assets expropriated by Iran in 1978--80. The agreements are subject to approval by the Iran-U.S. claims tribunal at The Hague. The tribunal was set up in 1981 to resolve foreign claims to assets nationalized by the government of Ayatollah Khomeini following the fall of the Shah of Iran as a result of the 1978-79 Iranian revolution. The settlements are seen as the latest steps Iran has taken to normalize relations with the U.S., notably through petroleum related deals.

  16. Astronomers gossip about the (cosmic) neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Jayawardhana, R

    1994-09-01

    The Hague, Netherlands, last month welcomed 2000 astronomers from around the world for the 22nd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From 15 to 27 August, they participated in symposia and discussions on topics ranging from the down-to-Earth issue of light and radio-frequency pollution to the creation of elements at the farthest reaches of time and space, in the big bang. Some of the most striking news, however, came in new findings from our galaxy and its immediate surroundings. PMID:17801522

  17. An experimental verification of a theoretical model for the dispersion of a stack plume heavier than air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Leijdens, H.; Ooms, G.

    Experiments were carried out in a windtunnel to test the theoretical model for the dispersion of a stack plume heavier than air developed by Ooms et al. (1974, First Int. Symp. on Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industries, The Hague). Particular attention was paid to the initial conditions which have to be supplied in order to make model calculations possible. A good agreement between experimental results and model predictions was found for the plume path and the density distribution along the plume axis. The velocity distribution inside the plume was less well predicted.

  18. ADONIS, high count-rate HP-Ge {gamma} spectrometry algorithm: Irradiated fuel assembly measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, P.; Barat, E.; Dautremer, T.; Montagu, T.; Normand, S.

    2011-07-01

    ADONIS is a digital system for gamma-ray spectrometry, developed by CEA. This system achieves high count-rate gamma-ray spectrometry with correct dynamic dead-time correction, up to, at least, more than an incoming count rate of 3.10{sup 6} events per second. An application of such a system at AREVA NC's La Hague plant is the irradiated fuel scanning facility before reprocessing. The ADONIS system is presented, then the measurement set-up and, last, the measurement results with reference measurements. (authors)

  19. COGEMA Experience on Retrieving and Automatically Remote Cutting Large Metallic Structures Using Special Saw During Nuclear Decommissioning Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, F.; Barandas, C.

    2002-02-26

    Used spent fuel baskets have been stored in the La Hague North-West concrete-lined pits until decommissioning. In 1998, COGEMA decided to retrieve, cut and condition these spent fuel baskets. This paper describes the experience gained, since the start up of this operation in 1999, discusses resulting dosimetry and waste produced, during retrieving and remotely cutting of LL activity large metallic structures. This process result in significantly lower exposures to workers in the D and D operations. In addition the work was carried out in an environmentally safe manner with reasonable financial costs.

  20. Results from the VISA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, G. J.

    1993-09-01

    The small lidar system has been used to measure the vertical structure of the atmospheric extinction in a dune area bordering The Hague (The Netherlands), at about 2.6 km from the North Sea. The atmospheric optical properties at this location are determined by a mixture of industrial, urban, rural and marine aerosols, which composition depends on the air mass history. The measurements were made unattended, around the clock, five days a week. About 250 extinction profiles were recorded every day. This report reviews the data base obtained and presents some selected results. The lidar system is described briefly. Factors influencing the accuracy of the inversion of lidar signals are discussed.

  1. 40 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE WITH LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION EQUIPMENT IN THE NUCLEAR INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Drain, F.; Vinoche, R.; Duhamet, J.

    2003-02-27

    Three types of liquid-liquid extraction equipment are used in industrial reprocessing plants. Each is described below, with a special focus on pulsed columns and centrifugal extractors, which have been the subject of an extensive R&D program by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Various models have been developed to simulate equipment behavior and flowsheets. The excellent results obtained during industrial operation of the UP3 and UP2-800 plants in La Hague have confirmed the validity of the choices made during the design phases and pave the way for future improvement of the reprocessing process, from a technical and a financial standpoint.

  2. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-31

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation`s electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study`s methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared.

  3. On the negligible role of manned missions for the geological exploration of Mars: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Jessberger, E K

    1992-01-01

    At the 28th Plenary Meeting of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) in The Hague, The Netherlands, there was on June 28, 1990, a session of commission MF.1 on Impact of Human Expeditions to Mars, in which, among others, the benefits of manned Mars missions for the geological survey of Mars were discussed. The present commentary does not intend to discuss the pros and cons of manned space flight or of Mars exploration at large, but will reiterate some of the points made in that discussion concerning the justification of manned versus automated Mars exploration in the context of geologic sciences. PMID:11538162

  4. Legacy Waste Retrieval from Cladding Hulls and Fuel Hardware Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wattecamps, J.B.; Hubert, N.; Zanife, T.

    2007-07-01

    Waste generated during nuclear fuel shearing and dissolution operations from 1976 to 1998 at the UP2-400 plant at La Hague, has been stored in bulk in a silo and in metal canisters. The waste has to be retrieved and conditioned before the implementation of the shutdown program. This paper gives a general presentation of the project to retrieve and condition this waste stored in the High Activity Oxide (HAO) facility. The topics discussed include a presentation of scenarios and technical solutions as well as a presentation of AREVA NC's approach to meet schedule commitment and to minimize overall project cost. (authors)

  5. Vitrification assistance program: international co-operation on vitrification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Penrice, Ch.; McGowan, B.; Garth, B.; Reed, J.; Prod'homme, A.; Sartelet, S.; Guerif, H.N.; Hollebecque, J.F.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2008-07-01

    With 10 vitrification lines in operation (3 on WVP in Sellafield, 1 on AVM in Marcoule and 6 on AVH in La Hague), Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC benefit from the most in-depth experience worldwide in the vitrification of highly active liquors within a framework of commercial operations. Based on the two-step process design, using a calciner and an induction-heated hot melter, which was initially deployed in Marcoule in 1978, core vitrification equipment has been continuously improved by the independent development programmes of the two companies. In March 2005, Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC signed the Vitrification Assistance Program (hereafter referred to as VAP); a co-operative project lasting 4 years during which Areva NC is to share some areas of their experience and expertise with Sellafield Ltd. Now at the halfway point of this project, this paper summarises the work performed by the VAP team to date, highlighting the early benefits and lessons learned. The following points will be developed: - Equipment delivery and preparation for implementation on WVP - Training organization and dissemination to WVP teams - Lessons learned from the early changes implemented in operations (Calciner, Melter, Dust Scrubber and Primary off gas system), and initial feedback from the first campaign using a VAP equipped line. In conclusion: The vitrification process and technology implemented at Sellafield and at La Hague, based on the two-step process, have proved to be efficient in treating high active liquor of various types. Ten lines based on this principle have been successfully operated for more than 15 years in France and in the UK. The process has also been demonstrated to be sufficiently versatile to benefit from continuous improvement and development programmes. VAP, as a complete package to support vitrification technology and knowledge transfer from AREVA NC to Sellafield Ltd, has provided the framework for fruitful technical exchanges and discussions between the two

  6. Prototypes for Content-Based Image Retrieval in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Fischer, Benedikt; Müller, Henning; Deserno, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has been proposed as key technology for computer-aided diagnostics (CAD). This paper reviews the state of the art and future challenges in CBIR for CAD applied to clinical practice. We define applicability to clinical practice by having recently demonstrated the CBIR system on one of the CAD demonstration workshops held at international conferences, such as SPIE Medical Imaging, CARS, SIIM, RSNA, and IEEE ISBI. From 2009 to 2011, the programs of CADdemo@CARS and the CAD Demonstration Workshop at SPIE Medical Imaging were sought for the key word “retrieval” in the title. The systems identified were analyzed and compared according to the hierarchy of gaps for CBIR systems. In total, 70 software demonstrations were analyzed. 5 systems were identified meeting the criterions. The fields of application are (i) bone age assessment, (ii) bone fractures, (iii) interstitial lung diseases, and (iv) mammography. Bridging the particular gaps of semantics, feature extraction, feature structure, and evaluation have been addressed most frequently. In specific application domains, CBIR technology is available for clinical practice. While system development has mainly focused on bridging content and feature gaps, performance and usability have become increasingly important. The evaluation must be based on a larger set of reference data, and workflow integration must be achieved before CBIR-CAD is really established in clinical practice. PMID:21892374

  7. Solvent extraction of [sup 99]Tc from radioactive intermediate liquid waste by dibenzo-18-crown-6.

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, P.

    2001-01-01

    Technetium is one of the most prominent problems since its most stable specie in the environment, the pertechnetate ion, is highly mobile and considered as a long-term hazard in nuclear waste disposal. Because of the small activities of 99Tc relative to other fission products 137Cso r 90Sr,a nd its long half-life time (t1/2 = 2.1{center_dot}10{sup 5} yrs), 99Tci s one of the key isotopes that should always be analyzed in the radioactive liquid waste streams from the reprocessing industry where the largest concentrations are to be expected. Furthermore, as a pure beta-emitter, Tc has to be isolated from the intermediate level waste (ILW) stream prior to any measurement in such complex media. We have developed a method for 99Tc extraction providing recommendations that will be useful for extracting it from acid and basic ILW. The extraction of 99Tc from L W by dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) has been investigated and a simplex optimization of key parameters involved in the procedure has allowed us to set up their best values. Experiments have been carried out on synthetic and real effluents from La Hague reprocessing plant, France, and results show that DB18C6 is highly selective towards 99Tc. The application of this procedure has been successfully demonstrated through the analysis of actual waste streams coming from two reprocessing plants at La Hague and Marcoule, France.

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF 99Tc FROM RADIOACTIVE INTERMEDIATE LIQUID WASTE BY DIBENZO-18-CROWN-6

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, P.

    2002-02-25

    Technetium is one of the most prominent problems since its most stable specie in the environment, the pertechnetate ion, is highly mobile and considered as a long-term hazard in nuclear waste disposal. Because of the small activities of 99Tc relative to other fission products 137Cs or 90Sr, and its long half-life time (t1/2 = 2.1 x 105 yrs), 99Tc is one of the key isotopes that should always be analyzed in the radioactive liquid waste streams from the reprocessing industry where the largest concentrations are to be expected. Furthermore, as a pure beta-emitter, 99Tc has to be isolated from the intermediate level waste (ILW) stream prior to any measurement in such complex media. We have developed a method for 99Tc extraction providing recommendations that will be useful for extracting it from acid and basic ILW. The extraction of 99Tc from ILW by dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) has been investigated and a simplex optimization of key parameters involved in the procedure has allowed us to set u p their best values. Experiments have been carried out on synthetic and real effluents from La Hague reprocessing plant, France, and results show that DB18C6 is highly selective towards 99Tc. The application of this procedure has been successfully demonstrated through the analysis of actual waste streams coming from two reprocessing plants at La Hague and Marcoule, France.

  9. Comparing policies for children of parents attending hospital emergency departments after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Diderich, Hester M; Teeuw, Arianne H; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; van der Lee, Johanna H

    2016-03-01

    To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy ('Hague protocol') was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care for children. If so, these children are referred to the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN), for assessment and referrals to support services. An adapted, hospital-based version of this protocol ('Amsterdam protocol') was implemented in another region. Children are identified in the same manner, but, instead of a RCCAN referral, they are referred to the pediatric outpatient department for an assessment, including a physical examination, and referrals to services. We compared results of both protocols to assess how differences between the protocols affect the outcomes on implementation, detection of child maltreatment and referrals to services. Furthermore, we assessed social validity and results of a screening physical examination. We included 212 families from the Amsterdam protocol (cohort study with reports by pediatric staff and parents) and 565 families from the Hague protocol (study of RCCAN records and telephone interviews with parents). We found that the RCCAN identified more maltreatment than pediatric staff (98% versus at least 51%), but referrals to services were similar (82% versus 80% of the total sample) and parents were positive about both interventions. Physical examination revealed signs of maltreatment in 5%. We conclude that, despite the differences, both procedures can serve as suitable methods to identify and refer children at risk for maltreatment. PMID:26718263

  10. Impacts of (14)C discharges from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant on surrounding vegetation: Comparison between grass field measurements and TOCATTA-χ and SSPAM(14)C model computations.

    PubMed

    Limer, Laura M C; Le Dizès-Maurel, Séverine; Klos, Ryk; Maro, Denis; Nordén, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This article compares and discusses the ability of two different models to reproduce the observed temporal variability in grass (14)C activity in the vicinity of AREVA-NC La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in France. These two models are the TOCATTA-χ model, which is specifically designed for modelling transfer of (14)C (and tritium) in the terrestrial environment over short to medium timescales (days to years), and SSPAM(14)C, which has been developed to model the transfer of (14)C in the soil-plant-atmosphere with consideration over both short and long timescales (days to thousands of years). The main goal of this article is to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the models studied, and to investigate if modelling could be improved through consideration of a much higher level of detail of plant physiology and/or higher number of plant compartments. These models have been applied here to the La Hague field data as it represents a medium term data set with both short term variation and a sizeable time series of measurements against which to compare the models. The two models have different objectives in terms of the timescales they are intended to be applied over, and thus incorporate biological processes, such as photosynthesis and plant growth, at different levels of complexity. It was found that the inclusion of seasonal dynamics in the models improved predictions of the specific activity in grass for such a source term of atmospheric (14)C. PMID:26063400

  11. CESAR: A Code for Nuclear Fuel and Waste Characterisation

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, J.M.; Grouiller, J.P.; Launay, A.; Berthion, Y.; Marc, A.; Toubon, H.

    2006-07-01

    CESAR (Simplified Evolution Code Applied to Reprocessing) is a depletion code developed through a joint program between CEA and COGEMA. In the late 1980's, the first use of this code dealt with nuclear measurement at the Laboratories of the La Hague reprocessing plant. The use of CESAR was then extended to characterizations of all entrance materials and for characterisation, via tracer, of all produced waste. The code can distinguish more than 100 heavy nuclides, 200 fission products and 100 activation products, and it can characterise both the fuel and the structural material of the fuel. CESAR can also make depletion calculations from 3 months to 1 million years of cooling time. Between 2003-2005, the 5. version of the code was developed. The modifications were related to the harmonisation of the code's nuclear data with the JEF2.2 nuclear data file. This paper describes the code and explains the extensive use of this code at the La Hague reprocessing plant and also for prospective studies. The second part focuses on the modifications of the latest version, and describes the application field and the qualification of the code. Many companies and the IAEA use CESAR today. CESAR offers a Graphical User Interface, which is very user-friendly. (authors)

  12. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel, Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, arc also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/Integral Luchthaven Competitive Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  13. Dismantling of the 904 Cell at the HAO/Sud Facility - 13466

    SciTech Connect

    Vaudey, C.E.; Crosnier, S.; Renouf, M.; Gaspard, N.; Pinot, L.

    2013-07-01

    La Hague facility, in France, is the spent fuel recycling plant wherein a part of the fuel coming from some of the French, German, Belgian, Swiss, Dutch and Japanese nuclear reactors is reprocessed before being recycled in order to separate certain radioactive elements. The facility has been successively handled by the CEA (1962-1978), Cogema (1978-2006), and AREVA NC (since 2006). La Hague facility is composed of 3 production units: The UP2-400 production unit started to be operated in 1966 for the reprocessing of UNGG metal fuel. In 1976, following the dropout of the graphite-gas technology by EDF, an HAO workshop to reprocess the fuel from the light water reactors is affiliated and then stopped in 2003. - UP2-400 is partially stopped in 2002 and then definitely the 1 January 2004 and is being dismantled - UP2-800, with the same capacity than UP3, started to be operated in 1994 and is still in operation. And UP3 - UP3 was implemented in 1990 with an annual reprocessing capacity of 800 tons of fuel and is still in operation The combined licensed capacity of UP2-800 and UP3 is 1,700 tons of used fuel. (authors)

  14. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel. Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, are also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/integraal Luchthaven Competitie Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  15. CESAR5.3: An Industrial Tool for Nuclear Fuel and Waste Characterization with Associated Qualification - 12067

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, Jean-Marc; Eschbach, Romain; Launay, Agnes; Binet, Christophe; THRO, Jean-Francois

    2012-07-01

    CEA and AREVA-NC have developed and used a depletion code named CESAR for 30 years. This user-friendly industrial tool provides fast characterizations for all types of nuclear fuel (PWR / UOX or MOX or reprocess Uranium, BWR / UOX or MOX, MTR and SFR) and the wastes associated. CESAR can evaluate 100 heavy nuclides, 200 fission products and 150 activation products (with Helium and Tritium formation). It can also characterize the structural material of the fuel (Zircalloy, stainless steel, M5 alloy). CESAR provides depletion calculations for any reactor irradiation history and from 3 months to 1 million years of cooling time. CESAR5.3 is based on the latest calculation schemes recommended by the CEA and on an international nuclear data base (JEFF-3.1.1). It is constantly checked against the CEA referenced and qualified depletion code DARWIN. CESAR incorporates the CEA qualification based on the dissolution analyses of fuel rod samples and the 'La Hague' reprocessing plant feedback experience. AREVA-NC uses CESAR intensively at 'La Hague' plant, not only for prospective studies but also for characterizations at different industrial facilities all along the reprocessing process and waste conditioning (near 150 000 calculations per year). CESAR is the reference code for AREVA-NC. CESAR is used directly or indirectly with other software, data bank or special equipment in many parts of the La Hague plants. The great flexibility of CESAR has rapidly interested other projects. CESAR became a 'tool' directly integrated in some other softwares. Finally, coupled with a Graphical User Interface, it can be easily used independently, responding to many needs for prospective studies as a support for nuclear facilities or transport. An English version is available. For the principal isotopes of U and Pu, CESAR5 benefits from the CEA experimental validation for the PWR UOX fuels, up to a burnup of 60 GWd/t and for PWR MOX fuels, up to 45 GWd/t. CESAR version 5.3 uses the CEA

  16. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of concrete sewer pipe condition.

    PubMed

    Stanić, N; de Haan, C; Tirion, M; Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R

    2013-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management. Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection by closed circuit television (CCTV) and core sampling are among the methods mostly applied to assess sewer pipe condition. This paper compares visual inspection and drill core analysis in order to enhance further understanding of the limitations and potentials of both methods. Both methods have been applied on a selected sewer reach in the city of The Hague, which was reportedly subject to pipe corrosion. Results show that both methods, visual inspection and core sampling, are associated with large uncertainties and that there is no obvious correlation between results of visual inspection and results of drill core analysis. PMID:23752377

  17. Samuel Goudsmit - Early Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudsmit, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Samuel Goudsmit, born in 1902 in The Hague, Netherlands, earned his Ph.D. at the University of Leiden in 1926 with Paul Ehrenfest. The present talk will describe some aspects of his background and early formative years in order to provide context for the broad range of his professional life. Sam belonged to a large tribe of paternal and maternal uncles, aunts and first cousins; including his parents, grandparents and sister Ro, they numbered forty. Sam was the first of the tribe to be educated beyond high school. Early interests as a child and later as a university student in the Netherlands prefigured his significant and diverse contributions in several realms including not only physics but also teaching, Egyptology and scientific Intelligence. Bibliographic sources will include: The American Institute of Physics' Oral History Transcripts and photographs from the Emilio Segre visual archives, memoirs and conversations of those who knew Sam and also letters to his daughter, Esther.

  18. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure. This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  19. UP2 400 High Activity Oxide Legacy Waste Retrieval Project Scope and Progress-13048

    SciTech Connect

    Chabeuf, Jean-Michel; Varet, Thierry

    2013-07-01

    The High Activity Oxide facility (HAO) reprocessed sheared and dissolved 4500 metric tons of light water reactor fuel the fuel of the emerging light water reactor spent fuel between 1976 and 1998. Over the period, approximately 2200 tons of process waste, composed primarily of sheared hulls, was produced and stored in a vast silo in the first place, and in canisters stored in pools in subsequent years. Upon shutdown of the facility, AREVA D and D Division in La Hague launched a thorough investigation and characterization of the silos and pools content, which then served as input data for the definition of a legacy waste retrieval and reconditioning program. Basic design was conducted between 2005 and 2007, and was followed by an optimization phase which lead to the definition of a final scenario and budget, 12% under the initial estimates. The scenario planned for the construction of a retrieval and reconditioning cell to be built on top of the storage silo. The retrieved waste would then be rinsed and sorted, so that hulls could subsequently be sent to La Hague high activity compacting facility, while resins and sludge would be cemented within the retrieval cell. Detailed design was conducted successfully from 2008 until 2011, while a thorough research and development program was conducted in order to qualify each stage of the retrieval and reconditioning process, and assist in the elaboration of the final waste package specification. This R and D program was defined and conducted as a response and mitigation of the major project risks identified during the basic design process. Procurement and site preparatory works were then launched in 2011. By the end of 2012, R and D is nearly completed, the retrieval and reconditioning process have been secured, the final waste package specification is being completed, the first equipment for the retrieval cell is being delivered on site, while preparation works are allowing to free up space above and around the silo, to

  20. Serogroup distribution of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis in urban ethnic groups in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verweij, S P; Quint, K D; Bax, C J; Van Leeuwen, A P; Mutsaers, J A E M; Jansen, C L; Oostvogel, P M; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A; Peters, R P H

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis varies between ethnic groups in The Netherlands. It is, however, unknown whether this is associated with specific serogroups. The objective of this study was to determine whether serogroup distribution is associated with ethnic origin in the region of The Hague, The Netherlands. Serogroups of 370 microbiologically confirmed C. trachomatis-positive samples were analysed. The samples were obtained from 247 women and 123 men between January and October 2008, of self-reported Dutch Caucasian, Dutch Antillean, Surinamese, N. African/Turkish or other descent. We observed a difference in serogroup distribution comparing Dutch Caucasian women to Dutch Antillean women (χ2 for distribution P = 0·035). Serogroup C was more common in Dutch Antillean women, whereas serogroup B was less common (P = 0·03). This difference was not observed for Dutch Antillean men. The observed difference in distribution of C. trachomatis serogroups between ethnic groups is relevant for further transmission studies. PMID:23611401

  1. Multidimensional simulation studies of the SELENE FEL oscillator/buncher followed by a radiator/amplifier output scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, S.J.; Fawley, W.M.

    1995-02-01

    We analyze and present numerical simulations of the so-called electron output scheme [G. I. Erg et al., 15th Int. FEL Conf., The Hague, The Netherlands, 1993, Book of Abstracts p. 50; Preprint Budker INP 93-75] applied to the SELENE proposal of using a high power FEL to illuminate satellite solar cells. In this scheme, a first stage FEL oscillator bunches the electron beam while a second stage ``radiator`` extracts high power radiation. Our analysis suggests only in the case where the radiator employs a long, tapered undulator will the electron output scheme produce a significant increase in extraction efficiency over what is obtainable from a simple, single-stage oscillator. 1- and 2-D numerical simulations of a 1.7{mu}m FEL employing the electron output scheme show reasonably large bunching fractions ({approximately} 0.3--0.4) at the output of the oscillator stage but only {le}2% extraction efficiency from the radiator stage.

  2. Division D Commission 44: Space and High-Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christine; Brosch, Noah; Hasinger, Günther; Baring, Matthew G.; Barstow, Martin Adrian; Braga, Joao; Churazov, Evgenij M.; Eilik, Jean; Kunieda, Hideyo; Murthy, Jayant; Pagano, Isabella; Quintana, Hernan; Salvati, Marco; Singh, Kulinder Pal; Worrall, Diana Mary

    2016-04-01

    Division XI, the predecessor to Division D until 2012, was formed in 1994 at the IAU General Assembly in The Hague by merging Commission 44 Astronomy from Space and Commission 48 High Energy Astrophysics. Historically, space astrophysics started with the high energy wavelengths (far UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray astronomy) which are only accessible from space. However, in modern astronomy, to study high energy astrophysical processes, almost all wavelengths are used (including gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical, infrared, submillimeter and radio). In addition other ground-based facilities, including gravitational wave antennas, neutrino detectors and high-energy cosmic ray arrays are joining in this era of multi-messenger astrophysics, as well as space missions with the primary goals to discover and study exoplanets, are under the umbrella of Division XI.

  3. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure, This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  4. The Countess Margaret of Henneberg and her 365 children.

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, J; Molenkamp, A

    1996-01-01

    According to an obscure medieval legend, the Countess Margaret of Henneberg, a notable Dutch noblewoman, gave birth to 365 children in the year 1276. The haughty Countess had insulted a poor beggar woman carrying twins, since she believed that a pair of twins must have different fathers, and that their mother must be an adultress. She was punished by God, and gave birth to 365 minute children on Good Friday, 1276. The Countess died shortly after, together with her offspring, in the village of Loosduinen near The Hague. The Countess and her numerous brood were frequently described in historical and obstetrical works. To this day, a memorial tablet and two basins, representing those in which the 365 children were baptized, are to be seen in the church of Loosduinen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9014889

  5. Residential outcomes of forced relocation: lifting a corner of the veil on neighbourhood selection.

    PubMed

    Doff, Wenda; Kleinhans, Reinout

    2011-01-01

    Fear of the detrimental effects of ethnic segregation has pervaded the debate on the population composition of cities and neighbourhoods. However, little is known about mechanisms underlying the spatial sorting of ethnic minorities. Hence, policies aimed at desegregation may result in exactly the opposite - that is, new ethnic concentrations and segregation. This paper studies the residential outcomes of 658 forced movers from urban restructuring areas in The Hague. Compared with "native" Dutch (those with both parents born in the Netherlands), ethnic minorities report neighbourhood improvement less often and are more likely to stay within or move into other ethnically concentrated neighbourhoods. These differences are not fully explained by differences in individual characteristics, resources, institutional factors, pre-relocation preferences or other relocation outcomes. Ethnic specificities in neighbourhood choices thus remain a pressing issue for further research. PMID:21584982

  6. Results of the European Commission MARINA II study: part I--general information and effects of discharges by the nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Betti, M; Aldave de las Heras, L; Janssens, A; Henrich, E; Hunter, G; Gerchikov, M; Dutton, M; van Weers, A W; Nielsen, S; Simmonds, J; Bexon, A; Sazykina, T

    2004-01-01

    From the collated data relevant to discharges by the nuclear industry, it results that the input of beta activity (excluding Chernobyl fallout and tritium) into the OSPAR region decreased by a factor of 4 from 1986 to 1991, reaching by this date the same level as in the early 1950s. Over the same period the discharges of the alpha activity into the OSPAR region also decreased by a factor 3, the same trend has been seen also for tritium. Since 1986 the effective dose to members of the critical group in the vicinity of Sellafield and Cap de La Hague was consistently below the ICRP and EU limit of 1 mSv per year to members of the general public. The overall radiological impact from nuclear industry on the population of the European Union from the OSPAR area has decreased from 280 manSv y(-1) in 1978 to 14 manSv y(-1) in 2000. PMID:15063552

  7. [Two patients with mumps].

    PubMed

    van Brummelen, S E; de Vries, E; Schneeberger, P M; van Binnendijk, R S; Lestrade, P; Wever, P C

    2006-08-01

    Two patients, men aged 17 and 19 years respectively, were admitted with parotitis epidemica and orchitis caused by mumps. The second patient also had meningitis. PCR analysis revealed that, in both cases, the causative agentwas a mumps virus that was genetically related to a wild-type virus responsible for an outbreak in Singapore. This viral strain was also responsible for a mumps outbreak at Hotel School The Hague in September 2004. Both patients were not fully vaccinated. Both patients were from regions in which clustering of patients with clinical signs of mumps has been seen. Interestingly, a number of patients with confirmed mumps had been fully vaccinated. Possible explanations for the increase in mumps cases include low vaccination and immunity levels, primary and secondary vaccine failure and the emergence of genetically disparate mumps viruses. PMID:16924947

  8. Modeling and validating tritium transfer in a grassland ecosystem in response to {sup 3}H releases

    SciTech Connect

    Le Dizes, S.

    2015-03-15

    In this paper a radioecological model (TOCATTA) for tritium transfer in a grassland ecosystem developed on an hourly time-step basis is proposed and compared with the first data set obtained in the vicinity of the AREVA-NC reprocessing plant of La Hague (France). The TOCATTA model aims at simulating dynamics of tritium transfer in agricultural soil and plant ecosystems exposed to time-varying HTO concentrations in air water vapour and possibly in irrigation and rain water. In the present study, gaseous releases of tritium from the AREVA NC nuclear reprocessing plant in normal operation can be intense and intermittent over a period of less than 24 hours. A first comparison of the model predictions with the field data has shown that TOCATTA should be improved in terms of kinetics of tritium transfer.

  9. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption. PMID:24818433

  10. The evolution of arguments regarding the existence of field-aligned currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    The present understanding of Birkeland (magnetically-field-aligned) currents was not obtained by a direct, logical course. The story is rather more complex. Starting at the end of the 19th century, the Norwegian scientist Kristian Birkeland laid out a compelling case, supported by both theory and experiment, for the existence of field-aligned currents that cause both the aurora and polar geomagnetic disturbances. Sydney Chapman, the British geophysicist, became the acknowledged leader and opinion maker in the field in the decades following Birkeland's death. Chapman proposed, in contradistinction to Birkeland's ideas, equivalent currents that were restricted to flow in the ionosphere with no vertical or field-aligned components. Birkeland's ideas may have faded completely if it had not been for Hannes Alfven, who became involved well after Chapman's ideas gained predominance. Alfven kept insisting that Birkeland's current system made more sense because field-aligned currents were required to drive most of the ionospheric currents. The author became personally involved when Zmuda et al. (1966) submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research a paper reporting satellite data showing magnetic disturbances above the ionosphere that were consistent with field-aligned Birkeland currents, but which they did not interpret as being due to such currents.

  11. Suppression of Periodic Disturbances in Seismic Aftershock Recordings for Better Localisation of Underground Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorschlüter, Felix; Altmann, Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    For precise localisation of a potential underground nuclear explosion, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, during an on-site inspection, can set up seismic sensors to find the very small signals from aftershocks. These signals can be masked by periodic disturbances from, for example, helicopters. We present a new method to characterise every such disturbance by the amplitude, frequency and phase of the underlying sine in the time domain using a mathematical expression for its Hann-windowed discrete Fourier transform. The contributions of these sines are computed and subtracted from the complex spectrum sequentially. Two examples show the performance of the procedure: (1) synthetic sines superposed to a coal-mine induced event, orders of magnitude stronger than the latter, can be removed successfully, (2) removal of periodic content from the signals of a helicopter overflight reduces the amplitude by a factor 3.3 when the frequencies are approximately constant. The procedure cannot yet cope with peaks that change frequency too fast, for example by the Doppler effect when passing, and with peaks that lie too close to each other. Improvement to solve these problems seems possible.

  12. The measurement of the presampled MTF of a high spatial resolution neutron imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Raymond Lei.; Biegalski, Steven R.

    2007-11-01

    A high spatial resolution neutron imaging device was developed at the Mark II TRIGA reactor at The University of Texas at Austin. As the modulation transfer function (MTF) is recognized as a well-established parameter for evaluation of imaging system resolution, the aliasing associated with digital sampling adds complexity to its measurement. Aliasing is especially problematic when using a high spatial resolution micro-channel plate (MCP) neutron detector that has a pixel grid size similar to that of a CCD array. To compensate for the aliasing an angulated edge method was used to evaluate the neutron imaging facility, overcoming aliasing by obtaining an oversampled edge spread function (ESF). Baseline correction was applied to the ESF to remove the noticeable trends and the LSF was multiplied by Hann window to obtain a smoothed version of presampled MTF. The computing procedure is confirmed by visual inspection of a testing phantom; in addition, it is confirmed by comparison to the MTF measurement of a scintillation screen with a known MTF curve.

  13. Effect of the polydispersion in the crystallization and micro-structure of the high charged colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Bañuelos, Efraín; Aranda-Espinosa, Helim; Chasvez-Paez, Martin

    2008-03-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of the polydipersion in the crystallization and micro-structure of the high charged colloids particles with tow and three different types and different concentrations of that types. This results were obtained by computer simulation, the particles interaction was modeled by a screened Coulomb potential. We used 4000 particles in our simulation cell to let them evolution from an initial random configuration, periodic boundary conditions was imposed to simulate the bulk. The temporal evolutions of the configuration show long-ranged self-ordering and a crystalline transition, the crystalline nucleation depend of the concentrations of different kinds as well as of types of particle. The common neighbor analysis (CNA) exhibit the competition of two micro-structures, icosahedral and bcc, in the equilibrium bcc crystalline order is dominant with relative abundance over the other micro-structures. 1.- U. Gasser, Eric R. Weeks et al, Science, 292 (258), 2001. 2.- Stefan Auer, Daan Frenkel, Letter of Nature, 409 (1020), 2001. 3.- J.P. Hoogenboom, et al , Phys. Rev. Leeters, 89 (256104), 2002. 4.- M. Ch'avez-P'aez, E. Urrutia-Bañuelos and M. Medina --Noyola, Phys. Rev. E, 58 (681),1998 5.- Andrew S. Clarke and Hannes J'onsson, Phys. Rev. E, 47 (3975), 1993.

