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Sample records for hans henriksen ussing

  1. Hans H. Ussing--scientific work: contemporary significance and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-11-13

    As a zoologist, Hans H. Ussing began his scientific career by studying the marine plankton fauna in East Greenland. This brought him in contact with August Krogh at the time George de Hevesy, Niels Bohr and Krogh planned the application of artificial radioactive isotopes for studying the dynamic state of the living organism. Following his studies of protein turnover of body tissues with deuterium-labeled amino acids, Ussing initiated a new era of studies of transport across epithelial membranes. Theoretical difficulties in the interpretation of tracer fluxes resulted in novel concepts such as exchange diffusion, unidirectional fluxes, flux-ratio equation, and solvent drag. Combining methods of biophysics with radioactive isotope technology, Ussing introduced and defined the phrases 'short-circuit current', 'active transport pathway' and 'shunt pathway', and with frog skin as experimental model, he unambiguously proved active transport of sodium ions. Conceived in his electric circuit analogue of frog skin, Ussing associated transepithelial ion fluxes with the hitherto puzzling 'bioelectric potentials'. The two-membrane hypothesis of frog skin initiated the study of epithelial transport at the cellular level and raised new questions about cellular mechanisms of actions of hormones and drugs. His theoretical treatment of osmotic water fluxes versus fluxes of deuterium labeled water resulted in the discovery of epithelial water channels. His discovery of paracellular transport in frog skin bridged studies of high and low resistance epithelia and generalized the description of epithelial transport. He devoted the last decade of his scientific life to solute-coupled water transport. He introduced the sodium recirculation theory of isotonic transport, and in an experimental study, he obtained the evidence for recirculation of sodium ions in toad small intestine. In penetrating analyses of essential aspects of epithelial membrane transport, Ussing provided insights of

  2. Obituary: Soren W. Henriksen (1916-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chovitz, Bernard

    2011-12-01

    Soren Werner Henriksen, one of the first to apply space age data to the mapping sciences, died September 5, 2011, at the age of 95. He was a polymath in the fields of geodesy, surveying, photogrammetry, cartography, and astronomy, his culminating achievement being "Glossary of the Mapping Sciences" a 581 page compendium published in 1994. Soren was born in New York, New York, on August 5, 1916, and grew up in Chicago, Illinois. In 1938 he joined the Illinois National Guard, and transferred in 1941 to the U. S. Army. He served until August 1945, after being severely wounded in the Philippines that summer. He entered the Illinois Institute of Technology next year, earning a Bachelor's degree in 1949 in mathematics. A Master's degree from the University of Illinois in 1950, continuing in mathematics, followed. The U. S. Army Map Service (AMS), a component of the Army Corps of Engineers, was actively recruiting mathematicians at that time. The exigencies of the Cold War required improvements in knowledge of the figure of the Earth, intercontinental connections, and the Earth's gravity field. Soren joined AMS in 1951 and was assigned to the Occultation Section of the Research and Analysis Branch in the Geodetic Division. This was his fortuitous introduction to professional astronomy. He was lucky to have a first-rate mentor in John O'Keefe (BAAS, 2000. 32, 1683), the head of the Branch, whose expertise lay in the application of astronomical methods for position determination, in particular, lunar occultations and solar eclipses. Soren rapidly applied his mathematical skills to this area, and in 1955 was promoted to Chief of the Section. In addition to his operational duties of analyzing and reducing observational data, he authored the definitive manual on the subject: "The Application of Occultations to Geodesy," published as AMS Technical Report 46 in 1962. Well before the first artificial satellite launch in 1957 O'Keefe had realized the tremendous advantage of

  3. Obituary: Soren W. Henriksen (1916-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chovitz, Bernard

    2011-12-01

    Soren Werner Henriksen, one of the first to apply space age data to the mapping sciences, died September 5, 2011, at the age of 95. He was a polymath in the fields of geodesy, surveying, photogrammetry, cartography, and astronomy, his culminating achievement being "Glossary of the Mapping Sciences" a 581 page compendium published in 1994. Soren was born in New York, New York, on August 5, 1916, and grew up in Chicago, Illinois. In 1938 he joined the Illinois National Guard, and transferred in 1941 to the U. S. Army. He served until August 1945, after being severely wounded in the Philippines that summer. He entered the Illinois Institute of Technology next year, earning a Bachelor's degree in 1949 in mathematics. A Master's degree from the University of Illinois in 1950, continuing in mathematics, followed. The U. S. Army Map Service (AMS), a component of the Army Corps of Engineers, was actively recruiting mathematicians at that time. The exigencies of the Cold War required improvements in knowledge of the figure of the Earth, intercontinental connections, and the Earth's gravity field. Soren joined AMS in 1951 and was assigned to the Occultation Section of the Research and Analysis Branch in the Geodetic Division. This was his fortuitous introduction to professional astronomy. He was lucky to have a first-rate mentor in John O'Keefe (BAAS, 2000. 32, 1683), the head of the Branch, whose expertise lay in the application of astronomical methods for position determination, in particular, lunar occultations and solar eclipses. Soren rapidly applied his mathematical skills to this area, and in 1955 was promoted to Chief of the Section. In addition to his operational duties of analyzing and reducing observational data, he authored the definitive manual on the subject: "The Application of Occultations to Geodesy," published as AMS Technical Report 46 in 1962. Well before the first artificial satellite launch in 1957 O'Keefe had realized the tremendous advantage of

  4. Beyond Ussing's chambers: contemporary thoughts on integration of transepithelial transport.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Jeremy R; Turner, Jerrold R

    2016-03-15

    In the mid-20th century, Hans Ussing developed a chamber that allowed for the simultaneous measurement of current and labeled probe flux across epithelia. Using frog skin as a model, Ussing used his results to propose mechanisms of transcellular Na(+) and K(+) transport across apical (exterior/luminal) and basolateral (interior) membranes that is essentially unchanged today. Others took advantage of Ussing's chambers to study mucosal tissues, including bladder and intestines. It quickly became clear that, in some tissues, passive paracellular flux, i.e., across the tight junction, was an important component of overall transepithelial transport. Subsequent work demonstrated that activation of the apical Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 regulated paracellular permeability such that intestinal paracellular transport could coordinate with and amplify transcellular transport. Intermediates in this process include activation of p38 MAPK, the apical Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE3, and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Investigators then focused on these processes in disease. They found that TNF induces barrier dysfunction via MLCK activation and downstream caveolin-1-dependent endocytosis of the tight junction protein occludin. TNF also inhibited NHE3, and both barrier loss and PKCα-dependent NHE3 inhibition were required for TNF-induced acute diarrhea, emphasizing the interplay between transcellular and paracellular transport. Finally, studies using immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease models showed that mice lacking epithelial MLCK were initially protected, but became ill as epithelial damage progressed and provided a tight junction-independent means of barrier loss. None of these advances would have been possible without the insights provided by Ussing and others using Ussing's ingenious, and still useful, chambers. PMID:26702131

  5. Restoration of the USS Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Krop, David; Museum, s

    2010-03-02

    David Krop will discuss the ongoing efforts to conserve and exhibit the iconic Civil War ironclad USS Monitor at The Mariners' Museum (http://www.mariner.org/). The presentation will cover past conservation accomplishments by conservators and NOAA specialists, current activities in the lab, and future plans to bring back to life one of the world's most famous warships. Learn about the complex methods and procedures used to treat the ship's revolving gun turret, steam engine, Dahlgren guns and carriages, as well as numerous small artifacts like personal items from the crew.

  6. AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN NEW YORK CITY NEAR BROOKLYN BRIDGE ON HER WAY TO SEA TRIALS. NOTE THE BIRD CAGE TOWERS, 1918. - USS Arizona, Submerged off Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 32 CFR 705.31 - USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. 705.31 Section 705.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.31 USS Arizona Memorial,...

  8. 32 CFR 705.31 - USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. 705.31 Section 705.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.31 USS Arizona Memorial,...

  9. 32 CFR 705.31 - USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. 705.31 Section 705.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.31 USS Arizona Memorial,...

  10. 32 CFR 705.31 - USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. 705.31 Section 705.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.31 USS Arizona Memorial,...

  11. 32 CFR 705.31 - USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. 705.31 Section 705.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.31 USS Arizona Memorial,...

  12. 18. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USS Grebe and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USS Grebe and USS Acushnet. View to soutwest, June 10, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5080, 6/10/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Ares I-X USS Material Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, David S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). Material characterization tests were conducted to quantify the material behavior for use in the CIFS analyses. Fatigue crack growth rate, Charpy impact, and fracture tests were conducted on the parent and welded A516 Grade 70 steel. The crack growth rate tests confirmed that the material behaved in agreement with literature data and that a salt water environment would not significantly degrade the fatigue resistance. The Charpy impact tests confirmed that the fracture resistance of the material did not have a significant reduction for the expected operational temperatures of the vehicle.

  14. View sout from head of pier 4; USS Forrestal right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View sout from head of pier 4; USS Forrestal right, 350-ton hammerhead crane left. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, 350-Ton Hammerhead Crane, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 19. View of initiation of docking for the USS ENTERPRISE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of initiation of docking for the USS ENTERPRISE, showing vessel approaching entrance to dock (11/28/85). - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 23. View, looking east, of USS ENTERPRISE in Dry Dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View, looking east, of USS ENTERPRISE in Dry Dock No. 4 with dock pumped down (11/86). - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 13. View of battleship USS IOWA in Dry Dock No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of battleship USS IOWA in Dry Dock No. 4, looking northeast (1945). Photographer unknown. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Enhancements to TetrUSS for NASA Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Mohagna J.; Frink, Neal T.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Samareh, Jamshid A,; Parlete, Edward B.; Taft, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation program is utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions for generating aerodynamic databases and design loads for the Ares I, Ares I-X, and Ares V launch vehicles and for aerodynamic databases for the Orion crew exploration vehicle and its launch abort system configuration. This effort presents several challenges to applied aerodynamicists due to complex geometries and flow physics, as well as from the juxtaposition of short schedule program requirements with high fidelity CFD simulations. NASA TetrUSS codes (GridTool/VGRID/USM3D) have been making extensive contributions in this effort. This paper will provide an overview of several enhancements made to the various elements of TetrUSS suite of codes. Representative TetrUSS solutions for selected Constellation program elements will be shown. Best practices guidelines and scripting developed for generating TetrUSS solutions in a production environment will also be described.

  19. A guide to Ussing chamber studies of mouse intestine

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Lane L.

    2009-01-01

    The Ussing chamber provides a physiological system to measure the transport of ions, nutrients, and drugs across various epithelial tissues. One of the most studied epithelia is the intestine, which has provided several landmark discoveries regarding the mechanisms of ion transport processes. Adaptation of this method to mouse intestine adds the dimension of investigating genetic loss or gain of function as a means to identify proteins or processes affecting transepithelial transport. In this review, the principles underlying the use of Ussing chambers are outlined including limitations and advantages of the technique. With an emphasis on mouse intestinal preparations, the review covers chamber design, commercial equipment sources, tissue preparation, step-by-step instruction for operation, troubleshooting, and examples of interpretation difficulties. Specialized uses of the Ussing chamber such as the pH stat technique to measure transepithelial bicarbonate secretion and isotopic flux methods to measure net secretion or absorption of substrates are discussed in detail, and examples are given for the adaptation of Ussing chamber principles to other measurement systems. The purpose of the review is to provide a practical guide for investigators who are new to the Ussing chamber method. PMID:19342508

  20. 22. Docking of the USS ENTERPRISE with vessel positioned over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Docking of the USS ENTERPRISE with vessel positioned over blocks and pump-down of the dock to commence (11/28/85). - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Gemini 12 crew arrives aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  2. ARES I-X USS Fracture Analysis Loads Spectra Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis; Mackey, Alden

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development of a set of bounding load spectra for the ARES I-X launch vehicle. These load spectra are used in the determination of the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) of the welds in the ARES I-X upper stage simulator (USS).

  3. The USS Iowa disaster: success of the forensic dental team.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Robert B; Morlang, William M

    2004-09-01

    The authors record the contributions of dentistry to the identification of the crew members who were in one of the most significant peacetime military accidents in U.S. Navy history-the April 1989 explosion in a gun turret on the battleship USS Iowa and the deaths of 47 U.S. Navy personnel. Dental identification was the primary means of identification for most because a very high percentage of the bodies were burned or fragmented. The dental-identification team's success was a direct result of its preparedness, its use of dental personnel with mass-disaster experience, and the overall excellent quality of the antemortem dental records. The dental-identification team's successful involvement in the USS Iowa tragedy was considered a model for success and therefore was instrumental in contributing to the development of the American Board of Forensic Odontology "Guidelines for the Development of a Disaster Dental Identification Team." PMID:15461111

  4. Ussing Chamber Technique to Measure Intestinal Epithelial Permeability.

    PubMed

    Vidyasagar, Sadasivan; MacGregor, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cells are polarized and have tight junctions that contribute to barrier function. Assessment of barrier function typically involves measurement of electrophysiological parameters or movement of nonionic particles across an epithelium. Here, we describe measurement of transepithelial electrical conductance or resistance, determination of dilution potential, and assessment of flux of nonionic particles such as dextran or mannitol, with particular emphasis on Ussing chamber techniques. PMID:27246022

  5. POLARIS MISSILE DISPLAY AT THE USS BOWFIN MUSEUM AT PEARL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POLARIS MISSILE DISPLAY AT THE USS BOWFIN MUSEUM AT PEARL HARBOR. POLARIS A1 MISSILE IS ON THE LEFT (IN FOREGROUND) AND POLARIS A3 MISSILE IS ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Little Hans: masculinity foretold.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Ken

    2009-07-01

    Joining the centennial reexamination of Freud's "Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" (I909a), the author returns to Little Hans as the Ur psychoanalytic boy. Hans's construction and acts of consciousness continue to endow the psychoanalytic construct of masculinity with meaning. It is suggested that Freud moved in his discussion of the case to regulate the unsettled conditions of masculinity that he articulated through his clinical observations of Hans. The case is viewed as an exemplary illustration of how masculinity is foretold--a normative narrative that has changed little in the last 100 years. The author offers a contemporary view of masculinity as a dilemma of boundary--neither fully interior nor fully exterior, neither fully fantastic nor fully socially constructed. PMID:19685812

  7. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  8. Hans Island: Meteorological Data From an International Borderline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, J. P.; Gudmandsen, P.; Hanson, S.; Saldo, R.; Samelson, R. M.

    2009-06-01

    Just after midnight on 28 August 1871, the vessel U.S.S. Polaris of the North Polar Expedition, led by C. F. Hall, sailed past a small, uncharted island in the middle of Kennedy Channel [Davis, 1876]. This narrow channel is one of several such marine passages and sounds located between Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland that combined together, form Nares Strait. Because of the dense fog at the time, the extent of the island could not be gauged. On the vessel's return voyage almost a year later, on 13 August 1872, the Polaris again passed this island. Expedition notes [e.g., Davis, 1876] reveal that the island was given the name Hans Island, or Hans Ø in Danish, in honor of Hans Hendrik (1834-1889) [see Hendrik, 1878], a Greenlander who assisted the expedition and four others to the region (led by E. K. Kane, 1853-1855 I. I. Hayes, 1860-1861 G. S. Nares, 1875-1876 and N. A. E. Nordenskjöld, 1883).

  9. Hans Bethe's early life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2012-10-01

    In 1937, two years after he moved to the US to escape Nazi persecution, the physicist Hans Bethe sent a letter to his mother in Germany. In it, he wrote, "I think I am about the leading theoretician in America. [Eugene] Wigner is certainly better and [Robert] Oppenheimer and [Edward] Teller probably just as good. But I do more and talk more and that counts too."

  10. 33 CFR 165.112 - Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG, Boston, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... governing safety zones as contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG... Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  11. 33 CFR 165.112 - Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG, Boston, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... governing safety zones as contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG... Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  12. 33 CFR 165.112 - Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG, Boston, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... governing safety zones as contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG... Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  13. 33 CFR 165.112 - Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG, Boston, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... governing safety zones as contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG... Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  14. 33 CFR 165.112 - Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG, Boston, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governing safety zones as contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG... Safety Zone: USS CASSIN YOUNG, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  15. Apollo 9 crew prepares to cut cake on U.S.S. Guadalcanal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 9 crew prepares to cut the 350-pound cake which was baked on the U.S.S. Guadalcanal in their honor. Left to right, are Astronauts Russell L. Schweickart, David R. Scott, and James A. McDivitt. Looking on at right is Capt. Roy M. Sudduth, commanding officer of the U.S.S. Guadalcanal.

  16. Astronaut John Glenn aboard the U.S.S. Randolph after MA-6 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 6 space flight, relaxes aboard the carrier U.S.S. Randolph following his earth-orbital mission. Glenn was transferred to the Randolph from the U.S.S. Noa after his return from his earth-orbital mission.

  17. Astronaut Scott Carpenter recieves call from President on U.S.S. Intrepid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 (MA-7) mission, talks with President John F. Kennedy via radio-telephone from aboard the carrier U.S.S. Intrepid. Carpenter was recovered by a helicopter and taken to the U.S.S. Intrepid after a 4 hour and 56 minute mission in space.

  18. Contributions of TetrUSS to Project Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillin, Susan N.; Frink, Neal T.; Kerimo, Johannes; Ding, Djiang; Nayani, Sudheer; Parlette, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation program has relied heavily on Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations for generating aerodynamic databases and design loads. The Orion Project focuses on the Orion Crew Module and the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle. NASA TetrUSS codes (GridTool/VGRID/USM3D) have been applied in a supporting role to the Crew Exploration Vehicle Aerosciences Project for investigating various aerodynamic sensitivities and supplementing the aerodynamic database. This paper provides an overview of the contributions from the TetrUSS team to the Project Orion Crew Module and Launch Abort Vehicle aerodynamics, along with selected examples to highlight the challenges encountered along the way. A brief description of geometries and tasks will be discussed followed by a description of the flow solution process that produced production level computational solutions. Four tasks conducted by the USM3D team will be discussed to show how USM3D provided aerodynamic data for inclusion in the Orion aero-database, contributed data for the build-up of aerodynamic uncertainties for the aero-database, and provided insight into the flow features about the Crew Module and the Launch Abort Vehicle.

  19. AmeriFlux US-Ses Sevilleta shrubland

    SciTech Connect

    Litvak, Marcy

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ses Sevilleta shrubland. Site Description - The Sevilleta Desert Shrubland site is located within the McKenzie Flats area of the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), central New Mexico. Historically, this area has been used for livestock grazing; however, the McKenzie Flats have not been grazed since 1973 and the effects of this previous grazing are considered negligible for the purposes of this study. As the name suggests, McKenzie Flats is an extensive (~130 km2), nearly flat, mixed-species desert grassland bounded on the east by Los Pinos Mountains and on the west by the Rio Grande.

  20. 75 FR 11936 - USS Clairton Coke Works, Clairton, PA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration USS Clairton Coke Works, Clairton, PA; Notice of Termination of... Coke Works, Clairton, Pennsylvania. The petitioner has requested that the petition be...

  1. Gemini 12 crew receive Official welcome aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, receive Official welcome as they arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after their splashdown at the end of the Gemini 12 mission.

  2. HVOF repair of steering rams for the USS Saipan

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, A.L.; Jones, S.A.; Wykle, R.J.; McCaw, B.; Hays, R.

    1995-12-31

    The steering rams aboard the USS Saipan (LHA-2) were badly corroded after 18 years of service. These rams are hydraulically operated and change the angle of the ship`s rudder. This corrosion allowed excessive leaking of hydraulic fluid into the machinery space. Permanent repairs were required as the ship has more than 20 years of service life remaining. Two methods of repair were considered, chrome plating and a HVOF applied coating. The size, 13 in. diameter and 15 ft in length, posed a significant problem for either process. The cost of the repair was similar but the time for completion was better with the HVOF process since chrome plating would have to be accomplished off yard. The HVOF process was not available within the shipyard at the time and the process and material to be used had not been approved. Extensive testing was required to get approval to proceed, a facility to accomplish the work had to be built, and the operators and HVOF procedure had to be qualified. After completion of spraying, single point machining and honing was used to obtain the required surface finish. This was the largest single HVOF coating applied by the Navy and great interest to all concerned.

  3. The Hazard Notification System (HANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedigar, S. F.; Venezky, D. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) has developed a Hazard Notification System (HANS) for distributing volcanic activity information collected by scientists to airlines, emergency services, and the general public. In the past year, data from HANS have been used by airlines to make decisions about diverting or canceling flights during the eruption of Mount Redoubt. HANS was developed to provide a single system that each of the five U.S. volcano observatories could use for communicating and storing volcanic information about the 160+ potentially active U.S. volcanoes. The data that cover ten tables and nearly 100 fields are now stored in similar formats, and the information can be released in styles requested by our agency partners, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Currently, HANS has about 4500 reports stored; on average, two - three reports are added daily. HANS (at its most basic form) consists of a user interface for entering data into one of many release types (Daily Status Reports, Weekly Updates, Volcano Activity Notifications, etc.); a database holding previous releases as well as observatory information such as email address lists and volcano boilerplates; and a transmission system for formatting releases and sending them out by email or other web related system. The user interface to HANS is completely web based, providing access to our observatory scientists from any online PC. The underlying database stores the observatory information and drives the observatory and program websites' dynamic updates and archived information releases. HANS also runs scripts for generating several different feeds including the program home page Volcano Status Map. Each observatory has the capability of running an instance of HANS. There are currently three instances of HANS and each instance is synchronized to all other instances using a master-slave environment. Information can be entered on any node; slave nodes transmit data to the master node

  4. Weld Residual Stress and Distortion Analysis of the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury; Dawicke, David; Cheston, Derrick; Phillips, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. While the main focus of this paper is a discussion of the weld modeling procedures and results for the USS, a short summary of the CIFS assessment is provided.

  5. Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE): Unified Stability System (USS). Description and Users' Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozendaal, Rodger A.; Behbehani, Roxanna

    1990-01-01

    NASA initiated the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) to establish a boundary layer transition database for laminar flow wing design. For this experiment, full-span upper surface gloves were fitted to a variable sweep F-14 aircraft. The development of an improved laminar boundary layer stability analysis system called the Unified Stability System (USS) is documented and results of its use on the VSTFE flight data are shown. The USS consists of eight computer codes. The theoretical background of the system is described, as is the input, output, and usage hints. The USS is capable of analyzing boundary layer stability over a wide range of disturbance frequencies and orientations, making it possible to use different philosophies in calculating the growth of disturbances on sweptwings.

  6. Remembering Pearl Harbor: The USS Arizona Memorial. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vierra, John, Jr.

    This lesson describes and discusses the submerged remains of the battleship USS Arizona which rests on the silt of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), just as it had settled on December 7, 1941, the day Japan attacked the U.S. fleet and began the Pacific battles of World War II. The lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file,…

  7. Gemini 8 spacecraft hoisted aboard the U.S.S. Leonard F. Mason

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 8 spacecraft, with Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and David R. Scott still aboard, is hoisted aboard the destroyer U.S.S. Leonard F. Mason. Trouble with the Gemini 8 Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (OAMS) forced an early termination of the mission.

  8. Gemini 9-A astronauts welcomed aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan (right) receive a warm welcome as they arrive aboard the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. John C. Stonesifer, with the Manned Spacecraft Center's Landing and Recovery Division, stands next to microphone at left. The Gemini 9 spacecraft can be seen in the right background of the view.

  9. Crewmen of the U.S.S. Wasp watching recovery of Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Crewmen of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini 7 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say 'Seasons Greetings from WASP' and 'Spirit of 76'.

  10. Gemini 12 crew cut cake aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew slice a cake made aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  11. Crewmen of the U.S.S. Wasp watching recovery of Gemini 6 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Crewmen of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini 6 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say 'Seasons Greetings from WASP' and 'Spirit of 76'.

  12. Astronauts Schirra and Stafford talk to crewmen on board the U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts Walter M. Schirra Jr. (left), command pilot, and Thomas P. Stafford, pilot, talk to crewmen on board the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after successful recovery of the Gemini 6 spacecraft. Note the cake with a model of the Gemini spacecraft in its center, which is positioned in front of the astronauts.

  13. One but Not the Same: Evaluative Conditioning with Mixed-Valence USs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Tina; Walther, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In evaluative conditioning (EC), the pairing of a positively or negatively valenced stimulus (US) with another neutral stimulus (CS) leads to a corresponding change in liking of the CS. EC research so far has concentrated on using unambiguously positive or negative USs. However, attitude objects often possess multiple features that can be positive…

  14. Astronauts Conrad and Cooper slice cake on U.S.S. Lake Champlain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (left) and L. Gordon Cooper Jr. prepate to slice into the huge cake prepared for them by the cooks onboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lake Champlain. They are using ornamental Navy swords for knives.

  15. Crew of Gemini 10 arrive aboard the recovery ship U.S.S. Guadalcanal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Crew of Gemini 10 space flight, Astronauts John W. Young (left) and Michael Collins (right), arrive aboard the recovery ship U.S.S. Guadalcanal. Greeting them are Ben James, Senior NASA Public Affairs Officer aboard ship and John C. Stonesifer, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Landing and Recovery Division.

