... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Floating-Harbor syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed December 2012 What is Floating-Harbor syndrome? Floating-Harbor syndrome is a disorder ...
The harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) has the most extensive distribution of any phocid seal species. An analysis of population structure in this species across its European range was made using 7 phocid derived microsatellites in a sample of 1,029 individuals from 12 separate geographic areas. Despite the species potential for long-distance movement, significant genetic differentiation between areas was observed using an unbiased estimator of RST. Six distinct population units were identified: Ireland-Scotland, English east coast, Waddensea, western Scandinavia (Norway-Kattegat-Skagerrak-west Baltic), east Baltic, and Iceland. Little local substructuring is present along coastlines with a continuous distribution of breeding animals, but differentiation does increase with geographic distance. The degree of differentiation is greater over equivalent distances where the distribution is discontinuous, such as along coasts where breeding colonies are separated by large distances or by stretches of open sea. Patterns of population differentiation derived from microsatellites are very similar to those obtained from previous mitochondrial DNA analysis and suggest that philopatry in harbor seals operates over 300-500 km. In Europe, harbor seals have experienced a complex demographic history and patterns of population structure are likely to have been affected by natural environmental influences such as Pleistocene glaciations and epizootics. Comparison of Nm values from an unbiased estimator of RST, GST, and theta are consistent and, in some cases, may indicate populations where conditions deviate from the expectations of the RST model. PMID:9491609
Goodman, S J
This article is meant to serve as a summary of scientific advances from the past 5 years with regard to genetic polymorphisms in sepsis. It is also meant to highlight some of the discoveries that may improve our ability to identify vulnerable patients at earlier time points in sepsis, when interventions are more likely to have a positive effect. The article begins with an overview of polymorphism studies and a discussion of candidate gene versus genome-wide association studies. Next, an overview of polymorphisms associated with sepsis is presented. The overview includes detailed descriptions of E-selectin, apolipoprotein E, and C-reactive protein polymorphisms and a table in which numerous other sepsis-related polymorphisms are introduced. An examination of consortia-based projects that have the potential to catalyze sepsis research is included as is a preview of technological advancements that are likely to strongly influence sepsis studies in the near future. The article concludes with a brief consideration of ethical and social issues relevant to human genomic studies. PMID:19892256
Namath, Allen; Patterson, Andrew J
New sources of genetic polymorphisms promise significant additions to the number of useful genetic markers in agricultural plants and animals, and prompt this review of potential applications of polymorphic genetic markers in plant and animal breeding. Two major areas of application can be distinguished. The first is based on the utilization of genetic markers to determine genetic relationships. These applications
M. Soller; J. S. Beckmann
Human salivary PRPs are determined by six closely linked genes on chromosome 12p13.2. The many PRPs show complex electrophoretic patterns that differ between individuals and reflect numerous genetic polymorphisms. Frequent length and null polymorphisms are common among PRPs. Common themes emerge as a background for these PRP polymorphisms. First, posttranslational proteolysis occurs with double-banded patterns among acidic PRPs and the generation of numerous basic PRPs derived from precursor proteins. Specific mutations may interfere with proteolysis, preventing generation of double-banded acidic PRPs (as with the Pa protein) or of small basic PRPs from precursor proteins (as with Pm proteins). Second, single cysteine substitutions in PRPs (Pa from PRH1 and G1 8 from PRB3) may lead to disulfide bonded homodimers as well as heterodimers with salivary peroxidase. Third, frequent homologous and unequal crossing-over within the PRP gene cluster leads to frequent protein size-variants (intragenic events as with the G1 protein variants) and the generation of the PRB2/1 fusion gene (intergenic event) with deletion of the PRB1 coding region and absence of multiple PRB1 coded proteins (Ps, Pm, Pe) in PRB2/1 homozygotes. Fourth, null mutations may also be produced (as with PsO and G1 0) by single nucleotide changes. PMID:8374001
Azen, E A
Background. The effect of MDR1 C3435T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 26 on digoxin pharmacokinetics has recently been challenged. Objective. To clarify the relationships between MDR1 genetic polymorphisms in exon 26 (C3435T) and 21 (G2677T\\/A) and digoxin pharmacokinetics. Materials and methods. MDR1 genotypes for C3435T and G2677T\\/A SNPs were determined in 32 healthy subjects whose single oral dose digoxin
Céline Verstuyft; Mathias Schwab; Elke Schaeffeler; Reinhold Kerb; Ulrich Brinkmann; Patrice Jaillon; Christian Funck-Brentano; Laurent Becquemont
We present a model for evolving population that maintains genetic polymorphism. By introducing random mutation in the model population at a constant rate, we observe that the population does not become extinct but survives, keeping diversity in the gene pool under abrupt environmental changes. The model provides reasonable estimates for the proportions of polymorphic and heterozygous loci and for the mutation rate, as observed in nature.
Lee, H. Y.; Kim, D.; Choi, M. Y.
We examined sequence variation in the control region of the mitochondrial genome from 778 seals sampled at 161 locations from northern Japan to southeastern Alaska to learn more about the evolutionary history and population structure of, and effects of recent declines on genetic diversity in, harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina) in the northern Pacific Ocean. High haplotypic diversity (H 5
Robin L. Westlake; Gregory M. O'Corry-Crowe
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a family of clonal disorders characterized by dyshematopoiesis and susceptibility to acute myelogenous leukemia. Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-alpha) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) are cytokines that play key roles in the pathogenesis of MDS. There have been several reports on the presence of genetic polymorphisms in the DNA sequence encoding the leader sequence of the TGF-beta protein, and in the -308 promoter region of TNF-alpha. The association between TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 gene polymorphism and the susceptibility to MDS and the progression of the disease was investigated. As compared with healthy control subjects (n = 74), patients with MDS (n = 55) showed no significant deviations in genotype or allele frequencies of TNF-alpha. Similarly, there were no differences in the distribution of TNF-alpha genotypes between the MDS patients with only anemia (mild group) and those with bi- or pancytopenia (severe group). On the other hand the TT homozygosity at codon 10 in exon 1 of TGF-beta1 gene was associated with a severe degree of cytopenia [95% CI OR = 4.889, p = 0.0071]. These findings suggest that the investigated genetic polymorphisms do not predispose to the development of MDS, but that TGF-beta1 gene polymorphism may affect the disease progression. PMID:16400883
Gyulai, Zsófia; Balog, A; Borbényi, Zita; Mándi, Yvette
The influence of host genetics on susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been extensively studied over the past twenty years. It is now clear that malaria parasites have imposed strong selective forces on the human genome in endemic regions. Different genes have been identified that are associated with different malaria related phenotypes. Factors that promote severity of malaria include parasitaemia, parasite induced inflammation, anaemia and sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in brain microvasculature. Recent advances in human genome research technologies such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine genotyping tools have enabled the discovery of several genetic polymorphisms and biomarkers that warrant further study in host-parasite interactions. This review describes and discusses human gene polymorphisms identified thus far that have been shown to be associated with susceptibility or resistance to P. falciparum malaria. Although some polymorphisms play significant roles in susceptibility to malaria, several findings are inconclusive and contradictory and must be considered with caution. The discovery of genetic markers associated with different malaria phenotypes will help elucidate the pathophysiology of malaria and enable development of interventions or cures. Diversity in human populations as well as environmental effects can influence the clinical heterogeneity of malaria, thus warranting further investigations with a goal of developing new interventions, therapies and better management against malaria.
Several factors, including pharmacogenetics, contribute to inter-individual variability in drug response. Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are metabolized by a variety of enzymatic reactions, and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family has attracted considerable attention. Some of the CYPs exist as genetic (allelic) variants, which may also affect the plasma concentrations or drug exposure. Regarding the metabolism of AEDs, the polymorphic CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 are of particular interest. There have been recent advances in discovering factors such as these, especially those underlying the risk of medication toxicity. This review summarizes the evidence about whether such polymorphisms affect the clinical action of AEDs to facilitate future studies on the pharmacogenetics of epilepsy. We performed Key Words searches in the public databases PubMed, Medscape, and Rxlisty, Pharm GKB for genetic polymorphisms and the NCBI website for the nomenclature of alleles of CYP450, finding that CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, and CYP2D19 were involved in the metabolism of most antiepileptic drugs, given the allele frequency in the population and the associated variability in the clinical response. PMID:24896213
Lopez-Garcia, Miguel A; Feria-Romero, Iris A; Serrano, Hector Fernando-; Escalante-Santiago, David; Grijalva, Israel; Orozco-Suarez, Sandra
Susceptibility to infection by bacterium such as Bacillus anthracis has a genetic basis in mice and may also have a genetic basis in humans. In the limited human cases of inhalation anthrax, studies suggest that not all individuals exposed to anthrax spores were infected, but rather, individuals with underlying lung disease, particularly asthma, sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, might be more susceptible. In this study, we determined if polymorphisms in genes important in innate immunity are associated with increased susceptibility to infectious and non-infectious lung diseases, particularly tuberculosis and sarcoidosis, respectively, and therefore might be a risk factor for inhalation anthrax. Examination of 45 non-synonymous polymorphisms in ten genes: p47phox (NCF1), p67phox (NCF2), p40phox (NCF4), p22phox (CYBA), gp91phox (CYBB), DUOX1, DUOX2, TLR2, TLR9 and alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) in a cohort of 95 lung disease individuals and 95 control individuals did not show an association of these polymorphisms with increased susceptibility to lung disease.
Lee, Pauline L; West, Carol; Crain, Karen; Wang, Lei
Etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains unknown but, despite some inconsistencies in reports on inflammatory cells, mediators and proteases involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, genetic risk factors were proposed as a cause of susceptibility to the disease. Results of many studies suggested polygenic inheritance, with the genetic component consisting of several genes of a small effect each, rather than of single major gene. We are going to review the clinical importance of alpha-1 antitrypsin, glutathione S-transferase, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, matrix metalloproteinase, tumor necrosis factor-a, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, cytochrome P4501A1, heme oxygenase-1 genes polymorphisms associated with susceptibility and progression of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:15687746
Ugenskiene, Rasa; Sanak, Marek; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Szczeklik, Andrew
Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) occurs in young, otherwise healthy, individuals principally during strenuous exercise, athletic, and military training. Although many risk factors have been offered, it is unclear why some individuals develop ER when participating in comparable levels of physical exertion under identical environmental conditions and others do not. This study investigated possible genetic polymorphisms that might help explain ER. DNA samples derived from a laboratory-based study of persons who had never experienced an episode of ER (controls) and clinical ER cases referred for testing over the past several years were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes. These included angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), ?-actinin-3 (ACTN3), creatine kinase muscle isoform (CKMM), heat shock protein A1B (HSPA1B), interleukin 6 (IL6), myosin light chain kinase (MYLK), adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (AMPD1), and sickle cell trait (HbS). Population included 134 controls and 47 ER cases. The majority of ER cases were men (n = 42/47, 89.4 %); the five women with ER were Caucasian. Eighteen African Americans (56.3 %) were ER cases. Three SNPs were associated with ER: CKMM Ncol, ACTN3 R577X, and MYLK C37885A. ER cases were 3.1 times more likely to have the GG genotype of CKMM (odds ratio/OR = 3.1, confidence interval/CI 1.33-7.10), 3.0 times for the XX genotype of ACTN3 SNP (OR = 2.97, CI 1.30-3.37), and 5.7 times for an A allele of MYLK (OR = 21.35, CI 2.60-12.30). All persons with HbS were also ER cases. Three distinct polymorphisms were associated with ER. Further work will be required to replicate these findings and determine the mechanism(s) whereby these variants might confer susceptibility. PMID:23543093
Deuster, Patricia A; Contreras-Sesvold, Carmen L; O'Connor, Francis G; Campbell, William W; Kenney, Kimbra; Capacchione, John F; Landau, Mark E; Muldoon, Sheila M; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Heled, Yuval
In follow-up of a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) that identified a locus in chromosome 2p21 associated with risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we conducted a fine mapping analysis of a 120 kb region that includes EPAS1. We genotyped 59 tagged common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2278 RCC and 3719 controls of European background and observed a novel signal for rs9679290 [P = 5.75 × 10(-8), per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-1.39]. Imputation of common SNPs surrounding rs9679290 using HapMap 3 and 1000 Genomes data yielded two additional signals, rs4953346 (P = 4.09 × 10(-14)) and rs12617313 (P = 7.48 × 10(-12)), both highly correlated with rs9679290 (r(2) > 0.95), but interestingly not correlated with the two SNPs reported in the GWAS: rs11894252 and rs7579899 (r(2) < 0.1 with rs9679290). Genotype analysis of rs12617313 confirmed an association with RCC risk (P = 1.72 × 10(-9), per-allele OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.39) In conclusion, we report that chromosome 2p21 harbors a complex genetic architecture for common RCC risk variants. PMID:22113997
Han, Summer S; Yeager, Meredith; Moore, Lee E; Wei, Ming-Hui; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Toure, Ousmane; Purdue, Mark P; Johansson, Mattias; Scelo, Ghislaine; Chung, Charles C; Gaborieau, Valerie; Zaridze, David; Schwartz, Kendra; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Davis, Faith; Bencko, Vladimir; Colt, Joanne S; Janout, Vladimir; Matveev, Vsevolod; Foretova, Lenka; Mates, Dana; Navratilova, M; Boffetta, Paolo; Berg, Christine D; Grubb, Robert L; Stevens, Victoria L; Thun, Michael J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Burdett, Laurie; Brisuda, Antonin; McKay, James D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Rosenberg, Philip S; Rothman, Nathaniel; Brennan, Paul; Chow, Wong-Ho; Tucker, Margaret A; Chanock, Stephen J; Toro, Jorge R
In follow-up of a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) that identified a locus in chromosome 2p21 associated with risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we conducted a fine mapping analysis of a 120 kb region that includes EPAS1. We genotyped 59 tagged common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2278 RCC and 3719 controls of European background and observed a novel signal for rs9679290 [P = 5.75 × 10?8, per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17–1.39]. Imputation of common SNPs surrounding rs9679290 using HapMap 3 and 1000 Genomes data yielded two additional signals, rs4953346 (P = 4.09 × 10?14) and rs12617313 (P = 7.48 × 10?12), both highly correlated with rs9679290 (r2 > 0.95), but interestingly not correlated with the two SNPs reported in the GWAS: rs11894252 and rs7579899 (r2 < 0.1 with rs9679290). Genotype analysis of rs12617313 confirmed an association with RCC risk (P = 1.72 × 10?9, per-allele OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.39) In conclusion, we report that chromosome 2p21 harbors a complex genetic architecture for common RCC risk variants.
Han, Summer S.; Yeager, Meredith; Moore, Lee E.; Wei, Ming-Hui; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Toure, Ousmane; Purdue, Mark P.; Johansson, Mattias; Scelo, Ghislaine; Chung, Charles C.; Gaborieau, Valerie; Zaridze, David; Schwartz, Kendra; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Davis, Faith; Bencko, Vladimir; Colt, Joanne S.; Janout, Vladimir; Matveev, Vsevolod; Foretova, Lenka; Mates, Dana; Navratilova, M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Berg, Christine D.; Grubb, Robert L.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Thun, Michael J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Burdett, Laurie; Brisuda, Antonin; McKay, James D.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Brennan, Paul; Chow, Wong-Ho; Tucker, Margaret A.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Toro, Jorge R.
Coding polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC1 have been shown to affect the DNA repair capacity and to be associated with genetic susceptibility to carcinogenesis. In our association study between three amino acid substitution polymorphisms of XRCC1 (Arg194Trp, Arg280His, and Arg399Gln) and the risk of gastric cancer in the Korean population, none of the polymorphisms were associated with increased
Seong-Gene Lee; Byungsik Kim; Jaewon Choi; Changhoon Kim; Inchul Lee; Kyuyoung Song
Celiac Disease is a common cause of morbidity in the developed world but its etiology is still unknown. Considering that Celiac Disease was first documented in Scandinavian Europe, a population exposed to a high fat diet, perhaps the polymorphic genetics of the disease provides balanced polymorphism against this environmental stimulus. Celiac Disease has been associated with higher levels of the
Joel David; Bhavesh Mody
A symposium, Genetic Polymorphisms in DNA Repair and Cancer Risk, was presented at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, held in San Francisco, California, in March 2001. A brief report of the symposium was published (Kaiser, Science 292, 837–838, 2001). Molecular epidemiological studies have shown that polymorphic variants of genes involved in the metabolism and repair of
J. J. Hu; H. W. Mohrenweiser; D. A. Bell; S. A. Leadon; M. S. Miller
At its broadest sense, to say that a phenotype is epigenetic suggests that it occurs without changes in DNA sequence, yet is heritable through cell division and occasionally from one organismal generation to the next. Since gene regulatory changes are oftentimes in response to environmental stimuli and may be retained in descendent cells, there is a growing expectation that one's experiences may have consequence for subsequent generations and thus impact evolution by decoupling a selectable phenotype from its underlying heritable genotype. But the risk of this overbroad use of “epigenetic” is a conflation of genuine cases of heritable non-sequence genetic information with trivial modes of gene regulation. A look at the term “epigenetic” and some problems with its increasing prevalence argues for a more reserved and precise set of defining characteristics. Additionally, questions arising about how we define the “sequence independence” aspect of epigenetic inheritance suggest a form of genome evolution resulting from induced polymorphisms at repeated loci (e.g., the rDNA or heterochromatin).
Maggert, Keith A.
Genetic data can be used to estimate the stock composition of mixed-stock fisheries. Designing efficient strategies for estimating mixture proportions is important, but several aspects of study design remain poorly understood, particularly the relationship between genetic polymorphism and estimation error. In this study, computer simulation was used to investigate how the following variables affect expected squared error of mixture estimates:
Steven T. Kalinowski
Most current genetic association studies, including genome-wide association studies, look for the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a relatively large minor allele frequency (MAF) (e.g. >5%) in the search for genetic loci underlying the susceptibility for complex diseases. The strategy of focusing on common SNPs in genetic association studies is very effective under the common-disease-common-variant (CDCV) hypothesis, which claims that
Qizhai Li; Hong Zhang; Kai Yu
Identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes involved in sepsis may help to clarify the pathophysiology of neonatal sepsis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between sepsis in pre-term neonates and genes potentially involved in the response to invasion by infectious agents. The study involved 101 pre-term neonates born between June 2008 and May 2012 with a diagnosis of microbiologically confirmed sepsis, 98 pre-term neonates with clinical sepsis and 100 randomly selected, otherwise healthy pre-term neonates born during the study period. During the study, 47 SNPs in 18 candidate genes were genotyped on Guthrie cards using an ABI PRISM 7900 HT Fast real-time and MAssARRAY for nucleic acids instruments. Genotypes CT and TT of rs1143643 (the IL1? gene) and genotype GG of rs2664349GG (the MMP-16 gene) were associated with a significantly increased overall risk of developing sepsis (p?=?0.03, p?=?0.05 and p?=?0.03), whereas genotypes AG of rs4358188 (the BPI gene) and CT of rs1799946 (the DEF?1 gene) were associated with a significantly reduced risk of developing sepsis (p?=?0.05 for both). Among the patients with bacteriologically confirmed sepsis, only genotype GG of rs2664349 (the MMP-16 gene) showed a significant association with an increased risk (p?=?0.02). Genotypes GG of rs2569190 (the CD14 gene) and AT of rs4073 (the IL8 gene) were associated with a significantly increased risk of developing severe sepsis (p?=?0.05 and p?=?0.01). Genotype AG of rs1800629 (the LTA gene) and genotypes CC and CT of rs1341023 (the BPI gene) were associated with a significantly increased risk of developing Gram-negative sepsis (p?=?0.04, p?=?0.04 and p?=?0.03). These results show that genetic variability seems to play a role in sepsis in pre-term neonates by influencing susceptibility to and the severity of the disease, as well as the risk of having disease due to specific pathogens.
Esposito, Susanna; Zampiero, Alberto; Pugni, Lorenza; Tabano, Silvia; Pelucchi, Claudio; Ghirardi, Beatrice; Terranova, Leonardo; Miozzo, Monica; Mosca, Fabio; Principi, Nicola
Inter-individual variability in drug response is well known. Genetic polymorphism in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes\\u000a results in variation in drug metabolism and in turn drug response. The cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) play a central role in\\u000a the metabolism of many therapeutic agents. CYP2C19 gene polymorphism is widely studied in Caucasians, African, and Oriental populations; however, far less is known about
Yogita Ghodke; Kalpana Joshi; Yashendra Arya; Anjali Radkar; Aditi Chiplunkar; Pooja Shintre; Bhushan Patwardhan
A cross-sectional study was carried out on laminators producing glass-fibre reinforced plastics, to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphism of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes on the genotoxicity of styrene. Clastogenic effects, evaluated by the micronucleus test, are related with end-of-shift urinary concentration of 4-vinylphenol and seem to be modulated by NQO1 polymorphism; aneuploidogenic effects, evaluated by the identification of centromers in micronuclei using the fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique with a pancentromeric probe, are related with before-shift urinary levels of mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids and seem to be modulated by the GSTM1 polymorphism. PMID:14979085
De Palma, G; Mozzoni, P; Scotti, E; Manini, P; Andreoli, R; Naccarati, A; Mercati, F; Migliore, L; Mutti, A
Many genetic polymorphisms in metabolism enzymes are important for the risk of cancer as shown in a large number of case-control studies. The relative risk estimates have shown large variations between such population studies. However, in most studies the relative risk estimates are in the range of 2. Some polymorphisms are effect modifiers, i.e. without exposure they have no consequence and the effect of exposure can appear independent of the genotype. Genetic polymorphisms in metabolism of environmental toxicants plays a significant role in exposures to traffic generated air pollution in Copenhagen, revealing statistically significant higher levels of chromosomal aberrations in non-smoking bus drivers with glutathion-S-transferase M1, GSTM1 null and N-acetyltransferase 2, NAT2 slow genotypes. Combined with cohort studies showing positive associations between high chromosomal levels and increased cancer risk, such results indicate effect modification regarding cancer risk. In risk assessment the safety 'factor' of 10 is generally accepted to allow for variation in individual susceptibility. Reviewing the literature justifies the factor of 10 when considering single polymorphisms. However in an individual with several susceptible metabolism genotypes as well as other determinants of susceptibility, e.g. defective DNA repair, poor-nutritional state, etc. the risk may increase far above a safety of 10.Historically, genetic polymorphisms have been taken into consideration in employment and currently the application in insurance situations is criticised. PMID:11535252
Knudsen, L E; Loft, S H; Autrup, H
Family studies show that the Huntington's disease gene is linked to a polymorphic DNA marker that maps to human chromosome 4. The chromosomal localization of the Huntington's disease gene is the first step in using recombinant DNA technology to identify the primary genetic defect in this disorder.
James F. Gusella; Nancy S. Wexler; P. Michael Conneally; Susan L. Naylor; Mary Anne Anderson; Rudolph E. Tanzi; Paul C. Watkins; Kathleen Ottina; Margaret R. Wallace; Alan Y. Sakaguchi; Anne B. Young; Ira Shoulson; Ernesto Bonilla; Joseph B. Martin
Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45%
Cheah Yoke-Kqueen; Son Radu
Purpose of review Recent investigations related to the polymorphism of genes that affect drug therapy and the polymorphisms of cytokines and growth factors that control immune responses have been associated with outcomes following solid organ transplantation (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This review will provide a current update on the most recent findings and discuss the challenges for developing individualized therapeutic strategies based on clinical and genetic profiles. Recent Findings Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes have been shown to have an impact in vitro or in vivo protein secretion, dividing the individuals into High, Low or Intermediate producers for a given molecule. Many studies have been performed to determine the contribution of single cytokine gene SNPs on SOT or HSCT outcomes and the reported results are still controversial. However, analysis of a combination of several cytokines and/or cytokine receptor polymorphisms adjusted for known clinical risk factors and ethnicity have resulted in significant clinical correlations. Furthermore, associations with gene polymorphisms that affect immunosuppressive drug therapy in solid organ transplantation have also been extensively studied. There is a continuous flow of new information regarding functional SNPs that may affect the immune response to the allograft or to drug therapy and their impact on clinical outcomes have yet to be validated in large cohorts SOT or HSCT Summary Consolidating the information that we have on pharmacogenetics and on cytokine genetics to produce patient-oriented individualized drug regimens is an important challenge in transplantation medicine. Using a multi-variant approach based on genetic profile and other relevant clinical factors a score system may be developed to predict the severity of rejection, infection or other complications associated with transplantation. The ultimate goal of these studies is to improve patient outcome through individualized drug regimens.
Girnita, Diana M; Burckart, Gilbert; Zeevi, Adriana
We analyzed meat samples of nine pure lines of rabbit and its 37 hybrid combinations by sequencing and single-strand conformation polymorphism techniques to explore genetic polymorphisms of all the three exon regions and part of the 5'-regulatory region of the myostatin (MSTN) gene. Thus, we detected a single nucleotide mutation (T?C) on the 476 locus of the 5'-regulatory region, but no mutation sites were detected in the exon areas. The correlation analysis showed that the mutation had some favorable genetic effects, and it resulted in increased liver weight, carcass weight, forelegs weight, back and waist weight, ham weight, and tare weight, whereas it decreased muscle drip loss and cooking loss (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the mutations in the upstream regulatory region of the MSTN gene are beneficial to the rabbit soma development, and the mutations can be used as molecular markers for the selection of the meat quality of rabbits. PMID:24782047
Qiao, X B; Xu, K Y; Li, B; Luan, X; Xia, T; Fan, X Z
The ACP1 (acid phosphatase locus 1) gene encodes a highly polymorphic low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP) involved in the modulation of various signal transduction pathways including T-cell receptor. Previous studies suggest an association of this enzyme with allergic disorders. The aim of this study was to review our previous data and to confirm the association by further observations. Two new independent samples of individuals were studied from the population of Rome. ACP1 genotype was determined and history of allergic disorders was recorded. All allergic subjects had at least one positive prick test. Three-way contingency table analyses were performed by a log linear model. In all samples studied from different populations (Italian, English, and Chinese for a total of 958 subjects) we found that the proportion of allergic subjects was higher among genotypes with low enzymic activity than among genotypes with high activity. Concentration of IgE was negatively correlated with ACP1 enzymic activity. Carriers of ACP1 genotypes associated with low enzymic activity may be more susceptible to allergic disorders. PMID:17390764
Bottini, Egidio; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Magrini, Andrea; Spina, Claudio; Ammendola, Leonardo; Grassi, Saverio; Bottini, Nonzio; Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia
The most common type of genetic disease-associated mutation is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Because most genetic diseases can be caused by multiple SNPs in the same gene, effective routine diagnosis of complex genetic diseases is dependent on a simple and reliable method of interrogating SNP sites. Molecular Tool`s solid phase assay capable of direct genotyping (single base sequencing) of SNP sites, Genetic Bit Analysis (GBA), involves hybridization-capture of a single-stranded PCR product to a sequence-specific, microtiter plate-bound oligonucleotide primer. The captured PCR product then acts as template for single-base extension of the capture primer across the polymorphic site, enabling direct determination of the base composition of the polymorphism through a simple colormetric assay. Genotyping in a high volume, semi-automated, processing system with a current capacity of 100 SNP interrogations per technician per day enables the screening of candidate mutations rapidly and cost-effectively, critically important to comprehensive genetic diagnosis. Using this gel-free technology, we have developed prototype diagnostic tests for CFTR and ApoE polymorphisms which enable direct sequencing of the polymorphic base at each site of interest. Routine clinical diagnosis of genetically complex diseases such as cystic fibrosis is dependent on this combination of robust biochemistry and simple format. Additionally, the ability to transfer the format and biochemistry to any disease gene of interest enables the broad application of this technology to clinical diagnostics, especially for genetically complex diseases.
Boyce-Jacino, M.T.; Reynolds, J.; Nikiforov, T. [Molecular Tool, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others
Urolithiasis is a relevant clinical problem with a subsequent burden for health system. The aim of this review is to provide\\u000a recent progress made using genetic polymorphisms to define pathophysiology, to identify persons at risk for kidney stone disease\\u000a and to predict treatment response. Population case-control studies are useful both as an alternative and an adjunct as compared\\u000a to family
Rama D. Mittal; Hemant K. Bid; Parmeet K. Manchanda; Rakesh Kapoor
Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) catalyses the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, and azathiopurine. Several mutations in the TPMT gene have been identified which correlate with a low activity phenotype. The molecular basis for the genetic polymorphism of TPMT has been established for European Caucasians, African-Americans, Southwest Asians and Chinese, but it remains to be elucidated in Japanese populations.
Masahiro Hiratsuka; Tomoko Inoue; Fumiko Omori; Yasuyuki Agatsuma; Michinao Mizugaki
Polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have been shown to affect renal prognosis in a number of diseases. We examined the influence of deletion (D) and insertion (I) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and the other polymorphic markers of RAS, and that of plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) on renal scarring in reflux nephropathy. Ninety-four children with third- or fourth-degree reflux were the subject of the study. They were stratified into two groups according to the technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) findings: the first group consisted of 41 patients with no scar formation. In the second group (n = 53), there was significant scar formation in the refluxing units. ACE levels, ACE gene, angiotensin-1 receptor (AT1) A1166C, angiotensinogen (ATG) M235T, and PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphisms were studied. In the second group with scarred kidneys, 18 patients had decreased renal function. The frequency of patients homozygous for the D allele was significantly greater in the second group with scar formation in the refluxing units compared with the first group of patients (P < 0.005). On multivariate analysis, the DD genotype was the only factor that had a significant impact on renal scar formation, introducing a 4.9-fold risk (P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval). We were unable to find any correlation with the presence ofDD genotype and hypertension, decreased renal function, proteinuria, or sex of the patient. DDgenotype correlated with the serum ACE levels (P < 0.005). AT1and ATGpolymorphisms and PAI-1 polymorphism did not correlate with scar formation or any of the parameters. This study provides evidence that the DDgenotype of ACE may be a genetic susceptibility factor contributing to adverse renal prognosis in reflux nephropathy; namely, scar formation. The role of the synergism between the aforementioned genetic polymorphisms can be enlightened with larger patient groups, possibly through multicenter studies. PMID:10401028
Ozen, S; Alikasifoglu, M; Saatci, U; Bakkaloglu, A; Besbas, N; Kara, N; Kocak, H; Erbas, B; Unsal, I; Tuncbilek, E
Background Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) is both an inflammatory factor and an apolipoprotein. However, the relation between genetic polymorphisms of SAA and cerebral infarction (CI) remains unclear. Methods and results The previously reported 4 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (rs12218, rs4638289, rs7131332, and rs11603089) of SAA1 gene were genotyped by TaqMan method in a case–control study including 287 cerebral infarction patients and 376 control subjects. We found rs12218 CC genotype and rs7131332 AA genotype were more frequent among CI patients than among controls (9.76% versus 3.19%, P?=?0.001; 32.75% versus 24.20%; p?=?0.017; respectively). After adjustment of confounding factors such as sex, age, smoking, drinking, hypertension, diabetes, and lipids profile, the difference remained significant in rs12218 (P?0.01, OR?=?2.106, 95% CI: 1.811–7.121). Conclusion Genetic polymorphism of SAA1 may be a genetic maker of cerebral infarction in Chinese.
Pharmacogenetics aims to elucidate how genetic variation affects the efficacy and side effects of drugs, with the ultimate goal of personalizing medicine. Clinical studies of the genetic variation in the uridine 5?-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase gene have demonstrated how reduced-function allele variants can predict the risk of severe toxicity and help identify cancer patients who could benefit from reduced-dose schedules or alternative chemotherapy. Candidate polymorphisms have also been identified in vitro, although the functional consequences of these variants still need to be tested in the clinical setting. Future approaches in uridine 5?-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase pharmacogenetics include genetic testing prior to drug treatment, genotype-directed dose-escalation studies, study of genetic variation at the haplotype level and genome-wide studies.
Ramirez, Jacqueline; Ratain, Mark J; Innocenti, Federico
Genetic association with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been established for two chromosomal regions: HLA DQ\\/DR (IDDM1) and INS VNTR (IDDM2). To identify additional genetic markers, we tested polymorphisms in regulatory regions of several cytokine and important metabolic genes. These polymorphisms exhibit functional consequences for expression and function. Functional genetic polymorphisms of proinflammatory (T-helper-1: IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-?), anti-inflammatory (T-helper-2:
P Eerligh; B P C Koeleman; F Dudbridge; G Jan Bruining; B O Roep; M J Giphart; BPC Koeleman
As complex common diseases, asthma and allergic diseases are caused by the interaction of multiple genetic variants with a variety of environmental factors. Candidate-gene studies have examined the involvement of a very large list of genes in asthma and allergy, demonstrating a role for more than 100 loci. These studies have elucidated several themes in the biology and pathogenesis of these diseases. A small number of genes have been associated with asthma or allergy through traditional linkage analyses. The publication of the first asthma-focused genome-wide association (GWA) study in 2007 has been followed by nearly 30 reports of GWA studies targeting asthma, allergy, or associated phenotypes and quantitative traits. GWA studies have confirmed several candidate genes and have identified new, unsuspected, and occasionally uncharacterized genes as asthma susceptibility loci. Issues of results replication persist, complicating interpretation and making conclusions difficult to draw, and much of the heritability of these diseases remains undiscovered. In the coming years studies of complex diseases like asthma and allergy will probably involve the use of high-throughput next-generation sequencing, which will bring a tremendous influx of new information as well as new problems in dealing with vast datasets.
March, Michael E; Sleiman, Patrick MA; Hakonarson, Hakon
Cyp3A5 activity varies within any given ethnic population, suggesting that genetic variation within the Cyp3A5 gene may be the most important contributor to interindividual and interracial differences in Cyp3A-dependent drug clearance and response. The full extent of Cyp3A5 polymorphism in a white and an indigenous African population was analyzed using DNA direct sequencing procedures. The presence of 10 and 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms was detected in the white and African samples, respectively. Thirteen novel mutations occurring at low frequencies were identified in these populations. Significant differences were observed in the distribution of Cyp3A5*3, Cyp3A5*6, and Cyp3A5*7 alleles among white and African populations. The frequency of Cyp3A5*3 allele in white Canadians (approximately 93%) is higher than in Zimbabweans (77.6%) (p < 0.001). In contrast, Cyp3A5*6 and Cyp3A5*7 alleles are relatively frequent in African subjects (10-22%) but absent in white subjects (p < 0.001). These differences may reflect evolutionary pressures generated by environmental factors in geographically distinct regions. However, the genetic polymorphism of Cyp3A5 alone does not explain the interindividual differences in Cyp3A-mediated metabolism. PMID:15833928
Roy, Jean-Nicholas; Lajoie, Julie; Zijenah, Lynn S; Barama, Azemi; Poirier, Charles; Ward, Brian J; Roger, Michel
Genetic background exerts a strong modulatory effect on the toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins in conformational diseases. In addition to influencing the misfolding and aggregation behavior of the mutant proteins, polymorphisms in putative modifier genes may affect the molecular processes leading to the disease phenotype. Mutations in SOD1 in a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases confer dominant but clinically variable toxicity, thought to be mediated by misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 protein. While the mechanism of toxicity remains unknown, both the nature of the SOD1 mutation and the genetic background in which it is expressed appear important. To address this, we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to systematically examine the aggregation behavior and genetic interactions of mutant forms of SOD1. Expression of three structurally distinct SOD1 mutants in C. elegans muscle cells resulted in the appearance of heterogeneous populations of aggregates and was associated with only mild cellular dysfunction. However, introduction of destabilizing temperature-sensitive mutations into the genetic background strongly enhanced the toxicity of SOD1 mutants, resulting in exposure of several deleterious phenotypes at permissive conditions in a manner dependent on the specific SOD1 mutation. The nature of the observed phenotype was dependent on the temperature-sensitive mutation present, while its penetrance reflected the specific combination of temperature-sensitive and SOD1 mutations. Thus, the specific toxic phenotypes of conformational disease may not be simply due to misfolding/aggregation toxicity of the causative mutant proteins, but may be defined by their genetic interactions with cellular pathways harboring mildly destabilizing missense alleles. PMID:19266020
Gidalevitz, Tali; Krupinski, Thomas; Garcia, Susana; Morimoto, Richard I
Pharmacogenomics encompasses several major areas: the study of polymorphic variations to drug response and disease susceptibility, identification of the effects of drugs/xenobiotics at the genomic level, and genotype/phenotype associations. The most common type of human genetic variations is single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Several novel approaches to detection of SNPs are currently available. The range of new methods includes modifications of several conventional techniques such as PCR, mass spectrometry, and sequencing as well as more innovative technologies such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer and microarrays. The application of each of these techniques is largely dependent on the number of SNPs to be screened and sample size. The current chapter presents an overview of the general concepts of a variety of genotyping technologies with an emphasis on the recently developed methodologies, including a comparison of the advantages, applicability, cost efficiency, and limitations of these methods. PMID:24623222
Romkes, Marjorie; Buch, Shama C
Aims To determine the incidence of the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) genetic polymorphism in the Thai population. Methods Genomic DNAs were isolated from peripheral blood leucocytes of 200 healthy Thais. The frequencies of five allelic variants of the TPMT gene, TPMT*2, *3A, *3B, *3C and *6 were determined using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results Of the 200 Thai subjects participating in this study, 181 subjects (90.5%) were homozygous for TPMT*1, 18 subjects (9.0%) were heterozygous for TPMT*1/*3C. Only one subject (0.5%) was homozygous for TPMT*3C. The frequency of TPMT*3C mutant allele was 0.050. Conclusions Although the TPMT*3C is the most prevalent mutant allele in Asian populations, the frequency of this defective allele is significantly higher in Thais than has been reported in other Asian populations.