  14. Population Genetics as a Tool to Select Tsetse Control Strategies: Suppression or Eradication of Glossina palpalis gambiensis in the Niayes of Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Philippe; Kaba, Dramane; Ravel, Sophie; Dyer, Naomi A.; Sall, Baba; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Seck, Momar T.; Darbyshir, Heather; Gardes, Laetitia; Donnelly, Martin J.; De Meeûs, Thierry; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2010-01-01

    Background The Government of Senegal has initiated the “Projet de lutte contre les glossines dans les Niayes” to remove the trypanosomosis problem from this area in a sustainable way. Due to past failures to sustainably eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area, controversies remain as to the best strategy implement, i.e. “eradication” versus “suppression.” To inform this debate, we used population genetics to measure genetic differentiation between G. palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes and those from the southern tsetse belt (Missira). Methodology/Principal Findings Three different markers (microsatellite DNA, mitochondrial CO1 DNA, and geometric morphometrics of the wings) were used on 153 individuals and revealed that the G. p. gambiensis populations of the Niayes were genetically isolated from the nearest proximate known population of Missira. The genetic differentiation measured between these two areas (θ = 0.12 using microsatellites) was equivalent to a between-taxa differentiation. We also demonstrated that within the Niayes, the population from Dakar – Hann was isolated from the others and had probably experienced a bottleneck. Conclusion/Significance The information presented in this paper leads to the recommendation that an eradication strategy for the Niayes populations is advisable. This kind of study may be repeated in other habitats and for other tsetse species to (i) help decision on appropriate tsetse control strategies and (ii) find other possible discontinuities in tsetse distribution. PMID:20520795

  15. Monte Carlo modeling of a conventional X-ray computed tomography scanner for gel dosimetry purposes.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Homa; Mesbahi, Asghar; Nazarpoor, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose in the current study was to model an X-ray CT scanner with the Monte Carlo (MC) method for gel dosimetry. In this study, a conventional CT scanner with one array detector was modeled with use of the MCNPX MC code. The MC calculated photon fluence in detector arrays was used for image reconstruction of a simple water phantom as well as polyacrylamide polymer gel (PAG) used for radiation therapy. Image reconstruction was performed with the filtered back-projection method with a Hann filter and the Spline interpolation method. Using MC results, we obtained the dose-response curve for images of irradiated gel at different absorbed doses. A spatial resolution of about 2 mm was found for our simulated MC model. The MC-based CT images of the PAG gel showed a reliable increase in the CT number with increasing absorbed dose for the studied gel. Also, our results showed that the current MC model of a CT scanner can be used for further studies on the parameters that influence the usability and reliability of results, such as the photon energy spectra and exposure techniques in X-ray CT gel dosimetry. PMID:26205316

  16. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated alkanes and alkenes by iron metal and metal mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.G.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Reductive dechlorination using zero valent metals such as iron has seen an increase in interest over the past few years with the extension of iron dechlorination to in-situ treatment of ground water using a process developed by Gillham and O`Hannes in 1994. Earlier applications included the use of metals for water treatment for the degradation of halogenated pesticides. This increased interest is demonstrated by the recent ACS symposium on zero valent metal dechlorination. The work that will be presented involves the reduction of selected chlorinated alkanes and alkenes beginning with chlorobutanes. The position of the chlorines on the carbon chain relative to each other was studied by determining the rates of the dechlorination processes. These studies were carried out in seated batch reactors so that loss of the chlorinated hydrocarbons was minimized and total carbon and chloride mass balances could be obtained. The goal of the studies was to understand the mechanism of the reaction that is believed to follow metal corrosion processes involving two electron transfer reactions.

  17. The Solar Wind as a Laboratory for the Study of Magnetofluid Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2011-01-01

    The solar wind is the Sun's exosphere. As the solar atmosphere expands into interplanetary space, it is accelerated and heated. Data from spacecraft located throughout the heliosphere have revealed that this exosphere has velocities of several hundred kilometers/sec, densities at Earth orbit of about 5 particles/cm(exp 3), and an entrained magnetic field that at Earth orbit that is about 5 X 10(exp 5) Gauss. A fascinating feature of this magnetized plasma, which is a gas containing both charged particles and magnetic field, is that the magnetic field fluctuates in a way that is highly reminiscent of "Alfven waves", first defined by Hannes Alfven in 1942. Such waves have the defining property that the fluctuating magnetic fields are aligned with fluctuations in the velocity of the plasma and that, when properly normalized, the fluctuations have equal magnitudes. The observed alignment is not perfect and the resulting mismatch leads to a variety of complex interactions. In many respects, the flow patterns appear to be an example of fully developed magnetofluid turbulence. Recently, the dissipation range of this turbulence has been revealed by Search Coil magnetometer data from the four Cluster spacecraft. This tutorial will describe some of the properties of the large-scale and small-scale turbulence.

  18. Chapman and Alfvén: A Rigorous Mathematical Physicist Versus an Inspirational Experimental Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, Syun

    Modern magnetospheric physics owes its initial development to two great pioneers' Sydney Chapman and Hannes Alfvén, who took very different and contrasting approaches for their research activities; Figure 1. This caused one of the most memorable controversies in space physics during the 20th century. The controversy was initiated formally by Alfvén (1951) when he criticized a paper by D.F. Martyn entitled, ``The Theory of Magnetic Storms and Auroras,'' published in Nature in 1951. Alfvén stated: ``Dr. Martyn's treatment is founded on Chapman-Ferraro's theory of magnetic storms. It is not my intention to review here the objections to this theory, objections which I believe to be fatal- nor is it worthwhile to discuss the curious super structure which Dr. Martyn tried to erect on this weak ground.'' Alfvén's objections will be described after briefly providing the background on which the Chapman-Ferraro theory was constructed. It may be mentioned at the outset that Chapman, together with T.G. Cowling, was well recognized by his publication of a classical treatise ``The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases'' in 1953 and also, with J. Bartels, of ``Geomagnetism'' in 1940, while Alfvén established himself by the publication of an inspirational book ``Cosmical Electrodynamics'' in 1950.

  19. Sagebrush Ecosystems Under Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, Janelle L.

    2014-12-30

    Since settlement of the western United States began, sagebrush (Artemisia L. spp.) ecosystems have decreased both in quantity and quality. Originally encompassing up to 150 million acres in the West, the “interminable fields” of sage described by early explorers (Fremont 1845) have been degraded and often eliminated by conversion to agriculture, urbanization, livestock grazing, invasion by alien plants, and alteration of wildfire cycles (Hann et al. 1997; West 1999). More than half of the original sagebrush steppe ecosystems in Washington have been converted to agriculture and many of the remaining stands of sagebrush are degraded by invasion of exotic annuals such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.). Today, sagebrush ecosystems are considered to be one of the most imperiled in the United States (Noss, LeRoe and Scott 1995), and more than 350 sagebrush-associated plants and animals have been identified as species of conservation concern (Suring et al. 2005; Wisdom et al. 2005). The increasing frequency of wildfire in sagebrush-dominated landscapes is one of the greatest threats to these habitats and also presents one of the most difficult to control.

  20. The Alfvén mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthomier, M.; Fazakerley, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    The Alfvén mission is a candidate to the 2014 ESA Call for M-class science missions. Its main scientific objective is to elucidate the universal physical processes at work in the Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR). The AAR is a unique laboratory for investigating strongly magnetized plasmas at an interface where ideal magneto-hydrodynamics does not apply. The Alfvén mission will investigate fundamental and multi-scale physical processes that govern what Nobel Prize laureate Hannes Alfvén named the Plasma Universe. The mission concept is designed to teach us where and how the particles that create the aurorae are accelerated, how they emit radiation, and to elucidate the ion heating and outflow processes which are slowly removing the Earth's atmosphere. The only way to distinguish between the models describing acceleration processes at the heart of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (MI) coupling is to combine high-time resolution in situ measurements (as pioneered by the FAST mission), multi-point measurements (as pioneered by CLUSTER), and auroral arc imaging in one mission. Taking advantage of the existing dense network of ground based observatories the Alfvén mission will also allow a major breakthrough in our understanding of solar terrestrial relationships by providing key experimental measurements to large scale models of MI electrodynamics.

  1. Segmentation of anatomical structures in x-ray computed tomography images using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Valentino, Daniel J.

    2002-05-01

    Hierarchies of artificial neural networks(ANN's) were trained to segment regularly-shaped and constantly-located anatomical structures in x-ray computed tomography (CT) images. These neural networks learned to associate a point in an image with the anatomical structure containing the point using the image pixel intensity values located in a pattern around the point. The single layer ANN and the bilayer and multi-layer hierarchies of neural networks were developed and evaluated. The hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks(HANN's) consisted of a high-level ANN that identified large-scale anatomical structures (e.g., the head or chest), whose result was passed to a group of neural networks that identified smaller structures (e.g., the brain, sinus, soft tissue, skull, bone, or lung) within the large-scale structures. The ANN's were trained to segment and classify images based on different numbers of training images, numbers of sampling points per image, pixel intensity sampling patterns, hidden layer configuration. The experimental results indicate that multi-layer hierarchy of ANN's trained with data collected from multiple image series accurately classified anatomical structures in unknown chest and head CT images.

  2. The Berlin Poliklinik: psychoanalytic innovation in Weimar Germany.

    PubMed

    Danto, E A

    1999-01-01

    After Freud proposed in 1918 the creation of "institutions or out-patient clinics [where] treatment will be free," Max Eitingon, Ernst Simmel, and other progressive psychoanalysts founded the Berlin Poliklinik, a free outpatient clinic. Guided by Weimar Republic principles of "radical functionalism," the Poliklinik and its companion inpatient service, the Schloss Tegel Sanatorium, pioneered treatment and training methodologies still used--and still debated--today. Their funding strategies, statistics, and approaches to clinical problems like length of treatment tell the history of an innovative psychoanalytic institute where men and women were generally treated in equal numbers and patients (ranging in occupational status from unemployed to professional) of all ages were treated free. Franz Alexander, Karl Abraham, Theresa Benedek, Paul Federn, Otto Fenichel, Edith Jacobson, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Helene Deutsch, Hanns Sachs, Sándor Radó, Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth, Wilhelm Reich, Annie Reich, and Melanie Klein all worked at the Poliklinik, and from there initiated decades of original clinical theory, practice, and education. PMID:10650563

  3. Object tracking in a stereo and infrared vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantonio, S.; Benvenuti, M.; Di Bono, M. G.; Pieri, G.; Salvetti, O.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of real-time detection, recognition and tracking of moving objects in open and unknown environments using an infrared (IR) and visible vision system. A thermo-camera and two stereo visible-cameras synchronized are used to acquire multi-source information: three-dimensional data about target geometry and its thermal information are combined to improve the robustness of the tracking procedure. Firstly, target detection is performed by extracting its characteristic features from the images and then by storing the computed parameters on a specific database; secondly, the tracking task is carried on using two different computational approaches. A Hierarchical Artificial Neural Network (HANN) is used during active tracking for the recognition of the actual target, while, when partial occlusions or masking occur, a database retrieval method is used to support the search of the correct target followed. A prototype has been tested on case studies regarding the identification and tracking of animals moving at night in an open environment, and the surveillance of known scenes for unauthorized access control.

  4. Validation of MTF measurement for CBCT system using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ting; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhou, Zhongxing

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the spatial resolution performance of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system, accurate measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) is required. This accuracy depends on the MTF measurement method and CBCT reconstruction algorithms. In this work, the accuracy of MTF measurement of CBCT system using wire phantom is validated by Monte Carlo simulation. A Monte Carlo simulation software tool BEAMnrc/EGSnrc was employed to model X-ray radiation beams and transport. Tungsten wires were simulated with different diameters and radial distances from the axis of rotation. We adopted filtered back projection technique to reconstruct images from 360° acquisition. The MTFs for four reconstruction kernels were measured from corresponding reconstructed wire images, while the ram-lak kernel increased the MTF relative to the cosine, hamming and hann kernel. The results demonstrated that the MTF degraded radially from the axis of rotation. This study suggested that an increase in the MTF for the CBCT system is possible by optimizing scanning settings and reconstruction parameters.

  5. Surface Decontamination Using Laser Ablation Process - 12032

    SciTech Connect

    Moggia, Fabrice; Lecardonnel, Xavier; Damerval, Frederique

    2012-07-01

    A new decontamination method has been investigated and used during two demonstration stages by the Clean-Up Business Unit of AREVA. This new method is based on the use of a Laser beam to remove the contaminants present on a base metal surface. In this paper will be presented the type of Laser used during those tests but also information regarding the efficiency obtained on non-contaminated (simulated contamination) and contaminated samples (from the CEA and La Hague facilities). Regarding the contaminated samples, in the first case, the contamination was a quite thick oxide layer. In the second case, most of the contamination was trapped in dust and thin grease layer. Some information such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray scattering spectroscopy and decontamination factors (DF) will be provided in this paper. Laser technology appears to be an interesting one for the future of the D and D applications. As shown in this paper, the results in terms of efficiency are really promising and in many cases, higher than those obtained with conventional techniques. One of the most important advantages is that all those results have been obtained with no generation of secondary wastes such as abrasives, chemicals, or disks... Moreover, as mentioned in introduction, the Laser ablation process can be defined as a 'dry' process. This technology does not produce any liquid waste (as it can be the case with chemical process or HP water process...). Finally, the addition of a vacuum system allows to trap the contamination onto filters and thus avoiding any dissemination in the room where the process takes place. The next step is going to be a commercial use in 2012 in one of the La Hague buildings. (authors)

  6. COEX - process: cross-breeding between innovation and industrial experience

    SciTech Connect

    Drain, F.; Emin, J.L.; Vinoche, R.; Baron, P.

    2008-07-01

    Recycling used nuclear fuel at an industrial scale has been a reality for over 40 years. Since it was founded in 1976, AREVA has designed and built two used fuel treatment plants in La Hague, France. These plants, named UP2-800 and UP3, use the PUREX process. UP3 began operations at the end of the 80's and UP2-800 in the mid 90's. The plutonium extracted in UP2-800 and UP3 is then processed in MELOX plant which started operation in 1995, to be recycled under the form of MOX fuel in LWR. This technology has been selected by JNFL for its reprocessing and recycling plants. Rokkasho-Mura reprocessing plant incorporates also some Japanese technologies and is being commissioned soon. Over 23,000 tons of LWR used fuels have been treated in La Hague plants and over 1200 tons of MOX fuels have been produced by MELOX plant. Innovations have been constantly incorporated to these plants to improve process efficiency and to reduce the activity and volume of waste. During these years, AREVA has acquired an invaluable experience in industrializing processes and technologies developed in the laboratory. In the frame of its continuous improvement policy, AREVA has developed jointly with CEA (French Atomic Energy Agency) a new process, COEX{sup TM} process, offering significant improvement in term of proliferation resistance, process performance and investment and operating cost. The present paper recalls the process principles applied in French and Japanese recycling plants. Then it describes the main steps of COEX{sup TM} process, the status of its development and the improvements compared to PUREX process. The possible evolution of COEX{sup TM} process to cope with needs of future nuclear fuel cycles using fast reactors and possible recycling of minor actinides is presented. (authors)

  7. Experiences of citizen-based reporting of rainfall events using lab-generated videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Leonardo; Chacon, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Hydrologic studies rely on the availability of good-quality precipitation estimates. However, in remote areas of the world and particularly in developing countries, ground-based measurement networks are either sparse or nonexistent. This creates difficulties in the estimation of precipitation, which limits the development of hydrologic forecasting and early warning systems for these regions. The EC-FP7 WeSenseIt project aims at exploring the involvement of citizens in the observation of the water cycle with innovative sensor technologies, including mobile telephony. In particular, the project explores the use of a smartphone applications to facilitate the reporting water-related situations. Apart from the challenge of using such information for scientific purposes, the citizen engagement is one of the most important issues to address. To this end effortless methods for reporting need to be developed in order to involve as many people as possible in these experiments. A potential solution to overcome these drawbacks, consisting on lab-controlled rainfall videos have been produced to help mapping the extent and distribution of rainfall fields with minimum effort [1]. In addition, the quality of the collected rainfall information has also been studied [2] by means of different experiments with students. The present research shows the latest results of the application of this method and evaluates the experiences in some cases. [1] Alfonso, L., J. Chacón, and G. Peña-Castellanos (2015), Allowing Citizens to Effortlessly Become Rainfall Sensors, in 36th IAHR World Congress edited, The Hague, the Netherlands [2] Cortes-Arevalo, J., J. Chacón, L. Alfonso, and T. Bogaard (2015), Evaluating data quality collected by using a video rating scale to estimate and report rainfall intensity, in 36th IAHR World Congress edited, The Hague, the Netherlands

  8. Protection of Cultural Heritage in Urban Areas during Peace and Conflict Times from Threats to Risk Preparedness as a Shared Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimino, C.

    2013-07-01

    In times of economic hardship, the support given by specialized civil society organisations to public institutions in the protection of cultural heritage has often proved very useful, and there is evidence that their contribution is essential in times of conflicts and natural disasters, if well-designed plans and measures are organized efficiently, thoroughly tested and properly implemented. The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (HC), its two Protocols and other international juridical instruments address these situations since decades, however, they remained widely not-applied in absence of proper regulatory instruments. In 2004, the Second Protocol of the Hague Convention (1999HP) entered into force and the Committee of the State Parties was formed. It became clear that a new trend started when, in 2009, draft Guidelines for the implementation of the 1999HP were issued. Meanwhile, WATCH, in partnership with the Council of the United Municipalitities of Jbail (Lebanon) and the Head of the Municipality of Mtskheta (Georgia) prepared a project proposal aimed to set a precedent in the governance of urban sites that are registered in the World Heritage List which are at risk of armed conflict. The project War Free World Heritage Listed Cities http://www.warfreeheritage.net/ was co-financed in 2010 with a grant within the framework of the EC CIUDAD programme and it is currently at an advanced level of implementation. This presentation will focus on achievements and contingencies faced during implementation as well as lessons learned that could be surely useful for pers pective applicants.

  9. Influence of releases of (129)I and (137)Cs from European reprocessing facilities in Fucus vesiculosus and seawater from the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Holm, E; Niagolova, N; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Pinto-Gómez, A R; Abril, J A; García-León, M

    2014-08-01

    (129)I is a very long-lived radionuclide (T1/2=15.7×10(6) years) that is present in the environment because of natural and anthropogenic sources. Compared to the pre-nuclear era, large amounts of (129)I have been released to the marine environment, especially as liquid and gaseous discharges from two European reprocessing facilities located at Sellafield (England) and La Hague (France). The marine environment, i.e., the oceans, is the major source of iodine. Brown seaweed accumulates iodine at high levels up to 1.0% of dry weigh, and therefore they are ideal bioindicators for studying levels of (129)I. In this work, (129)I concentrations have been determined in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and seawater collected in the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas in July 2007. The resulting data were evaluated in terms of (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios. (129)I concentrations were found to be in the order of (44-575)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seaweed and (5.4-51)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seawater, with an enhancement in the Skagerrak area in comparison to the Kattegat area. Iodine-129 concentrations in both seaweed and seawater were used to determine the concentration factor of iodine in brown seaweed F. vesiculosus. The high levels of (129)I and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios in the Skagerrak area and their gradually decreasing trend to the Kattegat indicates that the most important contribution to the (129)I inventory in those areas comes from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants. PMID:24875915

  10. Integrated Pilot Plant for a Large Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Jensen, A.; Prod'homme, A.; Fatoux, R.; Lacombe, J.

    2002-02-26

    COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level liquid waste produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing on an industrial scale for over 20 years, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. Research performed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in the 1950s led to the selection of borosilicate glass as the most suitable containment matrix for waste from spent nuclear fuel and to the development of the induction melter technology. This was followed by the commissioning of the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) in 1978. The process was implemented at a larger scale in the late 1980s in the R7 and T7 facilities of the La Hague reprocessing plant. COGEMA facilities have produced more than 11,000 high level glass canisters, representing more than 4,500 metric tons of glass and 4.5 billion curies. To further improve the performance of the vitrification lines in the R7 and T7 facilities, the CEA and COGEMA have been developing the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology since the 1980s. This technology benefits from the 20 years of COGEMA HLW vitrification experience and ensures a virtually unlimited equipment service life and extensive flexibility in dealing with different types of waste. The high specific power directly transferred by induction to the melt allows high operating temperatures without any impact on the process equipment. In addition, the mechanical stirring of the melter significantly reduces operating constraints. COGEMA is already providing the CCM technology to international customers for nuclear and non-nuclear applications and plans to implement it in the La Hague vitrification plant for the vitrification of highly concentrated and corrosive solutions produced by uranium/molybdenum fuel reprocessing. The paper presents the CCM project that led to the building and start-up of this evolutionary and flexible pilot plant. It also describes the plant's technical characteristics and

  11. Transconvolution and the virtual positron emission tomograph-A new method for cross calibration in quantitative PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Prenosil, George A.; Weitzel, Thilo; Hentschel, Michael; Klaeser, Bernd; Krause, Thomas

    2013-06-15

    with a Gaussian distribution were introduced. Furthermore, simulation of a virtual PET system provided a standard imaging system with clearly defined properties to which the real PET systems were to be matched. A Hann window served as the modulation transfer function for the virtual PET. The Hann's apodization properties suppressed high spatial frequencies above a certain critical frequency, thereby fulfilling the above-mentioned boundary conditions. The determined point spread functions were subsequently used by the novel Transconvolution algorithm to match different PET/CT systems onto the virtual PET system. Finally, the theoretically elaborated Transconvolution method was validated transforming phantom images acquired on two different PET systems to nearly identical data sets, as they would be imaged by the virtual PET system. Results: The proposed Transconvolution method matched different PET/CT-systems for an improved and reproducible determination of a normalized activity concentration. The highest difference in measured activity concentration between the two different PET systems of 18.2% was found in spheres of 2 ml volume. Transconvolution reduced this difference down to 1.6%. In addition to reestablishing comparability the new method with its parameterization of point spread functions allowed a full characterization of imaging properties of the examined tomographs. Conclusions: By matching different tomographs to a virtual standardized imaging system, Transconvolution opens a new comprehensive method for cross calibration in quantitative PET imaging. The use of a virtual PET system restores comparability between data sets from different PET systems by exerting a common, reproducible, and defined partial volume effect.

  12. Financing and budgetary impact of landslide losses for highways and urban infrastructures in NW Germany - an economic analysis using landslide database information and cost survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurischat, Philipp; Klose, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that landslides cause even in low mountain areas of Central and Western Europe millions of dollars in annual losses (Klose et al., 2012; Vranken et al., 2013). The objective of this study has therefore been to model landslide disaster financing and to assess budgetary impacts of landslide losses for highways and urban infrastructures in the Lower Saxon Uplands, NW Germany. The present contribution includes two case studies on the financial burden of landslides for public budgets using the examples of the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation and the city of Hann. Münden. The basis of this research is a regional subset of a landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany. Using a toolset for landslide cost modeling based on landslide databases (Klose et al., 2013), the direct costs of more than 30 landslide damage events to highways in a local case study area were determined. The annual average landslide maintenance, repair, and mitigation costs for highways in this case study area are estimated at 0.76 million between 1980 and 2010. Alternatively, a cost survey based on expert interviews has been conducted to collect landslide loss data for urban infrastructures. This cost survey for the city of Hann. Münden shows annual landslide losses of up to 3.4 million during the previous 10 years. Further expert interviews at city and highway agency level were focused on identifying procedure, resources, and limits of financing landslide damage costs. The information on landslide disaster financing and cost survey data on annual maintenance and construction budgets for highways, city sewer lines, and urban roads were used to evaluate the fiscal significance of estimated landslide losses. The results of this economic impact assessment prove variable financial burdens of analyzed public budgets. Thus, in costly years with landslide losses of more than 7 million, the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation is required to shift up to 19% of its

  13. Performance measures in the selection of reconstruction filters for SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Appledorn, C.R.; Oppenheim, B.E.; Wellman, H.N.

    1985-05-01

    Filter selection in SPECT image reconstruction poses an implicit tradeoff between image smoothness, image contrast and noise texture. It is known that the Ramachandran or ramp filter provides the greatest contrast (and resolution) in a reconstructed image at the expense of poor noise handling. In order to improve detection of either hot or cold lesions, practical experience dictates that some image smoothing must be provided. Thus, the question of the ''optimal'' filter selection has been the subject of this investigation. Using an extension of the approach as originally developed by Beck and Metz, the authors derived a figure-of-merit (FOM) that quantifies the performance of the reconstruction algorithm being tested. The FOM can be separated into two components: smoothness factor (SF) which is a measure of noise reduction and contrast factor (CF) which is a measure of the spatial resolution of the filter being tested. Each component is measured separately. The optimum filter should maintain the contrast of the Ramachandran filter (CF = 0.313) but improve the noise handling (SF = 8.86). A variety of commercially available filters were tested: rectangular, Hann, and Butterworth. Also examined were the order of the filter and the interpolation method (nearest-neighbor, linear, and Fourier methods with padding of zeros). The authors found that high order Butterworth filters performed best in maintaining contrast but reducing noise. Using a cutoff frequency of 0.200 (Nyquist = 0.500) and an order of 30, the filter provided a CF = 0.313 and a SF = 30.31. Linear interpolation was marginally better.

  14. MOA - The Magnetic Field Amplified Thruster, a Novel Concept for a Pulsed Plasma Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Grassauer, Andreas; Bartusch, Tobias; Koudelka, Otto

    2008-01-21

    More than 60 years after the later Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfven waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept is MOA - Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Based on computer simulations, MOA is a highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA Thruster R and D activities at QASAR (www.qasar.at), the company in Vienna, which has been set up to further develop and test the Alfven wave technology and its applications.

  15. MOA—The Magnetic Field Amplified Thruster, a Novel Concept for a Pulsed Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Grassauer, Andreas; Bartusch, Tobias; Koudelka, Otto

    2008-01-01

    More than 60 years after the later Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfvén waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept is MOA—Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Based on computer simulations, MOA is a highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an `afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA Thruster R&D activities at QASAR (www.qasar.at), the company in Vienna, which has been set up to further develop and test the Alfvén wave technology and its applications.

  16. Multitaper spectral analysis of high-frequency seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeffrey; Lindberg, Craig R.; Vernon, Frank L., III

    1987-11-01

    Spectral estimation procedures which employ several prolate spheroidal sequences as tapers have been shown to yield better results than standard single-taper spectral analysis when used on a variety of engineering data. We apply the adaptive multitaper spectral estimation method of Thomson (1982) to a number of high-resolution digital seismic records and compare the results to those obtained using standard single-taper spectral estimates. Single-taper smoothed-spectrum estimates are plagued by a trade-off between the variance of the estimate and the bias caused by spectral leakage. Applying a taper to reduce bias discards data, increasing the variance of the estimate. Using a taper also unevenly samples the record. Throwing out data from the ends of the record can result in a spectral estimate which does not adequately represent the character of the spectrum of nonstationary processes like seismic waveforms. For example, a discrete Fourier transform of an untapered record (i.e., using a boxcar taper) produces a reasonable spectral estimate of the large-amplitude portion of the seismic source spectrum but cannot be trusted to provide a good estimate of the high-frequency roll-off. A discrete Fourier transform of the record multiplied by a more severe taper (like the Hann taper) which is resistant to spectral leakage leads to a reliable estimate of high-frequency spectral roll-off, but this estimate weights the analyzed data unequally. Therefore single-taper estimators which are less affected by leakage not only have increased variance but also can misrepresent the spectra of nonstationary data. The adaptive multitaper algorithm automatically adjusts between these extremes. We demonstrate its advantages using 16-bit seismic data recorded by instruments in the Anza Telemetered Seismic Network. We also present an analysis demonstrating the superiority of the multitaper algorithm in providing low-variance spectral estimates with good leakage resistance which do not

  17. From D. Schröder: Reply on ``Chapman and Alvén: A Rigorous Mathematical Physicist Versus an Inspirational Experimental Physicist''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    I read the recent article by S. -I. Akasofu ( Eos, 22 July, p. 269) with great interest because many years ago I had a discussion with Thomas George Cowling and Hannes Alfvén on the same subject. Sydney Chapman's style was very different than that of Kristian Birkeland. At the beginning of his career, Chapman published short notes on problems of geomagnetic variations and on other topics. In 1918, he commenced work on magnetic storms and, in spite of his reference to Birkeland's work, he does not seem to have been unduly influenced by it. This is connected with their different attitudes. Chapman was a mathematician and only returned to a mathematical approximation when it seemed unavoidable to him. Thus, Birkeland was more interested in the details of geophysical phenomenon, whereas Chapman sought to present a general solution. Chapman and his research student, Vincenzo Ferraro, in about 1930/1933 developed an interpretation of the initial phase of magnetic storm. For both of them, the space around the Earth played an important role, where the interplanetary plasma is compelled by the geomagnetic field to co-rotate with the Earth. Following F. A. Lindemann's ideas, they started from the premise that the cloud of particles consisted of an externally neutral plasma, containing electrons and protons of a magnetic storm, or electrons and protons intended for the accompanying auroras In the 1950s, Ferraro described the situation as follows: ``Our first ideas about ring current, unlike those relating to the main phase, were not based on hydrodynamic concepts, and our theory of the main phase is generally considered unacceptable.''