  16. Reconciling the Krogh and Ussing interpretations of epithelial chloride transport - presenting a novel hypothesis for the physiological significance of the passive cellular chloride uptake.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2011-07-01

    In 1937, August Krogh discovered a powerful active Cl(-) uptake mechanism in frog skin. After WWII, Hans Ussing continued the studies on the isolated skin and discovered the passive nature of the chloride uptake. The review concludes that the two modes of transport are associated with a minority cell type denoted as the γ-type mitochondria-rich (MR) cell, which is highly specialized for epithelial Cl(-) uptake whether the frog is in the pond of low [NaCl] or the skin is isolated and studied by Ussing chamber technique. One type of apical Cl(-) channels of the γ-MR cell is activated by binding of Cl(-) to an external binding site and by membrane depolarization. This results in a tight coupling of the uptake of Na(+) by principal cells and Cl(-) by MR cells. Another type of Cl(-) channels (probably CFTR) is involved in isotonic fluid uptake. It is suggested that the Cl(-) channels serve passive uptake of Cl(-) from the thin epidermal film of fluid produced by mucosal glands. The hypothesis is evaluated by discussing the turnover of water and ions of the epidermal surface fluid under terrestrial conditions. The apical Cl(-) channels close when the electrodiffusion force is outwardly directed as it is when the animal is in the pond. With the passive fluxes eliminated, the Cl(-) flux is governed by active transport and evidence is discussed that this is brought about by an exchange of cellular HCO(3) (-) with Cl(-) of the outside bath driven by an apical H(+) V-ATPase. PMID:21288306

  17. Helping HAN for hybrid rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Dowler, Warren

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxyl amine nitrate (HAN) is a powerful oxidizer for hybrid rocket flight motors. Miscible with water up to 95% by mass, it also has high density and has been extensively characterized for materials compatibility, safety, transportation, storage and handling. Before any serious attempt to use the proposed oxidizer in hybrids, though, the usual performance figures must first be obtained. The simplest are time-independent, equilibrium rocket performance numbers that include chamber temperature, temperature at the nozzle throat, and key species in the exhaust. These numbers must be followed by several other important performance evaluation, including burning rates, pressure dependence, susceptibility to instabilities and temperature sensitivity.

  18. Apollo 13 crew arrive on prime recovery ship U.S.S. Iwo Jima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Apollo 13 crew arrive on prime recovery ship U.S.S. Iwo Jima following splashdown and recovery operations in the South Pacific. Exiting the helicopter which made the pick-up some four miles from the Iwo Jima are (from left) Astronauts Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar module pilot; James A. Lovell Jr., commander; and John L. Swigert Jr., command module pilot. The Apollo 13 spacecraft splashed down at 12:07:44 p.m., April 17, 1970.

  19. Astronauts White and McDivitt arrive on flight deck of U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The red carpet treatment is give Astronauts Edward H. White II (left) and James A. McDivitt (center) as they arrive on the flight deck of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp at the end of their Gemini 4 mission. They are accompanied by Capt. J.W. Conger (left) commander of the ship and Rear Adm. W. M. McCormick, Commander, Carrier Division 14, Atlantic Fleet.

  20. Photocopy of photograph (Source: National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (Source: National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, from 14th Naval District Photograph Collection, PHOG No. P.H. 4464-45) Official USN Photo, 1945. REMOVAL OF SPLINTERPROOF SHELTER (FORMER FACILITY S 1122), LOCATED BETWEEN FACILITIES 1 AND 3 IN NAVAL SHIPYARD. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Air Raid Shelters, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Propulsion Simulations Using Advanced Turbulence Models with the Unstructured Grid CFD Tool, TetrUSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Frink, Neal T.; Deere, Karen A.; Pandya, Mohangna J.

    2004-01-01

    A computational investigation has been completed to assess the capability of TetrUSS for exhaust nozzle flows. Three configurations were chosen for this study (1) an axisymmetric supersonic jet, (2) a transonic axisymmetric boattail with solid sting operated at different Reynolds number and Mach number, and (3) an isolated non-axisymmetric nacelle with a supersonic cruise nozzle. These configurations were chosen because existing experimental data provided a means for measuring the ability of TetrUSS for simulating complex nozzle flows. The main objective of this paper is to validate the implementation of advanced two-equation turbulence models in the unstructured-grid CFD code USM3D for propulsion flow cases. USM3D is the flow solver of the TetrUSS system. Three different turbulence models, namely, Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST), basic k epsilon, and the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) are used in the present study. The results are generally in agreement with other implementations of these models in structured-grid CFD codes. Results indicate that USM3D provides accurate simulations for complex aerodynamic configurations with propulsion integration.

  2. Corrosion of Submerged Artifacts and the Conservation of the USS Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Desmond C.; Peterson, Curtiss E.

    2005-04-26

    The USS Monitor, the first ironclad warship to be constructed in the United States, was built in 1862 to serve in the American Civil War. It took part in the infamous battle of Hampton Roads, Virginia with the iron covered Confederate frigate, CSS Virginia. The USS Monitor eventually sank at sea in a storm in 1862, and following its discovery in 1973 many important pieces have been recovered. In order to evaluate the extent of degradation of the iron artifacts due to prolonged seawater submersion, a spectroscopic study of the corrosion products and marine sediments attached to the artifacts has begun, with some of the early findings being reported in this document. It has been determined that under anaerobic, aqueous and high chloride exposure, the predominant rust component formed on the wrought iron artifacts was Corrosion Magnetite, an unstable compound whose Moessbauer signature is different to that of the pure, natural and synthetic forms. The Corrosion Magnetite changed with time of exposure in air, with its oxidation forming non-stoichiometric maghemite. No akaganeite was detected in the anaerobically formed rust, but was identified if the iron artifact was allowed to dry in air. This is an important finding for archaeologists since formation of akaganeite indicates significant effort may be required to remove the insoluble chlorides from an artifact. Analysis of some ocean sediments trapped between wrought iron plates has shown that the pH is low, and the composition is mainly calcite and siderite, with the latter forming as a result of the rusting iron. The sulfur content was high at 1.5 weight percent, indicating the potential presence of microbial activity. Rusticles formed on iron surfaces of the USS Monitor have been identified as a solid outer casing of siderite, lepidocrocite and goethite, and a liquidous inner core of unstable Corrosion Magnetite having a low pH of about 3.

  3. Apollo 13 crew arrive on prime recovery ship U.S.S. Iwo Jima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Rear Admiral Donald C. Davis, Commanding Officer of Task Force 130, the Pacific Recovery Forces for the Manned Spacecraft Missions, welcomes the Apollo 13 crew aboard the prime recovery ship U.S.S. Iwo Jima following splashdown and recovery operations in the South Pacific. The crewmen (from left) Astronauts Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar module pilot; John L. Swigert Jr., command module pilot; and James A. Lovell Jr., commander, were transported by helicopter to the ship following a smooth splashdown only about four miles from the Iwo Jima. The Apollo 13 spacecraft splashed down at 12:07:44 p.m., April 17, 1970.

  4. Apollo 13 Astronauts on the U.S.S. Iwo Jima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The crew of the Apollo 13 mission step aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the mission, following splashdown and recovery operations in the South Pacific. Exiting the helicopter, which made the pick-up some four miles from the Iwo Jima are (from left) astronauts Fred. W. Haise, Jr., lunar module pilot; James A. Lovell Jr., commander; and John L. Swigert Jr., command module pilot. The Apollo 13 spacecraft splashed down at 12:07:44 pm CST on April 17, 1970.

  5. Astronauts Schirra and Stafford welcomed aboard the U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts Walter M. Schirra Jr. (shaking hands) and Thomas P. Stafford received an Official welcome as they arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp following their 25 hour 52 minute mission in space. The three Navy officers greeting the astronauts are (left to right) Vice Admiral Charles E. Weakley, commander of the Antisubmarine Warfare Force of the Atlantic Fleet; Rear Admiral William E. Leonard, commander of Antisubmarine Task Group Bravo, of which the Wasp is the flagship; and Capt. G.E. Hartley, commander of the Wasp.

  6. Skylab 3 crewmen aboard prime recovery ship, U.S.S. New Orleans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The three crewmen of the Skylab 3 mission are seen aboard the prime recovery ship, U.S.S. New Orleans, following their successful 59-day visit to the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. They are, left to right, Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, pilot; Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot; and Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander. They are seated atop a platform of a fork-lift dolly. Recovery support personnel are wearing face masks to prevent exposing the crewmen to disease.

  7. The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Water, Manon

    1994-01-01

    Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

  8. 3. Photocopy of postcard showing watercolor depiction of the Hans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of postcard showing watercolor depiction of the Hans Herr House by C.X. Carlson, as it appeared in the book, Old Lancaster - Hans Herr House, 1851 Hans Herr Drive, West Lampeter Township, Willow Street, Lancaster County, PA

  9. US-preexposure effects in flavor-preference and flavor-aversion learning with nonnutritive USs.

    PubMed

    Gil, Marta; Recio, Sergio Andrés; de Brugada, Isabel; Symonds, Michelle; Hall, Geoffrey

    2014-07-01

    In two experiments, rats received exposure to either a saccharin or quinine solution followed by conditioning with a solution of almond as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and either saccharin or quinine as the unconditioned stimulus (US). In Experiment 1, rats received preexposure and conditioning using saccharin as the US; in Experiment 2 quinine was the US. In both cases the magnitude of the conditioning effect (an enhanced preference for the CS in Experiment 1; a reduced preference in Experiment 2) was reduced by preexposure to the US. The results provided confirmation of the occurrence of the US-preexposure effect in the flavor-preference procedure and demonstrate that the effect can be obtained with nonnutritive USs that lack significant post-oral consequences. The implications of these results for theories of the US-preexposure effect are discussed. PMID:24811451

  10. Propulsion Simulations with the Unstructured-Grid CFD Tool TetrUSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Pandya, Mohagna J.

    2002-01-01

    A computational investigation has been completed to assess the capability of the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS) for simulation of exhaust nozzle flows. Three configurations were chosen for this study: (1) a fluidic jet effects model, (2) an isolated nacelle with a supersonic cruise nozzle, and (3) a fluidic pitchthrust- vectoring nozzle. These configurations were chosen because existing data provided a means for measuring the ability of the TetrUSS flow solver USM3D for simulating complex nozzle flows. Fluidic jet effects model simulations were compared with structured-grid CFD (computational fluid dynamics) data at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 1.2 at nozzle pressure ratios up to 7.2. Simulations of an isolated nacelle with a supersonic cruise nozzle were compared with wind tunnel experimental data and structured-grid CFD data at Mach numbers of 0.9 and 1.2, with a nozzle pressure ratio of 5. Fluidic pitch-thrust-vectoring nozzle simulations were compared with static experimental data and structured-grid CFD data at static freestream conditions and nozzle pressure ratios from 3 to 10. A fluidic injection case was computed with the third configuration at a nozzle pressure ratio of 4.6 and a secondary pressure ratio of 0.7. Results indicate that USM3D with the S-A turbulence model provides accurate exhaust nozzle simulations at on-design conditions, but does not predict internal shock location at overexpanded conditions or pressure recovery along a boattail at transonic conditions.

  11. The “Clever Hans Phenomenon” revisited

    PubMed Central

    Samhita, Laasya; Gross, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    In the first decade of the 20th century, a horse named Hans drew worldwide attention in Berlin as the first and most famous “speaking” and thinking animal. Hans solved calculations by tapping numbers or letters with his hoof in order to answer questions. Later on, it turned out that the horse was able to give the correct answer by reading the microscopic signals in the face of the questioning person. This observation caused a revolution and as a consequence, experimenters avoided strictly any face-to-face contact in studies about cognitive abilities of animals—a fundamental lesson that is still not applied rigorously. PMID:24563716

  12. HAN-Based Monopropellant Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is sponsoring efforts to develop technology for high-performance, high-density, low-freezing point, low-hazards monopropellant systems. The program is focused on a family of monopropellant formulations composed of an aqueous solution of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and a fuel component. HAN-based monopropellants offer significant mass and volume savings to small (less than 100 kg) satellite for orbit raising and on-orbit propulsion applications. The low-hazards characteristics of HAN-based monopropellants make them attractive for applications where ground processing costs are a significant concern. A 1-lbf thruster has been demonstrated to a 20-kg satellite orbit insertion duty cycle, using a formulation compatible with currently available catalysts. To achieve specific impulse levels above those of hydrazine, catalyst materials that can withstand the high-temperature, corrosive combustion environment of HAN-based monopropellants have to be developed. There also needs to be work done to characterize propellant properties, burning behavior, and material compatibility. NASA is coordinating their monopropellant efforts with those of the United States Air Force.

  13. Hans Eysenck (1916-1997): A Tribute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Hans Eysenck, who died in September 1997, was one of the most well-known psychologists in the world. A believer that intelligence is genetically controlled, Eysenck recognized the need for scientific investigation in the study of intelligence and creativity. He was characterized by extraordinary creativity and commitment to his scientific message.…

  14. Assessment of the Unstructured Grid Software TetrUSS for Drag Prediction of the DLR-F4 Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.; Frink, Neal T.

    2002-01-01

    An application of the NASA unstructured grid software system TetrUSS is presented for the prediction of aerodynamic drag on a transport configuration. The paper briefly describes the underlying methodology and summarizes the results obtained on the DLR-F4 transport configuration recently presented in the first AIAA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Drag Prediction Workshop. TetrUSS is a suite of loosely coupled unstructured grid CFD codes developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The meshing approach is based on the advancing-front and the advancing-layers procedures. The flow solver employs a cell-centered, finite volume scheme for solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations on tetrahedral grids. For the present computations, flow in the viscous sublayer has been modeled with an analytical wall function. The emphasis of the paper is placed on the practicality of the methodology for accurately predicting aerodynamic drag data.

  15. An interview with Mark G. Hans

    PubMed Central

    Bolognese, Ana Maria; Palomo, Juan Martin; Miyashita, Kunihiko; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans' Master's Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of "Essentials of Facial Growth", being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans's academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of Dental

  16. Transforming han: a correlational method for psychology and religion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Whachul

    2015-06-01

    Han is a destructive feeling in Korea. Although Korea accomplished significant exterior growth, Korean society is still experiencing the dark aspects of transforming han as evidenced by having the highest suicide rate in Asia. Some reasons for this may be the fragmentation between North and South Korea. If we can transform han then it can become constructive. I was challenged to think of possibilities for transforming han internally; this brings me to the correlational method through psychological and religious interpretation. This study is to challenge and encourage many han-ridden people in Korean society. Through the psychological and religious understanding of han, people suffering can positively transform their han. They can relate to han more subjectively, and this means the han-ridden psyche has an innate sacredness of potential to transform. PMID:25252804

  17. Initial Archaeological Survey of the ex-USS Independence (CVL-22)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, James P.; Elliott, Kelley; Cantelas, Frank; Schwemmer, Robert V.

    2016-04-01

    The Boeing Company, collaborating with NOAA to address innovative ways to make ocean observations, provided their autonomous underwater vehicle, Echo Ranger, to conduct the first deep-water archaeological survey of the scuttled aircraft carrier USS Independence in the waters of Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in March 2015. While a preliminary effort, and not comprehensive, the survey confirmed that a sonar feature (previously not proven to be an archaeological feature) charted at the location was Independence, and provided details on the condition of the wreck. At the same time, new information from declassified government reports provided more detail on Independence's use as a naval test craft for radiological decontamination as well as its use as a repository for radioactive materials at the time of its scuttling in 1951. The wreck is historically significant, but also of archaeological significance as an artifact of the early years of the atomic age and of the Cold War. This article summarizes Independence's contexts, its nuclear history, and the results of the survey of the wreck site.

  18. Transepithelial Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers across Isolated Rat Jejunal Mucosae in Ussing Chambers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Oral delivery remains a challenge for poorly permeable hydrophilic macromolecules. Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown potential for their possible oral delivery. Transepithelial transport of carboxyl-terminated G3.5 and amine-terminated G4 PAMAM dendrimers was assessed using isolated rat jejunal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. The 1 mM FITC-labeled dendrimers were added to the apical side of mucosae. Apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) from the apical to the basolateral side were significantly increased for FITC when conjugated to G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer compared to FITC alone. Minimal signs of toxicity were observed when mucosae were exposed to both dendrimers with respect to transepithelial electrical resistance changes, carbachol-induced short circuit current stimulation, and histological changes. [14C]-mannitol fluxes were not altered in the presence of 1 mM dendrimers, suggesting that the paracellular pathway was not affected at this concentration in this model. These results give insight into the mechanism of PAMAM dendrimer transepithelial rat jejunal transport, as well as toxicological considerations important for oral drug delivery. PMID:24992090

  19. Initial Archaeological Survey of the ex-USS Independence (CVL-22)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, James P.; Elliott, Kelley; Cantelas, Frank; Schwemmer, Robert V.

    2016-02-01

    The Boeing Company, collaborating with NOAA to address innovative ways to make ocean observations, provided their autonomous underwater vehicle, Echo Ranger, to conduct the first deep-water archaeological survey of the scuttled aircraft carrier USS Independence in the waters of Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in March 2015. While a preliminary effort, and not comprehensive, the survey confirmed that a sonar feature (previously not proven to be an archaeological feature) charted at the location was Independence, and provided details on the condition of the wreck. At the same time, new information from declassified government reports provided more detail on Independence's use as a naval test craft for radiological decontamination as well as its use as a repository for radioactive materials at the time of its scuttling in 1951. The wreck is historically significant, but also of archaeological significance as an artifact of the early years of the atomic age and of the Cold War. This article summarizes Independence's contexts, its nuclear history, and the results of the survey of the wreck site.

  20. CFD Computations for a Generic High-Lift Configuration Using TetrUSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Mohagna J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Parlette, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of the accuracy of computational results for a generic high-lift trapezoidal wing with a single slotted flap and slat is presented. The paper is closely aligned with the focus of the 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop (HiLiftPW-1) which was to assess the accuracy of CFD methods for multi-element high-lift configurations. The unstructured grid Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver TetrUSS/USM3D is used for the computational results. USM3D results are obtained assuming fully turbulent flow using the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) and Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models. Computed solutions have been obtained at seven different angles-of-attack ranging from 6 -37 . Three grids providing progressively higher grid resolution are used to quantify the effect of grid resolution on the lift, drag, pitching moment, surface pressure and stall angle. SA results, as compared to SST results, exhibit better agreement with the measured data. However, both turbulence models under-predict upper surface pressures near the wing tip region.

  1. Apollo 8 Crew Walk Red Carpet of Recovery Ship U.S.S. Yorktown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 8 astronauts and commanding officer of the recovery ship U.S.S. Yorktown walk the red carpet of the flight deck after splashdown recovery in the Pacific Ocean. Apollo 8 served as the first manned lunar orbit mission and the first manned flight of the Saturn V space vehicle, developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Liftoff occurred on December 21, 1968, carrying astronauts Frank Borman, commander; William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) Pilot; and James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot. The three safely returned to Earth on December 27, 1968. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  2. An interview with Mark G. Hans.

    PubMed

    Hans, Mark G; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans’ Master’s Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of “Essentials of Facial Growth”, being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans’s academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of

  3. Nontoxic Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HAN) Monopropellant Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKechnie, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    Nontoxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on HAN have superior performance as compared to hydrazine with enhanced specific impulse (Isp), higher density and volumetric impulse, lower melting point, and much lower toxicity. However, HAN-based monopropellants require higher chamber temperatures (2,083 K vs. 883 K) to combust. Current hydrazine-based combustion chamber technology (Inconel® or niobium C103 and silicide coating) and catalyst (Shell 405) are inadequate. In Phase I, state-of-the-art iridium-lined rhenium chambers and innovative new foam catalysts were demonstrated in pulse and 10-second firings. Phase II developed and tested a flight-weight thruster for an environmentally green monopropellant.

  4. Hans Zinsser: a tale of two cultures.

    PubMed

    Summers, W C

    1999-01-01

    Hans Zinsser, president of the Society of American Bacteriologists in 1926, was known as much for his literary and textbook writing as for his scientific contributions. He was a widely known scientist and person of letters. His early interests in poetry and other forms of literature were maintained and developed during his career as a microbiologist, and his most enduring legacy is based on his writing about microbiology for a general readership as well as his reflective and philosophical autobiography. PMID:11049165

  5. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  6. HAN-based monopropellant assessment for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing cost of space missions, the need for increased mission performance, and concerns associated with environmental issues are changing rocket design and propellant selection criteria. Whereas a propellant's performance was once defined solely in terms of specific impulse and density, now environmental safety, operability, and cost are considered key drivers. Present emphasis on these considerations has heightened government and commercial launch sector interest in Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HAN)-based liquid propellants as options to provide simple, safe, reliable, low cost, and high performance monopropellant systems.

  7. Hans Zinsser: a tale of two cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, W. C.

    1999-01-01

    Hans Zinsser, president of the Society of American Bacteriologists in 1926, was known as much for his literary and textbook writing as for his scientific contributions. He was a widely known scientist and person of letters. His early interests in poetry and other forms of literature were maintained and developed during his career as a microbiologist, and his most enduring legacy is based on his writing about microbiology for a general readership as well as his reflective and philosophical autobiography. Images Figure 1 PMID:11049165

  8. Pancreatoduodenectomy as a source of human small intestine for Ussing chamber investigations and comparative studies with rat tissue.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Iain S; O'Reilly, Derek A; Sherlock, David J; Kauser, Ambareen; Womack, Chris; Coleman, Tanya

    2011-05-01

    A clear understanding of oral drug absorption is an important aspect of the drug development process. The permeability of drug compounds across intact sections of small intestine from numerous species, including man, has often been investigated using modified Ussing chambers. The maintenance of viable, intact tissue is critical to the success of this technique. This study therefore aimed to assess the viability and integrity of tissue from patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy, for use in cross-species Ussing chamber studies. Electrical parameters (potential difference, mV; short-circuit current, µA.cm(-2) ; resistance, Ω.cm(2) ) were monitored over the duration of each experiment, as was the permeability of the paracellular marker atenolol. The permeability values (Papp; cm/s × 10(-6) ) for a training-set of compounds, displaying a broad range of physicochemical properties and known human fraction absorbed values, were determined in both rat and human jejunum, as well as Caco-2 cell monolayers. The results indicate that human jejunum sourced from pancreatoduodenectomy remained viable and intact for the duration of experiments. Permeability values generated in rat and human jejunum correlate well (R(2) = 0.86), however the relationship between permeability in human tissue and Caco-2 cells was comparatively weak (R(2) = 0.58). Relating permeability to known human fraction absorbed (hFabs) values results in a remarkably similar relationship to both rat and human jejunum Papp values. It can be concluded that human jejunum sourced from pancreatoduodenectomy is a suitable source of tissue for Ussing chamber permeability investigations. The relationship between permeability and hFabs is comparable to results reported using alternative test compounds. PMID:21416475

  9. The tainted legacy of Hans Reiter.

    PubMed

    Panush, Richard S; Paraschiv, Diana; Dorff, Rabbi Elliot N

    2003-02-01

    There is more than ample evidence that Hans Reiter, whose name has been eponymously linked to a rheumatologic syndrome, was a Nazi war criminal. He was responsible for heinous atrocities that violated the precepts of humanity, ethics, and professionalism. The authors suggest that Reiter's legacy is sufficiently tainted that the professional and ethical position of the medical community should be to no longer afford him this recognition. He should be remembered symbolically to remind us of our moral and professional responsibilities to prevent the kind of "experiments" he perpetrated as Director of the Nazi office for such matters. Medicine is a moral enterprise. Physicians serve to promote the welfare of their patients. Hans Reiter and others like him who have behaved in such a manner have acted beyond the pale of acceptable human behavior. These crimes by Reiter and others like him were transcendently aberrant and evil. We regard Reiter and others like him as tainted. We see no acceptable rationale to preserve any professional memory of Reiter and others like him within our medical culture except as a symbol of what our societal values obligate us to reject. We suggest reverting to or substituting other terms for the syndrome (such as spondyloarthropathy, spondyloarthritis, oligoarthritis, inflammatory oligoarthritis, reactive arthritis, [oligo-] arthritis with conjunctivitis/urethritis/diarrhea, etc) until pathophysiologic or other insights lead to better ones. (It should be noted that the description of this syndrome was not original to Reiter and that current nomenclature is probably in need of revision in any case because the terminology and classification is outdated and clinically imprecise.) We offer these recommendations because we cannot forget. We cannot forget that Reiter and others like him represented an abhorrent evil. We cannot forget that Reiter and others like him desecrated the traditions of our civilization. We cannot forget that Reiter and

  10. Gastrointestinal absorption and metabolism of apple polyphenols ex vivo by the pig intestinal mucosa in the Ussing chamber.

    PubMed

    Deusser, Hannah; Rogoll, Dorothee; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Volk, Antje; Melcher, Ralph; Richling, Elke

    2013-03-01

    Polyphenols contained in food have various positive effects on human health. The absorption and metabolism of polyphenols in the intestinal tract needs to be studied to estimate these effects. The Ussing chamber technique was used to investigate the transport behavior of apple polyphenols through pig small intestinal mucosa, which served as a model for human gastrointestinal mucosa. The identities and concentrations of polyphenols and their metabolites in the half-chambers (luminal and basolateral) within an incubation period of 4 h were determined by HPLC-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD (DAD = diode-array detection). Flux values were also measured. It was found that 5-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid were absorbed and translocated to the basolateral side (1.9 and 3.7%, respectively), but other compounds, including glycosides of phloretin and quercetin, were observed without translocation. A Ussing chamber utilizing pig small intestinal mucosa is a suitable model for assessing the effect of apple polyphenols on mucosal integrity and nutrition absorption across porcine mucosa. PMID:23229958

  11. Page from the Log Book of the USS "Harriet Lane" and Painting by Thomas P. Rossiter, Related to the Prince of Wales's 1860 Visit to Mount Vernon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann; Eder, Elizabeth K.; Hussey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    On 1860, Prince Albert Edward took a daylong excursion aboard the 270-foot revenue cutter USS "Harriet Lane" to Mount Vernon, the ancestral home of George Washington. The ceremonial visit to Mount Vernon was thought of at the time as not only a tribute to Washington as a man and leader, but as symbolic of reconciliation between England and its…

  12. Comprehensive study on regional human intestinal permeability and prediction of fraction absorbed of drugs using the Ussing chamber technique.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Åsa; Lutz, Mareike; Tannergren, Christer; Wingolf, Caroline; Borde, Anders; Ungell, Anna-Lena

    2013-01-23

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of human intestinal tissue in Ussing chamber to predict oral and colonic drug absorption and intestinal metabolism. Data on viability, correlation between apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) and fraction absorbed (f(a)) after oral and colonic administration, regional permeability, active uptake and efflux of drugs as well as intestinal metabolism were compiled from experiments using 159 human donors. Permeability coefficients for up to 28 drugs were determined using one or several of four intestinal regions: duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon and 10 drugs were studied bidirectionally. Viability was monitored simultaneously with transport experiments by recording potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (SCC) and the resistance (TER). Intestinal metabolism was studied using testosterone and midazolam as probe substrates. There was a steep sigmoidal correlation between P(app) in the Ussing chamber, using jejunal segments, and oral f(a) in humans, for a set of 25 drugs (R(2): 0.85, p<0.01). A clear sigmoidal relationship was also obtained between P(app) in colonic segments and f(a) after colonic administration in humans for a set of 10 drugs (R(2): 0.93, p<0.05). Regional permeability data showed a tendency for highly permeable compounds to have higher or similar P(app) in colon as in the small intestinal segments, while the colonic regions showed a lower P(app) for more polar compounds as well as for d-glucose and l-leucine. Bidirectional transport (mucosa to serosa and serosa to mucosa direction) in jejunum showed well functioning efflux- and uptake asymmetry. Intestinal metabolic extraction during transport across jejunum segments was found for both testosterone and midazolam. In conclusion, viable excised human intestine mounted in the Ussing chamber, is a powerful technique for predicting regional fraction absorbed (f(a)), transporter-mediated uptake or efflux as well as intestinal metabolism of

  13. [Hans Jonas: Nature Conservation, Conservation of Life].