Srimartpirom, Somrudee; Tassaneeyakul, Wongwiwat; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra
This overview summarizes several EPA assessment publications evaluating the potential impact of genetic polymorphisms in ten metabolizing enzymes on the variability in enzyme function across ethnically diverse populations....
The adaptive character of inversion polymorphism in Drosophila subobscura is well established. The OST and O3+4 chromosomal arrangements of this species differ by two overlapping inversions that arose independently on O3 chromosomes. Nucleotide variation in eight gene regions distributed along inversion O3 was analyzed in 14 OST and 14 O3+4 lines. Levels of variation within arrangements were quite similar along the inversion. In addition, we detected (i) extensive genetic differentiation between arrangements in all regions, regardless of their distance to the inversion breakpoints; (ii) strong association between nucleotide variants and chromosomal arrangements; and (iii) high levels of linkage disequilibrium in intralocus and also in interlocus comparisons, extending over distances as great as ?4 Mb. These results are not consistent with the higher genetic exchange between chromosomal arrangements expected in the central part of an inversion from double-crossover events. Hence, double crossovers were not produced or, alternatively, recombinant chromosomes were eliminated by natural selection to maintain coadapted gene complexes. If the strong genetic differentiation detected along O3 extends to other inversions, nucleotide variation would be highly structured not only in D. subobscura, but also in the genome of other species with a rich chromosomal polymorphism.
Munte, Agusti; Rozas, Julio; Aguade, Montserrat; Segarra, Carmen
To ascertain whether there are chemical and genetic relationships among some Thymus species and also to determine correlation between these two sets of data, the essential-oil composition and genetic variability of six populations of Thymus including: T. daenensis ?ELAK. (two populations), T. fallax FISCH. & C.A.MEY., T. fedtschenkoi RONNIGER, T. migricus KLOKOV & DES.-SHOST., and T. vulgaris L. were analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and also by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Thus, 27 individuals were analyzed using 16 RAPD primers, which generated 264 polymorphic scorable bands and volatiles isolated by distillation extraction were subjected to GC and GC/MS analyses. The yields of oils ranged from 2.1 to 3.8% (v/w), and 34 components were identified, amounting to a total percentage of 97.8-99.9%. RAPD Markers allowed a perfect distinction between the different species based on their distinctive genetic background. However, they did not show identical clustering with the volatile-oil profiles. PMID:23776024
Rustaiee, Ali Reza; Yavari, Alireza; Nazeri, Vahideh; Shokrpour, Majid; Sefidkon, Fatemeh; Rasouli, Musa
Objective Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic medical condition characterized by symptoms that the affect an individual’s response to low-level chemical exposure. In this study, we identified a chemical sensitive population (CSP) and investigated the effect of genetic polymorphisms on their risk of chemical sensitivity. Methods A quick environment exposure sensitivity (QEESI) questionnaire was used to survey 324 Japanese male workers whose DNA samples had been collected and stored. The following genes, which encode enzymes affecting the metabolic activation of a large number of xenobiotic compounds, were selected and analyzed in order to determine their influence on genetic predisposition to CSP: cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1, N-acetyl transferase (NAT) 2, glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GSTT1, GSTP1, low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) 2. Results Significant case-control distributed differences were observed in SOD2 polymorphisms and allele frequency distribution in high chemical sensitive subjects. Both the significant adjusted OR of 4.30 (95% CI, 1.23–15.03) and 4.53 (95% CI, 1.52-13.51) were observed in SOD2 Ala/Ala and Val/Ala compared to Val/Val and in SOD2 Ala/Ala compared to Val/Ala compared to Val/Val genetic analysis in the high chemical sensitivity case-control study. Conclusions We observed that high chemical sensitive individuals diagnosed by using Japanese criteria as MCS patients were more significantly associated with SOD2 polymorphisms.
Cui, Xiaoyi; Lu, Xi; Hiura, Mizue; Oda, Masako; Miyazaki, Wataru; Katoh, Takahiko
Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products. PMID:16860900
Yoke-Kqueen, Cheah; Radu, Son
Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to examine the extent of variability in 11 Indian wild derived commensal house mice (Mus musculus) populations and compared with inbred strains of musculus and domesticus subspecies as well as commonly used laboratory inbred strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. Arbitrary designed 10 mer oligonucleotide primers with 60-70% (G+C) content were used to amplify DNA template. Out of 52 primers screened initially on the laboratory strains, 20 were selected for analysis on the basis of amplification product in the size range of 200-1400 bp. Among 353 total polymorphic bands, 220 bands (64%) were found to be polymorphic in Indian wild mice, 85 bands (25%) in wild derived inbred strains and 37 bands (11%) in laboratory mice strains. The amplification patterns produced by primers were statistically analysed by Jaccard's similarity coefficient the value of which ranged from 0.56 to 0.80. High level of genetic diversity was seen in the Indian wild mice populations as compared to the controls. The UPGMA phenogram grouped mice population into two major clusters except Bikaner [BIK], Bilaspur [BIL] and Ranikhet [RK] populations which were placed outside the close-knit clusters. Inspite of low values of bootstrap estimates obtained by Wagner and Dollo parsimony analysis, the results were comparable with UPGMA phenogram when constitution of the populations in the major cluster was considered. Indian mice populations appeared to be diverse from laboratory inbred mice strains. PMID:11841950
Mishra, M; Dubey, N; Totey, S M; Bhat, K V; Babu, S; Awasthi-Kalia, M; Anand, R K
We report construction of an initial genetic linkage map for the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Mapping was carried out using polymorphic markers derived from 23 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) primer pairs. These were analysed on three reference families of known pedigree. A total of 673 polymorphic AFLP loci that conformed to expected Mendelian segregation ratios were scored in
Kate Wilson; Yutao Li; Vicki Whan; Sigrid Lehnert; Keren Byrne; Stephen Moore; Siriporn Pongsomboon; Anchalee Tassanakajon; George Rosenberg; Elizabeth Ballment; Zahra Fayazi; Jennifer Swan; Matthew Kenway; John Benzie
Isozyme and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been applied to studies of genetic relationships and germplasm management in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). However, isozymes identify relatively few polymorphisms, and RFLPs are technically complex, expensive, and not compatible for the high through-put required for rigorous assessment of this narrow-based germplasm. Since random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers do not manifest
Thomas Horejsi; Jack E. Staub
Objectives/Hypothesis Although many proinflammatory cytokines have been identified in nasal polyp tissue, the initial trigger that causes this inflammation characterized by edema, lymphocytosis, and eosinophilia, is still unknown. The purpose of the present study is to identify the presence of genetic polymorphisms in proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and chemokine genes that might contribute to genetic susceptibility to chronic hyperplastic sinusitis with nasal polyposis (CHSwNP). Study Design Case control study. Methods Buccal swabs were taken from the left and right oral mucosal surfaces from 179 patients with CHSwNP and 153 nonpolyposis controls with the Purgene DNA purification protocol (Gentra). Genotyping assays for cytokine gene loci were performed on 14 cytokine genes using the iPlex Gold and the Mass Array Compact system (Sequenom, San Diego, CA). Tests of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions were performed separately in the cases and controls. Tests for evidence of association between alleles at each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and case-control status were performed using unconditional logistic regression. Results The frequency of the A allele in a SNP located in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? (rs1800629) is significantly different in patients with nasal polyposis versus controls without nasal polyposis, 18.6% and 11.5%, respectively with an individuals’ odds of susceptibility to nasal polyps increasing almost twofold (odds ratio, 1.86; confidence interval, 1.4–3.09) given at least one copy of the A allele at this SNP. All other cytokine gene polymorphisms of both inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and chemokine genes were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusions TNF-?-308, a SNP in the promoter region of this cytokine gene is associated with increased odds of developing nasal polyposis. TNF-? is a potent immuno-mediator and proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a large number of human diseases. The location of this gene on the short arm of chromosome 6, with the major histocompatibility complex genes and complement, has raised the probability that polymorphism within this locus may contribute to a genetic association of this region of the genome with a wide variety of infectious and autoimmune diseases.
Bernstein, Joel M.; Anon, Jack B.; Rontal, Michael; Conroy, Jeffrey; Wang, Chong; Sucheston, Lara
Ischemic stroke is a multifactorial disease with strong genetic elements. The purpose of this case-control study was to find relationships between apolipoprotein E (APOE), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotypes and atherosclerosis of the extracranial internal carotid and intracranial arteries in the Thai population. Patients aged >45 years with significant intracranial stenosis (IC group) or extracranial carotid artery stenosis (EC group) diagnosed by duplex ultrasound and/or computed tomography angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were studied. The control group comprised volunteers with no history of stroke and no evidence of significant cervicocerebral artery stenosis by ultrasound. Genomic DNA was extracted and genotyped for APOE isoforms, ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. There were 141 cases (83 in the IC group and 58 in the EC group) and 167 controls. The APOE ?3/?4 genotype and APOE ?4 allele were significantly associated with extracranial carotid artery stenosis (odds ratio, 2.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-6.05 and odds ratio, 2.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-5.99, respectively). These associations were not observed in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. There was no significant association between ACE and MTHFR polymorphisms and stenosis at any site. In a multivariate model, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and APOE ?4 allele remained predictive of extracranial atherosclerosis. In our Thai population, the ?4 allele in the APOE gene contributes to the genetic susceptibility of extracranial internal carotid atherosclerosis. The low prevalence of extracranial carotid stenosis in this population might result from low frequencies of the APOE ?4 allele. PMID:21296594
Chutinet, Aurauma; Suwanwela, Nijasri C; Snabboon, Thiti; Chaisinanunkul, Napasri; Furie, Karen L; Phanthumchinda, Kammant
Mating tests, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, intergenic spacer 1-restriction fragment length polymorphism (IGS1-RFLP), IGS1 sequence analysis, and IGS2-RFLP analysis were carried out on isolates of 17 morphologically different Pleurotus mushrooms collected on Ferula sinkiangensis. The isolates were divided, based on mating tests and ITS sequence analysis, into two groups identical to P. eryngii var. ferulae and P. nebrodensis, respectively. Single spores from these two groups were incompatible, but those from P. eryngii var. ferulae and P. eryngii were compatible and combined to produce 56.25% dikaryon mycelia with clamp connections. The ITS of P. eryngii var. ferulae and P. nebrodensis (GenBank accession no. AY311408) were both 638 bp in size but differed by 3% in sequence. P. eryngii var. ferulae and P. eryngii (GenBank accession no. AY368658) were identical in ITS size and sequence. P. nebrodensis was the dominant population of Pleurotus mushroom growing on F. sinkiangensis. It exhibited genetic diversity. The two species could also be distinguished by IGSI-RFLP, similar to identification by mating tests and ITS sequence analysis. Difference in IGS1-RFLP existed between P. eryngii var. ferulae and P. nebrodensis. The sequence difference reached 2.28%. Both IGS1 size and IGS1-RFLP were similar among the different samples of P. nebrodensis. The 17 isolates were separated into five types based on IGS2 size and IGS2-RFLP, with both interspecies and extraspecies differences. P. nebrodensis exhibited polymorphism and was divided into four types. These results agreed with macroscopic differences. IGS2 might be the effective domain of genetically polymorphic ribosomal DNA in P. nebrodensis mushrooms found in Xinjiang, China. PMID:16200340
Zhang, Jin Xia; Huang, Chen Yang; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wang, He Xiang
Abstract Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The present study aimed to investigate the association between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) genetic polymorphism, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and B-cell NHL risk in Egypt. Genotyping of CTLA-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay for 181 adult patients with B-NHL and 200 controls. Our study revealed that CTLA-4 + 49 A/G polymorphism conferred increased risk of B-NHL (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-2.565). The prevalence of HCV infection in individuals harboring the mutant genotype + 49 A/G and - 318 C/T SNPs was higher in patients with B-NHL and was associated with increased risk of B-NHL (OR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.24-6.93 for + 49 A/G and OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.01-15.98 for - 318 C/T). In conclusion, some SNPs of CTLA-4 are genetic risk factors for B-NHL. Moreover, this study identified an association of CTLA-4 + 49 A/G and - 318 C/T promoter polymorphisms with HCV infection. PMID:23829277
Khorshied, Mervat Mamdooh; Gouda, Heba Mahmoud; Khorshid, Ola M Reda
Drosophila ananassae, although a cosmopolitan and domestic species, is largely circumtropical in distribution. It occupies unique status in the whole of genus Drosophila due to certain peculiarities in its genetical behaviour. The most unusual feature of this species is spontaneous male recombination in appreciable frequency. This species is of common occurrence in India. Population genetics of inversion polymorphism has been extensively studied in Indian D. ananassae in our laboratory. The main findings are: (i) Three cosmopolitan inversions namely AL in 2L, DE in 3L and ET in 3R are of frequent occurrence in Indian populations and have become coextensive with the species. (ii) Quantitative data on the frequency of three cosmopolitan inversions in 29 natural populations of D. ananassae suggest that there is a considerable degree of genetic divergence at the level of inversion polymorphism. In general, the populations from south India show more differentiation than those from the north. (iii) These three cosmopolitan inversions exhibit heterosis. Interracial hybridization does not lead to breakdown of heterosis, which suggests that evidence for coadaptation is lacking in geographic populations of D. ananassae. Heterosis appears to be simple luxuriance rather than populational heterosis (coadaptation). (iv) Data on intra- and interchromosomal associations in natural and laboratory populations of D. ananassae show that interchromosomal associations occur randomly indicating no interchromosomal interactions but two inversions of the third chromosome often show strong linkage disequilibria in laboratory populations which is due to epistatic interaction and suppression of crossing over. The role of genetic drift causing linkage disequilibria in isofemale strains of D. ananassae has also been suggested. (v) Mating ability of homo- and hetero-karyotypes due to subterminal (2L) inversion derived from natural populations of D. ananassae in which the frequency of different chromosome arrangements were known, was tested and the results indicate that the chromosome occurring in high frequency is associated with higher mating activity in all the populations analysed and heterokaryotypic males are superior in mating propensity to the corresponding homokaryotypes, indicating the existence of heterosis associated with the AL inversion with respect to male mating activity. Thus inversion polymorphism in D. ananassae may have a partial behavioural basis as has been demonstrated in other species of Drosophila. PMID:9838874
Singh, B N
For nearly a century, genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful tool for analyzing gene function, yet Drosophila lacks the molecular genetic mapping tools that have recently revolutionized human, mouse and plant genetics. Here, we describe the systematic characterization of a dense set of molecular markers in Drosophila using an STS-based physical map of the genome. We identify 474 biallelic markers in standard laboratory strains of Drosophila that the genome. The majority of these markers are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sequences for these variants are provided in an accessible format. The average density of the new markers is 1 marker per 225 kb on the autosomes and 1 marker per 1 Mb on the X chromosome. We include in this survey a set of P-element strains that provide additional utility for high-resolution mapping. We demonstrate one application of the new markers in a simple set of crosses to map a mutation in the hedgehog gene to an interval of <1 Mb. This new map resource significantly increases the efficiency and resolution of recombination mapping and will be of immediate value to the Drosophila research community.
Hoskins, Roger A.; Phan, Alexander C.; Naeemuddin, Mohammed; Mapa, Felipa A.; Ruddy, David A.; Ryan, Jessica J.; Young, Lynn M.; Wells, Trent; Kopczynski, Casey; Ellis, Michael C.
Thorough assessment of modern genetic diversity and interpopulation affinities within the African continent is essential for understanding the processes that have been at work during the course of worldwide human evolution. Regardless of whether autosomal, Y-chromosome, or mtDNA markers are used, allele- or haplotype-frequency data from African populations are necessary in setting the framework for the construction of global population phylogenies. In the present study we analyze genetic differentiation and population structure in a data set of nine African populations using 12 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAls). Furthermore, to place our findings within a global context, we also examined an equal number of non-African groups. Frequency data from 456 individuals presented for the first time in this work plus additional data obtained from the literature indicate an overall pattern of higher intrapopulation diversity in sub-Saharan populations than in northern Africa, a prominent differentiation between these two locations, an appreciably high degree of transcontinental admixture in Egypt, and significant discontinuity between Morocco and the Iberian peninsula. Moreover, the topologies of our phylogenetic analyses suggest that out of the studied sub-Saharan groups, the southern Bantu population of Sotho/ Tswana presents the highest level of antiquity, perhaps as a result of ancestral or acquired Khoisan genetic signals. Close affinities of eastern sub-Saharan populations with Egypt in the phylogenetic trees may indicate the existence of gene flow along the Nile River. PMID:16596946
Terreros, Maria C; Martinez, Laisel; Herrera, Rene J
Candida milleri, together with Candida humilis, is the most representative yeast species found in type I sourdough ecosystems. In this work, comparison of the ITS region and the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA gene partial sequences, karyotyping, mtDNA-RFLP analysis, Intron Splice Site dispersion (ISS-PCR) and (GTG)5 microsatellite analyses, assimilation test of different carbohydrates, and metabolome assessment by FT-IR analysis, were investigated in seventeen strains isolated from four different companies as well as in type strains CBS6897(T) and CBS5658(T). Most isolates were ascribed to C. milleri, even if a strong relatedness was confirmed with C. humilis as well, particularly for three strains. Genetic characterization showed a high degree of intraspecific polymorphism since 12 different genotypes were discriminated. The number of chromosomes varied from 9 to 13 and their size ranged from less than 0.3 to over 2 Mbp. Phenotypic traits let to recognize 9 different profiles of carbon sources assimilation. FT-IR spectra from yeast cells cultivated in different media and collected at different growth phases revealed a diversity of behaviour among strains in accordance with the results of PCR-based fingerprinting. A clear evidence of the polymorphic status of C. milleri species is provided thus representing an important feature for the development of technological applications in bakery industries. PMID:24929720
Vigentini, Ileana; Antoniani, Davide; Roscini, Luca; Comasio, Andrea; Galafassi, Silvia; Picozzi, Claudia; Corte, Laura; Compagno, Concetta; Dal Bello, Fabio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Foschino, Roberto
Opioids, such as morphine and fentanyl, are widely used as effective analgesics for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. In addition, the opioid system has a key role in the rewarding effects of morphine, ethanol, cocaine and various other drugs. The authors have focused on G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel subunits, GIRK2 and GIRK3, that are important molecules in opioid transmission, and found that the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the GIRK2 and GIRK3 gene regions were significantly associated with postoperative requirements of analgesics including opioids in patients who underwent abdominal surgery and mRNA expression of these genes in postmortem specimens, one of which was also associated with vulnerability to methamphetamine (METH) dependence. Further, by conducting a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) in healthy subjects, the authors found that genetic polymorphisms within a linkage disequilibrium block that spans 2q33.3-2q34 were strongly associated with the requirements for postoperative opioid analgesics after painful cosmetic surgery. The C allele of the best candidate SNP, rs2952768, was associated with more analgesic requirements, and consistent results were obtained in patients who underwent abdominal surgery. In addition, carriers of the C allele in this SNP exhibited less vulnerability to severe drug dependence in patients with methamphetamine dependence, alcohol dependence, and eating disorders and a lower 'Reward Dependence score on a personality questionnaire in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the C/C genotype of this SNP was significantly associated with the elevated expression of a neighboring gene, CREB1. The results show that SNPs in this locus are the most potent genetic factors associated with human opioid sensitivity known to date, affecting both the efficacy of opioid analgesics and liability to severe substance dependence. These outcomes provide valuable information for the personalized treatment of pain and drug dependence. PMID:24946391
Nishizawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kazutaka
1. The Ainu subjects and, as controls, Wajin subjects obtained in the District of Hokkaido, were studied for blood groups, serum groups and red cell enzyme groups. The high n gene and r" gene frequencies seem to be characteristic in the distribution of the Ainu. In considering the high frequencies of Fya and Agx genes, low incidence K gene and Rh negative type, and existence of Di (a+) type, it is conceivable that the distribution of these blood group in the Ainu are closer to those in Mongoloid than to those in Caucasoid. The results of genetic distance analysis were in full agreement with the genetic affinity of the Ainu to the Mongoloid racial stock. According to the phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16 polymorphic loci, it may be concluded that the Ainu are derived from the common stock of Mongoloids, which in turn has common ancestry with American Indians. The Negritos which are thought to be oldest living aborigines of southeast Asia and the western pacific. We investigated for grouping some genetic polymorphic traits from Negrito blood samples collected in the Philippines. A total of more than 500 samples were examined for 20 genetic traits. The most outstanding features of Negritos were as follows: Di (a+) type was found and all individuals were Lu (a-b +) and K-k+ types. Mia, Wra and Jsa genes were absent and all samples were U+ type. The existence of Dia gene and absence of both Lua and K genes are thought to suggest that the distribution of Negritos is quite close to that of Mongoloid populations. Fy (a-b-) and Js (a+) types are not found in our study. These results do not suggest similarity between Negritos and African. 2. The tandem repeat of a 28-base-pair (bp) sequence downstream of the human c-Ha-ras-1 oncogene was studied as a probe for DNA fingerprinting. Multiple hypervariable patterns were observed by Southern hybridization at low stringency. The patterns were specific to individuals, indicating the availability of the 28-bp repeat as a probe for DNA fingerprinting. Moreover, we cloned the tandem repeat of a 33-bp sequence, which cross-hybridized with the 28-bp repeat. This 33-bp repeat detected another set of hypervariable restriction fragments by Southern hybridization at the same stringency. These results suggest that "probe walking" can be employed to develop novel probes that provide different DNA fingerprints.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1766142
Previous studies suggested that genetic polymorphisms of serum amyloid A (SAA) were associated with carotid atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of SAA and myocardial infarction (MI) remains unclear. In the present study, we analyzed a polymorphism (rs12218) in the SAA1 gene in 840 MI patients and 840 healthy subjects by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. We found that the rs12218 CC+CT genotype was more frequent among MI patients than among healthy controls (61.1% vs 41.9%; P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that after adjustment for gender, age, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and diabetes, the difference remained significant (P < 0.001, odds ratio = 3.332, 95% confidence interval = 1.781-9.231). Therefore, we concluded that genetic polymorphisms of SAA1 may be a genetic marker of MI in the Chinese population. PMID:24854450
Wang, B Y; Hang, J Y; Zhong, Y; Tan, S J
Genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes can have profound influence on enzyme function, with implications for chemical clearance and internal dose. The effects of polymorphisms have been evaluated for certain therapeutic drugs but there has been relatively little investigation with environmental toxicants. Polymorphisms can also affect the function of host defense mechanisms and thus modify the pharmacodynamic response. This review and analysis explores the feasibility of using polymorphism data in human health risk assessment for four enzymes, two involved in conjugation (uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferases [UGTs], sulfotransferases [SULTs]), and two involved in detoxification (microsomal epoxide hydrolase [EPHX1], NADPH quinone oxidoreductase I [NQO1]). This set of evaluations complements our previous analyses with oxidative and conjugating enzymes. Of the numerous UGT and SULT enzymes, the greatest likelihood for polymorphism effect on conjugation function are for SULT1A1 (*2 polymorphism), UGT1A1 (*6, *7, *28 polymorphisms), UGT1A7 (*3 polymorphism), UGT2B15 (*2 polymorphism), and UGT2B17 (null polymorphism). The null polymorphism in NQO1 has the potential to impair host defense. These highlighted polymorphisms are of sufficient frequency to be prioritized for consideration in chemical risk assessments. In contrast, SNPs in EPHX1 are not sufficiently influential or defined for inclusion in risk models. The current analysis is an important first step in bringing the highlighted polymorphisms into a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling framework. PMID:20662711
Ginsberg, Gary; Guyton, Kathryn; Johns, Douglas; Schimek, Jennifer; Angle, Kenneth; Sonawane, Babasaheb
The risk estimates obtained in studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer differ markedly between studies, which might be due to chance or differences in study design, in particular the stratification\\/match of comparison group. The effect of different strategies for stratification and adjustment for smoking on the estimated effect of polymorphisms on lung cancer risk was explored in the case-cohort
Mette Sørensen; Ana García López; Per Kragh Andersen; Ulla Vogel; Herman Autrup; Anne Tjønneland; Kim Overvad; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), consisting of tandemly repeated multiple copies of mono-, di-, tri-, or tetranucleotide motifs, are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and are frequently used as genetic markers, taking advantage of their length polymorphism. We have examined the polymorphism of such sequences in the chloroplast genomes of plants, by using a PCR-based assay. GenBank searches identified the presence of
W. Powell; M. Morgante; R. McDevitt; G. G. Vendramin; J. A. Rafalski
Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was carried out to examine genetic diversity, population structure and polymorphism level among and within seven natural populations of ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris L., Dryopteridaceae) in Lithuania. In total, 43 plants were analysed using 10 polymorphic decanucleotide primers of random sequence. 73 polymorphic bands ranging in size from 470 to 2600 bp were derived using
A. Stapulionyt?; J. R. Lazutka; J. R. Naujalis; A. Odland
One of the major challenges facing toxicology is to bridge the gap between animal research and risk assessment in man. In this meeting, the genetic polymorphism of drug metabolizing enzymes in relation to drug toxicity will be described.
Safe Harbor was created as a response to the European Commission's Directive on Data Privacy which was launched in October 1998 and prohibits the transfer of personal data to countries outside of the European Union that do not meet the EU's standards for privacy protection. Because the United States has significantly lower standards for privacy protection, the Directive on Data Privacy would have prohibited many transactions between the US and EU nations. Safe Harbor is a framework of US organizations that have agreed to comply with the Directive. The Safe Harbor Website contains a basic overview of the initiative which explains its history and mission. Safe Harbor documents include privacy principles, an in-depth collection of FAQs, information on how Safe Harbor is enforced, and other documents from both the US and the EU.
In a majority of mammals, male infants have heavier body mass and grow faster than female infants. Accordingly, male offspring nursing requires a much greater maternal energy contribution to lactation. It is possible that the maternal-fetal immunoendocrine dialog plays an important role in female preparation for lactation during pregnancy. Immune system genes are an integral part of gene regulatory networks in lactation and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) is a proinflammatory cytokine that also plays an important role in normal mammary gland development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the sex of calf and/or the -824A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF? gene on milk performance traits in Black Pied cattle over the course of lactation. We also studied the allele frequency differences of -824A/G variants across several cattle breeds, which were bred in different climatic conditions. The G allele frequency decreased gradually over the course of lactation events in the Black Pied dairy cattle because of a higher culling rate of cows with the G/G genotype (p<0.001). In contrast to the genotypes A/A and A/G, cows with G/G genotype showed significant variability of milk and milk fat yield subject to sex of delivered calf. Milk yield and milk fat yield were significantly higher in the case of birth of a bull calf than with a heifer calf (p<0.03). The G allele frequency varies from 48% to 58% in Grey Ukrainian and Black Pied cattle to 77% in aboriginal Yakut cattle. Our results suggest that the TNF? -824A/G gene polymorphism may have an influence on the reproductive efforts of cows over the course of lactation events depending on the sex of progeny. Allocation of resources according to sex of the calf allows optimizing the energy cost of lactation. This may be a probable reason for high G allele frequency in Yakut cattle breeding in extreme environmental conditions. Similarly, the dramatic fall in milk production after birth of a heifer calf increases the probability of culling for the cows with the G/G genotype in animal husbandry.
Yudin, N. S.; Aitnazarov, R. B.; Voevoda, M. I.; Gerlinskaya, L. A.; Moshkin, M. P.
The main objective of this study was to evaluate CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism in a Saudi Arabian population by determining the frequencies of CYP2C19*2, *3, *4, *6, *7 and *17 alleles and their relevant genotypes. Genomic DNA was isolated from 192 healthy Saudi Arabians, representing different geographical regions, and genotyping of the selected CYP2C19 variants was carried out by direct sequencing after PCR amplification. The allelic frequency of heterozygous CYP2C19*2 was 8.2% with only one individual found to carry the homozygous genotype of this defective allele. None of the other investigated poor metabolizer alleles (i.e. CYP2C19*3, *4, *6 and *7) was detected in the study population. About 46% of the examined volunteers were found to carry CYP2C19*17 genotype (37.5% heterozygous and 8.1% homozygous of the defective allele) with an overall CYP2C19*17 allelic frequency of 26.9%. In addition, a novel CYP2C19 SNP (G356A) and another very rare SNP (C336T) have been identified in this study with a frequency of about 50% for each. Further studies are required to evaluate the metabolic and clinical relevance of CYP2C19*17, G356A and C336T in the Saudi Arabian population. PMID:22747643
Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Alghamdi, Amal M; Bagulb, Khawla M; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Halwani, Rabih; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S
Actinic prurigo and polymorphic light eruption are two of the so-called idiopathic photodermatoses, resulting from abnormal cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation (photosensitivity). Whereas they are clinically distinct in most cases, there are sufficient similarities between them to suggest they may be related conditions. To take this further, we examined the prevalence of polymorphic light eruption in families ascertained through actinic prurigo probands, as evidence of a shared pathogenesis. We then determined the heritability of photosensitivity in 420 individuals from families ascertained through polymorphic light eruption and actinic prurigo probands using segregation analysis. Across 58 pedigrees the prevalence of photosensitivity in first-degree relatives was 20.9% compared with a population prevalence of 13.6%, giving a relative risk of 1.5 (confidence interval 1.15-2.0) and providing evidence of clustering within families. The prevalence of photosensitivity (predominantly polymorphic light eruption) in relatives of actinic prurigo probands was 23.7%, with a relative risk of 1.74 (confidence interval 1.24-2.36). Modeling for polymorphic light eruption across all pedigrees revealed a strong genetic component with polymorphic light eruption showing a dominant mixed mode of inheritance. The model parameters estimate that 72% of the U.K. population carry a low penetrance polymorphic light eruption susceptibility allele, but that among this highly prevalent genotype only 24% of susceptible females and 13% of susceptible males will have polymorphic light eruption. Expression of polymorphic light eruption in genetically susceptible individuals (intergenotype variance) is determined in large part by a polygenic component, with an important additional environmental component. In summary, this study provides clear evidence that polymorphic light eruption is an inherited condition. It also suggests that polymorphic light eruption and actinic prurigo share a common genetic background, supporting the view that actinic prurigo may represent a human leukocyte antigen-restricted subset of polymorphic light eruption. PMID:10951286
McGregor, J M; Grabczynska, S; Vaughan, R; Hawk, J L; Lewis, C M
Total DNA was extracted from the leaves of seven Epimedium species grown in different places in Japan. Their genetic characterization was performed by DNA analyses of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using 32 random primers having 10 base sequences, and by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). E. sagittatum and E. koreanum were easily distinguished by a representative amplified band pattern. It became evident that E. sagittatum had extremely different genetic composition compared to the other species. A dendrogram obtained from the similarity matrix by cluster analysis indicates that E. sagittatum can be completely isolated from the other species. Moreover, it became evident that E. grandiflorum var. higoense, E. trifoliatobinatum and E. koreanum are independent species, contrary to the previous assumption that they are subspecies or a variety. The geographical variation of E. sempervirens was confirmed by cluster analysis. E. diphyllum showed wide genetic variations, in spite of sampling from the same area. PMID:8820914
Nakai, R; Shoyama, Y; Shiraishi, S
Pharmacogenetic studies have shown that several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes exhibit genetic polymorphisms. Several benzodiazepines (BZPs) are metabolized predominantly or partly by polymorphic CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5. The pharmacokinetics of diazepam, etizolam, quazepam and desmethylclobazam have been shown to be affected by CYP2C19 polymorphism. The CYP3A5 polymorphism has been reported to affect the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam, but its effect on midazolam kinetics has been inconclusive. For etizolam and desmethylclobazam, some data suggest that CYP2C19 deficiency leads to side-effects or toxicity. For the remaining BZPs the clinical significance of the observed pharmacokinetic changes remains unclear. Further studies on the effects of genetic polymorphisms of CYP enzymes on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of BZPs are necessary to guide treatment individualization and optimization. PMID:17635335
Fukasawa, T; Suzuki, A; Otani, K
Previous studies suggest that the osteoprotegerin gene (OPG) plays an important role in the development of osteoporosis. This study aims to investigate the potential association between OPG genetic polymorphisms and bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. 938 Chinese postmenopausal women were enrolled. The lumbar spine (L2-4) BMD, neck BMD, and total hip BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The genotypes of OPG genetic polymorphisms were evaluated by the created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and DNA sequencing methods. Our data indicated that subjects with genotype TT of the g.26395T>C genetic polymorphism showed a significantly higher adjusted value of BMD when compared with those of genotypes TC and CC. Subjects with genotype AA of the g.27649A>G genetic polymorphism showed a significantly higher adjusted value of BMD than those of genotypes AG and GG. These findings suggest that the OPG genetic polymorphisms may affect BMD and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women. PMID:24975835
Sun, Tao; Chen, Mingqi; Lin, Xiaoyan; Yu, Ruixiang; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Jianhang
SUMMARY A repeated measures study was conducted in Pabna, Bangladesh to investigate factors that influence biomarkers of arsenic exposure. Drinking water arsenic concentrations were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and urinary arsenic species [arsenite (As3), arsenate (As5), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] were detected using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Hydride Generated Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HGAAS). Linear mixed effects models with random intercepts were used to evaluate the effects of arsenic contaminated drinking water, genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase (GSTT1 and GSTM1) on total urinary arsenic, primary methylation index [MMA/(As3+As5)], secondary methylation index (DMA/MMA), and total methylation index [(MMA+DMA)/(As3+As5)]. Drinking water arsenic concentrations were positively associated with total urinary arsenic concentrations and total methylation index. A significant gene-environment interaction was observed between urinary arsenic exposure in drinking water GSTT1 but not GSTM1 where GSTT1 null individuals had a slightly higher excretion rate of arsenic compared to GSTT1 wildtypes after adjusting for other factors. Additionally, individuals with GSTT1 null genotypes had a higher primary methylation index and lower secondary methylation index compared to GSTT1 wildtype after adjusting for other factors. This data suggests that GSTT1 contributes to the observed variability in arsenic metabolism. Since individuals with a higher primary methylation index and lower secondary methylation index are more susceptible to arsenic related disease, these results suggest that GSTT1 null individuals may be more susceptible to arsenic-related toxicity. No significant associations were observed between GSTM1 and any of the arsenic methylation indices.
Kile, Molly L.; Houseman, E. Andres; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Mostofa, Golam; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Christiani, David C.
Current knowledge of the genetic polymorphism in ovine milk proteins including heterogeneity detected and their relationships with the technological properties of milk is reviewed. In the casein fraction a great heterogeneity has been determined either by the presence of genetic variants or other factors such as a discrete phosphorylation level and the coexistence of protein forms of different chain length.
Lourdes Amigo; Isidra Recio; Mercedes Ramos
Tamarindus indica, commonly called tamarind, is a medium-sized evergreen tree that gives a high yield. The fruit is commonly used as a spice. Despite its commercial importance in the international market, it has been little explored. The genetic diversity and genetic relatedness of 36 tamarind genotypes were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twelve primer pairs were used
Ali Qaid Ahmed Yahya Algabal; Narayanaswamy Papanna; Luke Simon
Populations of Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex König) at the northern and southern limits of the west coast of Florida were compared with a Jamaican population using randomly amplified polymorphism detection (RAPD). With the exception of those from Apalachicola Bay, virtually all samples were distinct genetic individuals. Those putative clone mates that were identified often had other genets dispersed between them.