  18. Comparative Analysis of Reproductive Traits in Black-Chinned Tilapia Females from Various Coastal Marine, Estuarine and Freshwater Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Kantoussan, Justin; Ndiaye, Papa; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Albaret, Jean-Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron is a marine teleost characterised by an extreme euryhalinity. However, beyond a certain threshold at very high salinity, the species exhibits impaired growth and precocious reproduction. In this study, the relationships between reproductive parameters, environmental salinity and condition factor were investigated in wild populations of this species that were sampled in two consecutive years (2003 and 2004) from three locations in Senegal with different salinities: Guiers lake (freshwater, 0 psu), Hann bay (seawater, 37 psu) and Saloum estuary (hypersaline water, 66–127 psu). The highest absolute fecundity and spawning weight were recorded in seawater by comparison to either freshwater or hypersaline water whereas the poorest condition factors were observed in the most saline sampling site. These results reflect higher resource allocation to the reproduction due to the lowest costs of adaptation to salinity in seawater (the natural environment of this species) rather than differences in food resources at sites and/or efficiency at foraging and prey availability. Fecundities, oocyte size as well as spawning weight were consistent from year to year. However, the relative fecundity in the Saloum estuary varied significantly between the dry and rainy raisons with higher values in the wet season, which seems to reflect seasonal variations in environmental salinity. Such a reproductive tactic of producing large amounts of eggs in the rainy season when the salinity in the estuary was lower, would give the fry a better chance at survival and therefore assures a high larval recruitment. An inverse correlation was found between relative fecundity and oocyte size at the two extreme salinity locations, indicating that S. melanotheron has different reproductive strategies in these ecosystems. The adaptive significance of these two reproductive modes is discussed in regard to the heavy osmotic constraint imposed by extreme

  19. Seasonal dynamics of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges, potential vectors of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses in the Niayes area of Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African horse sickness epizootic in Senegal in 2007 caused considerable mortality in the equine population and hence major economic losses. The vectors involved in the transmission of this arbovirus have never been studied specifically in Senegal. This first study of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species, potential vectors of African horse sickness in Senegal, was conducted at five sites (Mbao, Parc Hann, Niague, Pout and Thies) in the Niayes area, which was affected by the outbreak. Methods Two Onderstepoort light traps were used at each site for three nights of consecutive collection per month over one year to measure the apparent abundance of the Culicoides midges. Results In total, 224,665 specimens belonging to at least 24 different species (distributed among 11 groups of species) of the Culicoides genus were captured in 354 individual collections. Culicoides oxystoma, Culicoides kingi, Culicoides imicola, Culicoides enderleini and Culicoides nivosus were the most abundant and most frequent species at the collection sites. Peaks of abundance coincide with the rainy season in September and October. Conclusions In addition to C. imicola, considered a major vector for the African horse sickness virus, C. oxystoma may also be involved in the transmission of this virus in Senegal given its abundance in the vicinity of horses and its suspected competence for other arboviruses including bluetongue virus. This study depicted a site-dependent spatial variability in the dynamics of the populations of the five major species in relation to the eco-climatic conditions at each site. PMID:24690198

  20. MOA: Magnetic Field Oscillating Amplified Thruster and its Application for Nuclear Electric and Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Grassauer, Andreas; Bartusch, Tobias; Koudelka, Otto

    2006-07-01

    More than 60 years after the later Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfven waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept, utilising Alfven waves to accelerate ionised matter for propulsive purposes, is MOA - Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Alfven waves are generated by making use of two coils, one being permanently powered and serving also as magnetic nozzle, the other one being switched on and off in a cyclic way, deforming the field lines of the overall system. It is this deformation that generates Alfven waves, which are in the next step used to transport and compress the propulsive medium, in theory leading to a propulsion system with a much higher performance than any other electric propulsion system. Based on computer simulations, which were conducted to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA is a highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. (authors)

  1. Characterizing and estimating rice brown spot disease severity using stepwise regression, principal component regression and partial least-square regression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhan-yu; Huang, Jing-feng; Shi, Jing-jing; Tao, Rong-xiang; Zhou, Wan; Zhang, Li-Li

    2007-10-01

    Detecting plant health conditions plays a key role in farm pest management and crop protection. In this study, measurement of hyperspectral leaf reflectance in rice crop (Oryzasativa L.) was conducted on groups of healthy and infected leaves by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda. de Hann) through the wavelength range from 350 to 2,500 nm. The percentage of leaf surface lesions was estimated and defined as the disease severity. Statistical methods like multiple stepwise regression, principal component analysis and partial least-square regression were utilized to calculate and estimate the disease severity of rice brown spot at the leaf level. Our results revealed that multiple stepwise linear regressions could efficiently estimate disease severity with three wavebands in seven steps. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) for training (n=210) and testing (n=53) dataset were 6.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the first principal component could explain approximately 80% of the variance of the original hyperspectral reflectance. The regression model with the first two principal components predicted a disease severity with RMSEs of 16.3% and 13.9% for the training and testing dataset, respectively. Partial least-square regression with seven extracted factors could most effectively predict disease severity compared with other statistical methods with RMSEs of 4.1% and 2.0% for the training and testing dataset, respectively. Our research demonstrates that it is feasible to estimate the disease severity of rice brown spot using hyperspectral reflectance data at the leaf level. PMID:17910117

  2. Increased range of ultrasonic guided wave testing of overhead transmission line cables using dispersion compensation.

    PubMed

    Legg, Mathew; Yücel, Mehmet K; Kappatos, Vassilios; Selcuk, Cem; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2015-09-01

    Overhead Transmission Line (OVTL) cables can experience structural defects and are, therefore, inspected using Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques. Ultrasonic Guided Waves (UGW) is one NDT technique that has been investigated for inspection of these cables. For practical use, it is desirable to be able to inspect as long a section of cable as possible from a single location. This paper investigates increasing the UGW inspection range on Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cables by compensating for dispersion using dispersion curve data. For ACSR cables, it was considered to be difficult to obtain accurate dispersion curves using modelling due to the complex geometry and unknown coupling between wire strands. Group velocity dispersion curves were, therefore, measured experimentally on an untensioned, 26.5m long cable and a method of calculating theoretical dispersion curves was obtained. Attenuation and dispersion compensation were then performed for a broadband Maximum Length Sequence (MLS) excitation signal. An increase in the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of about 4-8dB compared to that of the dispersed signal was obtained. However, the main benefit was the increased ability to resolve the individual echoes from the end of the cable and an introduced defect in the form of a cut, which was 7 to at least 13dB greater than that of the dispersed signal. Five echoes were able to be clearly detected using MLS excitation signal, indicating the potential for an inspection range of up to 130m in each direction. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the longest inspection range for ACSR cables reported in the literature, where typically cables, which were only one or two meter long, have been investigated previously. Narrow band tone burst and Hann windowed tone burst excitation signal also showed increased SNR and ability to resolve closely spaced echoes. PMID:25991388

  3. The choice of the concept of magnetic field lines or of electric current lines: Alfvén medal lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    2011-07-01

    In 1967, at the Birkeland Symposium in Sandefjord, Norway, Professor Hannes Alfvén stated that the second approach (in solving unsolved problems by the standard MHD theory) to cosmic electrodynamics is to "thaw" the "frozen-in" magnetic field lines. "We can illustrate essential properties of the electromagnetic state of space either by depicting the magnetic field lines or by depicting electric current lines," he said. There has been much progress in space physics since the Birkeland Symposium more than 40 years ago, but unfortunately our scientific community has not really succeeded in thawing the frozen-in field lines. Instead, it has pursued magnetic reconnection, a concept that Alfvén had been critical of. It is shown here that we have to study many unsolved problems and problems thought to be solved in terms of both the magnetic field line concept and the current system concept. In taking Alfvén's approach, we must consider the whole system, including the power supply (dynamo process) and its transmission and distribution (electric currents) and observed phenomena (power dissipation processes). Such a consideration can provide physical insight into many of our unsolved problems and problems thought to be solved. In this paper, we consider substorm onset processes, the substorm current system, sunspots, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, the interplanetary current sheet, and the magnetic field configuration of the heliosphere in terms of the current system concept. In particular, it is shown that a study of the current system is essential in substorm studies, more than changes of the magnetic field configuration in the magnetotail.

  4. Effects of RR segment duration on HRV spectrum estimation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dilbag; Vinod, Kumar; Saxena, Suresh C; Deepak, Kishore K

    2004-06-01

    Although patterns of heart rate variability (HRV) hold considerable promise for clarifying issues in clinical applications, the inappropriate quantification and interpretation of these patterns may obscure critical issues or relationships and may impede rather than foster the development of clinical applications. The duration of the RR interval series is not a matter of convenience but a fine balance between two important issues: acceptable variance and stationarity of the time series on one hand, and acceptable resolution of the spectral estimate and reduced spectral leakage on the other. Further, in the standard short-term HRV analysis, it has been observed that the previous studies in HRV spectral analysis use a wide range of RR interval segment duration for spectral estimation by Welch's algorithm. The standardization of RR interval segment duration is also important for comparisons among studies and is essential for within-study experimental contrasts. In the present study, a comparative analysis for RR interval segment durations has been made to propose an optimal RR interval segment duration. Firstly a simulated signal was analyzed with Hann window and zero padding for the segment lengths of 1024, 512, 256 and 128 samples resampled at 4 Hz with 50% overlapping. Again, the above procedure was applied to RR interval series and it was concluded that segment length of 256 samples with 50% overlapping provides a smoothed spectral estimate with clearly outlined peaks in low- and high-frequency bands. This easily understandable and interpretable spectral estimate leads to a better visual and automated analysis, which is not only desirable in basic physiology studies, but also a prerequisite for a widespread utilization of frequency domain techniques in clinical studies, where simplicity and effectiveness of information are of primary importance. PMID:15253123

  5. The Ring Current's Birth and Development: A Conceptual History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Alv; Burke, William J.

    2013-04-01

    This talk outlines how our understanding of the ring current evolved during the half-century intervals before and after humans gained direct access to space. Its existence was first suggested by Kristian Birkeland in 1908 - based on his terrella simulations, and later postulated and confirmed in 1910 by Carl Størmer, to explain the locations and equatorward migrations of aurorae under disturbed conditions. In 1917 Adolf Schmidt applied Størmer's ring-current hypothesis to explain the observed negative perturbations in the Earth's magnetic field. More than another decade would pass before Sydney Chapman and Vicenzo Ferraro - in early 1930s, argued for its necessity to explain magnetic signatures observed during the main phases of storms. Simultaneously, Ernst Büche extended Birkeland's terrella experiment with an equatorial electric current that could be turned off or on to demonstrate the latitudinal movements of the aurorae. During the early 1950s Hannes Alfvén first correctly argued that the ring current was a collective plasma effect, but failed to explain the particle entry. In 1957 Fred Singer proposed a ring current model for the main phase of storms that combined Alfvén's guiding-center drift with Størmer's forbidden regions. The Dessler-Parker relation explains that the observed magnetic perturbations are proportional to ring-current energy. In the mid-1960s Louis Frank showed that ions in the newly discovered plasma sheet had the energy needed to explain the ring current's origin. The discovery that O+ ions from the ionosphere contribute a large fractions of the ring current's energy content still challenges scientific understanding.

  6. Reducing temperature uncertainties by stochastic geothermal reservoir modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, C.; Mottaghy, D.; Wolf, A.; Rath, V.; Pechnig, R.; Clauser, C.

    2010-04-01

    Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty is vital for simulating technically and economically successful geothermal reservoirs. To this end, we apply a stochastic modelling sequence, a Monte Carlo study, based on (i) creating an ensemble of possible realizations of a reservoir model, (ii) forward simulation of fluid flow and heat transport, and (iii) constraining post-processing using observed state variables. To generate the ensemble, we use the stochastic algorithm of Sequential Gaussian Simulation and test its potential fitting rock properties, such as thermal conductivity and permeability, of a synthetic reference model and-performing a corresponding forward simulation-state variables such as temperature. The ensemble yields probability distributions of rock properties and state variables at any location inside the reservoir. In addition, we perform a constraining post-processing in order to minimize the uncertainty of the obtained distributions by conditioning the ensemble to observed state variables, in this case temperature. This constraining post-processing works particularly well on systems dominated by fluid flow. The stochastic modelling sequence is applied to a large, steady-state 3-D heat flow model of a reservoir in The Hague, Netherlands. The spatial thermal conductivity distribution is simulated stochastically based on available logging data. Errors of bottom-hole temperatures provide thresholds for the constraining technique performed afterwards. This reduce the temperature uncertainty for the proposed target location significantly from 25 to 12K (full distribution width) in a depth of 2300m. Assuming a Gaussian shape of the temperature distribution, the standard deviation is 1.8K. To allow a more comprehensive approach to quantify uncertainty, we also implement the stochastic simulation of boundary conditions and demonstrate this for the basal specific heat flow in the reservoir of The Hague. As expected, this results in a larger distribution width

  7. SiC based MOSFET transistors for high temperature industrial gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd Spetz, Anita

    2000-03-01

    Field effect sensors based on silicon carbide have been demonstrated for industrial applications at high temperatures and in rough environments. Metal insulator silicon carbide, MISiC, Schottky diode devices as well as FET transistor devices that can be operated up to 700°C are presented. For high operation temperatures the sensors respond within milliseconds to a change between an oxidizing and reducing atmosphere, and cylinder specific monitoring of a combustion engine has been demonstrated. Changing the temperature and the type of gate metal gives sensors with diverse response patterns to different components in e.g. exhaust gases and flue gases. Sensor devices operating around 300°C with some selectivity to nitric oxide in synthetic diesel exhaust gases are presented. At a higher temperature, about 500°C, some selectivity to HC is found in synthetic petrol exhausts. Boilers of the size 0.5 - 5 MW constitute a potential market for combustion monitoring sensors. We have demonstrated MISiC devices with high selectivity to carbon monoxide in flue gases. References: Fast responding air/fuel sensor for individual cylinder control, A. Baranzahi, P. Tobias, A. Lloyd Spetz, I Lundström, P. Mårtensson, M. Glavmo, A. Göras, J. Nytomt, P. Salomonsson, and H. Larsson, SAE Technical Paper Series 972940, Combustion and Emisson Formation in SI Engines, (SP-1300) (1997) 231-240. MISiC Schottky Diodes as NOx sensors in simulated exhausts, H. Svenningstorp, P. Tobias, C. Wijk, I. Lundström, P. Salomonsson, L.-G. Ekedahl, and A. Lloyd Spetz, proc. Eurosensors XIII, The Hague, The Netherlands, September 12-15, pp. 501-504, 1999. Measurements with MISiC and MOS sensors in flue gases, L. Unéus, P. Ljung, M. Mattsson, P. Mårtenssson, R. Wigren, P. Tobias, I. Lundström, L-G. Ekedahl and A. Lloyd Spetz, proc. Eurosensors XIII, The Hague, The Netherlands, September 12-15, pp. 521-524, 1999.

  8. Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2003-02-25

    The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed

  9. R and D Programs and Policy within the CEA-AREVA Joint Vitrification Lab (LCV) - 13592

    SciTech Connect

    Piroux, Jean Christophe; Paradis, Luc; Ladirat, Christian; Brueziere, Jerome; Chauvin, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Waste management is a key issue for the reprocessing industry; furthermore, vitrification is considered as the reference for nuclear waste management. In order to further improve and strengthen their historical cooperation in high temperature waste management, the CEA, R and D organization, and AREVA, Industrial Operator, decided, in September 2010, to create a Joint Vitrification Laboratory within the framework of a strategic partnership. The main objectives of the CEA-AREVA Joint Vitrification Laboratory (LCV) are (i) support AREVA's activities, notably in its La Hague plants and for new projects, (ii) strengthen the CEA's lead as a reference laboratory in the field of waste conditioning. The LCV is mandated to provide strong, innovative solutions through the performance of R and D on processes and materials for vitrification, fusion and incineration, for high, intermediate and low level waste. The activities carried out in the LCV include academic research on containment matrices (formulation, long-term behaviour), and the improvement of current technologies/development of new ones in lab-scale to full-scale pilot facilities, in non-radioactive and radioactive conditions, including modelling and experimental tools. This paper focuses on the programs and policy managed within the LCV, as well as the means employed by the CEA and AREVA to meet common short-,mid- and long-term challenges, from a scientific and industrial point of view. Among other things, we discuss the technical support provided for the La Hague vitrification facilities on hot melter and CCIM technologies, the start-up of new processes (decommissioning effluents, UMo FP) with CCIM, the preparation of future processes by means of an assessment of new technologies and containment matrices (improved glasses, ceramics, etc.), as well as incineration/vitrification for organic and metallic mixed waste or metallic fusion. The close relationship between the R and D teams and industrial operators enables

  10. Motivation Enhancement Therapy with pregnant substance-abusing women: does baseline motivation moderate efficacy?

    PubMed

    Ondersma, Steven J; Winhusen, Theresa; Erickson, Sarah J; Stine, Susan M; Wang, Yun

    2009-04-01

    Some evidence suggests that motivational approaches are less efficacious--or even counter-productive--with persons who are relatively motivated at baseline. The present study was conducted to examine whether disordinal moderation by baseline motivation could partially explain negative findings in a previous study [Winhusen, T., Kropp, F., Babcock, D., Hague, D., Erickson, S.J., Renz, C., Rau, L., Lewis, D., Leimberger, J., Somoza, E., 2008. Motivational enhancement therapy to improve treatment utilization and outcome in pregnant substance users. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 35, 161-173]. Analyses also focused on the relative utility of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale, vs. a single goal question as potential moderators of Motivation Enhancement Therapy (MET). Participants were 200 pregnant women presenting for substance abuse treatment at one of four sites. Women were randomly assigned to either a three-session MET condition or treatment as usual (TAU). Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) revealed no significant moderation effects on drug use at post-treatment. At follow-up, contrary to expectations, participants who had not set a clear quit goal at baseline were less likely to be drug-free if randomized to MET (OR=0.48); participants who did set a clear quit goal were more likely to be drug-free if randomized to MET (OR=2.53). No moderating effects were identified via the URICA. Disordinal moderation of MET efficacy by baseline motivation may have contributed somewhat to the negative results of the [Winhusen, T., Kropp, F., Babcock, D., Hague, D., Erickson, S.J., Renz, C., Rau, L., Lewis, D., Leimberger, J., Somoza, E., 2008. Motivational enhancement therapy to improve treatment utilization and outcome in pregnant substance users. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 35, 161-173] study, but in the opposite direction expected. A simple question regarding intent to quit may be useful in identifying persons who may differentially respond to motivational

  11. A new protocol for screening adults presenting with their own medical problems at the Emergency Department to identify children at high risk for maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Diderich, Hester M; Fekkes, Minne; Verkerk, Paul H; Pannebakker, Fieke D; Velderman, Mariska Klein; Sorensen, Peggy J G; Baeten, Paul; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2013-12-01

    Identifying child abuse and neglect solely on the grounds of child characteristics leaves many children undetected. We developed a new approach (Hague protocol) based on characteristics of parents who attend the Emergency Department (ED) because they have the following problems: (1) intimate partner violence, (2) substance abuse, or (3) suicide attempt or other serious psychiatric problems. The goal of this protocol is to enable the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN) to rapidly assess family problems and offer voluntary community based support to these parents. The aim of this study is to assess whether this protocol for screening adults presenting for care in the Emergency Department can identify children at high risk for maltreatment. A before and after study was conducted at 9 EDs in 3 regions in the Netherlands (one intervention region and 2 control regions). During the period January 2006 to November 2007, prior to the introduction of the Hague protocol, from a total of 385,626 patients attending the ED in the intervention region 4 parents (1 per 100,000) were referred to the RCCAN. In the period after introduction of the protocol (December 2007 to December 2011), the number rose to 565 parents from a total of 885,301 patients attending the ED (64 per 100,000). In the control region, where the protocol was not implemented, these figures were 2 per 163,628 (1 per 100,000) and 10 per 371,616 (3 per 100,000) respectively (OR=28.0 (95 CI 4.6-170.7)). At assessment, child abuse was confirmed in 91% of referred cases. The protocol has a high positive predictive value of 91% and can substantially increase the detection rate of child abuse in an ED setting. Parental characteristics are strong predictors of child abuse. Implementing guidelines to detect child abuse based on parental characteristics of parents attending the adult section of the ED can increase the detection rate of child abuse and neglect allowing appropriate aid to be initiated for

  12. Deployment of Performance Management Methodology as part of Liquid Waste Program at Savannah River Site - 12178

    SciTech Connect

    Prod'homme, A.; Drouvot, O.; Gregory, J.; Barnes, B.; Hodges, B.; Hart, M.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR) assumed the management lead of the Liquid Waste (LW) Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The four SRR partners and AREVA, as an integrated subcontractor are performing the ongoing effort to safely and reliably: - Close High Level Waste (HLW) storage tanks; - Maximize waste throughput at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF); - Process salt waste into stable final waste form; - Manage the HLW liquid waste material stored at SRS. As part of these initiatives, SRR and AREVA deployed a performance management methodology based on Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) at the DWPF in order to support the required production increase. This project took advantage of lessons learned by AREVA through the deployment of Total Productive Maintenance and Visual Management methodologies at the La Hague reprocessing facility in France. The project also took advantage of measurement data collected from different steps of the DWPF process by the SRR team (Melter Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering, Laboratory Operations, Plant Operations). Today the SRR team has a standard method for measuring processing time throughout the facility, a reliable source of objective data for use in decision-making at all levels, and a better balance between engineering department goals and operational goals. Preliminary results show that the deployment of this performance management methodology to the LW program at SRS has already significantly contributed to the DWPF throughput increases and is being deployed in the Saltstone facility. As part of the liquid waste program on Savannah River Site, SRR committed to enhance production throughput of DWPF. Beyond technical modifications implemented at different location of the facility, SRR deployed performance management methodology based on OEE metrics. The implementation benefited from the experience gained by AREVA in its own facilities in France. OEE proved to be a valuable tool in order

  13. ON THE GENERALISED FANT EQUATION.

    PubMed

    Howe, M S; McGowan, R S

    2011-06-20

    An analysis is made of the fluid-structure interactions involved in the production of voiced speech. It is usual to avoid time consuming numerical simulations of the aeroacoustics of the vocal tract and glottis by the introduction of Fant's 'reduced complexity' equation for the glottis volume velocity Q (G. Fant, Acoustic Theory of Speech Production, Mouton, The Hague 1960). A systematic derivation is given of Fant's equation based on the nominally exact equations of aerodynamic sound. This can be done with a degree of approximation that depends only on the accuracy with which the time-varying flow geometry and surface-acoustic boundary conditions can be specified, and replaces Fant's original 'lumped element' heuristic approach. The method determines all of the effective 'source terms' governing Q. It is illustrated by consideration of a simplified model of the vocal system involving a self-sustaining single-mass model of the vocal folds, that uses free streamline theory to account for surface friction and flow separation within the glottis. Identification is made of a new source term associated with the unsteady vocal fold drag produced by their oscillatory motion transverse to the mean flow. PMID:21603054

  14. ON THE GENERALISED FANT EQUATION

    PubMed Central

    Howe, M. S.; McGowan, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis is made of the fluid-structure interactions involved in the production of voiced speech. It is usual to avoid time consuming numerical simulations of the aeroacoustics of the vocal tract and glottis by the introduction of Fant’s ‘reduced complexity’ equation for the glottis volume velocity Q (G. Fant, Acoustic Theory of Speech Production, Mouton, The Hague 1960). A systematic derivation is given of Fant’s equation based on the nominally exact equations of aerodynamic sound. This can be done with a degree of approximation that depends only on the accuracy with which the time-varying flow geometry and surface-acoustic boundary conditions can be specified, and replaces Fant’s original ‘lumped element’ heuristic approach. The method determines all of the effective ‘source terms’ governing Q. It is illustrated by consideration of a simplified model of the vocal system involving a self-sustaining single-mass model of the vocal folds, that uses free streamline theory to account for surface friction and flow separation within the glottis. Identification is made of a new source term associated with the unsteady vocal fold drag produced by their oscillatory motion transverse to the mean flow. PMID:21603054

  15. Hydro blues on the Danube

    SciTech Connect

    Kovac, C.

    1997-03-24

    Armed with more than 10,000 pages of documents, Hungarian government representatives presented opening arguments earlier this month in a suit with neighboring Slovakia over environmental, financial and political impacts of a $2-billion hydroelectric project on the Danube River. The two countries` 20-year discord over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros project has reached a new plateau in the legal battle now before the International Court of Justice in The Hague, The Netherlands. Following a two-week recess that began March 10, the court is set to hear arguments from Slovakia. The trial is expected to take six weeks, and will include an on-site inspection of the now-completed project by judges. The project includes a 15.5-mile-long diversion canal and a 720-Mw hydroelectric dam and power plant at Gabcikovo, now in Slovakia. Downstream in Hungary, Nagymaros Dam, with a 160-Mw powerplant, was to be built to halt surges from Gabcikovo. Hungary opted not to build the project.

  16. Risk of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear installations--findings and recent controversies.

    PubMed

    Laurier, Dominique; Grosche, Bernd; Hall, Per

    2002-01-01

    The identification of a local excess of cancer cases, possibly associated with ionizing radiation, always receives substantial media coverage and communication about clusters is difficult. We reviewed studies that examined the risk of leukaemia among young people near nuclear installations. An excess of leukaemia exists near some nuclear installations, at least for the reprocessing plants at Sellafield and Dounreay and the nuclear power plant Krümmel. Nonetheless, the results of multi-site studies invalidate the hypothesis of an increased risk of leukaemia related to nuclear discharge. Up until now, analytic studies have not found an explanation for the leukaemia clusters observed near certain nuclear installations. The hypothesis of an infectious aetiology associated with population mixing has been proposed, but needs to be investigated further. The review illustrates two recent examples in France (La Hague reprocessing plant) and in Germany (Krümmel power plant), where controversies developed after reports of increased leukaemia risks. These examples show the importance of recalling the current epidemiological knowledge and of using systematic recording of cases to replace the alleged excesses in a more general framework. Some elements should also be suggested from the recent French and German experiences to reinforce credibility in the results. PMID:11990512

  17. Implementing Stakeholders' Access to Expertise: Experimenting on Nuclear Installations' Safety Cases - 12160

    SciTech Connect

    Gilli, Ludivine; Charron, Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    In 2009 and 2010, the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (IRSN) led two pilot actions dealing with nuclear installations' safety cases. One concerned the periodical review of the French 900 MWe nuclear reactors, the other concerned the decommissioning of a workshop located on the site of Areva's La Hague fuel-reprocessing plant site in Northwestern France. The purpose of both these programs was to test ways for IRSN and a small number of stakeholders (Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) members, local elected officials, etc.) to engage in technical discussions. The discussions were intended to enable the stakeholders to review future applications and provide valuable input. The test cases confirmed there is a definite challenge in successfully opening a meaningful dialogue to discuss technical issues, in particular the fact that most expertise reports were not public and the conflict that exists between the contrary demands of transparency and confidentiality of information. The test case also confirmed there are ways to further improvement of stakeholders' involvement. (authors)

  18. Exposure limits for nanoparticles: report of an international workshop on nano reference values.

    PubMed

    van Broekhuizen, Pieter; van Veelen, Wim; Streekstra, Willem-Henk; Schulte, Paul; Reijnders, Lucas

    2012-07-01

    This article summarizes the outcome of the discussions at the international workshop on nano reference values (NRVs), which was organized by the Dutch trade unions and employers' organizations and hosted by the Social Economic Council in The Hague in September 2011. It reflects the discussions of 80 international participants representing small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), large companies, trade unions, governmental authorities, research institutions, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) from many European countries, USA, India, and Brazil. Issues that were discussed concerned the usefulness and acceptability of precaution-based NRVs as a substitute for health-based occupational exposure limits (OELs) and derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for manufactured nanoparticles (NPs). Topics concerned the metrics for measuring NPs, the combined exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) and process-generated NPs, the use of the precautionary principle, the lack of information about the presence of nanomaterials, and the appropriateness of soft regulation for exposure control. The workshop concluded that the NRV, as an 8-h time-weighted average, is a comprehensible and useful instrument for risk management of professional use of MNMs with a dispersible character. The question remains whether NRVs, as advised for risk management by the Dutch employers' organization and trade unions, should be under soft regulation or that a more binding regulation is preferable. PMID:22752096

  19. Integration of uncertainties into internal contamination monitoring.

    PubMed

    Davesne, E; Casanova, P; Chojnacki, E; Paquet, F; Blanchardon, E

    2010-10-01

    Potential internal contaminations of workers are monitored by periodic bioassays interpreted in terms of intake and committed effective dose through biokinetic and dosimetric models. After a prospective evaluation of exposure at a workplace, a suitable monitoring program can be defined by the choice of measurement techniques and frequency of measurements. However, the actual conditions of exposure are usually not well defined and the measurements are subject to errors. In this study we took into consideration the uncertainties associated with a routine monitoring program in order to evaluate the minimum intake and dose detectable for a given level of confidence. Major sources of uncertainty are the contamination time, the size distribution and absorption into blood of the incorporated particles, and the measurement errors. Different assumptions may be applied to model uncertain knowledge, which lead to different statistical approaches. The available information is modeled here by classical or Bayesian probability distributions. These techniques are implemented in the OPSCI software under development. This methodology was applied to the monitoring program of workers in charge of plutonium purification at the AREVA NC reprocessing facility (La Hague, France). A sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the important parameters for the minimum detectable dose. The methods presented here may be used for assessment of any other routine monitoring program through the comparison of the minimum detectable dose for a given confidence level with dose constraints. PMID:20838093

  20. Methodology of Qualification of CCIM Vitrification Process Applied to the High- Level Liquid Waste from Reprocessed Oxide Fuels - 12438

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonnier, S.; Labe, V.; Ledoux, A.; Nonnet, H.; Godon, N.

    2012-07-01

    The vitrification of high-level liquid waste from reprocessed oxide fuels (UOX fuels) by Cold Crucible Induction Melter is planed by AREVA in 2013 in a production line of the R7 facility at La Hague plant. Therefore, the switch of the vitrification technology from the Joule Heated Metal Melter required a complete process qualification study. It involves three specialties, namely the matrix formulation, the glass long-term behavior and the vitrification process development on full-scale pilot. A new glass frit has been elaborated in order to adapt the redox properties and the thermal conductivity of the glass suitable for being vitrified with the Cold Crucible Induction Melter. The role of cobalt oxide on the long term behavior of the glass has been described in the range of the tested concentrations. Concerning the process qualification, the nominal tests, the sensitivity tests and the study of the transient modes allowed to define the nominal operating conditions. Degraded operating conditions tests allowed to identify means of detecting incidents leading to these conditions and allowed to define the procedures to preserve the process equipments protection and the material quality. Finally, the endurance test validated the nominal operating conditions over an extended time period. This global study allowed to draft the package qualification file. The qualification file of the UOX package is currently under approval by the French Nuclear Safety Authority. (authors)

  1. World first in high level waste vitrification - A review of French vitrification industrial achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Brueziere, J.; Chauvin, E.; Piroux, J.C.

    2013-07-01

    AREVA has more than 30 years experience in operating industrial HLW (High Level radioactive Waste) vitrification facilities (AVM - Marcoule Vitrification Facility, R7 and T7 facilities). This vitrification technology was based on borosilicate glasses and induction-heating. AVM was the world's first industrial HLW vitrification facility to operate in-line with a reprocessing plant. The glass formulation was adapted to commercial Light Water Reactor fission products solutions, including alkaline liquid waste concentrates as well as platinoid-rich clarification fines. The R7 and T7 facilities were designed on the basis of the industrial experience acquired in the AVM facility. The AVM vitrification process was implemented at a larger scale in order to operate the R7 and T7 facilities in-line with the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants. After more than 30 years of operation, outstanding record of operation has been established by the R7 and T7 facilities. The industrial startup of the CCIM (Cold Crucible Induction Melter) technology with enhanced glass formulation was possible thanks to the close cooperation between CEA and AREVA. CCIM is a water-cooled induction melter in which the glass frit and the waste are melted by direct high frequency induction. This technology allows the handling of highly corrosive solutions and high operating temperatures which permits new glass compositions and a higher glass production capacity. The CCIM technology has been implemented successfully at La Hague plant.

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder and memory: prescient medicolegal testimony at the International War Crimes Tribunal?

    PubMed

    Sparr, Landy F; Bremner, J Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The nature of remembrance of traumatic events has been particularly controversial during the past decade as vigorous new research has reshaped thinking about trauma and memory. Memory alterations in traumatized individuals have been investigated within both theoretical and biological frameworks. There are different types of memory, and empirical studies have associated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a simultaneous weakening and a strengthening of memory. Memory deficiencies in PTSD have been found to be related to problems in new learning (explicit memory), but other specific deficiencies are unvalidated. Recently, accuracy of memory has received particular scrutiny because considerable importance is attached to victims' recollections. In 1998, at the International War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague, The Netherlands, a Bosnian-Croatian soldier was tried for aiding and abetting the rape of a Muslim woman. The defendant's lawyers suggested that the woman's memory was inaccurate, having been adversely affected by her traumatic experiences, and that the defendant whom she identified was not present during her interrogation and abuse. The prosecution disagreed and argued that memories of traumatic experiences in individuals with PTSD are characteristically hyperaccessible. Expert witnesses on both sides were brought in to provide medicolegal testimony about the scientific parameters of stress and its long-term effects on brain regions associated with memory. With the expert witness discussion as background, this article reviews the most recent research about the nature of memory in the aftermath of trauma and the politics of psychological trauma and the law. PMID:15809242

  3. On the thermo-acoustic Fant equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, P. R.; Howe, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    A 'reduced complexity' equation is derived to investigate combustion instabilities of a Rijke burner. The equation is nonlinear and furnishes limit cycle solutions for finite amplitude burner modes. It is a generalisation to combustion flows of the Fant equation used to investigate the production of voiced speech by unsteady throttling of flow by the vocal folds [G. Fant, Acoustic Theory of Speech Production. Mouton, The Hague, 1960]. In the thermo-acoustic problem the throttling occurs at the flame holder. The Fant equation governs the unsteady volume flow past the flame holder which, in turn, determines the acoustics of the entire system. The equation includes a fully determinate part that depends on the geometry of the flame holder and the thermo-acoustic system, and terms defined by integrals involving thermo-aerodynamic sources, such as a flame and vortex sound sources. These integrals provide a clear indication of what must be known about the flow to obtain a proper understanding of the dynamics of the thermo-acoustic system. Illustrative numerical results are presented for the linearised equation. This governs the growth rates of the natural acoustic modes, determined by system geometry, boundary conditions and mean temperature distribution, which are excited into instability by unsteady heat release from the flame and damped by large scale vorticity production and radiation losses into the environment. In addition, the equation supplies information about the 'combustion modes' excited by the local time-delay feedback dynamics of the flame.

  4. High pressure coal-fired ceramic air heater for gas turbine applications. Second quarterly report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The manuscript of the paper presented at the Advanced Coal-Fired Power Systems `95 Review Meeting at DOE METC, June 27, was submitted for inclusion in the published proceedings. The paper focused on the building of the pilot plant in Kennebunk, Maine, and the proof of concept tests performed to date. Slide shows and tours of the Kennebunk Test Facility were held for local community leaders, many of whom were concerned about plant noise levels. The Kennebunk Rotary Club was addressed on July 18. On July 24, a town manager attended a demonstration of noise abatement measures Hague had taken to address complaints about the sound of the facility`s ID fan. This resulted in a favorable newspaper story published in the Biddeford - Saco Journal Tribune on July 26. Heat Exchanger Development Task 2.4.1 - Tube- String Development: Improve Tube Toughness: Evaluation of an improved containment system is proceeding. Several prototype samples fabricated some time ago have been tested. The first round of tests successfully demonstrated the containment concept. Tests are planned to evaluate the containment scheme using so called `high temperature` materials suitable for use in the CerHx.