    PubMed

    Burgui Burgui, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses three of the problems that the German philosopher Hans Jonas studied. The first one addresses the need for a specific ethic dedicated to the moral dimension of environmental problems, from a different perspective to the traditional. The second problem is crucial in the discussion on environmental ethics: the value of the nature. Does the nature have an intrinsic value or an instrumental value only (to satisfy the interests of the human being)? The thesis of Jonas, which claimed that nature is a good in itself, were further elaborated here. And the third problem is the derivation of moral norms and the role of man in this ethic that recognizes a good in itself in nature. According to Jonas, the human being is not diminished by recognizing the intrinsic value of nature, since the man's uniqueness and value are unquestionable. From these three central issues, the paper highlights the importance of seeking the links between bioethics and environmental ethics to address the current environmental, social and economic crisis. PMID:26378598

  14. Mathematics Ab Ovo: Hans Driesch and Entwicklungsmechanik.

    PubMed

    Priven, Silvia Waisse; Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    One of the factors leading to the creation of embryology as a modern discipline at the end of the 19th century was Wilhelm Roux's formulation of the program of Entwicklungsmechanik (developmental mechanics). A look into the work of Hans Driesch, an equal contributor to developmental mechanics, may shed further light on this process. For Roux, developmental mechanics was an anatomical science, but for Driesch it was associated with a mathematical and physical approach to the natural world. Likewise, Roux used the concept of mechanics as an analogy, but Driesch used it literally. Driesch's generation had been trained in a pedagogic context that emphasized mathematics and physics, which may explain why he went a step further than Roux to state that a true "mechanics" of development required the reduction of morphogenetic problems to the known laws of physics. It is argued here that this difference in background is behind the enthusiastic adoption and further development of Roux's program by Driesch's generation, a generation that conceived Entwicklungsmechanik to be the reduction of embryological processes to "the laws of matter in motion." This same mathematical and physical mindset would underscore Driesch's later construction of entelechy as a regulating factor in embryogenesis, through mathematical analysis grounded on the notion of mathematical functions. PMID:19835266

  15. Hans-Lukas Teuber: a tribute.

    PubMed

    Gross, C G

    1994-01-01

    Hans-Lukas Teuber (1916-1977) was one of the most influential neuropsychologists of his generation. In the first part of his career he headed the Psychophysiology Laboratory at the New York University--Bellevue Medical Center. There he and his associates played a major role in establishing human neuropsychology as a rigorous experimental science closely linked to contemporary neurophysiology and experimental psychology. In the second part of his career he founded the Department of Psychology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This rapidly became a world center of the neuro- and cognitive sciences and a model for the establishment of new neuroscience centers that brought together neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropsychology, and cognitive psychology into an interacting community. Teuber's contributions extended far beyond the institutions he founded and the many important experimental and theoretical papers he wrote. He was a consummate organizer, synthesizer, and sponsor of research on the brain, as well as the mentor of many of today's leading brain researchers. This special issue on object recognition and the temporal lobes is dedicated to his memory. PMID:7833648

  16. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijers, Ralph

    2007-12-01

    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluous (besides being impossible in this space). Bethe was born in Strassburg, in then German Alsass Lothringen, on 2 July 1906. His father, Albrecht Julius Bethe (1872-1954), taught physiology at the University, and his mother, Anna Kuhn (1876-1966), was a musician and writer. Both his grandfathers were physicians. He spent his youth in Strassburg, Kiel, and Frankfurt, and some time in sanatoria due to tuberculosis. Hans's first scientific paper, at age 18, was with his father and a colleague, on dialysis. His education and early career in Germany brought him into contact with many top stars in the quantum revolution. Starting in Frankfurt in chemistry, Bethe soon switched to physics, taught there by Walter Gerlach and Karl Meissner, among others. In 1926, he successfully applied to join Arnold Sommerfeld's group in Munich, where he met one of his later long-term collaborators, Rudolf Peierls. Bethe considered his entry into physics to have come at an ideal time, with the new ideas of wave mechanics being developed and discussed right there; it was certainly also at an ideal place. His doctoral thesis was on the theory of electron diffraction by crystals, following the experimental work by Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer and the work on X-ray diffraction by Max von Laue and Paul Ewald. The newly minted doctor went from there briefly to Frankfurt and then to Ewald in Stuttgart, where he felt at home academically and personally. In 1939, Bethe would marry Ewald's daughter Rose. Not much later, though, Sommerfeld recalled him to Munich, where Sommerfeld created a Privatdozent position for him. There he worked out the solution for a linear chain of coupled spins by what we

  17. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Arrives Aboard U.S.S. Hornet for Apollo 11 Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), is saluted by the honor guard of flight deck crewmen when he arrives aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 mission, to watch recovery operations and welcome the astronauts home. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days following the mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  18. Chemical study of the Chinese medicine Pi Han Yao

    PubMed Central

    PENG, TENG; ZHAO, FURONG; CHEN, XIAOYU; JIANG, GUIHUA; WANG, SHAONAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to ivnestigate the chemical constituents of the Chinese medicine Pi Han Yao (Gueldenstaedtia delavayi Franch) decoction. Following this, the quantitative determination of the formononetin and maackiain content in Pi Han Yao was established. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectrometric data and chemical evidence. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of the formononetin and maackiain content in Pi Han Yao. Seven flavanones were isolated from the Pi Han Yao decoction. Five of the chemical structures were elucidated as 1, 7,2′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-isoflavanol; 2, maackiain; 3, formononetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside; 4, formononetin; and 5, 9-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-adenosine. The other two compounds and their structures require further study. Additionally, the linear range of formononetin and maackiain were 0.03992–0.3992 and 0.0292–0.292 µg, and their recoveries were 100.31 and 100.44%. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1–5 were obtained from Pi Han Yao for the first time. The HPLC method use for determination of formononetin and maackiain in Pi Han Yao was simple, accurate and reliable. Findings from the present study suggest that these methods may be used to evaluate the quality of Pi Han Yao and provide an experience basis for quality standards of this medicinal material. PMID:26893842

  19. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijers, Ralph

    2007-12-01

    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluous (besides being impossible in this space). Bethe was born in Strassburg, in then German Alsass Lothringen, on 2 July 1906. His father, Albrecht Julius Bethe (1872-1954), taught physiology at the University, and his mother, Anna Kuhn (1876-1966), was a musician and writer. Both his grandfathers were physicians. He spent his youth in Strassburg, Kiel, and Frankfurt, and some time in sanatoria due to tuberculosis. Hans's first scientific paper, at age 18, was with his father and a colleague, on dialysis. His education and early career in Germany brought him into contact with many top stars in the quantum revolution. Starting in Frankfurt in chemistry, Bethe soon switched to physics, taught there by Walter Gerlach and Karl Meissner, among others. In 1926, he successfully applied to join Arnold Sommerfeld's group in Munich, where he met one of his later long-term collaborators, Rudolf Peierls. Bethe considered his entry into physics to have come at an ideal time, with the new ideas of wave mechanics being developed and discussed right there; it was certainly also at an ideal place. His doctoral thesis was on the theory of electron diffraction by crystals, following the experimental work by Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer and the work on X-ray diffraction by Max von Laue and Paul Ewald. The newly minted doctor went from there briefly to Frankfurt and then to Ewald in Stuttgart, where he felt at home academically and personally. In 1939, Bethe would marry Ewald's daughter Rose. Not much later, though, Sommerfeld recalled him to Munich, where Sommerfeld created a Privatdozent position for him. There he worked out the solution for a linear chain of coupled spins by what we

  20. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1967 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1967 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative) SECOND FLOOR: VIEW OF SOUTHEAST BEDROOM. - Dr. Archibald Dann House, 12 Vick Park, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  1. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1967 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1967 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative) VIEW OF REAR FACADE FROM SOUTHWEST. - Dr. Archibald Dann House, 12 Vick Park, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1967 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1967 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative) VIEW OF STREET FACADE FROM EAST. - Dr. Archibald Dann House, 12 Vick Park, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1967 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1967 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative) FIRST FLOOR: VIEW OF DINING ROOM. - Dr. Archibald Dann House, 12 Vick Park, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  4. 1. EXTERIOR, NORTH & WEST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (Hans Muesig ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR, NORTH & WEST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (Hans Muesig & Robert Ryan, Photographers, March 1979) - Methodist Episcopal Church of Montour, East side of South Walnut Street, Montour, Gem County, ID

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1967 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1967 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative) GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. - Charles Bissell House, 666 East Avenue, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative) FIRST FLOOR: ENTRANCE HALL LOOKING NORTH. - Charles Bissell House, 666 East Avenue, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  7. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative) FIRST FLOOR: DETAILED VIEW OF STAIRCASE. - Charles Bissell House, 666 East Avenue, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1967 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1967 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative) VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION FROM SOUTHEAST. - Charles Bissell House, 666 East Avenue, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  9. Comustion of HAN-Based Monopropellant Droplets in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants that have many attractive characteristics and which display phenomena that differ significantly from other liquid monopropellants. They are composed primarily of HAN, H2O and a fuel species, often triethanolammonium nitrate (TEAN). HAN-based propellants have attracted attention as liquid gun propellants, and are attractive for NASA spacecraft propulsion applications. A representative propellant is XM46. This mixture is 60.8% HAN, 19.2% TEAN and 20% H2O by weight. Other HAN-based propellant mixtures are also of interest. For example, methanol and glycine have been investigated as potential fuel species for HAN-based monopropellants for thruster applications. In the present research, experimental and theoretical studies are performed on combustion of HAN-based monopropellant droplets. The fuel species considered are TEAN, methanol and glycine. Droplets initially in the mm size range are studied at pressures up to 30 atm. These pressures are applicable to spacecraft thruster applications. The droplets are placed in environments with various amounts of Ar, N2, O2, NO2 and N2O. Reduced gravity is employed to enable observations of burning rates and flame structures to be made without the complicating effects of buoyant and forced convection. Normal gravity experiments are also performed in this research program. The experiment goals are to provide accurate fundamental data on deflagration rates, gasphase temperature profiles, transient gas-phase flame behaviors, the onset of bubbling in droplets at lower pressures, and the low-pressure deflagration limit. Theoretical studies are performed to provide rational models of deflagration mechanisms of HAN-based liquid propellants. Besides advancing fundamental knowledge, this research should aid in applications (e.g., spacecraft thrusters and liquid propellant guns) of this unique class of monopropellants.

  10. Excised segments of rat small intestine in Ussing chamber studies: A comparison of native and stripped tissue viability and permeability to drugs.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, Erik; Eriksson, Johanna; Vedin, Charlotta; Breitholtz, Katarina; Hilgendorf, Constanze

    2016-05-30

    Excised rat intestinal tissue mounted in an Ussing chamber can be used for intestinal permeability assessments in drug development. The outer layer of the intestine, the serosa and part of the muscle layer, is traditionally removed since it is considered a barrier to the diffusion of nutrients and oxygen as well as to that of pharmaceutical substances. However, the procedure for removing the serosal-muscle layer, i.e. stripping, is a technically challenging process in the pre-experimental preparation of the tissue which may result in tissue damage and reduced viability of the segment. In this study, the viability of stripped and native (non-stripped) rat small intestine tissue segments mounted in Ussing chambers was monitored and the apparent permeability of the tissue to a set of test compounds across both tissue preparations was determined. Electrical measurements, in particular the potential difference (PD) across the intestinal membrane, were used to evaluate the viability. In this study, there were no differences in initial PD (health status of the tissue) or PD over time (viability throughout the experiment) between native and stripped rat jejunum segments. Overall, there were also no significant differences in permeability between stripped and native rat intestinal tissue for the compounds in this study. Based on these results, we propose that stripping can be excluded from the preparation procedures for rat jejunal tissue for permeability studies when using the Ussing chamber technique. PMID:27073083

  11. Investigation of effects of Giardia duodenalis on transcellular and paracellular transport in enterocytes using in vitro Ussing chamber experiments.

    PubMed

    Tysnes, Kristoffer R; Robertson, Lucy J

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms by which different genotypes of Giardia duodenalis result in different symptoms remain unresolved. In particular, we lack detailed knowledge on which transport mechanisms (transcellular or paracellular) are affected by different Giardia isolates. Using horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and creatinine as transcellular and paracellular probes, respectively, we developed a robust assay that can be used with an Ussing chamber to investigate epithelial transport, as well as short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport. We investigated 2 Giardia isolates, both Assemblage A, one a lab-adapted strain and the other a field isolate. Results indicate that products from sonicated Giardia trophozoites increase both transcellular and paracellular transport. A non-significant increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and short-circuit current were also noted. The paracellular transport was increased significantly more in the field isolate than in the lab-adapted strain. Our results indicate that while both transcellular and paracellular transport mechanisms may be increased following exposure of cells to Giardia trophozoite sonicate, perhaps by inducing non-specific increases in cellular traffic, it is important that in vitro studies of Giardia pathophysiology are conducted with different Giardia isolates, not just lab-attenuated strains. PMID:25395017

  12. Tracer Sampling In The Arctic From The Nuclear Submarine USS L. Mendel Rivers During SCICEX 2000: Evidence Of Eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadko, D. C.; Aagaard, K.

    2006-12-01

    Observations suggest that the central Arctic Ocean is surprisingly energetic and variable, given the weak mean flow and the very strong halocline, which isolates the surface from the deeper ocean. One source of variability is numerous, generally anticyclonic eddies, many of which are centered in the halocline and likely generated within the boundary current. These and other eddies may be an important means of transporting properties in regions of weak mean flow, since they are found far from their origin, show anomalous water properties, and have a life time of years, mixing only slowly with ambient waters. Tracers additional to temperature and salinity will likely prove useful in identifying eddy sources and ages. Here we report radium isotope, temperature, and salinity data obtained from the USS L. Mendel Rivers - PACSUBICEX 3-00 SCICEX Accommodation cruise in October, 2000. The radium activity ratios are linked to shelf sources, and provide estimates of time elapsed since the waters left the shelf. The generally decreasing 228Ra/226Ra ratio in the halocline observed across the Canada Basin from Barrow to the North Pole is consistent with distance from Pacific shelf sources. Additionally, isolated anomalously high 228Ra/226Ra ratios within both the Canada and Eurasian basins suggest water parcels that have been rapidly (relative to the 5.77 year 228Ra half-life) transported from the shelves into the interior. The density field indicates that eddies are the means of this efficient transport of shelf properties into the central Arctic Ocean.

  13. Method for the preparation of mucosal flaps from the jejunum of laying hens for transporter studies in Ussing chambers.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; Röhe, Ilen; Meyer, Wilfried; Kröger, Susan; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Ussing chambers are frequently used for in vitro evaluation of intestinal transport physiology. The current study describes investigating the jejunal tissue from laying hens using a specific preparation method and evaluates the effect of glutamine in the maintenance buffer. Tunica mucosa was stripped from 104 jejunal samples from 10 hens and stabilised by a net device. Fifty samples were maintained with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (Control), 54 samples with additional 5 mM glutamine (Group Gln). The percentage of responding samples varied between 87 and 100%. Mean short circuit current (ΔI sc,) [µA/cm(2)] of samples exposed to 10 mM glucose in the Control group and Group Gln was 17.0 and 14.6 (p = 0.836), respectively, of samples exposed to 100 µM phloridzin -13.3 and -11.8 (p = 0.712), respectively, and of samples exposed to 100 µM carbachol 4.7 and 3.7 (p = 0.450), respectively. In conclusion, the net-supported method enabled a reliable investigation of jejunum from laying hens. Glutamine in the maintenance buffer was of no significant benefit. PMID:23521695

  14. Evaluation of HAN-TEAN Stabilizers using Microcalorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, Steven D.; Davis, Dennis D.; Chang, Craig H.; Baker, David L.

    1997-01-01

    HAN-TEAN (hydroxylammonium nitrate - triethanolammonium nitrate - in water) is being considered for various propellant applications. This propellant has advantages in terms of insensitivity to impact and fire, low vapor pressure and environmentally benign reaction products. One office concerns with HAN-TEAN is its stability and shelf-life, especially when contaminated with trace metals. Stabilizer systems, consisting of anti-oxidants and/or chealating agents were investigated for their ability to control the decomposition of HAN-TEAN. Isothermal microcalorimetry, an ultrasensitive heat measurement technique, was used to monitor the decomposition of HANTEAN at near ambient temperatures. Isothermal microcalorimetry measures the heat flow from a reaction vessel into a surrounding heat sink. Microcalorimetry is approximately 1,000 times more sensitive than accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for measuring heat flow. Samples of HAN-TEAN containing the stabilizers were spiked with 50 ppm iron and the heat evolution monitored for a period of at least 30 days. Ten stabilizer combinations were tested and the rates of HAN-TEAN decomposition were lowered by 74 to 95 percent in the presence of iron.

  15. HAN-Based Monopropellant Propulsion System with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Oleson, Steven R.

    1997-01-01

    NASA is developing a new monopropellant propulsion system for small, cost-driven spacecraft with AV requirements in the range of 10-150 m/sec. This system is based on a hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN)/water/fuel monopropellant blend which is extremely dense, environmentally benign, and promises good performance and simplicity. State-of-art (SOA) small spacecraft typically employ either hydrazine or high pressure stored gas. Herein, a 'typical' small satellite bus is used to illustrate how a HAN-based monopropellant propulsion system fulfills small satellite propulsion requirements by providing mass and/or volume savings of SOA hydrazine monopropellants with the cost benefits of a stored nitrogen gas.

  16. Language, Literacy, and Nationalism: Taiwan's Orthographic Transition from the Perspective of Han Sphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiung, Wi-vun Taiffalo

    2007-01-01

    The Han sphere, including Vietnam, Korea, Japan, Taiwan and China, adopted Han characters and classical Han writing as the official written language before the 20th century. However, great changes came with the advent of the 20th century. After World War II, Han characters in Vietnam and Korea were officially replaced by the romanised "Chu Quoc…

  17. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative), FIRST FLOOR, GENERAL VIEW OF DINING ROOM WITH FURNITURE DESIGNED BY FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT. - E. E. Boynton House, 16 East Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  18. Hans Kueng's Paradigm Theology and Some Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Dietze, Erich

    1998-01-01

    Identifies some controversies and issues that arise from Hans Kueng's adaptation of Thomas Kuhn's paradigm theory to theology, particularly those associated with the conflict presented between the educational theory advocated by Kuhn and that contained in Kueng's wider thinking. Argues that the dilemma presents ironies that Kueng must somehow…

  19. Evaluation of fasted and fed state simulated and human intestinal fluids as solvent system in the Ussing chambers model to explore food effects on intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Wuyts, Benjamin; Riethorst, Danny; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2015-01-30

    The Ussing chambers model is almost exclusively used in the presence of plain aqueous phosphate buffers as solvent system. In an attempt to further elucidate the effect of luminal ingredients and postprandial conditions on intestinal permeability, pooled fasted and fed state human intestinal fluids (FaHIFpool, FeHIFpool) were used. In addition, simulated intestinal fluids of both nutritional states (FaSSIF, FeSSIF) were evaluated as possible surrogate media for HIF. The use of FaHIFpool generated a broad range of Papp values for a series of 16 model drugs, ranging from 0.03×10(-6)cm/s (carvedilol) to 33.8×10(-6)cm/s (naproxen). A linear correlation was observed between Papp values using FaSSIF and FaHIFpool as solvent system (R=0.990), justifying the use of FaSSIF as surrogate medium for FaHIF in the Ussing chambers. In exclusion of the outlier carvedilol, a strong sigmoidal relationship was found between Papp and fahuman of 15 model drugs, illustrated by correlation coefficients of 0.961 and 0.936 for FaHIFpool and FaSSIF, respectively. When addressing food effects on intestinal permeability, the use of FeHIFpool resulted in a significantly lower Papp value for nine out of sixteen compounds compared to fasting conditions. FeSSIF as solvent system significantly overestimated Papp values in FeHIFpool. To conclude, the optimized Ussing chambers model using biorelevant media as apical solvent system holds great potential to investigate food effects in a more integrative approach, taking into account drug solubilisation, supersaturation and formulation effects. PMID:25510602

  20. On the Reliability of Han Dynasty Solar Eclipse Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankenier, David W.

    2012-11-01

    The veracity of early Chinese records of astronomical observations has been questioned, principally based on two early studies from the 1950s, which suggested that political motives may have led scholar-officials at court to fabricate astral omens. Here I revisit the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) solar eclipse reports to determine whether the charge has merit for those first four centuries of the imperial period. All 127 dated solar eclipses reported in the official sources are checked for accuracy against the "Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses" produced by Espenak and Meeus (2009). The Han Dynasty records prove remarkably accurate. Copyists' errors do occur, but there are only rare instances of totally erroneous reports, none of which is provably the result of politically-motivated manipulation.

  1. Neprilysin Confers Genetic Susceptibility to Alzheimer's Disease in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Zhen; Bi, Rui; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Ma, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Yiru; Li, Tao; Zhang, Chen; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, with increasing incidence all over the world. Amyloid-β (Aβ) was considered to be the original cause to AD, and many reported pathogenic or risk genes for AD were located in the Aβ generation and degradation pathways. Neprilysin (NEP), insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), and matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) are the most important Aβ-degrading proteases. Accumulating genetic evidence suggested that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these genes confer susceptibility to AD in Caucasian populations. In this study, we screened eight SNPs within these three Aβ-degrading protease genes in 1475 individuals of two independent Han Chinese case-control cohorts. SNP rs1816558 of NEP was found to be significantly associated with AD after adjustment for ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOEε4) and the Bonferroni correction. The remaining variants were not associated with risk of AD in Han Chinese sample set. Further data mining revealed that messenger RNA (mRNA) level of NEP substantially increased during the development of AD and was positively correlated with APP expression. The combined results indicated that NEP confers genetic susceptibility to AD in Han Chinese populations. PMID:26362309

  2. Freud's Little Oedipus: Hans as exception to the oedipal rule.

    PubMed

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2008-09-01

    Freud's "The Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" is regarded by Freud and by analytic readers and commentators as a prototype of his conception of the oedipus complex. A literary methodology is used to show that the interpretation of the oedipus complex at work in Freud's text in fact differs from Freud's standard view of it. While studying the paper as text, not as case report, may obscure or distort some clinical matters, it is valuable in that it makes legible a sort of theoretical unconscious in the text. In contrast to Freud's typically tragic view of the oedipus complex (in the tradition of ancient Greek tragedy), the Hans study evokes a comic vision (in the tradition of Greek New Comedy). This comic vision allows Hans a happy imaginative ending to the oedipal dilemma, challenges certain epistemic pretensions, and emphasizes the oedipus complex as a set of abiding existential questions. Given the deep link between Freud"s oedipus concept and a tragic view of human life, this departure in the Hans paper is a fascinating anomaly. PMID:18802132

  3. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women. PMID:27086430

  4. Release of ammonia from HAN-type PHA

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1992-06-10

    A preliminary design basis for ammonia scrubbers in the DWPF has been issued. This design basis is based on a theoretical model of ammonia evolution from the SRAT, SME and RCT. It is desirable to acquire actual process data on ammonia evolution prior to performing detailed design of scrubbers for DWPF. The evolution of ammonia from the SRAT and SME in the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) was investigated during the HM4 run. In this run, Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA), which was made in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) using the HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process was used, thus resulting in PHA with a high concentration of ammonium ion.

  5. 'USS Alabama', 'USS Mississippi', 'USS Missouri', 'USS Tennessee' and 'USS Texas' Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinenis L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five new Chinese hibiscus cultivars are products from a planned hibiscus breeding program conducted by the inventors at Poplarville, MS. The goal of the research is to produce new clones with a combination of desirable horticultural traits. Desirable floral traits include early bloom, uniform flower...