Janet H Kirsten; Clinton J Dawes; Bruce J Cochrane
Estudo de Polimorfismos Genéticos na Insuficiência Cardíaca (GenetIC): delineamento do estudo e metodologia Study of Genetic Polymorphisms in Heart Failure (GenetIC): outline of the study and methodology
Background: Several studies demonstrate wide individual variability in the development and responses to treatment among patients with heart failure (HF). Part of this individual variability is due to genetic factors. Genetic polymorphisms (GP) are non-lethal genetic modifications found in ?1% of the population that may be related both to prognoses and responses to treatment for HF. Many studies associate GP
Oziel Marcio; Araujo Tardin; Monica Velozo; Sabrina Bernardez; Henrique Balieiro; Bianca de Cássia Cavalieri; Sergio Schermont; Thiago Alves; Sabrina Lindemberg; Sérgio Salles Xavier; Leandro Pessoa; Antonio Claudio; Lucas da Nóbrega; Georgina Severo Ribeiro; Evandro Tinoco Mesquita
Species are the units used to measure ecological diversity and alleles are the units of genetic diversity. Genetic variationwithin and among species hasbeen documented most extensively using allozyme electro- phoresis. This reveals wide di¡erences in genetic variability within, and genetic distances among, species, demonstrating that species are not equivalent units of diversity. The extent to which the pattern observed for
R. K. Butler; T. Tregenza
Whole genome tiling arrays provide a high resolution platform for profiling of genetic, epigenetic, and gene expression polymorphisms. In this study we surveyed natural genomic variation in cytosine methylation among Arabidopsis thaliana wild accessions Columbia (Col) and Vancouver (Van) by comparing hybridization intensity difference between genomic DNA digested with either methylation-sensitive (HpaII) or -insensitive (MspI) restriction enzyme. Single Feature Polymorphisms
Xu Zhang; Shinhan Shiu; Andrew Cal; Justin O. Borevitz
Objective. Considering the role in the metabolism of chemicals played by biotransformation enzymes, we aimed at determining whether any association exists between genetic polymorphisms in cytochromes P450 (CYP1A1 and CYP2E1), epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1), NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs M1\\/P1\\/T1) and individual susceptibility to lymphomas. Methods. Genotyping assays based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were used
P. Soucek; J. Šarmanová; V. Kristensen; M. Apltauerová; I. Gut
In order to understand genetic polymorphisms among Entamoeba histolytica strains in a limited geographic area and among restricted social populations, we studied nucleotide polymorphism in DNA regions that do not encode proteins (locus 1-2 and locus 5-6) and in genes coding for chitinase and for serine-rich E. histolytica protein. Thirty E. histolytica isolates from domestically infected Japanese amebiasis patients (male
Ali Haghighi; Seiki Kobayashi; Tsutomu Takeuchi; Gohta Masuda; Tomoyoshi Nozaki
Nicotine is the main component for smoking addiction. It is widely believed that nicotine dependence is heritable. Many studies are committed to study the effects of specific gene polymorphisms connect with nicotine dependence. Release of dopamine has been considered the most important channel for nicotine dependence. This paper provides a review for recent advance in studies on dopamine system related genetic polymorphisms associated with nicotine dependence. PMID:24928014
Wang, Chao; Qian, Wei; Zhang, Minming
Anbarasan, K., Sharma, A.K., Singh, R.K., Deb, S.M. and Sharma, D. 2001. Genetic differentiation among goats using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 83–88.To develop population specific markers using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA—ploymerase chain reaction (RAPD—PCR) in meat (Black Bengal and Non-descript Rohilkhand Local), milk (Barbari) and pashmina (Chegu) producing goats, a total of 35
K. Anbarasan; A. K. Sharma; R. K. Singh; S. M. Deb; D. Sharma
We have identified and characterized a new class of polymorphic markers for the canine genome from a simple tetranucleotide\\u000a repeat sequence, (GAAA)n. Genetic markers derived from this repeat are highly polymorphic compared with other canine microsatellites, yet are stable\\u000a enough to be useful for following Mendelian inheritance in multigeneration pedigrees. We show further that (GAAA)n repeats are distributed throughout the
L. V. Francisco; A. A. Langsten; C. S. Mellersh; C. L. Neal; E. A. Ostrander
The present invention is based on the discovery of genetic polymorphisms that are associated with psoriasis and related pathologies. In particular, the present invention relates to nucleic acid molecules containing the polymorphisms, including groups of nucleic acid molecules that may be used as a signature marker set, such as a haplotype, a diplotype, variant proteins encoded by such nucleic acid molecules, reagents for detecting the polymorphic nucleic acid molecules and proteins, and methods of using the nucleic acid and proteins as well as methods of using reagents for their detection.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women in the world. The human multidrug resistance 1 gene (MDR1) is potentially an important gene influencing the susceptibility to breast cancer. This study aimed to assess the association of MDR1 genetic polymorphisms with the susceptibility to BC. Overall, 353 BC patients and 360 cancer-free controls were enrolled. The clinical characteristics were summarized by questionnaires. The c.1564A > T genetic polymorphism was genotyped using created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction method. We found that no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between BC patients and cancer-free controls. Furthermore, the distribution of BC patients' risk factors was not significantly different among AA, AT, and TT genotypes. Our findings indicate that the c.1564A > T genetic polymorphism is not significantly associated with the susceptibility to BC in Chinese Han populations. PMID:23690268
Jia, Yunhe; Tian, Wenjing; Sun, Shuai; Han, Peng; Xue, Weinan; Li, Mingqi; Liu, Yanlong; Jiang, Shixiong; Cui, Binbin
BACKGROUND: The genetic architecture of a quantitative trait influences the phenotypic response to natural or artificial selection. One of the main objectives of genetic mapping studies is to identify the genetic factors underlying complex traits and understand how they contribute to phenotypic expression. Presently, we are good at identifying and locating individual loci with large effects, but there is a
Arnaud Le Rouzic; Paul B Siegel; Örjan Carlborg
A total of 108 individuals from the Ecuadorian population from rural and urban places were analyzed for two CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms. The frequency of the val allele at codon 462 was 0.50, while the frequency of the Msp I restriction site, m2 allele at the T6235C position was 0.70. These polymorphisms in Ecuador have higher frequencies if we compare with others around the world, with the exception of some South American population in Brazil and Chile. PMID:15920291
Paz-y-Miño, César; Arévalo, Melissa; Muñoz G, María José; Leone, Paola E
This meta-analysis was undertaken to identify the relationships between genetic polymorphisms in the LDLR gene and the risk of cerebral infarction. The Web of Science (1945-2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), PubMed (1966-2013), EMBASE (1980-2013), CINAHL (1982-2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982-2013) were searched for relevant articles without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (OR) with their corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Eight case-control studies with a total of 4,655 patients with cerebral infarction and 15,920 healthy control subjects were included in our meta-analysis. Five common polymorphisms in the LDLR gene were evaluated, including rs11669576 A > T, rs1433099 C > T, rs5925 C > T, rs688 C > T, rs1122608 T > G in the LDLR gene. The results of this meta-analysis revealed that cerebral infarction patients had a higher frequency of LDLR genetic polymorphisms than that of healthy controls (allele model: OR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.05-1.30, P = 0.004; dominant model: OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.05-1.33, P = 0.007; homozygous model: OR 1.50, 95 % CI 1.03-2.16, P = 0.032; respectively), especially for the rs11669576 A > T, rs1433099 C > T and rs5925 C > T polymorphisms. Among different ethnic subgroups, the results demonstrated positive correlations between LDLR genetic polymorphisms and an increased risk of cerebral infarction among both Asians and Caucasians under the allele and dominant models (all P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that LDLR genetic polymorphisms may be strongly involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral infarction, especially the rs11669576 A > T, rs1433099 C > T, rs5925 C > T polymorphisms. PMID:24595448
Yan, Hai-Cheng; Wang, Wei; Dou, Chang-Wu; Tian, Fu-Ming; Qi, Song-Tao
Whole genome tiling arrays provide a high resolution platform for profiling of genetic, epigenetic, and gene expression polymorphisms. In this study we surveyed natural genomic variation in cytosine methylation among Arabidopsis thaliana wild accessions Columbia (Col) and Vancouver (Van) by comparing hybridization intensity difference between genomic DNA digested with either methylation-sensitive (HpaII) or -insensitive (MspI) restriction enzyme. Single Feature Polymorphisms (SFPs) were assayed on a full set of 1,683,620 unique features of Arabidopsis Tiling Array 1.0F (Affymetrix), while constitutive and polymorphic CG methylation were assayed on a subset of 54,519 features, which contain a 5?CCGG3? restriction site. 138,552 SFPs (1% FDR) were identified across enzyme treatments, which preferentially accumulated in pericentromeric regions. Our study also demonstrates that at least 8% of all analyzed CCGG sites were constitutively methylated across the two strains, while about 10% of all analyzed CCGG sites were differentially methylated between the two strains. Within euchromatin arms, both constitutive and polymorphic CG methylation accumulated in central regions of genes but under-represented toward the 5? and 3? ends of the coding sequences. Nevertheless, polymorphic methylation occurred much more frequently in gene ends than constitutive methylation. Inheritance of methylation polymorphisms in reciprocal F1 hybrids was predominantly additive, with F1 plants generally showing levels of methylation intermediate between the parents. By comparing gene expression profiles, using matched tissue samples, we found that magnitude of methylation polymorphism immediately upstream or downstream of the gene was inversely correlated with the degree of expression variation for that gene. In contrast, methylation polymorphism within genic region showed weak positive correlation with expression variation. Our results demonstrated extensive genetic and epigenetic polymorphisms between Arabidopsis accessions and suggested a possible relationship between natural CG methylation variation and gene expression variation.
Zhang, Xu; Shiu, Shinhan; Cal, Andrew; Borevitz, Justin O.
mEH is a critical biotransformation enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of xenobiotic epoxide substrates into more polar diol metabolites: it is also capable of inactivating a large number of structurally different molecules. Two polymorphisms affecting enzyme activity have been described in the exon 3 and 4 of the mEH gene. The hypothesis of this study is that inherent genetic susceptibility to a primary brain tumor is associated with mEH gene polymorphisms. The polymorphisms of the mEH gene were determined with PCR-RFLP techniques and 255 Turkish individuals. Our results indicate that the frequency of the mEH exon 4 polymorphism (in controls) is significantly higher than that of primary brain tumor patients (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0–3.4). This report, however, failed to demonstrate a significant association between mEH exon 3 polymorphism and primary brain tumor susceptibility in this population. Analysis of patients by both histological types of primary brain tumor and gene variants showed no association, although analysis of family history of cancer between cases and controls showed a statistically significant association (?2 = 7.0, P = 0.01). Our results marginally support the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to brain tumors may be associated with mEPHX gene polymorphisms.
Aydin, Ali; Pinarbasi, Hatice; Gurelik, Mustafa
MEH IS A CRITICAL BIOTRANSFORMATION ENZYME THAT CATALYZES THE CONVERSION OF XENOBIOTIC EPOXIDE SUBSTRATES INTO MORE POLAR DIOL METABOLITES: it is also capable of inactivating a large number of structurally different molecules. Two polymorphisms affecting enzyme activity have been described in the exon 3 and 4 of the mEH gene. The hypothesis of this study is that inherent genetic susceptibility to a primary brain tumor is associated with mEH gene polymorphisms. The polymorphisms of the mEH gene were determined with PCR-RFLP techniques and 255 Turkish individuals. Our results indicate that the frequency of the mEH exon 4 polymorphism (in controls) is significantly higher than that of primary brain tumor patients (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.4). This report, however, failed to demonstrate a significant association between mEH exon 3 polymorphism and primary brain tumor susceptibility in this population. Analysis of patients by both histological types of primary brain tumor and gene variants showed no association, although analysis of family history of cancer between cases and controls showed a statistically significant association (? (2) = 7.0, P = 0.01). Our results marginally support the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to brain tumors may be associated with mEPHX gene polymorphisms. PMID:24455257
Aydin, Ali; Pinarbasi, Hatice; Gurelik, Mustafa
Polymorphisms provide one of the most useful tools for understanding the maintenance of genetic and phenotypic variation in nature. We have previously described a genetically based polymorphism in dorsal patterning that is expressed by female brown anole lizards, Anolis sagrei, which occur in Bar, Diamond and intermediate Diamond-Bar morphs. Previous studies of island populations in The Bahamas support a role for selection in maintaining the polymorphism, but the agents responsible for this selection remain unclear. We tested two main hypotheses regarding the importance of predation as a selective agent that maintains the polymorphism within populations. First, we tested whether correlational selection favours different combinations of morph, locomotor performance and escape behaviour by measuring morph-specific natural selection on sprint speed, running endurance and the propensity of females to either 'freeze' or 'run' in response to attempted capture. Morphs did not differ in any of these traits, nor did correlational selection consistently favour any particular combinations of morph and antipredator behaviour. Second, we experimentally excluded bird and snake predators from two entire island populations, allowed these predators access to two additional islands and then measured subsequent differences in natural selection on morphs in each population. Predators reduced the survival of Bar and Diamond females, but not of genetically intermediate Diamond-Bar females. These results provide limited evidence that predation may play a role in maintaining this polymorphism, although the functional traits that could account for differential susceptibility to predation remain unclear. PMID:22913414
Calsbeek, R; Cox, R M
Genetic variability in individual troops of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata) was quantified by the proportion of polymorphic loci and the average heterozygosity per individual from the results of starch-gel\\u000a electrophoreses of blood proteins controlled by 32 independent genetic loci. The former averaged 9.2% and the latter 1.3%,\\u000a the values being remarkably lower than those estimated for other animal
Ken Nozawa; Takayoshi Shotake; Yoshi Kawamoto; Yuichi Tanabe
To reveal the genetic structures and relationships of the four ethnic populations from the maternal inheritance and explore the origins and migrations of nationalities, the genetic polymorphism of mtDNA in Dong, Gelao, Tujia, and Yi populations from Guizhou was studied by direct sequencing of hypervariable segment I(HVS I) and PCR-RFLP of coding region. Thirty-seven (sub-) haplogroups were identified in the
Binbin Li; Fuguang Zhong; Hongsheng Yi; Xianran Wang; Liangfang Li; Lilan Wang; Xiaolan Qi; Lifu Wu
Genetic polymorphism of the renin-angiotensin system and organ damage in essential hypertension.BackgroundThe renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a significant role in the development of hypertensive cardiac and vascular remodeling. Recently, several genetic variants of its key components, which may be clinically relevant and thus prove to be useful in the evaluation of cardiovascular risk, have been described. We therefore investigated the
Roberto Pontremoli; Maura Ravera; Francesca Viazzi; Clizia Nicolella; Valeria Berruti; Giovanna Leoncini; Francesca Giacopelli; Gian Paolo Bezante; Giorgio Sacchi; Roberto Ravazzolo; Giacomo Deferrari
Genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in end-stage renal disease.BackgroundHypertension contributes to the progression to renal failure. A genetic susceptibility to hypertension may predispose to the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and promote a more rapid progression to ESRD in patients with renal diseases. Genes encoding for angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) are candidates for
Emanuela Lovati; Alain Richard; Brigitte M Frey; Felix J Frey; Paolo Ferrari
The activity of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is inherited as an autosomal co-dominant trait. In most large world populations studied to date, approximately 10% of the population have intermediate activity due to heterozygosity at the TPMT locus, and about 0.33% is TPMT deficient. TPMT is now one of the most well characterized genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolism, with the genetic basis
Eugene Y. Krynetski; William E. Evans
The identification of polymorphic alleles at loci coding for functional genes is crucial for genetic association and linkage studies. Since the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene codes for the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, it would be advantageous to identify a polymorphism in this gene. By examining introns of the human TPH gene by PCR amplification and analysis by the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique, an SSCP was revealed with two alleles that occur with frequencies of .40 and .60 in unrelated Caucasians. DNAs from 24 informative CEPH families were typed for the TPH intron polymorphism and analyzed with respect to 10 linked markers on chromosome 11, between p13 and p15, with the result that TPH was placed between D11S151 and D11S134. This region contains loci for several important genes, including those for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and tyrosine hydroxylase. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Nielsen, D.A.; Goldman, D. (National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Dean, M. (National Cancer Inst., Frederick, MD (United States))
Individuals differ in their tendencies to seek positive decision outcomes or to avoid negative ones. At the neurobiological level, our model suggests that phasic changes in dopamine support learning to reinforce good decisions via striatal D1 receptors, and to avoid maladaptive choices via striatal D2 receptors. Accordingly, in a previous study individual differences in positive and negative learning were strongly modulated by two genetic polymorphisms factors related to striatal D1 and D2 function, respectively. Nevertheless, whereas the role for dopamine in positive learning is relatively well accepted, that in learning to avoid negative outcomes is more controversial. Here we further explore D2-receptor-related genetic contributions to probabilistic avoidance, in light of recent data showing that particular DRD2 polymorphisms are associated with functional modulation of receptor expression (Zhang et al 2007, PNAS). We find that a promoter polymorphism rs12364283 associated with transcription and D2 receptor density was strongly and selectively predictive of avoidance-based decisions. Two further polymorphisms (rs2283265 and rs1076560) associated with relatively reduced presynaptic relative to postsynaptic D2 receptor expression were predictive of relative impairments in negative compared to positive decisions. These previously undocumented effects of DRD2 polymorphisms were largely independent of those we reported previously for the C957T polymorphism (rs6277) associated with striatal D2 density. In contrast, effects of the commonly studied Taq1A polymorphism on reinforcement-based decisions were due to indirect association with C957T. Taken together these findings suggest multiple D2-dependent genetic mechanisms contributing to avoidance. We discuss these effects in the context of neurocomputational models of reinforcement leaning in the basal ganglia.
Frank, Michael J.; Hutchison, Kent
The review summarizes the current evidence on the phytopathogenic fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, which is a classic object for studying hypovirulence. Phenotypic manifestations of hypovirulence and the molecular mechanisms\\u000a of action of the mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus (CHV) infecting the fungus are described in detail. Genetic determinants of vegetative incompatibility in C. parasitica (a phenomenon increasing polymorphism of the fungus and preventing
A. P. Popov; A. A. Belov; N. E. Ivanushkina; I. L. Tsvetkov; A. S. Konichev
Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in developed countries, and its incidence in developing countries is increasing. In Thailand, cancer incidences differ greatly from region to region, and lung cancer is the most common cancer in the northern Thai population. The polymorphic frequency of 10 genetic susceptibility genes and their association with lung cancer were examined in
Jaewwaew Klinchid; Busyamas Chewaskulyoung; Somchareon Saeteng; Nirush Lertprasertsuke; Watchara Kasinrerk; Ratchada Cressey
A polymorphic DNA marker has been found genetically linked, in a set of 39 human families, to an autosomal recessive gene that causes cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease affecting one in 2000 Caucasian children. The DNA marker (called D0CRI-917) is also linked to the PON locus, which by independent evidence is linked to the CF locus. The best estimates of
Lap-Chee Tsui; Manuel Buchwald; David Barker; Jeffrey C. Braman; Robert Knowlton; James W. Schumm; Hans Eiberg; Jan Mohr; Dara Kennedy; Natasa Plavsic; Martha Zsiga; Danuta Markiewicz; Gita Akots; Valerie Brown; Cynthia Helms; Thomas Gravius; Carol Parker; Kenneth Rediker; Helen Donis-Keller
In this work we have demonstrated for the first time on the clinico-genetic material association between hereditary sick sinus node syndrome and connexin 40 gene polymorphism. We have revealed that heterozygous variant of connexin 40 gene variant is more frequent among patients with sick sinus node syndrome and their healthy relatives than in persons of control group. PMID:21649591
Chernova, A A; Nikulina, S Iu; Shul'man, V A; Kukushkina, T S; Voevoda, M I; Maksimov, V N
Azathioprine therapy can cause acute myelosuppression. Toxicity is in part caused by the incorporation of azathioprine-derived 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) plays an important role in azathioprine catabolism. TPMT activity is controlled by a common genetic polymorphism, and one in 300 subjects has very low enzyme activity. Azathioprine was withdrawn in five study
Lynne Lennard; Jon A Van Loon; Richard M Weinshilboum
This study is the first to document genetic differences among Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata across much of their range. We examined collections of migrating adult Pacific lampreys from the Naka River, Japan; Moose River, Alaska; and six Pacific Northwest locations (North Fork Toutle, Willamette, Deschutes, John Day, Rogue, and Klamath rivers) based on variation at 180 polymorphic loci among the
Binbin Lin; Ziping Zhang; Yilei Wang; Kenneth P. Currens; Adrian Spidle; Yuji Yamazaki; David A. Close
A study of transferrin in 11 different European populations of Cervus elaphus as well as in one Cervus elephus × Cervus nippon hybrid population has revealed a polymorphism of this protein. Genetic analysis suggests that it is controlled by one gene locus with three codominant alleles. The allele frequencies allow a clear discrimination not only between the hybrid population and
Sven Herzog; Christine Mushövel; Hans H Hattemer; Alexander Herzog
Objective: Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of schizophrenia has been difficult due to the complex inheritance patterns, genetic heterogeneity and varied multiple nonlinear interactions between genes. Several lines of evidence indicate the involvement of neurotransmitter dopamine in the pathophysiology of this disorder. To analyze such a possible role of dopaminergic pathway gene polymorphisms, we used a case-control approach. Method: We
Vibhuti Srivastava; Smita N. Deshpande; B. K. Thelma
Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to examine the extent of variability in 11 Indian wild derived commensal house mice (Mus musculus) populations and compared with inbred strains of musculus and domesticus subspecies as well as commonly used laboratory inbred strains C57BL\\/6J and DBA\\/2J. Arbitrary designed 10 mer oligonucleotide primers with 60–70% (G+C) content were used to amplify
M. Mishra; N. Dubey; S. M. Totey; K. V. Bhat; S. Babu; M. Awasthi-Kalia; R. K. Anand
The genome of Muju virus (MUJV), identified originally in the royal vole (Myodes regulus) in Korea, was fully sequenced to ascertain its genetic and phylogenetic relationship with Puumala virus (PUUV), harbored by the bank vole (My. glareolus), and a PUUV-like virus, named Hokkaido virus (HOKV), in the grey red-backed vole (My. rufocanus) in Japan. Whole genome sequence analysis of the 6544-nucleotide large (L), 3652-nucleotide medium (M) and 1831-nucleotide small (S) segments of MUJV, as well as the amino acid sequences of their gene products, indicated that MUJV strains from different capture sites might represent genetic variants of PUUV, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus in Europe. Distinct geographic-specific clustering of MUJV was found in different provinces in Korea, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that MUJV and HOKV share a common ancestry with PUUV. A better understanding of the taxonomic classification and pathogenic potential of MUJV must await its isolation in cell culture.
Lee, Jin Goo; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Shin, Ok Sarah; Park, Kwang Sook; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won
The genome of Muju virus (MUJV), identified originally in the royal vole (Myodes regulus) in Korea, was fully sequenced to ascertain its genetic and phylogenetic relationship with Puumala virus (PUUV), harbored by the bank vole (My. glareolus), and a PUUV-like virus, named Hokkaido virus (HOKV), in the grey red-backed vole (My. rufocanus) in Japan. Whole genome sequence analysis of the 6544-nucleotide large (L), 3652-nucleotide medium (M) and 1831-nucleotide small (S) segments of MUJV, as well as the amino acid sequences of their gene products, indicated that MUJV strains from different capture sites might represent genetic variants of PUUV, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus in Europe. Distinct geographic-specific clustering of MUJV was found in different provinces in Korea, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that MUJV and HOKV share a common ancestry with PUUV. A better understanding of the taxonomic classification and pathogenic potential of MUJV must await its isolation in cell culture. PMID:24736214
Lee, Jin Goo; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Shin, Ok Sarah; Park, Kwang Sook; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare malignant neoplasia, which may occur on sporadic form or on a hereditary basis. Germ line mutations in the RET proto-oncogene is responsible for hereditary MTC. However, most MTC occur in individuals without family history where the pathogenesis is still unclear. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the RET gene have been described in the general population as well as in patients with MTC. Even though these allelic variants do not seem to confer any transforming activity to the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET protein, cumulative studies suggest that they could modify disease susceptibility and clinical phenotype in patients with sporadic or hereditary MTC. Polymorphisms located in exons 11 (G691S), 13 (L769L), 14 (S836S), and 15 (S904S) seem to be over-represented in sporadic MTC patients from American and European countries. Here, we discuss the results obtained in different studies as well as describe the frequency of RET polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with sporadic MTC. PMID:17891235
Rocha, Andreia Possatti da; Magalhães, Patrícia K Ribeiro; Maia, Ana Luiza; Maciel, Lea Maria Zanini
This survey reports primary results of classical allele frequencies on ten protein loci in a Basque population sample from northern Navarre, the less known from an anthropological and genetic point of view than the populations of the other Basque territories of Spain. Since ancient times this has been a zone of Basque population settlement, and the Basque language (Euskera) still remains deeply rooted among its autochthonous population. A total of 122 blood samples from unrelated northern Navarrese with autochthonous ascendants to the third generation were typed for GC, HP, PI, TF, ACP1, AK1, CA2, ESD, PGD and PGM1 genetic systems. Basque surnames and birthplaces were the criteria used to define family origins. Genetic structure was analyzed on different population hierarchical levels. Northern Navarre seems to be the most genetically deviated area in comparison with other Basque groups. The highest level of differentiation is observed between Navarrese and Alava Basques whereas Guipúzcoa province, the territory adjacent to northern Navarre, presents the lowest genetic distance from the study area. Northern Navarrese show some distinguishing genetic characteristics in relation to other Basque relative samples, which include high frequencies for PI*M1 and TF*C1 and low levels of PGD*C and PGM1*2 alleles. When the genetic data reported here are analyzed jointly with GM allotypes frequencies, the results significantly reinforce the relative position of Navarrese Basques as well as the topology of the Basque cluster on genetic maps. The analysis of relationships among the genetic structures of Basque population samples leads us to ask ourselves which of them fits in best with the ancient Basque population. Classical geographers placed the tribe of the Vascones in the geographical region currently known as Navarre, so extant Navarrese Basques might be considered firm candidates to denote the anthropological and genomic distinctiveness of the ancient Basques. PMID:16850769
Calderón, Rosario; Pérez-Miranda, Ana M; Fuciarelli, Maria; Scano, Giusepina; Carrión, Mónica; Alfonso-Sánchez, Miguel A; Peña, José A; Ambrosio, Beatriz; De Stefano, GianFranco
Restriction site amplified polymorphism (RSAP) was used, for the first time, to analyze the genetic structure and diversity of four, mainly cultivated, varieties of the brown alga, Saccharina japonica. Eighty-eight samples from varieties " Rongfu ", " Fujian ", " Ailunwan " and " Shengchanzhong " were used for the genetic analyses. One hundred and ninety-eight bands were obtained using eight combinations of primers. One hundred and ninety-one (96.46%) were polymorphic bands. Nei's genetic diversity was 0.360, and the coefficient of genetic differentiation was 0.357. No inbreeding-type recession was found in the four brown alga varieties and the results of the " Ailunwan " variety using samples from 2 years showed that the variety was becoming less diverse during the selection inherent in the breeding program. Genetic diversity and cluster analyses results were consistent with these genetic relationships. The results show the RSAP method is suitable for genetic analysis. Continuous inbreeding and selection could reduce the genetic diversity effectively; therefore periodical supervision is required.
Zhao, Cui; Liu, Cui; Li, Wei; Chi, Shan; Feng, Rongfang; Liu, Tao
As genetic markers, SNP are well suited for the development of genetic tests for produc- tion traits in livestock. They are stable through many generations and can provide direct assessment of indi- vidual animal's genetic merit if they are in linkage dis- equilibrium and phase with functional genetic varia- tion. Bovine chromosome 5 has been shown to harbor genetic variation
R. T. Stone; E. Casas; T. P. L. Smith; J. W. Keele; G. Harhay; G. L. Bennett; M. Koohmaraie; T. L. Wheeler; S. D. Shackelford; W. M. Snelling
The pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion involves a complex interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The firm association between increased homocysteine concentration and neural tube defects (NTD) has led to the hypothesis that high concentrations of homocysteine might be embryotoxic and lead to decreased fetal viability. There are several genetic polymorphisms that are associated with defects in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine metabolism. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms cause elevated homocysteine concentration and are associated with an increased risk of NTD. Additionally, low concentration of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) or transcobalamin that delivers vitamin B12 to the cells of the body leads to hyperhomocysteinemia and is associated with NTD. This effect involves the transcobalamin (TC) 776C>G polymorphism. Importantly, the biochemical consequences of these polymorphisms can be modified by folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. In this review, I focus on recent studies on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia-associated polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion and discuss the possibility that periconceptional supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 might lower the incidence of miscarriage in women planning a pregnancy.
Protein variation was identified in sheep when Western blots of polyacrylamide gels (routinely used to resolve transferrin polymorphism) were stained using antibodies to human plasminogen. The affinity of the antibodies to ovine plasma was less than 7% that of a human standard but they bound specifically to a single polymorphic protein. In 146 lambs and their parents the inheritance of the ovine plasminogen antigen polymorphism was consistent with four autosomal alleles segregating codominantly. However, an additional two lambs had types which were incompatible with their putative parents. The pedigrees of these lambs were tested by DNA fingerprinting and shown to have been incorrectly recorded. The genetic polymorphism detected by human plasminogen antiserum provided a probability of sire exclusion (PE) ranging from 0.04 to 0.32 and a polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.08 to 0.50 in flocks of five sheep breeds: Perendale, Romney, Merino, Texel and Coopworth (in order of increasing genetic variation in this locus). Significant differences in allele frequency were observed between breeds but sampling did not assess the variation among flocks within a breed. PMID:1503278
Tate, M L; Manly, H C; Schmack, A
Recent development of DNA markers provides powerful tools for population genetic analyses. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers result from a poly- merase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA fingerprinting technique that can detect multiple restriction fragments in a single polyacrylamide gel, and thus are potentially useful for population genetic studies. Because AFLP markers have to be analysed as dominant loci in
G. Yan; J. Romero-Severson; M. Walton; D. D. CHADEEand; D. W. Severson
Aims: This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the correlations between atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) genetic polymorphism and its serum ANP levels with the risk of ischemic stroke. Methods: The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched for relevant articles published before October 1st, 2013 without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with their 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Twelve case-control studies that met all inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 1285 patients with ischemic stroke and 1088 healthy control subjects were involved in this meta-analysis. Three common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (1837 G/A, 2238 T/C, and 664 G/A) in the ANP gene were assessed. Results: Our meta-analysis results revealed that ANP 2238 T/C polymorphism might increase the risk of ischemic stroke (C allele vs. T allele: OR=2.26, 95% CI: 1.59-3.23, p<0.001; TC+CC vs. TT: OR=2.26, 95% CI: 1.34-3.81, p=0.002; respectively). However, we found no correlations of ANP 1837 G/A and 664 G/A polymorphisms with ischemic stroke risk (all p>0.05). Furthermore, ischemic stroke patients had higher levels of serum ANP than those of healthy control subjects (SMD=3.12, 95% CI: 1.16-5.07, p=0.002). Our study revealed no publication bias in this meta-analysis (all p>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ANP genetic polymorphism and serum ANP levels may contribute to the development of ischemic stroke. Thus, the ANP genetic polymorphism and serum ANP levels could be potential biomarkers for early detection of ischemic stroke. PMID:24654911
Xing, De-Guang; Zhang, Dong-Yong; Wang, Zhan-Fu; Ding, Da-Ling; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yun-Jie
Survival rates after lung transplantation are the lowest among solid organ transplantations. Long-term survival is limited by the development of chronic rejection, known as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Risk factors, such as acute rejection and cytomegalovirus infection, contribute to the development of BOS. However, these risk factors alone do not explain the interindividual variability seen in the development of BOS. There is growing evidence that genetic variations might contribute to an individual's susceptibility to rejection. In this systematic review, based on a literature search through Medline and Embase, an overview is given of the genetic polymorphisms that have been investigated in lung transplant recipients in relation to the devlopment of BOS. Functional genetic polymorphisms in the genes of IFNG (+874 A/T), TGFB1 (+915 G/C), and IL6 (-174 G/C) have been found to be associated with the development of BOS and allograft fibrosis after lung transplantation. However, confirmation was not consistent across all studied cohorts. Genetic polymorphisms in the genes of several Toll-like receptors, mannose-binding lectin, CD14, killer immunoglobulin-like receptors, and matrix metalloproteinase-7 were also found to be associated with the development of BOS, but these studies need to be replicated in independent cohorts. This review shows that there may be involvement of genetic polymorphisms in the development of BOS. Genetic risk profiling of lung transplant recipients could be a promising approach for the future, enabling individualized risk stratification and personalized immunosuppressive treatment after transplantation. Further studies are needed to define risk alleles. PMID:22138817
Kastelijn, Elisabeth A; van Moorsel, Coline H M; Ruven, Henk J T; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Grutters, Jan C
Introduction Skin changes are among the most visible signs of aging. Skin properties such as hydration, elasticity, and antioxidant capacity play a key role in the skin aging process. Skin aging is a complex process influenced by heritable and environmental factors. Recent studies on twins have revealed that up to 60% of the skin aging variation between individuals can be attributed to genetic factors, while the remaining 40% is due to non-genetic factors. Recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics approaches have led to the association of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to skin properties. Our aim was to classify individuals based on an ensemble of multiple polymorphisms associated with certain properties of the skin for providing personalized skin care and anti-aging therapies. Methods and results We identified the key proteins and SNPs associated with certain properties of the skin that contribute to skin aging. We selected a set of 13 SNPs in gene coding for these proteins which are potentially associated with skin aging. Finally, we classified a sample of 120 female volunteers into ten clusters exhibiting different skin properties according to their genotypic signature. Conclusion This is the first study that describes the actual frequency of genetic polymorphisms and their distribution in clusters involved in skin aging in a Caucasian population. Individuals can be divided into genetic clusters defined by genotypic variables. These genotypic variables are linked with polymorphisms in one or more genes associated with certain properties of the skin that contribute to a person’s perceived age. Therefore, by using this classification, it is possible to characterize human skin care and anti-aging needs on the basis of an individual’s genetic signature, thus opening the door to personalized treatments addressed at specific populations. This is part of an ongoing effort towards personalized anti-aging therapies combining genetic signatures with environmental and life style evaluations.
Naval, Jordi; Alonso, Vicente; Herranz, Miquel Angel
The relationship between renal disease progression and genetic polymorphism of enzymes influencing endothelial function remains incompletely understood. We genotyped three cohorts of elderly Hungarian patients: 245 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on chronic hemodialysis (HD), 88 patients with mild chronic kidney disease (CKD), and 200 healthy controls. The underlying diagnoses of renal diseases were primary glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, and hereditary diseases. We examined genetic polymorphisms of eight candidate genes associated with endothelial function: endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) T-786C, endothelin-1 G5727T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, paraoxonase-1 Q192R and M55L, angiotensinogen M235T, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D and angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C gene. Six gene polymorphisms were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction with melting-point analysis, and two via allele-specific amplification and gel electrophoresis. Control group patients were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all tested genotypes. In ESRD patients attributed to hypertension, the endothelin gene G5727T GG genotype occurred significantly less but GT genotype more frequently (P?0.01 for both). In ESRD patients attributed to primary glomerulonephritis, more ACE DD and less ID genotypes were found (P?0.02 for both) than in the controls. The underlying diagnosis may modify the association of genetic polymorphism and dialysis-dependent ESRD. PMID:22111818
Zsom, Marianna; Fülöp, Tibor; Zsom, Lajos; Baráth, Akos; Maróti, Zoltán; Endreffy, Emoke
Epidemiological data suggest that environmental factors may trigger autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals. In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), it has been postulated that halogenated xenobiotics can modify self-molecules, facilitating the breakdown of tolerance to mitochondrial antigens. The transport and metabolism of xenobiotics is highly dependent on key genetic polymorphisms that alter enzymatic phenotype. We analyzed genomic DNA from 169 patients with PBC and 225 geographically and sex-matched healthy subjects for polymorphisms of genes coding for cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 2D6 (CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*3, CYP2D6*5, and CYP2D6*6) and 2E1 (cl/c2), multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1 C3435T) P-glycoprotein, and pregnane X receptor (PXR C-25385T, C8055T, and A7635G). We compared the genotype frequencies in patients and controls and also correlated polymorphisms with PBC severity. The distributions of the studied genotypes did not significantly differ between patients and controls. However, when clinical characteristics of patients with PBC were compared according to genotype, the CYP2E1 c2 allele was associated with signs of more severe disease. In conclusion, genetic polymorphisms of CYP 2D6 and 2E1, PXR, and MDR1 do not appear to play a role in the onset of PBC. PMID:15690482
Kimura, Yasuhiko; Selmi, Carlo; Leung, Patrick S C; Mao, Tin K; Schauer, Joseph; Watnik, Mitchell; Kuriyama, Shigeki; Nishioka, Mikio; Ansari, Aftab A; Coppel, Ross L; Invernizzi, Pietro; Podda, Mauro; Gershwin, M Eric
BACKGROUND Endometriosis has a strong genetic component, and numerous genetic studies have been reported. METHODS We have systematically reviewed these studies and included 114 in our final selection. RESULTS We found no consistent evidence linking endometriosis with specific polymorphisms in genes encoding inflammatory mediators, proteins involved in sex steroid metabolism, vascular function and tissue remodelling. Although a number of polymorphisms have been associated with endometriosis in selected populations, the associations have not been independently confirmed, either because only single studies were carried out on these markers/genes or because other studies reported no association. The most solid evidence linking specific polymorphisms to endometriosis came from studies investigating glutathione-S-transferase, a phase II detoxification enzyme. Carriage of the GSTT1 null deletion variant showed consistent association with endometriosis with a 29% increased risk; however, it cannot be excluded that this result was due to publication bias, and this association should be independently confirmed in large-scale, well-designed case–control studies. CONCLUSIONS The evidence of an association between genetic polymorphisms and endometriosis is weak. Carriage of the GSTT1 null deletion may moderately increase the risk of this disease. We suggest that the methodology of association studies should be improved in order to identify and validate associations in endometriosis.
Tempfer, C.B.; Simoni, M.; Destenaves, B.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.