  5. Wirth: Key to slowing population growth -- education of girls.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J

    1998-09-01

    The president of the UN Foundation, Tim Wirth, cites education programs for girls as a key to slowing the pace of population growth. Wirth suggests stabilizing the world's population in order to be sure, particularly in the poorest countries, that people have opportunities. The security of the nation and the world hinges upon a sustainable, equitable balance between human numbers and the planet's capacity to support life. Disregarding the issue of population and consumption will destroy the habitat of the world and destroy the very systems that allow life to exist on Earth. The education of girls is a critical area for stabilizing population. Hence, inadequate education is a powerful determinant of high fertility and ensures that individuals do not live up to their potential. The Program of Action adopted at the 1994 ICPD held in Cairo showed that when women have control over their lives, they are better able to contribute to a society that presents them with choices. Conversely, the lack of decision-making power negatively affects a woman's productive role in the family. Wirth also emphasizes the importance of family planning as part of a comprehensive approach to slow population growth. Wirth believes that the Cairo Plus Five Conference to be held in the Hague on February 8-12, 1999, will be very important in making the Program of Action more visible and effective. PMID:12322266

  6. Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C W

    2001-03-01

    While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda. PMID:11333205

  7. Mental incapacity defenses at the War Crimes Tribunal: questions and controversy.

    PubMed

    Sparr, Landy F

    2005-01-01

    Following a report from the Secretary General in May 1993, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 827 and its Statute establishing an International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) located in The Hague, The Netherlands. Although such action has been discussed in the past, this is the first time the international community has established a tribunal to indict and try individuals for war crimes. The crimes had been previously "created" by multilateral international treaties. The ICTY Rules of Procedure and Evidence allowed for "any special defense, including that of diminished or lack of mental responsibility." Precise legal parameters of the defense were not specified. In 1998, a defendant at the ICTY "Celebici" Trial named Esad Landzo raised the defense of diminished mental responsibility. The Celebici Trial Chamber thus became the first legal body to consider reduced mental capacity as it applies to international criminal law. This article is an examination of the application of the affirmative defense of diminished responsibility at the ICTY and relates the process to the need for further definition of mental incapacity defenses at the newly established International Criminal Court (ICC). At the ICC preparatory commission, drafting material elements of crimes was emphasized, with less consideration given to mental elements. That diminished capacity and diminished-responsibility defenses have often confused scholars and practitioners alike is explored in this article with suggestions for further directions. PMID:15809241

  8. Decreased quality of life in children with hypothalamic hamartoma and treatment-resistant epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Cleo; Wethe, Jennifer V; Kerrigan, John F

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated health-related quality of life in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma, to see how it differs from that of children with more common neurologic disorders. We used the PedsQL 4.0, along with the Child Behavior Checklist, Hague Seizure Severity Scale, and Side Effects Scale, to evaluate presurgical patients with hypothalamic hamartoma and epilepsy (n = 21). The results were compared with those of age-matched cohorts with migraine (n = 19) and Benign Epilepsy with Central Temporal Spikes (n = 11). In comparison with the migraine group, the patients with hypothalamic hamartoma had decreased health-related quality of life across all domains of the PedsQL 4.0. Compared with the benign epilepsy group, the hypothalamic hamartoma cohort has a significantly lower score in School Function. Comorbid psychomotor retardation was predictive of lower quality of life. Research examining the efficacy of recently developed surgical treatments for hypothalamic hamartoma should include health-related quality of life as an outcome measure. PMID:22496118

  9. Disability due to restrictions in childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Carpay, H A; Vermeulen, J; Stroink, H; Brouwer, O F; Peters, A C; van Donselaar, C A; Aldenkamp, A P; Arts, W F

    1997-08-01

    Parents and doctors impose restrictions on children with epilepsy to avoid seizure-related injuries. We intended to quantify disability due to such restrictions by using a newly developed parent-completed 10-item scale (The Hague Restrictions in Childhood Epilepsy Scale, HARCES). Parents reported disability on at least one item of the HARCES in 83% of 122 children with epilepsy and a remission from seizures for less than 1 year. Psychometric analysis of the scale's reliability demonstrated good internal consistency and retest stability. Its validity was supported by the association between HARCES scores and the physicians' advice imposing restrictions. We found no substantial association with such variables as seizure type, short-term remission, or seizure activity. These findings suggest that in children with recurrent seizures, restrictions were probably not optimally adapted to seizure-related risks. A repeat test after 1 year showed that a seizure remission of more than 1 year substantially reduced restrictions, which is probably associated with an improvement in quality of life. PMID:9295847

  10. The eastern maritime boundary between the United States and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David A.

    1984-04-01

    The easternmost part of the United States is separated from Canada by an imaginary line in the ocean. The oceanic boundary is evidence of the extensive marine heritage of the state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The International Court of Justice at The Hague (the "World Court") recently handed down a decision which extended the boundary line across the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank. The action was intended to resolve a long-standing controversy our fishing rights on Georges Bank (Eos, 65, (45), p. 801, 1984). The extension of the line adds a modern chapter to a maritime boundary dispute which is older than the government of either nation. The controversy is rooted in imprecise language used in the Treaty of Paris, which officially separated the nascent United States from Great Britain in 1783. Faced with sorting out the implications of the recent boundary decision, it is well to recall and perhaps benefit from the long history of related events, most of which had serious economic and personal consequences for residents on each side of the border.

  11. Dynamic compressive behavior of Pr-Nd alloy at high strain rates and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huanran; Cai Canyuan; Chen Danian; Ma Dongfang

    2012-07-01

    Based on compressive tests, static on 810 material test system and dynamic on the first compressive loading in split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests for Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens at high strain rates and temperatures, this study determined a J-C type [G. R. Johnson and W. H. Cook, in Proceedings of Seventh International Symposium on Ballistics (The Hague, The Netherlands, 1983), pp. 541-547] compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy. It was recorded by a high speed camera that the Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens fractured during the first compressive loading in SHPB tests at high strain rates and temperatures. From high speed camera images, the critical strains of the dynamic shearing instability for Pr-Nd alloy in SHPB tests were determined, which were consistent with that estimated by using Batra and Wei's dynamic shearing instability criterion [R. C. Batra and Z. G. Wei, Int. J. Impact Eng. 34, 448 (2007)] and the determined compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy. The transmitted and reflected pulses of SHPB tests for Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens computed with the determined compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy and Batra and Wei's dynamic shearing instability criterion could be consistent with the experimental data. The fractured Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens of compressive tests were investigated by using 3D supper depth digital microscope and scanning electron microscope.

  12. Military and civilian burn injuries during armed conflicts.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B S; Gunn, S W A; Hayek, S N

    2007-12-31

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment, and war burns have been described for more than 5,000 years of written history. Fire was probably utilized as a weapon long before that. With the ever-increasing destructive power and efficiency of modern weapons, casualties, both fatal and non-fatal, are reaching new highs, particularly among civilians who are becoming the major wartime targets in recent wars, accounting for most of the killed and wounded. Even though medical personnel usually believe that a knowledge of weaponry has little relevance to their ability to effectively treat injuries and that it may in some way be in conflict with their status, accorded under the Geneva and Hague treaties, it is imperative that they know how weapons are used and understand their effects on the human body. The present review explores various categories of weapons of modern warfare that are unfamiliar to most medical and paramedical personnel responsible for burn treatment. The mechanisms and patterns of injury produced by each class of weapons are examined so that a better understanding of burn management in a warfare situation may be achieved. PMID:21991098

  13. Experiment for Integrating Dutch 3d Spatial Planning and Bim for Checking Building Permits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Berlo, L.; Dijkmans, T.; Stoter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a research project in The Netherlands in which several SMEs collaborated to create a 3D model of the National spatial planning information. This 2D information system described in the IMRO data standard holds implicit 3D information that can be used to generate an explicit 3D model. The project realized a proof of concept to generate a 3D spatial planning model. The team used the model to integrate it with several 3D Building Information Models (BIMs) described in the open data standard Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). Goal of the project was (1) to generate a 3D BIM model from spatial planning information to be used by the architect during the early design phase, and (2) allow 3D checking of building permits. The team used several technologies like CityGML, BIM clash detection and GeoBIM to explore the potential of this innovation. Within the project a showcase was created with a part of the spatial plan from the city of The Hague. Several BIM models were integrated in the 3D spatial plan of this area. A workflow has been described that demonstrates the benefits of collaboration between the spatial domain and the AEC industry in 3D. The research results in a showcase with conclusions and considerations for both national and international practice.

  14. Program of technical assistance to the organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons, informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Currently, U.S. organizations provide technical support to the U.S. Delegation for its work as part of the Preparatory Commission (PrepCom) of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague. The current efforts of the PrepCom are focussed on preparations for the Entry-Into-Force (EIF) of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons (often referred to as the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} (CWC)). EIF of the CWC is expected in 1995, and shortly thereafter the PrepCom will cease to exist, with the OPCW taking over responsibilities under the CWC. A U.S. program of technical assistance to the OPCW for its verification responsibilities may be created as part of U.S. policy objectives after EIF of the CWC. In the summary below, comments by participants are presented in Square Brackets Some of the same points arose several times during the discussions; they are grouped together under the most pertinent heading.

  15. Military and Civilian Burn Injuries During Armed Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.S.; Gunn, S.W.A.; Hayek, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment, and war burns have been described for more than 5,000 years of written history. Fire was probably utilized as a weapon long before that. With the ever-increasing destructive power and efficiency of modern weapons, casualties, both fatal and non-fatal, are reaching new highs, particularly among civilians who are becoming the major wartime targets in recent wars, accounting for most of the killed and wounded. Even though medical personnel usually believe that a knowledge of weaponry has little relevance to their ability to effectively treat injuries and that it may in some way be in conflict with their status, accorded under the Geneva and Hague treaties, it is imperative that they know how weapons are used and understand their effects on the human body. The present review explores various categories of weapons of modern warfare that are unfamiliar to most medical and paramedical personnel responsible for burn treatment. The mechanisms and patterns of injury produced by each class of weapons are examined so that a better understanding of burn management in a warfare situation may be achieved. PMID:21991098

  16. Social justice and intercountry adoptions: the role of the U.S. social work community.

    PubMed

    Roby, Jini L; Rotabi, Karen; Bunkers, Kelley M

    2013-10-01

    Using social justice as the conceptual foundation, the authors present the structural barriers to socially just intercountry adoptions (ICAs) that can exploit and oppress vulnerable children and families participating in ICAs. They argue that such practices threaten the integrity of social work practice in that arena and the survival of ICA as a placement option. Government structures, disparity of power between countries and families on both sides, perceptions regarding poverty, cultural incompetence, misconceptions about orphans and orphanages, lack of knowledge about the impact of institution-based care, and the profit motive are driving forces behind the growing shadow of unethical ICAs. The U.S. social work community has a large role and responsibility in addressing these concerns as the United States receives the most children adopted through ICAs of all receiving countries. In addition to the centrality of social justice as a core value of the profession, the responsibility to carry out ethical and socially just ICA has recently increased as a matter of law, under the implementation legislation to the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption. While acknowledging that these issues are complex, authors provide suggestions for corrective policy and practice measures. PMID:24450016

  17. Status of 236U analyses at ETH Zurich and the distribution of 236U and 129I in the North Sea in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christl, Marcus; Casacuberta, Nuria; Lachner, Johannes; Maxeiner, Sascha; Vockenhuber, Christof; Synal, Hans-Arno; Goroncy, Ingo; Herrmann, Jürgen; Daraoui, Abdelouahed; Walther, Clemens; Michel, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    Compact, low energy accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has evolved over the past years as one of the most sensitive, selective, and robust techniques for the analysis of heavy and long lived radionuclides. In this study, we will first focus on the analytical capabilities of the compact AMS system TANDY, mainly for 236U analyses, and then present a new dual tracer approach, that combines 129I and 236U. The measured 129I/236U ratios of samples collected in the North Sea in 2009 are in reasonable agreement with the expectations from documented or estimated releases from the two major nuclear reprocessing plants located at Sellafield (GB) and La Hague (F), suggesting that the 129I/236U ratio can be used as a water mass tag in the North Atlantic region. However, our results indicate that, in contrast to 129I, additional contributions of bomb produced 236U cannot be neglected in the North Sea region. This complicates the simple and straight forward use of the 129I/236U ratio as a quantitative tool for the calculation of transport times of North Sea water in the Arctic Ocean.

  18. COMMERCIAL SURROGACY: WHAT ROLE FOR LAW IN AUSTRALIA?

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva

    2015-12-01

    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition. PMID:26939494

  19. (129)I record of nuclear activities in marine sediment core from Jiaozhou Bay in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Guangshan

    2016-04-01

    Iodine-129 has been used as a powerful tool for environmental tracing of human nuclear activities. In this work, a sediment core collected from Jiaozhou Bay, the east coast of China, in 2002 was analyzed for (129)I to investigate the influence of human nuclear activities in this region. Significantly enhanced (129)I level was observed in upper 70 cm of the sediment core, with peak values in the layer corresponding to 1957, 1964, 1974, 1986, and after 1990. The sources of (129)I and corresponding transport processes in this region are discussed, including nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds, global fallout from a large numbers of nuclear weapon tests in 1963, the climax of Chinese nuclear weapons testing in the early 1970s, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and long-distance dispersion of European reprocessing derived (129)I. The very well (129)I records of different human nuclear activities in the sediment core illustrate the potential application of (129)I in constraining ages and sedimentation rates of the recent sediment. The releases of (129)I from the European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) were found to dominate the inventory of (129)I in the Chinese sediments after 1990, not only the directly atmospheric releases of these reprocessing plants, but also re-emission of marine discharged (129)I of these reprocessing plants in the highly contaminated European seas. PMID:26821329

  20. The Glaciation of the Yellowstone Valley North of the Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weed, Walter Harvey

    1893-01-01

    The local glaciers of Quaternary times, of which evidences abound throughout the highest portions of the Rocky mountain cordillera, attained an unusually extensive development in that broad elevated region known as the Yellowstone Park. It was indeed the center of a considerable ice sheet whose glaciers spread out and down the valleys leading from this mountain region in all directions. In the northern part of the park two streams of ice found an outlet for their united flow northward down the valley of the Yellowstone, and they have left impressive memorials of the power and size of this stream that at once attract the attention of the observant traveler on the way to the famous geyser basins of the park. The number and size of the erratic bowlders scattered so abundantly over the valley floor and perched high up on the mountain slopes, can not fail to impress the beholder, while the second canyon of the Yellowstone, known as Yankee Jim canyon, through which the river has cut its way to the broad mountain encircled lower valley, is a grand and perfect piece of ice sculpture that affords striking proof of the power and magnitude of the glacier which once filled the valley. While studying and mapping the geology of a portion of the country north of the Yellowstone Park, under the direction of Mr. Arnold Hague, and for the United States Geological Survey, I found a long desired opportunity to study the glaciation of this interesting region.

  1. Waste Estimates for a Future Recycling Plant in the US Based Upon AREVA Operating Experience - 13206

    SciTech Connect

    Foare, Genevieve; Meze, Florian; Bader, Sven; McGee, Don; Murray, Paul; Prud'homme, Pascal

    2013-07-01

    Estimates of process and secondary wastes produced by a recycling plant built in the U.S., which is composed of a used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing facility and a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility, are performed as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study [1]. In this study, a set of common inputs, assumptions, and constraints were identified to allow for comparison of these wastes between different industrial teams. AREVA produced a model of a reprocessing facility, an associated fuel fabrication facility, and waste treatment facilities to develop the results for this study. These facilities were divided into a number of discrete functional areas for which inlet and outlet flow streams were clearly identified to allow for an accurate determination of the radionuclide balance throughout the facility and the waste streams. AREVA relied primarily on its decades of experience and feedback from its La Hague (reprocessing) and MELOX (MOX fuel fabrication) commercial operating facilities in France to support this assessment. However, to perform these estimates for a U.S. facility with different regulatory requirements and to take advantage of some technological advancements, such as in the potential treatment of off-gases, some deviations from this experience were necessary. A summary of AREVA's approach and results for the recycling of 800 metric tonnes of initial heavy metal (MTIHM) of LWR UNF per year into MOX fuel under the assumptions and constraints identified for this DOE study are presented. (authors)

  2. Lethal Lullabies: A History of Opium Use in Infants.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Poppy extract accompanied the human infant for more than 3 millenia. Motives for its use included excessive crying, suspected pain, and diarrhea. In antiquity, infantile sleeplessness was regarded as a disease. When treatment with opium was recommended by Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna, baby sedation made its way into early medical treatises and pediatric instructions. Dabbing maternal nipples with bitter substances and drugging the infant with opium were used to hasten weaning. A freerider of gum lancing, opiates joined the treatment of difficult teething in the 17th century. Foundling hospitals and wet-nurses used them extensively. With industrialization, private use was rampant among the working class. In German-speaking countries, poppy extracts were administered in soups and pacifiers. In English-speaking countries, proprietary drugs containing opium were marketed under names such as soothers, nostrums, anodynes, cordials, preservatives, and specifics and sold at the doorstep or in grocery stores. Opium's toxicity for infants was common knowledge; thousands of cases of lethal intoxication had been reported from antiquity. What is remarkable is that the willingness to use it in infants persisted and that physicians continued to prescribe it for babies. Unregulated trade, and even that protected by governments, led to greatly increased private use of opiates during the 19th century. Intoxication became a significant factor in infant mortality. As late as 1912, the International Hague Convention forced governments to implement legislation that effectively curtailed access to opium and broke the dangerous habit of sedating infants. PMID:26163533

  3. Wastes associated with recycling spent MOX fuel into fast reactor oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Foare, G.; Meze, F.; McGee, D.; Murray, P.; Bader, S.

    2013-07-01

    A study sponsored by the DOE has been performed by AREVA to estimate the process and secondary wastes produced from an 800 MTIHM/yr (initial metric tons heavy metal a year) recycling plant proposed to be built in the U.S. utilizing the COEX process and utilized some DOE defined assumptions and constraints. In this paper, this plant has been analyzed for a recycling campaign that included 89% UO{sub x} and 11% MOX UNF to estimate process and secondary waste quantities produced while manufacturing 28 MTIHM/yr of SFR fuel. AREVA utilized operational data from its backend facilities in France (La Hague and MELOX), and from recent advances in waste treatment technology to estimate the waste quantities. A table lists the volumes and types of the different final wastes for a recycling plant. For instance concerning general fission products the form of the final wastes is vitrified glass and its volume generation rate is 135 l/MTHM, concerning Iodine 129 waste its final form is synthetic rock and its volume generation rate is 0.625 l/MTIHM.

  4. A Telescope Inventor's Spyglass Possibly Reproduced in a Brueghel's Painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, P.; Selvelli, P.

    2011-06-01

    Jan Brueghel the Elder depicted spyglasses belonging to the Archduke Albert VII of Habsburg in at least five paintings in the period between 1608 and 1625. Albert VII was fascinated by art and science and he obtained spyglasses directly from Lipperhey and Sacharias Janssen approximately at the time when the telescope was first shown at The Hague at the end of 1608. In the Extensive Landscape with View of the Castle of Mariemont, dated 1608-1612, the Archduke is looking at his Mariemont castle through an optical tube and this is the first time a spyglass was painted whatsoever. It is quite possible that the painting reproduces one of the first telescopes ever made. Two other Albert VII's telescopes are prominently reproduced in two Allegories of Sight painted a few years later (1617-1618). They are sophisticated instruments and their structure, in particular the shape of the eyepiece, suggests that they are composed by two convex lenses in a Keplerian optical configuration which became of common use only more than two decades later. If this is the case, these paintings are the first available record of a Keplerian telescope.

  5. Ethnic and adoption attitudes among Guatemalan University students.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Judith L; González-Oliva, Ana Gabriela; Mylonas, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Intercountry adoptions from Guatemala were highly controversial, because of the large numbers of children being adopted to the USA, along with evidence of corruption and child theft. Since the implementation of the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption in 2008, Guatemala's central authority for adoption has prioritized domestic placements for children over intercountry adoption. A possible attitudinal barrier to domestic adoption in Guatemala-negative attitudes and prejudice against Indigenous people-was investigated through questionnaires measuring attitudes toward adoption and attitudes toward and social distance from the two major ethnic groups (Ladino and Indigenous). Guatemalan university students (N = 177, 61 % men) were recruited from basic required courses at a private university. Results showed that attitudes toward adoption in general were more favorable than toward interethnic adoption, with the most negative attitudes toward adoption of Ladino children by Indigenous parents. Multiple regression and analysis of covariance models revealed that female gender, experience with adoption and more positive attitudes about Indigenous persons were associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption. The findings imply that negative attitudes toward Indigenous persons are associated with negative attitudes toward adoption, and serve as barriers to promoting domestic adoption in Guatemala. PMID:26702374

  6. Value of a DNA probe assay (Gen-Probe) compared with that of culture for diagnosis of gonococcal infection.

    PubMed Central

    Vlaspolder, F; Mutsaers, J A; Blog, F; Notowicz, A

    1993-01-01

    The Gen-Probe PACE 2 system for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GP), which uses a chemiluminescently labeled DNA probe, was compared with conventional culture as the method of reference. A total of 1,750 specimens were collected from 496 females and 623 males visiting the outpatient clinic of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Department of the Westeinde Hospital, The Hague, The Netherlands, during the year 1991. The prevalences of gonorrhea culture-positive men and women were 14.9 and 7.7%, respectively. The overall positive rate was 8.7%. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of GP were 97.1, 99.1, 90.6, and 99.8%, respectively. A total of 12 of 13 patients with positive GP results and negative cultures may have had a gonococcal infection, a conclusion based on clinical symptoms, positive methylene blue smears, and high relative light unit ratios. The DNA probe test can be useful as a suitable screening and diagnostic test for gonorrheal infection in men and women. An advantage of using this DNA probe technique is that simultaneous testing for Chlamydia trachomatis of the same specimen is possible. We also examined whether (all) rRNA had disappeared after adequate treatment for gonococcal and/or chlamydial infection in 30 patients. None of those positive patients showed a positive result in the DNA probe assay after treatment. PMID:8417014

  7. Highlights of Astronomy. Volume 10, as presented at the XXIInd General Assembly of the IAU, 1994.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appenzeller, I.

    The Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 10, reports the major scientific presentations made at the XXIInd General Assembly, 15 - 27 August 1994, The Hague, The Netherlands. Contents: Preface. I. Invited discourses. II. Joint discussions: 1. Women in astronomy (S. Torres-Peimbert, ed.). 2. History of astronomy (S. Débarbat, ed.). 3. Current developments in astronomy education (J. R. Percy, ed.). 4. Towards the establishment of the astronomical standards (T. Fukushima, ed.). 5. Nutation (V. Dehant, ed.). 6. Time scales: state of the art (E. Proverbio, ed.). 7. Sun and heliosphere - challenges for solar-terrestrial physics, magneto- and hydrodynamics (M. C. E. Huber, ed.). 8. Helio- and asteroseismology (W. Däppen, ed.). 9. Dust around young stars: How related to solar system dust? (M. S. Hanner). 10. Accuracy of the HR diagram and related parameters (M. Gerbaldi, ed.). 11. Recent advances in convection theory and modelling (S. Sofia). 12. Stellar and interstellar lithium and primordial nucleosynthesis (F. Spite, ed.). 13. Extragalactic planetary nebulae (Y. Terzian, ed.). 14. Activity in the central part of galaxies (V. Trimble, ed.). 15. Astrophysical applications of powerful new atomic databases (W. L. Wiese, ed.). 16. The status of archiving astronomical data (R. E. M. Griffin). III. Special sessions: 1. The collision of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter (C. de Bergh, ed.). 2. Gravitational lens monitoring (J.-P. Swings). IV. Working group meetings: 1. Problems of astronomy in Africa (A. H. Batten, ed.). 2. International catalog projects (C. de Vegt, L. V. Morrison, eds.).

  8. Prevention of Pu(IV) polymerization in a PUREX-based process

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Senentz, Gerald

    2007-07-01

    The US Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) is being designed to produce MOX fuel assemblies for use in domestic, commercial nuclear power reactors, as part of the U.S. DOE efforts to dispose of surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The feed material is plutonium dioxide from surplus weapon grade plutonium. PuO{sub 2}, issued from a pit disassembly and conversion facility (PDCF), will be processed using a flowsheet derived from the La Hague reprocessing plant to remove impurities. The purified PuO{sub 2} will be blended with UO{sub 2} to form mixed oxide pellets, and loaded into fuel rods, to create MOX fuel assemblies based on the process and technology of the MELOX plant in France,. Safety studies are necessary to support the development of the design basis per regulation 10 CFR Part 70 to complete an integrated safety analysis for the MFFF facility. The formation of tetravalent plutonium polymers in certain process vessels of the aqueous polishing (AP) process has been identified as a potential hazard. Based on scientific literature, the following paper demonstrates that within the AP process units, the polymerization of Pu(IV) will not occur and/or will not create a criticality issue even where the acidity may drop below 0.5 N HNO{sub 3}. We will identify and control the conditions under which plutonium (IV) will not polymerize. (authors)

  9. Update and improvement of the global krypton-85 emission inventory.

    PubMed

    Ahlswede, Jochen; Hebel, Simon; Ross, J Ole; Schoetter, Robert; Kalinowski, Martin B

    2013-01-01

    Krypton-85 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors by fission of uranium and plutonium and released during chopping and dissolution of spent fuel rods in nuclear reprocessing facilities. As noble gas it is suited as a passive tracer for evaluation of atmospheric transport models. Furthermore, research is ongoing to assess its quality as an indicator for clandestine reprocessing activities. This paper continues previous efforts to compile a comprehensive historic emission inventory for krypton-85. Reprocessing facilities are the by far largest emitters of krypton-85. Information on sources and calculations used to derive the annual krypton-85 emission is provided for all known reprocessing facilities in the world. In addition, the emission characteristics of two plants, Tokai (Japan) and La Hague (France), are analysed in detail using emission data with high temporal resolution. Other types of krypton-85 sources are power reactors, naval reactors and isotope production facilities. These sources contribute only little or negligible amounts of krypton-85 compared to the large reprocessing facilities. Taking the decay of krypton-85 into account, the global atmospheric inventory is estimated to about 5500 PBq at the end of 2009. The correctness if the inventory has been proven by meteorological simulations and its error is assumed to be in the range of a few percent. PMID:22858641

  10. On the generalised Fant equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, M. S.; McGowan, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    An analysis is made of the fluid-structure interactions involved in the production of voiced speech. It is usual to avoid time consuming numerical simulations of the aeroacoustics of the vocal tract and glottis by the introduction of Fant's 'reduced complexity' equation for the glottis volume velocity Q [G. Fant, Acoustic Theory of Speech Production, Mouton, The Hague 1960]. A systematic derivation is given of Fant's equation based on the nominally exact equations of aerodynamic sound. This can be done with a degree of approximation that depends only on the accuracy with which the time-varying flow geometry and surface-acoustic boundary conditions can be specified, and replaces Fant's original 'lumped element' heuristic approach. The method determines all of the effective 'source terms' governing Q. It is illustrated by consideration of a simplified model of the vocal system involving a self-sustaining single-mass model of the vocal folds, that uses free streamline theory to account for surface friction and flow separation within the glottis. Identification is made of a new source term associated with the unsteady vocal fold drag produced by their oscillatory motion transverse to the mean flow.

  11. The TOCATTA-χ model for assessing 14C transfers to grass: an evaluation for atmospheric operational releases from nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Aulagnier, Céline; Le Dizès, Séverine; Maro, Denis; Hébert, Didier; Lardy, Romain; Martin, Raphael

    2013-06-01

    Radioactive (14)C is formed as a by-product of nuclear power generation and from the operation of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants like AREVA-NC La Hague (North France), which releases about 15 TBq per year of (14)C into the atmosphere. This article evaluates a recently improved radioecology model (TOCATTA-χ) to assess (14)C transfers to grassland ecosystems under normal operating conditions. The new version of the TOCATTA model (TOCATTA-χ) includes developments that were derived from PaSiM, a pasture model for simulating grassland carbon and radiocarbon cycling. The TOCATTA-χ model has been tested against observations of (14)C activity concentrations in grass samples collected monthly from six plots which are located around the periphery of the reprocessing plant. Simulated (14)C activities are consistent with observations on both intensively managed and poorly managed grasslands, but an adaptation of the mean turn-over time for (14)C within the plant is necessary in the model to account for different management practices. When atmospheric (14)C activity concentrations are directly inferred from observations, TOCATTA-χ performs better than TOCATTA (the root mean square error is decreased by 45%), but when atmospheric (14)C activity concentrations are not known and must be calculated, the uncertainty associated with the TOCATTA-χ model outcomes is estimated to be larger than the standard deviation of the observations. PMID:23466654

  12. Dealing with non-detect values in time-series measurements of radionuclide concentration in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Fiévet, Bruno; Della Vedova, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The attention of scientists in the field of environmental radioactivity is drawn to statistical methods recommended by Dennis Helsel for dealing with datasets including measurements that fall below the detection limits, as often encountered in environmental monitoring programmes. The methods are described by Helsel in his book entitled "Nondetects and Data Analysis: Statistics for Censored Environmental Data" (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2005, 250p). These methods are applied to a data subset (using data from France) of the Radioactive Substance Committee (OSPAR commission for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic), corresponding to time-series measurements of Cs-137 concentration in seaweed in the vicinity of the Areva NC reprocessing plant at La Hague, which is used as an illustrative example. Despite the presence of 163 non-detect values out of 514 measurements, it is possible to estimate descriptive parameters and perform statistical tests to compare concentration levels between two periods of time. Finally, evidence is obtained for an overall decreasing trend with time. The benefits of these statistical methods for data analysis are discussed. PMID:19781826

  13. Comparison of RIMPUFF, HYSPLIT, ADMS atmospheric dispersion model outputs, using emergency response procedures, with (85)Kr measurements made in the vicinity of nuclear reprocessing plant.

    PubMed

    Connan, Olivier; Smith, Kilian; Organo, Catherine; Solier, Luc; Maro, Denis; Hébert, Didier

    2013-10-01

    The Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN) performed a series of (85)Kr air sampling campaigns at mesoscale distances (18-50 km) from the AREVA NC La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (North West France) between 2007 and 2009. The samples were collected in order to test and optimise a technique to measure low krypton-85 ((85)Kr) air concentrations and to investigate the performance of three atmospheric dispersion models (RIMPUFF, HYSPLIT, and ADMS), This paper presents the (85)Kr air concentrations measured at three sampling locations which varied from 2 to 8000 Bq m(-3), along with the (85)Kr air concentrations output by the dispersion models. The dispersion models made reasonable estimates of the mean concentrations of (85)Kr field measurements during steady wind conditions. In contrast, the models failed to accurately predict peaks in (85)Kr air concentration during periods of rapid and large changes in wind speed and/or wind direction. At distances where we made the comparisons (18-50 km), in all cases, the models underestimated the air concentration activities. PMID:23850583

  14. Terminal ballistics of the 7.62 mm NATO bullet. Autopsy findings.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, P J; Theilade, P

    1993-01-01

    The 7.62 mm x 51 military rifle bullet (7.62 mm NATO) as manufactured in Denmark, and in some other countries as well, has been claimed to fragment when fired at ranges encountered in forensic practice. All autopsied cases of death due to this bullet in Denmark since 1975 were investigated by studying autopsy reports and the bullets retrieved by the police. With one exception, all bullets that were found in, or known to have passed through the body, had fragmented. This behaviour is assumed to be due to a lack of strength in the jacket causing it to break at the cannelure when hitting the target at high velocity. The fragments will increase the already sizeable lesions and may leave the body through several separate exit wounds, presenting problems both for the surgeon treating survivors and for the forensic scientists when defining the direction of the shot. The legality of this and similar bullets in view of the Hague Declaration of 1899 may be questioned, and we feel that the bullet should be redesigned. A programme to this end has been initiated by the Danish state owned ammunition factory. PMID:8217867

  15. Commercial surrogacy: how provisions of monetary remuneration and powers of international law can prevent exploitation of gestational surrogates.