  6. Hereditary Breast Cancer in the Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenming; Wang, Xiaojia; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and has a strong genetic background. So far, 13 breast cancer susceptibility genes of high or moderate penetrance have been identified. This review summarizes findings on these genes in Han Chinese. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the 2 most important susceptibility genes. They have a relatively low mutation rate, and the most frequent sites of mutation are in exon 11. Frameshift mutations are the main type of mutation. Founder mutations may also exist, and BRCA-associated breast cancer has specific clinicopathologic characteristics. TP53 and PALB2 are relatively rare susceptibility genes. The relationship between the other 9 genes and breast cancer has not been fully elucidated. At present, the mutation spectrum for these susceptibility genes is not well understood in the Chinese population, and there are few reports on prognosis and clinical intervention in high-risk populations. Therefore, the true value of genetic counseling for breast cancer has yet to be realized. This article reviews studies of hereditary breast cancer in the Han Chinese population, highlights potential inadequacies, and provides a foundation for genetic counseling for breast cancer in China. PMID:23318652

  7. Molecular characterization of a Han Chinese family with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J F; Zhang, X; Ling, L

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial genome have been found to be associated with essential hypertension. Here, we report the clinical and molecular characterization of a three-generation Han Chinese family with maternally inherited hypertension. Most strikingly, this pedigree exhibited a high penetrance of hypertension. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genome showed the presence of a homoplasmic T16189C mutation in the D-loop and the intergenic CO2/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp common deletion, as well as a set of polymorphisms belonging to the East Asia haplogroup B5b1. The well-known T16189C mutation, which is in the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial control region, is implicated to be associated with a wide range of clinical disorders. Moreover, the genetic polymorphism 9-bp common deletion is found to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in the Han Chinese population. Thus, the combination of T16189C mutation and the 9-bp deletion may have caused mitochondrial dysfunction and contributed to the development of essential hypertension in this Chinese family. PMID:27323027

  8. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  9. Sir Hans Sloane (1660–1735): his life and legacy

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stanley A

    2010-01-01

    Sir Hans Sloane was born in Killyleagh, Co Down, the seventh and last son of Alexander Sloane. His father, who was of Scottish ancestry, had a long association with James Hamilton, Earl of Clanbrassil who had acquired the castle in Killyleagh and extensive estates in east Down. The Hamilton family took an interest in the education of the Sloane children, and much of the early tuition of Hans was conducted within the library of Killyleagh Castle. In 1679 he moved to London to study medicine and botany. In 1683, he continued his studies in Paris and Montpellier, and graduated from the University of Orange. On his return to London, he became a protégé of Thomas Sydenham. In 1687 he was appointed physician to the Duke of Albemarle and surgeon to the West Indies fleet. While in Jamaica he added countless specimens to his collections, continuing a lifetime passion. He also invented milk chocolate there. Following the untimely death of the duke, he returned to London and built up a fashionable medical practice. He married Elizabeth Langley, heiress of a wealthy city alderman, and widow of a sugar planter in Jamaica. They set up house in Great Russell Street. The family home accommodated his burgeoning collections of books, specimens and curiosities. In 1685 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, later becoming the honorary secretary and president. Following his death, his collections were bought for the nation and formed the foundation of the British Museum. PMID:20844729

  10. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies. PMID:22038841

  11. Human small intestinal and colonic tissue mounted in the Ussing chamber as a tool for characterizing the intestinal absorption of drugs.

    PubMed

    Rozehnal, Veronika; Nakai, Daisuke; Hoepner, Ursula; Fischer, Thomas; Kamiyama, Emi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Yasuda, Satoru; Mueller, Juergen

    2012-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to validate human small intestinal and colonic tissue mounted in the Ussing chamber as a tool for predicting the oral drug absorption in humans with the main focus on moderately and poorly permeable compounds. The obtained apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) of eleven test compounds was compared to their fraction absorbed (Fa) in humans taken from the literature. Beside the conventional P(app) a new parameter, the apparent permeability coefficient total (P(app,total)), involving both the apical-to-basolateral permeability and the time-dependent compound accumulation in the tissue was established. The permeability of lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent marker of the paracellular pathway and the test compounds showed no obvious differences between small intestine and colon. Furthermore, small intestinal and colonic tissue from a single donor showed similar permeability of both LY and a transcellularly transported compound metoprolol. All test compounds including low molecular weight hydrophilic compounds such as metformin, atenolol, sulpiride and famotidine showed adequate permeability reflecting human Fa values (R(2)=0.87). The P(app) values of digoxin, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, were not significantly affected by the addition of verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor. In contrast, the P(app,total) values of digoxin increased approximately threefold in the presence of verapamil. In conclusion, both small intestinal and colonic tissue mounted in the Ussing chamber provide a good opportunity to predict the oral drug absorption rate in humans even for moderately and poorly absorbed compounds. The novel calculation of P(app,total) allows the study of the carrier-mediated drug-drug interactions in human intestine. PMID:22418036

  12. Radiolysis gases from nitric acid solutions containing HSA and HAN

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1994-10-28

    The concentration of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the radiolytically produced off-gas from 2.76-4.25M HNO{sub 3}/PU solutions has been found to be greatly reduced in the presence of sulfamic acid (HSA) and hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN). The H{sub 2} concentration ([H{sub 2}]) is reduced from 35 percent to about 4 percent by dilution caused from an increase in the production rates of nitrogen (N{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and oxygen (O{sub 2}) gases. The generation rate of H{sub 2} was not affected by HSA or HAN giving a measured radiolytic yield, G(H{sub 2}), value of 0.201 molecules/100 eV for 2.765M NO{sub 3}{sup -} solution (a value of 0.213 is predicted from previous data). The G(H{sub 2}) values are dependent on the solution nitrate concentration ([NO{sub 3}{sup -}]). The generation rates of N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} are not dependent on the [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] in this narrow range, but are dependent on the presence of HSA and the concentration of HAN. The percentage [H{sub 2}] for the 2.5 to 3.0M NO{sub 3}{sup -} range expected in the off- from the FB-Line Pu{sup +3} Hold Tanks is conservatively estimated to be about 3.5 to 4.5 % for Pu + 3 solutions initially containing 0.023M HAN/0.165M HSA. The upper limit [H{sub 2}] may actually be about 4.1 % (4.3 % at 90 % confidence limits) but more {open_quotes}initial{close_quotes} off-gas rate data is needed at about 2.9M [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] in Pu{sup +3} solution for verification. Addition of ascorbic acid had no effect on the off-gas rate of Pu{sup +3} solutions containing HSA and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations higher than those expected in the hold tanks. The maximum {open_quotes}hold time{close_quotes} for 50 grams/liter Pu{sup +3}/0.165M HSA/0.023M HAN/2.5-3.0M HNO{sub 3} solution is 20.3{+-}2.1 days. After this time the HSA initially present will become exhausted and the [H{sub 2}] will increase to 35 %. This hold time may be longer in [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] < 3.0M, but again more study is needed.

  13. Ovarian proteomic study reveals the possible molecular mechanism for hyperprolificacy of Small Tail Han sheep

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Zhao, Huijing; Qin, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Small Tail Han sheep is a widely bred farm animal in China which has attracted lots of attention due to their high prolificacy and year-round estrus. However, the molecular mechanism of its fecundity remains unrevealed. The FecB gene polymorphism has been found to be associated with the ovulation rate and litter size of sheep. In the present study, we constructed an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis to compare the ovarian proteomes of FecB+FecB+ genotype Small Tail Han sheep ewes (Han ++), FecBBFecBB Han ewes (Han BB) and Dorset ewes (Dorset). Hundreds of differentially expressed proteins between each two groups were identified; GO and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that the expressions of those proteins involved in ribosome assembly, protein translation and mTOR pathway between Dorset and both Han groups were highly different. Between Han ++ and Han BB groups, higher level of protein expressions were related to mitochondrial oxidation functions such as oxidoreductase activity, cytochrome-c oxidase activity and electron carrier activity. This was identified in Han BB group, which may contribute to the elevated ovulation rate of Han BB ewes. In conclusion, our work provided a prospective understanding of the molecular mechanism for high prolificacy of Small Tail Han sheep. PMID:27271055

  14. Ovarian proteomic study reveals the possible molecular mechanism for hyperprolificacy of Small Tail Han sheep.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Zhao, Huijing; Qin, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Small Tail Han sheep is a widely bred farm animal in China which has attracted lots of attention due to their high prolificacy and year-round estrus. However, the molecular mechanism of its fecundity remains unrevealed. The FecB gene polymorphism has been found to be associated with the ovulation rate and litter size of sheep. In the present study, we constructed an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis to compare the ovarian proteomes of FecB+FecB+ genotype Small Tail Han sheep ewes (Han ++), FecB(B)FecB(B) Han ewes (Han BB) and Dorset ewes (Dorset). Hundreds of differentially expressed proteins between each two groups were identified; GO and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that the expressions of those proteins involved in ribosome assembly, protein translation and mTOR pathway between Dorset and both Han groups were highly different. Between Han ++ and Han BB groups, higher level of protein expressions were related to mitochondrial oxidation functions such as oxidoreductase activity, cytochrome-c oxidase activity and electron carrier activity. This was identified in Han BB group, which may contribute to the elevated ovulation rate of Han BB ewes. In conclusion, our work provided a prospective understanding of the molecular mechanism for high prolificacy of Small Tail Han sheep. PMID:27271055

  15. [Hans Selye, the grandmaster of creativity and originality].

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Árpád

    2015-08-30

    Hans Selye, the father of the stress concept, was a giant of science of the twentieth century. Beyond his best-known work on stress, he also made several discoveries on various other fields of experimental medicine. He described and characterized various pluricausal diseases. In addition, he made pivotal contributions to the broad field of endocrinology, especially to the classification of steroids and to our better understanding of their mode of action. He developed surgical technics and experimental animal models suitable for studying the pathogenesis and prevention of human diseases. Selye was an extremely well educated, highly intelligent and disciplined individual, an original and creative scientist, an outstanding teacher, a philosopher, a prolific author, a fabulous communicator and a gifted organizer successfully establishing, developing and managing a major academic research institution, the word-famous Institute of Experimental Medicine and Surgery of the University of Montreal. PMID:26299830

  16. Hans von Haberer: a forgotten pioneer in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Mönig, S P; Walter, M; Erasmi, H; Pichlmaier, H

    1997-03-01

    After carrying out the first free vein graft transplantation on an aneurysm of the axillary vein by Lexer in 1907, many attempts were made to reconstruct arterial injuries with direct vascular suture technique or vein graft transplants during the Balkan War (1912) and the First World War (1914-1918). Hans von Haberer gained wide experience in the reconstructive surgery of traumatic aneurysms at the Department of Surgery at the University of Innsbruck. During this period, he operated on a total of 201 vascular aneurysms, mainly using a direct circular vascular suture technique. In 1914, von Haberer described the first reconstruction of a carotid aneurysm. First experiences with vein bypasses were made, but not pursued in the following years. PMID:9181777

  17. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 36 in the Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Chung; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Hsiao, Cheng-Tsung; Liu, Guan-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the genetic and clinical characteristics of the GGCCTG hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the nucleolar protein 56 gene (NOP56) in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), sporadic ataxia, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Taiwan. Methods: We conducted clinical and molecular genetic studies of 109 probands with molecularly unassigned SCA from 512 SCA pedigrees, 323 healthy controls, 502 patients with sporadic ataxia syndromes, and 144 patients with ALS. Repeat-primed PCR assays and PCR-fragment analysis for the number of short hexanucleotide repeats (<40 units) were performed to ascertain NOP56 hexanucleotide repeat expansion. Genotyping included 8 microsatellite markers and 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms flanking NOP56 and covering a region of 1.8 Mb to assess a possible founder effect. Results: Eleven individuals from 3 SCA pedigrees have the NOP56 repeat expansions. The 3 pedigrees share a common haplotype spanning 5.3 kb flanking the NOP56 repeat expansions, suggesting a founder effect of spinocerebellar ataxia type 36 (SCA36) in the Han Chinese. The average age at symptom onset was 44.8 ± 3.8 years with truncal ataxia as the initial manifestation. Common features included slowly progressive truncal/limb ataxia, dysarthria, generalized hyperreflexia, and hearing impairment. Evidence of lower motor neuron involvement, including atrophy and fasciculation in the limb muscles and tongue, was mostly found in patients with prolonged disease duration. NOP56 repeat expansion was not detected in controls or patients with sporadic ataxic syndromes or ALS. Conclusions: SCA36 is an uncommon subtype, which accounted for 0.6% (3/512) of SCA cases in the Han Chinese population. PMID:27123487

  18. Type 2 Diabetes in Han Chinese in Hubei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo Saif Dehwah, Mustafa; Shuang, Zhang; Yan, Wang; Chan, Peng; Huang, Qing-Yang

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese in Hubei. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptorγ2 (PPARγ2) is a nuclear receptor plays a key role in regulation of adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are various studies have provided evidence for the association between common Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the results are controversial and depend on ethnicity. So we conducted a case-control association study among 330 T2DM patients and 212 controls with family-based and random case-control designs. The genotypes of the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism were detected by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFL) method. The result indicated that the Pro12 allele was associated with type 2 diabetes in this study population.

  19. Risks associated with premature ovarian failure in Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huidan; Chen, Haitao; Qin, Yingying; Shi, Zhuqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianfeng; Ma, Bowen; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-04-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between demographic characteristics, past medical history, general lifestyle habits and susceptibility of premature ovarian failure (POF) in Han Chinese population was investigated. Five hundred and fifty-three patients with POF and 400 women with normal ovarian function were recruited. A questionnaire was designed to gather information from responders. Logistic regression was carried out to calculate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and P-values. History of pelvic surgery, mumps, having relatives with menstrual abnormalities and exposure to chemical agents were significantly associated with increased risk of POF (OR 5.53 [2.15 to 14.23]; 3.26 [2.38 to 4.47]; 28.12 [8.84 to 89.46]; 4.47 [2.09 to 9.58]). Vegetarian diet, tea and mineral water consumption reduced the risk of POF (OR 0.27 [0.19 to 0.37]; 0.04 [0.03 to 0.07]; 0.63 [0.47 to 0.85], respectively). Heredity, pelvic surgery, mumps and exposure to chemical agents were identified as risk factors for POF, whereas vegetarian diet, tea consumption and mineral water drinking were protective. Therefore, genetic consultation could help those women whose relatives manifested an early or premature menopause to avoid the consequences of possible premature ovarian function cessation. Avoidance of exposure to endocrine disrupters and flavonoids intake should be considered. PMID:25682306

  20. [Hans von Hattingberg between psychoanalysis and National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Keifenheim, Katharina Eva

    2011-01-01

    Hans von Hattingberg (1879-1944) worked as a neurologist and psychoanalyst in Munich and Berlin from about 1910 to 1944. He was a prolific writer, but met with increasing disapproval from Freud and his circle. An advocate of the union of different psychotherapeutic schools, he was initially a marginal figure in the professional field. With Hitler's rise to power his career prospered: He was offered the position of a lecturer for psychotherapy and became head of the research department at the "Göring Institute". He came to prominence with his writings on the "Neue deutsche Seelenheilkunde" despite the fact that this was never his preferred topic. The main themes of his publications were marriage, love and female emancipation. Those works contain only little of the standard Nazi ideology of the time. Not only was Hattingberg never a member of the NSDAP (the ruling party), but in some respects he could conceivably be considered a member of the resistance. The article outlines the most important stages of Hattingberg's life and focuses on the question of how he positioned himself after 1933, when it became vital for him to reconcile psychoanalysis and National Socialism. PMID:22164713

  1. Hans Loewald, psychoanalysis, and the project of autonomy.

    PubMed

    Whitebook, Joel

    2008-12-01

    For some time psychoanalysts have tended to view Freud's cultural writings--concerning modernity, secularism, science, and religion--disparagingly, seeing them as the unscientific speculations of a misguided genius. But the questions Freud explored in those works are pressing topics that deserve serious attention. Just as fascism provided the historical context in which the critical theorists of the Frankfurt School developed a psychoanalytic social theory in the 1930s and 1940s, so the rise of fundamentalism demands a similar effort today. The "project of autonomy" conceptualized by the psychoanalyst-philosopher Castoriadis can be used to situate psychoanalysis in its broader historical context, as part of the emancipatory movement of modernity, and to elucidate fundamentalism as an attempt to turn back that project and reinstate the values of premodern traditional societies. Because the widespread aversion to secularism today is in no small degree the responsibility of secularists themselves--Freud's relatively crude and simplistic disregard of some of the deepest yearnings of humankind is a case in point--it is time to formulate, using the work of Hans Loewald, a more sensitive and sophisticated psychoanalytic view of religion. Yet psychoanalytic secularists must avoid overcompensating for past mistakes by giving too much ground to antisecularists. The legitimate desire to do justice to religion must not trump the need to advance the project of autonomy as a first priority. PMID:19037118

  2. Primo-Vascular System as Presented by Bong Han Kim

    PubMed Central

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Globa, Ludmila; Sorokulova, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s Bong Han Kim discovered and characterized a new vascular system. He was able to differentiate it clearly from vascular blood and lymph systems by the use of a variety of methods, which were available to him in the mid-20th century. He gave detailed characterization of the system and created comprehensive diagrams and photographs in his publications. He demonstrated that this system is composed of nodes and vessels, and it was responsible for tissue regeneration. However, he did not disclose in detail his methods. Consequently, his results are relatively obscure from the vantage point of contemporary scientists. The stains that Kim used had been perfected and had been in use for more than 100 years. Therefore, the names of the stains were directed to the explicit protocols for the usage with the particular cells or molecules. Traditionally, it was not normally necessary to describe the method used unless it is significantly deviated from the original method. In this present work, we have been able to disclose staining methods used by Kim. PMID:26379743

  3. Hans Küpper discusses science and venture capital.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Hans

    2004-11-01

    Hans Küpper has over 30 years of experience in the biotechnology industry in areas from research to R&D management, technology assessment and business acquisitions. He received his PhD in 1974 from the University of Heidelberg. After additional academic research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the USA and at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, he joined Biogen in 1980. Here, he held various R&D positions, the last of which was Assistant Research Director. In 1985, he joined Behringwerke AG, Marburg, to build up and head the company's Molecular Biology Department and thereafter became Head of R&D of the Immunology/Oncology Business Unit. In 1999 he joined Global Life Science Ventures at their Munich office. Dr Küpper is the author of numerous publications and patents/applications and has also served as a consultant to the Pharmaceutical Industry and the European Commission. He is a board member of several early stage companies in the life sciences. PMID:15501722

  4. Actual use scene of Han-Character for proper name and coded character set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo

    This article discusses the following two issues. One is overview of standardization of Han-Character in coded character set including Universal coded character set (ISO/IEC 10646), with the relation to Japanese language policy of the government. The other is the difference and particularity of Han-Character usage for proper name and difficulty to implement in ICT systems.

  5. DNM2 mutations in Chinese Han patients with centronuclear myopathy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pengfei; Liu, Xinhong; Zhao, Dandan; Dai, Tingjun; Wu, Huamin; Gong, Yaoqin; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2016-06-01

    Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a congenital myopathy characterized by an abnormally high number of muscle fibers with centrally located nuclei. Autosomal-dominant centronuclear myopathy-1 (CNM1) results from mutations in the dynamin 2 gene (DNM2) and accounts for approximately 50 % of all CNM cases. Up to now, around 35 mutations of DNM2 gene have been identified in CNM; however, the underlying molecular mechanism of DNM2 mutation in the pathology of CNM remains elusive, and the standard clinical characteristics and the genotype-phenotype correlation of DNM2 gene mutation with CNM have not yet been defined. Here, we report the clinical characteristics, molecular diagnosis strategy, and DNM2 gene mutations of four Chinese Han patients with CNM. Congenital myopathy-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to sequence the regions of the genome that contain all the coding regions of all known CNM genes and other congenital myopathy genes. We found potential DNM2 mutations in all four of the patients. Further targeted Sanger DNA sequencing of DNM2 found the 1106G>A (p.R369Q) mutation in patients 1 and 2, the c.1393C>T (p.R465W) mutation in patient 3, and the c.1565G>A (p.R522H) mutation in patient 4, all of which were reported previously to be causative mutations of DNM2-related CNM. Our results suggest that the combination of targeted NGS and Sanger sequencing is an effective, rapid, and reliable strategy for the molecular diagnosis of CNM and other genetically heterogeneous disorders. PMID:26908122

  6. Dynamics and climate sensitivity of Hans Tausen Iskappe (Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekollari, Harry; Huybrechts, Philippe; Noël, Brice; van de Berg, Willem Jan; van den Broeke, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    Hans Tausen Iskappe (Greenland), situated at 82.5°N, 27.5°W, is the world's northernmost ice cap. During several field campaigns in the 70s and 90s, its ice thickness was measured, mass balance and meteorological measurements were made, and a 345 m deep ice core was drilled. From this ice core it is known that the ice cap (largely) disappeared during the Holocene Thermal Maximum. The present-day ice cap started building up some 3500-4500 years ago in a wetter and slightly warmer climate than at present. Here we present first 3-D thermo-mechanical higher-order ice flow modelling results of the ice cap's fundamental climate sensitivity. The surface mass balance model considers snowfall and meltwater runoff. Net precipitation is based on RACMO2.3 11-km output that is bi-linearly interpolated to 1 km. Runoff is calculated from a positive degree-day model that includes water retention in the snowpack with parameters derived from field measurements. The simulations are validated and calibrated with field observations complemented with satellite derived surface velocities. The ice cap geometry evolves to a state close to the presently observed for average 1961-1990 climate conditions, but the ice cap is found to already lose a large part of its volume and area under 1981-2010 conditions. Sensitivity analyses point out that the ice cap's northern part, situated on a plateau, is fairly stable under changing climatic conditions, whereas the southern part is much more sensitive. In our analysis we also investigate the effect of higher-order dynamics (compared to the Shallow Ice Approximation) and pay particular attention to what thresholds in the system could lead to a (partial) decay of the ice cap in the future.

  7. Relationship between EPHX2 gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension in Uygur, Kazakh, and Han.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X L; Wang, L; Wang, Z; Chen, S Z; Zhang, W Q; Ma, M M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between rs751141 polymorphisms in the EPHX2 gene and essential hypertension in Uygur, Kazakh, and Han subjects in Xinjiang, China. A total of 302 essential hypertensive patients in Uygur, 267 in Kazakh, and 368 in Han, as well as 323 normotensive controls in Uygur, 284 in Kazakh, and 348 in Han were enrolled in this study. The TaqMan assay was used to detect the rs751141 G/A gene polymorphism in EPHX2. The rs751141 G/A genotype frequencies for the GA+AA genotypes were 40.2% in essential hypertensive subjects and 52.0% in control subjects in the Han population. The frequencies were significantly different between the 2 Han groups (P < 0.01). The rs751141G/A gene polymorphism showed no significant difference between essential hypertensive patients and normotensive controls in Kazakh and Uygur (all P > 0.05). Essential hypertension in Xinjiang was associated with the rs751141 G/A allele gene polymorphism in EPHX2 in Han subjects but not in Kazakh and Uygur subjects. The rs751141 allele gene polymorphism may be an independent protective factor against essential hypertension in the Han population. PMID:25966114

  8. Human Cytomegalovirus Infection is Associated with Essential Hypertension in Kazakh and Han Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Na; Li, Jia-wei; Liu, Yong-min; Zhong, Hua; Wang, La-mei; Deng, Feng-mei; Qu, Yuan-yuan; Hui, Jing; Cheng, Jiang; Tang, Bin; Huang, Gang; Guo, Shu-xia; Li, Xin-zhi; Wei, Li-li; He, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to study the association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and hypertension in Kazakh and Han populations from Xinjiang Province, China. Material/Methods We analyzed data on 800 Kazakhs (467 hypertension patients and 333 healthy control participants) and 800 Hans (482 hypertension patients and 318 healthy control participants) aged 18–84 years old. ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were applied for determining CMV infection and glycoprotein B (gB) genotypes, respectively. Results Serologic evidence of CMV infection was obtained for 95.4% and 90.1% of the Kazakhs and Hans, respectively. The CMV seroprevalence rates among the Kazakh and Han participants with hypertension were 96.8% and 89.8%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed statistically significant independent associations between CMV seropositivity and hypertension in Kazakh males and between CMV antibody titers and hypertension in Hans; significant relationships also existed between CMV antibody titers and blood pressure in Hans. In Kazakhs, 3 CMV gB genotypes were identified: gB2 and genotype mixtures gB1+gB2 and gB2+gB3. In Hans, 4 CMV gB genotypes were identified: gB1, gB2, gB1+gB2, and gB2+gB3. Of the 4 studied genotypes, gB2+gB3 showed a significant independent association with hypertension in Kazakh females. Conclusions CMV infection is associated with essential hypertension in Kazakh males and Hans in Xinjiang. CMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in Kazakh males, and CMV antibody titers are associated with blood pressure and hypertension in Han males and females. Moreover, the CMV gB2+gB3 genotype mixture is associated independently with essential hypertension in Kazakh females. PMID:25448630

  9. [Physician satire and patient scorn in Hans Sachs' old Nürnberg and the physicians].

    PubMed

    Sauerbeck, K O

    1993-01-01

    Among the best poems of Hans Sachs quite a few describe patient-physician relationships in 16th century Nuremberg. These poems offer a vivid impression of the technical aspects as well as of the social context of medical treatment at the time. Hans Sachs ridiculed the doctors and their patients, implying that everybody attempted to cheat the other side, and he provides evidence of a great influence of charlatans on the country population. The poems of Hans Sachs are extraordinary pieces or art; their aesthetics, though, appear unusual to us today. Medical satire is part of all European cultures, and has been written throughout medical history. Most motives of later satires focussing on physicians may be traced to Hans Sachs' poetry. PMID:8310473

  10. Prevalence of and risk factors for gallstones in Uighur and Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li; Aili, Aikebaier; Zhang, Cheng; Saiding, Aili; Abudureyimu, Kelimu

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To perform a single-centre survey of the prevalence of and possible risk factors for gallstones in Uighur and Han Chinese. METHODS: Complete medical data for 9455 patients were collected from the medical centre of our hospital, and the overall prevalence of gallstones as well as the prevalence in different ethnic groups was studied. The risk factors for gallstones in different ethnic groups were identified in a univariate analysis, and variables with statistical significance were analysed by unconditional multiple logistic regression, to primarily explore the similarities and differences in gallstone risk factors between different ethnic groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of gallstones was significantly higher in the Uighur population than in the Han population (22.87% vs 11.64%, P < 0.05). Further analysis of risk factors for gallstones based on the different ethnic areas revealed that age was a risk factor for gallstones in both groups; triglycerides, body-mass index (BMI) and high-density lipoprotein were risk factors for gallstones in the Han population, while total cholesterol (TC), gender and fatty liver were risk factors in the Uighur population. The Uighur patients were older than the Han patients, and had higher BMI, TC, low-density lipoprotein, female rate and fatty liver rate, while the incidence of hypertension was lower than that in the Han patients. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of and risk factors for gallstones differ between the Uighur and Han populations. PMID:25356055

  11. Implicit Trust between the Uyghur and the Han in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueting; Fang, Huizhen; Yang, Shengmin; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Trust is a vital lubricant that increases the sense of security in social interactions. In this study, we investigated the intergroup trust between the Uyghur and the Han, the two largest ethnic groups in Xinjiang, China, with a Go/No-Go Association Task. Specifically, we instructed Uyghur and Han participants to respond to ethnic faces (Uyghur vs. Han) and trust/distrust words and measured the strength of the automatic associations between the faces and words for both in-group and out-group pairs. As expected, both ethnic groups showed implicit in-group trust and out-group distrust, but the Han group demonstrated stronger in-group trust and out-group distrust toward the Uyghur than the Uyghur group toward the Han. However, the magnitude of distrust of the Han toward the Uyghur was small to medium as compared with that reported by other intergroup relationship research. In addition, participant geographic location was associated with out-group distrust. These findings offer implications for developing effective strategies to encourage trust between conflicting groups. PMID:23977155

  12. Research on the Solar Eclipse Records in the Wuxingzhi of Both {Han} Dynasties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the paper Lianghan Rishi Kao (inspect the solar-eclipse records in Both {Han} dynasties) written by {Zhu Wenxin} when compared the solar-eclipse records with those in the book Zhongguo Gudai Tianxiang Jilu Zong ji (collection of Chinese ancient astronomical records), and find 38 (61) records with the same dates in Western (Eastern) {Han} dynasty, equal to 70% (85%) of total. Our results have 42 (61) with the same dates in Western (Eastern) {Han} dynasty as just 78% (85%) of the total. There are totally 126 solar-eclipse records in the Wuxingzhi of both {Han} Dynasties. We confirm that there are 21 no occurred, 7 invisible in the capital then, 9 occurred before sunrise, 1 after sunset, and the left 88 are seen, occupying 70% as usually occurred in the capital area. With the help of our transformation platform as from Chinese ancient 60-day-cycle style dates to Gregorian calendar dates, we check the date records of solar eclipses in the Wuxingzhi of both {Han} dynasties, and then review the accuracy of the calendar. The standard errors of month and day are respectively 0.31 month (0.17 month) and 0.97 day (0.74 day) in the Western (Eastern) {Han} dynasty. At the same time, the standard errors of solar location of the records are determined, they are 11.08° (6.63°) in Western (Eastern) {Han} dynasty, and after excluding the possible misrecords the accuracy changes to 9.30° (3.59°). If the Juxing (key star of this constellation) was the same in both {Han} dynasties, the average value of observation error of solar location in Eastern {Han} dynasty is 2.8°, far better than 8.2° in Western {Han} dynasty. Otherwise, they most likely appear in some constellations with larger deviation. We try to determine the Δ T (ET-UT) value of solar-eclipse records with the magnitude descriptions, and at the same time, it is concluded that the magnitude of Ji (total eclipse) is 0.969-1.0, Jijin (the sun is covered almost all) is 0.829-0.985, and

  13. Active osmoregulatory ion uptake across the pleopods of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas): electrophysiological measurements on isolated split endo- and exopodites mounted in a micro-ussing chamber.