Background. This study was designed to compare genetic differences in single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the S-mephenytoin 4?-hydroxylation\\u000a (CYP2C19) gene among four Asian populations. Methods. Polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of CYP2C19 was conducted in Japanese, Chinese, Thai, and Vietnamese populations. All genotype frequencies were analyzed. Wild-type homozygote\\u000a and wild-type heterozygote genotypes were extensive proton pump inhibitor
Sirikan Yamada; Masahiko Onda; Shunji Kato; Noriko Matsuda; Takeshi Matsuhisa; Nobutaka Yamada; Masaru Miki; Norio Matsukura
Transposable elements are the major component of the maize genome and presumably highly polymorphic yet they have not been used in population genetics and association analyses. Using the Transposon Display method, we isolated and converted into PCR-based markers 33 Miniature Inverted Repeat Transposable Elements (MITE) polymorphic insertions. These polymorphisms were genotyped on a population-based sample of 26 American landraces for a total of 322 plants. Genetic diversity was high and partitioned within and among landraces. The genetic groups identified using Bayesian clustering were in agreement with published data based on SNPs and SSRs, indicating that MITE polymorphisms reflect maize genetic history. To explore the contribution of MITEs to phenotypic variation, we undertook an association mapping approach in a panel of 367 maize lines phenotyped for 26 traits. We found a highly significant association between the marker ZmV1-9, on chromosome 1, and male flowering time. The variance explained by this association is consistent with a flowering delay of +123 degree-days. This MITE insertion is located at only 289 nucleotides from the 3' end of a Cytochrome P450-like gene, a region that was never identified in previous association mapping or QTL surveys. Interestingly, we found (i) a non-synonymous mutation located in the exon 2 of the gene in strong linkage disequilibrium with the MITE polymorphism, and (ii) a perfect sequence homology between the MITE sequence and a maize siRNA that could therefore potentially interfere with the expression of the Cytochrome P450-like gene. Those two observations among others offer exciting perspectives to validate functionally the role of this region on phenotypic variation. PMID:22350086
Zerjal, Tatiana; Rousselet, Agnès; Mhiri, Corinne; Combes, Valérie; Madur, Delphine; Grandbastien, Marie-Angèle; Charcosset, Alain; Tenaillon, Maud I
Glioma is the most common type of primary brain tumors in adults. Previous evidence indicates that the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 gene (XRCC1) is an important candidate gene which influencing the pathogenesis of glioma. This study aims to assess the potential associations between glioma risks and genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 gene. A total of 1,286 Chinese Han ethnic subjects consisting of 638 glioma patients and 648 controls were recruited in this case-control study. The genotyping of XRCC1 genetic polymorphisms (c.482C>T, c.1161G>A, and c.1804C>A) were conducted using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), created restriction site-PCR (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. Our data indicated that the allelic and genotypic frequencies of these genetic polymorphisms in glioma patients were significantly different from those of controls. We detected that the alleles/genotypes were statistically associated with the increased risks of glioma (for c.482C>T, TT versus (vs.) CC: OR?=?2.24, 95% CI?=?1.48-3.39, P?0.001; T vs. C: OR?=?1.30, 95% CI?=?1.09-1.53, P?=?0.003; for c.1161G>A, AA vs. GG: OR?=?1.62, 95% CI?=?1.11-2.35, P?=?0.012; A vs. G: OR?=?1.19, 95% CI?=?1.01-1.41, P?=?0.040; for c.1804C>A, AA vs. CC: OR?=?2.12, 95% CI?=?1.45-3.11, P?0.001; A vs. C: OR?=?1.32, 95% CI?=?1.12-1.56, P?=?0.001). Our findings suggest that these genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 gene may influence glioma risks in Chinese Han ethnic subjects, and might be potential molecular markers for evaluating glioma risks. PMID:24375631
Feng, Xingjun; Miao, Guozhuan; Han, Yipeng; Xu, Yi; Wu, Huayun
Background Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a multifactorial syndrome related to a critical period of human life. TMD has been associated with psychological dysfunctions, oxidative state and sexual dimorphism with coincidental occurrence along the pubertal development. In this work we study the association between TMD and genetic polymorphisms of folate metabolism, neurotransmission, oxidative and hormonal metabolism. Folate metabolism, which depends on genes variations and diet, is directly involved in genetic and epigenetic variations that can influence the changes of last growing period of development in human and the appearance of the TMD. Methods A case-control study was designed to evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms above described on TMD. A total of 229 individuals (69% women) were included at the study; 86 were patients with TMD and 143 were healthy control subjects. Subjects underwent to a clinical examination following the guidelines by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Genotyping of 20 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), divided in two groups, was performed by multiplex minisequencing preceded by multiplex PCR. Other seven genetic polymorphisms different from SNPs (deletions, insertions, tandem repeat, null genotype) were achieved by a multiplex-PCR. A chi-square test was performed to determine the differences in genotype and allelic frequencies between TMD patients and healthy subjects. To estimate TMD risk, in those polymorphisms that shown significant differences, odds ratio (OR) with a 95% of confidence interval were calculated. Results Six of the polymorphisms showed statistical associations with TMD. Four of them are related to enzymes of folates metabolism: Allele G of Serine Hydoxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1) rs1979277 (OR = 3.99; 95%CI 1.72, 9.25; p = 0.002), allele G of SHMT1 rs638416 (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 1.51, 5.21; p = 0.013), allele T of Methylentetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (MTHFD) rs2236225 (OR = 3.09; 95%CI 1.27, 7.50; p = 0.016) and allele A of Methionine Synthase Reductase (MTRR) rs1801394 (OR = 2.35; 95CI 1.10, 5.00; p = 0.037). An inflammatory oxidative stress enzyme, Gluthatione S-Tranferase Mu-1(GSTM1), null allele (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.24, 4.36; p = 0.030) and a neurotransmission receptor, Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4), long allele of 48 bp-repeat (OR = 3.62; 95%CI 0.76, 17.26; p = 0.161). Conclusions Some genetic polymorphisms related to folates metabolism, inflammatory oxidative stress, and neurotransmission responses to pain, has been significantly associated to TMD syndrome
Prostacyclin (PGI2) inhibits platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. PGI2 synthase (PTGIS), a catalyst of PGI2 synthesis from prostaglandin H2, is widely distributed and predominantly found in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The PTGIS gene is localized to 20q13.11-13 and a candidate gene for cardiovascular disease. We discovered mutations and polymorphisms in this gene and reported that they were associated with essential hypertension, myocardial infarction, and cerebral infarction. These results suggest that PGI2 function depends on the different alleles of the PTGIS gene and that they may influence the risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus, individualized management strategies, such as the administration of PGI2 analogues, could be selected for variants of this gene, to help prevent the development of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20357747
N-Acetylation and debrisoquine hydroxylation phenotypes were determined in 54 patients with Gilbert's syndrome and in 247 (sulfamethazine) and 76 (debrisoquine) non-related healthy volunteers, respectively. 40 (74.1%) of the patients and 135 (54.7%) of healthy volunteers were slow acetylators (chi 2 = 6.87). In patients, the cumulative urinary excretion (CUE) of sulfamethazine (0-6 hours) was significantly reduced. No differences between the debrisoquine poor metabolizers were observed: Gilbert's syndrome 5/54 (9.3%), healthy volunteers 5/76 (6.6%). The metabolic ratios were similar in both groups as well as the CUE of debrisoquine and its metabolite. Gilbert's syndrome seems to be related in some way to N-acetylation but not to debrisoquine hydroxylation polymorphism. PMID:7483725
Fengler, J D; Baumgarten, R; Eike, E; Eike, O; Siegmund, W; Franke, G; Zschiesche, M
The primary goal of this project is to identify non-hormonal dietary risk and genetic susceptibility factors for breast cancer in African-American women. This project initial will assess the role of dietary fat, cholesterol, cooking practices (e.g., of fa...
In septic patients, local and systemic production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) is augmented, and we and other researchers have previously shown that serum IL-8 levels predict the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and poor prognosis. There is a wide variation in IL-8 levels among septic patients under similar conditions and this is, at least, partly due to the genetic
Seitaro Fujishima; Sadakazu Aiso; Shingo Hori; Katsunori Aoki; Naoki Aikawa
The goal of this DOD Breast Concept award was to identify and functionally characterize common genetic polymorphisnis in the human UDP- glucuronosyltransferase gene, UGTlA9. We had previously determined that UGTlA9, a metabolic enzyme expressed predominan...
R. B. Raftogianis
In an attempt to compare intrinsic and extrinsic genetic diversity of the lyssavirus genotypes, 69 rabies virus isolates from various part of the world were partially sequenced and compared to 13 representative isolates of the 6 lyssavirus genotypes. The analysis of their phylogenetic relationships, performed on the complete nucleoprotein (N) coding gene (1350 bases), established that the rabies virus isolates
Bachir Kissi; Noël Tordo; Hervé Bourhy
Intense selection on isolated populations can cause loss of genetic diversity, which if persistent, reduces adaptive potential and increases extinction probability. Phenotypic evidence of inherited tolerance suggests that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have acted as strong selective agents on populations of a non-migratory fish, Fundulus heteroclitus, indigenous to heavily contaminated sites. To evaluate population genetic structure and test for effects of
Amy M. McMillan; Mark J. Bagley; Suzanne A. Jackson; Diane E. Nacci
Background The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme genetic polymorphisms as a predictor of echocardiographic outcomes on heart failure is yet to be established. The local profile should be identified so that the impact of those genotypes on the Brazilian population could be identified. This is the first study on exclusively non-ischemic heart failure over a follow-up longer than 5 years. Objective To determine the distribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme genetic polymorphism variants and their relation with echocardiographic outcome of patients with non-ischemic heart failure. Methods Secondary analysis of the medical records of 111 patients and identification of the angiotensin-converting enzyme genetic polymorphism variants, classified as DD (Deletion/Deletion), DI (Deletion/Insertion) or II (Insertion/Insertion). Results The cohort means were as follows: follow-up, 64.9 months; age, 59.5 years; male sex, 60.4%; white skin color, 51.4%; use of beta-blockers, 98.2%; and use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blocker, 89.2%. The angiotensin-converting enzyme genetic polymorphism distribution was as follows: DD, 51.4%; DI, 44.1%; and II, 4.5%. No difference regarding the clinical characteristics or treatment was observed between the groups. The final left ventricular systolic diameter was the only isolated echocardiographic variable that significantly differed between the angiotensin-converting enzyme genetic polymorphisms: 59.2 ± 1.8 for DD versus 52.3 ± 1.9 for DI versus 59.2 ± 5.2 for II (p = 0.029). Considering the evolutionary behavior, all echocardiographic variables (difference between the left ventricular ejection fraction at the last and first consultation; difference between the left ventricular systolic diameter at the last and first consultation; and difference between the left ventricular diastolic diameter at the last and first consultation) differed between the genotypes (p = 0.024; p = 0.002; and p = 0.021, respectively). Conclusion The distribution of the angiotensin-converting enzyme genetic polymorphisms differed from that of other studies with a very small number of II. The DD genotype was independently associated with worse echocardiographic outcome, while the DI genotype, with the best echocardiographic profile (increased left ventricular ejection fraction and decreased left ventricular diameters).
de Albuquerque, Felipe Neves; Brandao, Andrea Araujo; da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Mourilhe-Rocha, Ricardo; Duque, Gustavo Salgado; Gondar, Alyne Freitas Pereira; Neves, Luiza Maceira de Almeida; Bittencourt, Marcelo Imbroinise; Pozzan, Roberto; de Albuquerque, Denilson Campos
The aim of this study was to determine microsatellite polymorphism in ostriches and using it in creation the genetic map of the ostrich. The polymorphism analysis covered 30 microsatellite markers characteristic of ostrich, for the CAU (China Agricultural University) group. The material consisted of 150 ostriches (Struthio camelus). The 30 microsatellite loci was examined and a total of 343 alleles was identified. The number of alleles at a single locus ranged from 5 at locus CAU78 to 34 at locus CAU85. The values for the observed heterozygosity H(o) ranged from 0.467 (locus CAU78) to 0.993 (locus CAU16), whereas for the expected heterozygosity H(e)--from 0.510 (locus CAU78) to 0.953 (locus CAU85). Analyzing the individual loci, the highest PIC value, more than 0.7 was observed for: loci CAU85 (0.932), CAU64 (0.861) and CAU32, 75 (0.852), respectively. It should be noted, that the microsatellite markers used in our study were very polymorphic as evidenced by the large number of detected alleles and high rates of heterozygosity, PIC and PE as well. The analysed microsatellite markers may be used in genetic linkage mapping of ostrich, the construction of a comparative genetic map with other ratites, such as emu and rhea, and population genetics studies or phylogenetic studies of these birds. PMID:21717061
Kawka, M; Parada, R; Jaszczak, K; Horba?czuk, J O
Effective conservation and the use of plant genetic resources are essential for future agricultural progress. Critical to this conservation effort is the development of genetic markers which not only distinguish individuals and accessions but also reflect the inherent variation and genetic relationships among collection holdings. We have examined the applicability of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay for quick,
S. Kresovich; J. G. K. Williams; J. R. McFerson; E. J. Routman; B. A. Schaal
It is well known that ionizing radiation (IR) can damage DNA through a direct action, producing single- and double-strand breaks on DNA double helix, as well as an indirect effect by generating oxygen reactive species in the cells. Mammals have evolved several and distinct DNA repair pathways in order to maintain genomic stability and avoid tumour cell transformation. This review reports important data showing a huge interindividual variability on sensitivity to IR and in susceptibility to developing cancer; this variability is principally represented by genetic polymorphisms, that is, DNA repair gene polymorphisms. In particular we have focussed on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of XRCC1, a gene that encodes for a scaffold protein involved basically in Base Excision Repair (BER). In this paper we have reported and presented recent studies that show an influence of XRCC1 variants on DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to breast cancer. PMID:20798883
Sterpone, Silvia; Cozzi, Renata
We examine the distribution and structure of human genetic diversity for 710 individuals representing 31 populations from Africa, East Asia, Europe, and India using 100 Alu insertion polymorphisms from all 22 autosomes. Alu diversity is highest in Africans (0.349) and lowest in Europeans (0.297). Alu insertion frequency is lowest in Africans (0.463) and higher in Indians (0.544), E. Asians (0.557), and Europeans (0.559). Large genetic distances are observed among African populations and between African and non-African populations. The root of a neighbor-joining network is located closest to the African populations. These findings are consistent with an African origin of modern humans and with a bottleneck effect in the human populations that left Africa to colonize the rest of the world. Genetic distances among all pairs of populations show a significant product-moment correlation with geographic distances (r = 0.69, P < 0.00001). FST, the proportion of genetic diversity attributable to population subdivision is 0.141 for Africans/E. Asians/Europeans, 0.047 for E. Asians/Indians/Europeans, and 0.090 for all 31 populations. Resampling analyses show that ?50 Alu polymorphisms are sufficient to obtain accurate and reliable genetic distance estimates. These analyses also demonstrate that markers with higher FST values have greater resolving power and produce more consistent genetic distance estimates.
Watkins, W. Scott; Rogers, Alan R.; Ostler, Christopher T.; Wooding, Steve; Bamshad, Michael J.; Brassington, Anna-Marie E.; Carroll, Marion L.; Nguyen, Son V.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Prasad, B.V. Ravi; Reddy, P. Govinda; Das, Pradipta K.; Batzer, Mark A.; Jorde, Lynn B.
Genetic polymorphism was analyzed for five blood proteins: albumin - Al, esterase - Es, alpha(1)B-glycoprotein - Xk, transferrin - Tf and hemoglobin - Hb in 200 Thoroughbred (TB) and 124 Argentine Creole (AC) horses. Of the five systems examined, Tf and Hb were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in either breed and Es was not in equilibrium in the Creole breed. Genetic variability, estimated as average heterozygosity, was higher in AC (H = 0.585 +/- 0.131) than in TB (H = 0.353 +/- 0.065). The genetic differentiation between these two populations (F(ST)) was 0.109. Thus, of the total genetic differences between breeds, the proportion of genetic variation attributable to breed differences was about 10%; the remaining 90% was due to individual variation within breeds. The high degree of genetic variability seen in Argentine Creole horses could be a consequence of natural selection. Selection of TB through the centuries has most likely modified the gene pool of the ancestral population, with a consequent reduction in variability at certain loci. Probably, different mechanisms exist for maintaining polymorphism at these loci in TB and in AC horses. Heterozygosity may have played a fundamental role in adaptation. PMID:14963833
Díaz, S; Dulout, F N; Peral-García, P
Tef is one of the staple cereal crops in Ethiopia. To evaluate genetic diversity of tef and its relatives, 47 accessions of\\u000a tef, three accessions of E. pilosa, and six accessions of E. curvulawere analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The level of polymorphism among the wild species was\\u000a extremely high, while low polymorphism was detected among tef
Guihua Bai; Mulu Ayele; Hailu Tefera; Henry T. Nguyen
Dinucleotide microsatellites have been characterized and used as genetic markers in rice. Screening of a rice genomic library with poly(dG-dA)·(dC-dT) and poly(dG-dT)·(dC-dA) probes indicated that (GA)n repeats occurred, on average, once every 225 kb and (GT)n repeats once every 480 kb. DNA sequencing of ten randomly selected microsatellites indicated that the numbers of repeats ranged from 12 to 34 and
Kun-Sheng Wu; Steven D. Tanksley
A PCR-based technique, involving the random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), was used for assessing genomic variability among a wide range of culture collection strains of black Aspergilli and related species. The performance of this technique is compared with that of the two other genetic techniques most commonly used, namely restriction fragment length polymorphisms on rDNA and isozyme analysis. The
Béatrice Megnegneau; Fons Debets; Rolf E. Hoekstra
A new wild tetraploid oat Avena agadiriana Baum et Fedak was collected from the five populations along the Atlantic coast in Morocco. Variations in six enzyme systems were surveyed and allele frequency, percentage of polymorphic loci, number of alleles per locus, observed and expected heterozygosities, and unbiased genetic distance were calculated. Phenotypic frequencies were scored representing 11 polymorphic loci. The
Toshinobu Morikawa; J. Mike Leggett
A number of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes have been shown to be genetically polymorphic, and extensive pharmaceutical studies have been conducted to characterize the clinical relevance of the polymorphism. Although the beagle is extensively used in the safety assessment studies of new drug candidates and agricultural chemicals, only a limited number of studies have been reported on the significance
Background Metabolic pathway enzymes, such as Cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and N-Acetyltransferases (NAT) are involved in activation and detoxification of environmental carcinogens as well as drug metabolism. We hypothesized that the genetic variations in such metabolic pathways may affect NHL prognosis and survival. Methodology/Principal Findings Follow-up information of 469 female NHL incident cases diagnosed during 1995-2000 in Connecticut were abstracted from Connecticut Tumor Registry in 2008; survival analyses were conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method, and hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox Proportional Hazard models adjusting for demographic and tumor characteristics which were suggested by previous studies to be determinants of NHL survival. Our results identified nine SNPs from five metabolism genes (CYP2E1, GSTP1, GSTT1, NAT1 and NAT2) that were associated with NHL survival. Specifically, polymorphisms in NAT1 and NAT2 genes were associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma survival; polymorphisms in GSTT1 was associated with follicular lymphoma survival; and polymorphisms in CYP2E1, GSTP1 and NAT1 were associated with survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Conclusions/Significance Our study suggests that genetic polymorphisms in metabolic pathways may help improving the prediction of NHL survival and prognosis.
Han, Xuesong; Zheng, Tongzhang; Foss, Francine M.; Lan, Qing; Holford, Theodore R.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ma, Shuangge; Zhang, Yawei
Intense directional selection on isolated populations can result in loss of genetic diversity, which if persistent, reduces adaptive potential and increases extinction probability. Phenotypic evidence of inherited tolerance suggests that toxic pollutants, specifically, polychlor...
Intense directional selection on isolated populations can result in loss of genetic diversity, which if persistent, reduces adaptive potential and increases extinction probability. Phenotypic evidence of inherited tolerance suggests that toxic pollutants, specifically, polychlor...
The original goal of this project is to determine the frequency of genetic polymorphisms for carcinogen metabolism and the p53 mutational spectra in a previously conducted breast cancer study designed to assess nutritional risk factors, seeking to identif...
P. G. Shields
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between ATM, TP53 and MDM2 polymorphisms in prostate cancer patients and morbidity after radiotherapy. The presence of ATM (rs1801516), TP53 (rs1042522, rs1800371, rs17878362, rs17883323, and rs35117667), and MDM2 (rs2279744) polymorphisms was assessed by direct sequencing of PCR fragments from 48 patients with histologically proven prostate adenocarcinoma and treated with external beam radiation. The side effects were classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. The results showed no association between clinical characteristics and the development of radiation toxicities (P > 0.05). The C>T transition in the position 16273 (intron 3) of TP53 (rs35117667) was significantly associated with the risk of acute skin toxicity (OR: 0.0072, 95% CI 0.0002-0.227, P = 0.003). The intronic TP53 polymorphism at position 16250 (rs17883323) was associated with chronic urinary toxicity (OR: 0.071, 95%CI 0.006-0.784, P = 0.032). No significant associations were found for the remaining polymorphisms (P > 0.05). The results show that clinical characteristics were not determinant on the developing of radiation sensitivity in prostate cancer patients, and intronic TP53 polymorphisms would be associated with increased acute and chronic radiation toxicities. These observations corroborate the importance of investigating the genetic profile to predict adverse side effects in patients undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:24324286
Cintra, Hellen Silva; Pinezi, Juliana Castro Dourado; Machado, Graziella Dias Pinheiro; de Carvalho, Gustavo Moura; Carvalho, Ana Terra Silva; dos Santos, Thalles Eduardo Dias; Marciano, Ricardo Duarte; Soares, Renata de Bastos Ascenço
The objective of this study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) gene and to evaluate whether these polymorphisms affect carcass traits in the Korean cattle population. We resequenced to detect SNPs from 24 unrelated individuals and identified 19 SNPs within the full 8.4-kb gene, including the 1.5-kb promoter region. Of these 19 SNPs, four were selected for genotyping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD). We genotyped 429 steers to assess the associations of these four SNPs with carcass traits. Statistical analysis revealed that g.7801T>C and g.8379A>C polymorphisms in the NOV gene were associated with carcass weight (p = 0.012 and 0.008, respectively), and the g.2005A>G polymorphism was associated with the back fat thickness (BF) trait (p = 0.0001). One haplotype of the four SNPs (GGTA) was significantly associated with BF (p = 0.0005). Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in the NOV gene may be among the important genetic factors affecting carcass yield in beef cattle.
Kim, B. S.; Kim, S. C.; Park, C. M.; Lee, S. H.; Cho, S. H.; Kim, N. K.; Jang, G. W.; Yoon, D. H.; Yang, B. S.; Hong, S. K.; Seong, H. H.; Choi, B. H.
We evaluated the association between salt-sensitive hypertension and 3 different genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system. Fifty patients with essential hypertension were classified as salt sensitive or salt resistant, depending on the presence or absence of a significant increase ( P,0.05) in 24-hour ambulatory mean blood pressure (BP) after high salt intake. The insertion\\/deletion (I\\/D) angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, the
Vicente Giner; Esteban Poch; Ernesto Bragulat; Josep Oriola; Daniel Gonzalez; Antonio Coca; Alejandro de la Sierra
ALTERNATIVE male mating tactics are widespread among animal taxa1-3, but there are few well documented examples of genetic polymorphisms for them4-6. The dimorphism in male courtship behaviour between independent and satellite ruffs, Philomachm pugnax7,8 (a lekking sandpiper), has often been cited as a potential example but this has been questioned9,10 because of the lack of data11 and the widespread phenotypic
David B. Lank; Constance M. Smith; Olivier Hanotte; Terry Burke; Fred Cooke
We examine the distribution and structure of human genetic diversity for 710 individuals representing 31 populations from Africa, East Asia, Europe, and India using 100 Alu insertion polymorphisms from all 22 autosomes. Alu diversity is highest in Africans (0.349) and lowest in Europeans (0.297). Alu insertion frequency is lowest in Africans (0.463) and higher in Indians (0.544), E. Asians (0.557),
W. Scott Watkins; Alan R. Rogers; Christopher T. Ostler; Steve Wooding; Michael J. Bamshad; Anna-Marie E. Brassington; Marion L. Carroll; Son V. Nguyen; Jerilyn A. Walker; B. V. Ravi Prasad; P. Govinda Reddy; Pradipta K. Das; Mark A. Batzer; Lynn B. Jorde
PURPOSE: Childhood leukemia is likely a multifaceted disease resulting from a combination of environmental and genetic factors. P-glycoprotein (PGP), encoded by the MDR-1 gene, is a transmembrane protein that serves as an efflux pump for a wide variety of lipophilic compounds and has a physiologic role of protecting cells against the DNA damaging potential of certain xenobiotics. The polymorphism, C3435T,
KY Urayama; JK Wiencke; PL Buffler; JL Wiemels
Summary Fifty-seven accessions ofMusa including cultivated clones of 6 genomic groups (AA, AB, AAA, AAB, ABB, ABBB),M. balbisiana Colla (BB),M. acuminata Colla ssp.banksii F. Muell. (AA),M. acuminata Colla ssp.malaccensis Ridl. (AA) andM. velutina Wendl. & Drude were examined for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genetic markers using PCR with sixty 10-mer random\\u000a primers. Forty-nine of 60 tested primers gave reproducible DNA
K. V. Bhat; R. L. Jarret
Background Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a multifactorial syndrome related to a critical period of human life. TMD has been associated\\u000a with psychological dysfunctions, oxidative state and sexual dimorphism with coincidental occurrence along the pubertal development.\\u000a In this work we study the association between TMD and genetic polymorphisms of folate metabolism, neurotransmission, oxidative\\u000a and hormonal metabolism. Folate metabolism, which depends on genes
Angel Aneiros-Guerrero; Ana M Lendinez; Arturo R Palomares; Beatriz Perez-Nevot; Lidia Aguado; Alvaro Mayor-Olea; Maximiliano Ruiz-Galdon; Armando Reyes-Engel
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a clone with a low level of variation. We developed a molecular typing method for serovar Typhi using 38 genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as markers detected by PCR-restriction enzyme digestion. The 73 worldwide serovar Typhi isolates studied were separated into 23 SNP profiles and four distinct genetic groups. Serovar Typhi isolates expressing the unique flagellar
Sophie Octavia; Ruiting Lan
Cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) is involved in the metabolism of several drugs and is induced by smoking. We aimed to determine the interindividual change in CYP1A2 activity after smoking cessation and to relate it to CYP1A2 genetic polymorphisms. CYP1A2 activity was determined from the paraxanthine:caffeine ratio in 194 smokers and in 118 of them who had abstained from smoking during a
M Dobrinas; J Cornuz; B Oneda; M Kohler Serra; M Puhl; C B Eap
The genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 was examined in two groups in Japanese subjects, 57 living in the Tohoku area for three generations (Tohoku population) and 57 living in areas other than Tohoku for the three generations (general Japanese population). The frequency of CYP2C19 genotype analysis for CYP2C19*1, *2 and *3 were examined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme genotyping (PCR-RFLP).
Tadashi Ohkubo; Manabu Suno; Kazunobu Sugawara; Shigeru Motomura
Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) catalyses the S-methylation of thiopurines, including 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine. TPMT activity exhibits genetic polymorphism, with about 1\\/300 inheriting TPMT deficiency as an autosomal recessive trait. If treated with standard doses of thiopurines, TPMT-deficient patients accumulate excessive thioguanine nucleotides in hematopoietic tissues, leading to severe hematological toxicity that can be fatal. However, TPMT-deficient patients can be successfully treated
HL McLeod; EY Krynetski; MV Relling; WE Evans
AIM: To evaluate the association between X-ray cross- complementing gene 1 (XRCC1) genetic polymorphism Arg399Gln and gastric cancer risk by means of meta- analysis. METHODS: We searched PubMed and NCBI up to June 1, 2008. A total of 16 clinical trials and reports were identified, but only 8 trials qualified under our selection criteria. Statistical analysis was performed with the
Jian Geng; You-Wei Zhang; Gui-Chun Huang; Long-Bang Chen
Alcoholic beverages are causally related to cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus. Ethanol is oxidized to acetaldehyde and then to acetate by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), both of which have genetic polymorphisms. A review of case-control studies of the effects of ALDH2, ADH2 and ADH3 genotypes shows consistently positive associations between inactive heterozygous ALDH2
Akira Yokoyama; Tai Omori
Health policy is increasingly confronted with the demand for financing genetic testing on inherited susceptibility to disease.\\u000a Tests on polymorphism\\/SNP associated with multicausal and chronic conditions are already offered in private commercial institutions\\u000a or in academic hospitals. The increasing pressure on public health services to offer SNP testing leads to first methodological\\u000a approaches for a generally valid regulatory framework applicable
The Rh blood group is the most polymorphic human blood group system, and is clinically significant in transfusion medicine.\\u000a Individuals are classified as Rh-positive and Rh-negative depending on the presence or absence of the D antigen on the red\\u000a cell surface. The RhD-negative trait could be generated by multiple genetic mechanisms, which have been shown to be ethnic\\u000a group-dependent. In
Jun Cai Lan; Qiang Chen; Da Lin Wu; Hong Ding; Dao Be Pong; Tongmao Zhao
The aim of this study was to perform an initial characterization of milk quality and to determine genetic polymorphism at the CSN1S1 and CSN1S2 locus in two herds of local dairy goats (Hungarian Milking). The fat, protein and lactose level of milk samples in Hungarian Milking Goats were compared to other local goat breeds worldwide and it was concluded that
Szilvia Kusza; Gyula Veress; Sándor Kukovics; András Jávor; Armand Sanchez; Antonella Angiolillo; Zsuzsanna B?sze
Although the pathophysiology of vasovagal syncope is not completely understood, the involvement of sympathetic nervous system alterations has been suggested. Since predisposition to fainting during orthostatic challenge may be associated with genetic variations, we sought to explore the role of genetic polymorphisms affecting sympathetic nervous system function in the susceptibility to tilt-induced vasovagal syncope. We genotyped 129 subjects with recurrent unexplained syncope who underwent tilt testing, and investigated the recurrence of syncope. The analysed polymorphisms were Arg492Cys (ADRA1A gene), Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly (ADRB1), Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu (ADRB2), 825C/T (GNB3), -1021C/T (DBH) and S/L (SLC6A4). No association of the aforementioned genetic variants with both tilt test outcomes and new syncopal episodes during follow-up was found. None of the considered polymorphisms influencing sympathetic activity is a major risk factor for vasovagal syncope in Italian patients. PMID:20129829
Sorrentino, Sandro; Forleo, Cinzia; Iacoviello, Massimo; Guida, Pietro; D'Andria, Valentina; Favale, Stefano
Inter-individual pharmacokinetic variation of H2-receptor antagonist is related to genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19. We investigated the frequency of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism and the treatment duration of cimetidine by CYP2C19 genotypes in functional dyspeptic patients without definite causes who were treated with cimetidine in Korea. One hundred subjects with functional dyspepsia participated in this study from March 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011. They were tested by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and treated for their dyspepsia with cimetidine. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP2C19 were genotyped using the Seeplex CYP2C19 ACE Genotyping system. There were no significant differences in the demographic, clinical, or laboratory findings among the CYP2C19 subgroups which are wild type homozygote (W/W), heterozygote (W/V), and variant homozygote (V/V). The frequencies of CYP2C19 subgroups were 33 (33%) in W/W, 49 (49%) in W/V, and 18 (18%) in V/V, respectively. The mean duration of cimetidine treatment (in weeks) was the shortest in the V/V among the CYP2C19 genotypes (W/W: 5.1±1.5, W/V: 4.0±1.7, V/V: 2.1±0.7; p<0.001). This study can also act as a basis for further investigation to identify the underlying genetic, epigenetic, or environmental factors in CYP2C19 enzyme activity.
Dyslipidemia has been frequently observed among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and factors related to HIV-1, the host, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are involved in this phenomenon. This study reviews the roles of genetic polymorphisms, HIV-1 infection, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in lipid metabolism. Lipid abnormalities can vary according to the HAART regimen, such as those with protease inhibitors (PIs). However, genetic factors may also be involved in dyslipidemia because not all patients receiving the same HAART regimen and with comparable demographic, virological, and immunological characteristics develop variations in the lipid profile. Polymorphisms in a large number of genes are involved in the synthesis of structural proteins, and enzymes related to lipid metabolism account for variations in the lipid profile of each individual. As some genetic polymorphisms may cause dyslipidemia, these allele variants should be investigated in HIV-1-infected patients to identify individuals with an increased risk of developing dyslipidemia during treatment with HAART, particularly during therapy with PIs. This knowledge may guide individualized treatment decisions and lead to the development of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia in these patients.
de Almeida, Elaine Regina Delicato; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Flauzino, Tamires; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara
Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease caused by environmental, hormonal, and genetic factors. Genetic polymorphisms of ORAI1, which codes for the main subunit of the store-operated calcium (SOC) channel, were reported to be associated with the risk and recurrence of calcium nephrolithiasis. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) 3-kinase C (ITPKC) is a negative regulator of the SOC channel-mediated signaling pathway. We investigated the association between calcium containing nephrolithiasis and genetic variants of ITPKC gene in Taiwanese patients. 365 patients were recruited in this study. Eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms of ITPKC were selected for genotyping. ITPKC genotypes were determined by TaqMan assay. ITPKC plasmids were transfected into cells to evaluate the intracellular calcium mobilization. Our results indicated that rs2607420 CC genotype in the intron region of the ITPKC gene is associated with a lower eGFR by both Modification of Diet in Renal Diseases (P = 0.0405) and Cockcroft-Gault (P = 0.0215) equations in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Our results identify a novel polymorphism for renal function and highlight the importance of ITPKC as a key molecule to regulate calcium signaling.
Chou, Yii-Her; Chiu, Siou-Jin; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Lu, Hsing-Fang; Hsu, Wenli; Chang, Wei-Chiao
We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency. ?? 2011 The Authors.
Talbot, S. L.; Palmer, A. G.; Sage, G. K.; Sonsthagen, S. A.; Swem, T.; Brimm, D. J.; White, C. M.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major public health problem in Thailand due to the emergence of multidrug resistance. The understanding of genetic diversity of malaria parasites is essential for developing effective drugs and vaccines. The genetic diversity of the merozoite surface protein-1 (PfMSP-1) and merozoite surface protein-2 (PfMSP-2) genes was investigated in a total of 145 P. falciparum isolates collected from Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand during 3 different periods (1997-1999, 2005-2007, and 2009-2010). Analysis of genetic polymorphisms was performed to track the evolution of genetic change of P. falciparum using PCR. Both individual genes and their combination patterns showed marked genetic diversity during the 3 study periods. The results strongly support that P. falciparum isolates in Thailand are markedly diverse and patterns changed with time. These 2 polymorphic genes could be used as molecular markers to detect multiple clone infections and differentiate recrudescence from reinfection in P. falciparum isolates in Thailand. PMID:24623892
Kuesap, Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Ketprathum, Kanchanok; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Na-Bangchang, Kesara
Background Genetic variation explains a considerable part of observed phenotypic variation in gene expression networks. This variation has been shown to be located both locally (cis) and distally (trans) to the genes being measured. Here we explore to which degree the phenotypic manifestation of local and distant polymorphisms is a dynamic feature of regulatory design. Results By combining mathematical models of gene expression networks with genetic maps and linkage analysis we find that very different network structures and regulatory motifs give similar cis/trans linkage patterns. However, when the shape of the cis-regulatory input functions is more nonlinear or threshold-like, we observe for all networks a dramatic increase in the phenotypic expression of distant compared to local polymorphisms under otherwise equal conditions. Conclusion Our findings indicate that genetic variation affecting the form of cis-regulatory input functions may reshape the genotype-phenotype map by changing the relative importance of cis and trans variation. Our approach combining nonlinear dynamic models with statistical genetics opens up for a systematic investigation of how functional genetic variation is translated into phenotypic variation under various systemic conditions.
Gjuvsland, Arne B; Hayes, Ben J; Meuwissen, Theo HE; Plahte, Erik; Omholt, Stig W
Background The receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been reported to play a role in the pathophysiological bone turnover and in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Based on this we investigated the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within RANK, RANKL and OPG and their possible association to breast cancer risk. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from Caucasian participants consisting of 307 female breast cancer patients and 396 gender-matched healthy controls. We studied seven SNPs in the genes of OPG (rs3102735, rs2073618), RANK (rs1805034, rs35211496) and RANKL (rs9533156, rs2277438, rs1054016) using TaqMan genotyping assays. Statistical analyses were performed using the ?2-tests for 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 tables. Results The allelic frequencies (OR: 1.508 CI: 1.127-2.018, p=0.006) and the genotype distribution (p=0.019) of the OPG SNP rs3102735 differed significantly between breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The minor allele C and the corresponding homo- and heterozygous genotypes are more common in breast cancer patients (minor allele C: 18.4% vs. 13.0%; genotype CC: 3.3% vs. 1.3%; genotype CT: 30.3% vs. 23.5%). No significantly changed risk was detected in the other investigated SNPs. Additional analysis showed significant differences when comparing patients with invasive vs. non-invasive tumors (OPG rs2073618) as well as in terms of tumor localization (RANK rs35211496) and body mass index (RANKL rs9533156 and rs1054016). Conclusions This is the first study reporting a significant association of the SNP rs3102735 (OPG) with the susceptibility to develop breast cancer in the Caucasian population.
This meta-analysis of case-control studies was conducted to determine whether SELE genetic polymorphisms contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infarction (MI). The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched for relevant articles published before November 1st, 2013 without any language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. Twenty case-control studies met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 2,292 CHD patients, 901 MI patients and 3,233 healthy controls. Six common polymorphisms in the SELE gene were evaluated, including 554L/F, 98G/T, 128S/R, 2692G/A, 1901C/T, and 1856A/G. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that SELE genetic polymorphisms might be strongly correlated with an increased risk of CHD (allele model: OR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.67-2.58, P < 0.001; dominant model: OR 2.12, 95 % CI 1.68-2.68, P < 0.001; respectively), especially the SELE 554L/F, 98G/T and 128S/R polymorphisms. Furthermore, our findings indicated that SELE genetic polymorphisms were closely linked to the risk of CHD in Asians but not Caucasians. However, our findings reveal no positive correlations between SELE genetic polymorphisms and MI risk (allele model: OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.00-1.94, P = 0.054; dominant model: OR 1.40, 95 % CI 0.96-2.04, P = 0.081; respectively). The current meta-analysis suggests that SELE genetic polymorphisms may contribute to an increased risk of CHD, especially the SELE 554L/F, 98G/T and 128S/R polymorphisms in Asians. However, SELE genetic polymorphisms may not be important determinants of susceptibility to MI. PMID:24458828
Dong, Zhao-Qiang; Wu, Xiang-Jun; Lu, Qing-Hua
This meta-analysis was undertaken in an attempt to understand the relationships of functional polymorphisms in the SELE and SELP genes to myocardial infarction (MI) risk. The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched for relevant articles published before March 1st, 2013 without any language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. The effect of SELE and SELP genetic polymorphisms on the pathogenesis of MI was investigated in this meta-analysis with a total of ten case-control studies, including 2,696 MI patients and 4,724 healthy subjects. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed, including polymorphisms 98G/T, 128S/R and 561A/C in the SELE gene, and polymorphisms 715T/P, 599V/L, 290S/N, 562N/D and 2123G/C in the SELP gene. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that SELE genetic polymorphisms might be correlated with an increased risk of MI, especially for 128S/R and 561A/C polymorphisms. A subgroup analysis by ethnicity was conducted to investigate its effects on susceptibility to MI. The results revealed positive significant correlations between SELE genetic polymorphisms and the risk of MI among Asians, but not among Caucasians (all P > 0.05). Nevertheless, no significantly correlations were found between SELP genetic polymorphisms and MI risk (all P > 0.05). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we also did not observe significant associations between SELP genetic polymorphisms and MI risks among both Asians and Caucasians (all P > 0.05). The current meta-analysis suggests that SELE genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the development of MI, especially for the 128S/R and 561A/C polymorphisms among Asians. However, SELP genetic polymorphisms may not be important risk factors in MI. PMID:24639176
Zhao, Yu-Juan; Yang, Xia; Ren, Li; Cai, An-Sheng; Zhang, Yan-Fen
As environments change, animals update their internal representations of the external world. New information about the environment is learned and retained whereas outdated information is disregarded or forgotten. Retroactive interference (RI) occurs when the retrieval of previously learned information is less available owing to the acquisition of recently acquired information. Even though RI is thought to be a major cause of forgetting, its functional significance is still under debate. We find that natural allelic variants of the Drosophila melanogaster foraging gene known to affect rover and sitter behaviour differ in RI. More specifically, rovers who were previously shown to experience greater environmental heterogeneity while foraging display RI whereas sitters do not. Rover responses are biased towards more recent learning events. These results provide an ecological context to investigate the function of forgetting via RI and a suitable genetic model organism to address the evolutionary relevance of cognitive tasks.