    PubMed

    Ramskold, Louise Anna Helena; Posner, Marcus Paul

    2013-06-01

    Increasing globalisation and advances in artificial reproductive techniques have opened up a whole new range of possibilities for infertile couples across the globe. Inter-country gestational surrogacy with monetary remuneration is one of the products of medical tourism meeting in vitro fertilisation embryo transfer. Filled with potential, it has also been a hot topic of discussion in legal and bioethics spheres. Fears of exploitation and breach of autonomy have sprung from the current situation, where there is no international regulation of surrogacy agreements--only a web of conflicting national laws that generates loopholes and removes safeguards for both the surrogate and commissioning couple. This article argues the need for evidence-based international laws and regulations as the only way to resolve both the ethical and legal issues around commercial surrogacy. In addition, a Hague Convention on inter-country surrogacy agreements is proposed to resolve the muddled state of affairs and enable commercial surrogacy to demonstrate its full potential. PMID:23443211

  16. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof. PMID:20812795

  17. Assessment of crew operations during internal servicing of the Columbus Free-Flyer by Hermes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winisdoerffer, F.; Lamothe, A.; Bourdeau'hui, J. C.

    The Hermes system has been adopted as a European programme at the Hague ministerial level meeting. The primary mission of the Hermes spaceplane will be the servicing of the Columbus Free-Flyer (CFF) in order to bring new experiments in orbit, recover the results of old ones, and refurbish/maintain the various subsystems. This mission will be based on the extensive use of the 3 crewmembers on-board Hermes in order to perform either the Intra-Vehicular (IVA) and/or the Extra-Vehicular (EVA) activities. This paper focuses on the internal operations and the dimensions of the various payload of the basic reference cargo set are presented. The main constraints associated with their manipulation are also assessed independently of the configuration. During the spaceplane definition process, various configurations were developed. The operations were simulated using the CAD CATIA software with representative anthropometric models of the potential Hermes users population. These simulations helped to assess the various configurations and to refine the general concept of the spaceplane. The geometrical feasibility is demonstrated through those simulations. However full-scale tests are required to confirm data and assess the duration of the operations.

  18. [Criminology and victimology of rape in context with war-like conflicts using the example of the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda].

    PubMed

    Nittmann, Christian; Franke, Barbara; Augustin, Christa; Püschel, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this article is sexual violence in context with war-like conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The fundamental categories of sexual violence in war-like conflicts are described. The authors discuss the types of sexual violence as defined in the report of the UN Commission of Experts on the war-like conflicts in the former Yugoslavia. Four criminal trials were evaluated: three held before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague/Netherlands and one before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in Arusha/Tansania. The defendants were found guilty of torture, crime against humanity and genocide. Potential procedures with respect to similar crimes in current or prospective conflicts are discussed. An alternative may be the assignment of medical personnel (for example of the German Federal Armed Forces). Finally, the post-war cooperation between the Institute of Legal Medicine at the University Medical Centre of Hamburg-Eppendorf as well as the medical and government institutions in Rwanda is presented, which has been going on since 2005. PMID:22924274

  19. Estimating activity-related energy expenditure under sedentary conditions using a tri-axial seismic accelerometer.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Vincent T; van Lummel, Rob C; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2009-06-01

    Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) is difficult to quantify, especially under sedentary conditions. Here, a model was developed using the detected type of physical activity (PA) and movement intensity (MI), based on a tri-axial seismic accelerometer (DynaPort MiniMod; McRoberts B.V., The Hague, the Netherlands), with energy expenditure for PA as a reference. The relation between AEE (J/min/kg), MI, and the type of PA was determined for standardized PAs as performed in a laboratory including: lying, sitting, standing, and walking. AEE (J/min/kg) was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) as assessed with indirect calorimetry ((TEEx0.9)-SMR). Subsequently, the model was validated over 23-h intervals in a respiration chamber. Subjects were 15 healthy women (age: 22+/-2 years; BMI: 24.0+/-4.0 kg/m2). Predicted AEE in the chamber was significantly related to measured AEE both within (r2=0.81+/-0.06, P<0.00001) and between (r2=0.70, P<0.001) subjects. The explained variation in AEE by the model was higher than the explained variation by MI alone. This shows that a tri-axial seismic accelerometer is a valid tool for estimating AEE under sedentary conditions. PMID:19282829

  20. Problems of the Modern Romanian Astronomy: TELEROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Valentin; Minti, Harry; Vaduvescu, Ovidiu

    2011-06-01

    The TV broadcast discusses problems of the modernization of the Romanian astronomical infrastructure, the worst in Eastern Europe. It presents the TELEROM project which proposed to establish a new EU-funded robotic 1,3 m telescope, a project finally rejected by the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy mainly due to the incompetence of the director of this Institute, Dr. Vasile Mioc. It is mentioned that this was the second very promising project failed under the same director, after the project ASTEROS in value of 15 million Euro to establish two modern telescopes was also lost in the recent years. The total cost of the TELEROM project was 1,5 million Euro, according to the agreement with the EU foundation for Regional Development (director Hanns Ruder Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen, Germany - the TELEROM auto-dimissed project director). The facilities from this implementation were very promising in observations of Solar system objects (asteroids, near Earth asteroids, comets), few hundred millions of faint stars, quasars, exoplanets and galaxies. Initially, the director Vasile Mioc and the governing body of the Romanian Astronomical Institute intended to place the telescope in Romania in very bad astroclimatic conditions, namely in the old Feleac observatory, very close to the very highly polluted and quite clouded city of Cluj-Napoca. Many opposite considerations (Dr. Marian Doru Suran from Bucharest, many Romanian astronomers from the Diaspora and a group of 68 astronomers, professors, public outreach people and students from Romania and Diaspora supporting TELEROM) were totally disregarded! Due to refuse to place the telescope in very good astroclimatic conditions (in Canary Islands or Chile) and also due to the impossibility to establish a decent national astronomical observatory in Romania by the direction of the Institute in agreement with the State body of Romania ("Academia Romana" and "Autoritatea Nationala pentru

  1. Two N-myc polypeptides with distinct amino termini encoded by the second and third exons of the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, T P; Saksela, K; Alitalo, K

    1989-01-01

    The N-myc and c-myc genes encode closely related nuclear phosphoproteins. We found that the N-myc protein from human tumor cell lines appears as four closely migrating polypeptide bands (p58 to p64) in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. This and the recent finding that the c-myc protein is synthesized from two translational initiation sites located in the first and second exons of the gene (S. R. Hann, M. W. King, D. L. Bentley, C. W. Anderson, and R. N. Eisenman, Cell 52:185-195, 1988) prompted us to study the molecular basis of the N-myc protein heterogeneity. Dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase reduced the four polypeptide bands to a doublet with an electrophoretic mobility corresponding to the two faster-migrating N-myc polypeptides (p58 and p60). When expressed transiently in COS cells, an N-myc deletion construct lacking the first exon produced polypeptides similar to the wild-type N-myc protein, indicating that the first exon of the N-myc gene is noncoding. Furthermore, mutants deleted of up to two thirds of C-terminal coding domains still retained the capacity to produce a doublet of polypeptides, suggesting distinct amino termini for the two N-myc polypeptides. The amino-terminal primary structure of the N-myc protein was studied by site-specific point mutagenesis of the 5' end of the long open reading frame and by N-terminal radiosequencing of the two polypeptides. Our results show that the N-myc polypeptides are initiated from two alternative in-phase AUG codons located 24 base pairs apart at the 5' end of the second exon. Both of these polypeptides are phosphorylated and localized to the nucleus even when expressed separately. Interestingly, DNA rearrangements activating the c-myc gene are often found in the 1.7-kilobase-pair region between the two c-myc translational initiation sites and correlate with the loss of the longer c-myc polypeptide. Thus the close spacing of the two N-myc initiation codons could explain the relative resistance

  2. Practical considerations for noise power spectra estimation for clinical CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Dolly, Steven; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Anastasio, Mark; Mutic, Sasa; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Local noise power spectra (NPS) have been commonly calculated to represent the noise properties of CT imaging systems, but their properties are significantly affected by the utilized calculation schemes. In this study, the effects of varied calculation parameters on the local NPS were analyzed, and practical suggestions were provided regarding the estimation of local NPS for clinical CT scanners. The uniformity module of a Catphan phantom was scanned with a Philips Brilliance 64 slice CT simulator with varied scanning protocols. Images were reconstructed using FBP and iDose4 iterative reconstruction with noise reduction levels 1, 3, and 6. Local NPS were calculated and compared for varied region of interest (ROI) locations and sizes, image background removal methods, and window functions. Additionally, with a predetermined NPS as a ground truth, local NPS calculation accuracy was compared for computer simulated ROIs, varying the aforementioned parameters in addition to ROI number. An analysis of the effects of these varied calculation parameters on the magnitude and shape of the NPS was conducted. The local NPS varied depending on calculation parameters, particularly at low spatial frequencies below ~ 0.15 mm-1. For the simulation study, NPS calculation error decreased exponentially as ROI number increased. For the Catphan study the NPS magnitude varied as a function of ROI location, which was better observed when using smaller ROI sizes. The image subtraction method for background removal was the most effective at reducing low-frequency background noise, and produced similar results no matter which ROI size or window function was used. The PCA background removal method with a Hann window function produced the closest match to image subtraction, with an average percent difference of 17.5%. Image noise should be analyzed locally by calculating the NPS for small ROI sizes. A minimum ROI size is recommended based on the chosen radial bin size and image pixel

  3. SPA- STATISTICAL PACKAGE FOR TIME AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlow, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The need for statistical analysis often arises when data is in the form of a time series. This type of data is usually a collection of numerical observations made at specified time intervals. Two kinds of analysis may be performed on the data. First, the time series may be treated as a set of independent observations using a time domain analysis to derive the usual statistical properties including the mean, variance, and distribution form. Secondly, the order and time intervals of the observations may be used in a frequency domain analysis to examine the time series for periodicities. In almost all practical applications, the collected data is actually a mixture of the desired signal and a noise signal which is collected over a finite time period with a finite precision. Therefore, any statistical calculations and analyses are actually estimates. The Spectrum Analysis (SPA) program was developed to perform a wide range of statistical estimation functions. SPA can provide the data analyst with a rigorous tool for performing time and frequency domain studies. In a time domain statistical analysis the SPA program will compute the mean variance, standard deviation, mean square, and root mean square. It also lists the data maximum, data minimum, and the number of observations included in the sample. In addition, a histogram of the time domain data is generated, a normal curve is fit to the histogram, and a goodness-of-fit test is performed. These time domain calculations may be performed on both raw and filtered data. For a frequency domain statistical analysis the SPA program computes the power spectrum, cross spectrum, coherence, phase angle, amplitude ratio, and transfer function. The estimates of the frequency domain parameters may be smoothed with the use of Hann-Tukey, Hamming, Barlett, or moving average windows. Various digital filters are available to isolate data frequency components. Frequency components with periods longer than the data collection interval

  4. The effect of NPS calculation method on power-law coefficient estimation accuracy in breast texture modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhijin; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Muller, Serge; Iordache, Rǎzvan; Desolneux, Agnès.

    2015-03-01

    In breast X-ray imaging, breast texture has been characterized by a radial noise power spectrum (NPS) that has an inverse power-law shape with exponent β. The technique to estimate the radial power-law coefficient β is typically based on averaging 2-dimensional noise power spectra (NPS), calculated from partly overlapping image regions each weighted by a suitable window function. The linear regression applied over a selected frequency range to the logarithm of the 1- dimensional NPS as a function of the logarithm of the radial frequencies, gives β. For each step in this process, several alternative techniques have been proposed. This paper investigates the effect of image region of interest (ROI) size, image data windowing and alternative ways to determine radial frequency in terms of bias, variance and root mean square error (RMSE) in the estimated β. The effects of these three factors were analytically derived and evaluated using synthetic images with known β varying from 1 to 4 to cover the range of textures encountered in 2D and 3D breast X-ray imaging. Our results indicate that the RMSE in estimated β is smallest when the ROIs are multiplied with an appropriate window function and either no radial averaging or radial averaging with small frequency bins is applied. The ROI size yielding the smallest RMSE depends on several factors and needs to be validated with numerical simulations. In clinical practice however, there might be a need to compromise in the choice of the ROI size to balance between the RMSE magnitudes inherent to the applied β estimation technique and encompass the breast texture range so as to obtain an accurate shape of the NPS. When using 2.56 cm x 2.56 cm ROI sizes, applying a 2D Hann window and no radial frequency averaging, the RMSE in the estimated β ranges from 0.04 to 0.1 for true β values equal to 1 and 4. While many subtleties in real images were not modeled to simplify the mathematics in deriving our results, this work is

  5. Recent activities in the development of the MOA thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Grassauer, Andreas; Bartusch, Tobias; Koudelka, Otto

    2008-07-01

    More than 60 years after the later Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfvén waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept, utilising Alfvén waves to accelerate ionised matter for propulsive purposes, is MOA-magnetic field oscillating amplified thruster. Alfvén waves are generated by making use of two coils, one being permanently powered and serving also as magnetic nozzle, the other one being switched on and off in a cyclic way, deforming the field lines of the overall system. It is this deformation that generates Alfvén waves, which are in the next step used to transport and compress the propulsive medium, in theory leading to a propulsion system with a much higher performance than any other electric propulsion system. Based on computer simulations, which were conducted to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA is a corrosion free and highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted in flight, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13 116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. First tests-that are further described in this paper-have been conducted successfully and underline the feasibility of the concept. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an "afterburner system" for nuclear thermal propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space

  6. European youth care sites serve different populations of adolescents with cannabis use disorder. Baseline and referral data from the INCANT trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background MDFT (Multidimensional Family Therapy) is a family based outpatient treatment programme for adolescent problem behaviour. MDFT has been found effective in the USA in adolescent samples differing in severity and treatment delivery settings. On request of five governments (Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland), MDFT has now been tested in the joint INCANT trial (International Cannabis Need of Treatment) for applicability in Western Europe. In each of the five countries, study participants were recruited from the local population of youth seeking or guided to treatment for, among other things, cannabis use disorder. There is little information in the literature if these populations are comparable between sites/countries or not. Therefore, we examined if the study samples enrolled in the five countries differed in baseline characteristics regarding demographics, clinical profile, and treatment delivery setting. Methods INCANT was a multicentre phase III(b) randomized controlled trial with an open-label, parallel group design. It compared MDFT with treatment as usual (TAU) at and across sites in Berlin, Brussels, Geneva, The Hague and Paris. Participants of INCANT were adolescents of either sex, from 13 through 18 years of age, with a cannabis use disorder (dependence or abuse), and at least one parent willing to take part in the treatment. In total, 450 cases/families were randomized (concealed) into INCANT. Results We collected data about adolescent and family demographics (age, gender, family composition, school, work, friends, and leisure time). In addition, we gathered data about problem behaviour (substance use, alcohol and cannabis use disorders, delinquency, psychiatric co-morbidity). There were no major differences on any of these measures between the treatment conditions (MDFT and TAU) for any of the sites. However, there were cross-site differences on many variables. Most of these could be explained by variations in treatment

  7. AREVA Back-End Possibilities for the Used Fuel of Research Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Auziere, P.; Emin, J.L.; Louvet, T.; Ohayon, D.; Hunter, I.

    2006-07-01

    One of the major issues faced by the Research and Test Reactor (RTR) operators is the back end management of the used fuel elements. RTR used fuel for both HEU and LEU types are problematic for storing and disposal as their Aluminium cladding degrades leading to activity release, possible loss of containment and criticality concerns. Thus, direct disposal of RTR used fuel, (without prior treatment and conditioning) is in this respect hardly suitable. In the same manner, long term interim storage of RTR used fuel has to take into account the issue of fuel corrosion. Treating RTR used fuel allows separating the content into recyclable materials and residues. It offers many advantages as compared to direct disposal such as the retrieval of valuable fissile material, the reduction of radio-toxicity and a very significant reduction of the volume of the ultimate waste package (reduction factor between 30 and 50). In addition, the vitrification of the residues provides a package that has been specifically designed to ensure long term durability for long term interim storage as well as final disposal (99% of the activity is encapsulated into a stable matrix). RTR fuel treatment process was developed several decades ago by AREVA with now thirty years of experience at an industrial level. The treatment process consists in dissolving the whole assembly (including the Al cladding) in nitric acid and then diluting it with standard Uranium Oxide fuel dissolution liquor prior to treatment with the nominal Tributylphosphate solvent extraction process. A wide range of RTR spent fuel has already been treated in the AREVA facilities. First, at the Marcoule plant over 18 tons of U-Al type RTR fuel from 21 reactors in 11 countries was processed. The treatment activities are now undertaken at the La Hague plant where 17 tons of RTR used fuel from Australia Belgium, and France aligned for treatment. In June 2005, AREVA started to treat at La Hague ANSTO's Australian RTR used fuel from

  8. ICSH: on board for new projects.

    PubMed

    Zini, G; Kern, W; Brereton, M; Stephens, A D

    2014-06-01

    The International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) is a not-for-profit organization aimed at improving global quality and harmonization of analytical methods, and achieving reliable and reproducible results in diagnostic hematology. ICSH co-ordinates Working Groups of experts to examine laboratory methods and instruments for hematological analyses, and co-operates with different international organizations which have similar scientific goals. Among seven ongoing approved projects, three ICSH projects have been selected and will be presented in the ICSH session at the XXVIIth ISLH International Symposium on Technological Innovations in Laboratory Hematology in The Hague, on May 2014. The project on 'Guideline for flow cytometric evaluation of patients with suspected acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)' covers different aspects of the application of immunophenotyping by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) in the diagnosis of AML and MDS including integration into multimodal diagnostic workflow, quality control, antibody selection, interpretation of findings, reporting, and personnel. Data from the pilot study of the project for 'International Standardization of Hematology Reporting Units' suggest that there is a wide variation in reporting units for the routine blood cell count and highlights the areas of nomenclature and units of measurement where standardization is necessary and feasible, such as units for cell counts, white cell differentials, and hemoglobin concentration. The project on 'Standardization of HbA2 measurement and its implications for clinical practice' starts from the observation that different instruments give different results for hemoglobin A2; it is aimed at producing recommendations as to how instrument manufacturers and laboratories should assess their equipment before using it to analyze patient samples. These projects are examples of how the ICSH represents a great opportunity for scientists

  9. Frederik Ruysch's Fascination With Urolithiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Frederik Ruysch was born on March 23, 1638, in The Hague, and studied at the University of Leiden, where he graduated in 1664. He married a daughter of a famous architect and became a praelector of the Amsterdam surgeon's guild in 1665. In 1666, his rise continued, as he became elected as the Professor of the Anthenaeum Illustre. In 1668, Ruysch became the chief instructor to the midwives and by 1679 was the forensics advisor to Amsterdam's courts. His anatomical knowledge was second to none, and he gained worldwide notoriety for his discovery of the valves in lymphatics and the vomeronasal organ. Ruysch was keenly interested in dissection and anatomy, and developed his own methods for preservation of specimens. His secret was called liquor balsamicum. Over 300 years ago, Ruysch developed all of his talents to the point of creating a menagerie, of sorts, out of his specimens. The popularity of his rather morbid exhibits attracted such dignitaries as Peter The Great in 1697. Ruysch had several children from his marriage, and his daughter Rachel helped him illustrate many of his collections. Frederik Ruysch became an intriguing historical figure, worthy of some attention at kidney stone meetings, precisely because he chose these concretions to serve as one of the "finishing elements" in several of his collections. The purpose of this presentation is to present to a knowledgeable stone group, the artistic license of one of the first entrepreneurial surgeons and anatomists of the 17th century. Ruysch was a skilled surgeon, obstetrician, and anatomist, keenly interested in the science of anatomy, especially infant and fetal anatomy. In addition, he exhibited his fine collection of urinary stones in a rather unique way, in his "anatomical pieces."

  10. Painted or printed? Correlation analysis of the brickwork in Jan van der Heyden's View of Oudezijds Voorburgwal with the Oude Kerke in Amsterdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, David G.; Meador, Sean; Nobel, Petria

    2009-02-01

    The title painting, in the Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis in The Hague, is remarkable in that every figure and every part of every building is clearly discernible in the minutest detail: decorations, weathercock, bells in the church tower, and so on. Thousands of individual bricks are visible in the buildings at the left and the question has been posed by art scholars as to whether these bricks were laboriously painted individually or instead more efficiently pressed to the painting by some form of template, for instance by pressing a wet print against the painting. Close inspection of the painting in raking light reveals that the mortar work is rendered in thick, protruding paint, but such visual analysis, while highly suggestive, does not prove van der Heyden employed counterproofing; as such evidence must be sought in order to corroborate this hypothesis. If some form of counterproofing was employed by the artist, there might be at least some repeated patterns of the bricks, as the master print master was shifted from place to place in the painting. Visual search for candidate repeated passages of bricks by art scholars has proven tedious and unreliable. For this reason, we instead used a method based on computer forensics for detecting nearly identical repeated patterns within an image: discrete crosscorrelation. Specifically, we preprocessed a high-resolution photograph of the painting and used thresholding and image processing to enhance the brickwork. Then we convolved small portions of this processed image of the brickwork with all areas of brickwork throughout the painting. Our results reveal only small regions of moderate cross-correlation. Most importantly, the limited spatial extent of matching regions shows that the peaks found are not significantly higher than would occur by chance in a hand-executed work or in one created using a single counterproof. To our knowledge, ours is the first use of cross-correlation to search for repeated patterns in a

  11. The structure and subunit composition of the particulate NADH-ubiquinone reductase of bovine heart mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, C I

    1976-01-01

    Preparations of NADH-ubiquinone reductase from bovine heart mitochondria (Complex I) were shown to contain at least 16 polypeptides by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 2. High-molecular-weight soluble NADH dehydrogenase prepared from Triton X-100 extracts of submitochondrial particles [Baugh & King (1972) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 49, 1165-1173] was similar to Complex I in its polypeptide composition. 3. Solubilization of Complex I by phospholipase A treatment and subsequent sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation did not alter the polypeptide composition. 4. Lysophosphatidylcholine treatment of Complex I caused some selective solubilization of a polypeptide of mol.wt. 33000 previosuly postulated to be the transmembrane component of Complex I in the mitochondrial membrane [Ragan (1975) in Energy Transducing Membranes: Structure, Function and Reconstitution (Bennun, Bacila & Najjar, eds.), Junk, The Hague, in the press]. 5. Chaotropic resolution of Complex I caused solubilization of polypeptides of molecular weights 75000, 53000, 29000, 26000 and 15500 and traces of others in the 10000-20000-mol.wt.range. 6. The major components of the iron-protein fraction from chaotropic resolution had molecular weights of 75000, 53000 and 29000, whereas the flavoprotein contained polypeptides of molecular weights 53000 and 26000 in a 1:1 molar ratio. 7. Iodination of Complex I by lactoperoxidase indicated that the water-soluble polypeptides released by chaotropic resolution, in particular those of the flavoprotein fraction, were largely buried in the intact Complex. 8. The polypeptides of molecular weights 75000, 53000, 42000, 39000, 33000, 29000 and 26000 were present in 1:2:1:1:1:1:1 molar proportions. The two subunits of molecular weight 53000 are probably non-identical. PMID:180973

  12. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S P; Bengtson, P; Bojanowsky, R; Hagel, P; Herrmann, J; Ilus, E; Jakobson, E; Motiejunas, S; Panteleev, Y; Skujina, A; Suplinska, M

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year-1. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity. PMID:10568271

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis

    2004-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2004 through June 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 4Q 2004 or later. Smith International's hammer was tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek re-tested the ''optimized'' fluid hammer provided by Smith International during April 2004. Many improvements in mud hammer rates of penetration were noted over Phase 1 benchmark testing from November 2002. (2) Shell Exploration and Production in The Hague was briefed on various drilling performance projects including Task 8 ''Cutter Impact Testing''. Shell interest and willingness to assist in the test matrix as an Industry Advisor is appreciated. (3) TerraTek participated in a DOE/NETL Review meeting at Morgantown on April 15, 2004. The discussions were very helpful and a program related to the Mud Hammer optimization project was noted--Terralog modeling work on percussion tools. (4) Terralog's Dr. Gang Han witnessed some of the full-scale optimization testing of the Smith International hammer in order to familiarize him with downhole tools. TerraTek recommends that modeling first start with single cutters/inserts and progress in complexity. (5) The final equipment problem on the impact testing task was resolved through the acquisition of a high data rate laser based displacement instrument. (6) TerraTek provided Novatek much engineering support for the future re-testing of their optimized tool. Work was conducted on slip ring [electrical] specifications and tool collar sealing in the testing vessel with a reconfigured flow system on Novatek's collar.

  14. Clinical and legal significance of fragmentation of bullets in relation to size of wounds: retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between fragmentation of bullets and size of wounds clinically and in the context of the Hague Declaration of 1899. Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on hospital admissions. Setting Hospitals of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Subjects 5215 people wounded by bullets in armed conflicts (5933 wounds). Main outcome measures Grade of wound computed from the Red Cross wound classification and presence of bullet fragments on radiography. Results Of the 347 wounds with fragmentation of bullets, 251 (72%) were large wounds (grade 2 or 3)—that is, those with a clinically detectable cavity. Of the 5586 wounds without fragmentation of bullets, 2915 (52.1%) were large wounds. Only 7.9% (251/3166) of large wounds were associated with fragmentation of bullets. Conclusions Fragmentation of bullets is associated with large wounds, but most large wounds do not contain bullet fragments. In addition, bullet fragments may occur in wounds that are not defined as large. Fragmentation of bullets is neither a necessary nor sufficient cause of large wounds, and surgeons should not diagnose extensive tissue damage because of the presence of fragments on radiography. Such findings also do not necessarily represent the use of bullets which contravene the law of war. Future legislation should take into account not only the construction of bullets but also their potential to transfer energy to the human body. Key messagesThe use of certain bullets has been prohibited in warWounds from bullets are caused by transfer of kinetic energy from the bullet to the tissuesThe relation between size of wound and fragmentation of bullets can be examined using the Red Cross wound classification system Fragments of bullets seen on radiographs of wounds sustained in wars do not necessarily represent large wounds or the use of illegal bulletsExisting legislation on the construction of bullets should be supplemented by legislation on

  15. Pushing technology to satisfy world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hague, J. R.

    K-State has concluded the first quarter of the third year, demonstrating and evaluating electric vehicle technology. The G-Van has failed to operate during this period. Although plans are being made to install new batteries in the G-Van, the vehicle has little to prove or demonstrate in the way of advanced technologies. As such, there was an agreement by the Site Operator Users Task Force that no additional federal funding would be spent to maintain or operate the G-Vans. The DSEP van, received from DOE during the latter part of January remains idle. The DSEP vehicle may never be refurbished and used in the Site Operator Program as an operational vehicle. It may be used as a lab vehicle or in a special projects capacity. The cost of operating or maintaining this one-of-a-kind vehicle is high and the value of the vehicle to the program is questionable. Kansas State University is using and is pleased with its first Soleq's EVcort. The vehicle has been used on a routine basis around campus, at the Nebraska State Fair, the Kansas State Fair, and other specific functions. The vehicle continues to operate in an efficient manner, is well received by the public, and clearly demonstrates what is possible in EV technology. Professor Hague continued to serve as the Chairman of the Site Operator Users Task Force. As such, K-State is involved at all levels in promoting electric vehicle legislation and technology. The electric vehicle technology continues to be debated and discussed at all levels of government. The next year should bring incremental improvements for funding. The SOUTF has established an effort to 'push' the EV technology forward with the development of a common specification to be used in the purchase of electric vehicles during the next year.

  16. The World Water Vision: From Developing a Vision to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Cosgrove, W.; Rijsberman, F.; Strzepek, K.; Strzepek, K.

    2001-05-01

    The World Water Vision exercise was initiated by the World Water Commission under the auspices of the World Water Council. The goal of the World Water Vision project was to develop a widely shared vision on the actions required to achieve a common set of water-related goals and the necessary commitment to carry out these actions. The Vision should be participatory in nature, including input from both developed and developing regions, with a special focus on the needs of the poor, women, youth, children and the environment. Three overall objectives were to: (i)raise awareness of water issues among both the general population and decision-makers so as to foster the necessary political will and leadership to tackle the problems seriously and systematically; (ii) develop a vision of water management for 2025 that is shared by water sector specialists as well as international, national and regional decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society; and (iii) provide input to a Framework for Action to be elaborated by the Global Water Partnership, with steps to go from vision to action, including recommendations to funding agencies for investment priorities. This exercise was characterized by the principles of: (i) a participatory approach with extensive consultation; (ii) Innovative thinking; (iii) central analysis to assure integration and co-ordination; and (iv) emphasis on communication with groups outside the water sector. The primary activities included, developing global water scenarios that fed into regional consultations and sectoral consultations as water for food, water for people - water supply and sanitation, and water and environment. These consultations formulated the regional and sectoral visions that were synthesized to form the World Water Vision. The findings from this exercise were reported and debated at the Second World Water Forum and the Ministerial Conference held in The Hague, The Netherlands during April 2000. This paper

  17. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  18. Terminal ballistics of 7.62 mm NATO bullets: experiments in ordnance gelatin.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, P J; Vigsnaes, J S; Rasmussen, R; Nissen, P S

    1995-01-01

    Military rifle bullets are assumed to tumble 180 degrees in the target and end up facing backwards, but intact. It has been claimed, however, that a German version of the 7.62 mm x 51 (7.62 mm NATO) bullet may fragment at ranges up to 100 m. A lack of strength in the jacket, causing it to break at the cannelure when hitting the target at high impact velocity, has been held responsible for this behaviour. The Danish Armed Forces use a 7.62 mm x 51 bullet, produced by Ammunitionsarsenalet (AMA), which is similar in design. Since the legality of this and similar bullets may be questioned in view of the Hague Declaration of 1899, we decided to supplement an investigation of actual fatal cases with an investigation using ordnance gelatin. In order to compare various makes of bullets on an equal basis, they were fired into ordnance gelatin at various ranges and, consequently with various impact velocities. Bullets manufactured by the US Government, Bofors (Sweden), Raufoss (Norway) and AMA were used. The AMA bullet M/75 used previously was found to fragment at ranges up to approx. 100 m, corresponding to impact velocities of approx. 715 m/sec, while all the other 3 types of bullets were intact at ranges down to 2.5 m, corresponding to impact velocities of approx. 810 m/sec. The final prototype of an AMA bullet to answer this criticism proved capable of withstanding fragmentation as well as the foreign makes previously tested. It will enter series production in late 1995. PMID:8547160

  19. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in

  20. Concentrations of iodine isotopes ((129)I and (127)I) and their isotopic ratios in aerosol samples from Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Daraoui, A; Riebe, B; Walther, C; Wershofen, H; Schlosser, C; Vockenhuber, C; Synal, H-A

    2016-04-01

    New data about (129)I, (127)I concentrations and their isotopic ratios in aerosol samples from the trace survey station of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Northern Germany, are presented and discussed in this paper. The investigated samples were collected on a weekly basis during the years 2011 to 2013. Iodine was extracted from aerosol filters using a strong basic solution and was separated from the matrix elements with chloroform and was analysed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for (129)I and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for (127)I. The concentrations of (127)I and (129)I in aerosol filters ranged from 0.31 to 3.71 ng m(-3) and from 0.06 to 0.75 fg m(-3), respectively. The results of (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios were in the order 10(-8) to 10(-7). The (129)I originated directly from gaseous emissions and indirectly from liquid emissions (via sea spray) from the reprocessing plants in Sellafield and La Hague. In comparison with the results of (131)I after the Fukushima accident, no contribution of (129)I from this accident was detectable in Central Europe due to the high background originating from the (129)I releases of the European reprocessing plants. (129)I atmospheric activity concentrations were compared with those of an anthropogenic radionuclide ((85)Kr). We did not find any correlation between (129)I and (85)Kr, both having nuclear reprocessing plant as the main source. PMID:26867099

  1. Anthropogenic 129I in the North Pacific, Bering and Chukchi Seas, and Arctic Ocean in 2012-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, H.; Hasegawa, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kumamoto, Y.; Nishino, S.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2015-10-01

    Most of anthropogenic 129I in marine environment are due to discharge from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (U.K.) and La Hague (France) for past few decades. The discharge raised 129I concentration in seawaters in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans to more than 109 atoms L-1, which is two orders of magnitude higher than that in other region. Recently, in March 2011, a large quantity of 129I was released into the western North Pacific due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. To evaluate the influence of these events, we have measured 129I concentration in seawaters in the northern North Pacific Ocean, Bering and Chukchi Seas, and Arctic Ocean in 2012-2013. The 129I concentrations were 1.0-1.8 × 107 atoms L-1 in the surface waters in the vicinity of 47°N 150°E-130°W North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Chukchi Sea (<74°N), which are equal to or lower than the 129I concentration level in surface water in the North Pacific Ocean before the F1NPP accident. The vertical profiles in the North Pacific were almost same as that observed in the western North Pacific before the F1NPP accident. The 129I distribution in seawater in the North Pacific to the Chukchi Sea revealed no significant increase of 129I concentration caused by the F1NPP accident. The 129I concentrations were 13-14 × 107 atoms L-1 in surface waters and 80 × 107 atoms L-1 at depths of 300 and 800 m in the Arctic Ocean.