    PubMed

    Postel, U; Becker, W; Brandt, A; Luck-Kopp, S; Riestenpatt, S; Weihrauch, D; Siebers, D

    2000-04-01

    The mechanism of active, osmoregulatory ion uptake was investigated in the pleopods of the marine isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas). Using isolated split half-podites of isopods acclimated to brackish water (20 salinity) mounted in a micro-Ussing chamber and symmetrically superfused with identical haemolymph-like salines, a mean short-circuit current I(sc) of -445 microA cm(-)(2) was measured in endopodites 3-5, corresponding to an inwardly directed transcellular movement of negative charge. Application of ouabain (5 mmol l(-)(1)) to the basolateral superfusate resulted in the almost total abolition of the I(sc) (reduced from -531 to -47 microA cm(-)(2)), suggesting that the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is the driving force for active, electrogenic uptake of NaCl. In contrast, mean I(sc) values close to zero were found in preparations of all exopodites and in endopodites 1 and 2. The specific activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase corresponded with these results. Specific activities were highest in posterior endopodites 3-5 and depended on ambient salinity. In all other rami, the activities were much lower and independent of ambient salinity. Activities in posterior endopodites 3-5 were lowest in isopods acclimated to 30 salinity (2-4 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)), increased in individuals kept in 20 salinity (8.4 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)) and were highest in isopods acclimated to 15 salinity (18.2 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)). When specimens were transferred from 30 to 40 salinity, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased in the posterior endopodites. The electrophysiological and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity measurements show that active electrogenic ion transport in this species occurs almost exclusively in posterior endopodites 3-5. The endopodite of the fifth pleopod of I. baltica exhibited a microscopic structure remarkably similar to that described for the lamellae of the phyllobranchiae of brachyurans. It is composed of two opposed epithelial

  14. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Haiying; Pa, Lize; Wang, Ke; Mu, Hebuli; Dong, Fen; Ya, Shengjiang; Xu, Guodong; Tao, Ning; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47%) than in the Han population (7.36%). In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71%) and the Han population (6.59%). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG), and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Conclusions: Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting. PMID:26473908

  15. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Bai and Han ethnic groups in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, H-L; Dong, L; Li, Q; Zhang, L; Chen, J; Zou, F-C; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-03-01

    Eating raw pork and/or liver is a custom of the Bai ethnic group in China. Most people living in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwestern China are of Bai ethnicity. Little is known of the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Bai and Han ethnic populations in this region. In the present survey, a total of 555 and 595 blood samples were obtained from Bai and Han ethnic groups in Dali urban and rural areas, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to examine T. gondii IgG antibodies. Total positive rate of anti-T. gondii IgG in Bai and Han groups in this region was 21·6% (248/1150). The total seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly higher in the Bai ethnic group (32·3%, 179/555) than in the Han ethnic group (11·6%, 69/595) (P < 0·01). The results of statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between cat feeding/non-cat feeding groups in the Bai ethnic group, the most important risk factor was consumption of raw pork and/or liver for the Bai group, but feeding a cat may be the main route of T. gondii infection for the Han group. Therefore, it is essential to implement integrated strategies to prevent and control T. gondii infection in this unique region of the world. PMID:24933039

  16. Comparative Analysis of Gut Microbiota of Native Tibetan and Han Populations Living at Different Altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Dan, Zeng; Gesang, Luobu; Wang, Hong; Zhou, Yongjian; Du, Yanlei; Ren, Yi; Shi, Yixiang; Nie, Yuqiang

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the composition of gut microbiota are still only partly understood but appear to include environmental, cultural, and genetic factors. In order to obtain more insight into the relative importance of these factors, we analyzed the microbiome composition in subjects of Tibetan or Han descent living at different altitudes. DNA was isolated from stool samples. Using polymerase chain reaction methodology, the 16S rRNA V1–V3 regions were amplified and the sequence information was analyzed by principal coordinates analysis and Lefse analyses. Contrasting the Tibetan and Han populations both living at the 3600 m altitude, we found that the Tibetan microbiome is characterized by a relative abundance of Prevotella whereas the Han stool was enriched in Bacteroides. Comparing the microbiome of Han stool obtained from populations living at different altitudes revealed a more energy efficient flora in samples from those living at higher altitude relative to their lower-altitude counterparts. Comparison of the stool microbiome of Tibetan herders living at 4800 m to rural Tibetans living at 3600 m altitude shows that the former have a flora enriched in butyrate-producing bacteria, possibly in response to the harsher environment that these herders face. Thus, the study shows that both altitude and genetic/cultural background have a significant influence on microbiome composition, and it represents the first attempt to compare stool microbiota of Tibetan and Han populations in relation to altitude. PMID:27232599

  17. Attachment and sibling rivalry in Little Hans: the fantasy of the two giraffes revisited.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2007-01-01

    Freud's interpretation of Little Hans's "phantasy of the two giraffes" is pivotal to his oedipal analysis that Hans has inchoate desires for sexual intercourse with his mother. Bowlby argued that Freud's focus on his oedipal theory led him to ignore preoedipal attachment-related factors that have equal plausibility in explaining the clinical data. However, Bowlby did not attempt to apply the attachment perspective to the interpretation of Hans's fantasies that form the core of the case material. A microanalysis of Hans's giraffe fantasy and the evidence used to support Freud's claims about it yields an attachment-based sibling rivalry account arguably of greater explanatory power than the oedipal account. Consistent with Bowlby's hypothesis, the evidence suggests that Hans's giraffe fantasy is about the sibling rivalry triangle involved in caregiver attachment access, rather than (or in addition to) the oedipal triangle. The issue of multiple levels of meaning and the methodological challenges raised by multiple determination is also considered. The giraffe fantasy's attachment-theoretic explanation encourages a rethinking of this classic case and strengthens Bowlby's claim that the case is fruitfully viewed from an attachment perspective. PMID:17915649

  18. Comprehensive cortical thickness and surface area comparison between young Uyghur and Han Chinese cohorts.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Jiang, Chunhui; Wang, Jian; Jia, Wenxiao

    2016-10-01

    We hypothesized that the brain structural differences as discovered previously between Westerners and East Asians could also be revealed between Han Chinese and Uyghur, which were genetically related ethnic groups with distinct languages. We conducted a brain MRI structural comparison in terms of cortical thickness and surface area between 15 healthy young Uyghurs and 15 age-matched Han Chinese. Widespread regions with significantly greater cortical thickness were found in the Uyghurs, and their distribution showed strong resemblance to previous "Westerners vs. Asians" findings. While surface area analysis displayed less widespread brain differences. Notably, our detected regions with structural differences contained a large part of language-specific or at least closely language-related brain areas, which may partly be attributable to the brain plasticity respectively driven by Uyghur and Mandarin. Our findings will help to better understand the neurobiological basis of interethnic differences along with the language processing mechanisms of Han Chinese and Uyghur. PMID:27067474

  19. JMY Polymorphism Is Related to Severity of Ankylosing Spondylitis in Chinese Han Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Wei; Lian, Zijian; Chen, Chao; Liu, Jingyi; Shi, Lewis L.

    2013-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a largely genetically determined autoimmune disease. JMY has recently been found to be associated with susceptibility to AS in patients of western European descent. We aimed to examine the influence of JMY polymorphisms on the severity of AS in the Chinese ethnic majority Han population. Blood samples were drawn from 396 Chinese Han AS patients whose duration of disease was about 9–12 years. Four tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in JMY were selected and genotyped. Frequencies of different genotypes and clinical indexes about the severity of AS were analyzed. The rs2607142, rs16876619, and rs4704556 SNPs are related to BASFI. The rs2607142, rs4704556, and rs16876657 SNPs are related to BADAI. The rs4704556 and rs16876657 SNPs are related to mSASSS. JMY is related to the severity of AS in Chinese Han patients. PMID:23758122

  20. JMY polymorphism is related to severity of ankylosing spondylitis in Chinese Han patients.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wei; Lian, Zijian; Chen, Chao; Liu, Jingyi; Shi, Lewis L; Wang, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a largely genetically determined autoimmune disease. JMY has recently been found to be associated with susceptibility to AS in patients of western European descent. We aimed to examine the influence of JMY polymorphisms on the severity of AS in the Chinese ethnic majority Han population. Blood samples were drawn from 396 Chinese Han AS patients whose duration of disease was about 9-12 years. Four tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in JMY were selected and genotyped. Frequencies of different genotypes and clinical indexes about the severity of AS were analyzed. The rs2607142, rs16876619, and rs4704556 SNPs are related to BASFI. The rs2607142, rs4704556, and rs16876657 SNPs are related to BADAI. The rs4704556 and rs16876657 SNPs are related to mSASSS. JMY is related to the severity of AS in Chinese Han patients. PMID:23758122

  1. Dynamic comparison of genetic diversity in a Small Tail Han sheep population using meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    E, G X; Huang, Y F; Zhao, Y J; He, J N; Liu, N; Zhong, T; Ma, Y H; Qiu, X Y; Chen, L P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the dynamic diversity of Small Tail Han sheep in its main producing areas between different years, and provide a basis for a breeding and genetic resources conservation strategy. For this purpose, 15 microsatellites were genotyped for Small Tail Han Sheep sampled in 2014 from Heze, China, and a comparative analysis of these data with those from a previous study was undertaken using meta-analysis. The results reveal that inbreeding has caused a reduction in diversity of Small Tail Han Sheep from 2008 to 2014. Overall, our results are helpful in understanding the dynamic change in diversity, as well as providing information for a conservation strategy for this population. PMID:26600520

  2. Comprehensive mutation scanning of KCNQ1 in 111 Han Chinese patients with lone atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin Y; Goh, June M; Wong, Raymond C; Hsu, Li-Fern; Foo, David; Benditt, David G; Ling, Lieng H; Heng, Chew K

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which genetic variation in the potassium channel gene KCNQ1 causes atrial fibrillation (AF). Design Case–control study. Setting National University Hospital, Singapore. Patients Han Chinese patients (n=111) with lone AF (onset <60 years and lacking risk factors) and 265 Han Chinese controls. Interventions Blood draw, 12-lead electrocardiogram and transthoracic echocardiogram were performed on patients with AF at enrolment. Main outcome measures DNA sequence variants in the coding region and exon–intron boundaries of KCNQ1 as detected by direct sequencing. Results Four previously reported coding variants were identified: I145I, S546S, P448R and G643S. An additional 19 non-coding variants were identified, nine of which are newly reported. None were predicted to create a cryptic splicing site. The allele frequencies of the two non-synonymous variants did not differ significantly in the AF cases compared with 265 Han Chinese controls (P448R: 10.8% in cases vs 8.6% in controls, p=0.41; G643S: 1.4% in cases vs 0.8% in controls, p=0.43). Conclusions Comprehensive mutation scanning of KCNQ1 did not identify novel pathogenic mutations or risk-conferring polymorphisms. As in Caucasians, genetic variation in KCNQ1 is not a common cause of AF in Han Chinese. Routine genetic testing of KCNQ1 for AF is, therefore, not warranted. PMID:27325960

  3. The Relevance of Hans-Georg Gadamer's Concept of Tradition to the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiviskä, Anniina

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Anniina Leiviskä argues that the educational relevance of Hans-Georg Gadamer's concept of tradition has remained unacknowledged because of the conservatism that has been associated with Gadamer's hermeneutics, particularly his notion of tradition. Therefore, Leiviskä seeks to reveal the reflective, nonconservative nature of…

  4. Microbial community development on the surface of Hans and Werenskiold Glaciers (Svalbard, Arctic): a comparison.

    PubMed

    Grzesiak, Jakub; Górniak, Dorota; Świątecki, Aleksander; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Szatraj, Katarzyna; Zdanowski, Marek K

    2015-09-01

    Surface ice and cryoconite holes of two types of polythermal Svalbard Glaciers (Hans Glacier--grounded tidewater glacier and Werenskiold Glacier-land-based valley glacier) were investigated in terms of chemical composition, microbial abundance and diversity. Gathered data served to describe supraglacial habitats and to compare microbe-environment interactions on those different type glaciers. Hans Glacier samples displayed elevated nutrient levels (DOC, nitrogen and seston) compared to Werenskiold Glacier. Adjacent tundra formations, bird nesting sites and marine aerosol were candidates for allochtonic enrichment sources. Microbial numbers were comparable on both glaciers, with surface ice containing cells in the range of 10(4) mL(-1) and cryoconite sediment 10(8) g(-1) dry weight. Denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis band-based clustering revealed differences between glaciers in terms of dominant bacterial taxa structure. Microbial community on Werenskiold Glacier benefited from the snow-released substances. On Hans Glacier, this effect was not as pronounced, affecting mainly the photoautotrophs. Over-fertilization of Hans Glacier surface was proposed as the major factor, desensitizing the microbial community to the snow melt event. Nitrogen emerged as a limiting factor in surface ice habitats, especially to Eukaryotic algae. PMID:26104673

  5. 78 FR 19062 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hans Richter: Encounters”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... ``Hans Richter: Encounters.'' The referenced notice is corrected to accommodate an additional object to... appropriate, Delegation of Authority No. 257 of April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the additional object... exhibition within the United States, is of cultural significance. The additional object is imported...

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference. PMID:26839545

  7. Antisocial Behavior in Children and Hans Eysenck's Biosocial Theory of Personality: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Dawn E.; Center, David B.

    This paper examines antisocial behavior in children and youth in relation to the biosocial personality theory of Hans Eysenck. It explains Eysenck's theory, which includes a significant role for biological factors in the development of antisocial behavior. The theory holds that three temperament traits--Psychoticism (P), Extroversion (E), and…

  8. Building Empire through Argumentation: Debating Salt and Iron in Western Han China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Xiaoye

    2010-01-01

    The history of American imperialism, as well as China's strong presence on the contemporary global scene, should encourage American scholars of rhetoric to look beyond the nation-state and study other rhetorical traditions such as Chinese practices of argument. A debate during the Western Han dynasty over the country's economic policies…

  9. Prevalence of Obesity and Related Factors among Bouyei and Han Peoples in Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Dingming; Pan, Li; Yu, Yangwen; Dong, Fen; Li, Ling; Wang, Li; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Xianjia; Sun, Liangxian; Zhu, Guangjin; Feng, Kui; Jonasson, Junmei Miao; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Ke; Pang, Xinglong; Chen, Ting; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong; Ping, Bo; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity and associated factors in Bouyei and Han peoples. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out in Guizhou province, southwest China in 2012, with multi-stage sampling to enroll 4551 participants aged 20 to 80 years. General and abdominal obesity were defined by World Health Organization (WHO) for Chinese. A design-based analysis was performed to evaluate prevalence of obesity and its related factors. Results Bouyei people had a significantly lower prevalence of general obesity (4.8% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.05) and abdominal obesity (13.6% vs. 26.8%, p < 0.05) than that in Han people. Prevalence of obesity increased with age until middle-age period and declined thereafter. Men aged 40–49 years group and women aged 50–59 years group have the highest prevalence of general obesity. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was higher than that of general obesity. Middle-age, Higher income, Han people were significantly associated with an increased risk of General/abdominal obesity. Conclusions Bouyei people had a lower prevalence of general and abdominal obesity than the Han people. Etiological studies should be conducted to determine underlying genetic factors and dietary factors. PMID:26075708

  10. Collaboration, Reputation, and Ethics in American Academic Life: Hans H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Guy; Vidich, Arthur J.

    Using the collaboration between sociologist C. Wright Mills and Hans H. Gerth and their studies of the work of Max Weber as a point of departure for a sustained discussion of academic ethics, this book explores how concealment, secrecy, and deception contribute to the building of academic reputation and how the balance of knowledge and power in a…

  11. Teaching Styles and Conceptions of Effective Teachers: Tibetan and Han Chinese Academics Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this research is to ascertain if the "research-teaching dichotomy" as revealed in the relationship between conceptions of effective teachers and teaching styles among Han Chinese academics can be found among Tibetan academics. As a preliminary objective, this research examines the appropriateness of the Effective Teacher…

  12. Brief Report: No Increase in Criminal Convictions in Hans Asperger's Original Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hippler, Kathrin; Viding, Essi; Klicpera, Christian; Happe, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Hans Asperger originally used the term "autistic psychopathy" to describe his patients on the autism spectrum, leading to a possible confusion with psychopathic disorder and delinquent behaviour. We conducted a penal register search for 177 former patients of Asperger's clinic with a childhood diagnosis of "autistic psychopathy" or features of the…

  13. Association of rs2072183 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Niemann-pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is a key protein for intestinal cholesterol transportation. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NPC1L1 gene have been associated with cholesterol absorption and serum lipid levels. The present study was undertaken to explore the possible association of NPC1L1 rs2072183 1735 C > G SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Methods Genotyping of the rs2072183 SNP was performed in 688 subjects of Mulao and 738 participants of Han Chinese. The interactions between NPC1L1 1735 C > G polymorphism and several environmental factors on serum lipid phenotypes were tested using the factorial design covariance analysis after controlling for potential confounders. Results The frequency of G allele was lower in Mulao than in Han (29.72% vs. 37.26%, P < 0.001). The frequency of CC, CG and GG genotypes was 49.85%, 40.84% and 9.31% in Mulao, and 39.30%, 46.88% and 13.82% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) B and the ratio of ApoAI/ApoB in Han but not in Mulao were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all), the subjects with GG and CG genotypes had higher LDL-C, ApoB levels and lower ApoAI/ApoB ratio than the subjects with CC genotype. Subgroup analysis showed that the G allele carriers in Han had higher total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C and ApoB levels in males (P < 0.05) and lower ApoAI/ApoB ratio in both sexes (P < 0.05) than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Mulao had higher TC and LDL-C levels in males (P < 0.05) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in both sexes (P < 0.05) than the G allele noncarriers. Serum TC, LDL-C, ApoB levels and ApoAI/ApoB ratio were correlated with genotypes in Han males (P < 0.05) but not in females. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental

  14. "Our Good Han Mothers": Observations from the Xinjiang Class at the Qingshan Superior Secondary School of Wuxi Municipality, Jiangsu Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Jiaqing; Yang, Xiaohu

    2010-01-01

    Instrumental to the successful running of the Xinjiang Classes are its teachers, many of whom are Han Chinese. This article explores the important roles teachers of the Xinjiang Class play in the lives of Xinjiang Class students inside and outside of the classroom. From homesickness, to hygiene, to scholastic endeavors, Han teacher-mothers…

  15. Mild cognitive impairment risk factor survey of the Xinjiang Uyghur and Han elderly

    PubMed Central

    Keyimu, Kabinuer; Zhou, Xiao-Hui; Miao, Hai-Jun; Zou, Ting

    2015-01-01

    To understand risk factors of the Xinjiang Uyghur, Han two ethnic elderly with mild cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment, MCI), and provide evidence for in-depth study of the causes and prevention of MCI. The MCI epidemiological survey was based on Xinjiang Uyghur and Han residents with 60 years of age or older. The total number of participants is 5398, including 3931 Uyghur residents, and 1467 Han residents. There are 456 participants with MMSE score 2 points above the demarcation points, excluded from the survey for dementia, cerebrovascular disease and other central nervous system disorders, according to case-control study method of random selection in epidemiological survey. In accordance with the clinical diagnostic criteria of MCI, which is from Disorder Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (the revised version of the fourth edition (DSM-IV) from of the American Psychiatric Association, there are 305 cases of MCI, including 159 cases of Han, 146 cases of Uyghur. In the Han groups: univariate analysis showed a correlation (P < 0.05) between sex, age, blood pressure, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-ch) and MCI. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed: age, hypertension, TG, LDL-ch (increased) may increase the risk of MCI (OR values were: 1.115, 1.981, 1.315, 1.495, with P < 0.05). In the Uyghur groups: univariate analysis showed a correlation (P < 0.05) between age, gender, hypertension, abnormal glucose metabolism, TG, TC, LDL-ch and MCI. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed: age, hypertension, abnormal glucose metabolism, TG, TC, LDL-ch (increased), women have a higher risk of MCI (OR values were: 1.063, 2.145, 2.879, 2.078, 1.429, 1.485, 0.462, P < 0.05). Age, hypertension, TG and LDL-ch are risk factors of MCI for Han population, while age, hypertension, abnormal glucose metabolism, TG, TC and LDL-ch are risk factors of MCI for Uyghur population. PMID:26550345

  16. [The activity of searching for books of Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic Diseases) of the Song edition].