Reaume, Christopher J.; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Mery, Frederic
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), consisting of tandemly repeated multiple copies of mono-, di-, tri-, or tetranucleotide motifs, are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and are frequently used as genetic markers, taking advantage of their length polymorphism. We have examined the polymorphism of such sequences in the chloroplast genomes of plants, by using a PCR-based assay. GenBank searches identified the presence of several (dA)n.(dT)n mononucleotide stretches in chloroplast genomes. A chloroplast (cp) SSR was identified in three pine species (Pinus contorta, Pinus sylvestris, and Pinus thunbergii) 312 bp upstream of the psbA gene. DNA amplification of this repeated region from 11 pine species identified nine length variants. The polymorphic amplified fragments were isolated and the DNA sequence was determined, confirming that the length polymorphism was caused by variation in the length of the repeated region. In the pines, the chloroplast genome is transmitted through pollen and this PCR assay may be used to monitor gene flow in this genus. Analysis of 305 individuals from seven populations of Pinus leucodermis Ant. revealed the presence of four variants with intrapopulational diversities ranging from 0.000 to 0.629 and an average of 0.320. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of cpDNA on the same populations previously failed to detect any variation. Population subdivision based on cpSSR was higher (Gst = 0.22, where Gst is coefficient of gene differentiation) than that revealed in a previous isozyme study (Gst = 0.05). We anticipate that SSR loci within the chloroplast genome should provide a highly informative assay for the analysis of the genetic structure of plant populations. Images Fig. 2
Powell, W; Morgante, M; McDevitt, R; Vendramin, G G; Rafalski, J A
Radiation therapy is a potentially curative, important treatment option in localized prostate cancer. However, at 8 years after radiation therapy, even in the best risk subset of patients, approximately 10% of patients will experience clinical disease recurrence. The identification of molecular markers of treatment success or failure may allow for the development of strategies to further improve treatment outcomes. Herein, we investigated five molecular markers of DNA repair. 513 patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), including 284 patients who received radiotherapy, 229 patients without radiotherapy and 152 healthy individuals were genotyped for five polymorphisms in DNA excision repair genes: ERCC1 N118N (500C>T), XPD K751Q (2282A>C), XRCC1 R194W (685C>T), XRCC1 R399Q (1301G>A) and PARP1 V762A (2446T>C). The distribution of genetic polymorphisms in the patients with CRPC and in healthy controls was compared, and the association between the polymorphisms and overall survival was investigated. The polymorphisms evaluated did not show differences between the patient group and the healthy controls, nor did they show a trend toward an association with survival. However, in the radiation treated subgroup, the median survival time was associated with the XRCC1 haplotype. The median survival time was 11.75 years for patients with the R399Q AA /R194W CC haplotype, 12.17 years for patients with the R399Q AG/R194W CC haplotype, 6.665 years for patients with the R399Q AG/R194W CT haplotype, and 6.21 years for patients with the R399Q GG/R194W CT haplotype (p = 0.034). This association was not found when all patients were investigated. We conclude that the genetic polymorphisms in XRCC1 may affect the outcome in patients who received radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.
Gao, Rui; Price, Douglas K; Dahut, William L; Reed, Eddie
Background Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) plays an essential role in erythrocyte invasion and a potential asexual blood stage vaccine candidate antigen against P. vivax. The polymorphic nature of PvDBP, particularly amino terminal cysteine-rich region (PvDBPII), represents a major impediment to the successful design of a protective vaccine against vivax malaria. In this study, the genetic polymorphism and natural selection at PvDBPII among Myanmar P. vivax isolates were analysed. Methods Fifty-four P. vivax infected blood samples collected from patients in Myanmar were used. The region flanking PvDBPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into Escherichia coli, and sequenced. The polymorphic characters and natural selection of the region were analysed using the DnaSP and MEGA4 programs. Results Thirty-two point mutations (28 non-synonymous and four synonymous mutations) were identified in PvDBPII among the Myanmar P. vivax isolates. Sequence analyses revealed that 12 different PvDBPII haplotypes were identified in Myanmar P. vivax isolates and that the region has evolved under positive natural selection. High selective pressure preferentially acted on regions identified as B- and T-cell epitopes of PvDBPII. Recombination may also be played a role in the resulting genetic diversity of PvDBPII. Conclusions PvDBPII of Myanmar P. vivax isolates displays a high level of genetic polymorphism and is under selective pressure. Myanmar P. vivax isolates share distinct types of PvDBPII alleles that are different from those of other geographical areas. These results will be useful for understanding the nature of the P. vivax population in Myanmar and for development of PvDBPII-based vaccine.
Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Genetic polymorphisms involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission may influence susceptibility to PD. Methods We investigated the relationship of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), dopamine receptor (DR) D2 and DRD4 polymorphisms and PD risk with special attention to the interaction with cigarette smoking among 238 patients with PD and 369 controls in a Japanese population. Results Subjects with the AA genotype of MAOB rs1799836 showed a significantly increased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12 - 2.58) compared with the AG and GG genotypes combined. The AA genotype of COMT rs4680 was marginally associated with an increased risk of PD (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 0.98 - 3.50) compared with the GG genotype. The DRD2 rs1800497 and DRD4 rs1800955 polymorphisms showed no association with PD. A COMT -smoking interaction was suggested, with the combined GA and AA genotypes of rs4680 and non-smoking conferring significantly higher risk (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 2.13 - 7.41) than the AA genotype and a history of smoking (P for interaction = 0.061). No interactions of smoking with other polymorphisms were observed. Conclusions The COMT rs4680 and MAOB rs1799836 polymorphisms may increase susceptibility to PD risk among Japanese. Future studies involving larger control and case populations and better pesticide exposure histories will undoubtedly lead to a more thorough understanding of the role of the polymorphisms involved in the dopamine pathway in PD.
Low-folate status and genetic polymorphisms in folate metabolism have been linked to several cancers. Possible biologic mechanisms for this association include effects on purine and thymidine synthesis, DNA methylation, or homocysteine concentrations. The influence of genetic variation in folate metabolism on these putative mechanisms or biomarkers of cancer risk has been largely unexplored. We utilized a mathematical model simulating folate metabolism biochemistry to (a) predict the effects of polymorphisms with defined effects on enzyme function (MTHFR, TS), and (b) predict the effects of potential, as-of-yet-unidentified polymorphisms in a comprehensive set of folate-metabolizing enzymes on biomarkers and mechanisms related to cancer risk The model suggests that there is substantial robustness in the pathway. Our predictions were consistent with measured effects of known polymorphisms in MTHFR and TS on biomarkers. Polymorphisms that alter enzyme function of FTD, FTS, and MTCH are expected to affect purine synthesis, FTS more so under a low-folate status. Also, MTCH polymorphisms are predicted to influence thymidine synthesis. Polymorphisms in methyltransferases should affect both methylation rates and thymidylate synthesis. Combinations of polymorphisms in MTHFR, TS and SHMT are expected to impact nucleotide synthesis in a non-linear fashion. These investigations provide information on effects of genetic polymorphisms on biomarkers, including those that cannot be measured well, and highlights robustness and sensitivity in this complex biologic system in regards to genetic variability. While the proportional changes in biomarkers of risk with individual polymorphisms are frequently small, they may be quite relevant if present over an individual’s lifetime.
Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Neuhouser, Marian; Liu, Amy Y.; Boynton, Alanna; Gregory, Jesse F.; Shane, Barry; James, S. Jill; Reed, Michael C.; Nijhout, H. Frederik
Genetic diversity of 43 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from stylo in China were analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with eight arbitrary 10-base oligonucleotide primers compared with 276 isolates from other countries including two of Colletotrichum cutaturn based on a wide survey and disease sample collection. The results showed a good DNA polymorphism between isolates. The amplified fragments were between 0.3-2.8 kb. Chinese isolates were grouped in clusters II, III and VI with the majority in cluster VI based on six clusters of isolates from South America, the centre of origin of Stylosanthes genus. The genetic variation in the Chinese pathogen population was very limited compared with that in South America, the centre of host-pathogen diversity. The results also showed that a genetic variation in Chinese population of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides existed, though this variation was less significant. Isolates grouped by geographic origin and host species or genotypes indicated isolates from different host species or genotypes had their own parasitic specialization on genetic basis and pathogens from different countries evolved in their own way relatively. PMID:16279206
Yi, Kexian; Huang, Junsheng; Liu, Guodao; Pauline, Weeds; Sukumar, Charkraborty
In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation.
Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping
In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012
Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping
Microsatellite markers are difficult to apply within lepidopteran studies due to the lack of locus-specific PCR amplification and the high proportion of “null” alleles, such that erroneous estimations of population genetic parameters often result. Herein single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are developed from Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) using next generation expressed sequence tag (EST) data. A total of 2742 SNPs were predicted within a reference assembly of 7414 EST contigs, and a subset of 763 were incorporated into 24 multiplex PCR reactions. To validate this pipeline, 5 European and North American sample sites were genotyped at 178 SNP loci, which indicated 84 (47.2%) were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Locus-by-locus FST, analysis of molecular variance, and STRUCTURE analyses indicate significant genetic differentiation may exist between European and North American O. nubilalis. The observed genetic diversity was significantly lower among European sites, which may result from genetic drift, natural selection, a genetic bottleneck, or ascertainment bias due to North American origin of EST sequence data. SNPs are an abundant source of mutation data for molecular genetic marker development in non-model species, with shared ancestral SNPs showing application within closely related species. These markers offer advantages over microsatellite markers for genetic and genomic analyses of Lepidoptera, but the source of mutation data may affect the estimation of population parameters and likely need to be considered in the interpretation of empirical data.
Coates, Brad Steven; Bayles, Darrell O.; Wanner, Kevin W.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Sappington, Thomas W.
This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between genetic polymorphisms in the IL-18 gene and ulcerative colitis (UC) risk. The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched for relevant articles published before November 1st, 2013 without any language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Eight case-control studies with a total of 1000 UC cases and 1392 healthy subjects met the inclusion criteria. Six common polymorphisms in the IL-18 gene were evaluated, including rs1946518?A>C, rs187238 G>C, rs917997 G>A, Codon35, rs1946519 C>A, and rs360718?A>C. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that the IL-18 rs1946518 (allele model: OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.01-1.48, p=0.039; dominant model: OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.01-2.06, p=0.045; respectively), rs187238 (allele model: OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.19-1.61, p<0.001; dominant model: OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.03-2.19, p=0.034; respectively), and rs360718 (allele model: OR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.22-3.90, p=0.008) polymorphisms might be strongly correlated with an increased risk of UC. A subgroup analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of ethnicity on an individual's risk of UC. Our results revealed positive significant correlations between IL-18 genetic polymorphisms and an increased risk of UC among Asians (allele model: OR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.16-1.60, p<0.001; dominant model: OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.14-1.98, p=0.004; respectively) and Africans (allele model: OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.03-2.05, p=0.034), but not among Caucasians (all p>0.05). Our findings provide convincing evidence that IL-18 genetic polymorphisms may contribute to susceptibility to UC, especially the rs1946518, rs187238, and rs360718 polymorphisms among Asians and Africans. PMID:24621393
Wang, Ying; Tong, Jing; Chang, Bing; Wang, Bai-Fang; Zhang, Dai; Wang, Bing-Yuan
Hypertension is a complex trait that has been studied extensively for genetic contributions of the nuclear genome. We examined mitochondrial genomes of the hypertensive strains: the Dahl Salt-Sensitive (S) rat, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), and the Albino Surgery (AS) rat, and the relatively normotensive strains: the Dahl Salt-Resistant (R) rat, the Milan Normotensive Strain (MNS), and the Lewis rat (LEW). These strains were used previously for linkage analysis for blood pressure (BP) in our laboratory. The results provide evidence to suggest that variations in the mitochondrial genome do not account for observed differences in blood pressure between the S and R rats. However, variants were detected among the mitochondrial genomes of the various hypertensive strains, S, SHR, and AS, and also among the normotensive strains R, MNS, and LEW. A total of 115, 114, 106, 106, and 16 variations in mtDNA were observed between the comparisons S versus LEW, S versus MNS, S versus SHR, S versus AS, and SHR versus AS, respectively. Among the 13 genes coding for proteins of the electron transport chain, 8 genes had nonsynonymous variations between S, LEW, MNS, SHR, and AS. The lack of any sequence variants between the mitochondrial genomes of S and R rats provides conclusive evidence that divergence in blood pressure between these two inbred strains is exclusively programmed through their nuclear genomes. The variations detected among the various hypertensive strains provides the basis to construct conplastic strains and further evaluate the effects of these variants on hypertension and associated phenotypes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00335-010-9259-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Shafton, Asher; Nixon, Jeremy; Thangavel, Jayakumar; Farms, Phyllis
A new method for typing single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA is described. In this method, specific fragments of genomic DNA containing the polymorphic site(s) are first amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using one regular and one phosphorothioate-modified primer. The double-stranded PCR product is rendered single-stranded by treatment with the enzyme T7 gene 6 exonuclease, and captured onto individual wells of a 96 well polystyrene plate by hybridization to an immobilized oligonucleotide primer. This primer is designed to hybridize to the single-stranded target DNA immediately adjacent from the polymorphic site of interest. Using the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I or the modified T7 DNA polymerase (Sequenase), the 3' end of the capture oligonucleotide is extended by one base using a mixture of one biotin-labeled, one fluorescein-labeled, and two unlabeled dideoxynucleoside triphosphates. Antibody conjugates of alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase are then used to determine the nature of the extended base in an ELISA format. This paper describes biochemical features of this method in detail. A semi-automated version of the method, which we call Genetic Bit Analysis (GBA), is being used on a large scale for the parentage verification of thoroughbred horses using a predetermined set of 26 diallelic polymorphisms in the equine genome. Images
Nikiforov, T T; Rendle, R B; Goelet, P; Rogers, Y H; Kotewicz, M L; Anderson, S; Trainor, G L; Knapp, M R
Hypsizygus marmoreus is an industrialized edible mushroom. In the present paper, the genetic diversity among 20 strains collected from different places of China was evaluated by target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) analysis; the common fragment of TRAPs was sequenced and analyzed. Six fixed primers were designed based on the analysis of H. marmoreus sequences from GenBank database. The genomic DNA extracted from H. marmoreus was amplified with 28 TRAP primer combinations, which generated 287 bands. The average of amplified bands per primer was 10.27 (mean polymorphism is 69.73%). The polymorphism information content (PIC) value for TRAPs ranged from 0.32 to 0.50 (mean PIC value per TRAP primer combination is 0.48), which indicated a medium level of polymorphism among the strains. A total of 36 sequences were obtained from TRAP amplification. Half of these sequences could encode the known or unknown proteins. According to the phylogenetic analysis based on TRAP result, the 20 strains of H. marmoreus were classified into two main groups.
Qiu, Chengshu; Yan, Wenjuan; Deng, Wangqiu; Song, Bin; Li, Taihui
DNA repair variants may play a potentially important role in an individual’s susceptibility to developing cancer. Numerous studies have reported the association between genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes and different types of hematologic cancers. However, to date, the effects of such SNPs on modulating Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) risk have not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that gene-gene interaction between candidate genes in Direct Reversal, Nucleotide excision repair (NER), Base excision repair (BER) and Double strand break (DSB) pathways may contribute to susceptibility to HL. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study on 200 HL cases and 220 controls to assess associations between HL risk and 21 functional SNPs in DNA repair genes. We evaluated potential gene-gene interactions and the association of multiple polymorphisms in a chromosome region using a multi-analytic strategy combining logistic regression, multi-factor dimensionality reduction and classification and regression tree approaches. We observed that, in combination, allelic variants in the XPC Ala499Val, NBN Glu185Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Me, XRCC1 Arg194Trp and XRCC1 399Gln polymorphisms modify the risk for developing HL. Moreover, the cumulative genetic risk score revealed a significant trend where the risk for developing HL increases as the number of adverse alleles in BER and DSB genes increase. These findings suggest that DNA repair variants in BER and DSB pathways may play an important role in the development of HL.
Monroy, Claudia M.; Cortes, Andrea C.; Lopez, Mirtha; Rourke, Elizabeth; Etzel, Carol J.; Younes, Anas; Strom, Sara S.; El-Zein, Randa
Individual variations in inorganic arsenic metabolism may influence the toxic effects. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) that can catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to trivalent arsenical, may play a role in arsenic metabolism in humans. Since the genetic polymorphisms of AS3MT gene may be associated with the susceptibility to inorganic arsenic toxicity, relationships of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AS3MT with inorganic arsenic metabolism have been investigated. Here, we summarize our recent findings and other previous studies on the inorganic arsenic metabolism and AS3MT genetic polymorphisms in humans. Results of genotype dependent differences in arsenic metabolism for most of SNPs in AS3MT were Inconsistent throughout the studies. Nevertheless, two SNPs, AS3MT 12390 (rs3740393) and 14458 (rs11191439) were consistently related to arsenic methylation regardless of the populations examined for the analysis. Thus, these SNPs may be useful indicators to predict the arsenic metabolism via methylation pathways.
Agusa, Tetsuro; Fujihara, Junko; Takeshita, Haruo; Iwata, Hisato
1. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is being increasingly used in ecological and evolutionary studies. Though promising, NGS is known to be error-prone. Sequencing error can cause significant bias for population genetic analysis of a sequence sample.2. We present jPopGen Suite, an integrated tool for population genetic analysis of DNA polymorphisms from nucleotide sequences. It is specially designed for data with a non-negligible error rate, although it serves well for "error-free" data. It implements several methods for estimating the population mutation rate, population growth rate, and conducting neutrality tests.3. jPopGen Suite facilitates the population genetic analysis of NGS data in various applications, and is freely available for non-commercial users at http://sites.google.com/site/jpopgen/. PMID:22905315
Recently, DNA pairing analyses showed that Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and related pathovars, including P. syringae pv. maculicola, form a genomic species (Pseudomonas tomato) (L. Gardan, H. L. Shafik, and P. A. D. Grimont, p. 445–448, in K. Rudolph, T. J. Burr, J. W. Mansfield, D. Stead, A. Vivian, and J. von Kietzell, ed., Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars and Related Pathogens, 1997). The genetic diversity of 23 strains belonging to this genomic species and 4 outgroup strains was analyzed with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) techniques. Simple boiling of P. syringae cells was suitable for subsequent DNA amplification to obtain reliable patterns in RAPD and AFLP analyses. In general, the grouping of P. syringae strains by both analysis techniques corresponded well with the classification obtained from an RFLP analysis of ribosomal DNA operons, DNA pairing studies, and an analysis of pathogenicity data. However, two strains of P. syringae pv. maculicola produced distinct DNA patterns compared to the DNA patterns of other P. syringae pv. maculicola strains; these patterns led us to assume that horizontal transfer of DNA could occur between bacterial populations. Both techniques used in this study have high discriminating power because strains of P. syringae pv. tomato and P. syringae pv. maculicola which were indistinguishable by other techniques, including pathogenicity tests on tomato, were separated into two groups by both RAPD and AFLP analyses. In addition, data analysis showed that the AFLP method was more efficient for assessing intrapathovar diversity than RAPD analysis and allowed clear delineation between intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances, suggesting that it could be an alternative to DNA pairing studies. However, it was not possible to distinguish the two races of P. syringae pv. tomato on the basis of an analysis of the data provided by either the AFLP or RAPD technique.
Clerc, Agathe; Manceau, Charles; Nesme, Xavier
Summary Recent data suggest genetic contributions to the microvascular complications of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Most research has focused on the HLA region, and the potential role of other genetic loci has not been adequately explored. We examined the possible relationship between DNA polymorphisms in the region 5 to the insulin gene on chromosome 11 and diabetic nephropathy. This was
L. J. Raffel; C. M. Vadheim; M.-P. Roth; R. Klein; S. E. Moss; J. I. Rotter
The analysis of genetic variation in parasitic nematodes has important implications for studying aspects of taxonomy, diagnosis, population genetics, drug resistance and molecular evolution. This article highlights some applications of PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) for the analysis of sequence variation in individual parasites (and their populations) to address some of these areas. It also describes the principles and advantages
Robin B. Gasser; Neil B. Chilton
The aim of this investigation is to examine the distribution of the Ag immunological polymorphism in human populations on a worldwide scale and to look for possible explanations of this distribution in the field of modern human peopling history and Ag-system evolution. Extensive Ag-antigene typings were carried out on 13 human population samples, including sub-Saharan African, European, west and east Asiatic, Melanesian, Australian aborigine, and Amerindian groups. Complete Ag-haplotype frequencies were estimated by maximum-likelihood-score procedures, and the data were analyzed by genetic distance computations and principal coordinate projections. With the exception of the Amerindian sample, the Ag polymorphism is shown to be highly polymorphic in all the populations tested. Their genetic relationships appear to be closely correlated to their geographical distribution. This suggests that the Ag system has evolved as a neutral or nearly neutral polymorphism and that it is highly informative for modern human peopling history studies. From the worldwide Ag haplotypic distributions, a model for the Ag molecular structure is derived. According to this model and to the most recent results obtained from molecular data, the establishment of the Ag polymorphism could be explained by several mutations and recombination events between the haplotypes most frequently found in human populations today. As a conclusion, genetic and paleontological data suggest that the genetic structure of caucasoid populations (located from North Africa to India) may be the least differentiated from an ancestral genetic stock. Worldwide genetic differentiations are properly explained as the results of westward and eastward human migrations from a Near East-centered but undefined geographical area where modern humans may have originated. The importance of Ag polymorphism analyses for the reconstruction of human settlement history and origins is discussed in the light of the main conclusions of the most recent genetic polymorphism studies.
Breguet, G; Butler, R; Butler-Brunner, E; Sanchez-Mazas, A
A simple and rapid method for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms has been developed using allele-specific oligonucleotide arrays bound to glass supports. Allele-specific oligonucleotides are covalently immobilized on glass slides in arrays of 3 mm spots. Genomic DNA is amplified by PCR using one fluorescently tagged primer oligonucleotide and one biotinylated primer oligonucleotide. The two complementary DNA strands are separated, the fluorescently tagged strand is hybridized to the support-bound oligonucleotide array, and the hybridization pattern is detected by fluorescence scanning. Multiple polymorphisms present in the PCR product may be detected in parallel. The effect of spacer length, surface density and hybridization conditions were evaluated, as was the relative efficacy of hybridization with single or double-stranded PCR products. The utility of the method was demonstrated in the parallel analysis of 5 point mutations from exon 4 of the human tyrosinase gene. Images
Guo, Z; Guilfoyle, R A; Thiel, A J; Wang, R; Smith, L M
Granulysin (GNLY) is found in cytotoxic granules of cytolytic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, which are critical for hepatitis B virus (HBV) clearance. GNLY cytotoxicity plays an important role in the defense against viruses or intracellular bacteria. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the GNLY gene could affect the resistance of hosts against HBV infection. We compared the distribution frequencies of GNLY polymorphisms between an HBV-induced chronic liver disease (CLD) group and a spontaneous recovery (SR) control group to determine whether GNLY polymorphisms play a role in HBV clearance. A total of 117 patients in the SR group and 230 patients in the CLD group were enrolled. Samples derived from complex infections, including hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus, and those associated with insufficient clinical information (10 samples in SR and 24 samples in CLD) were excluded from the study. The final analysis included 107 SR and 206 CLD samples. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and GNLY genotypes were determined by the GoldenGate® method. The genotype distribution of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2886767 (C>T), rs1561285 (G>C), and rs11127 (T>C) were significantly different between the SR and CLD groups in a recessive model (p<0.015). These three SNPs were in a complete linkage disequilibrium (LD) block. Diplotype distributions of haplotype (HT) 1 (C-G-T) and HT2 (T-C-C) were significantly different between the SR and CLD groups in a recessive model (p=0.025) and a dominant model (p=0.008). All p-values remained significant after multiple comparisons. GNLY polymorphism genotypes and diplotypes were associated with the chronicity of HBV. These data suggested that genetic variation of GNLY may be an important factor in HBV clearance through the CD8+ T or NK cell-mediated removal of HBV-infected cells from the host.
Park, Geun-Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Yeon; Cheong, Jae Youn; Cho, Sung Won
One-carbon metabolism plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Meta-analyses have suggested protective associations of folate and vitamin B6 intakes with colorectal cancer primarily based on studies in Caucasians, and genetic polymorphisms pertaining to the folate metabolism have been a matter of interest. Less investigated are the roles of methionine synthase (MTR) and thymidylate synthetase (TS) polymorphisms in colorectal carcinogenesis. In a study of 816 cases and 815 community controls in Japan, we investigated associations of dietary intakes of folate, methionine, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 with colorectal cancer risk. The associations with MTR 2756A>G, MTRR 66A>G, and TSER repeat polymorphism were examined in 685 cases and 778 controls. Methionine and vitamin B12 intakes were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but the associations were totally confounded by dietary calcium and n-3 fatty acids. The other nutrients showed no association with the risk even without adjustment for calcium and n-3 fatty acids. The TSER 2R allele was dose-dependently associated with an increased risk. The MTR and MTRR polymorphisms were unrelated to colorectal cancer risk. There was no measurable gene-gene or gene-nutrient interaction, but increased risk associated with the TSER 2R allele seemed to be confined to individuals with high folate status. This study does not support protective associations for folate and vitamin B6. The TSER 2R allele may confer an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The role of the TSER polymorphism in colorectal carcinogenesis may differ by ethnicity. PMID:24377513
Morita, Makiko; Yin, Guang; Yoshimitsu, Shin-ichiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji
Purpose Ample evidence supports an important role of tumor metastasis suppressor genes in cancer metastatic processes. We evaluated the association of genetic polymorphisms of tumor metastasis suppressor gene NME1 with breast cancer prognosis in a follow-up study of patients with primary breast cancer and further investigated the functions of these polymorphisms. Experimental Design NME1 genotypes were analyzed in a cohort of 1134 breast cancer patients recruited as part of the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study who were followed for a median of 7.1 years. In vitro biochemical analyses were carried out to examine the function of NME1 gene polymorphisms. Results Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of the NME1 gene were found to be associated with breast cancer prognosis. Patients carrying the C allele in rs16949649 were associated with higher breast cancer-specific mortality (HR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.9) as compared to those carrying the wild-type allele, and the association was more evident in patients with an early stage cancer (HR=1.7, 95% CI =1.2–2.5). SNP rs2302254 was also associated with breast cancer prognosis, and the association was statistically significant for the risk of breast cancer relapse, metastasis, and death (HR=1.3, 95% CI, 1.0–1.6). In vitro biochemical analyses showed that minor alleles in rs2302254 and rs3760468, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs16949646, altered nuclear proteins binding capacity and reduced NME1 promoter activity, supporting the results from an association study of these SNPs with breast cancer survival. Conclusion Promoter polymorphisms in the NME1 gene may alter its expression and influence breast cancer survival.
Qu, Shimian; Long, Jirong; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei
The role of natural selection in the maintenance of genetic variation in wild populations remains a major problem in evolution. The influence of disruptive natural selection on genetic variation is especially interesting because it might lead to the evolution of assortative mating or dominance [1, 2]. In theory, variation can persist at a gene under disruptive natural selection, but the process is little studied and there are few examples [3, 4]. We report a stable polymorphism in the bony armor of threespine stickleback maintained with a deficit of heterozygotes at the major underlying gene, Ectodysplasin (Eda) . The deficit vanishes at the embryo life stage only to re-emerge in adults, indicating that disruptive natural selection, rather than nonrandom mating, is the cause. The mechanism enabling long-term persistence of the polymorphism is unknown, but disruptive selection is predicted to be frequency dependent, favoring homozygous genotypes when they become rare. Further research on the ecological and evolutionary processes affecting individual genes will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the causes of genetic variation in populations. PMID:24856211
Marchinko, Kerry B; Matthews, Blake; Arnegard, Matthew E; Rogers, Sean M; Schluter, Dolph
Genetic variation in the five taxonomic groups of the Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw. complex was investigated using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs). DNA samples from four plants of each of 45 accessions within the S. guianensis species complex were analyzed using 20 oligonucleotides of random sequence. Little variation was found within each of the 18 accessions (1-7% of total RAPD bands in pairwise comparisons) and none within each of the other 27 accessions. However, higher levels of polymorphisms were observed both within (index of genetic distance = 1 - F = 0.16-0.248) and between (1 - F = 0.254-0.408) the five taxa. This level of differentiation at the DNA level supported an earlier classification of the taxa as distinct species. A phenogram based on band sharing was constructed to show genetic relationships among the taxa studied. This phenogram corroborated the description of relationships based on morphological-agronomic characteristics, seed protein patterns, rhizobial affinities, crossability, and pollen stainability of the hybrids. In this phenogram, the most similar species were S. grandiflora and S. hippocampoides (1 - F = 0.264), with S. acuminata also showing closest similarity to these two species (1 - F = 0.277 and 0.283, respectively). Stylosanthes gracilis accessions showed the closest similarity (1 - F = 0.296) to S. guianensis ssp. guianensis accessions. Lowest similarity values (1 - F = 0.335-0.411) were found between these two species and S. grandiflora, S. acuminata, and S. hippocampoides. PMID:8458571
Kazan, K; Manners, J M; Cameron, D F
Even though hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) dysfunction is presumed in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), the exact nature of quantitative and qualitative alterations is unknown. We conducted a study of phenotypic and molecular alterations in highly fractionated stem and progenitor populations in a variety of MDS subtypes. We observed an expansion of the phenotypically primitive long-term HSCs (lineage?/CD34+/CD38?/CD90+) in MDS, which was most pronounced in higher-risk cases. These MDS HSCs demonstrated dysplastic clonogenic activity. Examination of progenitors revealed that lower-risk MDS is characterized by expansion of phenotypic common myeloid progenitors, whereas higher-risk cases revealed expansion of granulocyte-monocyte progenitors. Genome-wide analysis of sorted MDS HSCs revealed widespread methylomic and transcriptomic alterations. STAT3 was an aberrantly hypomethylated and overexpressed target that was validated in an independent cohort and found to be functionally relevant in MDS HSCs. FISH analysis demonstrated that a very high percentage of MDS HSC (92% ± 4%) carry cytogenetic abnormalities. Longitudinal analysis in a patient treated with 5-azacytidine revealed that karyotypically abnormal HSCs persist even during complete morphologic remission and that expansion of clonotypic HSCs precedes clinical relapse. This study demonstrates that stem and progenitor cells in MDS are characterized by stage-specific expansions and contain epigenetic and genetic alterations.
Will, Britta; Zhou, Li; Vogler, Thomas O.; Ben-Neriah, Susanna; Schinke, Carolina; Tamari, Roni; Yu, Yiting; Bhagat, Tushar D.; Bhattacharyya, Sanchari; Barreyro, Laura; Heuck, Christoph; Mo, Yonkai; Parekh, Samir; McMahon, Christine; Pellagatti, Andrea; Boultwood, Jacqueline; Montagna, Cristina; Silverman, Lewis; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Greally, John M.; Ye, B. Hilda; List, Alan F.; Steidl, Christian
Even though hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) dysfunction is presumed in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), the exact nature of quantitative and qualitative alterations is unknown. We conducted a study of phenotypic and molecular alterations in highly fractionated stem and progenitor populations in a variety of MDS subtypes. We observed an expansion of the phenotypically primitive long-term HSCs (lineage(-)/CD34(+)/CD38(-)/CD90(+)) in MDS, which was most pronounced in higher-risk cases. These MDS HSCs demonstrated dysplastic clonogenic activity. Examination of progenitors revealed that lower-risk MDS is characterized by expansion of phenotypic common myeloid progenitors, whereas higher-risk cases revealed expansion of granulocyte-monocyte progenitors. Genome-wide analysis of sorted MDS HSCs revealed widespread methylomic and transcriptomic alterations. STAT3 was an aberrantly hypomethylated and overexpressed target that was validated in an independent cohort and found to be functionally relevant in MDS HSCs. FISH analysis demonstrated that a very high percentage of MDS HSC (92% ± 4%) carry cytogenetic abnormalities. Longitudinal analysis in a patient treated with 5-azacytidine revealed that karyotypically abnormal HSCs persist even during complete morphologic remission and that expansion of clonotypic HSCs precedes clinical relapse. This study demonstrates that stem and progenitor cells in MDS are characterized by stage-specific expansions and contain epigenetic and genetic alterations. PMID:22753872
Will, Britta; Zhou, Li; Vogler, Thomas O; Ben-Neriah, Susanna; Schinke, Carolina; Tamari, Roni; Yu, Yiting; Bhagat, Tushar D; Bhattacharyya, Sanchari; Barreyro, Laura; Heuck, Christoph; Mo, Yonkai; Parekh, Samir; McMahon, Christine; Pellagatti, Andrea; Boultwood, Jacqueline; Montagna, Cristina; Silverman, Lewis; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Greally, John M; Ye, B Hilda; List, Alan F; Steidl, Christian; Steidl, Ulrich; Verma, Amit
Introduction: In spite of nearly 40% of variability in blood pressure being explained by genetic factors, the identification of genes associated with essential high blood pressure is difficult to determine in populations where individuals have different genetic backgrounds. In these circumstances it is necessary to determinate whether the population is sub-structured because this can bias studies associated with this disease. Objective: To determine the genetic structure of the population in Bucaramanga from genetic polymorphisms associated with the regulation of blood pressure: 448G>T, 679C>T y 1711C>T from the gene kinase 4 of the dopaminergic receptor linked to the protein G and Glu298Asp, -786T>C and the VNTR of the intron 4 of the gene of endothelial nitric oxide. Methods: A sample of 552 unrelated individuals was studied through analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism. The allelic, haplotypic and genotypic frequencies were calculated, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was determined and a molecular analysis of variance was performed to determine the genetic structure. Results: Thirty-eight (38) Haplotypes were identified with GCCTG4b being the most frequent (21.2%). The most diverse polymorphism was 448G>T with a frequency of 49.9% for heterozygous. The six polymorphisms were found in genetic equilibrium and a genetic structure of populations was not evidenced (FST= 0.0038). Conclusion: The population studied does not present a genetic sub-structure and the polymorphisms analyzed were found in genetic equilibrium. This indicates that the population mixes randomly and there are no sub-groups capable of affecting the results of the association studies.
Rondon, Fernando; Vargas, Clara Ines; Orostegui, Myriam; Bautista, Leonelo; Serrano, Norma Cecilia; Paez, Maria c; Castillo, Adriana
Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are active in the detoxification of wide variety of endogenous or exogenous carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and GSTP1 genes have been studied extensively to evaluate the relative risk of various cancers. In the present study, we examined associations with CYP2E1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms in sporadic bladder cancers from North Indian patients. The subjects were 106
Rama D Mittal; Shankar L Srivastava; Mittal B
A polymorphic microsatellite (Y-27H39) based on a (GATA)n repeat was recently discovered on the short arm of the human Y chromosome. We have used a simple technique based on polymerase chain reaction amplification and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by highly sensitive silver staining to study the inheritance, the genetic stability and the allele frequency distribution of this polymorphism in
Fabrício R. Santos; Sergio D. J. Pena; Jiirg T. Epplen
Two maternally inherited sex ratio distorters (SRD) impose female-biased sex ratios on the wood louse Armadillidium vulgare by feminizing putative males. These SRD are (i) an intracytoplasmic bacterium of the genus Wolbachia, and (ii) another non-Mendelian element of unknown nature: the f element. Mitochondrial DNA variation was investigated in A. vulgare field populations to trace the evolution of host-SRD relationships and to investigate the effect of SRD on host cytoplasmic polymorphism. The Wolbachia endosymbionts showed no polymorphism in their ITS2 sequence and were associated with two closely related mitochondrial types. This situation probably reflects a single infection event followed by a slight differentiation of mitochondria. There was no association between the f element and a given mitochondrial type, which may confirm the fact that this element can be partially paternally transmitted. The spreading of a maternally inherited SRD in a population should reduce the mitochondrial diversity by a hitchhiking process. In A. vulgare, however, a within-population mtDNA polymorphism was often found, because of the deficient spread of Wolbachia and the partial paternal inheritance of the f element. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that A. vulgare populations are genetically structured, but without isolation by distance.
Rigaud, T; Bouchon, D; Souty-Grosset, C; Raimond, R
Genetic polymorphisms in the genes that encode drug-metabolizing enzymes are implicated in the inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmaco-dynamics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, the clinical impact of these polymorphisms on AED therapy still remains controversial. The defective alleles of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and/or CYP2C19 could affect not only the pharmacokinetics, but also the pharmacodynamics of phenytoin therapy. CYP2C19 deficient genotypes were associated with the higher serum concentration of an active metabolite of clobazam, N-desmethylclobazam, and with the higher clinical efficacy of clobazam therapy than the other CYP2C19 genotypes. The defective alleles of CYP2C9 and/or CYP2C19 were also found to have clinically significant effects on the inter-individual variabilities in the population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital, valproic acid and zonisamide. EPHX1 polymorphisms may be associated with the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine and the risk of phenytoin-induced congenital malformations. Similarly, the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 genotype may affect the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine. Gluthatione S-transferase null genotypes are implicated in an increased risk of hepatotoxicity caused by carbamazepine and valproic acid. This article summarizes the state of research on the effects of mutations of drug-metabolizing enzymes on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AED therapies. Future directions for the dose-adjustment of AED are discussed.