  2. [Dragées bengué with cocaine. Historic review of legislation concerning cocaine].

    PubMed

    Vandewiele, L J

    1991-01-01

    The Bengué sugar-coated pills with menthol and cocaine, followed by the "B.M.C. pills" (with borax, methanol and cocaine) were delivered freely at the chemist's shop. The fact that nobody seemed shocked by the free delivery of this dope does not result only from the circumstance that it was allowed by law, but also because, in our countries, in the XIXth century, there were as good as no cases of cocaine mania. Owing to personal experiments, it became known in wide social circles that cocaine was not only an anesthetic and pain-killing remedy, but also an intoxicating drug that can quickly lead to addiction. Physicians began to search for means of eliminating the plague of addiction: a first International Opium-meeting was held in Shanghai in 1909. After that time, international meetings were held in The Hague (1912) and Geneva (1924 and 1925). Strangely enough, we find that in the promulgated laws an exception is made for pharmaceutical products which contain less than 0.2% morphine or less than 0.1% cocaine. When the medical world began to devote more attention to the danger of cocaine mania, the pharmaceutical and the chemical world became alarmed. A synthetic substitute was searched for and found; it should be less toxic and less addicting. The producers of the BMC pills eagerly adopted the new drugs. They replaced cocaine by amylocaine. The name of the pills was changed into BMA pills (borax-menthol-amylocaine). The coat of the pills remained the same and not one single patient ever noticed the substitution! PMID:1816703

  3. The additional value of a night splint to eccentric exercises in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, R J; Weir, A; Visser, R J A; de Winter, ThC; Tol, J L

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess whether the use of a night splint is of added benefit on functional outcome in treating chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Methods This was a single‐blind, prospective, single centre, randomised controlled trial set in the Sports Medical Department, The Hague Medical Centre, The Netherlands. Inclusion criteria were: age 18–70 years, active participation in sports, and tendon pain localised at 2–7 cm from distal insertion. Exclusion criteria were: insertional disorders, partial or complete ruptures, or systemic illness. 70 tendons were included and randomised into one of two treatment groups: eccentric exercises with a night splint (night splint group, n = 36) or eccentric exercises only (eccentric group, n = 34). Interventions Both groups completed a 12‐week heavy‐load eccentric training programme. One group received a night splint in addition to eccentric exercises. At baseline and follow‐up at 12 weeks, patient satisfaction, Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment–Achilles questionnaire (VISA‐A) score and reported compliance were recorded by a single‐blind trained researcher who was blinded to the treatment. Results After 12 weeks, patient satisfaction in the eccentric group was 63% compared with 48% in the night splint group. The VISA‐A score significantly improved in both groups; in the eccentric group from 50.1 to 68.8 (p = 0.001) and in the night splint group from 49.4 to 67.0 (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in VISA‐A score (p = 0.815) and patient satisfaction (p = 0.261). Conclusion A night splint is not beneficial in addition to eccentric exercises in the treatment of chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:17178774

  4. An Anthropogenic Radioisotope, Iodine 129, As A Tracer For Studying The Northern Limb of The Meridional Overturning Circulation (moc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascard, J. C.; Raisbeck, G.; Yiou, F.; Sequeira, S.; Mork, K. A.

    A number of observations taken during the 1990s, seem to corroborate the fact that the northern limb of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (the so-called MOC), is undergoing large scale variability. Arctic Sea-Ice thinning, Overflows slackening, Labrador and Greenland Seas Deep Convection weakening, have recently been re- ported. Can this large scale variability be interpreted as a natural variability of the MOC or is it more related to global changes due to anthropogenic effects like green- house gases enhancing Global Warming at High Latitudes ? Iodine 129 resulting from reprocessing nuclear wastes at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK), has penetrated through all the various parts of the MOC from the Source: the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) collecting Iodine 129 from the North Sea, to the Sink: the Greenland- Iceland-Scotland Overflows and ultimately to the North Atlantic Deep Waters via the Deep Western Boundary Current. During recent years, discharges of Iodine 129 have increased drastically and peaks in Iodine 129 concentrations have already been ob- served all along the coast of Norway. In this talk, we will first present the most recent results showing the transfer of Iodine 129 through the various parts of the MOC from the NCC down to the North Atlantic Overflows (Denmark Strait), and second, explain how this results allow us to improve our understanding of the MOC system and in particular its variability. This is an important issue for improving reliability of actual numerical simulations of past, present and future behavior of the MOC, which has strong implications for climate related problems.

  5. Temporal variations in 13C and 14C concentrations in particulate organic matter from the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megens, L.; van der Plicht, J.; de Leeuw, J. W.

    2001-09-01

    As a new approach for the characterization and determination of the origin of particulate organic matter (POM) in coastal waters, we measured the 14C activity and 13C/ 12C isotope ratios and applied molecular analysis by means of AMS, IRMS and pyrolysis-GCMS for both bulk samples and isolated fractions of POM from the North Sea off the Dutch coast. The fractions were obtained by a sequence of chemical treatments separating polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and non-hydrolysable resistant compounds. The 13C/ 12C and 14C/ 12C isotope ratios, the 14C activities and the polysaccharide/protein contents were high in the spring and summer samples and significantly lower in the autumn and winter samples. This is explained by the high amount of marine phytoplankton in summer and spring, and the presence of detrital material in autumn and winter. It was noted that phytoplankton as found in the spring and summer samples was ca. 20% enriched in 14C with respect to natural values, very likely caused by 14C contamination of the water from the English Channel by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague, Normandy, France. The 13C/ 12C isotope ratios and 14C activity data show that the winter sample was not a simple mixture of relatively recent marine phytoplankton and POM from the rivers Rhine and Meuse. The main source of both terrestrial and marine organic matter in POM in winter is resuspended organic matter derived from eroded sea floor deposits with relatively low contributions of polysaccharides and proteins.

  6. Legal aspects of national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention national authority provisions. Workshop I: The National Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1995-05-09

    This seminar is an excellent opportunity for all attendees to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author discusses legal aspects of implementing the CWC`s national authority provisions. These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to effectuate the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby engendering significant disparities in implementation steps among States Parties. As a result, the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention late last year and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. Here the author discusses progress among several States in actually developing implementing measures for the Convention`s national authority requirements. CWC legislation from Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden were available at this writing in English through the PTS. Of course, it is important to note that this brief survey necessarily omitted examination of the existing {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} of other, related domestic laws that these signatories might also have adopted that affect CWC implementation. The author hopes that his brief review will give delegations a flavor of the choices that exist for national implementation of the CWC.

  7. Pre- and post-Chernobyl accident levels of 129I and 137Cs in the Southern Baltic Sea by brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Holm, E; Enamorado-Báez, S M; Abril, J A; Pinto-Gómez, A R; López-Gutiérrez, J M; García-León, M

    2013-01-01

    (129)I is a very long-lived radionuclide (T(1/2) = 15.7 × 10(6) years) that is present in the environment both because of natural and anthropogenic sources. In this work (129)I concentration and (129)I/(127)I ratio have been determined in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus collected in the Southern Baltic Sea during 1982 and 1986 (post-Chernobyl accident). The resulting data were evaluated in terms of (129)I concentrations, (129)I/(127)I and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios. (129)I concentrations were found to be in the order of (0.82-5.89) × 10(9) atoms g(-1) in 1982 and (1.33-38.83) × 10(9) atoms g(-1) in 1986. The (129)I/(127)I ratios ranged from (22.7-87.8) × 10(-10) for seaweed collected in 1982 and from (26.1-305.5) × 10(-10) for seaweed collected in 1986. Also a linear relationship was established for (127)I concentrations in seawater and salinity in this area, enabling the estimation of concentration factors for (127)I in F. vesiculosus. The high levels of (129)I and (129)I/(127)I in the Kattegat and their gradually decreasing trend to the Baltic Sea indicates that the most important contribution to the (129)I inventory in the Baltic Sea area comes from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants. With respect to Chernobyl accident, (129)I concentrations in samples collected in 1986 were not much higher than those expected in less contaminated samples from 1982. This supports the view that the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to (129)I in the Baltic region was not significant. PMID:22939948

  8. Quantifying urban heat island effects and human comfort for cities of variable size and urban morphology in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeneveld, G. J.; Koopmans, S.; Heusinkveld, B. G.; van Hove, L. W. A.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports on the canopy layer urban heat island (UHI) and human comfort in a range of small to large cities and villages in the Netherlands. To date, this subject has not been substantially studied in the Netherlands, since it has a relatively mild oceanic (Cfb) climate and impact was assumed to be minor. To fill this knowledge gap, this paper reports on observations of a selected network of reliable hobby meteorologists, including several in The Hague and Rotterdam. A number of alternative measures were also used to quantify UHI, i.e., the generalized extreme value distribution and return periods of UHI and adverse human comfort; its uncertainties were estimated by the statistical method of bootstrapping. It appeared essential to distinguish observations made at roof level from those made within the urban canyon, since the latter related more closely to exposure at pedestrian level and to urban canyon properties in their close neighborhood. The results show that most Dutch cities experience a substantial UHI, i.e., a mean daily maximum UHI of 2.3 K and a 95 percentile of 5.3 K, and that all cities experience a shadow effect in the morning when cities remain cooler than the rural surroundings. Also, an evident relation between the median of the daily maximum UHI and its 95 percentile was discovered. Furthermore, the 95 percentile of the UHI appears well correlated with population density. In addition, we find a significant decrease of UHI and the percentage of surface area covered by green vegetation, but the relation with open water remains unclear.

  9. The Uptake of Screening for Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes by Means of Glycated Hemoglobin versus the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among 18 to 60-Year-Old People of South Asian Origin: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vlaar, Everlina M. A.; Nierkens, Vera; Middelkoop, Barend J. C.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct comparisons of the effect of a glycated haemoglobin measurement or an oral glucose tolerance test on the uptake and yield of screening in people of South Asian origin have not been made. We evaluated this in 18 to 60-year-old South Asian Surinamese. Materials and Methods We invited 3173 South Asian Surinamese for an oral glucose tolerance test between June 18th 2009- December 31st 2009 and 2012 for a glycated hemoglobin measurement between April 19th 2010-November 11th, 2010. Participants were selected from 48 general practices in The Hague, The Netherlands. We used mixed models regression to analyse differences in response and participation between the groups. We described differences in characteristics of participants and calculated the yield as the percentage of all cases identified, if all invitees had been offered screening with the specified method. Results The response and participation in the glycated hemoglobin group was higher than in the group offered an oral glucose tolerance test (participation 23.9 vs. 19.3; OR: 1.30, 95%-confidence interval1.01–1.69). After adjustment for age and sex, characteristics of participants were similar for both groups. Overall, glycated hemoglobin identified a similar percentage of type 2 diabetes cases but a higher percentage of prediabetes cases, in the population than the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusion We found that glycated hemoglobin and the oral glucose tolerance test may be equally efficient for identification of type 2 diabetes in populations of South Asian origin. However, for programs aimed at identifying people at high risk of type 2 diabetes (i.e. with prediabetes), the oral glucose tolerance test may be a less efficient choice than glycated hemoglobin. PMID:26317417

  10. Adapting Dismantling and Decommissioning Strategies to a Variety of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities - 12237

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Frederic; Clement, Gilles

    2012-07-01

    AREVA has accumulated over 20 years of experience in managing and operating fuel cycle facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) projects of many different types and a variety of scales, both as facility owner (at La Hague for example) and as prime contractor to external customers such as the French Atomic Energy Commission (at Marcoule). A specific Business Unit was created in 2008 to capitalize on this experience and to concentrate - in one division - the specific skills required to be successful and cost effective in decommissioning projects. Indeed one of the key lessons learned in the past decades is that decommissioning is a significantly different business as compared to normal operations of a nuclear facility. Almost all the functions of a project need to be viewed from a different angle, challenged and adapted consequently in order to optimize costs and schedule. Three examples follow to illustrate the point: Safety management needs to take into account the ever changing configuration of a plant under D and D (a quite new situation for the authorities). Production of waste is significantly different in term of volume, activities, conditioning and disposal path. Technology is important but technical issues are often less critical than good management and planning. Further examples and lessons learned are developed through reviewing the projects experience basis. AREVA has a long and vast experience in the cleanup and dismantling of a number of very large and complex nuclear facilities. This effort focused initially on AREVA's own plants and is expanding now to other customers. The setup of a specific Business Unit in 2008 to takeover this business allowed concentration of the skills and the lessons learned in a dedicated division so as to provide the best means to optimize safety, performance, costs and schedules. Indeed transitioning from operations to D and D of a nuclear facility is a quantum leap. The assistance from specialized teams can

  11. DOE/SOUTF/KEURP Kansas State University, Pushing technology to satisfy real world applications. First quarter report, July 1--September 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hague, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    K-State has concluded the first quarter of the third year, demonstrating and evaluating electric vehicle technology. The G-Van has failed to operate during this period. Although plans are being made to install new batteries in the G-Van, the vehicle has little to prove or demonstrate in the way of advanced technologies. As such, there was an agreement by the Site Operator Users Task Force that no additional federal funding would be spent to maintain or operate the G-Vans. The DSEP van, received from DOE during the latter part of January remains idle. The DSEP vehicle may never be refurbished and used in the Site Operator Program as an operational vehicle. It may be used as a lab vehicle or in a special projects capacity. The cost of operating or maintaining this one-of-a-kind vehicle is high and the value of the vehicle to the program is questionable. Kansas State University is using and pleased with its first Soleq`s EVcort. The vehicle has been used on a routine basis around campus, at the Nebraska State Fair, the Kansas State Fair, and other specific functions. The vehicle continues to operate in an efficient manner, is well received by the public, and clearly demonstrates what is possible in EV technology. Professor Hague continued to serve as the Chairman of the Site Operator Users Task Force. As such, K-State is involved at all levels in promoting electric vehicle legislation and technology. The electric vehicle technology continues to be debated and discussed at all levels of government. The next year should bring incremental improvements for funding. The SOUTF has established an effort to ``push`` the EV technology forward with the development of a common specification to be used in the purchase of electric vehicles during the next year.

  12. Effect of ionizing radiation on the transcription levels of cell stress marker genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Farcy, Emilie; Voiseux, Claire; Robbes, Ismaël; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Fievet, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    In the North-Cotentin (Normandy, France), the marine environment is chronically exposed to liquid releases from the La Hague nuclear fuel recycling plant (Areva NC), resulting in a small increase in radioactivity compared to natural background. The transcriptional expression levels of stress genes were investigated in oysters exposed to ionizing radiation. Adult oysters were kept for 6 weeks in (60)Co-labeled seawater (400 Bq liter(-1)), resulting in a total dose of 6.2 mGy. Transcriptional expression of target genes was monitored by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Nine genes were selected for their sensitivity to ionizing radiation based on the literature and available DNA sequences. They included genes encoding chaperone proteins and genes involved in oxidative stress regulation, cell detoxification and cell cycle regulation. Of the nine genes of interest, metallothionein (MT) and multi-drug resistance (MDR) displayed significant overexpression in response to chronic exposure to an internal low dose. For comparison, oysters were acutely exposed to an external high dose for 100 min, resulting in 20 Gy, and the same target gene expression analysis was carried out. As in the case of chronic exposure to the low dose, MT and MDR displayed significant increases. The results suggest that the transcriptional expression levels of cell stress genes may be used as a biosensor of exposure of oysters to ionizing radiation, with a particular focus on the MT and MDR genes. However, the upregulation of these potential players in the cellular response to radiation-induced stress was not correlated with mortality or apparent morbidity. The possible role of these stress genes in the resistance of oysters to ionizing radiation is discussed. PMID:21574864

  13. The AREVA NC Cadarache Plant Dismantling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sainte Marie, Noel de

    2008-01-15

    The AREVA NC Cadarache Plant has manufactured MOX fuel (mixed uranium and plutonium oxides fuel assemblies) for forty years. The plant was first dedicated to fast neutrons reactors fuels. Then, it produced 345 tons of MOX fuel for light water reactors for French and European customers. 50 tons of plutonium was recycled. In July 2003 the manufacturing of commercial fuel stopped and the plant has entered a double process plan : - conditioning production scraps issued from former fabrications in order to send them to the AREVA NC La Hague Plant for treatment and recycling process, - carrying out of the dismantling operations of these facilities. In conclusion: In a social context and with a bi-activity, AREVA NC Cadarache knows how to adapt itself and answer the increasing challenge of the dismantling activity, with very satisfactory results. After the final stop of the scraps conditioning in 2008, AREVA NC Cadarache plant is going to reach its rhythm of 80 equipments dismantled per year and to end the operations on equipments in active zone in 2013. As a consequence, new challenges begin : - adapt the organisation to integrate an increasing number of outside companies while guaranteeing a high level of safety-security, - consolidate the good radiation protection results of the staff, - respect the costs and delays of the project by putting the priority on the critical path of the schedule, - absorb the increase of waste flows, while maintaining low level of waste intended for deep storage, - improve dismantling performances and implement new techniques by integrating the experience feedback and innovation development.

  14. A study of the atmospheric dispersion of a high release of krypton-85 above a complex coastal terrain, comparison with the predictions of Gaussian models (Briggs, Doury, ADMS4).

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Rozet, M; Le Cavelier, S; Connan, O

    2010-11-01

    Atmospheric releases of krypton-85, from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the AREVA NC facility at La Hague (France), were used to test Gaussian models of dispersion. In 2001-2002, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) studied the atmospheric dispersion of 15 releases, using krypton-85 as a tracer for plumes emitted from two 100-m-high stacks. Krypton-85 is a chemically inert radionuclide. Krypton-85 air concentration measurements were performed on the ground in the downwind direction, at distances between 0.36 and 3.3 km from the release, by neutral or slightly unstable atmospheric conditions. The standard deviation for the horizontal dispersion of the plume and the Atmospheric Transfer Coefficient (ATC) were determined from these measurements. The experimental results were compared with calculations using first generation (Doury, Briggs) and second generation (ADMS 4.0) Gaussian models. The ADMS 4.0 model was used in two configurations; one takes account of the effect of the built-up area, and the other the effect of the roughness of the surface on the plume dispersion. Only the Briggs model correctly reproduced the measured values for the width of the plume, whereas the ADMS 4.0 model overestimated it and the Doury model underestimated it. The agreement of the models with measured values of the ATC varied according to distance from the release point. For distances less than 2 km from the release point, the ADMS 4.0 model achieved the best agreement between model and measurement; beyond this distance, the best agreement was achieved by the Briggs and Doury models. PMID:20638159

  15. In-situ database toolbox for short-term dispersion model validation in macro-tidal seas, application for 2D-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly du Bois, P.; Dumas, F.; Solier, L.; Voiseux, C.

    2012-03-01

    Appropriate field data are required to check the reliability of hydrodynamic models simulating the dispersion of soluble substances in the marine environment. This study deals with the collection of physical measurements and soluble tracer data intended specifically for this kind of validation. The intensity of currents as well as the complexity of topography and tides around the Cap de La Hague in the centre of the English Channel make it one of the most difficult areas to represent in terms of hydrodynamics and dispersion. Controlled releases of tritium—in the form of HTO—are carried out in this area by the AREVA-NC plant, providing an excellent soluble tracer. A total of 14,493 measurements were acquired to track dispersion in the hours and days following a release. These data, supplementing previously gathered data and physical measurements (bathymetry, water-surface levels, Eulerian and Lagrangian current studies) allow us to test dispersion models from the hour following release to periods of several years which are not accessible with dye experiments. The dispersion characteristics are described and methods are proposed for comparing models against measurements. An application is proposed for a 2 dimensions high-resolution numerical model. It shows how an extensive dataset can be used to build, calibrate and validate several aspects of the model in a highly dynamic and macrotidal area: tidal cycle timing, tidal amplitude, fixed-point current data, hodographs. This study presents results concerning the model's ability to reproduce residual Lagrangian currents, along with a comparison between simulation and high-frequency measurements of tracer dispersion. All physical and tracer data are available at . This tool for validation of models in macro-tidal seas is intended to be an open and evolving resource, which could provide a benchmark for dispersion-model validation.

  16. Seasonal changes in mRNA encoding for cell stress markers in the oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to radioactive discharges in their natural environment.

    PubMed

    Farcy, Emilie; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Fievet, Bruno

    2007-03-15

    The North Cotentin area (Normandy, France) hosts several nuclear facilities among which the AREVA reprocessing plant of La Hague is responsible for controlled discharges of liquid radioactive wastes into the marine environment. The resulting increase in radioactivity is very small compared to natural radioactivity. However, concerns about environment protection prompted the scientific community to focus on the effects of the chronic exposure to low concentrations of radionuclides in non-human biota. This study contributes to the evaluation of the possible impact of radioactive discharges on the oyster Crassostrea gigas in the field. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression levels of genes involved in cell stress in the oyster. They included members of the heat shock protein family (Hsp70, Hsc72, Hsp90), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and metallothionein (MT). Times series measurements were built from periodic samplings in the natural environment in order to characterize the natural variability as well as possible seasonal fluctuations. The genes studied exhibited a general seasonal expression pattern with a peak value in winter. The data inversely correlated with seawater temperature and the nature of the relationship between gene expression and temperature is discussed. In parallel, oysters were collected in four locations on the French shores, exposed or not to radioactive liquid wastes from the nuclear facilities hosted in the North Cotentin. The comparison of data obtained in the reference location on the Atlantic coast (not exposed) and data from oysters of the English Channel (exposed) gave no evidence for any statistical difference. However, because of the complexity of the natural environment, we cannot rule out the possibility that other parameters may have masked the impact of radioactive discharges. This dense set of data is a basis for the use of the expression levels of those genes as biomarkers to address the question of the

  17. Multidimensional family therapy decreases the rate of externalising behavioural disorder symptoms in cannabis abusing adolescents: outcomes of the INCANT trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background US-based trials have shown that Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) not only reduces substance abuse among adolescents, but also decreases mental and behavioural disorder symptoms, most notably externalising symptoms. In the INCANT trial, MDFT decreased the rate of cannabis dependence among Western European youth. We now focus on other INCANT outcomes, i.e., lessening of co-morbidity symptoms and improvement of family functioning. Methods INCANT was a randomised controlled trial comparing MDFT with individual therapy (IP) at and across sites in Berlin, Brussels, Geneva, The Hague, and Paris. We recruited 450 boys and girls aged 13 up to 18 years with a cannabis use disorder, and their parent(s), and followed them for 12 months. Mental and behavioural characteristics (classified as 'externalising’ or 'internalising’) and family conflict and cohesion were assessed. Results From intake through 12 months, MDFT and IP groups improved on all outcome measures. Models including treatment, site, and referral source showed that MDFT outperformed IP in reducing externalising symptoms. Adolescents were either self-referred to treatment (mostly on the initiative from people close to the teen) or referred under some measure of coercion by an external authority. These two groups reacted equally well to treatment. Conclusions Both MDFT and IP reduced the rate of externalising and internalising symptoms and improved family functioning among adolescents with a cannabis use disorder. MDFT outperformed IP in decreasing the rate of externalising symptoms. Contrary to common beliefs among therapists in parts of Western Europe, the 'coerced’ adolescents did at least as well in treatment as the self-referred adolescents. MDFT shows promise as a treatment for both substance use disorders and externalising symptoms. Trial registration ISRNCT: ISRCTN51014277 PMID:24485347

  18. ESTEC/GEOVUSIE/ILEWG Planetary Student Designer Workshop: a Teacher Training Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusterink, J.; Foing, B. H.; Kaskes, P.

    2014-04-01

    An important role for education is to inform and create the right skills for people to develop their own vision, using their talents to the utmost and inspire others to learn to explore in the future. Great effort has been taken to prepare this interactive design workshop thoroughly. Three days in a row, starting with presentations of Artscience The Hague to ESA colleagues, followed by a Planetary research Symposium in Amsterdam and a student design workshop at the end complemented a rich environment with the focus on Planetary exploration. The design workshop was organised by GeoVUsie students, with ESTEC and ILEWG support for tutors and inviting regional and international students to participate in an interactive workshop to design 5 Planetary Missions, with experts sharing their expertise and knowhow on specific challenging items: 1. Mercury - Post BepiColombo (with Sebastien Besse, ESA) 2. Moon South Pole Mission (with Bernard Foing, ESA) 3. Post-ExoMars - In search for Life on Mars (with Jorge Vago, ESA) 4. Humans in Space - Mars One investigated(with Arno Wielders, Space Horizon) 5. Europa - life on the icy moon of Jupiter? (with Bert Vermeersen, TU Delft. Lectures were given for more than 150 geology students at the symposium "Moon, Mars and More" at VU university, Amsterdam (organized by GeoVUsie earth science students). All students were provided with information before and at start for designing their mission. After the morning session there was a visit to the exhibition at The Erasmus Facility - ESTEC to inspire them even more with real artifacts of earlier and future missions into space. After this visit they prepared their final presentations, with original results, with innovative ideas and a good start to work out further in the future. A telescope session for geology students had been organized indoor due to rain. A follow-up visit to the nearby public Copernicus observatory was planned for another clear sky occasion.

  19. Distribution and behaviour of transuranic elements in the physical and biological compartments of the channel french shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germain, P.; Miramand, P.

    1984-06-01

    Biological samples (algae, suspension feeders molluscs living in contact with sediments, annelids), sediments and sea water were taken at 5 stations along the Channel shore from 1978 to 1981 in order to determine 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am and 244Cm levels. In Northern Cotentin, radioactivity levels for 239+240Pu, 238Pu and 241Am were respectively about 1-10, 0.5-7 and 1-19 pCi kg -1 fresh weight in biological samples, 24-90, 11-28 and 24-31 pCi kg -1 dry weight in sediments, 1-7, 5-40 and 2-15 fCi 1 -1 in sea water. For stations far from the La Hague outlet (Seine river and Mont Saint Michel bays) levels for 239+240Pu, 238Pu and 241Am were respectively about 0.3-5, 0.1-2 and 0.2-3 pCi kg -1 fresh weight in biological samples, 30-80, 5-26 and 14-40 pCi kg -1 dry weight in sediments, and 1-, 3-4 and 3-8 fCi 1 -1 in sea water. Labelling of industrial wastes was demonstrated by the values of the 238Pu/ 239+240Pu ratios. The evolution of plutonium isotopes in sea water and in the other environmental compartments and the bio-availability of americium are discussed. Sediment-animal transfers are quantified and their processes specified. An assessment of plutonium and americium hazards from ingestion of molluscs shows that the ingested activity represents 1.1×10 -4 only of the ALI (ingestion) recommended by ICRP for members of the public.

  20. Investigations of Periodic Disturbances on Seismic Aftershock Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebsch, Mattes; Gorschlüter, Felix; Knoop, Jan-Frederik; Altmann, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) runs the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect possible violations of the treaty. The seismic sensors of the IMS are set up to detect every underground explosion with a yield of 1 kT TNT equivalent or even better everywhere on the world. Under consideration of all IMS data the hypocentre of a large underground explosion is located within an area of about 1000 sq km. To verify if it was a violation of the Test-Ban Treaty the CTBTO (after CTBT entry into force) is allowed to carry out an on-site inspection (OSI) in the area of suspicion. During an OSI the hypocentre is to be located much more precisely; for this a local seismic aftershock monitoring system (SAMS) can be installed to detect small seismic events caused as a consequence of the explosion, such as relaxation of the rock around the cavity. However the magnitude of these aftershock signals is extremely weak. Other difficulties arise from other seismic signals in the inspection area, for example caused by vehicles of the inspectors, from coupling of airborne signals to the ground, or even by intended attempts to disturb the OSI. While the aftershock signals have a pulsed shape, man-made seismic signals (primarily created by engines) usually show periodic characteristics and thus are representable as a sum of sine functions and their harmonics. A mathematical expression for the Hann-windowed discrete Fourier transform of the underlying sine is used to characterise every such disturbance by the amplitude, frequency and phase. The contributions of these sines are computed and subtracted from the complex spectrum sequentially. Synthetic sines superposed to real signals, orders of magnitude stronger than the latter, can be removed successfully. Removal of periodic content from the signals of a helicopter overflight reduces the amplitude by a factor 3.3 when the frequencies are approximately constant. To reduce or prevent disturbing seismic

  1. PREFACE: International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics & 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas L. S.; deHarak, Bruno A.

    2010-01-01

    44 submitted posters covered recent advances in these topics. These proceedings present papers on 35 of the invited talks. The Local Organizers gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the University of Kentucky College of Arts and Sciences, and the University of Kentucky Department of Physics and Astronomy. We also thank Carol Cotrill, Eva Ellis, Diane Yates, Sarah Crowe, and John Nichols, of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky for their invaluable assistance in the smooth running of the conferences; Oleksandr Korneta for taking the group photograph; and Emily Martin for helping accompanying persons. Nicholas L S Martin University of Kentucky Bruno A deHarak Illinois Wesleyan University International Scientific Organizing Committee Co-Chairs Don Madison (USA)Klaus Bartschat (USA) Members Lorenzo Avaldi (Italy)Nils Andersen (Denmark) Jamal Berakdar (Germany)Uwe Becker (Germany) Michael Brunger (Australia)Igor Bray (Australia) Greg Childers (USA)Nikolay Cherepkov (Russia) JingKang Deng (China)Albert Crowe (UK) Alexander Dorn (Germany)Danielle Dowek (France) Jim Feagin (USA)Oscar Fojon (Argentina) Nikolay Kabachnik (Russia)Tim Gay (USA) Anatoli Kheifets (Australia)Alexei Grum-Grzhimailo (Russia) George King (UK)Friedrich Hanne (Germany) Tom Kirchner (Germany)Alan Huetz (France) Azzedine Lahmam-Bennani (France)Morty Khakoo (USA) Julian Lower (Australia)Birgit Lohmann (Australia) William McCurdy (USA)Bill McConkey (Canada) Andrew Murray (UK)Rajesh Srivastava (India) Bernard Piraux (Belgium)Al Stauffer (Canada) Tim Reddish (Canada)Jim Williams (Australia) Roberto Rivarola (Argentina)Akira Yagishita (Japan) Michael Schulz (USA)Peter Zetner (Canada) Anthony Starace (USA)Joachim Ullrich (Germany) Giovanni Stefani (Italy)Erich Weigold (Australia) Masahiko Takahashi (Japan) Conference photograph

  2. Reconstruction of Holocene palaeoclimate and environment in the Khatanga region, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrykh, Ludmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    Arctic regions are highly sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation, and their Late Quaternary environmental history is very important for understanding of present and past climate trends. Though the timing of Holocene climate change is well established for wide parts of the Northern Hemisphere, suitable palaeoenvironmental records are still scarce in the Russian Siberian Arctic. Taimyr Peninsula (74oN, 100oE) is the northernmost part of Russia. Thus, this area is probably one of the most promising regions for the reconstruction of the Late Quaternary environment in dependence on changes in global and regional climate and the atmospheric circulation. (Andreev et al., 2004).The area is characterized by a continental climate with long, severe winters, and short summers. The modern temperatures are about 10-14oC in July, and - 32 to 34oC in January. Annual precipitation ranges from about 300-400 mm at low elevations to about 600-800 mm on the western slopes of the Putorana Plateau (Atlas Arktiki, 1985). The frost-free period is ca. 35 days. Almost all the territory is underlain by continues permafrost. Periglacial landscape is dominated by tundra and taiga vegetation. Aquatic organisms such as chironomids (Insecta: Diptera) are recognized as the best biological indicators for quantifying past changes in air temperature or lake chemistry (Letter et al., 1997; Brooks and Birks, 2000; Battarbee, 2000; Massaferro and Brooks, 2002; Solovieva et al., 2005). Chironomids belong to the most abundant group of fresh-water bottom-dwelling macroinvertebrates. Because of their short life cycle, chironomids quickly adapt to environmental changes and in global scale the distribution and abundance of chironomids are mostly limited by temperature (Walker and Mathewes, 1987; Warwick, 1989; Hann et al., 1992; Walker et al., 1992). Larval head capsules of chironomids preserved in lake sediment as subfossils are abundant, identifiable and serve as indicators of the

  3. Ambient in-situ immersion freezing measurements - findings from the ZAMBIS 2014 field campaign for three ice nucleation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Monika; Atkinson, James D.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2015-04-01

    well as a droplet freezing method on aerosol particles either collected in a suspension or on PM10-filters to obtain atmospheric IN concentrations based on the measured ambient aerosol. Investigation of physical properties (number and size distribution) and chemical composition as well as the meteorological conditions provide supplementary information that help to understand the nature of particles and air masses that contribute to immersion freezing. Acknowledgements We thank Hannes Wydler and Hansjörg Frei from ETH Zurich for their technical support. Furthermore, the authors want thank Franz Conen from the University of Basel for sharing equipment and training in the drop freezing experiment. References [1] Chou et al. (2011), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4725-4738. [2] Nicolet et al. (2010), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 313-325. [3] Conen et al. (2012), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 321-327. [4] Stopelli et al. (2014), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 129-134.