    PubMed

    Qian, Chao-chen

    2010-01-01

    Originally, Shang Han Lun in the Song edition referred to the Shang Han Lun with large and small Chinese characters printed in the Northern Song Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, its only edition of Shang Han Lun with small Chinese characters was again block-printed in Zhong Jing Quan Shu (Zhongjing's Complete Works) by Zhao Keimei and then the original one disappeared. So the Shang Han Lun in Zhong Jing Quan Shu was considered as the Song edition. Only 6 sets were in existence in the world, and were read by myself; I have detailed records and photos of 5 of them. The article is the result of textual research on Shang Han Lun of Zhong Jing Quan Shu preserved in Taiwan National Palace Museum. PMID:20403262

  17. Little Hans and attachment theory: Bowlby's hypothesis reconsidered in light of new evidence from the Freud Archives.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2007-01-01

    Bowlby (1973), applying attachment theory to Freud's case of Little Hans, hypothesized that Hans's anxiety was a manifestation of anxious attachment. However Bowlby's evidence was modest; Hans was threatened by his mother with abandonment, expressed fear of abandonment prior to symptom onset, and was separated from his mother for a short time a year before. Bowlby's hypothesis is reassessed in light of a systematic review of the case record as well as new evidence from recently derestricted interviews with Hans's father and Hans in the Freud Archives. Bowlby's hypothesis is supported by multiple additional lines of evidence regarding both triggers of separation anxiety preceding the phobia (e.g., a funeral, sibling rivalry, moving, getting his own bedroom) and background factors influencing his working model of attachment (mother's psychopathology, intense marital conflict, multiple suicides in mother's family) that would make him more vulnerable to such anxiety. Bowlby's hypothesis is also placed within the context of subsequent developments in attachment theory. PMID:18524087

  18. Genetic polymorphism of 17 Y-STR loci in Han Chinese living in Lanzhou.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-bing; Yang, Xin; Ha, Fei; Zhang, Zi-long

    2013-12-01

    The genetic polymorphism across 17 Y-STR loci in a population of Han Chinese in Lanzhou was investigated. Haplotypes and allele frequencies for the 17 Y-chromosomal STRs loci DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448 were determined in 500 healthy unrelated autochthonous males from Lanzhou. The results showed that no shared haplotypes were observed. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.3987 (DYS391) to 0.9740 (DYS385a,b). It was concluded that these loci will be very useful for human identification in forensic cases and paternity tests within the Han Chinese population inhabiting Lanzhou. PMID:24337856

  19. The rs3756063 polymorphism is associated with SNCA methylation in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yang; Yang, Nannan; Xu, Qian; Sun, Qiying; Guo, Jifeng; Li, Kai; Liu, Zhenhua; Yan, Xinxiang; Zhu, Xiongwei; Tang, Beisha

    2016-08-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Genome-wide association studies have confirmed the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the SNCA gene with the risk of PD. While hypomethylation of the SNCA intron-1 was observed in patients with sporadic PD, an association between SNCA SNPs and SNCA methylation levels has been identified. To investigate whether these SNPs are associated with the level of SNCA methylation in the Chinese population, we genotyped SNCA SNPs and analyzed the relationship between SNCA SNPs and SNCA DNA methylation status from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Chinese Han PD patients. Our results revealed that the rs3756063 polymorphism could contribute to the risk of PD in the Chinese Han population and confirmed the effect of this polymorphism on SNCA DNA methylation. Further studies will be needed to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the associations between SNPs, methylation and PD pathogenesis. PMID:27423554

  20. Analysis of the private, collective, and relational self-cognitions among Han and Tibetan Chinese.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Mamat, Marhaba; Shang, Rui; Zhang, Tianyang; Li, Hao; Wang, Yao; Luo, Wei; Wu, Yanhong

    2014-08-01

    Differences in the concepts of private, collective, and relational selves between two Chinese ethnic groups, the Han and Tibetan-adhering to the philosophies of Confucianism and Tibetan Buddhism, respectively-were examined. 128 students (54 men, 74 women; M age = 20.9 yr., SD = 2.2) completed the revised Twenty Statements Test and self-reference paradigm. Study 1 found that for Han participants relational and private selves were ranked similarly and as more important than the collective self. Studies 2 and 3 found that adjective words describing private and relational selves were recalled in greater proportions than words describing the collective self. Tibetan participants showed no significant differences between the three self-cognitions. The findings correspond to differences in self-identity among these two subcultures. PMID:25153957

  1. Clever Hans and his effects: Karl Krall and the origins of experimental parapsychology in Germany.

    PubMed

    De Sio, Fabio; Marazia, Chantal

    2014-12-01

    Shortly before the outbreak of World War I, the so-called Elberfeld horses, the counting and speaking animals, were among the most debated subjects of the newborn comparative psychology. Yet, they have left little trace in the historiography of this discipline, mostly as an appendix of the more famous Clever Hans. Their story is generally told as the prelude to the triumph of reductionistic experimental psychology. By paying a more scrupulous attention than has so far being done to the second life of Hans, and to the endeavours of his second master, Karl Krall, this article explores the story of the Elberfeld horses as an important, if so far neglected, chapter in the history of experimental parapsychology. PMID:25176052

  2. [The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

    2014-03-01

    By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties. PMID:24989803

  3. Association of AKT1 gene polymorphisms with sporadic Parkinson's disease in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yuan; Teng, Ji-Jun; Liu, Yang; Wu, Yu-Bin; Zheng, Yu; Xie, An-Mu

    2016-08-26

    Genetic variants of AKT1 have been shown to influence brain function of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and in this paper our aim is to investigate the association between the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2498799; rs2494732; rs1130214) and PD in Han Chinese. 413 Han Chinese PD patients and 450 healthy age and gender-matched controls were genotyped using the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Both the patient and control groups show similar genotype frequencies at the three loci: rs2498799, rs2494732 and rs1130214. We are able to identify a significant difference in the frequencies of genotype (p=0.019) and G allele (OR=0.764, 95% CI=0.587-0.995, p=0.045) both at rs2498799 between the patient and control groups. Furthermore, the association of subjects with GG genotypes versus those with GA+AA genotype remain significant after adjusting for age in the Han Chinese female cohort (OR=0.538, 95%CI=0.345-0.841, p=0.006), which is especially evident in the late-onset cohort (OR=0.521, 95%CI=0.309-0.877, p=0.012). In contrast, allele frequencies at rs2494732 and rs1130214 were similar between patients and controls in all subgroup analyses. These results suggest that polymorphism of AKT1 locus is associated with risk of PD and that the G allele at rs2498799 may decrease the risk of PD in the North-eastern part of Han Chinese female population. PMID:27353512

  4. Dr. Hans Rosling, Keynote - 2013 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit

    ScienceCinema

    Rosling, Hans (Professor, International Health, Karolinska Institute; Edutainer, Gapminder.org)

    2014-04-11

    The fourth annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2013. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Dr. Hans Rosling (Professor, International Health, Karolinska Institute; Edutainer, Gapminder.org), gave this keynote address.

  5. Natural law Judaism? The genesis of bioethics in Hans Jonas, Leo Strauss, and Leon Kass.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Leon Kass is much misunderstood. He is not simply a Republican ideologue who tailored his ideas to break out of the ivory tower and into the halls of power. Nor does he look simply to use human nature as a moral guide. When the full range of his writings is considered and set in the tradition of his teachers, Hans Jonas and Leo Strauss, what emerges is a natural law position colored by religious revelation. PMID:16776021

  6. The MTHFR C677T Polymorphism and Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Tao, Chuanyuan; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Yunke; Zheng, Jun; Fang, Yuan; Lin, Sen; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism has been speculated to be and extensively investigated as a risk factor for various vascular diseases, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, results from published studies regarding the role of C677T polymorphism in ICH risk in Chinese populations were contradictory rather than conclusive. Material/Methods In this study, a total of 180 ICH patients and 180 matched controls of Chinese Han ethnicity were enrolled. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction (PCR-LDR). A meta-analysis was conducted by combining our data with previous relevant studies in Chinese populations. Results In our case-control study, similar allele frequency (p=0.492) and genotype distribution (p=0.748) of MTHFR C677T polymorphism were detected between ICH patients and controls. Further analysis based on hematoma location did not show a significant association. When combined with previous studies, however, C677T polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk for ICH in Chinese populations (recessive model: OR=1.57, 95%CI=1.29–1.91). When focusing on the Han ethnicity, carriers of the TT genotype had an increased risk of ICH (recessive model: OR=1.36, 95%CI=1.05–1.75). Conclusions In this case-control study we did not observe that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with ICH risk in people of Chinese Han ethnicity. However, when combined with previous published studies, a significant association of C677T polymorphism with an increased risk of ICH was detected in Chinese populations, and also in the subgroup analysis focusing on Han ethnicity. PMID:26757363

  7. Dr. Hans Rosling, Keynote - 2013 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit

    SciTech Connect

    Rosling, Hans

    2014-03-06

    The fourth annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2013. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Dr. Hans Rosling (Professor, International Health, Karolinska Institute; Edutainer, Gapminder.org), gave this keynote address.

  8. [A peculiar man - about Hans Selye, as reflected in his Hungarian connections].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Katalin

    2015-08-30

    Hans Selye made a great impact on the Hungarian medical, scientific and public life. His first Hungarian publication about the alarm-reaction appeared 1938 in the Orvosi Hetilap. His Hungarian relationship was quite extensive after the war as he published, gave lectures, and accepted Hungarian students for specialized training in his Canadian institute saw. The rich documents in archives about Selye are currently being processed and those will surely shed light on Selye's life in further details. PMID:26299836

  9. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups and the Risk of Sporadic Parkinson's Disease in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Fang; Chen, Wan-Jin; Lin, Xiao-Zhen; Zhang, Qi-Jie; Cai, Jiang-Ping; Liou, Chia-Wei; Wang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the precise role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations is obscure. On the other hand, mtDNA haplogroups have been inconsistently reported to modify the risk of PD among different population. Here, we try to explore the relationship between mtDNA haplogroups and sporadic PD in a Han Chinese population. Methods: Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which define the major Asian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, D, F, G), were detected via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism or denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 279 sporadic PD patients and 510 matched controls of Han population. Results: Overall, the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups did not show any significant differences between patients and controls. However, after stratification by age at onset, the frequency of haplogroup B was significantly lower in patients with early-onset PD (EOPD) compared to the controls (odds ratio [OR] =0.225, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.082–0.619, P = 0.004), while other haplogroups did not show significant differences. After stratification by age at examination, among subjects younger than 50 years of age: Haplogroup B also showed a lower frequency in PD cases (OR = 0.146, 95% CI: 0.030–0.715, P = 0.018) while haplogroup D presented a higher risk of PD (OR = 3.579, 95% CI: 1.112–11.523, P = 0.033), other haplogroups also did not show significant differences in the group. Conclusions: Our study indicates that haplogroup B might confer a lower risk for EOPD and people younger than 50 years in Han Chinese, while haplogroup D probably lead a higher risk of PD in people younger than 50 years of age. In brief, particular Asian mtDNA haplogroups likely play a role in the pathogenesis of PD among Han Chinese. PMID:26112715

  10. Hans Bethe and Physics in/of the 20th Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schweber, Silvan

    2012-12-12

    I will present some facets of Hans Bethe’s life to illustrate how I have used biography to narrate certain aspects of the history of twentieth century physics. I will focus on post World War II quantum field theory, on the relation between solid state/condensed matter physics and high energy physics, and make some observations regarding certain “top down” views in solid state physics in postmodernity.

  11. Genetic Structure of the Han Chinese Population Revealed by Genome-wide SNP Variation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jieming; Zheng, Houfeng; Bei, Jin-Xin; Sun, Liangdan; Jia, Wei-hua; Li, Tao; Zhang, Furen; Seielstad, Mark; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    Population stratification is a potential problem for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), confounding results and causing spurious associations. Hence, understanding how allele frequencies vary across geographic regions or among subpopulations is an important prelude to analyzing GWAS data. Using over 350,000 genome-wide autosomal SNPs in over 6000 Han Chinese samples from ten provinces of China, our study revealed a one-dimensional “north-south” population structure and a close correlation between geography and the genetic structure of the Han Chinese. The north-south population structure is consistent with the historical migration pattern of the Han Chinese population. Metropolitan cities in China were, however, more diffused “outliers,” probably because of the impact of modern migration of peoples. At a very local scale within the Guangdong province, we observed evidence of population structure among dialect groups, probably on account of endogamy within these dialects. Via simulation, we show that empirical levels of population structure observed across modern China can cause spurious associations in GWAS if not properly handled. In the Han Chinese, geographic matching is a good proxy for genetic matching, particularly in validation and candidate-gene studies in which population stratification cannot be directly accessed and accounted for because of the lack of genome-wide data, with the exception of the metropolitan cities, where geographical location is no longer a good indicator of ancestral origin. Our findings are important for designing GWAS in the Chinese population, an activity that is expected to intensify greatly in the near future. PMID:19944401

  12. Hans von Bülow: creativity and neurological disease in a famous pianist and conductor.

    PubMed

    Wöhrle, Johannes C; Haas, Frithjof

    2007-01-01

    Hans von Bülow (1830-1894) was a conductor and pianist of worldwide reputation and founder of many stylistic interpretations of classic and romantic symphonies. The close friendship with Richard Wagner, but not the enthusiastic admiration of his dramatic musical opus, ended abruptly when Hans von Bülow became aware of the betrayal of his wife Cosima and Richard Wagner. Hans von Bülow reported symptoms and signs of neurological disease in many letters that were kept and edited by his second wife Marie. For decades he suffered from chronic neuralgiforme headaches, which were caused by a tumor of the cervical radicular nerves. At the age of 45 years, he suddenly developed a motorsensory deficit in the right arm and hand and a contralateral facial deficit, suggestive of brainstem infarction. He recovered and celebrated even greater successes as a musician, although phases of major depression also interfered with his professional life. In the last, phase of his life, he experienced the consequences of generalized atherosclerosis and cerebral microangiopathy. It was a second cerebrovascular accident of the brainstem that caused his death, only 10 months after his last concert performance. Although his death occurred in Egypt, an autopsy was performed by Professor Ludwig Edinger and the results will be presented. PMID:17495513

  13. Genetic analysis of TREM2 variants in Chinese Han patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ting; Song, Zhi; Yuan, Lamei; Xiong, Wei; Deng, Xiong; Ni, Bin; Chen, Yong; Deng, Hao

    2016-01-26

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease and is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. Recently, rs75932628 (p.R47H) of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 gene (TREM2) was identified to be associated with PD in American, Spanish, Irish, and Polish population. To explore whether TREM2 variants are related to susceptibility of sporadic PD in Chinese Han population, we designed a case-control comparison study and studied two variants rs75932628 (p.R47H) and rs2234253 (p.T96K) of the TREM2 gene in 512 Chinese Han patients with sporadic PD and 512 age, gender and ethnicity matched normal controls from Mainland China. No variant for either rs75932628 or rs2234253 was found in both PD and control cohorts. Our data suggest that neither variant rs75932628 nor rs2234253 be a major susceptibility factor of sporadic PD in Chinese Han population from Mainland China. PMID:26704436

  14. Normal Values of Hertel Exophthalmometry in a Chinese Han Population from Shenyang, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Liu, Xin; Wu, Di; Di, Xin; Guan, Haixia; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Aims of this study were to determine the normal range of absolute and relative Hertel exophthalmometric values (EVs) in a Chinese Han population. This population-based cross-sectional study consisted of 2010 healthy Han Chinese (1051 females and 959 males) aged between 8–87 years living in Shenyang, Northeast China, including 515 children (aged 8–14 years), 517 teenagers (aged 15–19 years), 582 adults (aged 20–69 years) and 396 elderly (aged 70–87 years). A Hertel exophthalmometer was used by the same physician for the measurement of EV and inter-orbital distance (IOD). For the entire study population, the Hertel EVs ranged from 10 mm to 22 mm; the mean EVs for the left eye (OS) and right eye (OD) were 15.0 ± 1.9 mm and 15.0 ± 2.0 mm, respectively; the upper normal limits of the EVs (mean + 2 SD) for OS and OD were 18.8 mm and 19.0 mm, respectively; the mean relative EV was 0.20 ± 0.43 mm. Age, but not sex, had a significant effect on the EV. We concluded that our study provides normative ophthalmic data in a Chinese Han population. The normal EVs, asymmetry and IOD values have been established for clinical reference. PMID:25703959

  15. A rare coding variant in TREM2 increases risk for Alzheimer's disease in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Teng; Tan, Lan; Chen, Qi; Tan, Meng-Shan; Zhou, Jun-Shan; Zhu, Xi-Chen; Lu, Huan; Wang, Hui-Fu; Zhang, Ying-Dong; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2016-06-01

    Two recent studies have identified that a rare coding variant (p.R47H) in exon 2 of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) gene is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility in Caucasians. This association was not successfully replicated in Han Chinese, where this variant was rare or even absent. Previously, we resequenced TREM2 exon 2 to investigate whether additional rare variants conferred risk to AD in our cohort. Although several new variants had been identified, none of them was significantly associated with disease susceptibility. Here, to test whether TREM2 is truly a susceptibility gene of AD in Han Chinese, we extend our previous study by sequencing the other four exons of TREM2 in 988 AD patients and 1,354 healthy controls. We provided the first evidence that a rare coding variant (p.H157Y) in TREM2 exon 3 conferred a considerable risk of AD in our cohort (Pcorrected = 0.02, odds ratio = 11.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.38-88.05). This finding indicates that rare coding variants of TREM2 may play an important role in AD in Han Chinese. PMID:27067662

  16. Association of the NOTCH4 Gene Polymorphism rs204993 with Schizophrenia in the Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Fan, Qian Rui; Li, Wen Hao; Lu, Ning; Fu, Dong Ke; Kang, Yan Jie; Wang, Na; Li, Teng; Wen, Xiao Peng; Li, Da Xu

    2015-01-01

    NOTCH4 regulates signaling pathways associated with neuronal maturation, a process involved in the development and patterning of the central nervous system. The NOTCH4 gene has also been identified as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SCZ). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between NOTCH4 polymorphisms and SCZ in the Chinese Han population. The rs2071287 and rs204993 polymorphisms of the NOTCH4 gene were analyzed in 443 patients with SCZ and 628 controls of Han Chinese descent. Single SNP allele-, genotype-, and gender-specific associations were analyzed using different models (i.e., additive, dominant, and recessive models). This association study revealed that the rs204993 polymorphism is significantly associated with susceptibility for SCZ and that the AA genotype of rs204993 is associated with a higher risk for SCZ (P = 0.027; OR = 1.460; 95% CI, 1.043-2.054). Our data are consistent with those obtained in previous studies that suggested that rs204993 is associated with SCZ and that the AA genotype of rs204993 demonstrates a higher risk. Further large-scale association analyses in Han Chinese populations are warranted. PMID:26605328

  17. Correlations between ASCC3 Gene Polymorphisms and Chronic Hepatitis B in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinliang; Lu, Yan; Fang, Chunfang; Li, Senlin; Lin, Jusheng

    2015-01-01

    We have previously identified 8 SNPs in Han Chinese HBV carriers that are associated with disease progression. Although not well studied, genetic factors may also play a significant role in developing chronic HBV disease after exposure. We extend the effect of these eight SNPs on persistent HBV infection in this study. A total of 875 unrelated Han Chinese, 493 chronic hepatitis B subjects (CHB) and 382 HBV clearance individuals (Clear), were recruited from Hubei Province from September 2007 to March 2010. SNPs were verified by using TaqMan 7900HT Sequence Detection System. By using multiple logistic regression analysis, each of the 8 SNP associations was tested using 3 different genetic models (Dominant, Recessive and Additive model), in 4 types of analyses (full sample, men, women, age stratified). A Bonferroni correction was used to account for multiple statistical tests for each SNP association (P<0.05/8 = 0.0063). A significant correlation was observed at SNP rs10485138 located in ASCC3 gene in female patients (OR, 0.445; 95% CI, 0.253–0.784; P = 0.005). Females bearing C allele infected by HBV had an increased susceptibility to CHB compared with those T allele carriers. Our results indicated that SNP rs10485138 located in ASCC3 gene was associated with persistent HBV infection in Han Chinese. PMID:26536629

  18. Association of NCOA2 gene polymorphisms with obesity and dyslipidemia in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuping; Habtetsion, Tsadik Ghebreamlak; Li, Yong; Zhang, Huiping; Qiao, Yichun; Yu, Mingxi; Tang, Yuan; Zhen, Qing; Cheng, Yi; Liu, Yawen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCOA2) gene plays an important role in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. NCOA2 gene null mice exhibited less fat accumulation and lower serum lipid levels, and were protected against obesity. Few studies are known to have analyzed the association of NCOA2 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with obesity and serum lipid profile. Our study aimed to evaluate the association of NCOA2 gene polymorphisms with the risk of obesity and dyslipidemia in the Chinese Han population. Methods: Two NCOA2 gene polymorphisms (rs41391448 and rs10504473) were selected and genotyped in a Chinese Han cohort with 529 participants. The effect of different genotypes on BMI and serum lipid levels (TG, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C) was performed by the analysis of covariance. Association of NCOA2 polymorphisms with obesity and dyslipidemia was assessed by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) under the unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Significant association was observed between rs10504473 polymorphism and obesity under the recessive model (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.02-3.45, P = 0.047; adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.02-3.44, P = 0.048). However, no association remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusion: Our study suggests a possible association between NCOA2 rs10504473 polymorphism and obesity, and this SNP may influence the susceptibility of obesity in the Chinese Han population. PMID:26261634

  19. Variants in 9p21 Predicts Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jinjin; Su, Li; Zeng, Ying; Tang, Xiaojun; Wei, Jie; Wang, Long; Zhou, Li

    2016-09-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies identified the common genetic variants in 9p21 were associated with the coronary artery disease (CAD). However, whether this locus could predict the severity of CAD in Chinese Han population is unclear. 499 CAD patients who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) have been enrolled for this study. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs2383207 and rs2383206 in 9p21 were genotyped in 499 CAG cases and 1519 controls in Chinese Han population. The gene dosage of 9p21 was stratified by the degree of vascular lesions and tested for association with the severity of CAD. Rs2383207 and rs2383206 demonstrated significant associations with 2-vessel and 3-vessel disease (P = 2.0×10(-3) and 1.9×10(-4) , respectively). GG genotypes of rs2383206 occurred higher proportion of left main trunk (LM) disease (P = 6.0×10(-3) ). GG genotypes of rs2383207 occurred higher proportion of left anterior descending artery disease (LAD) and right CAD (RCA) (P = 2.7×10(-6) and 1.6×10(-4) , respectively). The risk allele G of rs2383207 was associated with severity of CAD estimated by the Gensini score (P = 3.6×10(-5) ). Rs2383207 may strongly influence the development of CAD in Chinese Han population. The gene dosage in 9p21 could predict the severity of CAD. PMID:27461153

  20. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Bao-jie

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391) to 0.9617 (DYS385). Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338) to 0.8177 (TPOX), with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51) to 0.2988 (TH01). A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure. PMID:27483472

  1. Population data of 17 short tandem repeat loci in 2923 individuals from the Han population of Nantong in East China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Li, Liming; Han, Haijun; Jin, Li; Jia, Dongtao; Li, Shilin

    2016-09-01

    Nantong is located in mid-eastern China, and the Han population in Nantong may be greatly affected by population admixture between northern and southern Han Chinese populations. In this study, we analyzed 17 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci on 2923 unrelated individuals collected from the Han population of Nantong. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed at all STR loci, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.6184 to 0.9187. The combined match probability (CMP) was 3.87 × 10(-21), and the combined power of discrimination (CPD) was 99.999999999999999999613 %. No significant difference of allele frequencies was observed between Nantong and other Han populations at all STR loci, as well as Dai, Mongolian, and Tibetan. Significant differences were only observed between Nantong Han and Uyghur at TH01, as well as Nantong Han and Dong at CSF1PO and FGA. Nantong Han showed significant differences between She, Bouyei, and Miao at multiple STR loci. PMID:26932871

  2. Prevalence and Racial Differences in Pterygium: A Cross-Sectional Study in Han and Uygur Adults in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Ding, Lin; Shan, Guangliang; Ke, Limujiang; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To understand the prevalence and associated risk factors of pterygium in Han and Uygur population in Xinjiang, China and to assess the racial differences. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural and three urban regions of Xinjiang. A multistage and stratified sampling method was used to select representative samples. Risk factors associated with pterygium were screened in logistic regression models. Results. Among 4617 participants aged 30 years and older, 2452 were Han and 2165 were Uygur Nationality adults. The overall prevalence of pterygium was 11.95% (n = 546), with 4.27% (n = 197) were bilateral and 7.56% (n = 349) were unilateral. Multivariate analysis indicated that race, age, and rural residence were significantly associated with any pterygium (P < 0.001 for all). The prevalence of pterygium (P < 0.01) in Han subjects was higher than that of Uygur subjects. Both age and rural residence were associated with any pterygium in Han and Uygur. Low education level had significant positive association with pterygium in Han population (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Pterygium affects approximately one-ninth of Han and Uygur population. Compared with Uygur, Han ethnicity is a significant risk factor of pterygium. Our results indicated a higher prevalence of pterygium in rural areas of Xinjiang, China compared with urban cities. Age increase was also associated with presence of pterygium. Strategies are warranted to prevent the serious effects caused by pterygium. PMID:25626966

  3. Factor analysis and cluster analysis applied to assess the water quality of middle and lower Han River in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Liu, Wen-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The Han River basin is one of the most important industrial and grain production bases in the central China. A lot of factories and towns have been established along the river where large farmlands are located nearby. In the last few decades the water quality of the Han River, specifically in middle and lower reaches, has gradually declined. The agricultural nonpoint pollution and municipal and industrial point pollution significantly degrade the water quality of the Han River. Factor analysis can be applied to reduce the dimensionality of a data set consisting of a large number of inter-related variables. Cluster analysis can classify the samples according to their similar characters. In this study, factor analysis is used to identify major pollution indicators, and cluster analysis is employed to classify the samples based on the sample locations and hydrochemical variables. Water samples were collected from 12 sample sites collected from Xiangyang City (middle Han River) to Wuhan City (lower Han River). Correlations among 25 hydrochemical variables are statistically examined. The important pollutants are determined by factor analysis. A three-factor model is determined and explains over 85% of the total river water quality variation. Factor 1, including SS, Chl-a, TN and TP, can be considered as the nonpoint source pollution. Factor 2, including Cl-, Br-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Fe2+ and PO43-, can be treated as the industrial pollutant pollution. Factor 3, including F- and NO3-, reflects the influence of the groundwater or self-purification capability of the river water. The various land uses along the Han River correlate well with the pollution types. In addition, the result showed that the water quality of Han River deteriorated gradually from middle to lower Han River. Some tributaries have been seriously polluted and significantly influence the mainstream water quality of the Han River. Finally, the result showed that the nonpoint pollution and the point

  4. Genetic analysis of STR markers on chromosome 21 in a Han population from southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y N; Lu, S M; Wang, M; Shen, F X; Chen, Y; Hu, J J

    2015-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are highly polymorphic sequences and have been extensively used as genetic markers in mapping studies, disease diagnosis, and human identity testing. In this study, 11 STR markers on chromosome 21, including D21S1432, D21S11, D21S1246, D21S1412, D21S1437, D21S1442, D21S2039, D21S1270, D21S1435, D21S1409, and D21S1446, were analyzed in 740 unrelated Han individuals from southeast China. A total of 132 alleles, ranging from 7-21 for each locus, were named according to the guidelines of the International Society for Forensic Haemogenetics. The distributions of allelic frequencies for the 11 STRs and population genetic parameters were determined. All 11 STR markers showed high polymorphism and heterogeneity in the southeast Han population, with polymorphism information content of 0.61-0.87, heterogeneity of 64.5-86.1%, and power of discrimination of 0.835-0.973. Among the 11 STR markers, D21S1412, D21S1270, D21S11, and D21S1442 showed relatively higher heterogeneity. Their combination was relatively informative and was used in a quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction assay to diagnose Down syndrome (trisomy 21) in a southeast Chinese Han population. The genetic information and population data for these 11 STRs may be used not only in quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction assays but also in forensic studies and other genetic tests. PMID:25867314

  5. Copy number variation in Han Chinese individuals with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions with a demonstrated genetic etiology. Rare (<1% frequency) copy number variations (CNVs) account for a proportion of the genetic events involved, but the contribution of these events in non-European ASD populations has not been well studied. Here, we report on rare CNVs detected in a cohort of individuals with ASD of Han Chinese background. Methods DNA samples were obtained from 104 ASD probands and their parents who were recruited from Harbin, China. Samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix CytoScan HD platform. Rare CNVs were identified by comparing data with 873 technology-matched controls from Ontario and 1,235 additional population controls of Han Chinese ethnicity. Results Of the probands, 8.6% had at least 1 de novo CNV (overlapping the GIGYF2, SPRY1, 16p13.3, 16p11.2, 17p13.3-17p13.2, DMD, and NAP1L6 genes/loci). Rare inherited CNVs affected other plausible neurodevelopmental candidate genes including GRID2, LINGO2, and SLC39A12. A 24-kb duplication was also identified at YWHAE, a gene previously implicated in ASD and other developmental disorders. This duplication is observed at a similar frequency in cases and in population controls and is likely a benign Asian-specific copy number polymorphism. Conclusions Our findings help define genomic features relevant to ASD in the Han Chinese and emphasize the importance of using ancestry-matched controls in medical genetic interpretations. PMID:25170348