Saruwatari, Junji; Ishitsu, Takateru; Nakagawa, Kazuko
Coumarin anticoagulants, which include warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon, are among the most widely prescribed drugs worldwide. There is now a large body of published data showing that genotype for certain common polymorphisms in the genes encoding the target vitamin K epoxide reductase (G-1639A/C1173T) and the main metabolizing enzyme CYP2C9 (CYP2C9*2 and *3 alleles) are important determinants of the individual coumarin anticoagulant dose requirement. Additional less common polymorphisms in these genes together with polymorphisms in other genes relevant to blood coagulation such as the cytochrome P450 CYP4F2, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, calumenin and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase may also be significant predictors of dose, especially in ethnic groups such as Africans where there have been fewer genetic studies compared with European populations. Using relevant genotypes to calculate starting dose may improve safety during the initiation period. Various algorithms for dose calculation, which also take patient age and other characteristics into consideration, have been developed for all three widely used coumarin anticoagulants and are now being tested in ongoing large randomised clinical trials. One recently completed study has provided encouraging results suggesting that calculation of warfarin dose on the basis of individual patient genotype leads to few adverse events and a higher proportion of time within the therapeutic coagulation rate window, but these findings still need confirmation. PMID:23376975
Daly, Ann K
Background Some polymorphisms of the neurotrophin family have previously been investigated as candidate genes for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we examined whether neurotrophin-3 (NTF-3) polymorphisms are genetic risk factors in patients with AD. Methods From a sample of 507 subjects, we recruited 248 age-matched subjects divided into 2 groups: AD patients (n = 143) and normal controls (NCs) (n = 105). We identified 3 representative NTF-3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs6332, rs6489630, and rs4930767. Next, we statistically compared the allele frequencies of each SNP between the AD and NC groups in the early-onset (<65 years) cases under a more limited age-matched condition. Results We found a significant association between rs6332 and the total group of AD patients (p = 0.013) and significant associations between both rs6332 (p = 0.033) and rs6489630 (p = 0.035) and early-onset AD patients. Conclusion These results suggest that NTF-3 SNPs may not only be associated with AD itself, but also with early-onset AD in Japanese patients, assuming that the NTF-3 gene may have age-related effects on neurodegenerative diseases.
Nagata, Tomoyuki; Shibata, Nobuto; Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Nakayama, Ritsuko; Kuerban, Bolati; Ohnuma, Tohru; Arai, Heii; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Hisashi
Four genes, closely linked to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes, have been identified in humans, mice, and rats and are thought to be involved in the generation and transport of endogenous immunogenic peptides for the MHC class I antigen-processing pathway. The Tap-1 and Tap-2 genes presumably encode a heterodimeric protein complex responsible for transporting endogenous immunogenic peptides to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. The Lmp-2 and Lmp-7 gene products are two subunits of the large cytosolic proteasome complex possibly involved in generation of endogenous peptides. To study the genetic polymorphism of the Lmp-2 gene, we used a published cDNA sequence as a consensus sequence and PCR-amplified, cloned, and sequenced the Lmp-2 gene from 12 inbred mouse strains. We found three amino acid variants, LMP-2d, LMP-2b, and LMP-2q, which partially correlated with restriction fragment length polymorphism variants identified with Southern blots. Allelic polymorphism of the Lmp-2 gene may be involved in peptide selection, leading to autoimmune disease susceptibility. Images Fig. 2
Zhou, P; Cao, H; Smart, M; David, C
Background The enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family (CYPs) play an important role in the metabolism of a great variety of anticancer agents; therefore, polymorphisms in genes encoding for metabolizing enzymes and drugs transporters can affect drug efficacy and toxicity. Methods The genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 were studied in 395 patients with breast cancer by RLFP analysis. Results Here, we studied the association of functionally significant variant alleles of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 with the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. A significant correlation was observed between the CYP2C9*2 polymorphism and chemotherapy resistance (OR?=?4.64; CI 95%?=?1.01 – 20.91), as well as between CYP2C9*2 heterozygotes and chemotherapy resistance in women with nodal forms of breast cancer and a cancer hereditary load (OR?=?15.50; CI 95%?=?1.08 – 826.12) when the potential combined effects were examined. No significant association between chemotherapy resistance and the other examined genotypes and the potential combined clinical and tumour-related parameters were discovered. Conclusion In conclusion, CYP2C9*2 was associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy resistance (OR?=?4.64; CI 95%?=?1.01 – 20.91) in the population of interest.
Pathogen-host interaction studies have demonstrated the importance of host factors in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. An emerging theme is that polymorphisms in the genes encoding these factors can influence the host response to infection and the course of disease. Genetic variation affecting interferon lambda (IFN-?) expression is now known to influence the outcome of both hepatitis C virus and herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in humans. IFN-? is expressed at higher levels in organs with high epithelial cell content such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Interestingly, data from animal models show that IFN-? contributes to host control of viruses infecting these sites, including influenza A virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and rotavirus. Furthermore, defective IFN-? production by humans with asthma impairs the control of rhinovirus infection. We hypothesize that genetic variation of IFN-? could potentially influence the course of disease during infection with many viruses that infect epithelial cells. PMID:24329419
Russell, Clark D; Griffiths, Samantha J; Haas, Jürgen
A segregating population of single basidiospore isolates from a sexual cross was used to generate the first moderately dense genetic linkage map of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (Serotype D). Polymorphic DNA markers were developed using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, random amplified polymorphic DNA, and gene-encoding sequences. These markers were used to analyze 100 meiotic progeny. All markers were tested for
Anja Forche; Jianping Xu; Rytas Vilgalys; Thomas G. Mitchell
Using a set of approaches based on the use of molecular cytogenetic markers (DAPI/C-banding, estimation of the total area of DAPI-positive regions in prophase nuclei, FISH with 26S and 5S rDNA probes) and the microsatellite (SSR-PCR) assay, we studied genomic polymorphism in 15 flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties from different geographic regions belonging to three directions of selection (oil, fiber, and intermediate flaxes) and in the k-37 x Viking hybrid. All individual chromosomes have been identified in the karyotypes of these varieties on the basis of the patterns of differential DAPI/C-banding and the distribution of 26S and 5S rDNA, and idiograms of the chromosomes have been generated. Unlike the oil flax varieties, the chromosomes in the karyotypes of the fiber flax varieties have, as a rule, pericentromeric and telomeric DAPI-positive bands of smaller size, but contain larger intercalary regions. Two chromosomal rearrangements (chromosome 3 inversions) were discovered in the variety Luna and in the k-37 x Viking hybrid. In both these forms, no colocalization of 26S rDNA and 5S rDNA on the satellite chromosome was detected. The SSR assay with the use of 20 polymorphic pairs of primers revealed 22 polymorphic loci. Based on the SSR data, we analyzed genetic similarity of the flax forms studied and constructed a genetic similarity dendrogram. The genotypes studied here form three clusters. The oil varieties comprise an independent cluster. The genetically related fiber flax varieties Vita and Luna, as well as the landrace Lipinska XIII belonging to the intermediate type, proved to be closer to the oil varieties than the remaining fiber flax varieties. The results of the molecular chromosomal analysis in the fiber and oil flaxes confirm their very close genetic similarity. In spite of this, the combined use of the chromosomal and molecular markers has opened up unique possibilities for describing the genotypes of flax varieties and creating their genetic passports. PMID:21446184
Rachinskaia, O A; Lemesh, V A; Muravenko, O V; Iurkevich, O Iu; Guzenko, E V; Bol'sheva, N L; Bogdanova, M V; Samatadze, T E; Popov, K V; Malyshev, S V; Shostak, N G; Heller, K; Khotyleva, L V; Zelenin, A V
To understand the genetic makeup and impact on pharmacokinetics (PK) in the Taiwanese population, we analyzed the pharmacogenetic (PG) profile and demonstrated its effects on enzyme metabolism using indapamide as an example. A multiplex mass spectrometry method was used to examine the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profile of eight major phases I and II metabolic enzymes in 1,038 Taiwanese subjects. A PG/PK study was conducted in 24 healthy subjects to investigate the possible effects of 28 SNPs on drug biotransformation. Among the genetic profile analyzed, eight SNPs from CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A5, and UGT2B7 showed higher variant frequencies than those previously reported in Caucasians or Africans. For instance, we observed 14.7% frequency of the SNP rs5031016 (I471T) from CYP2A6 in Taiwanese, whereas 0% variation was reported in Caucasians and Africans. The PG/PK study of indapamide demonstrated that the polymorphic SNPs CYP2C9 rs4918758 and CYP2C19 rs4244285 appeared to confer lowered enzyme activity, as indicated by increased C max (25%???64%), increased area under the plasma level-time curves (30~76%), increased area under the time infinity (43%???80%), and lower apparent clearance values than PK for wild-type indapamide. Our results reinforce the biochemical support of CYP2C19 in indapamide metabolism and identify a possible new participating enzyme CYP2C9. The PG/PK approach contributed toward understanding the genetic makeup of different ethnic groups and associations of enzymes in drug metabolism. It could be used to identify two genetic markers that enable to differentiate subjects with varied PK outcomes of indapamide. PMID:24357089
Wang, Teng-Hsu; Hsiong, Cheng-Huei; Ho, Hsin-Tien; Shih, Tung-Yuan; Yen, San-Jan; Wang, Hui-Hung; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Kuo, Benjamin Pei-Chung; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Ho, Shung-Tai; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu
Analyses of the genetic relationships among modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans have suggested that 1-4% of the non-Sub-Saharan African gene pool may be Neanderthal derived, while 6-8% of the Melanesian gene pool may be the product of admixture between the Denisovans and the direct ancestors of Melanesians. In the present study, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity among a worldwide collection of contemporary human populations with respect to the genetic constitution of these two archaic hominins and Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee). We partitioned SNPs into subsets, including those that are derived in both archaic lineages, those that are ancestral in both archaic lineages and those that are only derived in one archaic lineage. By doing this, we have conducted separate examinations of subsets of mutations with higher probabilities of divergent phylogenetic origins. While previous investigations have excluded SNPs from common ancestors in principal component analyses, we included common ancestral SNPs in our analyses to visualize the relative placement of the Neanderthal and Denisova among human populations. To assess the genetic similarities among the various hominin lineages, we performed genetic structure analyses to provide a comparison of genetic patterns found within contemporary human genomes that may have archaic or common ancestral roots. Our results indicate that 3.6% of the Neanderthal genome is shared with roughly 65.4% of the average European gene pool, which clinally diminishes with distance from Europe. Our results suggest that Neanderthal genetic associations with contemporary non-Sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the genetic affinities observed between Denisovans and Melanesians most likely result from the retention of ancient mutations in these populations. PMID:23872234
Lowery, Robert K; Uribe, Gabriel; Jimenez, Eric B; Weiss, Mark A; Herrera, Kristian J; Regueiro, Maria; Herrera, Rene J
Periodontitis is a bacterial inflammatory disease leading to attachment loss with the consequence of tooth loss. There exists a multifactorial risk pattern including bacterial challenge, smoking, age, sex, diabetes, socio-economic and genetic factors. Smoking has the highest impact on the course of the disease modulated by all the other factors. Here, we report the relationship between smoking and the polymorphisms of genetic polymorphisms inflicted in the pathogenesis.In a randomly selected population-based study, 1083 subjects were typed for the polymorphisms of the IL-1 genotype, Fcgamma RIIIb receptor gene, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) and related to their periodontal state. Smoking behavior was assessed including present and past quality and quantity of smoking.There is a significant dose-effect relationship between the exposure to tobacco smoke and the extent of periodontal disease assessed as attachment loss and tooth loss. Moreover, there are gene-environmental interactions as subjects bearing variant genotypes show an enhanced smoking-associated risk of the disease modulated by these genotypes. In non-smokers, the impact of these genetic polymorphisms is mostly negligible.This study provides support for the hypothesis that subjects bearing genetic variants of polymorphically expressed phenotypes are at an increased risk of periodontitis when smoking. Mostly, this may be accomplished via the influence of smoking-related impairment on defense mechanisms rather than on the pathogenic pathways. PMID:19570260
Meisel, P; Heins, G; Carlsson, L E; Giebel, J; John, U; Schwahn, C; Kocher, T
Genetic factors are believed to account for 30-50% of the risk for cocaine and heroin addiction. Dynorphin peptides, derived from the prodynorphin (PDYN) precursor, bind to opioid receptors, preferentially the kappa-opioid receptor, and may mediate the aversive effects of drugs of abuse. Dynorphin peptides produce place aversion in animals and produce dysphoria in humans. Cocaine and heroin have both been shown to increase expression of PDYN in brain regions relevant for drug reward and use. Polymorphisms in PDYN are therefore hypothesized to increase risk for addiction to drugs of abuse. In this study, 3 polymorphisms in PDYN (rs1022563, rs910080 and rs1997794) were genotyped in opioid-addicted [248 African Americans (AAs) and 1040 European Americans (EAs)], cocaine-addicted (1248 AAs and 336 EAs) and control individuals (674 AAs and 656 EAs). Sex-specific analyses were also performed as a previous study identified PDYN polymorphisms to be more significantly associated with female opioid addicts. We found rs1022563 to be significantly associated with opioid addiction in EAs [P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.31; false discovery rate (FDR) corrected q-value]; however, when we performed female-specific association analyses, the OR increased from 1.31 to 1.51. Increased ORs were observed for rs910080 and rs199774 in female opioid addicts also in EAs. No statistically significant associations were observed with cocaine or opioid addiction in AAs. These data show that polymorphisms in PDYN are associated with opioid addiction in EAs and provide further evidence that these risk variants may be more relevant in females. PMID:22443215
Clarke, T-K; Ambrose-Lanci, L; Ferraro, T N; Berrettini, W H; Kampman, K M; Dackis, C A; Pettinati, H M; O'Brien, C P; Oslin, D W; Lohoff, F W
Genetic factors are known to be important in the development of prostate cancer. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a multifunctional cytokine that induces interferon-gamma secretion and plays an important role in antitumor immunity. Variations in the DNA sequence in the IL-18 gene promoter may lead to altered IL-18 production and/or activity, and so this can modulate an individual's susceptibility to prostate cancer. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship of IL-18 gene promoter -137 G/C and -607 C/A polymorphisms and their haplotypes with the risk of prostate cancer. We analyzed two single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-18 gene promoter -137 G/C and -607 C/A in 265 patients with prostate cancer and 280 age- and sex-matched controls, using sequence-specific primers-polymerase chain reaction strategy. There were significant differences in the genotype and allele distribution of -137 G/C polymorphism of the IL-18 gene among cases and controls. The -137 GC and CC genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer as compared with the -137 GG genotypes [odds ratio (OR) = 1.721; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.187-2.496; p = 0.004, and OR = 2.181; 95% CI: 1.034-4.603; p = 0.037, for GC and CC, respectively]. Consistent with the results of the genotyping analyses, the -137C/-607A haplotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer as compared with the -137G/-607C haplotype (OR = 1.544; 95% CI, 1.137-2.096; p = 0.005). This study shows for the first time an association between IL-18 gene promoter -137 G/C polymorphism and prostate cancer in a Chinese population. PMID:17688413
Liu, Yunguang; Lin, Na; Huang, Li; Xu, Qunqing; Pang, Guangfu
Background Previous studies have analyzed the role of the genetic polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase on heart failure prognosis. However, there are no studies relating the G894T and heart failure in Brazil. Objective To evaluate the association between G894T GP and the prognosis of a sample of Brazilian outpatients with heart failure. Methods Cohort study included 145 patients with systolic heart failure, followed for up to 40 months (mean = 22), at two university hospitals, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. We evaluated the relationship between G894T and the following outcomes: reverse remodeling, improvement in functional class (NYHA), and mortality and hospitalization rates. The diameters of the left atrium and ventricle, as well as the ejection fraction of the left ventricle, were evaluated at baseline and at 6 months to assess reverse remodeling. The improvement in functional class was evaluated after 6 months, and mortality rate and hospitalization were evaluated during follow-up. Race was self-declared. G894T polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results The genotypic frequencies were GG (40%), GT (48.3%) and TT (11.7%). The allele frequency was guanine (64.1%) and thiamine (35.8%). There were no differences between the genotype or allelic frequencies according to self declared race, either as baseline characteristics. There was no relationship between genotype or allele frequency and the outcome measures. Conclusion No association was observed between the G894T polymorphism (Glu298Asp) and prognosis in this sample of Brazilian outpatients with systolic heart failure.
Tardin, Oziel Marcio Araujo; Pereira, Sabrina Bernardez; Velloso, Monica Wanderley Moncores; Balieiro, Henrique Miller; Costa, Bruno; Alves, Thiago Oliveira e; Giro, Camila; Pessoa, Leandro Pontes; Ribeiro, Georgina Severo; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco
Targeted therapies have unique toxicity profiles. Common adverse events include rash, diarrhea, hypertension, hypothyroidism, proteinuria, depigmentation, and hepatotoxicity. Some of these toxicities are caused by on-target, mechanism-associated effects, which can be stratified as to whether or not the targets are relevant to response. Other toxicities are off-target and may be caused by the class of agent, e.g. antibody vs small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or by immune reactions or toxic metabolites. Both on- and off-target toxicities may be due to higher drug concentrations or altered end-organ sensitivity, which in turn can be a consequence of genetic polymorphisms controlling metabolism or tissue responsiveness. On-target toxicities are important to identify as some correlate with response and, hence, amelioration of these side effects is preferable to dose reduction or stopping drug. Toxicities secondary to relevant target impact may be recognized when distinct types of agents, such as antibodies and small molecule kinase inhibitors, with the same target have a similar side effect. For example, both bevacizumab and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) kinase inhibitors cause hypertension; both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies and kinase inhibitors cause rash; and these toxicities correlate with response. Herein we review common targeted agent-related toxicities, relevant genetic polymorphisms, and implications for response and patient management. PMID:24867380
Liu, Sariah; Kurzrock, Razelle
Background: There is a large degree of variation in tumour response and host toxicities associated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients. We performed a complimentary pharmacogenetic study to investigate germline polymorphisms of genes involved in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan pathways and their potential association with clinical outcomes and toxicities from neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with rectal cancer treated in a prospective genotype-directed study. Methods: The germline DNA of 131 patients was genotyped for 10 variants in TYMS, MTHFR, DPYD, UGT1A1, ABCC1 and SLCO1B1 genes. Ninety-six patients were treated with 5-FU/radiotherapy (RT) and 35 received 5-FU/RT/irinotecan. Relationships between genetic variants and adverse events, tumour response, overall and disease-free survivals were assessed. Results: MTHFR 1298A>C and MTHFR diplotypes (for 677C>T and 1298A>C) were associated with chemoradiation-related toxicity when 5-FU was used alone. MTHFR haplotypes (677C–1298C) and diplotypes (CA–TA and TA–TA) showed, respectively, a protective and a negative effect on the incidence of severe diarrhoea or mucositis. No association was observed between genetic markers and drug response. Conclusion: MTHFR polymorphisms can potentially predict toxicity in patients treated with 5-FU as a single chemotherapeutic drug.
Thomas, F; Motsinger-Reif, A A; Hoskins, J M; Dvorak, A; Roy, S; Alyasiri, A; Myerson, R J; Fleshman, J W; Tan, B R; McLeod, H L
Erwinia amylovora is the causative agent of fire blight, a destructive disease of rosaceous plants subjected to strict quarantine regulations worldwide. Previous studies showed that the population of E. amylovora in Romania is homogenous in its biochemical and serological characteristics, despite the different strains' geographical and host origin. The aim of the present study was to establish and test a typing method to quantify genetic diversity among the Romanian strains of this plant pathogen. Fourteen strains isolated from different hosts and geographical locations in Romania were examined by random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) fragment analysis with two ten-base primers. This molecular method has not revealed any polymorphism, producing the same amplification patterns for all tested strains. Clustering of strains in the resulting dendrogram was not correlated with host, or region of isolation. The RAPD technique did not allow the detection of genetic markers in E. amylovora strains isolated in Romania and proved not to be discriminating among strains of this pathogen. The results presented in this study suggest that the population of E. amylovora in Romania is homogenous. PMID:20361537
M?ru?escu, Lumini?a; Manole, Filofteia; Sesan, Tatiana
The genetic profile based on autosomal markers, four microsatellite DNA markers (D8S315, FES, D8S592, and D2S1328) and two minisatellite DNA markers (TPMT and PDGFA), were analyzed in six endogamous populations to examine the effect of geographic and linguistic affiliation on the genetic affinities among the groups. The six populations are from three different states of India and are linguistically different. Marathas from western India speak Marathi, an Indo-European language. Arayas, Muslims, Ezhavas, and Nairs from Kerala state of South India speak Malayalam, and Iyers from Tamil Nadu state speak Tamil. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of random, normal, healthy individuals. Locus-specific PCR amplification was carried out, followed by electrophoresis of the amplicons and genotyping. All the loci were highly polymorphic and followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for loci D8S315 and PDGFA in Iyers and Marathas, respectively. All six loci had high heterozygosity (average heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 to 0.76) and high polymorphism information content (0.57-0.90). The extent of gene differentiation among the six populations (G(ST) = 0.030) was greater than that for four Kerala populations (G(ST) = 0.011), suggesting proximity between the four Kerala populations. This result conforms with the cultural and linguistic background of the populations. The extent of diversity found among the populations probably resulted from the strict endogamous practices that they follow. PMID:18075006
Ahmad, Shazia; Seshadri, M
Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) has been hypothesized as a multifactorial disorder initiated by an environment trigger in individuals with predisposing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Published data on the association between HLA-DR polymorphism and IDC risk are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. A total of 19 case-control studies including 1,378 cases and 10,383 controls provided data on the association between HLA-DR polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to IDC. Overall, statistically elevated frequencies of HLA-DR4 (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.21-2.07; P=0.0009) and HLA-DR5 (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.05-1.73; P=0.02) alleles were found in patients with IDC compared with controls. Individuals with HLA-DR3 antigen have a protective effect against IDC (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.58-0.90; P=0.004). In summary, this meta-analysis indicated that certain HLA-DR alleles may be genetic markers for susceptibility and resistance to IDC. PMID:21556773
Jin, Bo; Luo, Xin-Ping; Ni, Huan-Chun; Shen, Wei; Shi, Hai-Ming; Li, Yong
A systematic study has been conducted of all available reports in PubMed and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) to examine the genetic and molecular basis of quantitative genetic loci (QTL) of diabetes with the main focus on genes and polymorphisms. The major question is, What can the QTL tell us? Specifically, we want to know whether those genome regions differ from other regions in terms of genes relevant to diabetes. Which genes are within those QTL regions, and, among them, which genes have already been linked to diabetes? whether more polymorphisms have been associated with diabetes in the QTL regions than in the non-QTL regions. Our search revealed a total of 9038 genes from 26 type 1 diabetes QTL, which cover 667,096,006 bp of the mouse genomic sequence. On one hand, a large number of candidate genes are in each of these QTL; on the other hand, we found that some obvious candidate genes of QTL have not yet been investigated. Thus, the comprehensive search of candidate genes for known QTL may provide unexpected benefit for identifying QTL genes for diabetes.
Gao, Peng; Jiao, Yan; Xiong, Qing; Wang, Cong-Yi; Gerling, Ivan; Gu, Weikuan
Genetic polymorphisms may explain why certain individuals will develop exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) or markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels following exertion, while others in the same environment, performing the same exertion, do not. Prospectively, 499 recruits were evaluated during the initial fortnight of Army basic training. Serum CK levels were determined before and during that time. Eleven candidate genetic polymorphisms were studied and compared to CK levels. No subjects developed ER. Baseline CK was significantly greater in interleukin-6 G174C GG and myosin light chain kinase 2 (MLCK 2) AA subjects. Intertraining levels were significantly greater in angiotensin I-converting enzyme D/D and interleukin-6 GG subjects. Among African-Americans, those with MLCK2 AA had greater baseline CK (1,352 +/- 1,102.8 IU/L) than AC and CC genotypes (536.9 +/- 500.6). African-American men have the highest baseline levels and are more likely to have MLCK AA genotype. Whether this finding is associated with an increased incidence of ER requires further study. PMID:23198514
Landau, Mark E; Kenney, Kimbra; Deuster, Patricia; Gonzalez, Rodney S; Contreras-Sesvold, Carmen; Sambuughin, Nyamkhishig; O'Connor, Francis G; Campbell, William W
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune disease, and the imbalance of peripheral tolerance is involved in its pathogenesis. Importantly, the negative signal of activated T cells plays a crucial role in the balance of peripheral tolerance. It has been postulated that human protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) genes encode proteins that are actively involved in regulating T-cell activation. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of PTPN22 and CTLA-4 genotypes on the occurrence of AS. Genetic polymorphisms of PTPN22 -1123G/C and CTLA-4 +49A/G were identified by polymerase chain reaction for 391 AS patients and 391 healthy controls. Subjects with PTPN22 CC and GC genotypes had a greater risk of AS occurrence than those with PTPN22 GG genotype [relative risk = 1.39, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 1.03-1.88]. Further, subjects with PTPN22 CC/CTLA-4 AA or PTPN22 GC/CTLA-4 AA genotypes had 1.90-fold (95 % CI 1.02-3.49) greater risk of AS development than those with other combinations of PTPN22 and CTLA-4 genotypes. Our findings indicated that PTPN22 -1123G/C and CTLA-4 +49A/G genetic polymorphisms have a combined effect on the development of AS. PMID:24212676
Huang, Chun-Huang; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Chen, Chun-Chieh; Chuang, Chih-Shien; Chou, Chia-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Jie; Wang, Ming-Fuu; Wong, Ruey-Hong
The metabolism of the anticonvulsant drug mephenytoin exhibits a genetic polymorphism in humans, with the poor metabolizer trait being inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. There are large interracial differences in the frequency of the poor metabolizer phenotype, with Oriental populations having a 5-fold greater frequency compared to Caucasians. Impaired metabolism of mephenytoin and a number of other currently used drugs results from a defect in a cytochrome P450 enzyme recently identified as CYP2C19. Attempts over the past decade to define the molecular genetic basis of the polymorphism have, however, been unsuccessful. We now report that the principal defect in poor metabolizers is a single base pair (G-->A) mutation in exon 5 of CYP2C19, which creates an aberrant splice site. This change alters the reading frame of the mRNA starting with amino acid 215 and produces a premature stop codon 20 amino acids downstream, which results in a truncated, non-functional protein. We further demonstrate that 7/10 Caucasian and 10/17 Japanese poor metabolizers are homozygous for this defect, indicating that this is the major defect responsible for the poor metabolizer phenotype. Finally, the familial inheritance of the deficient allele was found to be concordant with that of the phenotypic trait. PMID:8195181
de Morais, S M; Wilkinson, G R; Blaisdell, J; Nakamura, K; Meyer, U A; Goldstein, J A
Estrogen may be involved in the development of prostate cancer. The association between genetic polymorphisms of estrogen receptors ? (ESR1) and ? (ESR2) and prostate cancer risk was examined in a nested case-control study in Washington County, Maryland. Incident prostate cancer cases (n?=?269) were matched to one or two controls (n?=?440) by age, sex, race, and date of blood donation. Associations between estrogen receptor genotypes or dietary intake and the development of prostate cancer were examined in conditional logistic regression models. Results from this study showed that six single base-pair polymorphisms (SNPs) of ESR1 (rs1801132, rs2077647, rs746432, rs2273206, rs851982, rs2228480) and four SNPs of ESR2 (rs4986938, rs928554, rs8018687, rs number not available for ESR2 5696 bp 3? of STP A>G) were not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, either by allelic or genotypic frequencies. However, an interactive association with BMI was observed in the relationship between prostate cancer risk and genotypes of ESR2 38 bp 3? of STP G>A (rs4986938) (p?=?0.031). An interaction between intake level of phytoestrogen and genotypes of ESR1 Ex1-192G>C (rs746432) and between intake level of phytoestrogen and genotypes of ESR1 Ex8+229G>A (rs2228480) and risk of prostate cancer was observed (p?=?0.0009 and p?=?0.044, respectively). In conclusion, selected genetic polymorphisms of ESR1 and ESR2, overall, were not associated with prostate cancer risk. However, a variation in risk by BMI and phytoestrogen intake was implicated.
Chae, Young Kwang; Huang, Han-Yao; Strickland, Paul; Hoffman, Sandra C.; Helzlsouer, Kathy
The recent boom in phage therapy and phage biocontrol requires the design of suitable cocktails of genetically different bacteriophages. The current methods for typing phages need significant quantities of purified DNA, may require a priori genetic information and are cost and time consuming. We have evaluated the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR technique to produce unique and reproducible band patterns from 26 different bacteriophages infecting Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactococcus lactis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus casei bacterial strains. Initially, purified DNA and phage suspensions of seven selected phages were used as a template. The conditions that were found to be optimal 8 ?M of 10-mer primers, 3 ?M magnesium oxalacetate and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide. The RAPD genomic fingerprints using a phage titer suspension higher than 10(9) PFU mL(-1) were highly reproducible. Clustering by the Pearson correlation coefficient and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages clustering algorithm correlated largely with genetically different phages infecting the same bacterial species, although closely related phages with a similar DNA restriction pattern were indistinguishable. The results support the use of RAPD-PCR for quick typing of phage isolates and preliminary assessment of their genetic diversity bypassing tedious DNA purification protocols and previous knowledge of their sequence. PMID:21692832
Gutiérrez, Diana; Martín-Platero, Antonio M; Rodríguez, Ana; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; García, Pilar; Martínez, Beatriz
Genetic diversity of Plasmodium populations has been more extensively documented in Colombia for Plasmodium falciparum than for Plasmodium vivax. Recently, highly variable microsatellite markers have been described and used in population-level studies of genetic variation of P. vivax throughout the world. We applied this approach to understand the genetic structure of P. vivax populations and to identify recurrence-associated haplotypes. In this, three microsatellite markers of P. vivax were amplified and the combined size of the fragments was used to establish genotypes. Patients from an ongoing treatment efficacy trial who were kept either in endemic or non-endemic regions in the northwest of Colombia were included in the study. In total 58 paired clinical isolates, were amplified. A total of 54 haplotypes were observed among the two regions. Some haplotypes were exclusive to the endemic region where the highest degree of polymorphism was detected. In addition, we confirmed the different genotypes of recurrent-relapsing and primary infection isolates suggesting the activation of heterologous hypnozoite populations. We conclude that analysis of the three microsatellites is a valuable tool to establish the genetic characteristics of P. vivax populations in Colombia.
Restrepo, Eliana; Imwong, Mallika; Rojas, Winston; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Maestre, Amanda
RAPD assays were performed, using 34 arbitrary decamer oligonucleotide primers and six combinations of two primers, to detect inherent variations and genetic relationships among 12 Indian and 11 exotic B. juncea genotypes. Of 595 amplification products identified, 500 of them were polymorphic across all genotypes. A low level of genetic variability was detected among the Indian genotypes, while considerable polymorphism
A. Jain; S. Bhatia; S. S. Banga; S. Prakash; M. Lakshmikumaran
Background Several studies have identified rare genetic variations responsible for many cases of familial breast cancer but their contribution to total breast cancer incidence is relatively small. More common genetic variations with low penetrance have been postulated to account for a higher proportion of the population risk of breast cancer. Methods and Results In an effort to identify genes that influence non-familial breast cancer risk, we tested over 25,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within approximately 14,000 genes in a large-scale case-control study in 254 German women with breast cancer and 268 age-matched women without malignant disease. We identified a marker on chromosome 14q24.3-q31.1 that was marginally associated with breast cancer status (OR = 1.5, P = 0.07). Genotypes for this SNP were also significantly associated with indicators of breast cancer severity, including presence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.006) and earlier age of onset (P = 0.01). The association with breast cancer status was replicated in two independent samples (OR = 1.35, P = 0.05). High-density association fine mapping showed that the association spanned about 80 kb of the zinc-finger gene DPF3 (also known as CERD4). One SNP in intron 1 was found to be more strongly associated with breast cancer status in all three sample collections (OR = 1.6, P = 0.003) as well as with increased lymph node metastases (P = 0.01) and tumor size (P = 0.01). Conclusion Polymorphisms in the 5' region of DPF3 were associated with increased risk of breast cancer development, lymph node metastases, age of onset, and tumor size in women of European ancestry. This large-scale association study suggests that genetic variation in DPF3 contributes to breast cancer susceptibility and severity.
Hoyal, Carolyn R; Kammerer, Stefan; Roth, Richard B; Reneland, Richard; Marnellos, George; Kiechle, Marion; Schwarz-Boeger, Ulrike; Griffiths, Lyn R; Ebner, Florian; Rehbock, Joachim; Nelson, Matthew R; Braun, Andreas
In investigating the genetic marker for population genetics of Japanese macaques by electrophoresis, the author found the erythrocyte lacate dehydrogenase (LDH) polymorphism existing in some troops. There were four kinds of variations which seemed to be controlled by two loci, controlling A and B subunits of this enzyme. The variant phenotypes were named LDH-Amac2-1 LDH-Bmac1-1, LDH-Amac3-1 LDH-Bmac1-1, LDH-Amac 1-1 LDH-Bmac2-1,
Tuberculosis (TB) is a complicated disease in which biological, socioeconomical and environmental factors play role. Since only 10% of the individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis develop active disease, it has been suggested that host genetic factors may influence the risk for the development of TB. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence and role of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene regions responsible for cytokine production, since these factors are considered to be associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease development. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were investigated by Amplification Refractory Mutational System (ARMS) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) methods. The presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) gene promoter -308 G>A (rs1800629) region, interferon gamma (IFN-?) gene +874 T>A (rs61923114) region, interleukin (IL)-12B p40 gene 1188 A>C (rs3212227) region, IL-10 gene promoter -1082 G>A (rs1800896) region and IL-4 gene promoter -590 C>T (rs2243250) region. A total of 84 patients (71 male, 13 female; mean age: 32.57 ± 15.94 years) whose clinical samples yielded M.tuberculosis complex growth, and 110 healthy blood donors (93 male, 17 female; mean age: 29.40 ± 11.56 years) as control group were included in this study. Of the patients, 76 (90.5%) were diagnosed as pulmonary and 8 (9.5%) as extrapulmonary TB. While 79 (94.1%) patients were newly diagnosed as TB, 5 (5.9%) patients had a TB history (relapsed TB). It was detected that acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were positive in 58 (69%) patients. According to the single nucleotide polymorphism results, gene frequencies could not be compared for TNF-a gene promoter -308 G>A region since healthy controls were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium while the patients were not. There were no statistically significant differences in allele and genotype distribution between the patients and healthy controls in IFN-? gene +874 T>A region, IL-12B p40 gene 1188 A>C region, IL-10 gene promoter -1082 G>A region and IL-4 gene promoter -590 C>T region (p> 0.05). There were also no statistically significant differences between AFB positive (n= 58) and negative (n= 26) patients, and AFB positive (n= 56) and negative (n= 20) pulmonary TB patients (p> 0.05). In conclusion, no statistically significant differences were found associated with the susceptibility or resistance to TB with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene regions responsible for cytokine production in the study population. Only some of the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the gene regions responsible for cytokine release were investigated in our study. Therefore further detailed studies to investigate the polymorphisms in the genes that control the cytokine release and receptors specific for these cytokines, should be conducted. Although this study was performed in a relatively small sized population, these findings might provide a significant contribution to the epidemiologic data about the molecular immunology of TB in Turkey. PMID:23621725
Ulger, Mahmut; Emekda?, Gürol; Aslan, Gönül; Ta?, Dilaver; Ilvan, Ahmet; Tezcan, Seda; Cal?ko?lu, Mukadder; Erdal, M Emin; Kartalo?lu, Zafer
Background Clinical research indicates that periconceptional administration of folic acid can reduce the occurrence of congenital cardiac septal defects (CCSDs). The vital roles of folate exhibits in three ways: the unique methyl donor for DNA expression regulation, the de novo biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine for DNA construction, and the serum homocysteine removal. Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is the solo catalysis enzyme for the de novo synthesis of dTMP, which is the essential precursor of DNA biosynthesis and repair process. To examine the role of TYMS in Congenital Cardiac Septal Defects (CCSDs) risk, we investigated whether genetic polymorphisms in the TYMS gene associated with the CCSDs in a Han Chinese population. Method Polymorphisms in the noncoding region of TYMS were identified via direct sequencing in 32 unrelated individuals composed of half CCSDs and half control subjects. Nine SNPs and two insertion/deletion polymorphisms were genotyped from two independent case-control studies involving a total of 529 CCSDs patients and 876 healthy control participants. The associations were examined by both single polymorphism and haplotype tests using logistic regression. Result We found that TYMS polymorphisms were not related to the altered CCSDs risk, and even to the changed risk of VSDs subgroup, when tested in both studied groups separately or in combination. In the haplotype analysis, there were no haplotypes significantly associated with risks for CCSDs either. Conclusion Our results show no association between common genetic polymorphisms of the regulatory region of the TYMS gene and CCSDs in the Han Chinese population.