  4. Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainstein, Pablo D.; Lima, Marco Aurelio P.; Miraglia, Jorge E.; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2006-11-01

    ionization of fixed in space deuterium molecules / T. Weber ... [et al.]. Coherence and intramolecular scattering in molecular photoionization / U. Becker. Experimental observation of interatomic coulombic decay in neon dimers / T. Jahnke ... [et al.]. Ionization by short UV laser pulses: secondary ATI peaks of the electron spectrum / V. D. Rodríguez, E. Cormier and R. Gayet. Molecular frame photoemission in photoionization of H[symbol] and D[symbol]: the role of dissociation on autoionization of the Q[symbol] and Q[symbol] doubly excited states / D. Dowek, M. Lebech and J. C. Houver. 3p photoemission of 3d transition metals - atoms, molecules and clusters / M. Martins -- Collisions involving electrons. Spin-resolved collisions of electrons with atoms and molecules / G. F. Hanne. Calculation of ionization and excitation processes using the convergent close-coupling method / D. V. Fursa, I. Bray and A. T. Stelbovics. The B-spline R-matrix method for electron and photon collisions with atoms and ions / O. Zatsarinny and K. Bartschat. Absolute angle-differential cross sections for excitation of neon atoms electrons of energy 16.6-19.2 eV / M. Allan ... [et al.]. Studies of QED and nuclear size effects with highly charged ions in an EBIT / J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia ... [et al.]. Recombination of astrophysically relevant ions: Be-like C, N, and O / M. Fogle ... [et al.]. Dissociation and excitation of molecules and molecular ions by electron impact / A. E. Orel and J. Royal state-selective X-ray study of the radiative recombination of U[symbol] ions with cooling electrons / M. Pajek ... [et al.]. Electron collisions with trapped, metastable helium / L. J. Uhlmann ... [et al.]. Non-dipole effects in electron and photon impact ionization / N. L. S. Martin. Electron driven processes in atmospheric behaviour / L. Campbell, M. J. Brunger and P. J. 0. Teubner. Calculation of excitation and ionization for electron-molecule collisions at intermediate energies / J. D. Gorfinkiel

  5. MOA2—an R&D paradigm buster enabling space propulsion by commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Koudelka, Otto; Löb, Horst

    2012-04-01

    More than 60 years after the late Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfvén waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. Consequently improved since then, the name of the latest concept, relying on magneto-acoustic waves to accelerate electric conductive matter, is MOA2—Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified Accelerator. Based on computer simulations, which were undertaken to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA2 is a corrosion free and highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted in operation, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable of delivering a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. First tests—that are further described in this paper—have been conducted successfully with a 400 W prototype system at an ambient pressure of 0.20 Pa, delivered 9.24 mN of thrust at 1472 s ISP, thereby underlining the feasibility of the concept. Based on these results, space propulsion is expected to be a prime application for MOA2—a claim that is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion. However, MOA2 has so far seen most of its R&D impetus from terrestrial applications, like coating, semiconductor implantation and manufacturing as well as steel cutting. Based on this observation, MOA2 resembles an R&D paradigm buster, as it is the first space propulsion system, whose R&D is driven primarily by its terrestrial applications. Different terrestrial applications exist, but

  6. Experimental Study on the Vortex-Induced Vibration of Towed Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HONG, S.; CHOI, Y. R.; PARK, J.-B.; PARK, Y.-K.; KIM, Y.-H.

    2002-01-01

    We experimentally attempted to understand the vibration characteristics of a flexible pipe excited by vortex shedding. This has been extensively studied in the previous decades (for example, see Sarpkaya 1979 Journal of Applied Mechanics46, 241-258; Price et al. 1989 Eighth International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, The Hague-March 19 -23, 447-454; Yoerger et al. 1991 Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Transaction of Engineers113, 117-127; Grosenbaugh et al. 1991Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Transaction of Engineers113 , 199-204; Brika and Laneville 1992 Journal of Fluid Mechanics250, 481-508; Chakrabarti et al. 1993 Ocean Engineering20, 135-162; Jong 1983 Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Ocean Engineering, M. I. T.; Kimet al. 1986 Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Transactions of American Society of Mechanical Engineers108, 77-83). However, there are still areas that need more study. One of them is the relation between spatial characteristics of a flow-induced vibrating pipe, such as its length, the distribution of wave number, and frequency responses. A non-linear mechanism between the responses of in-line and cross-flow directions is also an area of interest, if the pipe is relatively long so that structural modal density is reasonably high. In order to investigate such areas, two kinds of instrumented pipe were designed. The instrumented pipes, of which the lengths are equally 6 m, are wound with rubber and silicon tape in different ways, having different vortex-shedding conditions. One has uniform cross-section of diameter of 26·7 mm, and the other has equally spaced four sub-sections, which are composed of different diameters of 75·9, 61·1, 45·6 and 26·7 mm. Both pipes are towed in a water tank (200 m×16 m×7 m) so that they experienced different vortex-shedding excitations. Various measures were obtained from the towing experiment, including frequency responses, the time

  7. What more can plant scientists do to help save the green stuff?

    PubMed

    McNeely, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was the first such effort under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and had gone through a 3-year process to reach the level of maturity that enabled it to be approved by consensus by all Governments present at the key session in The Hague in April 2002. It provided a model for subsequent CBD workplans, with targets, and undoubtedly contributed to the 2010 target of reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. In the event, few of the targets were achieved, because of numerous constraints at both policy and implementation levels. Even so, the GSPC stands as an important milestone in the global effort to conserve biodiversity. However, few plant scientists can be satisfied that the essential steps are being taken to ensure the conservation of plants, although, of course, plant scientists are only one part of the complex effort that will be required. This paper offers some suggestions that might be worth consideration, building on the basic principle in politics that a strong constituency is necessary to victory. In other words, although plant scientists play a crucial role, plant conservation is too important to leave in their hands alone; far broader support is required, including from the private sector, agriculture, forestry, trade, economics, tourism and even the military. Although botanical science provides a solid foundation, other branches of science are also important, ranging from anthropology to zoology. The legal profession also has important contributions to make (as well as the ability to hamper progress – for example through using issues such as access and benefit sharing to limit the exchange of genetic materials for even noncommercial use). 2010 was the United Nations Year of Biodiversity, and the GSPC targets reached their due date. It therefore seems timely to add some additional perspectives to the effort to update the GSPC. This paper suggests ways to reach a far broader constituency

  8. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  9. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  10. Satellite Retrieval of Aerosol Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G.; Robles Gonzalez, C.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Decae, R.

    SATELLITE RETRIEVAL of AEROSOL PROPERTIES G. de Leeuw, C. Robles Gonzalez, J. Kusmierczyk-Michulec and R. Decae TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, The Hague, The Netherlands; deleeuw@fel.tno.nl Methods to retrieve aerosol properties over land and over sea were explored. The dual view offered by the ATSR-2 aboard ERS-2 was used by Veefkind et al., 1998. The retrieved AOD (aerosol optical depth) values compare favourably with collocated sun photometer measurements, with an accuracy of 0.06 +/- 0.05 in AOD. An algorithm developed for GOME on ERS-2 takes advantage of the low surface reflection in the UV (Veefkind et al., 2000). AOD values retrieved from ATSR-2 and GOME data over western Europe are consistent. The results were used to produce a map of mean AOD values over Europe for one month (Robles-Gonzalez et al., 2000). The ATSR-2 is al- gorithm is now extended with other aerosol types with the aim to apply it over the In- dian Ocean. A new algorithm is being developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to be launched in 2003 on the NASA EOS-AURA satellite. It is expected that, based on the different scattering and absorption properties of various aerosol types, five major aerosol classes can be distinguished. The experience with the retrieval of aerosol properties by using several wavelength bands is used to develop an algorithm for Sciamachy to retrieve aerosol properties both over land and over the ocean which takes advantage of the wavelengths from the UV to the IR. The variation of the AOD with wavelength is described by the Angstrom parameter. The AOD and the Angstrom parameter together yield information on the aerosol size distribution, integrated over the column. Analysis of sunphotometer data indicates a relation between the Angstrom parameter and the mass ratio of certain aerosols (black carbon, organic carbon and sea salt) to the total particulate matter. This relation has been further explored and was applied to satellite data over land to

  11. Cocaine Addiction Treatments to improve Control and reduce Harm (CATCH): New Pharmacological Treatment Options for Crack-Cocaine Dependence in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cocaine, particularly in its base form ('crack'), has become one of the drugs of most concern in the Netherlands, being associated with a wide range of medical, psychiatric and social problems for the individual, and with significant public order consequences for society. Available treatment options for cocaine dependent users are limited, and a substantial part of the cocaine dependent population is not reached by the addiction treatment system. Psychosocial interventions for cocaine dependence generally show modest results, and there are no registered pharmacological treatments to date, despite the wide range of medications tested for this type of dependence. The present study (Cocaine Addiction Treatments to improve Control and reduce Harm; CATCH) investigates the possibilities and problems associated with new pharmacological treatments for crack dependent patients. Methods/Design The CATCH-study consists of three separate randomised controlled, open-label, parallel-group feasibility trials, conducted at three separate addiction treatment institutes in the Netherlands. Patients are either new referrals or patients already in treatment. A total of 216 eligible outpatients are randomised using pre-randomisation double-consent design and receive either 12 weeks treatment with oral topiramate (n = 36; Brijder Addiction Treatment, The Hague), oral modafinil (n = 36; Arkin, Amsterdam), or oral dexamphetamine sustained-release (n = 36; Bouman GGZ, Rotterdam) as an add-on to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), or receive a 12-week CBT only (controls: n = 3 × 36). Primary outcome in these feasibility trials is retention in the underlying psychosocial treatment (CBT). Secondary outcomes are acceptance and compliance with the study medication, safety, changes in cocaine (and other drug) use, physical and mental health, social functioning, and patient satisfaction. Discussion To date, the CATCH-study is the first study in the Netherlands that explores new

  12. A Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theobald, D.M.; Baron, J.S.; Newman, P.; Noon, B.; Norman, J. B., III; Leinwand, I.; Linn, S.E.; Sherer, R.; Williams, K.E.; Hartman, M.

    2010-01-01

    strong restoration opportunities: Big Thompson River West, Cache la Poudre South, Colorado River North, and Onahu Creek. Ten watersheds were found to have substantial near-term issues: Aspen Brook, Big Thompson River West, Black Canyon Creek, Cabin Creek, Cache la Poudre South, Fall River, Hague Creek, La Poudre Pass Creek, North Fork Big Thompson (East), and Colorado River North.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2002-07-01

    (Task 5.0). A paper entitled ''Integrated Process Simulation and CFD for Improved Process Engineering'' was presented at the European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering-12, May 26-29, 2002, The Hague, The Netherlands (Task 7.0).

  14. Intra-Rater, Inter-Rater and Test-Retest Reliability of an Instrumented Timed Up and Go (iTUG) Test in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Hobert, Markus A.; Maetzler, Walter; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Terwee, Caroline B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The “Timed Up and Go” (TUG) is a widely used measure of physical functioning in older people and in neurological populations, including Parkinson’s Disease. When using an inertial sensor measurement system (instrumented TUG [iTUG]), the individual components of the iTUG and the trunk kinematics can be measured separately, which may provide relevant additional information. Objective The aim of this study was to determine intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the iTUG in patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Methods Twenty eight PD patients, aged 50 years or older, were included. For the iTUG the DynaPort Hybrid (McRoberts, The Hague, The Netherlands) was worn at the lower back. The device measured acceleration and angular velocity in three directions at a rate of 100 samples/s. Patients performed the iTUG five times on two consecutive days. Repeated measurements by the same rater on the same day were used to calculate intra-rater reliability. Repeated measurements by different raters on the same day were used to calculate intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Repeated measurements by the same rater on different days were used to calculate test-retest reliability. Results Nineteen ICC values (15%) were ≥ 0.9 which is considered as excellent reliability. Sixty four ICC values (49%) were ≥ 0.70 and < 0.90 which is considered as good reliability. Thirty one ICC values (24%) were ≥ 0.50 and < 0.70, indicating moderate reliability. Sixteen ICC values (12%) were ≥ 0.30 and < 0.50 indicating poor reliability. Two ICT values (2%) were < 0.30 indicating very poor reliability. Conclusions In conclusion, in patients with Parkinson’s disease the intra-rater, inter-rater, and test-retest reliability of the individual components of the instrumented TUG (iTUG) was excellent to good for total duration and for turning durations, and good to low for the sub durations and for the kinematics of the SiSt and StSi. The results of this fully

  15. The specific growth rates of tissues: a review and a re-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cowin, Stephen C

    2011-04-01

    The first objective of this review and re-evaluation is to present a brief history of efforts to mathematically model the growth of tissues. The second objective is to place this historical material in a current perspective where it may be of help in future research. The overall objective is to look backward in order to see ways forward. It is noted that two distinct methods of imaging or modeling the growth of an organism were inspired over 70 years ago by Thompson's (1915, "XXVII Morphology and Mathematics," Trans. - R. Soc. Edinbrgh, 50, pp. 857-895; 1942, On Growth and Form, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK) method of coordinate transformations to study the growth and form of organisms. One is based on the solid mechanics concept of the deformation of an object, and the other is based on the fluid mechanics concept of the velocity field of a fluid. The solid mechanics model is called the distributed continuous growth (DCG) model by Skalak (1981, "Growth as a Finite Displacement Field," Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Finite Elasticity, D. E. Carlson and R. T. Shield, eds., Nijhoff, The Hague, pp. 348-355) and Skalak et al. (1982, "Analytical Description of Growth," J. Theor. Biol., 94, pp. 555-577), and the fluid mechanics model is called the graphical growth velocity field representation (GVFR) by Cowin (2010, "Continuum Kinematical Modeling of Mass Increasing Biological Growth," Int. J. Eng. Sci., 48, pp. 1137-1145). The GVFR is a minimum or simple model based only on the assumption that a velocity field may be used effectively to illustrate experimental results concerning the temporal evolution of the size and shape of the organism that reveals the centers of growth and growth gradients first described by Huxley (1924, "Constant Differential Growth-Ratios and Their Significance," Nature (London), 114, pp. 895-896; 1972, Problems of Relative Growth, 2nd ed., L. MacVeagh, ed., Dover, New York). It is the method with an independent future that

  16. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Hofstede's (1983) cultural dimensions, of which uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation are of particular relevance for our analysis. Our conclusions comment on the suitability of approaches in Adaptive Delta Management rooted in different management theories are more suitable for specific delta countries than others. The most striking conclusion is the unsuitability of rational policy analytic approaches for The Netherlands. Although surprising this conclusion finds some support in the process dominated approach taken in the Dutch Delta Program. In addition, the divergence between Vietnam, Bangladesh and Myanmar, all located in South East Asia, is striking. References Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of international business studies, 75-89. Jos Timmermans, Marjolijn Haasnoot, Leon Hermans, Jan Kwakkel, Martine Rutten and Wil Thissen (2015). Adaptive Delta Management: Roots and Branches, IAHR The Hague 2015.

  17. Netherlands Antilles.

    PubMed

    1983-10-01

    of the highest in the Western Hemisphere. Almost all agricultural and commercial goods are imported. As an integral part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Antilles does not have direct relations with any foreign country except as authorized specifically by the Dutch government in The Hague. The US wants to maintain and expand the traditionally friendly official and commercial relations that have existed since 1776. PMID:12178087

  18. TOCATTA: a dynamic transfer model of ¹⁴C from the atmosphere to soil-plant systems.

    PubMed

    Dizès, S Le; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Gonze, M-A; Aulagnier, C

    2012-02-01

    Many nuclear facilities release ¹⁴C into the environment, mostly as ¹⁴CO₂, which mixes readily with stable CO₂. This complete isotopic mixing (equilibrium) is often used as the basis for dose assessment models. In this paper, a dynamic compartment model (TOCATTA) has been investigated to describe ¹⁴C transfer in agricultural systems exposed to atmospheric ¹⁴C releases from nuclear facilities under normal operating or accidental conditions. The TOCATTA model belongs to the larger framework of the SYMBIOSE modelling and simulation platform that aims to assess the fate and transport of a wide range of radionuclides in various environmental systems. In this context, the conceptual and mathematical models of TOCATTA have been designed to be relatively simple, minimizing the number of compartments and input parameters required, appropriate to its use in an operational mode. This paper describes in detail ¹⁴C transfer in agricultural plants exposed to time-varying concentrations of atmospheric ¹⁴C, with a consideration also of the transfer pathways of ¹⁴C in soil. The model was tested against in situ data for ¹⁴C activity concentration measured over two years on a grass field plot located 2 km downwind of the AREVA NC La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant. The first results showed that the model roughly reproduced the observed month-to-month variability in grass ¹⁴C activity, but under-estimated (by about 33%) most of the observed peaks in the ¹⁴C activity concentration of grass. This tends to prove that it is not suitable to simulate intra-monthly variability, and a fortiori, the response of vegetation to accidental releases that may occur during the day. The need to increase the temporal resolution of the model has been identified in order to simulate the impact of intermittent ¹⁴C releases occurring either the day or night, such as those recorded by the AREVA NC plant. PMID:22230021

  19. What are Journals for?

    PubMed

    Rallison, S P

    2015-03-01

    hard work and, through this series, I hope the reader will get some useful insight into this service industry for academia. Jyoti Shah Commissioning Editor Reference 1. Ware M, Mabe M. The STM Report. 3rd edn. The Hague: International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers; 2012. PMID:25723682

  20. The mobilization of toxic trace elements due to pyrite oxidation at the mega-nourishment The Sand Motor, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pit, I.; Doodeman, L.; Van Heteren, S.; van Bruggen, M.; Griffioen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Pilot project "The Sand Motor" is a 21.5 million m3 nourishment of sandy sediment situated along the coast of the Netherlands close to The Hague (figure 1). It was constructed in 2011 and initially spans the shore over a 2.4 km stretch and extends up to 1 km offshore creating a hook-shaped peninsula. Due to wind, waves and currents the Sand Motor will gradually change in shape and eventually be fully incorporated into the dunes and beach. This concept is expected to be more environmentally friendly compared to traditional beach and shoreface nourishments. The aim of this project is to understand how oxidation changed the geochemistry of the sediment applied and to address possible toxic element mobilization. The sediment was taken 10 km out of shore from the sea floor, which was at a depth of 20 m. Grab samples of the upper 25 cm seabed analyzed for geochemical mapping of Southern North Sea sediments, show locally high contents of sulfur, iron and trace elements like arsenic indicating presence of pyrite with impurities. Sediment was removed to a maximum depth of 6 m below sea floor, reaching different geological layers including bog iron ore layers. Different degrees of pyrite oxidation are expected with depth at the Sand Motor. First, minimum oxidation when sediment was deposited from the ship directly by opening the bottom floor, which is now present under water at the deepest part of the nourishment. Second, limited oxidation when sediment was applied from the ship under high pressure through the air, and settled below sea level. Last, maximum oxidation when the same method was used but the sediment remains located in a surface layer having a maximum height of 4 m above sea level. At the Sand Motor, samples were taken of surface water, pore water and sediment from the surface to a depth of 10 m, the bottom of the nourishment. Analyses show that pyrite oxidation has occurred above sea level and mobilization of arsenic is present up to a maximum concentration of

  1. EDITORIAL 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Tito; Hidalgo, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    . In this way the EPS PPD seeks to reinforce excellence in science. The Plasma Physics Hannes Alfvén Prize 2010 The Hannes Alfvén Prize is awarded to Allen Boozer (Professor, Columbia University) and Jürgen Nührenberg (Professor, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik and Greifswald University) for the formulation and practical application of criteria allowing stellarators to have good fast-particle and neoclassical energy confinement. Photo of Boozer and Nuhrenberg Jürgen Nührenberg (left) and Allen Boozer. The tokamak and the stellarator are two major candidate concepts for magnetically confining fusion plasmas. They were both conceived in the early 1950s, but the tokamak developed more rapidly because of its intrinsically favourable confinement properties. Indeed, the stellarator seemed fundamentally unable to confine energy and collisionless alpha-particle orbits well enough for a fusion reactor. In the 1980s, however, Allen Boozer and Jürgen Nührenberg developed methods for tailoring stellarator magnetic fields so as to guarantee confinement comparable to that in tokamaks. Allen Boozer introduced a set of magnetic coordinates, now named after him, in which the description of three-dimensionally shaped magnetic fields is particularly simple. He went on to show that if the magnetic field strength |B| is symmetric in these coordinates (so-called quasisymmetry) then the guiding-centre orbits and the neoclassical confinement properties are equivalent to those in a tokamak. In pioneering calculations a few years later, Jürgen Nührenberg showed that such magnetic fields can indeed be realized in practice, as can other configurations which have equally good confinement without being quasisymmetric. There is an unexpected vastness of configurational possibilities for toroidal plasma confinement, where the limit is likely to be set by turbulence rather than neoclassical losses. In addition, quasisymmetry should facilitate the development of strongly sheared

  2. Special Issue "Impact of Natural Hazards on Urban Areas and Infrastructure" in the Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.

    2009-04-01

    This special issue includes selected papers on the topic of earthquake impact from the sessions held in 2004 in Nice, France and in 2005 in Vienna, Austria at the first and respectivelly the second European Geosciences Union General Assembly. Since its start in 1999, in the Hague, Netherlands, the hazard of earthquakes has been the most popular of the session. The respective calls in 2004 was for: Nature's forces including earthquakes, floods, landslides, high winds and volcanic eruptions can inflict losses to urban settlements and man-made structures such as infrastructure. In Europe, recent years have seen such significant losses from earthquakes in south and south-eastern Europe, floods in central Europe, and wind storms in western Europe. Meanwhile, significant progress has been made in understanding disasters. Several scientific fields contribute to a holistic approach in the evaluation of capacities, vulnerabilities and hazards, the main factors on mitigating urban disasters due to natural hazards. An important part of the session is devoted to assessment of earthquake shaking and loss scenarios, including both physical damage and human causalities. Early warning and rapid damage evaluation are of utmost importance for addressing the safety of many essential facilities, for emergency management of events and for disaster response. In case of earthquake occurrence strong motion networks, data processing and interpretation lead to preliminary estimation (scenarios) of geographical distribution of damages. Factual information on inflicted damage, like those obtained from shaking maps or aerial imagery permit a confrontation with simulation maps of damage in order to define a more accurate picture of the overall losses. Most recent developments towards quantitative and qualitative simulation of natural hazard impacts on urban areas, which provide decision-making support for urban disaster management, and success stories of and lessons learned from disaster

  3. Sediment transport dynamics in response to large-scale human intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eelkema, Menno; Wang, Zheng Bing

    2010-05-01

    large quantities of sediment towards sea through its inlet. This export was estimated to be roughly 2 to 3 million m3 per year, and was observable as deepening channels inside the basin, and a growing ebb-tidal delta. The implementation of the dams caused a significant increase in tidal prism, while at the same time they stopped the residual flow of water from the Eastern Scheldt towards the northern basins. The increase in tidal prism was observable in the response of bathymetry; the rates of channel deepening and ebb-tidal delta growth both increased. Analysis of tidal flow measurements and model output show a persistent trend for sediment transport towards and out of the Eastern Scheldt's inlet. This export is caused by both the strong ebb-directed asymmetry in the tidal flow as well as higher sediment concentrations during ebb. The construction of the back-barrier dams only amplified this export by cutting off the residual import of flow and by causing the basin to be out of equilibrium even more than it apparently already was. References Van den Berg, J.H., 1986. Aspects of Sediment- and Morphodynamics of Subtidal Deposits of the Oosterschelde (the Netherlands). Rijkswaterstaat Communications, no. 43/1986, The Hague.

  4. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  5. Fast hydrodynamic model for medium- and long-term dispersion in seawater in the English Channel and southern North Sea, qualitative and quantitative validation by radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Bois, P. Bailly; Dumas, F.

    The database for medium- and long-term model validation using 125Sb released by the La Hague reprocessing plant includes 1400 measurements performed between 1987 and 1994 in the English Channel and the North Sea and data for each release since 1982. Antimony-125 has a conservative behaviour in water masses over a period of several years. These data can be used qualitatively and quantitatively to compare the measured concentrations with the calculated ones and quantities of tracers. Tritium measurements are also available for model calibration. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been developed to allow repetitive long-term simulations. This model uses a database of residual tidal currents calculated using the Lagrangian barycentric method [Salomon, J.C., Guéguéniat, P., Orbi, A., Baron, Y., 1988. A Lagrangian model for long-term tidally induced transport and mixing. Verification by artificial radionuclide concentrations. In: Guary, J.C., Guéguéniat, P., Pentreath, R.J. (Eds.), Radionuclides: A Tool for Oceanography, Cherbourg 1-5 June, 1987. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, New York, pp. 384-394]. The area covered by the model includes the English Channel, the southern North Sea and the Irish Sea with a mesh size of 1 km. The main adjustment parameters of this model are the sources of wind data used and the calculation method for evaluating wind stress at the sea surface. With these parameters, the fluxes of radionuclides and water masses in the English Channel and the North Sea were balanced for the whole period of field measurements (1987-1994). The correlation factor between individual measurements in seawater and calculation results is 0.88 with an average error of ±54%, the error attributable to the measurement process being 15% on average. The mean flux through the Dover Strait is 126,000 m 3 s -1, close from the one obtained from previous studies [Salomon, J.C., Breton, M., Guéguéniat, P. 1993. Computed residual flow through the Dover

  6. Effect of electrical stimulation of the lower esophageal sphincter in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients refractory to proton pump inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Soffer, Edy; Rodríguez, Leonardo; Rodriguez, Patricia; Gómez, Beatriz; Neto, Manoel G; Crowell, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of lower esophageal sphincter (LES)-electrical stimulation therapy (EST) in a subgroup of patients that reported only partial response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) therapy, compared to a group of patient with complete response. METHODS: Bipolar stitch electrodes were laparoscopically placed in the LES and connected to an implantable pulse generator (EndoStim BV, the Hague, the Netherlands), placed subcutaneously in the anterior abdominal wall. Stimulation at 20 Hz, 215 μsec, 3-8 mAmp in 30 min sessions was delivered starting on day 1 post-implant. Patients were evaluated using gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-HRQL, symptom diaries; esophageal pH and esophageal manometry before and up to 24 mo after therapy and results were compared between partial and complete responders. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with GERD on LES-EST were enrolled and received continuous per-protocol stimulation through 12 mo and 21 patients completed 24 mo of therapy. Of the 23 patients, 16 (8 male, mean age 52.1 ± 12 years) had incomplete response to PPIs prior to LES-EST, while 7 patients (5 male, mean age 52.7 ± 4.7) had complete response to PPIs. In the sub-group with incomplete response to PPIs, median (IQR) composite GERD-HRQL score improved significantly from 9.5 (9.0-10.0) at baseline on-PPI and 24.0 (20.8-26.3) at baseline off-PPI to 2.5 (0.0-4.0) at 12-mo and 0.0 (0.0-2.5) at 24-mo follow-up (P < 0.05 compared to on-and off-PPI at baseline). Median (IQR) % 24-h esophageal pH < 4.0 at baseline in this sub-group improved significantly from 9.8% (7.8-11.5) at baseline to 3.0% (1.9-6.3) at 12 mo (P < 0.001) and 4.6% (2.0-5.8) at 24 mo follow-up (P < 0.01). At their 24-mo follow-up, 9/11 patients in this sub-group were completely free of PPI use. These results were comparable to the sub-group that reported complete response to PPI therapy at baseline. No unanticipated implantation or stimulation-related adverse events, or any untoward sensation

  7. HLW Return from France to Germany - 15 Years of Experience in Public Acceptance and Technical Aspects - 12149

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Wilhelm

    2012-07-01

    Since in 1984 the national reprocessing concept was abandoned the reprocessing abroad was the only existing disposal route until 1994. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 2001 spent fuel management changed completely since from 1 June 2005 any delivery of spent fuel to reprocessing plants was prohibited and the direct disposal of spent fuel became mandatory. Until 2005 the total amount of spent fuel to be reprocessed abroad added up to 6080 t HM, 5309 t HM thereof in France. The waste generated from reprocessing - alternatively an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin according to the commercial contracts signed between the German utilities and COGEMA, now AREVA NC, in France and BNFL, now INS in UK. In addition the German and the French government exchanged notes with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents to Germany. The return of high active vitrified waste from La Hague to the interim storage facility at Gorleben was demanding from the technical view i. e. the cask design and the transport. Unfortunately the Gorleben area served as a target for nuclear opponents from the first transport in 1996 to the latest one in 2011. The protection against sabotage of the railway lines and mass protests needed highly improved security measures. In France and Germany special working forces and projects have been set up to cope with this extraordinary situation. A complex transport organization was established to involve all parties in line with the German and French requirements during transport. The last transport of vitrified residues from France has been completed successfully so far thus confirming the efficiency of the applied measures. Over 15 years there was and still is worldwide no comparable situation it is still unique. Summing up, the exceptional project handling challenge that resulted from the continuous anti-nuclear civil disobedience in

  8. A comparison of specific surface area and crystallization kinetics in compact and porous amorphous solid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, V. J.; Mate, B.; Roriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Galvez, O.; Moreno, M. A.; Escribano, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    -16455. RE acknowledges Sabbatical grant PR2010-0012 from the same Ministry, at Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z1, Canada. YRL acknowledges also funding from the CSIC JAE-doc program and OG from the CSIC JAE-doc and MCINN RyC programs. [1] a) Kouchi, A., Yamamoto, 1195, Progr. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 83, b) Baragiola R. A. 2003, Planet. Space Sci., 51, 953, c) Raut, U. et al. 2008, ApJ, 687, 1070. [2] a) Maté, B. et al. 2009, ApJL, 703, L178. b) Gálvez, O. et al., 2010, ApJ, 724, 539 [3] Loerting, T. et al. 2011 PCCP, 13, 8783. [4] Hague, W. et al. 1994, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 2743.