  6. FCRL3 Gene Polymorphisms Confer Autoimmunity Risk for Allergic Rhinitis in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zheng; Hong, Su-Ling; Ke, Xia; Shen, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Hu, Di; Hu, Guo-Hua; Kang, Hou-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Heredity and environmental exposures may contribute to a predisposition to allergic rhinitis (AR). Autoimmunity may also involve into this pathologic process. FCRL3 (Fc receptor-like 3 gene), a novel immunoregulatory gene, has recently been reported to play a role in autoimmune diseases. Objective This study was performed to evaluate the potential association of FCRL3 polymorphisms with AR in a Chinese Han population. Methods Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms of FCRL3, rs945635, rs3761959, rs7522061, rs10489678 and rs7528684 were genotyped in 540 AR patients and 600 healthy controls using a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were compared between patients and controls using the χ2 test. The online software platform SHEsis was used to analyze their haplotypes. Results This study identified three strong risk SNPs rs7528684, rs10489678, rs7522061 and one weak risk SNP rs945635 of FCRL3 in Chinese Han AR patients. For rs7528684, a significantly increased prevalence of the AA genotype and A allele in AR patients was recorded. The frequency of the GG genotype and G allele of rs10489678 was markedly higher in AR patients than those in controls. For rs7522061, a higher frequency of the TT genotype, and a lower frequency of the CT genotype were found in AR patients. Concerning rs945635, a lower frequency of the CC genotype, and a higher frequency of G allele were observed in AR patients. According to the analysis of the three strong positive SNPs, the haplotype of AGT increased significantly in AR cases (AR = 38.8%, Controls = 24.3%, P = 8.29×10-14, OR [95% CI] 1.978 [1.652~2.368]). Conclusions This study found a significant association between the SNPs in FCRL3 gene and AR in Chinese Han patients. The results suggest these gene polymorphisms might be the autoimmunity risk for AR. PMID:25594855

  7. HLA-G coding region and 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) in two Chinese Han populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen Yi; Tian, Wei; Liu, Xue Xiang; Li, Li Xin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, exons 2-4 and 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G gene were investigated for 201 and 104 healthy unrelated Han samples recruited from Hunan Province, southern China and central Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China, respectively, using sequence-based typing and cloning methods. Totally 12 HLA-G alleles in the coding region, 9 variable sites in 3'UTR, 8 3'UTR haplotypes and 15 HLA-G extended haplotypes (EHs) incorporating the coding region and 3'UTR were observed. Very strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between HLA-A and HLA-G, and between HLA-G coding region and 3'UTR in each population (all global P=0.0000). Seven HLA-A-G haplotypes showed significant LD in both populations. Three HLA-G alleles in the coding region, 4 polymorphic sites in the 3'UTR, 3 3'UTR haplotypes and 4 HLA-G EHs differed significantly in their distributions between the 2 Chinese Han populations (all P≤0.0001). There was evidence for balancing selection acting on HLA-G 3'UTR positions +3010, +3142 and +3187 in the two populations. The NJ dendrograms demonstrated the existence of two basic HLA-G lineages and indicated that, HLA-G*01:01:01, the most common HLA-G allele, formed a separate lineage from other alleles. Our results shed new lights into HLA-G genetics among Chinese Han populations. The findings reported here are of importance for future studies related to post-transcriptional regulation of HLA-G allelic expression and the potential role of HLA-G in disease association in populations of Chinese ancestry. PMID:27262928

  8. Environmental Risk Factors in Han and Uyghur Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3–6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia. Results Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9%) and Uyghur (7.0%) children (P < 0.05), and the boy-to-girl diagnosis ratio was almost 2:1. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ethnic differences in dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother’s occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01–0.68) and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67–12.11). Conclusions The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics. PMID:27416106

  9. Association Study of IL-12B Polymorphisms Susceptibility with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Mainland Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Yang, Ting; Ding, Ning; Hu, Yanting; Cai, Guoqi; Wang, Li; Xin, Lihong; Xia, Qing; Li, Xiaona; Xu, Shengqian; Xu, Jianhua; Yang, Xiao; Zou, Yanfeng; Pan, Faming

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to determine whether the genetic polymorphisms of IL-12B gene is a susceptibility factor to Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in mainland Han Chinese population. Method Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs10045431, rs11167764, rs3212227, rs6556412, rs6556416, rs6871626, rs6887695 and rs7709212) in the IL-12B gene were genotyped by iMLDR Assay technology in 400 patients [96% (384/400) HLA-B27(+)] and 395 geographically and ethnically matched healthy controls in mainland Han Chinese population. The correlation between IL-12B genetic polymorphisms and AS activity index (BASDAI, BASFI) were tested. Results The significant difference was found in genotype distribution between AS and healthy controls (χ2 = 6.942, P-value = 0.031) of the SNP rs6871626. Furthermore, significant evidence was also detected under the recessive model for minor allele A. The AA genotype carrier had 1.830 fold risk compared with C allele carrier (with CC and AC genotypes) [OR (95% CI) = 1.830 (1.131-2.961), P-value = 0.014]. Nevertheless, the difference was no longer significant after Bonferroni correction. Subset analysis on cases with HLA-B27(+) did find the same results. Three genotypic groups (AA, CC and CA) in rs6871626 site was highly associated with the BASDAI and BASFI (P-value = 0.012 and P-value = 0.023, respectively), after adjustment for effect of age, sex, and disease duration, the P-value was 0.031 and 0.041, respectively. The AA genotype of rs6871626 was also significantly correlated with an increased BASDAI and BASFI compared to the AC and CC genotypes in AS patients. Conclusion Our findings suggest that rs6871626 may be associated AS susceptibility and with disease activity (BASDAI, BASFI) in mainland Han Chinese population. PMID:26103568

  10. Association study of ankylosing spondylitis and polymorphisms in ERAP1 gene in Zhejiang Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangbo; Li, Liangda; Shi, Shanfen; Chen, Xin; Gao, Jianqing; Zhu, Minyu; Yuan, Jiandong

    2016-02-01

    The susceptibility loci of ERAP1 polymorphisms have been found to be strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The researches in multiple ethnic cohorts suggested that the population attributable risk in ERAP1 polymorphisms is at a high significance level. This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and incidence of subsets of AS and investigate the specific variants of ERAP1 polymorphisms in AS susceptibility, in the Han ethnic Chinese population in Zhejiang Province. AS patients were selected, diagnosed, and confirmed by a qualified rheumatologist. The basal clinical and demographic characteristics were compared with all subjects. Genotypes for eight selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERAP1 gene (rs27038, rs27037, rs27434, rs27980, rs7711564, rs30187, rs10050860, and rs17482078) were determined by using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform in Zhejiang Han Chinese population. Association analyses were performed on the whole genotyped data set in 707 unrelated ankylosing spondylitis cases and 837 ethnically matched controls. We observed the strongest association between AS and HLA-B27, which confers over 90 % of ankylosing spondylitis cases. Moreover, we found three loci of ERAP1 polymorphisms were at a high significance level (rs27037 P = 0.00451; rs27434 P = 0.00012; rs27980 P = 0.00682) with AS in Zhejiang population. We also confirmed polymorphism locus of ERAP1 previously reported association with AS (rs27434; P = 5.3 × 10(-12)). Our results indicated a difference in the mechanism of susceptibility loci in subsets of Zhejiang Han Chinese population and provided further evidence that rs27434 is the key polymorphism associated with AS in ERAP1 gene. PMID:26350268

  11. [A fourth-generation doctor - Hans Selye and his origins from Felvidék (today Slovakia)].

    PubMed

    Kiss, László

    2016-08-01

    Hans Selye regarded himself as the fourth generation of medical dynasty, but in his books he did not name his ancestors. Based on facts from archives and contemporary literature the author demonstrated that the grandfather of Hans Selye was called Schlesinger and he worked in Pruszka (county Trencsén; (today: Pruské, county Trenčín, Slovakia) as a district physician. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(33), 1331-1333. PMID:27523317

  12. The Nazi doctors and the medical community; honor or censure? The case of Hans Sewering.

    PubMed

    White, Lawrence W

    1996-01-01

    During the Nazi era, most German physicians abrogated their responsibilities to individual patients, and instead chose to advocate the interests of an evil regime. In so doing, several fundamental bioethical principles were violated. Despite gross violations of individual rights, many physicians went on to have successful careers, and in many cases were honored. This paper will review the case of Hans Sewering, a participant in the Nazi euthanasia program who became the President-elect of the World Medical Association. The appropriate stance for the medical and scientific community toward those who violate human rights and ignore fundamental ethical principles of the healing professions will be considered. PMID:11645778

  13. [Customs, habits and medical culture in the Qin-Han Periods].

    PubMed

    Zheng, H

    1994-01-01

    The unity of Qin-Han feudal dynasties improves the development of society, flourishes the economy and creates a good environment for friendly communication and fusion of customs among all nationalities, exerting positive and active influence on medicine. Analyses are made on the relation between customs and habits, and medical culture. it is stressed that not all customs are in line with science. Some of them might even be superstitious or anti-scientific. However, in some sense, it is the soil for the advent of medical and health care issues. PMID:11615220

  14. Quantitative candidate gene association studies of metabolic traits in Han Chinese type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Wei, F J; Cai, C Y; Yu, P; Lv, J; Ling, C; Shi, W T; Jiao, H X; Chang, B C; Yang, F H; Tian, Y; Li, M S; Wang, Y H; Zou, L; Shi, J M; Chen, L M; Li, W D

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified many loci associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hyperuricemia, and obesity in various ethnic populations. However, quantitative traits have been less well investigated in Han Chinese T2DM populations. We investigated the association between candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and metabolic syndrome-related quantitative traits in Han Chinese T2DM subjects. Unrelated Han Chinese T2DM patients (1975) were recruited. Eighty-six SNPs were genotyped and tested for association with quantitative traits including lipid profiles, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum uric acid (SUA), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma glucose [fasting plasma glucose (FPG)], plasma glucose 120 min post-OGTT (P2PG; OGTT = oral glucose tolerance test), and insulin resistance-related traits. We found that CAMTA1, ABI2, VHL, KAT2B, PKHD1, ESR1, TOX, SLC30A8, SFI1, and MYH9 polymorphisms were associated with HbA1c, FPG, and/or P2PG; GCK, HHEX, TCF7L2, KCNQ1, and TBX5 polymorphisms were associated with insulin resistance-related traits; ABCG2, SLC2A9, and PKHD1 polymorphisms were associated with SUA; CAMTA1, VHL, KAT2B, PON1, NUB1, SLITRK5, SMAD3, FTO, FANCA, and PCSK2 polymorphisms were associated with blood lipid traits; CAMTA1, SPAG16, TOX, KCNQ1, ACACB, and MYH9 polymorphisms were associated with blood pressure; and UBE2E3, SPAG16, SLC2A9, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, TCF7L2, SMAD3, and PNPLA3 polymorphisms were associated with BMI (all P values <0.05). Some of the candidate genes were associated with metabolic and anthropometric traits in T2DM in Han Chinese. Although none of these associations reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)), genes and loci identified in this study are worthy of further replication and investigation. PMID:26634513

  15. [Which ethics for medical ethics? Homage to Hans Jonas, 1903-1993].

    PubMed

    Munzarová, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Hans Jonas, one of the greatest philosophers of the 20th century, devoted several studies to the ethics in context with medicine and/or to the new biomedical research. His main thoughts in this field are presented (death and dying, mortality, reflections on experimenting with human subjects - nontherapeutic research, cloning, chimaeras). He was a man of wisdom and his humanity and moral sensibility are a matter of admiration. His ethics is in full consent with ethics and the dignity of medical profession. His ideas are compared (and contrasted) with those of the new bio"ethics". PMID:25370772

  16. Genetic variants associated with lean and obese type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiaomu; Xing, Xiaoyan; Hong, Jing; Zhang, Xuelian; Yang, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is highly phenotypically heterogeneous. Genetics of the heterogeneity of lean and obese T2D is not clear. The aim of the present study was to identify the associations of T2D-related genetic variants with the risks for lean and obese T2D among the Chinese Han population. A case–control study consisting of 5338 T2D patients and 4663 normal glycemic controls of Chinese Han recruited in the Chinese National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study was conducted. T2D cases were identified according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Lean T2D was defined as T2D patient with a body mass index (BMI) <23 kg/m2, whereas obese T2D was defined as T2D patient with a BMI ≥28 kg/m2. Twenty-five genome-wide association studies previously validated T2D-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. A genotype risk score (GRS) based on the 25 SNPs was created. After adjusting for multiple covariates, SNPs in or near CDKAL1, CDKN2BAS, KCNQ1, TCF7L2, CDC123/CAMK1D, HHEX, and TCF2 were associated with the risk for lean T2D, and SNPs in or near KCNQ1 and FTO were associated with the risk for obese T2D. The results showed that the GRS for 25 T2D-related SNPs was more strongly associated with the risk for lean T2D (Ptrend = 2.66 × 10−12) than for obese T2D (Ptrend = 2.91 × 10−5) in our study population. Notably, the T2D GRS contributed to lower obesity-related measurements and greater β-cell dysfunction, including lower insulin levels in oral glucose tolerance test, decreased insulinogenic index, and Homeostasis Model Assessment for β-cell Function. In conclusion, our findings identified T2D-related genetic loci that contribute to the risk of lean and obese T2D individually and additively in a Chinese Han population. Moreover, the study highlights the contribution of known T2D genomic loci to the heterogeneity of lean and obese T2D in Chinese Hans. PMID:27281091

  17. Population genetic data of 15 STR loci in Gansu Han population from China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mao; Zhang, XiaoNan; Wu, Dan; Shen, Qi; Wu, YuanMing

    2015-07-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the AmpFISTR Sinofiler™ kit were evaluated in 547 healthy unrelated Han individuals from Gansu, China. All of the loci reached the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after the Bonferroni correction (p > 0.0033). These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The combined discrimination power and probability of excluding paternity of the 15 STR loci were 0.999999 and 0.995097, respectively. Results suggested that the 15 STR loci are highly polymorphic, which is suitable for forensic personal identification and paternity testing. PMID:25504110

  18. Study of the tetraspanin 18 association with schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Chen, Fengping; Wei, Jun; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2016-07-30

    A genome-wide association study of Han Chinese samples identified three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the tetraspanin 18 (TSPAN18) gene to be associated with schizophrenia. However, the replication of the TSPAN18 association was inconsistent across studies. To explore the possible reason for poor replication, we conducted a case-control study to validate the TSPAN18 finding in an independent Chinese sample. The frequency of rs11038167 minor allele (A) was significantly higher only in female patients with thought disorder. Our result suggested that the TSPAN18 gene may be involved in the development of psychotic symptoms and contribute to clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia. PMID:27208512

  19. Association of the KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Yin, Rui-Xing; Huang, Ke-Ke; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Guo, Tao; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Wu, Jian; Wu, Dong-Feng; Li, Hui; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs4731702 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 subjects of Mulao and 740 subjects of Han Chinese were included. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Mulao, whereas they had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han (P < 0.05) than the T allele noncarriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher HDL-C, LDL-C, and ApoAI levels in Mulao males and lower ApoAI levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han males than the T allele noncarriers. The subjects with TT genotype in Han females also had higher total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB levels than the subjects with CT or CC genotype. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences in the association of KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different gene-environmental interactions. PMID:24195066

  20. Association of the KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and Serum Lipid Levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han Populations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ping; Yin, Rui-Xing; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Guo, Tao; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Wu, Jian; Wu, Dong-Feng; Li, Hui; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs4731702 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 subjects of Mulao and 740 subjects of Han Chinese were included. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Mulao, whereas they had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han (P < 0.05) than the T allele noncarriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher HDL-C, LDL-C, and ApoAI levels in Mulao males and lower ApoAI levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han males than the T allele noncarriers. The subjects with TT genotype in Han females also had higher total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB levels than the subjects with CT or CC genotype. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences in the association of KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different gene-environmental interactions. PMID:24195066

  1. Pharmacokinetics of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Metabolized by CYP3A4 in Chinese Han Volunteers Living at Low Altitude and in Native Han and Tibetan Chinese Volunteers Living at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juanling; Zhu, Junbo; Yao, Xingchen; Duan, Yabin; Zhou, Xuejiao; Yang, Meng; Li, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in Chinese Han volunteers living at low altitude (LA) and in native Han and Tibetan Chinese volunteers living at high altitude, lidocaine hydrochloride 10 mg was given by intramuscular injection to 3 groups: Han volunteers living at LA, and native Han and Tibetan volunteers living at a high altitude. Blood samples were collected before the (baseline) study drug was given and at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 h after study drug administration. Lidocaine hydrochloride in plasma was determined by RP-HPLC. Pharmacokinetics parameters of lidocaine hydrochloride showed that there were no significant difference between the native Han and Tibetan volunteers, but the t1/2 was 29.8 and 29.8% higher in 2 groups, respectively, than in the LA group. To study related mechanism, the effects of exposure to chronic high-altitude hypoxia (CHH) on the activity and expression of CYP3A1 were examined in rats. Rats were divided into LA, chronic moderate altitude hypoxia, and CHH groups. CHH caused significant decreases in the activity and protein and mRNA expression of rat CYP3A1 in vivo. This study found significant changes in the disposition of lidocaine hydrochloride in native healthy Tibetan and Han Chinese subjects living at a high altitude in comparison to healthy Han Chinese subjects living at LA, it might be due to significant decreases in the activity and protein and mRNA expression of CYP3A4 under CHH condition. PMID:26730802

  2. Medicinal use of earths and minerals from Hippocrates to Sir Hans Sloane and beyond.

    PubMed

    Retsas, Spyros

    2012-12-01

    In 1931 two pharmaceutical drawers containing mineral specimens, belonging to Sir Hans Sloane, the 18th century collector, Royal Physician, President of the Royal Society and of the Royal College of Physicians of London, were found in the Department of Botany of the Natural History Museum (NHM) of London. The drawers, each divided into 49 compartments, contained a total of 107 mineral pharmaceutical specimens, some labelled as mercury or white arsenic. Their registration, identification with the Sloane Manuscript Catalogues and subsequent transfer to the Mineralogy department of the NHM where one of these drawers is now on public display, had been documented by 1935. In antiquity therapeutic empiricism attributed medicinal properties to animal products, plants and minerals, including the soil of specific geographic locations. This communication traces the medicinal use of certain earths and minerals, listed in Sir Hans Sloane's manuscript catalogues, to classical antiquity with a reference to Arsenic compounds, which in our time are finding application in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia and to Terra Lemnia, a celebrated antidote of repute spanning twenty centuries, also included in the Sloane collections. PMID:26255390

  3. Polymorphisms of Transferrin gene are associated with schizophrenia in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mei; Yue, Weihua; Tang, Fulei; Wang, Lifang; Han, Yonghua; Zhang, Dai

    2008-09-01

    Several recent studies have provided evidence that abnormalities in oligodendrocyte and myelin function may contribute to the etiopathology of schizophrenia. Transferrin (TF), an iron transport glycoprotein playing an important role in synthesis of myelin and the development of oligodendrocytes, has been identified as down-regulated expression in schizophrenia brain by microarray, quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization method. In order to further assess the role of TF in schizophrenia, we examined seven polymorphisms in TF region using a set sample of Chinese Han subjects consisting of 326 schizophrenia patients and 344 healthy controls. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) namely, rs4481157, rs3811655, rs6762415 and rs1405022 were analyzed in this study. Our results showed that one intronic SNP had strong association with schizophrenia (rs3811655: allele C>G, P=1.34E-6, OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.46-2.46; genotype P=3.72E-6). Two haplotypes A-C and G-G constructed of rs4481157-rs3811655 also revealed significant associations with schizophrenia (global P=0.0001). Our findings support that TF gene may be involved in susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings in other populations and to identify functional variants in TF that may be implicated in pathogenesis. PMID:18045615

  4. Hans Georg Trüper (1936–2016) and His Contributions to Halophile Research

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Aharon

    2016-01-01

    Prof. Hans Georg Trüper, one of the most important scientists in the field of halophile research, passed away on 9 March 2016 at the age of 79. I here present a brief obituary with special emphasis on Prof. Trüper’s contributions to our understanding of the halophilic prokaryotes and their adaptations to life in hypersaline environments. He has pioneered the study of the halophilic anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria of the Ectothiorhodospira—Halorhodospira group. Some of the species he and his group isolated from hypersaline and haloalkaline environments have become model organisms for the study of the mechanisms of haloadaptation: the functions of three major organic compounds – glycine betaine, ectoine, and trehalose – known to serve as “compatible solutes” in halophilic members of the Bacteria domain, were discovered during studies of these anoxygenic phototrophs. Prof. Trüper’s studies of hypersaline alkaline environments in Egypt also led to the isolation of the first known extremely halophilic archaeon (Natronomonas pharaonis). The guest editors dedicate this special volume of Life to the memory of Prof. Hans Georg Trüper. PMID:27187481

  5. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is an independent risk factor of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wei Zuo, Shang; Li, Yue; Jia, Xin; Jia, Sen Hao; Zhang, Tao; Xiang Song, Yu; Qi Wei, Ying; Xiong, Jiang; Hua Hu, Yong; Guo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The associations between hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remain controversial, with only few studies focused on these associations within the Chinese population. We performed subgroup and interaction analyses in a Chinese Han population to investigate these associations. In all, 155 AAA patients and 310 control subjects were evaluated for serum total homocysteine levels and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the aforementioned associations. Interaction and stratified analyses were conducted according to age, sex, smoking status, drinking status, and chronic disease histories. The multiple logistic analyses showed a significant association between HHcy and AAA but no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA. The interaction analysis showed that age and peripheral arterial disease played an interactive role in the association between HHcy and AAA, while drinking status played an interactive role in the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA. In conclusion, HHcy is an independent risk factor of AAA in a Chinese Han population, especially in the elderly and peripheral arterial disease subgroups. Longitudinal studies and clinical trials aimed to reduce homocysteine levels are warranted to assess the causal nature of these relationships. PMID:26865327

  6. ETS1 variants confer susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction ETS1 is a negative regulator of the Th17 differentiation gene and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in ETS1 confer susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Han Chinese. Methods We selected seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ETS1 based on HapMap data and previous genome-wide association study. Genotyping involved the TaqMan method in 1,015 patients with AS and 1,132 healthy controls from Shandong Province, and 352 AS patients and 400 healthy controls from Ningxia, a northwest region in China. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. Results The SNP rs1128334 was strongly associated with AS (odds ratio 1.204, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.37; P = 0.005). This association was confiexrmed in the Ningxia population (P = 0.015). Carriers of the haplotype TAT for rs12574073, rs1128334 and rs4937333 were associated with increased risk of AS and haplotype CGC with reduced risk as compared to controls. In addition, ETS1 expression was lower in AS patients than controls. The risk allele A of rs1128334 and haplotype A-T of rs1128334 and rs4937333 were associated with decreased expression of ETS1. Conclusions Common variants in ETS1 may contribute to AS susceptibility in Han Chinese people. PMID:24708692

  7. Hans Georg Trüper (1936-2016) and His Contributions to Halophile Research.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon

    2016-01-01

    Prof. Hans Georg Trüper, one of the most important scientists in the field of halophile research, passed away on 9 March 2016 at the age of 79. I here present a brief obituary with special emphasis on Prof. Trüper's contributions to our understanding of the halophilic prokaryotes and their adaptations to life in hypersaline environments. He has pioneered the study of the halophilic anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria of the Ectothiorhodospira-Halorhodospira group. Some of the species he and his group isolated from hypersaline and haloalkaline environments have become model organisms for the study of the mechanisms of haloadaptation: the functions of three major organic compounds - glycine betaine, ectoine, and trehalose - known to serve as "compatible solutes" in halophilic members of the Bacteria domain, were discovered during studies of these anoxygenic phototrophs. Prof. Trüper's studies of hypersaline alkaline environments in Egypt also led to the isolation of the first known extremely halophilic archaeon (Natronomonas pharaonis). The guest editors dedicate this special volume of Life to the memory of Prof. Hans Georg Trüper. PMID:27187481

  8. Association of the LRRK2 genetic polymorphisms with leprosy in Han Chinese from Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Xu, L; Lv, L; Su, L-Y; Fan, Y; Zhang, D-F; Bi, R; Yu, D; Zhang, W; Li, X-A; Li, Y-Y; Yao, Y-G

    2015-03-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious and neurological disease that is caused by infection of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). A recent genome-wide association study indicated a suggestive association of LRRK2 genetic variant rs1873613 with leprosy in Chinese population. To validate this association and further identify potential causal variants of LRRK2 with leprosy, we genotyped 13 LRRK2 variants in 548 leprosy patients and 1078 healthy individuals from Yunnan Province and (re-)analyzed 3225 Han Chinese across China. Variants rs1427267, rs3761863, rs1873613, rs732374 and rs7298930 were significantly associated with leprosy per se and/or paucibacillary leprosy (PB). Haplotype A-G-A-C-A was significantly associated with leprosy per se (P=0.018) and PB (P=0.020). Overexpression of the protective allele (Thr2397) of rs3761863 in HEK293 cells led to a significantly increased nuclear factor of activated T-cells' activity compared with allele Met2397 after lipopolysaccharides stimulation. Allele Thr2397 could attenuate 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-induced autophagic activity in U251 cells. These data suggest that the protective effect of LRRK2 variant p.M2397T on leprosy might be mediated by increasing immune response and decreasing neurotoxicity after M. leprae loading. Our findings confirm that LRRK2 is a susceptible gene to leprosy in Han Chinese population. PMID:25521227

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of TNFAIP3 are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Han, J-W; Wang, Y; Li, H-B; Alateng, C; Bai, Y-H; Sun, Z-Q; Lv, X-X; Wu, R-N