Wang, Jue; Wang, Er-Li; Yang, Xue-Yan; Qiao, Bin; Duan, Wen-Yuan; Huang, Guo-Ying; Wang, Hong-Yan
Background The fidelity of DNA replication serves as the nidus for both genetic evolution and genomic instability fostering disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) constitute greater than 80% of the genetic variation between individuals. A new theory regarding DNA replication fidelity has emerged in which selectivity is governed by base-pair geometry through interactions between the selected nucleotide, the complementary strand, and the polymerase active site. We hypothesize that specific nucleotide combinations in the flanking regions of SNP fragments are associated with mutation. Results We modeled the relationship between DNA sequence and observed polymorphisms using the novel multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) approach. MDR was originally developed to detect synergistic interactions between multiple SNPs that are predictive of disease susceptibility. We initially assembled data from the Broad Institute as a pilot test for the hypothesis that flanking region patterns associate with mutagenesis (n = 2194). We then confirmed and expanded our inquiry with human SNPs within coding regions and their flanking sequences collected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database (n = 29967) and a control set of sequences (coding region) not associated with SNP sites randomly selected from the NCBI database (n = 29967). We discovered seven flanking region pattern associations in the Broad dataset which reached a minimum significance level of p ? 0.05. Significant models (p << 0.001) were detected for each SNP type examined in the larger NCBI dataset. Importantly, the flanking region models were elongated or truncated depending on the nucleotide change. Additionally, nucleotide distributions differed significantly at motif sites relative to the type of variation observed. The MDR approach effectively discerned specific sites within the flanking regions of observed SNPs and their respective identities, supporting the collective contribution of these sites to SNP genesis. Conclusion The present study represents the first use of this computational methodology for modeling nonlinear patterns in molecular genetics. MDR was able to identify distinct nucleotide patterning around sites of mutations dependent upon the observed nucleotide change. We discovered one flanking region set that included five nucleotides clustered around a specific type of SNP site. Based on the strongly associated patterns identified in this study, it may become possible to scan genomic databases for such clustering of nucleotides in order to predict likely sites of future SNPs, and even the type of polymorphism most likely to occur.
Arehart, Eric; Gleim, Scott; White, Bill; Hwa, John; Moore, Jason H
Background Technical advances following the Human Genome Project revealed that high-quality and -quantity DNA may be obtained from whole saliva samples. However, usability of previously collected samples and the effects of environmental conditions on the samples during collection have not been assessed in detail. In five studies we document the effects of sample volume, handling and storage conditions, type of collection device, and oral sampling location, on quantity, quality, and genetic assessment of DNA extracted from cells present in saliva. Methods Saliva samples were collected from ten adults in each study. Saliva volumes from .10-1.0 ml, different saliva collection devices, sampling locations in the mouth, room temperature storage, and multiple freeze-thaw cycles were tested. One representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT rs4680) and one representative variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region) were selected for genetic analyses. Results The smallest tested whole saliva volume of .10 ml yielded, on average, 1.43 ± .77 ?g DNA and gave accurate genotype calls in both genetic analyses. The usage of collection devices reduced the amount of DNA extracted from the saliva filtrates compared to the whole saliva sample, as 54-92% of the DNA was retained on the device. An "adhered cell" extraction enabled recovery of this DNA and provided good quality and quantity DNA. The DNA from both the saliva filtrates and the adhered cell recovery provided accurate genotype calls. The effects of storage at room temperature (up to 5 days), repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 6 cycles), and oral sampling location on DNA extraction and on genetic analysis from saliva were negligible. Conclusions Whole saliva samples with volumes of at least .10 ml were sufficient to extract good quality and quantity DNA. Using 10 ng of DNA per genotyping reaction, the obtained samples can be used for more than one hundred candidate gene assays. When saliva is collected with an absorbent device, most of the nucleic acid content remains in the device, therefore it is advisable to collect the device separately for later genetic analyses.
DNA polymorphisms are important markers in genetic analyses and are increasingly detected by using genome resequencing. However, the presence of repetitive sequences and structural variants can lead to false positives in the identification of polymorphic alleles. Here, we describe an analysis strategy that minimizes false positives in allelic detection and present analyses of recently published resequencing data from Arabidopsis meiotic products and individual humans. Our analysis enables the accurate detection of sequencing errors, small insertions and deletions (indels), and structural variants, including large reciprocal indels and copy number variants, from comparisons between the resequenced and reference genomes. We offer an alternative interpretation of the sequencing data of meiotic products, including the number and type of recombination events, to illustrate the potential for mistakes in single-nucleotide polymorphism calling. Using these examples, we propose that the detection of DNA polymorphisms using resequencing data needs to account for nonallelic homologous sequences. PMID:24958856
Qi, Ji; Chen, Yamao; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Ma, Hong
The aim of this study was to identify SNPs in leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR) and growth hormone (GH) genes in order to analyze genetic diversity of Slovak Spotted cattle. The total numbers of blood samples were taken from 353 Slovak Spotted cows originating from four farms. Genomic DNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction method and analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. After digestion with restriction, enzymes were detected in whole population of cow's alleles with frequency: LEP/Sau3AI A 0.84 and B 0.16 (±0.0152); LEPR/BseGI C 0.95 and T 0.05 (±0.0089) and GH/AluI L 0.70 and V 0.30 (±0.0188). Based on the observed vs. expected genotypes frequencies populations across loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P\\>0.05). Predominant for SNP LEP/Sau3AI was AA genotype (0.70), for SNP LEPR/T945M CC genotype (0.91), and LL genotype (0.48) was most frequent for SNP GH/AluI. The observed heterozygosity of SNPs across populations was also transferred to the low or median polymorphic information content 0.24 (He 0.28), 0.08 (He 0.09) and 0.33 (He 0.47) for LEP, LEPR and GH genes, respectively. Within genetic variability estimating negative values of fixation indexes FIS (-0.09-0.05) and FIT (-0.07-0.03) indicating heterozygote excess were observed. The value of FST indexes (0.018-0.023) shows very low levels of genetic differentiation in allele frequencies of loci among evaluated subpopulations. The low values of genetic distances (0.0018-0.0159) indicated high genetic relatedness among animals in subpopulations caused probably by common ancestry used in breeding program at farms. PMID:24432337
Morav?íková, Nina; Trakovická, Anna; Navrátilová, Alica
Aims The goal of our study is to investigate the combined contribution of 10 genetic variants to diabetes susceptibility. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched from 1970 to Dec 2012 for studies that reported on genetic association study of diabetes. After a comprehensive filtering procedure, 10 candidate gene variants with informative genotype information were collected for the current meta-anlayses. Using the REVMAN software, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the combined contribution of the selected genetic variants to diabetes. Results A total of 37 articles among 37,033 cases and 54,716 controls were involved in the present meta-analyses of 10 genetic variants. Three variants were found to be significantly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D): NLRP1 rs12150220 (OR?=?0.71, 95% CI?=?0.55–0.92, P?=?0.01), IL2RA rs11594656 (OR?=?0.86, 95% CI?=?0.82–0.91, P<0.00001), and CLEC16A rs725613 (OR?=?0.71, 95% CI?=?0.55–0.92, P?=?0.01). APOA5 ?1131T/C polymorphism was shown to be significantly associated with of type 2 diabetes (T2D, OR?=?1.27, 95% CI?=?1.03–1.57, P?=?0.03). No association with diabetes was showed in the meta-analyses of other six genetic variants, including SLC2A10 rs2335491, ATF6 rs2070150, KLF11 rs35927125, CASQ1 rs2275703, GNB3 C825T, and IL12B 1188A/C. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that IL2RA rs11594656 and CLEC16A rs725613 are protective factors of T1D, while NLRP1 rs12150220 and APOA5 ?1131T/C are risky factors of T1D and T2D, respectively.
Wang, Qinwen; Xu, Leiting; Bu, Shizhong; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Cheng; Ye, Huadan; Xu, Xuting; Liu, Qiong; Ye, Meng; Mai, Yifeng; Duan, Shiwei
Objective To review the feasibility of coupling the techniques of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with carbon nanotube-based modified electrode for guanine/deoxyguanine triphosphate (dGTP) electrochemical sensing for mapping of the pancreatic cancer genetic fingerprint and screening of genetic alterations. Methods We developed a new method to study the electrochemical behavior of dGTP utilizing carbon multiwalled nanotube (MWNT)-modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs). RAPD was applied for amplification of DNA samples from healthy controls and patients with pancreatic cancer under the same conditions to determine the different surplus quantity of dGTP in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), thereby determining the difference/quantity of PCR products or template strands. Using this method we generated a genetic fingerprint map of pancreatic cancer through the combination of electrochemical sensors and gel electrophoresis to screen for genetic alterations. Cloning and sequencing were then performed to verify these gene alterations. Results dGTP showed favorable electrochemical behavior on the MWNTs/GCE. The results indicated that the electrical signal and dGTP had a satisfactory linear relationship with the dGTP concentration within the conventional PCR concentration range. The MWNTs/GCE could distinguish between different products of RAPD. This experiment successfully identified a new pancreatic cancer-associated mutant gene fragment, consisting of a cyclin-dependent kinase 4 gene 3? terminal mutation. Conclusion The coupling of RAPD and nanoelectrochemical sensors was successfully applied to the screening of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer and for mapping of DNA fingerprints.
Liu, Qicai; Liu, Ailin; Gao, Feng; Weng, Shaohuang; Zhong, Guangxian; Liu, Jingfeng; Lin, Xinhua; Lin, Jian-hua; Chen, Xuhai
Recent studies of genetically controlled enzyme variation lead to an estimation that at least 30 to 60% of the structural genes are polymorphic in natural populations of many vertebrate and invertebrate species. Some authors have argued that a substantial proportion of these polymorphisms cannot be maintained by natural selection because this would result in an unbearable genetic load. If many polymorphisms are maintained by heterotic natural selection, individuals with much greater than average proportion of homozygous loci should have very low fitness. We have measured in Drosophila melanogaster the fitness of flies homozygous for a complete chromosome relative to normal wild flies. A total of 37 chromosomes from a natural population have been tested using 92 experimental populations. The mean fitness of homozygous flies is 0.12 for second chromosomes, and 0.13 for third chromosomes. These estimates are compatible with the hypothesis that many (more than one thousand) loci are maintained by heterotic selection in natural populations of D. melanogaster.
Tracey, Martin L.; Ayala, Francisco J.
We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control studies to determine whether SELP genetic polymorphisms contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infarction (MI). A range of electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE (1966-2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), EMBASE (1980-2013), CINAHL (1982-2013), Web of Science (1945-2013) and the Chinese biomedical database (1982-2013) without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was performed with the use of the STATA statistical software. Nine case-control studies with a total of 3,154 CHD patients, 1,608 MI patients and 17,304 healthy controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Six common polymorphisms in the SELE gene were assessed, including -1969G/A (rs1800805 G>A), -1817T/C (rs1800808 T>C), -2123C/G (rs1800807 C>G), Thr715Pro (rs6136 A>C), Leu599Val (rs6133 G>T), and Ser290Asn (rs6131 C>T). Our findings illustrated significantly positive associations of SELE genetic polymorphisms with the development of CHD and MI. The results of subgroup analysis by SNP type indicated that -1969G/A, -1817T/C, -2123C/G, Thr715Pro and Ser290Asn in the SELP gene might be strongly correlated with CHD and MI risk, but no similar results were found in SELP Leu599Val polymorphism. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, our results indicated significant relationships between SELE genetic polymorphisms and the pathogenesis of CHD and MI among Asians and Caucasians. However, we observed no significant associations between SELP genetic polymorphisms and the risk of CHD and MI among Africans. Our findings provide empirical evidence that SELE genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of CHD and MI, especially among Asians and Caucasians. Thus, SELP genetic polymorphisms could be potential and practical biomarkers for early diagnosis of CHD and MI. PMID:24504449
Zhou, Dong-Hui; Wang, Yong; Hu, Wei-Na; Wang, Li-Jie; Wang, Qi; Chi, Miao; Jin, Yuan-Zhe
Caenorhabditis elegans has become one of the most widely used model research organisms, yet we have little information on evolutionary processes and recent evolutionary history of this widespread species. We examined patterns of variation at 20 microsatellite loci in a sample of 23 natural isolates of C. elegans from various parts of the world. One-half of the loci were monomorphic among all strains, and overall genetic variation at microsatellite loci was low, relative to most other species. Some population structure was detected, but there was no association between the genetic and geographic distances among different natural isolates. Thus, despite the nearly worldwide occurrence of C. elegans, little evidence was found for local adaptation in strains derived from different parts of the world. The low levels of genetic variation within and among populations suggest that recent colonization and population expansion might have occurred. However, the patterns of variation are not consistent with population expansion. A possible explanation for the observed patterns is the action of background selection to reduce polymorphism, coupled with ongoing gene flow among populations worldwide.
Sivasundar, Arjun; Hey, Jody
Understanding the extent and distribution of genetic diversity within a species is essential for the development of effective conservation strategies. The objective of this study was to assess genetic variation using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) in two species of the tropical legume genus Stylosanthes Sw. Annual, S. humilis (2n = 20) and perennial, S. viscosa (2n = 20) are found throughout tropical America, and are sympatric for much of their range of distribution. One hundred and eleven accessions, covering a wide geographical range, were selected for AFLP analysis. Binary data matrices derived from DNA banding patterns were analysed using the software programs NTSYS-PC and ARLEQUIN. Several accessions were found to be misidentified. Of the S. humilis accessions, the overall average similarity value was (0.72) slightly higher than the value obtained for S. viscosa (0.67). Cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis grouped accessions from both species by geographical origin, with a few exceptions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) in S. humilis revealed 59.4% of the variation among groups formed from the cluster analysis. This was highly significant (P < 0.001). For S. viscosa AMOVA also revealed more variation among than within groups (66.5%). This was also highly significant (P < 0.001). The majority of accessions of both species conserved ex situ are of Brazilian and Venezuelan origin. This study has identified areas in Central America and Mexico for which novel genetic variation may be found and where conservation activities should be focused. PMID:11555239
Sawkins, M C; Maass, B L; Pengelly, B C; Newbury, H J; Ford-Lloyd, B V; Maxted, N; Smith, R
Many species show changes in distribution and phenotypic trait variation in response to climatic warming. Evidence of genetically based trait responses to climate change is, however, less common. Here, we detected evolutionary variation in the landscape-scale distribution of a genetically based chemical polymorphism in Mediterranean wild thyme (Thymus vulgaris) in association with modified extreme winter freezing events. By comparing current data on morph distribution with that observed in the early 1970s, we detected a significant increase in the proportion of morphs that are sensitive to winter freezing. This increase in frequency was observed in 17 of the 24 populations in which, since the 1970s, annual extreme winter freezing temperatures have risen above the thresholds that cause mortality of freezing-sensitive morphs. Our results provide an original example of rapid ongoing evolutionary change associated with relaxed selection (less extreme freezing events) on a local landscape scale. In species whose distribution and genetic variability are shaped by strong selection gradients, there may be little time lag associated with their ecological and evolutionary response to long-term environmental change.
Thompson, John; Charpentier, Anne; Bouguet, Guillaume; Charmasson, Faustine; Roset, Stephanie; Buatois, Bruno; Vernet, Philippe; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri
Many species show changes in distribution and phenotypic trait variation in response to climatic warming. Evidence of genetically based trait responses to climate change is, however, less common. Here, we detected evolutionary variation in the landscape-scale distribution of a genetically based chemical polymorphism in Mediterranean wild thyme (Thymus vulgaris) in association with modified extreme winter freezing events. By comparing current data on morph distribution with that observed in the early 1970s, we detected a significant increase in the proportion of morphs that are sensitive to winter freezing. This increase in frequency was observed in 17 of the 24 populations in which, since the 1970s, annual extreme winter freezing temperatures have risen above the thresholds that cause mortality of freezing-sensitive morphs. Our results provide an original example of rapid ongoing evolutionary change associated with relaxed selection (less extreme freezing events) on a local landscape scale. In species whose distribution and genetic variability are shaped by strong selection gradients, there may be little time lag associated with their ecological and evolutionary response to long-term environmental change. PMID:23382198
Thompson, John; Charpentier, Anne; Bouguet, Guillaume; Charmasson, Faustine; Roset, Stephanie; Buatois, Bruno; Vernet, Philippe; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri
Genetic variability and environmental factors may influence the refractiveness, propagation of pathogen and transmission of disease. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is one of the widely used molecular markers for population genetic diversity studies. In present study, RAPD is used to ascertain the genetic variability in Culex quinquefasciatus populations collected from various Indian geographical locations. Out of 50 RAPD primers screened, 14 primers exhibited clear, concrete and distinct banding pattern showing up to 100% polymorphism. Primer OPBD3 was tested with DNA of 14 geographical populations from India (including one laboratory population) showed 21 loci representing 14 populations with 100% polymorphism. The genetic diversity among the populations indicated the Shannon index (I) and gene diversity index (H(ST)), 0.48 and 0.31, respectively among the population, displaying rich genetic variation among the Cx. quinquefasciatus populations. Consensus tree showed two clusters indicating the genetic variation among the various geographical populations. The findings of this study may be useful to understand the population variation under different ecological conditions and development of effective vector management strategies. PMID:19577531
Sharma, A K; Mendki, M J; Tikar, S N; Chandel, K; Sukumaran, D; Parashar, B D; Veer, Vijay; Agarwal, O P; Prakash, Shri
In order to carry out preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for ?-thalassaemia, we have applied direct sequencing of single cell PCR products to detect mutations and polymorphic loci within the ?-globin gene. Conventional duplex PCR was used to amplify two regions of the ?-globin gene with an amplification efficiency of 79% for blastomeres. Sequencing data were obtained for 100% of amplified
Nicole D. Hussey; Tenielle Davis; Jenny R. Hall; Michael F. Barry; Rogan Draper; Robert J. Norman; Zbigniew Rudzki
Objective: The cholinergic system is important in the search for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia due to its role in cognitive function, interaction with the dopamine system in brain regions relevant to schizophrenia, side effects of antipsychotic medication and potential antipsychotic effect of muscarinic receptor antagonists. This study investigated the association of type I muscarinic receptor (CHRM1) genetic polymorphisms with the
Ding-Lieh Liao; Chen-Jee Hong; Hong-Mei Chen; Yueh-Er Chen; Shin-Min Lee; Chun-Yi Chang; Hong Chen; Shih-Jen Tsai
The influence of genetic polymorphism in inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) on thiopurine-induced adverse events has not been investigated in the context of combination chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study investigated the effects of a common ITPA variant allele (rs41320251) on mercaptopurine metabolism and toxicity during treatment of children with ALL. Significantly higher concentrations of methyl mercaptopurine nucleotides were
G Stocco; MH Cheok; KR Crews; T Dervieux; D Pei; W Yang; C Cheng; C-H Pui; MV Relling; WE Evans
Peptidase inhibitor 3 (PI3, elafin) is a protease inhibitor produced locally in the lung, where it plays a central role in controlling excessive activity of neutrophil elastase. Our previous study revealed that PI3 gene expression is down-regulated during the acute stage of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted a case-control study to investigate whether genetic variants in PI3 gene are associated with ARDS development. Based on resequencing data from 29 unrelated white subjects, three tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms were selected and genotyped in a prospective cohort consisting of 449 white patients with ARDS (cases) and 1,031 critically ill patients (at-risk control subjects). We found that the variant allele of rs2664581 (T34P) was significantly associated with increased ARDS risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.67; P = 0.006; false discovery rate adjusted P = 0.018). Moreover, this association was stronger among subjects with extrapulmonary injury. The common haplotype Hap2 (TTC), containing the variant allele of rs2664581, was also identified as a risk haplotype for ARDS (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.05–1.64; P = 0.015). Furthermore, the rs2664581 polymorphism was associated with circulating PI3 levels in multivariate analyses. Patients with ARDS homozygous for the wild-type A allele of rs2664581 showed significant lower PI3 plasma level (P = 0.019) at ARDS onset as compared with those homozygous or heterozygous for the variant C allele. Our data suggest that polymorphisms in PI3 gene are significantly associated with ARDS risk and with circulating PI3 levels.
Tejera, Paula; Wang, Zhaoxi; Zhai, Rihong; Su, Li; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Taylor, Deanne M.; Chen, Feng; Gong, Michelle N.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Christiani, David C.
In a previous report, we described a PCR protocol for the differentiation of the various species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) on the basis of genomic deletions (R. C. Huard, L. C. de Oliveira Lazzarini, W. R. Butler, D. van Soolingen, and J. L. Ho, J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:1637-1650, 2003). That report also provided a broad cross-comparison of several previously identified, phylogenetically relevant, long-sequence and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (LSPs and SNPs, respectively). In the present companion report, we expand upon the previous work (i) by continuing the evaluation of known MTC phylogenetic markers in a larger collection of tubercle bacilli (n = 125), (ii) by evaluating additional recently reported MTC species-specific and interspecific polymorphisms, and (iii) by describing the identification and distribution of a number of novel LSPs and SNPs. Notably, new genomic deletions were found in various Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, new species-specific SNPs were identified for "Mycobacterium canettii," Mycobacterium microti, and Mycobacterium pinnipedii, and, for the first time, intraspecific single-nucleotide DNA differences were discovered for the dassie bacillus, the oryx bacillus, and the two Mycobacterium africanum subtype I variants. Surprisingly, coincident polymorphisms linked one M. africanum subtype I genotype with the dassie bacillus and M. microti with M. pinnipedii, thereby suggesting closer evolutionary ties within each pair of species than had been previously thought. Overall, the presented data add to the genetic definitions of several MTC organisms as well as fine-tune current models for the evolutionary history of the MTC. PMID:16740934
Huard, Richard C; Fabre, Michel; de Haas, Petra; Lazzarini, Luiz Claudio Oliveira; van Soolingen, Dick; Cousins, Debby; Ho, John L
Background Although pancreatic cancer has been extensively studied, few risk factors have been identified, and no validated biomarkers or screening tools exist for early detection in asymptomatic individuals. We present a broad overview of molecular epidemiologic studies that have addressed the relationship between pancreatic cancer risk and genetic polymorphisms in several candidate genes and suggest avenues for future research. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed using the PubMed database. Results Overall, individual polymorphisms did not seem to confer great susceptibility to pancreatic cancer; however, interactions of polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing genes, DNA repair genes, and folate-metabolizing genes with smoking, diet, and obesity were shown in some studies. The major problem with these studies is that, due to small sample sizes, they lack sufficient statistical power to explore gene–gene or gene–environment interactions. Another important challenge is that the measurement of environmental influence needs to be improved to better define gene–environment interaction. It is noteworthy that 2 recent genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer have reported that variants in ABO blood type and in 3 other chromosomal regions are associated with risk for this cancer, thus providing new insight into pancreatic cancer etiology. Conclusions As is the case in other complex diseases, common, low-risk variants in different genes may act collectively to confer susceptibility to pancreatic cancer in individuals with repeated environmental exposures, such as smoking and red meat intake. Clarification of gene–gene and gene–environmental interaction is therefore indispensable for future studies. To address these issues, a rigorously designed molecular epidemiologic study with a large sample is desirable.
Lin, Yingsong; Yagyu, Kiyoko; Egawa, Naoto; Ueno, Makoto; Mori, Mitsuru; Nakao, Haruhisa; Ishii, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozue; Wakai, Kenji; Hosono, Satoyo; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kikuchi, Shogo
Aims: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the effects of common polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on the toxicity and clinical responses of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched from their inception through November 1st, 2013 without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted with the use of the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Seven clinical cohort studies with a total of 815 CRC patients met the inclusion criteria. Two common polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298?A>C) in the MTHFR gene were assessed. Results: The results from our meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms might significantly decrease the rate of grade 3/4 toxicity of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients (OR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.32-0.89, p=0.015). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms strongly correlated with good clinical responses (complete response+partial response) to irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients (OR=1.47, 95% CI: 1.05-2.04, p=0.024). Conclusions: Our findings provide empirical evidence that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms may decrease the toxicity of irinotecan-based chemotherapy and increase the clinical benefits for CRC patients. Thus, MTHFR genetic polymorphisms may be screened to predict the clinical responses to irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients. PMID:24611457
Li, Ping; Chen, Quan; Wang, Ya-Di; Ha, Min-Wen
The accurate analysis of genetic variation has major implications in many areas of biomedical research, including the identification of infectious agents (such as parasites), the diagnosis of infections, and the detection of unknown or known disease-causing mutations. Mutation scanning methods, including PCR-coupled single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), have significant advantages over many other nucleic acid techniques for the accurate analysis of allelic and mutational sequence variation. The present protocol describes the SSCP method of analysis, including all steps from the small-scale isolation of genomic DNA and PCR amplification of target sequences, through to the gel-based separation of amplicons and scanning for mutations by SSCP (either by the analysis of radiolabeled amplicons in mutation detection enhancement (MDE) gels or by non-isotopic SSCP using precast GMA gels). The subsequent sequence analysis of polymorphic bands isolated from gels is also detailed. The SSCP protocol can readily detect point mutations for amplicon sizes of up to 450-500 bp, and usually takes 1-2 days to carry out. This user-friendly, low-cost, potentially high-throughput platform has demonstrated the utility to study a wide range of pathogens and diseases, and has the potential to be applied to any gene of any organism. PMID:17406575
Gasser, Robin B; Hu, Min; Chilton, Neil B; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Jex, Aaron J; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia; Beveridge, Ian; Zhu, Xingquan
To determine the genetic origin of the complete hydatidiform mole, 20 abnormal pregnancies were studied with restriction fragment length polymorphism with five genomic probes: EJ 6.6, beta-globin gene, 3'alpha-hypervariable region, J-Bir, and St14. In the 12 cases of molar pregnancy, pure paternal origin was proved in 11 cases, but both maternal and paternal inheritance were shown in only one case. In the cases with pure paternal origin, all of the restriction fragment length polymorphisms were homozygous, although those of the fathers were heterozygous at 15 loci. In the four cases that mimicked hydatidiform mole but were diagnosed as hydropic change of villi, both paternal and maternal inheritance were noted. In the four pregnancies with blighted ovum, both paternal and maternal inheritance were shown in three cases; and in one case with a balanced translocation between chromosomes 13 and 14, only paternal inheritance was noted. This study showed that most of the complete hydatidiform moles were caused by fertilization of an empty egg by a duplicated haploid sperm, but rare exceptions may exist. PMID:1672240
Ko, T M; Hsieh, C Y; Ho, H N; Hsieh, F J; Lee, T Y
Drosophila subobscura is a paleartic species of the obscura group with a rich chromosomal polymorphism. To further our understanding on the origin of inversions and on how they regain variation, we have identified and sequenced the two breakpoints of a polymorphic inversion of D. subobscura--inversion 3 of the O chromosome--in a population sample. The breakpoints could be identified as two rather short fragments (?300 bp and 60 bp long) with no similarity to any known transposable element family or repetitive sequence. The presence of the ?300-bp fragment at the two breakpoints of inverted chromosomes implies its duplication, an indication of the inversion origin via staggered double-strand breaks. Present results and previous findings support that the mode of origin of inversions is neither related to the inversion age nor species-group specific. The breakpoint regions do not consistently exhibit the lower level of variation within and stronger genetic differentiation between arrangements than more internal regions that would be expected, even in moderately small inversions, if gene conversion were greatly restricted at inversion breakpoints. Comparison of the proximal breakpoint region in species of the obscura group shows that this breakpoint lies in a small high-turnover fragment within a long collinear region (?300 kb). PMID:23289562
Papaceit, Montserrat; Segarra, Carmen; Aguadé, Montserrat
Apoptosis may perpetuate some forms of inflammation. Of the apoptotic pathway proteins, Fas is particularly overexpressed in sarcoidosis. We hypothesized that Fas promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute to the development and severity of sarcoidosis. Associations of known Fas promoter SNPs (?670, ?690 and ?1377) and deduced haplotypes with sarcoidosis and sarcoidosis severity were evaluated using matched case–control (n = 656 pairs) and case–comparison (n = 656) studies, respectively, using conditional logistic regression. Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was confirmed for all three polymorphisms in African-Americans (AA), and for the ?670 and ?1377 in whites. Genotype and allele frequencies were significantly different between whites and AA. Race-stratified analysis revealed that a common haplotype, ?1377G/?690T/?670G, was associated with sarcoidosis [odds ratio (OR) = 1.78, P = 0.05] only in AA. The haplotype ?1377G/?690C/?670A was negatively associated with sarcoidosis (OR = 0.39, P = 0.03) only in AA. In conclusion, the consistency of these findings suggests that Fas promoter genetic variants may be related to sarcoidosis disease risk in AA.
Wasfi, Y. S.; Silveira, L. J.; Jonth, A.; Hokanson, J. E.; Fingerlin, T.; Sato, H.; Parsons, C. E.; Lympany, P.; Welsh, K.; du Bois, R. M.; Newman, L. S.; Maier, L. A.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in high mobility group box 1 and 2 (HMGB1 and HMGB2, respectively) with platinum-based chemotherapy responses in Chinese lung cancer patients. In total, 338 Chinese lung cancer patients (154 responders and 184 non-responders) were recruited to the study. All patients received at least two cycles of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Three tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of HMGB1 and two tagging SNPs of HMGB2 were detected in patients. We found that rs1412125 and rs2249825 of HMGB1 were significantly associated with the platinum-based chemotherapy response in both recessive and genotypic models. In addition, rs1412125 showed significant association with platinum-based chemotherapy response for the subgroup of patients aged >55 years in additive, recessive and genotypic models. No significant associations were detected between other SNPs and the platinum-based chemotherapy response. The HMGB1 SNPs (rs1412125 and rs2249825) were associated with platinum-based chemotherapy responses in Chinese lung cancer patients. In conclusion, HMGB1 SNPs may serve as potential biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:24684392
Wang, Ying; Li, Xiang-Ping; Yin, Ji-Ye; Zhang, Yu; He, Hui; Qian, Chen-Yue; Chen, Juan; Zheng, Yi; Smieszkol, Kamila; Fu, Yi-Lan; Chen, Zi-Yu; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a clone with a low level of variation. We developed a molecular typing method for serovar Typhi using 38 genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as markers detected by PCR-restriction enzyme digestion. The 73 worldwide serovar Typhi isolates studied were separated into 23 SNP profiles and four distinct genetic groups. Serovar Typhi isolates expressing the unique flagellar antigen z66 were found to cluster together and branch off from the ancestral group, suggesting that serovar Typhi was initially monophasic with only an H1 antigen and subsequently gained the z66 antigen. Typing using the 38 SNPs gave a discriminatory power of 0.87, and a minimum of 16 SNPs may be used to achieve the same level of differentiation. The SNP typing method we developed will be a valuable tool for global epidemiology studies of serovar Typhi.
Octavia, Sophie; Lan, Ruiting
We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a comparison of the sequences of 3 domestic chickens (broiler, layer, Silkie) to their wild ancestor Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about 5 SNP/kb for almost every possible comparison between RJF and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--contrary to the idea that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated prior to domestication, and there is little to no evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales of greater than 100 kb.
Wong, G K; Hillier, L; Brandstrom, M; Croojmans, R; Ovcharenko, I; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L; Lucas, S; Glavina, T; Kaiser, P; Gunnarsson, U; Webber, C; Overton, I
Hypertension is a complex trait with deranged autonomic control of the circulation. The sympathoadrenal system exerts minute-to-minute control over cardiac output and vascular tone. Catecholamine storage vesicles (or chromaffin granules) of the adrenal medulla contain remarkably high concentrations of chromogranins/secretogranins (or "granins"), catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and Ca(2+). Within secretory granules, granins are co-stored with catecholamine neurotransmitters and co-released upon stimulation of the regulated secretory pathway. The principal granin family members, chromogranin A (CHGA), chromogranin B (CHGB), and secretogranin II (SCG2), may have evolved from shared ancestral exons by gene duplication. This article reviews human genetic variation at loci encoding the major granins and probes the effects of such polymorphisms on blood pressure, using twin pairs to probe heritability and individuals with the most extreme blood pressure values in the population to study hypertension. PMID:21104344
Zhang, Kuixing; Chen, Yuqing; Wen, Gen; Mahata, Manjula; Rao, Fangwen; Fung, Maple M; Vaingankar, Sucheta; Biswas, Nilima; Gayen, Jiaur R; Friese, Ryan S; Mahata, Sushil K; Hamilton, Bruce A; O'Connor, Daniel T
With the advent of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), genetic markers are now accessible for all organisms, including parasites. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a PCR-based marker for the rapid screening of genetic diversity and intraspecific variation. It is a potent fingerprinting technique for genomic DNAs of any origin or complexity and rapidly generates a number of highly replicable markers that allow high-resolution genotyping. AFLPs are convenient and reliable in comparison to other markers like random amplified polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and simple sequence repeat in terms of time and cost efficiency, reproducibility, and resolution as it does not require template DNA sequencing. In addition, AFLP essentially probes the entire genome at random, without prior sequence knowledge. So, AFLP markers have emerged as an advance type of genetic marker with broad application in genomic mapping, population genetics, and DNA fingerprinting and are ideally suited as screening tool for molecular markers linked with biological and clinical traits. This review describes the AFLP procedure and its applications and overview in the fingerprinting of a genome, which has been currently used in parasite genome research. We outline the AFLP procedure adapted for Leishmania genome study and discuss the benefits of AFLPs for assessing genetic variation and genome mapping over other existing molecular techniques. We highlight the possible use of AFLPs as genetic markers with its broad application in parasitological research because it allows random screening of the entire genome for linkage with genetic and clinical properties of the parasite. In this review, we have taken a pragmatic approach on the study of AFLP for genome mapping and polymorphism in protozoan parasites and conclude that AFLP is a very useful tool. PMID:23254590
Kumar, Awanish; Misra, Pragya; Dube, Anuradha
We have studied genetic variation at 30–32 loci coding for enzymes in natural populations of five species of Drosophila. The average proportion of heterozygous loci per individual is 17.7 ± 0.4%. The average proportion of polymorphic loci per population is 69.2 ± 2.6% or 49.8 ± 2.2%, depending on what criterion of polymorphism is used. The following generalizations are advanced: (1) The amount of genetic polymorphism varies considerably from locus to locus. (2) At a given locus, populations of the same species are very similar in the amount and pattern of genetic variation. (3) However, at some loci large differences sometimes occur between local populations of the same species. (4) The amount of variation at a given locus is approximately the same in all five species. (5) When different species are compared, the pattern of the variation is either essentially identical or totally different at a majority of loci. We have tested the hypothesis that protein polymorphisms are selectively neutral by examining four predictions derived from the hypothesis. Our results are at variance with every one of the predictions. We have measured the amount of genetic differentiation, D, between taxa of various degrees of evolutionary divergence. The average value of D is 0.033 for local populations, 0.228 for subspecies, 0.226 for semispecies, 0.538 for sibling species, and 1.214 for morphologically distinguishable species. Our results indicate that a substantial degree of genetic differentiation (22.8 allelic substitutions for every 100 loci) occurs between allopatric populations that have diverged to the point where they might become different species if they were to become sympatric. However, very little additional genetic change is required for the development of complete reproductive isolation. After the speciation process is completed, species continue to diverge genetically from each other.
Ayala, Francisco J.; Tracey, Martin L.; Barr, Lorraine G.; McDonald, John F.; Perez-Salas, Santiago
Metallothioneins are intracellular regulators of many biological mechanisms including differentiation, proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion, which are crucial processes in carcinogenesis. This study examines the association between three single-nucleotide polymorphisms at loci -5 A/G (rs28366003) and -209 A/G (rs1610216) in the core promoter region and at locus +838 C/G (rs10636) in 3'UTR region of the metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene with squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCLC) risk, as well as with tumor invasiveness according to tumor front grading (TFG). Genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique in 323 genetically unrelated individuals with SCLC and 418 randomly selected healthy volunteers. Only one SNP (rs28366003) was significantly related to laryngeal cancer in the study population. Compared with homozygous common allele carriers, heterozygous and homozygous for the G variant had significantly increased risk of SCLC [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.90, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.53-5.21, p dominant < 0.001]. The A/G allele carriers at rs28366003 MT2A were at higher risk of SCLC development (OR = 2.63, 95 % CI 1.41-2.85, p < 0.001]. There was a significant association between the rs28366003 and stage and TFG classification. Most carriers of minor allele had a higher stage (OR = 2.76, 95 % CI 1.11-7.52, p = 0.03), increased cancer aggressiveness, as defined by a higher total TFG score (>18 points) (OR = 3.76, 95 % CI 1.15-12.56, p = 0.03) and diffuse tumor growth (OR = 5.86, 95 % Cl 0.72-44.79, p = 0.08). The results of this study raise a possibility that a genetic variation of MT2A may be implicated in the etiology of laryngeal cancer in a Polish population. PMID:24952512
Starska, Katarzyna; Krze?lak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Olszewski, Jurek; Lewy-Trenda, Iwona; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Bry?, Magdalena
The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide.
Dogac, Ersin; Kandemir, Irfan; Taskin, Vatan
The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide. PMID:23457499
Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, ?rfan; Taskin, Vatan
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of the polymorphisms of the KCNE1 gene with atrial fibrillation (AF) in a Chinese Han population. Methods: Three hundred seven AF patients and 330 age- and sex-matched controls were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism method for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1805127 and rs1892593) of the human KCNE1 gene. Results: The frequencies of the AA, AG, and GG genotypes of rs1805127 were 11.7%, 50.0%, and 43.3%, respectively, in the AF group, whereas the ones in the control group had frequencies of 19.4%, 44.9%, and 35.8%, respectively. There were significant differences in frequencies of these three genotypes (?2=7.820, p=0.016) and G allele (65.8% vs. 58.2%; ?2=8.266, p=0.005). The frequencies of AA, AG, and GG of rs1892593 were 38.4%, 47.9%, and 13.7% in the AF group, whereas the ones in the control group had frequencies of 37.8%, 48.5%, and 14.0%, respectively. There was no difference in distributions of frequencies of these three genotypes and allele (?2=0.051, p=0.978; ?2=1.024, p=0.837, respectively) between AF patients and control subjects. We also found that rs1805127 was associated with left atrial diameter and left ventricular end diastolic diameter in AF patients (?2=24.883, p<0.001; ?2=34.901, p<0.001, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that rs1805127 was an independent risk factor of AF in a Chinese Han population (odds ratio [OR]=1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–2.68 for AG; OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.24–3.31 for GG). Conclusion: The genetic polymorphism of KCNE1 was associated with increased risk of AF in a Chinese Han population.