  9. Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salvatores; G. Palmiotti

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, numerous studies have been performed in order to identify appropriate “Partitioning and Transmutation” (P&T) strategies, aiming to the reduction of the burden on a geological storage (see, among many others, Salvatores, 2005). P&T strategies are very powerful and unique tools to reduce drastically the radiotoxicity level of the wastes and to reduce the time needed to reach the reference level (from ~100,000 years to few hundred years, i.e. comparable to the period in which technological and engineering means allow reasonably to control the radioactivity confinement). Moreover, P&T allows, in principle, also the reduction of the residual heat in a geological repository, with a potential significant impact on the repository size and characteristics. The first requirement of P&T strategies is the deployment of spent fuel reprocessing techniques (aqueous or dry), which are both in the continuity of today technologies (e.g. as implemented at La Hague in France, where Pu is separated up to 99.9 %) or which represent innovative, adapted approaches (e.g. pyrochemistry). The requirement is to extend the performance of Pu separation to 99.9 % also to Np, Am and Cm kept together or separated and in any case decontaminated from the lanthanides as much as possible. The separated TRU should then be “transmuted” (or “burned”) in a neutron field. The essential mechanism is to fission them, transforming them into much shorter lived or stable fission products. However, the fission process is always in competition with other processes, and, in particular, with neutron capture, which does eliminate isotope A, but transforms it into isotope A+1, which can still be radioactive. Isotope A+1 can in turn be fissioned or transmuted into isotope A+2, and so on. The neutron field has to be provided by a fission reactor. The requirement for this (dedicated) reactor is to be able to privilege the fission process with respect to the capture process and to be able

  10. A Rinsing Effluent Evaporator for Dismantling Operations - 13271

    SciTech Connect

    Rives, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    foam were produced, affecting the evaporator operation, and creating the risk of a reduction in its capacity and throughput performance. A task force of AREVA process, operations, and safety experts from Marcoule and the La Hague reprocessing complex was assembled. New operating parameters were defined and tested to improve the process. Since then, the evaporator has performed very satisfactorily. The foam buildup phenomenon has been brought under complete control. All the different types of effluents produced during cleanup operations have been concentrated, and the results obtained in terms of quality and throughput, have ensured a consistent supply to the vitrification unit. The evaporator was operated until the end of April 2012, and enabled the production of 500 cubic meters of very high activity effluent, concentrating the fission products rinsed from the storage tanks. The evaporator will now be deactivated and decommissioned, with the first rinsing and cleanup operations scheduled to begin in 2014. (authors)

  11. Artistic Research on Freedom in Space and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.; Schelfhout, Ronald; Gelfand, Dmitry; Van der Heide, Edwin; Preusterink, Jolanda; Domnitch, Evelina

    which light manipulating machines continuously alter the projected image. Development: In order to delve deeper into the subject of freedom in space and science this setup can serve as a vantage point. And it can offer an interactive environment to explore notions of freedom in space and science. The addition of a specific environment around and above the installation, referring to the fabric of space would highly increase the impact it has on an audience. You would then be able to immerse yourself in the world of this settlement, somewhere in outer space. Sound, light and projection screens will orbit the table changing the projections even more. Triggering the imagination with every movement. Results: Freedome has been exhibited at TecArt in Rotterdam, at ILEWG/Artscience day and the Lunar conference at ESTEC in February 2014. The images underneath (courtesy J. Preusterink BH Foing) depict the installation in some ways it can be experienced http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qn8DHARrlU (images: Jolanda Preusterink and Bernard Foing, from ILEWG/ESTEC/ArtScience-The Hague workshop Space Science in the Arts) Authors: Ronald Schelfhout, Bernard Foing, Evelina Domnitch, Dmitry Gelfand, Edwin van der Heide, Jolanda Preusterink

  12. Determination of Groundwater Velocity and Dispersion Parameters by Borehole Wall Multielectrode Geoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2007-05-01

    measurements and vertical four point electrode interpretations. The transport equation for NaCl-tracered water is the basic rule to determine the groundwater transport velocity. Numerical calculations to simulate the measurement are carried out with the program FEFLOW. Due to the density contrast, the tracer undergoes vertical movement. Kessels, W., Zoth, G.(1998): Doppelmantel - Packer mit geoelektrischer Meßtechnik zur Bestimmung der Abstandsgeschwindigkeit des Grundwassers, Patent Az:19855048.0, GGA-Institut, Germany, Hannover. KESSELS, W., RIFAI, H., THORENZ, C., ZOTH, G.(2002): Multi Electrode Geoelectric on the Borehole Wall- Determination of groundwater velocity and dispersion parameters, AGU spring meeting, Washington KESSELS, W., ZOTH, G., WONIK, T., FULDA, C. (1999): THE USE OF SALT CARTRIDGES FOR FLUID LOGGING. XXIV GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF E.G.S. THE HAGUE, THE NETHERLANDS PANTELEIT,B., KESSELS, W., BINOT, F (2006): MUD TRACER TEST DURING SOFT ROCK DRILLING; W.R.R., VOL. 42, W11415, DOI:10.1029/2005WR004487

  13. Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Lisa A., (Edited By)

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park, rimmed by a crescent of older mountainous terrain, has at its core the Quaternary Yellowstone Plateau, an undulating landscape shaped by forces of volcanism, tectonism, and later glaciation. Its spectacular hydrothermal systems cap this landscape. From 1997 through 2003, the United States Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program conducted a multidisciplinary project of Yellowstone National Park entitled Integrated Geoscience Studies of the Greater Yellowstone Area, building on a 130-year foundation of extensive field studies (including the Hayden survey of 1871, the Hague surveys of the 1880s through 1896, the studies of Iddings, Allen, and Day during the 1920s, and NASA-supported studies starting in the 1970s - now summarized in USGS Professional Paper 729 A through G) in this geologically dynamic terrain. The project applied a broad range of scientific disciplines and state-of-the-art technologies targeted to improve stewardship of the unique natural resources of Yellowstone and enable the National Park Service to effectively manage resources, protect park visitors from geologic hazards, and better educate the public on geologic processes and resources. This project combined a variety of data sets in characterizing the surficial and subsurface chemistry, mineralogy, geology, geophysics, and hydrothermal systems in various parts of the park. The sixteen chapters presented herein in USGS Professional Paper 1717, Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem, can be divided into four major topical areas: (1) geologic studies, (2) Yellowstone Lake studies, (3) geochemical studies, and (4) geophysical studies. The geologic studies include a paper by Ken Pierce and others on the influence of the Yellowstone hotspot on landscape formation, the ecological effects of the hotspot, and the human experience and human geography of the greater

  14. ESTEC/Geovusie/ILEWG planetary student design workshop: a teacher training perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusterink, Jolanda; Foing, Bernard H.; Kaskes, Pim

    An important role for education is to inform and create the right skills for people to develop their own vision, using their talents to the utmost and inspire others to learn to explore in the future. Great effort has been taken to prepare this interactive design workshop thoroughly. Three days in a row, starting with presentations of Artscience The Hague to ESA colleagues, followed by a Planetary research Symposium in Amsterdam and a student design workshop at the end complemented a rich environment with the focus on Planetary exploration. The design workshop was organised by GeoVUsie students, with ESTEC and ILEWG support for tutors and inviting regional and international students to participate in an interactive workshop to design 5 Planetary Missions, with experts sharing their expertise and knowhow on specific challenging items: 1. Mercury - Post BepiColombo (with Sébastien Besse, ESA) 2. Moon South Pole Mission (with Bernard Foing, ESA) 3. Post-ExoMars - In search for Life on Mars (with Jorge Vago, ESA) 4. Humans in Space - Mars One investigated(with Arno Wielders, Space Horizon) 5. Europa - life on the icy moon of Jupiter? (with Bert Vermeersen, TU Delft) Lectures were given for more than 150 geology students at the symposium “Moon, Mars and More” at VU university, Amsterdam (organized by GeoVUsie earth science students). All students were provided with information before and at start for designing their mission. After the morning session there was a visit to the exhibition at The Erasmus Facility - ESTEC to inspire them even more with real artifacts of earlier and future missions into space. After this visit they prepared their final presentations, with original results, with innovative ideas and a good start to work out further in the future. A telescope session for geology students had been organized indoor due to rain. A follow-up visit to the nearby public Copernicus observatory was planned for another clear sky occasion. The interactive character

  15. Editorial: Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Pfau, T.; Schmelcher, P.; Schleich, W.

    2010-06-01

    Couvert, B Georgeot and D Guéry-Odelin Analysis of the entanglement between two individual atoms using global Raman rotations A Gaëtan, C Evellin, J Wolters, P Grangier, T Wilk and A Browaeys Spin polarization transfer in ground and metastable helium atom collisions D Vrinceanu and H R Sadeghpour A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse D Hunger, T Steinmetz, Y Colombe, C Deutsch, T W Hänsch and J Reichel Atomic wave packets in amplitude-modulated vertical optical lattices A Alberti, G Ferrari, V V Ivanov, M L Chiofalo and G M Tino Atom interferometry with trapped Bose-Einstein condensates: impact of atom-atom interactions Julian Grond, Ulrich Hohenester, Igor Mazets and Jörg Schmiedmayer Storage of protonated water clusters in a biplanar multipole rf trap C Greve, M Kröner, S Trippel, P Woias, R Wester and M Weidemüller Single-atom detection on a chip: from realization to application A Stibor, H Bender, S Kühnhold, J Fortágh, C Zimmermann and A Günther Ultracold atoms as a target: absolute scattering cross-section measurements P Würtz, T Gericke, A Vogler and H Ott Entanglement-assisted atomic clock beyond the projection noise limit Anne Louchet-Chauvet, Jürgen Appel, Jelmer J Renema, Daniel Oblak, Niels Kjaergaard and Eugene S Polzik Towards the realization of atom trap trace analysis for 39Ar J Welte, F Ritterbusch, I Steinke, M Henrich, W Aeschbach-Hertig and M K Oberthaler Resonant superfluidity in an optical lattice I Titvinidze, M Snoek and W Hofstetter Interference of interacting matter waves Mattias Gustavsson, Elmar Haller, Manfred J Mark, Johann G Danzl, Russell Hart, Andrew J Daley and Hanns-Christoph Nägerl Magnetic trapping of NH molecules with 20 s lifetimes E Tsikata, W C Campbell, M T Hummon, H-I Lu and J M Doyle Imprinting patterns of neutral atoms in an optical lattice using magnetic resonance techniques Michal Karski, Leonid Förster, Jai-Min Choi, Andreas Steffen, Noomen Belmechri, Wolfgang Alt, Dieter Meschede and Artur Widera

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Visualization in Physics FOCUS ON VISUALIZATION IN PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Barry C.; Senden, Tim; Springel, Volker

    2008-12-01

    the following features highlighting work in this collection and other novel uses of visualization techniques: 'A feast of visualization' Physics World December 2008 pp 20 23 'Seeing the quantum world' by Barry Sanders Physics World December 2008 pp 24 27 'A picture of the cosmos' by Mark SubbaRao and Miguel Aragon-Calvo Physics World December 2008 pp 29 32 'Thinking outside the cube' by César A Hidalgo Physics World December 2008 pp 34 37 Focus on Visualization in Physics Contents Visualization of spiral and scroll waves in simulated and experimental cardiac tissue E M Cherry and F H Fenton Visualization of large scale structure from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey M U SubbaRao, M A Aragón-Calvo, H W Chen, J M Quashnock, A S Szalay and D G York How computers can help us in creating an intuitive access to relativity Hanns Ruder, Daniel Weiskopf, Hans-Peter Nollert and Thomas Müller Lagrangian particle tracking in three dimensions via single-camera in-line digital holography Jiang Lu, Jacob P Fugal, Hansen Nordsiek, Ewe Wei Saw, Raymond A Shaw and Weidong Yang Quantifying spatial heterogeneity from images Andrew E Pomerantz and Yi-Qiao Song Disaggregation and scientific visualization of earthscapes considering trends and spatial dependence structures S Grunwald Strength through structure: visualization and local assessment of the trabecular bone structure C Räth, R Monetti, J Bauer, I Sidorenko, D Müller, M Matsuura, E-M Lochmüller, P Zysset and F Eckstein Thermonuclear supernovae: a multi-scale astrophysical problem challenging numerical simulations and visualization F K Röpke and R Bruckschen Visualization needs and techniques for astrophysical simulations W Kapferer and T Riser Flow visualization and field line advection in computational fluid dynamics: application to magnetic fields and turbulent flows Pablo Mininni, Ed Lee, Alan Norton and John Clyne Splotch: visualizing cosmological simulations K Dolag, M Reinecke, C Gheller and S Imboden Visualizing a silicon

  17. PREFACE: 30th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Lebedev, S.

    2003-12-01

    , Helsinki University, Finland B Sharkov, ITEP Moscow, Russian Federation V Smirnov, Kurchatov Institute Moscow, Russian Federation W Suttrop, IPP Garching, Germany C Varandas, IST Lisbon, Portugal F Wagner, Chair EPS-PPD, IPP Greifswald, Germany H R Wilson, UKAEA Abingdon, UK This committee selected 30 invited talks, in which the speakers were asked to address the general audience of plasma physicists and to exert their didactic skills. Out of the contributed papers, in total, 92 oral presentations were selected and distributed over parallel topical sessions. The other contributed papers (743) were presented as posters. The conference was attended by more than 700 participants from 41 countries. A major event during the conference was the award of the Hannes Alfv\\'en Prize to Professor V E Fortov who gave a spectacular lecture on non-ideal plasmas. The associated paper is included in this special issue. Following the tradition of this conference series, four-page summaries of the contributed papers are published as the Europhysics Conference Abstracts series, volume 27A. The publication is in the form of a CD-ROM sent free of charge to all participants and is also accessible via the website: http://www.ioffe.ru/EPS2003/. This special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion contains papers of the invited talks at this conference. These papers have been assessed according to the standards of the journal and examined by referees selected from or by the members of the International Programme Committee. We are proud to provide, in this special issue, an overview of the forefront research in all major fields of plasma physics, through a set of papers accessible to the general audience of plasma physicists. The selection of this set of papers has been the work of the Programme Committee, and we would like to express our gratitude to all of its members for this successful selection. We are grateful to all authors for their efforts in providing high quality papers combining

  18. Editorial: Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Pfau, T.; Schmelcher, P.; Schleich, W.

    2010-06-01

    Couvert, B Georgeot and D Guéry-Odelin Analysis of the entanglement between two individual atoms using global Raman rotations A Gaëtan, C Evellin, J Wolters, P Grangier, T Wilk and A Browaeys Spin polarization transfer in ground and metastable helium atom collisions D Vrinceanu and H R Sadeghpour A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse D Hunger, T Steinmetz, Y Colombe, C Deutsch, T W Hänsch and J Reichel Atomic wave packets in amplitude-modulated vertical optical lattices A Alberti, G Ferrari, V V Ivanov, M L Chiofalo and G M Tino Atom interferometry with trapped Bose-Einstein condensates: impact of atom-atom interactions Julian Grond, Ulrich Hohenester, Igor Mazets and Jörg Schmiedmayer Storage of protonated water clusters in a biplanar multipole rf trap C Greve, M Kröner, S Trippel, P Woias, R Wester and M Weidemüller Single-atom detection on a chip: from realization to application A Stibor, H Bender, S Kühnhold, J Fortágh, C Zimmermann and A Günther Ultracold atoms as a target: absolute scattering cross-section measurements P Würtz, T Gericke, A Vogler and H Ott Entanglement-assisted atomic clock beyond the projection noise limit Anne Louchet-Chauvet, Jürgen Appel, Jelmer J Renema, Daniel Oblak, Niels Kjaergaard and Eugene S Polzik Towards the realization of atom trap trace analysis for 39Ar J Welte, F Ritterbusch, I Steinke, M Henrich, W Aeschbach-Hertig and M K Oberthaler Resonant superfluidity in an optical lattice I Titvinidze, M Snoek and W Hofstetter Interference of interacting matter waves Mattias Gustavsson, Elmar Haller, Manfred J Mark, Johann G Danzl, Russell Hart, Andrew J Daley and Hanns-Christoph Nägerl Magnetic trapping of NH molecules with 20 s lifetimes E Tsikata, W C Campbell, M T Hummon, H-I Lu and J M Doyle Imprinting patterns of neutral atoms in an optical lattice using magnetic resonance techniques Michal Karski, Leonid Förster, Jai-Min Choi, Andreas Steffen, Noomen Belmechri, Wolfgang Alt, Dieter Meschede and Artur Widera

  19. Special issue on current research in astrophysical magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, Alexander; Lundstedt, Henrik; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-06-01

    Much of what Hannes Alfvén envisaged some 70 years ago has now penetrated virtually all branches of astrophysical research. Indeed, magnetic fields can display similar properties over a large range of scales. We have therefore been able to take advantage of the transparency of galaxies and the interstellar medium to obtain measurements inside them. On the other hand, the Sun is much closer, allowing us to obtain a detailed picture of the interaction of flows and magnetic fields at the surface, and more recently in the interior by helioseismology. Moreover, the solar timescales are generally much shorter, making studies of dynamical processes more direct. This special issue on current research in astrophysical magnetism is based on work discussed during a one month Nordita program Dynamo, Dynamical Systems and Topology and comprises papers that fall into four different categories (A)-(D). (A) Papers on small-scale magnetic fields and flows in astrophysics 1. E M de Gouveia Dal Pino, M R M Leão, R Santos-Lima, G Guerrero, G Kowal and A Lazarian Magnetic flux transport by turbulent reconnection in astrophysical flows 2. Philip R Goode, Valentyna Abramenko and Vasyl Yurchyshyn New solar telescope in Big Bear: evidence for super-diffusivity and small-scale solar dynamos? 3. I N Kitiashvili, A G Kosovichev, N N Mansour, S K Lele and A A Wray Vortex tubes of turbulent solar convection The above collection of papers begins with a review of astrophysical reconnection and introduces the concept of dynamos necessary to explain the existence of contemporary magnetic fields both on galactic and solar scales (paper 1). This is complemented by observations with the new Big Bear Solar Observatory telescope, allowing us to see magnetic field amplification on small scales (paper 2). This in turn is complemented by realistic simulations of subsurface and surface flow patterns (paper 3). (B) Papers on theoretical approaches to turbulent fluctuations 4. Nathan Kleeorin and Igor

  20. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emory Howell, J.

    1999-11-01

    many of our readers. The High School/College Interface Luncheon was part of the very rich day-long High School Program at the New Orleans ACS Meeting. Shown here (from left) are Glenn Crosby, the luncheon speaker; Lillie Tucker-Akin, the High School Day program chair; and Fred Johnson, Assistant Superintendent of Shelby County (TN) schools and Immediate Past President of NSTA. The recipient of the James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching is Frank G. Cardulla, who taught for many years at Niles North High School, Skokie, Illinois. His extensive record of service to fellow teachers includes editing the JCE "View from My Classroom" feature for several years and writing several articles, as well as his recent appointment to the JCE Board of Publication. The recipient of the George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education is Jerry A. Bell of the American Chemical Society in Washington, DC. An author of numerous articles appearing in JCE and a member of the JCE Board of Publication for several years, he currently serves as Board Chair. The 16th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education Readers who attended the 15th BCCE in Waterloo, Ontario, know that much of the programming at these conferences is of interest to high school teachers. Many work shops, papers, and demonstrations are presented by high school teachers. There are many other outstanding papers and posters, plenary speakers, and exciting demonstrations. The 16th BCCE will be held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, July 30-August 3, 2000. Among the high school teachers already scheduled to present workshops at the 16th BCCE are George Hague, Lynn Hershey, and Jack Randall, and there will be many more before the program is completed. The High School Chemistry Program Chair is Tim Graham, Roosevelt High School (MI). The Organizing Committee is seeking the assistance of local sections of the American Chemical Society

  1. Dedication: phys. stat. sol. (a) 202/15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The papers in this issue are dedicated to Professor Horst Paul Strunk on the occasion of his 65th birthday and his retirement from active teaching. This volume honours a scientist who has made a lasting impact on the field in electron microscopic characterisation of growth and relaxation phenomena in epitaxial growth of semiconductors. Born in The Hague, The Netherlands, on 13 June 1940, he studied physics in Stuttgart where he received his degree in Physics in 1968. He joined the group of Prof. Seeger at the Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung and defended his Ph.D. on defects in NaCl at Stuttgart University in 1973. He spent one year at Cornell University as a visiting Professor before joining Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg in 1983. There he created the Zentralbereich Elektronenmikroskopie and was a professor for materials analytics from 1983 till 1989. In 1989 he changed to the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, where he established the Verbundlabor für hochauflösende Elektronenmikroskopie and directed the Lehrstuhl Mikrocharakterisierung at the Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaften of the same university. He spent two research periods at the Universities of Rennes in France and Campinas in Brazil. Together with his colleague Prof. Jürgen Werner he created the series of conferences on polycrystalline semiconductors POLYSE which he has been supervising together with Jürgen Werner since 1990.The research activities of Horst P. Strunk are focused on microstructure of materials and their relation to macroscopic physical properties. Main topics are dislocations, their formation and interaction mechanisms, strain relaxation as well as fundamental mechanisms of epitaxial growth. The spectrum of materials covers a wide range starting from metals over ionic crystals, e.g. NaCl to elemental and compound semiconductors. From the beginning, the main tool of study has been the transmission electron microscope. However, Horst P. Strunk recognised that a

  2. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-06-01

    to plan on attending an outstanding program put together by Lillie Tucker Akin and her committee. Watch the Journal for program and registration information. Glenn Seaborg Memorial Periodic Table Quilt Raffle Harvey Gendreau of Framingham High School, MA, reports that Barbara McCarty, award-winning quilter and president of the Wayside Quilters Guild, has made a wall-sized periodic table quilt to honor the memory of Glenn Seaborg. The quilt will be raffled at ChemEd99 and funds from the raffle will be used to defray conference costs. The quilt is 2.5 meters wide by 1.5 meters high and the element squares are 13 cm on each side. Each of the 109 element squares contains the appliqué of the symbol and has stenciling for its atomic number and mass. The major periodic families are color coded and the border fabric has an eye-catching symbolic atom design. Nine colors for the elements include royal blue, deep purple, lilac, pink, burgundy and gold. The element square for seaborgium, atomic number 106, has been autographed by Glenn T. Seaborg. A certificate of authenticity will accompany the quilt. This is a unique opportunity to win a classroom (or home) art treasure. Each ticket is 2 or a book of 3 is 5. Tickets may be purchased on the ChemEd99 registration form and will be included in your conference packet. The quilt will be on display at the exposition hall and additional tickets can be purchased at the Unlimited Potential booth. Drawing will be on Wednesday, August 4th, in the expo area when door prizes are announced. You need not be present to win. Information about ChemEd99 may be obtained online at http://www.sacredheart.edu/chemed/. 1999 CMA Catalyst Awards Special congratulations to the High School and Pre-High School award recipients. National Winners are George R. Hague, Dallas, TX, and Wayne Goates, Goddard, KS. Regional winners are Rhonda Lynn Reist, Olathe, KS, and Anne Marie Holbrook, Cincinnati, OH. A complete list of the awardees, including the post

  3. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-06-01

    to plan on attending an outstanding program put together by Lillie Tucker Akin and her committee. Watch the Journal for program and registration information. Glenn Seaborg Memorial Periodic Table Quilt Raffle Harvey Gendreau of Framingham High School, MA, reports that Barbara McCarty, award-winning quilter and president of the Wayside Quilters Guild, has made a wall-sized periodic table quilt to honor the memory of Glenn Seaborg. The quilt will be raffled at ChemEd99 and funds from the raffle will be used to defray conference costs. The quilt is 2.5 meters wide by 1.5 meters high and the element squares are 13 cm on each side. Each of the 109 element squares contains the appliqué of the symbol and has stenciling for its atomic number and mass. The major periodic families are color coded and the border fabric has an eye-catching symbolic atom design. Nine colors for the elements include royal blue, deep purple, lilac, pink, burgundy and gold. The element square for seaborgium, atomic number 106, has been autographed by Glenn T. Seaborg. A certificate of authenticity will accompany the quilt. This is a unique opportunity to win a classroom (or home) art treasure. Each ticket is 2 or a book of 3 is 5. Tickets may be purchased on the ChemEd99 registration form and will be included in your conference packet. The quilt will be on display at the exposition hall and additional tickets can be purchased at the Unlimited Potential booth. Drawing will be on Wednesday, August 4th, in the expo area when door prizes are announced. You need not be present to win. Information about ChemEd99 may be obtained online at http://www.sacredheart.edu/chemed/. 1999 CMA Catalyst Awards Special congratulations to the High School and Pre-High School award recipients. National Winners are George R. Hague, Dallas, TX, and Wayne Goates, Goddard, KS. Regional winners are Rhonda Lynn Reist, Olathe, KS, and Anne Marie Holbrook, Cincinnati, OH. A complete list of the awardees, including the post

  4. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emory Howell, J.

    1999-11-01

    many of our readers. The High School/College Interface Luncheon was part of the very rich day-long High School Program at the New Orleans ACS Meeting. Shown here (from left) are Glenn Crosby, the luncheon speaker; Lillie Tucker-Akin, the High School Day program chair; and Fred Johnson, Assistant Superintendent of Shelby County (TN) schools and Immediate Past President of NSTA. The recipient of the James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching is Frank G. Cardulla, who taught for many years at Niles North High School, Skokie, Illinois. His extensive record of service to fellow teachers includes editing the JCE "View from My Classroom" feature for several years and writing several articles, as well as his recent appointment to the JCE Board of Publication. The recipient of the George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education is Jerry A. Bell of the American Chemical Society in Washington, DC. An author of numerous articles appearing in JCE and a member of the JCE Board of Publication for several years, he currently serves as Board Chair. The 16th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education Readers who attended the 15th BCCE in Waterloo, Ontario, know that much of the programming at these conferences is of interest to high school teachers. Many work shops, papers, and demonstrations are presented by high school teachers. There are many other outstanding papers and posters, plenary speakers, and exciting demonstrations. The 16th BCCE will be held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, July 30-August 3, 2000. Among the high school teachers already scheduled to present workshops at the 16th BCCE are George Hague, Lynn Hershey, and Jack Randall, and there will be many more before the program is completed. The High School Chemistry Program Chair is Tim Graham, Roosevelt High School (MI). The Organizing Committee is seeking the assistance of local sections of the American Chemical Society

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cold and Ultracold Molecules FOCUS ON COLD AND ULTRACOLD MOLECULES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Ye, Jun

    2009-05-01

    Robin Côté Single-photon molecular cooling Edvardas Narevicius, S Travis Bannerman and Mark G Raizen Quantum simulations of extended Hubbard models with dipolar crystals M Ortner, A Micheli, G Pupillo and P Zoller Collisional and molecular spectroscopy in an ultracold Bose-Bose mixture G Thalhammer, G Barontini, J Catani, F Rabatti, C Weber, A Simoni, F Minardi and M Inguscio Multi-channel modelling of the formation of vibrationally cold polar KRb molecules Svetlana Kotochigova, Eite Tiesinga and Paul S Julienne Formation of ultracold, highly polar X1Σ+ NaCs molecules C Haimberger, J Kleinert, P Zabawa, A Wakim and N P Bigelow Quantum polarization spectroscopy of correlations in attractive fermionic gases T Roscilde, M Rodríguez, K Eckert, O Romero-Isart, M Lewenstein, E Polzik and A Sanpera Inelastic semiclassical collisions in cold dipolar gases Michael Cavagnero and Catherine Newell Quasi-universal dipolar scattering in cold and ultracold gases J L Bohn, M Cavagnero and C Ticknor Stark deceleration of lithium hydride molecules S K Tokunaga, J M Dyne, E A Hinds and M R Tarbutt Molecular vibrational cooling by optical pumping with shaped femtosecond pulses D Sofikitis, S Weber, A Fioretti, R Horchani, M Allegrini, B Chatel, D Comparat and P Pillet Deeply bound ultracold molecules in an optical lattice Johann G Danzl, Manfred J Mark, Elmar Haller, Mattias Gustavsson, Russell Hart, Andreas Liem, Holger Zellmer and Hanns-Christoph Nägerl Toward the production of quantum degenerate bosonic polar molecules, 41K87Rb K Aikawa, D Akamatsu, J Kobayashi, M Ueda, T Kishimoto and S Inouye Influence of a Feshbach resonance on the photoassociation of LiCs J Deiglmayr, P Pellegrini, A Grochola, M Repp, R Côté, O Dulieu, R Wester and M Weidemüller The kinematic cooling of molecules with laser-cooled atoms Ken Takase, Larry A Rahn, David W Chandler and Kevin E Strecker Coherent collapses of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates for different trap geometries J Metz, T Lahaye, B Fr

  6. Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainstein, Pablo D.; Lima, Marco Aurelio P.; Miraglia, Jorge E.; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2006-11-01

    ionization of fixed in space deuterium molecules / T. Weber ... [et al.]. Coherence and intramolecular scattering in molecular photoionization / U. Becker. Experimental observation of interatomic coulombic decay in neon dimers / T. Jahnke ... [et al.]. Ionization by short UV laser pulses: secondary ATI peaks of the electron spectrum / V. D. Rodríguez, E. Cormier and R. Gayet. Molecular frame photoemission in photoionization of H[symbol] and D[symbol]: the role of dissociation on autoionization of the Q[symbol] and Q[symbol] doubly excited states / D. Dowek, M. Lebech and J. C. Houver. 3p photoemission of 3d transition metals - atoms, molecules and clusters / M. Martins -- Collisions involving electrons. Spin-resolved collisions of electrons with atoms and molecules / G. F. Hanne. Calculation of ionization and excitation processes using the convergent close-coupling method / D. V. Fursa, I. Bray and A. T. Stelbovics. The B-spline R-matrix method for electron and photon collisions with atoms and ions / O. Zatsarinny and K. Bartschat. Absolute angle-differential cross sections for excitation of neon atoms electrons of energy 16.6-19.2 eV / M. Allan ... [et al.]. Studies of QED and nuclear size effects with highly charged ions in an EBIT / J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia ... [et al.]. Recombination of astrophysically relevant ions: Be-like C, N, and O / M. Fogle ... [et al.]. Dissociation and excitation of molecules and molecular ions by electron impact / A. E. Orel and J. Royal state-selective X-ray study of the radiative recombination of U[symbol] ions with cooling electrons / M. Pajek ... [et al.]. Electron collisions with trapped, metastable helium / L. J. Uhlmann ... [et al.]. Non-dipole effects in electron and photon impact ionization / N. L. S. Martin. Electron driven processes in atmospheric behaviour / L. Campbell, M. J. Brunger and P. J. 0. Teubner. Calculation of excitation and ionization for electron-molecule collisions at intermediate energies / J. D. Gorfinkiel

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Cryptography: Theory and Practice FOCUS ON QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: THEORY AND PRACTICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lütkenhaus, N.; Shields, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    superconducting single-photon detectors Lijun Ma, S Nam, Hai Xu, B Baek, Tiejun Chang, O Slattery, A Mink and Xiao Tang Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes Z L Yuan, A R Dixon, J F Dynes, A W Sharpe and A J Shields Simple security proof of quantum key distribution based on complementarity M Koashi Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution C Bonato, A Tomaello, V Da Deppo, G Naletto and P Villoresi Programmable instrumentation and gigahertz signaling for single-photon quantum communication systems Alan Mink, Joshua C Bienfang, Robert Carpenter, Lijun Ma, Barry Hershman, Alessandro Restelli and Xiao Tang Experimental polarization encoded quantum key distribution over optical fibres with real-time continuous birefringence compensation G B Xavier, N Walenta, G Vilela de Faria, G P Temporão, N Gisin, H Zbinden and J P von der Weid Feasibility of free space quantum key distribution with coherent polarization states D Elser, T Bartley, B Heim, Ch Wittmann, D Sych and G Leuchs A fully automated entanglement-based quantum cryptography system for telecom fiber networks Alexander Treiber, Andreas Poppe, Michael Hentschel, Daniele Ferrini, Thomas Lorünser, Edwin Querasser, Thomas Matyus, Hannes Hübel and Anton Zeilinger Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments N A Peters, P Toliver, T E Chapuran, R J Runser, S R McNown, C G Peterson, D Rosenberg, N Dallmann, R J Hughes, K P McCabe, J E Nordholt and K T Tyagi Clock synchronization by remote detection of correlated photon pairs Caleb Ho, Antía Lamas-Linares and Christian Kurtsiefer Megabits secure key rate quantum key distribution Q Zhang, H Takesue, T Honjo, K Wen, T Hirohata, M Suyama, Y Takiguchi, H Kamada, Y Tokura, O Tadanaga, Y Nishida, M Asobe and Y Yamamoto Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels D Rosenberg, C G Peterson, J W Harrington, P R Rice, N Dallmann, K T Tyagi, K P

  8. Front Matter.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    transformative effect on healthcare, allowing medicine and patient management to evolve from a discrete encounter-based process to a continuous patient-empowering management. This requires an adequate answer from traditionally organised healthcare, which will have to find ways to address new challenges related to respect for consumer privacy, cyber security and data integrity. STC 2016 deals with the convergence of a process originally fuelled by technical and scientific forces, and the current political forces driven by the sustainability agenda of health and social care. This emphasises the process to humanise the individual who is more and more connected and surrounded by the IoT. Our ambition is to concentrate on this debate and create a platform for these different dimensions of this unstoppable development. As a conclusion, we quote the Blue Line Statement presented at the 31th PCSI Conference in The Hague on October 16th 2015 in order to emphasise the transition of health and social care systems and the shift from care to citizen-driven health: In order to achieve meaningful improvements in the health of the population, it is essential to understand the combination of health and social care issues for people. This requires health and social care systems to be interoperable, both from a technological and semantic point of view. Care should be aligned around the person and strive for social interoperability between the professions serving them, and systems must be designed with empathy and respect as core underpinning values. The pillars of the Blue Line model represent key principles for the design and delivery of person-centred, integrated care systems. We encourage policymakers and health system leaders to adopt these principles and create the societal incentive framework to enable this vision to be realised. The Village Track participants of the PCSI Conference recommend that further support be sought to continuously develop and formalise the Blue Line principles as