    2016-04-01

    The polymorphisms of tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) have been found to associate with several autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to explore the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TNFAIP3 gene with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Han Chinese. Thirty-two SNPs were genotyped in 284 patients with SLE and 630 controls using the ligation detection reaction (LDR) method. The quality control steps and statistical analyses were performed using the plink 1.07 package and haploview software. We found that 13 SNPs in TNFAIP3 showed significant association with SLE (P < 1.85 × 10(-3) ), and all of them were in high linkage disequilibrium (LD). After conditioning on the SNP rs2230926, other 12 SNPs did not show association (P > 0.27). All 13 SNPs showed most significant association in the dominant model. In haplotype analysis, a long risk SNP haplotype (GCCCGTGTCATGG) showed most significant association (P = 1.00 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, our data suggest that TNFAIP3 is a susceptible gene for SLE in the Han Chinese population. PMID:26846592

  10. A matrilineal genetic legacy from the last glacial maximum confers susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, A-Mei; Peng, Min-Sheng; Xie, Hai-Bing; Tan, Liwen; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Chen, Xiaogang; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2014-07-20

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely reported in schizophrenia patients. To dissect the matrilineal structure of Han Chinese with or without schizophrenia and to decipher the maternal influence and evolutionary history of schizophrenia, a total of 1212 schizophrenia patients and 1005 matched healthy controls, all of Han Chinese origin, were recruited in Hunan Province, China. We classified haplogroup for each individual based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variations and compared the haplogroup distribution pattern between cases and controls. Haplogroup B5a presented a higher frequency in cases than in controls (P = 0.02, OR = 1.67, 95% CI = [1.09, 2.56]), and this result could be confirmed by permutation analysis. Age estimation of haplogroup B5a in cases revealed a much younger age than that of controls, which was coincident with the Northern Hemisphere deglaciation at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. Analysis of complete mtDNA in five patients belonging to haplogroup B5a showed that this background effect might be caused by haplogroup-defining variants m.8584G>A and m.10398A>G. Our results showed that matrilineal risk factor for schizophrenia had an ancient origin and might acquire a predisposing effect on schizophrenia due to the environment change and/or orchestration with other nuclear genetic factors appeared recently in human evolutionary history. PMID:25064678

  11. NINJ2 polymorphism is associated with ischemic stroke in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xin-hong; Li, Shu-juan; Cheng, Ping; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Xin-chun; Zhong, Guang-zhen; Hu, Wen-li; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2011-09-15

    Recently, a genome-wide association study reported an association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs11833579 and rs12425791 near NINJ2 gene and ischemic stroke in Caucasians. Therefore, NINJ2 gene is an important candidate locus in the prevalence of ischemic stroke. We performed a hospital based genetic association study in Chinese Han subjects to investigate the relationship between NINJ2 gene and ischemic stroke. We genotyped 14 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNP) in 749 ischemic stroke subjects and 924 control subjects and conducted the association between these tSNPs and ischemic stroke. We detected a tSNP rs10849373 in the first intron of the NINJ2 gene significantly associated with ischemic stroke (both genotype and allelic p=0.0001). The minor A allele increased the risk of ischemic stroke with a per-allele OR of 1.37 for the additive genetic model in univariate analysis (p=0.0001). The significance remained after adjustment for the covariates of age, gender, BMI, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, hypertension, and diabetes. Therefore, we report a new genetic variant, rs10849373, located in the first intron of the NINJ2 gene, conferring risk of ischemic stroke in Chinese Han subjects. Further genetic association and functional studies are required to search the causal functional variant in linkage disequilibrium with this polymorphism. PMID:21722921

  12. The association analysis polymorphism of CDKAL1 and diabetic retinopathy in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nai-Jia; Xiong, Qian; Wu, Hui-Hui; Li, Yan-Liang; Yang, Zhen; Tao, Xiao-Ming; Du, Yan-Ping; Lu, Bin; Hu, Ren-Ming; Wang, Xuan-Chun; Wen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify the contribution of CDKAL1 to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Chinese population. METHODS A case-control study was performed to investigate the genetic association between DR and polymorphic variants of CDKAL1 in Chinese Han population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A well-defined population with T2DM, consisting of 475 controls and 105 DR patients, was recruited. All subjects were genotyped for the genetic variant (rs10946398) of CDKAL1. Genotyping was performed by iPLEX technology. The association between rs10946398 and T2DM was assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) analysis. RESULTS There were significant differences in C allele frequencies of rs10946398 (CDKAL1) between control and DR groups (45.06% versus 55.00%, P<0.05). The rs10946398 of CDKAL1 was found to be associated with the increased risk of DR among patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that rs10946398 of CDKAL1 is independently associated with DR in a Chinese Han population. PMID:27275426

  13. 50 Years of Bong-Han Theory and 10 Years of Primo Vascular System

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Kwang-Sup; Kang, Kyung A.; Ryu, Yeon Hee

    2013-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) was first introduced by Bong-Han Kim via his five research reports. Among these the third report was most extensive and conclusive in terms of the PVS anatomy and physiology relating to the acupuncture meridians. His study results, unfortunately, were not reproduced by other scientists because he did not describe the materials and methods in detail. In 2002, a research team in Seoul National University reinitiated the PVS research, confirmed the existence of PVS in various organs, and discovered new characteristics of PVS. Two important examples are as follows: PVS was found in the adipose tissue and around cancer tissues. In parallel to these new findings, new methods for observing and identifying PVS were developed. Studies on the cell and material content inside the PVS, including the immune function cells and stem cells, are being progressed. In this review, Bong-Han Kim's study results in his third report are summarized, and the new results after him are briefly reviewed. In the last section, the obstacles in finding the PVS in the skin as an anatomical structure of acupuncture meridian are discussed. PMID:23983793

  14. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is an independent risk factor of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wei Zuo, Shang; Li, Yue; Jia, Xin; Jia, Sen Hao; Zhang, Tao; Xiang Song, Yu; Qi Wei, Ying; Xiong, Jiang; Hua Hu, Yong; Guo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The associations between hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remain controversial, with only few studies focused on these associations within the Chinese population. We performed subgroup and interaction analyses in a Chinese Han population to investigate these associations. In all, 155 AAA patients and 310 control subjects were evaluated for serum total homocysteine levels and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the aforementioned associations. Interaction and stratified analyses were conducted according to age, sex, smoking status, drinking status, and chronic disease histories. The multiple logistic analyses showed a significant association between HHcy and AAA but no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA. The interaction analysis showed that age and peripheral arterial disease played an interactive role in the association between HHcy and AAA, while drinking status played an interactive role in the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA. In conclusion, HHcy is an independent risk factor of AAA in a Chinese Han population, especially in the elderly and peripheral arterial disease subgroups. Longitudinal studies and clinical trials aimed to reduce homocysteine levels are warranted to assess the causal nature of these relationships PMID:26865327

  15. Polymorphisms of the IL27 gene in a Chinese Han population complicated with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Li, Yuan; Yao, Yuan; Li, Hua; Liang, Hongda; Xin, Miaomiao; Wang, Liqin; Zhao, Lei; Lin, Jizheng; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    IL-27 could inhibit the development of Th17 cells, and the Th17/regulatory T-cell imbalance may reverse maternal tolerance in pre-eclampsia (PE). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms in IL27 with PE. Three SNPs in IL27 (rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206) were genotyped in a Chinese Han cohort of 1040 PE patients and 1247 normal pregnant women using the TaqMan allelic discrimination real-time PCR method. The CC genotypic distribution of rs153109 was significantly higher among cases than controls (19.1% versus 13.3%, odds ratio [OR]: 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-1.93, p < 0.001), and the CT genotype was found to be significantly lower in cases than controls (41.7% versus 49.0%, OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.63-0.88, p < 0.001), disputing existing reports indicating the allele frequency of rs153109 is not significantly different between PE patients and controls. Additionally, the CC genotype of rs153109 was significantly more prevalent in PE cases than controls using a recessive model (p < 0.001). The allelic and genotypic frequencies of rs17855750 and rs181206 were not significantly different between two groups. Our results reveal that IL27 polymorphisms may be involved in the development of PE in Chinese Han population. PMID:26971578

  16. A study of single nucleotide polymorphisms of GRIN2B in schizophrenia from Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenming; Niu, Weibo; Bi, Yan; Zhang, Rui; Ren, Decheng; Hu, Jiaxin; Huang, Xiaoye; Wu, Xi; Cao, Yanfei; Yang, Fengping; Wang, Lu; Li, Weidong; Li, Xingwang; Xu, Yifeng; He, Lin; Yu, Tao; He, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and complex mental disorder with high heritability. There is evidence that mutations in the gene of Nmethyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR) are associated with schizophrenia. GRIN2B encodes a subunit of NMDARs, and has been identified as a candidate gene for many psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GRIN2B were associated with schizophrenia. Four SNPs (rs890, rs1806191, rs219872, rs172677) were genotyped in 752 schizophrenic patients and 846 healthy controls of the Chinese Han population. Our results indicate differences in allele and genotype frequencies of rs890 between case and control. These results were assessed by adapting different genetic models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, log-additive models). After controlling for confounding factors including sex and age, rs890 remained associated with schizophrenia. In addition, rs890 and rs1806191 were found to form a haplotype associated with schizophrenia. In summary, our results indicate that the GRIN2B SNP rs890 might be associated with schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. PMID:27453061

  17. Association of ER-alpha gene polymorphism with metabolic phenotypes in Chinese Hans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Jiang, Xiao-yan; Xu, Li; Li, Xia; Cao, Fei-fei; Li, Lei; Lu, Ming; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2009-08-01

    Recently, two polymorphisms (rs1884052 and rs3778099) of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) gene were identified as being associated with primary quantitative bone mineral density (BMD) in a genome-wide association (GWA) study in Framingham cohorts. In this study we aimed at investigating the association of rs1884052 and rs3778099, and another polymorphism (rs2234693) located at intron 1 of the ER-alpha gene with BMD, body mass index (BMI), glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol (CHO) levels in Chinese Hans. We recruited 425 consecutive adult volunteers who had a physical examination in the Jinan Maternity and Child Care Hospital. We did not observe significant association of rs1884052 and rs3778099 with BMD, BMI, glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol (CHO) levels. For rs2234693, increased levels of BMD for hip, spine or whole-body regions were consistently observed in TT/TC genotype carriers than in CC genotype carriers, although the board line significance diminished after adjusting for age and gender. However, significant association of rs2234693 with glucose and CHO levels were observed in our sample. Subjects with TC/CC genotypes were associated with an increased level of glucose (p = 0.013) and CHO (p = 0.032) levels than subjects with TT genotypes. In conclusion, we did not confirm the association of rs1884052 and rs3778099 with BMD originally discovered in a GWA study; however, we made novel discoveries that rs2234693 was associated with glucose and CHO levels in Chinese Hans. PMID:19578917

  18. Association of a miRNA-137 Polymorphism with Schizophrenia in a Southern Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Guoda; Yin, Jingwen; Fu, Jiawu; Luo, Xudong; Zhou, Haihong; Tao, Hua; Li, You; Lin, Zhixiong; Zhao, Bin; Li, Zheng; Lin, Juda; Li, Keshen

    2014-01-01

    Both genome wide association study (GWAS) and biochemical studies of Caucasian populations indicate a robust association between the miR-137 genetic variant rs1625579 and schizophrenia, but inconsistent results have been reported. To assay the association between this variant and schizophrenia, we genotyped 611 schizophrenic patients from Southern Chinese Han population for the risk single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1625579 using the SNaPshot technique and compared the clinical profiles of different genotypes. Additionally, a meta-analysis was performed using the combined sample groups from five case-control publications and the present study. Both the genotype and allele distributions of the rs1625579 SNP were significantly different between patients and controls (P = 0.036 and 0.026, SNP). TT genotype carriers showed slightly lower Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia- (BACS-) derived working memory performance than G carriers (15.58 ± 9.56 versus 19.71 ± 8.18, P = 0.045). In the meta-analysis, we observed a significant association between rs1625579 and schizophrenia under different genetic models (all P < 0.05). The results of our study and meta-analysis provide convincing evidence that rs1625579 is significantly associated with schizophrenia. Furthermore, the miR-137 polymorphism influences the working memory performance of schizophrenic patients in a Chinese Han population. PMID:25250332

  19. Cognitive function and suicide risk in Han Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zoghbi, Anthony William; Al Jurdi, Rayan K; Deshmukh, Poonam R; Chen, Da C; Xiu, Mei H; Tan, Yun L; Yang, Fu D; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2014-12-15

    The lifetime risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia is estimated to be 4.9-13%. While there are many known risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia, the relationship between cognitive function and suicide risk is unclear, particularly in non-Caucasian populations. In our cross-sectional study, we administered the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) to 316 Han Chinese chronic inpatients with schizophrenia and compared the performance of those who had attempted suicide (n=25) to non-attempters (n=291). The lifetime suicide attempt data were collected from medical records and interviews with patients and their family members. We found a lifetime suicide attempt rate of 7.9%. Suicide attempters were more likely to be single, but showed no significant differences in other demographic factors such as age, gender, or living arrangements. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant relationship between performance on the RBANS test and lifetime risk of suicide attempts in Han Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia. The literature remains mixed on this topic. Culturally influenced differences in suicidal behavior may have affected the outcome of this study and further investigation of this topic is necessary. PMID:25174852

  20. Autonomous dynamics in neural networks: the dHAN concept and associative thought processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Claudius

    2007-02-01

    The neural activity of the human brain is dominated by self-sustained activities. External sensory stimuli influence this autonomous activity but they do not drive the brain directly. Most standard artificial neural network models are however input driven and do not show spontaneous activities. It constitutes a challenge to develop organizational principles for controlled, self-sustained activity in artificial neural networks. Here we propose and examine the dHAN concept for autonomous associative thought processes in dense and homogeneous associative networks. An associative thought-process is characterized, within this approach, by a time-series of transient attractors. Each transient state corresponds to a stored information, a memory. The subsequent transient states are characterized by large associative overlaps, which are identical to acquired patterns. Memory states, the acquired patterns, have such a dual functionality. In this approach the self-sustained neural activity has a central functional role. The network acquires a discrimination capability, as external stimuli need to compete with the autonomous activity. Noise in the input is readily filtered-out. Hebbian learning of external patterns occurs coinstantaneous with the ongoing associative thought process. The autonomous dynamics needs a long-term working-point optimization which acquires within the dHAN concept a dual functionality: It stabilizes the time development of the associative thought process and limits runaway synaptic growth, which generically occurs otherwise in neural networks with self-induced activities and Hebbian-type learning rules.

  1. The literature of medical ethics: A review of the writings of Hans Jonas

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, F B K

    1976-01-01

    Hans Jonas, who was trained in Germany in the 1920s as a philosopher, had written studies of gnosticism while still living in Germany and some of his work in that field was published after he had left the country. After the Second World War Jonas settled in the United States of America where he is now the Alvin Johnson Professor of Philosophy at the New School for Social Research in New York City. For some years Hans Jonas has directed his research to philosophical studies of medical ethics, in particular to the problems created by recent advances in medical technology. His first book on this theme, `The Phenomenon of Life: Towards a Philosophical Biology', provides the philosophical background to his latest studies and was published in 1966. The essays included in that volume date from 1950 onwards. His second, `Philosophical Essays: From Ancient Creed to Technological Man', continues his analysis and argument from 1964 to the present day but is more particularly concerned with the practical problems of medical ethics encountered by clinicians and research workers, for example, experiments on comatose patients. Dr Cooper in this review outlines in some detail the theses of these volumes. PMID:784996

  2. Common variant rs7579169 is associated with preeclampsia in Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Guo, L F; Wang, Z H; Wang, Y F

    2016-01-01

    As a heterogeneous group of disorders in pregnancy, many genetic factors are involved in the development of preeclampsia. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7579169, located on chromosome 2q14.2, has been shown to be associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension in Europeans. In this study, we examined whether the SNP rs7579169 is associated with the susceptibility to preeclampsia through a case-control research model in Han Chinese women. Genotypes of 145 patients with preeclampsia and 150 healthy pregnant subjects were identified by direct sequencing. The correlation between the rs7579169 genotype and the susceptibility to preeclampsia was evaluated using an unconditional logistic regression model. Although there were no differences of having the rs7579169 SNP between early onset and late onset preeclampsia, patients carrying the CT or TT genotype were more likely to develop preeclampsia than those carrying the CC genotype (CT vs CC: OR = 1.76, 95%CI = 1.07-2.87, P < 0.05; TT vs CC: OR = 5.03, 95%CI = 1.99-12.73, P < 0.05; CC vs CT + TT: OR = 2.05, 95%CI = 1.27-3.30, P < 0.05). In conclusion, although no differences of the rs7579169 SNP were identified between the early onset and late onset preeclampsia groups, we found that the CT or TT genotype and the CT+TT genotype were significantly associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia in Han Chinese women. PMID:27173354

  3. Pollution from animal husbandry in China: a case study of the Han River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Wu, Hongjuan

    2012-01-01

    Animal husbandry is one of the major agricultural pollution sources in China. The Xiangyang Reach of the Han River Basin was used as a case study to identify pollutants from animal rearing. The gross amount of pollutants from livestock and poultry rearing in the Xiangyang Reach was estimated using two empirical models with different data sets. The pig, cattle, sheep, and poultry population in 2009 amounted to 2.6, 0.6, 0.5, and 39.2 million head, respectively. The total annual pollutant loads generated from the feces and urine of livestock and poultry were 270,400 t of chemical oxygen demand; 228,900 t of biochemical oxygen demand; 26,500 t of ammonia nitrogen; 16,500 t of total phosphorus; and 63,900 t of total nitrogen. Approximately 12% of these pollutant loads were estimated to enter the Han River through the watershed outlet. Animal breeding has been one of the main pollution sources in this area, followed by domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. Cattle produced the most pollution, with the heaviest pollution load in downtown Xiangyang City. Several recommendations are presented to control the pollution caused by livestock and poultry breeding. PMID:22766880

  4. Association of TLR9 polymorphisms with sporadic Parkinson's disease in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Konghua; Teng, Jijun; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Hongxin; Xie, Anmu

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have acknowledged that inflammatory reaction has implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis nowadays. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as key players in the inflammatory reaction, play a pivotal role in the PD pathogenesis and accumulating evidences have shown that TLRs are increased in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of PD. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the role of the polymorphisms of rs187084 and rs352140 in TLR9 gene with PD. The genotypes were detected by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 380 PD patients and 380 healthy matched individuals in Chinese Han population. For rs352140, our data revealed a significant difference in allele distribution in female PD group and its healthy matched control (P = 0.040). Moreover, rs352140 T allele carriers of female group were associated with a reduced risk of PD (TT + TC vs. CC, P = 0.018). However, no significant differences in genotype and allele distribution were found between the age and gender subgroups for rs187084. Therefore, our studies indicate that the rs352140 gene polymorphism may be associated with the susceptibility of female PD in Chinese Han population. PMID:26000920

  5. Genetic polymorphisms of cell adhesion molecules in Behcet’s disease in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Minming; Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Hongsong; Hu, Jiayue; Cao, Qingfeng; Huang, Guo; Huang, Yang; Yuan, Gangxiang; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are involved in various immune-mediated diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CAMs with Behçet’s disease (BD) in a Chinese Han population. A two-stage association study was carried out in 1149 BD patients and 2107 normal controls. Genotyping of 43 SNPs was performed using MassARRAY System (Sequenom), polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and TaqMan SNP assays. The expression of CD6 and CD11c was examined by real-time PCR and cytokine production was measured by ELISA. A significantly higher frequency of the CT genotype, and a lower frequency of the CC genotype and C allele of CD6 rs11230563 were observed in BD as compared with controls. Analysis of CD11c rs2929 showed that patients with BD had a significantly higher frequency of the GG genotype and G allele, and a lower frequency of the AG genotype as compared with controls. Functional experiments showed an increased CD11c expression and increased production of TNF-α and IL-1beta by LPS stimulated PBMCs in GG carriers of CD11c rs2929 compared to AA/AG carriers. Our study provides evidence that CD6 and CD11c are involved in the susceptibility to BD in a Chinese Han population. PMID:27108704

  6. Association of HMGCR polymorphism with late-onset Alzheimer's disease in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Meng-Shan; Wang, Hui-Fu; Tan, Chen-Chen; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Zhan-Jie; Kong, Ling-Li; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Jiang, Teng; Yu, Jin-Tai; Tan, Lan

    2016-01-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) acts as a potential genetic modifier for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous reports identified that HMGCR rs3846662 polymorphism is associated with biosynthesis of cholesterol in AD pathology. In order to assess the involvement of the HMGCR polymorphism in the risk of late-onset AD (LOAD) in northern Han Chinese, we performed a case–control study of 2334 unrelated subjects (984 cases and 1350 age- and gender-matched controls) to evaluate the genotype and allele distributions of the HMGCR rs3846662 with LOAD. The genotype distribution (GG, AG, AA) of rs3846662 was significantly different between LOAD patients and controls (P = 0.003), but the allele distribution did not reach a significant difference (P = 0.614). After adjusting for age, gender and the APOE ε4 status, the minor A allele of rs3846662 was validated as a protective factor for LOAD in dominant model (OR = 0.796, P = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.657–0.965). Interestingly, we observed rs3846662 polymorphism was only significantly associated with LOAD in APOE ε4 non-carriers (OR = 0.735, P = 0.005, 95% CI = [0.593, 0.912]). In conclusion, our study demonstrates A allele of HMGCR rs3846662 acts as a protective factor for LOAD in northern Han Chinese. PMID:27009838

  7. Genetic variations of the ADIPOQ gene and risk of prostate cancer in Chinese Han men

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Cheng-Yuan; Li, Qiao-Xin; Zhu, Yao; Wang, Meng-Yun; Shi, Ting-Yan; Yang, Ya-Yun; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Jin, Li; Wei, Qing-Yi; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin secreted by adipose tissue has been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. Genetic variations in ADIPOQ are thought to influence the activity of adiponectin, thus relating to cancer occurrence. In this hospital-based case-control study of 917 prostate cancer (PCa) cases and 1036 cancer-free controls, we evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADIPOQ with risk of PCa and adiponectin levels in Chinese Han men. Variants of ADIPOQ were genotyped by Taqman polymerase chain reaction method. The plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a subset of cases and controls. We found that the ADIPOQ rs3774262 variant AA genotype was associated with both decreased PCa risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.48–0.92] and increased plasma adiponectin levels (P = 0.036 and 0.043), with significant difference by tumor grade, clinical stage, and aggressiveness. A significant interaction between ADIPOQ rs3774262 and body mass index was observed in modifying the risk of PCa (P = 6.7 × 10−3). ADIPOQ rs266729 and rs182052 were not related to PCa risk or plasma adiponectin levels. Our data support that ADIPOQ rs3774262 may affect PCa risk in combination with plasma adiponectin levels in Chinese Han men. It may contribute to the molecular basis for the association between obesity and PCa. PMID:25038177

  8. Genetic polymorphisms of cell adhesion molecules in Behcet's disease in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minming; Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Hongsong; Hu, Jiayue; Cao, Qingfeng; Huang, Guo; Huang, Yang; Yuan, Gangxiang; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are involved in various immune-mediated diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CAMs with Behçet's disease (BD) in a Chinese Han population. A two-stage association study was carried out in 1149 BD patients and 2107 normal controls. Genotyping of 43 SNPs was performed using MassARRAY System (Sequenom), polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and TaqMan SNP assays. The expression of CD6 and CD11c was examined by real-time PCR and cytokine production was measured by ELISA. A significantly higher frequency of the CT genotype, and a lower frequency of the CC genotype and C allele of CD6 rs11230563 were observed in BD as compared with controls. Analysis of CD11c rs2929 showed that patients with BD had a significantly higher frequency of the GG genotype and G allele, and a lower frequency of the AG genotype as compared with controls. Functional experiments showed an increased CD11c expression and increased production of TNF-α and IL-1beta by LPS stimulated PBMCs in GG carriers of CD11c rs2929 compared to AA/AG carriers. Our study provides evidence that CD6 and CD11c are involved in the susceptibility to BD in a Chinese Han population. PMID:27108704

  9. TPM1 polymorphisms and nonsyndromic orofacial clefts susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yajing; Li, Dandan; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Hongchuang; Gong, Miao; Li, Sheng; Yuan, Hua; Zhang, Weibing; Ma, Junqing; Jiang, Hongbing; Pan, Yongchu; Wang, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Located at 15q22 a susceptibility region for nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (NSOC), TPM1 encodes a group of highly conserved ubiquitous actin-binding proteins involved in the muscle contraction and cytoskeleton organization. Considering the multiple functions of TPM1 gene, we investigated the potential relationship between TPM1 polymorphisms and risk of NSOC in a Chinese Han population. Four tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) of TPM1 (rs11071720, rs3803499, rs12148828, and rs1972041) were selected to conduct a case-control study with 673 NSOC patients and 705 unrelated healthy controls from a Chinese Han population. The SNPs were genotyped by the IPLEX Sequenom MassARRAY platform. SNP rs1972041GA showed a decreased risk of NSOC in heterozygotes (P = 0.038, OR = 0.77, 95%CI = [0.61, 0.99]). Further stratified analysis revealed an enhanced protective effect of the minor allele G at rs197204 on lip with cleft palate (CLP) and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) groups under a codominant or dominant model. No association was observed between the remaining three markers (rs11071720, rs3803499, and rs12148828) and NSOC as well as its subgroups. TPM1 polymorphisms might contribute to the etiology of NSOC, and more emphasis should be placed on TPM1 during craniofacial development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26792422

  10. Impact of strabismus on the quality of life of Chinese Han teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Changsen; Ye, Liang; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yuwen; Li, Yingzi

    2016-01-01

    Background Although much research has been conducted on the impact of strabismus on the quality of life (QoL) of adults, the effect of this condition on teenagers has not been extensively studied. This study therefore aimed to assess the effect of strabismus on the vision-related QoL of Chinese teenagers. Methods The Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) was self-administered by 1,040 teenagers with strabismus and 1,002 individuals with normal vision. All the participants were from the Chinese Han population. The independent samples t-test was used to compare QoL between teenagers with and without strabismus. Results The majority of scores on the NEI-VFQ-25 domains were significantly different between the two groups. QoL was significantly lower in individuals with strabismus compared with teenagers with normal vision on all domains, with the exception of social functioning. Conclusion Statistically significantly lower vision-related QoL scores were found in Chinese Han teenagers with strabismus compared with those without strabismus. PMID:27354771