Yao, Juan; Xie, Xiang; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bang-Dang
We have asked here how the remarkable variation in maize haplotype structure affects recombination. We compared recombination across a genetic interval of 9S in 2 highly dissimilar heterozygotes that shared 1 parent. The genetic interval in the common haplotype is ?100 kb long and contains 6 genes interspersed with gene-fragment-bearing Helitrons and retrotransposons that, together, comprise 70% of its length. In one heterozygote, most intergenic insertions are homozygous, although polymorphic, enabling us to determine whether any recombination junctions fall within them. In the other, most intergenic insertions are hemizygous and, thus, incapable of homologous recombination. Our analysis of the frequency and distribution of recombination in the interval revealed that: (i) Most junctions were circumscribed to the gene space, where they showed a highly nonuniform distribution. In both heterozygotes, more than half of the junctions fell in the stc1 gene, making it a clear recombination hotspot in the region. However, the genetic size of stc1 was 2-fold lower when flanked by a hemizygous 25-kb retrotransposon cluster. (ii) No junctions fell in the hypro1 gene in either heterozygote, making it a genic recombination coldspot. (iii) No recombination occurred within the gene fragments borne on Helitrons nor within retrotransposons, so neither insertion class contributes to the interval's genetic length. (iv) Unexpectedly, several junctions fell in an intergenic region not shared by all 3 haplotypes. (v) In general, the ability of a sequence to recombine correlated inversely with its methylation status. Our results show that haplotypic structural variability strongly affects the frequency and distribution of recombination events in maize.
He, Limei; Dooner, Hugo K.
SNPs (Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms), the most common DNA variant in humans, represent a valuable resource for the genetic analysis of cancer and other illnesses. These markers may be used in a variety of ways to investigate the genetic underpinnings of disease. In gene-based studies, the correlations between allelic variants of genes of interest and particular disease states are assessed. An extensive collection of SNP markers may enable entire molecular pathways regulating cell metabolism, growth, or differentiation to be analyzed by this approach. In addition, high-resolution genetic maps based on SNPs will greatly facilitate linkage analysis and positional cloning. The National Cancer Institute's CGAP-GAI (Cancer Genome Anatomy Project Genetic Annotation Initiative) group has identified 10,243 SNPs by examining publicly available EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) chromatograms. More than 6800 of these polymorphisms have been placed on expression-based integrated genetic/physical maps. In addition to a set of comprehensive SNP maps, we have produced maps containing single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes expressed in breast, colon, kidney, liver, lung, or prostate tissue. The integrated maps, a SNP search engine, and a Java-based tool for viewing candidate SNPs in the context of EST assemblies can be accessed via the CGAP-GAI web site (http://cgap.nci.nih.gov/GAI/). Our SNP detection tools are available to the public for noncommercial use. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the db SNP data library under accession nos. SS8196–SS18418.
Clifford, Robert; Edmonson, Michael; Hu, Ying; Nguyen, Cu; Scherpbier, Titia; Buetow, Kenneth H.
Background Merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) and MSP-2 of Plasmodium falciparum are potential vaccine candidate antigens for malaria vaccine development. However, extensive genetic polymorphism of the antigens in field isolates of P. falciparum represents a major obstacle for the development of an effective vaccine. In this study, genetic polymorphism of MSP-1 and MSP-2 among P. falciparum field isolates from Myanmar was analysed. Methods A total of 63 P. falciparum infected blood samples, which were collected from patients attending a regional hospital in Mandalay Division, Myanmar, were used in this study. The regions flanking the highly polymorphic characters, block 2 for MSP-1 and block 3 for MSP-2, were genotyped by allele-specific nested-PCR to analyse the population diversity of the parasite. Sequence analysis of the polymorphic regions of MSP-1 and MSP-2 was also conducted to identify allelic diversity in the parasite population. Results Diverse allelic polymorphism of MSP-1 and MSP-2 was identified in P. falciparum isolates from Myanmar and most of the infections were determined to be mixed infections. Sequence analysis of MSP-1 block 2 revealed that 14 different alleles for MSP-1 (5 for K1 type and 9 for MAD20 type) were identified. For MSP-2 block 3, a total of 22 alleles (7 for FC27 type and 15 for 3D7 type) were identified. Conclusion Extensive genetic polymorphism with diverse allele types was identified in MSP-1 and MSP-2 in P. falciparum field isolates from Myanmar. A high level of mixed infections was also observed, as was a high degree of multiplicity of infection.
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of the genetic polymorphism of two enzymes involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and glutathione-S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), on the urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P) in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and in unexposed workers (controls). The study group consisted of 30 controls recruited among employees of a service company and 171 PAHs-exposed workers from two electric steel plants and an iron foundry (all males, ranging between 18 and 60 years of age). Determination of airborne PAHs and urinary 1-OH-P was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric detection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to determine the genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (CYP1A1*2A and CYP1A1*2B) and GSTM1. No influence of the genetic polymorphism of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 on the urinary levels of 1-OH-P was observed in this study. PMID:12919721
Apostoli, P; Neri, G; Lucas, D; Manno, M; Berthou, F
The genetic polymorphism of the beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) gene was determined in 638 animals belonging to 15 native Indian sheep breeds reared in different agroecological regions for various production traits. Variants of beta-LG were found using PCR-RFLP of genomic DNA. Rsa1 restriction enzyme digestion of a 120-bp PCR fragment of exon 2 of beta-LG revealed two genetic variants, A (0.37) and B (0.63), and the three genotypes AA (0.175), AB (0.389), and BB (0.436). The differences in allelic frequency were not significant across the breeds, irrespective of their geographic origin and utility (chi(2) test, P > 0.05). The pattern of occurrence of allelic variants revealed that the B allele was more frequent in the majority of the Indian breeds than in breeds reported from countries of Southwest Asia, Eastern and Central Europe, and the Mediterranean. A higher level of heterozygosity (0.422) was discerned, despite the declining status of several of the Indian breeds. These findings revealed that Indian sheep are predominantly of the beta-LG B type. PMID:20052531
Arora, R; Bhatia, S; Mishra, B P; Sharma, R; Pandey, A K; Prakash, B; Jain, A
The risk assessment of mercury (Hg), in both humans and wildlife, is made challenging by great variability in exposure and health effects. Although disease risk arises following complex interactions between genetic ("nature") and environmental ("nurture") factors, most Hg studies thus far have focused solely on environmental factors. In recent years, ecogenetic-based studies have emerged and have started to document genetic and epigenetic factors that may indeed influence the toxicokinetics or toxicodynamics of Hg. The present study reviews these studies and discusses their utility in terms of Hg risk assessment, management, and policy and offers perspectives on fruitful areas for future research. In brief, epidemiological studies on populations exposed to inorganic Hg (e.g., dentists and miners) or methylmercury (e.g., fish consumers) are showing that polymorphisms in a number of environmentally responsive genes can explain variations in Hg biomarker values and health outcomes. Studies on mammals (wildlife, humans, rodents) are showing Hg exposures to be related to epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation. Such findings are beginning to increase understanding of the mechanisms of action of Hg, and in doing so they may help identify candidate biomarkers and pinpoint susceptible groups or life stages. Furthermore, they may help refine uncertainty factors and thus lead to more accurate risk assessments and improved decision-making. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:1248-1258. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:24038486
Basu, Niladri; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Head, Jessica
Dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis may be associated with the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and Alzheimers disease (AD). Recently, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) were associated with altered plasma CETP concentrations, cholesterol concentrations and CAD. Hence, these CETP SNPs represent excellent candidates for evaluating association with AD. To date, one study has evaluated the association between a single CETP SNP and AD. In this study, we examined three CETP SNPs to evaluate the genetic association of CETP with late onset AD on two study cohorts: the Religious Orders Study (ROS) series, including 85 AD and 70 non-AD individuals, and the University of Kentucky (UKY) series, including 78 AD and 84 non-AD individuals. Significant association between CETP genotypes or haplotypes and late onset AD was not detected in these two study cohorts. Moreover, the CETP genotypes and haplotypes were not significantly associated with AD when the populations were stratified for the presence or absence of apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4). In summary, CETP genetic variants were not associated with AD in two series. PMID:15882786
Zhu, Haiyan; Gopalraj, Rangaraj K; Kelly, Jeremiah F; Bennett, David A; Estus, Steven
The genetic diversity of B. canis was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. For this purpose, we identified a Babesia canis specific DNA probe named pS8. This 1.2 kbp probe can detect as low as 20 pg of B. canis DNA. Results suggest that the pS8 probe is distributed in multiple copies throughout the genome though is probably not itself internally repetitious, i.e. not structured into blocks of tandem units. This probe reveals discrete hybridizing fragments in B. canis enzyme-digested genomic DNA. RFLP patterns obtained with the pS8 probe revealed a large genetic diversity between various isolates and led us to distinguish several clones derived from a single isolate. Results suggest that for a single isolate, the fingerprints obtained reflect those of a few quantitatively dominant clones. This technique can now be routinely applied and provides a convenient tool for the characterization and the identification of B. canis isolates, strains and clones. PMID:8533020
Citard, T; Mähl, P; Boulouis, H J; Chavigny, C; Druilhe, P
Dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the pathophysiol-ogy of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Thus, genes related to the dopaminergic (DAergic) system are good candidate genes for schizophrenia. One of receptors of the DA receptor system is dopa-mine receptor 5 (DRD5). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions of DRD5 gene may affect gene expression, influence biosynthesis of DA and underlie various neuropsychiatric disorders re-lated to DA dysfunction. The present study explored the association of SNPs within the DRD5 gene with paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. A total of 176 patients with schizophrenia and 206 healthy controls were genotyped for four DRD5 SNPs (rs77434921, rs2076907, rs6283, and rs1800762). Significant group differences were observed in the allele and genotype frequencies of rs77434921 and rs1800762 and in the frequen-cies of GC haplotypes corresponding to rs77434921-rs1800762. Our find-ings suggest that common genetic variations of DRD5 are likely to con-tribute to genetic susceptibility to paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Further studies in larger samples are needed to replicate this association. PMID:24668635
Zhao, Y; Ding, M; Pang, H; Xu, X M; Wang, B J
Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of 198 unrelated health individuals of Tujia ethnic group from south China's Hunan Province. Genotyping and detection of PCR products were carried out on denaturing polycrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining. Allele frequencies and genotype frequencies were computed. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and differences of gene distribution were examined by SPSS 13.0. Fixation index, genetic polymorphism and indices of forensic application were calculated using Fstat and Powerstats, respectively. The results revealed that the frequencies of 65 alleles were distributed from 0.0048 to 0.6170. Among the ten X-STR loci, DXS6789, DXS6799 and HPRTB presented lower diversity and differentiation, while DXS7133 and DXS7423 showed lower value in forensic application. Results of multiple comparisons by loci showed that difference between German, Italian and Tujia population were the most dominant, and it suggested that great genetic differences did exist between Caucasian and Mongo-lian. In conclusion, DXS6804, DXS7132, DXS7130, DXS8378, DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS7424 and HPRTB had a good value in forensic identification, paternity testing of female and disease related study for Tujia population. PMID:18487145
Han, Wei; Yang, Li; Gui, Hong-Sheng; Yu, Bing; Wei, Jie; Li, Sheng-Bin
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin growth factor family and is implicated as a modulator of neuronal survival and differentiation, synaptic plasticity, and higher order cognitive functions such as learning and memory. A common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been identified in the human BDNF gene (BDNF Val66Met) that leads to decreased BDNF secretion and impairments in specific forms of learning in humans. To better understand the impact of this SNP on biological function, the authors generated a mouse model containing the BDNF Met allele, which they found to replicate the key phenotypes observed in humans and provided further insight into the functional impact of this SNP in vivo. They used a “bottom-up” approach to study the BDNF SNP, which provided external validation in biologically less complex, genetically uniform systems, which minimized the variability inherent in human studies. In this review, the authors discuss the impact of the BDNF SNP on learning and memory while providing arguments for the relevance of a vertically integrated approach to studying human genetic variants.
Dincheva, Iva; Glatt, Charles E.; Lee, Francis S.
The fragile-X mental retardation syndrome, one of the most prevalent chromosome X-linked diseases (approx. = 1 of 2000 newborn males), is characterized by the presence in affected males and in a portion of carrier females of a fragile site at chromosome band Xq27. The authors have performed a linkage analysis in 16 families between the locus for the fragile-X syndrome, FRAXQ27, and two polymorphic DNA markers that correspond to the anonymous probe St14 and to the coagulation factor IX gene F9. The results indicate that the order of loci is centromere-F9-FRAXQ27-St14-Xqter. The estimate of the recombination fraction for the linkage F9-FRAXQ27 is 0.12 and 0.10 for FRAXQ27-St14. Recombination between St14 and F9 does not appear to be significantly different in normal and fragile-X families. The two flanking probes were used for diagnosis of the carrier state and for detection of transmission of the disease through phenotypically normal males. They should also allow first-trimester diagnosis with a reliability of about 98% in 40% of the families. Used in conjunction with the cytogenetic analysis, the segregation studies with both probes should improve the genetic counseling for the fragile-X syndrome and should be useful for the formal genetic analysis of this unique disease.
Oberle, I.; Heilig, R.; Moisan, J.P.; Kloepfer, C.; Mattei, M.G.; Mattei, J.F.; Boue, J.; Froster-Iskenius, U.; Jacobs, P.A.; Lathrop, G.M.; Lalouel, J.M.
Background: Well-validated models of maternal behavior in small-brain mammals posit a central role of oxytocin in parenting, by reducing stress and enhancing the reward value of social interactions with offspring. In contrast, human studies are only beginning to gain insights into how oxytocin modulates maternal behavior and affiliation. Methods: To explore associations between oxytocin receptor genes and maternal parenting behavior in humans, we conducted a genetic imaging study of women selected to exhibit a wide range of observed parenting when their children were 4–6 years old. Results: In response to child stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), hemodynamic responses in brain regions that mediate affect, reward, and social behavior were significantly correlated with observed positive parenting. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs53576 and rs1042778) in the gene encoding the oxytocin receptor were significantly associated with both positive parenting and hemodynamic responses to child stimuli in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and hippocampus. Conclusions: These findings contribute to the emerging literature on the role of oxytocin in human social behavior and support the feasibility of tracing biological pathways from genes to neural regions to positive maternal parenting behaviors in humans using genetic imaging methods.
Michalska, Kalina J.; Decety, Jean; Liu, Chunyu; Chen, Qi; Martz, Meghan E.; Jacob, Suma; Hipwell, Alison E.; Lee, Steve S.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a common solid tumor in childhood divided into two histological subtypes, embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS). The ARMS subtype shows aggressive clinical behavior with poor prognosis, while the ERMS subtype has a more favorable outcome. Because of the rarity, diagnostic diversity and heterogeneity of this tumor, its etiology remains to be completely elucidated. Thus, to identify genetic alterations associated with RMS development, we performed single nucleotide polymorphism array analyses of 55 RMS samples including eight RMS-derived cell lines. The ERMS subtype was characterized by hyperploidy, significantly associated with gains of chromosomes 2, 8 and 12, whereas the majority of ARMS cases exhibited near-diploid copy number profiles. Loss of heterozygosity of 15q was detected in 45.5% of ARMS that had been unrecognized in RMS to date. Novel amplifications were also detected, including IRS2 locus in two fusion-positive tumors, and KRAS or NRAS loci in three ERMS cases. Of note, gain of 13q was significantly associated with good patient outcome in ERMS. We also identified possible application of an ALK inhibitor to RMS, as ALK amplification and frequent expression of ALK were detected in our RMS cohort. These findings enhance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying RMS pathogenesis and support further studies for therapeutic development of RMS. PMID:23578105
Nishimura, Riki; Takita, Junko; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Kato, Motohiro; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Hanada, Ryoji; Tanaka, Yukichi; Kato, Keisuke; Maeda, Daichi; Fukayama, Masashi; Sanada, Masashi; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Ogawa, Seishi
MOTIVATION: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common type of genetic variation in humans. However, the factors that affect SNP density are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to estimate the relative effects of mutability and selection on SNP density in transcribed regions of human genes. It is important for prediction of the regions that harbor functional
Ivan P Gorlov; Olga Y Gorlova; Christopher I Amos
HarborTides.com is a neat, user-friendly facility for tide information for over 2,500 harbors in the US (and Bermuda). Users may browse by state or search by zip code for information on high and low tides, sunrise and sunset, and longitude and latitude for every harbor. After filling out a form for free membership, users can also print out monthly tide tables.
Lymph node status is a key indicator of the best approach to treatment of invasive breast cancer. However, the accuracy with which lymph node metastasis is diagnosed is not currently satisfactory. New and more reliable methods that enable one to know who has a greater potential for lymph node metastasis would be highly desirable. We previously reported that lymph node involvement in esophageal and lung cancer may have a genetic component: C-reactive protein (CRP) 1846C?>?T genetic polymorphism. Here we examined the diagnostic value of CRP 1846C?>?T polymorphism for assessing the risk of lymph node metastasis in cases of invasive breast cancer. The study participants were 185 women with invasive breast cancer who underwent curative surgery with lymph node dissection. Using DNA from blood samples and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, the utility of CRP genetic 1846C?>?T polymorphism (rs1205) for assessing the risk of lymph node metastasis was evaluated. Fifty-two (28 %) patients had lymph node metastasis. After the patients were divided into two groups based on their CRP 1846 genotypes (C/C?+?C/T and T/T), the clinical characteristics did not differ between the groups, but there was a significantly greater incidence of lymph node metastasis among patients in the T/T group. Moreover, the odds ratio for lymph node involvement in patients carrying the 1846 T/T genotype was more than 2.2 in multivariate logistic regression models. CRP genetic polymorphism may be a novel predictor of the risk of lymph node metastasis in invasive breast cancer. PMID:24633920
Terata, Kaori; Motoyama, Satoru; Kamata, Shuichi; Hinai, Yudai; Miura, Masatomo; Sato, Yusuke; Yoshino, Kei; Ito, Aki; Imai, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto is a cosmopolitan parasite causing cystic echinococcosis in humans and livestock. Recent molecular phylogeographic studies suggested the rapid dispersal of the parasite by the anthropogenic movement of domestic animal hosts. In the present study, genetic polymorphism of E. granulosus s. s. in the Middle East, where the domestication started, was investigated to validate the dispersal history of the parasite. Thirty-five and 26 hydatid cysts were collected from Iran and Jordan, respectively, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene was sequenced. Chinese and Peruvian specimens were also analyzed for comparison. Haplotype network analysis demonstrated the existence of a common haplotype EG01 in all populations. Although EG01 and its one-step neighbors were the majority in all regions, most of the neighboring haplotypes were unique in each locality. Haplotype diversity was high but nucleotide diversity was low in Iran, Jordan and China. Both diversities were lowest and only a few haplotypes were found in Peru. Neutrality indices were significantly negative in Iran, Jordan and China, and positive but not significant in Peru. Pairwise fixation index was significant for all pairwise comparisons, indicating genetic differentiation among populations. These results suggest a evolutionary history of E. granulosus s. s. in which a genetic subgroup including EG01 was selected at the dawn of domestication, and then it was rapidly dispersed worldwide through the diffusion of stock raising. To approach the origin of the ancestral strain, extensive sampling is needed in many endemic regions. To evaluate the hypothetical evolutionary scenario, further study is needed to analyze specimens from diverse host species in wider regions. PMID:22668837
Yanagida, Tetsuya; Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh; Kamhawi, Shaden; Nakao, Minoru; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Hijjawi, Nawal; Abdel-Hafez, Sami K; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira
Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 hrp sequences were used as hybridization probes in a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 24 P. syringae pv. tabaci strains as a means to evaluate the genetic and taxonomic relationship of pathovars of P. syringae. Southern blot analyses of genomic restriction digests, with hrpA-S sequences as hybridization probes, and restriction analyses of PCR-amplified DNA of regions within hrpD were conducted. The resulting RFLP patterns were uniform for 23 of the 24 isolates tested, with strain BR2R having a unique pattern. BR2R is a pathogen of bean which was classified as pathovar tabaci because of its ability to produce tabtoxin, but unlike the other 23 tabaci strains in this study, it does not incite disease symptoms on tobacco. When a DNA fragment containing hrpM sequences was used as a hybridization probe, the tabaci isolates could be divided into three groups on the basis of the RFLP patterns : BR2R, Pt11528R and Pt113R, and the remaining strains. For all of the above analyses, BR2R shared identical RFLP patterns with P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121, also a bean pathogen which does not cause disease on tobacco. However, BR2R AND NPS3121 could be differentiated from each other on the basis of the RFLP patterns from restriction analysis of PCR-amplified DNA of argF, while the remaining tabaci strains had a third pattern. These studies indicate that hrp genes and argF are conserved in strains of P. syringae pathogenic to tobacco, suggesting that P. syringae strains pathogenic to specific hosts may have a high level of genetic similarity. We believe that these analyses have shown that distinct identifiable genetic differences may be correlated with host range and suggest that such information may be useful for assigning pathovar designations. Images
Scholz, B K; Jakobek, J L; Lindgren, P B
We are entering the era of personalized genomics as breakthroughs in sequencing technology have made it possible to sequence or genotype an individual person in an efficient and accurate manner. Preliminary results from HapMap and other similar projects have revealed the existence of tremendous genetic variations among world populations and among individuals. It is important to delineate the functional implication of such variations, i.e. whether they affect the stability and biochemical properties of proteins. It is also generally believed that the genetic variation is the main cause for different susceptibility to certain diseases or different response to therapeutic treatments. Understanding genetic variation in the context of human diseases thus holds the promise for “personalized medicine.” In this work, we carried out a genome-wide analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could potentially influence protein phosphorylation characteristics in human. Here, we defined a phosphorylation-related SNP (phosSNP) as a non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP) that affects the protein phosphorylation status. Using an in-house developed kinase-specific phosphorylation site predictor (GPS 2.0), we computationally detected that ?70% of the reported nsSNPs are potential phosSNPs. More interestingly, ?74.6% of these potential phosSNPs might also induce changes in protein kinase types in adjacent phosphorylation sites rather than creating or removing phosphorylation sites directly. Taken together, we proposed that a large proportion of the nsSNPs might affect protein phosphorylation characteristics and play important roles in rewiring biological pathways. Finally, all phosSNPs were integrated into the PhosSNP 1.0 database, which was implemented in JAVA 1.5 (J2SE 5.0). The PhosSNP 1.0 database is freely available for academic researchers.
Ren, Jian; Jiang, Chunhui; Gao, Xinjiao; Liu, Zexian; Yuan, Zineng; Jin, Changjiang; Wen, Longping; Zhang, Zhaolei; Xue, Yu; Yao, Xuebiao
Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic disposition. This study examined the hypothesis that genetic variants of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) that are reported to alter neurobehavioral functions that are also affected by Hg in adults might modify the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg exposure in children. Five hundred and seven children, 8-12 yr of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of Hg from dental amalgam tooth fillings. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and at seven subsequent annual intervals for neurobehavioral performance and urinary Hg levels. Following the clinical trial, genotyping assays were performed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of COMT rs4680, rs4633, rs4818, and rs6269 on biological samples provided by 330 of the trial participants. Regression-modeling strategies were employed to evaluate associations between allelic status, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes. Similar analysis was performed using haplotypes of COMT SNPs. Among girls, few interactions for Hg exposure and COMT variants were found. In contrast, among boys, numerous gene-Hg interactions were observed between individual COMT SNPs, as well as with a common COMT haplotype affecting multiple domains of neurobehavioral function. These findings suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children with common genetic variants of COMT, and may have important implications for strategies aimed at protecting children from the potential health risks associated with Hg exposure. PMID:24593143
Woods, James S; Heyer, Nicholas J; Russo, Joan E; Martin, Michael D; Pillai, Pradeep B; Bammler, Theodor K; Farin, Federico M
Little is known about the genetic foundations of colony social organization. One rare example in which a single major gene is implicated in the expression of alternative social organizations involves the presumed odorant-binding protein gene Gp-9 in fire ants. Specific amino acid substitutions in this gene invariably are associated with the expression of monogyny (single queen per colony) or polygyny (multiple queens per colony) in fire ant species of the Solenopsis richteri clade. These substitutions are hypothesized to alter the abilities of workers to recognize queens and thereby regulate their numbers in a colony. We examined whether these same substitutions underlie the monogyny/polygyny social polymorphism in the distantly related fire ant S. geminata. We found that Gp-9 coding region sequences are identical in the polygyne and monogyne forms of this species, disproving our hypothesis that one or a few specific amino acid replacements in the protein are necessary to induce transitions in social organization in fire ants. On the other hand, polygyne S. geminata differs genetically from the monogyne form in ways not mirrored in the two forms of S. invicta, a well-studied member of the S. richteri clade, supporting the conclusion that polygyny did not evolve via analogous routes in the two lineages. Specifically, polygyne S. geminata has lower genetic diversity and different gene frequencies than the monogyne form, suggesting that the polygyne form originated via a founder event from a local monogyne population. These comparative data suggest an alternative route to polygyny in S. geminata in which loss of allelic variation at genes encoding recognition cues has led to a breakdown in discrimination abilities and the consequent acceptance of multiple queens in colonies. PMID:14704171
Ross, Kenneth G; Krieger, Michael J B; Shoemaker, D DeWayne
Purpose Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant condition which maps to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 20. Mutations in the VSX1 transcription factor have been reported in patients affected with PPCD, keratoconus, or a combination of both phenotypes. However, no mutation was identified in the coding region of VSX1 in the family used for the original mapping. To clarify the genetic basis of PPCD1, a thorough analysis was performed on the original PPCD1 family and two other PPCD1-linked families. As part of the analysis, the expression profile, transcript variants, and evolutionary conserved regions of VSX1, a key candidate gene within the linkage interval, were characterized. Methods Haplotype analysis was performed using highly informative markers on the pericentromeric region of chromosome 20. VSX1 transcript variants were identified using RT–PCR and characterized by 3?RACE assay. Temporal expression profile of VSX1 was evaluated using semi-quantitative real-time RT–PCR on human tissues. Evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) were identified in the vicinity of VSX1 using publicly available sequence alignments (UCSC and rVista) and sequenced for mutation analysis. Results Recombination events were identified that narrow the PPCD1-disease interval from 20 to 16.44 cM. This smaller interval includes the CHED1 locus and a recently described PPCD locus in Czech families. The three strongest candidate genes of the PPCD1-CHED1 overlap region (RBBP9, ZNF133, SLC24A3) did not show any mutations in our PPCD1-linked families. Semi-quantitative real-time RT–PCR detected VSX1 expression in neonatal human cornea. Six transcript variants of VSX1 were characterized. Four of the transcript variants spliced to two novel exons downstream of the gene. Mutation analysis of the PPCD1-linked families did not reveal any mutations in the full genomic sequence of VSX1 (considering all splice variants) or in the six cis- regulatory modules predicted in the vicinity of VSX1 (100 kb). Conclusions This is the first documentation of VSX1 expression in human neonatal cornea. We provide evidence for genetic heterogeneity of chromosome 20-related PPCD and refinement of the original PPCD1 interval. The full genomic sequence of VSX1 and coding exons of three other candidate genes were excluded from being pathogenic in the original PPCD1 family.
Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Herd, Sarah; Vincent, Andrea L.
Self-fertilizing species often harbor less genetic variation than cross-fertilizing species, and at least four different models have been proposed to explain this trend. To investigate further the relationship between mating system and genetic variation, levels of DNA sequence polymorphism were compared among three closely related species in the genus Caenorhabditis: two self-fertilizing species, Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae, and one
Andrew Graustein; John M. Gaspar; James R. Walters; Michael F. Palopoli
Cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to evaluate the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of IL-4 gene and AD susceptibility. This case-control study was conducted in Chinese Han populations consisting of 203 AD patients and 205 controls. Three common SNPs of IL-4 gene, including -590C>T (rs2243250), -33C>T (rs2070874), and -1098T>G (rs2243248), were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and verified using DNA sequencing methods. Our data show that -590C and -1098G alleles of IL-4 were more common in AD patients (30.5% vs 22.2% p=0.007; 14.3% vs 3.4% p<0.0001) and significantly associated with elevated risk for AD (OR=1.51 95% CI 1.05-2.23; OR=4.78 95% CI 2.37-7.67). Haplotype analysis revealed five common haplotypes CCG (OR=4.41), CCT (OR=1.22), TTT (OR=1.02), CTT (OR=0.7), and TCT (OR=0.14), from highest to lowest risk for AD. None of the associations appeared to be modified by APOE ?4 genetic variant. Bioinformatic analysis shows that -590C>T and -1098T>G have a linkage disequilibrium (LD) with multiple potentially functional SNPs inside IL-4 gene. Our findings indicate that the -590C and -1098G alleles located in the promoter of IL-4 may increase the susceptibility to AD among the Han Chinese and might be used as molecular markers for AD risk evaluation. PMID:24463336
Li, Wei; Qian, Xiaohua; Teng, Hong; Ding, Ying; Zhang, Li
The beta-adrenoceptor agonist, isoprenaline, inhibited the immunoglobulin E-mediated release of histamine from human lung mast cells (HLMC). Long-term (24 h) exposure of HLMC to isoprenaline reduced the subsequent effectiveness of isoprenaline to inhibit histamine release. The extent of this functional desensitization was variable with some HLMC preparations resistant and others highly susceptible. We sought to determine whether the variability in the degree of functional desensitization was influenced by genetic polymorphisms in the beta2-adrenoceptor. HLMC preparations were genotyped at two polymorphic loci, positions 16 (arg to gly) and 27 (gln to glu), and the effect of desensitizing conditions (24 h with 10(-6) M isoprenaline) on the subsequent ability of isoprenaline (10(-7) M) to inhibit histamine release from HLMC was determined (n = 72). In HLMC preparations expressing beta2-adrenoceptors with arg (wild-type) or gly (mutant) at position 16, desensitization was 71 +/- 5% (n = 18) or 43 +/- 5%, (n = 26), respectively, whereas the desensitization was 59 +/- 6% (n = 28) for heterozygotes at this position. In HLMC preparations expressing beta2-adrenoceptors with gln (wild-type) or glu (mutant) at position 27, desensitization was 65 +/- 5% (n = 25) or 28 +/- 7% (n = 17), respectively, whereas the desensitization was 61 +/- 5% (n = 30) for heterozygotes at this position. These data suggest that mutant (gly16 and glu27) forms of the receptor are resistant to desensitization compared to wild-type (arg16 and gln27) forms. However, analyses to determine the relative contributions of positions 16 and 27 suggest that position 27 is more important in influencing the degree of functional desensitization. PMID:10762003
Chong, L K; Chowdry, J; Ghahramani, P; Peachell, P T
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is the main player in angiogenesis. Because of its crucial role in this process, the study of the genetic factors controlling VEGF variability may be of particular interest for many angiogenesis-associated diseases. Although some polymorphisms in the VEGF gene have been associated with a susceptibility to several disorders, no genome-wide search on VEGF serum levels has been reported so far. We carried out a genome-wide linkage analysis in three isolated populations and we detected a strong linkage between VEGF serum levels and the 6p21.1 VEGF region in all samples. A new locus on chromosome 3p26.3 significantly linked to VEGF serum levels was also detected in a combined population sample. A sequencing of the gene followed by an association study identified three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing VEGF serum levels in one population (Campora), two already reported in the literature (rs3025039, rs25648) and one new signal (rs3025020). A fourth SNP (rs41282644) was found to affect VEGF serum levels in another population (Cardile). All the identified SNPs contribute to the related population linkages (35% of the linkage explained in Campora and 15% in Cardile). Interestingly, none of the SNPs influencing VEGF serum levels in one population was found to be associated in the two other populations. These results allow us to exclude the hypothesis that the common variants located in the exons, intron-exon junctions, promoter and regulative regions of the VEGF gene may have a causal effect on the VEGF variation. The data support the alternative hypothesis of a multiple rare variant model, possibly consisting in distinct variants in different populations, influencing VEGF serum levels.
Ruggiero, Daniela; Dalmasso, Cyril; Nutile, Teresa; Sorice, Rossella; Dionisi, Laura; Aversano, Mario; Broet, Philippe; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Bourgain, Catherine; Ciullo, Marina
Objective We investigated possible association between depressive disorders and BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) gene are promising candidate genes for depressive disorders. It has been suggested that BDNF promotes the survival and differentiation of serotonergic neurons and that serotonergic transmission exerts powerful control over BDNF gene expression. Methods Final analyses were performed on 186 patients with depressive disorders and 1032 controls. Val66Met polymorphism of BDNF gene and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene were genotyped and allele and genotypic associations on the diagnosis of depression and age at onset of depression were analyzed. Results The 5-HTTLPR was positively associated with depressive affected status in the total sample and in females (p=0.038 for allelewise, p=0.015 for genotype-wise associations), but, not in males. The BDNF Val66Met showed no association with depression. BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR alone were not associated with age at onset of depression. Additional analysis on the interaction between BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR found a significant association with age at onset of depression in the entire patient group. This association was also found in the female but not in the male patient group. None of the positive results survived Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Conclusion This result suggested that BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR may contribute to depressive disorders in a complex way and that the genetic effect could differ by gender. Further studies with large number of patients will be necessary.
Lee, Kyu Young; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kim, Se Hyun; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik; Jung, Hee Yeon; Bang, Yang Weon
Although tobacco and alcohol consumption are the major risk factors of head and neck cancer (HNC), genetic variations of genes involved in several biological pathways, such as DNA repair genes, may affect an individual’s susceptibility to HNC. However, few studies have investigated the associations between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and HNC risk in the Chinese population. Thus, we genotyped five common, non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [APEX1 (Asp148Glu), XRCC1 (Arg399Gln), ADPRT (Val762Ala), XPD (Lys751Gln) and XPG (His1104Asp)] in a hospital-based, case-control study of 397 HNC cases and 900 cancer-free controls in China. The results showed that none of the five SNPs in the DNA repair pathway was significantly associated with HNC risk, suggesting that these polymorphisms may not play a major role in HNC susceptibility in this Chinese population.
YUAN, HUA; LI, HUIZHANG; MA, HONGXIA; NIU, YUMING; WU, YUNONG; ZHANG, SHANGYUE; HU, ZHIBIN; SHEN, HONGBING; CHEN, NING
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP) have been identified between widely distant cultivars (‘Minsoy’ and ‘Noir 1 ’) of soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill. Using as probes randomly chosen clones of DNA, one in five probes revealed a polymorphism. More than half of these polymorphisms appear to result from rearrangements of the genomic DNA. Twenty seven markers were analyzed for linkage
N. R. Apuya; B. L. Frazier; P. Keim; E. Jill Roth; K. G. Lark
Nephrin, the molecule responsible for congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type, is crucial in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. Recently, its complete gene structure and common gene polymorphisms in its exons have been reported, although the functional and clinical significance of these polymorphisms has not yet been elucidated. We investigated a possible association of the NPHS1 polymorphisms with the development
Ichiei Narita; Shin Goto; Noriko Saito; Jin Song; Daisuke Kondo; Kentaro Omori; Hiroshi Kawachi; Fujio Shimizu; Minoru Sakatsume; Mitsuhiro Ueno; Fumitake Gejyo
Obesity and insulin resistance is a common finding in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Significant number of PCOS women experience insulin resistance that is irrespective of the degree of obesity suggesting possible genetic basis. Therefore, several polymorphisms of the genes encoding for the insulin (INS), insulin receptor (INSR) or insulin receptor substrates (IRS) involved in postreceptor signaling have been explored for their association with abnormal sensitivity to insulin in PCOS. The aim of the present study was to determine whether selected polymorphisms of INS, INSR and IRS-1 are associated with the development of PCOS as well as with increased insulin resistance in Croatian women with PCOS. The study enrolled 150 women with PCOS and 175 control women. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on Rotterdam consensus criteria. Each subject underwent an evaluation of body mass index (BMI), hirsutism, acne and menstrual cycle abnormalities as well as follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total and free testosterone, androstendione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), fasting glucose and fasting insulin. Insulin resistance (IR) was quantified using the homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Molecular analyses for the genetic polymorphisms were preformed. There was a significant difference in clinical and biochemical characteristics of the studied groups except for BMI and fasting glucose levels. No significant differences were observed in the genotype and allele distribution of the VNTR INS, C/T INSR, Gly792Arg IRS-1 polymorphisms between cases and controls. Moreover, no association was found between VNTR INS, C/T INSR and Gly792Arg IRS-1 polymorphism and parameters of insulin resistance in PCOS patients. In conclusion, our data does not support an association between VNTR INS, C/T INSR and Gly792Arg IRS-1 polymorphism and susceptibility to PCOS or insulin resistance in Croatian women with PCOS. PMID:23697264
Skrgati?, Lana; Baldani, Dinka Pavici?; Gersak, Ksenija; Cerne, Jasmina Ziva; Ferk, Polonca; Cori?, Mario
The Inner Harbor Plaza is a tourist friendly area in downtown Baltimore that has been described as a model for post-industrial waterfront redevelopment. This 1985 photograph gives an impression of the amount of draw the museums, shopping and restaurants of the Inner Harbor generate. Peaking into the right of the frame is the USS Constellation.
This United States Geological Survey (USGS) site is designed to summarize and make available results of scientific research conducted in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts since 1985. A computer image of the harbor indicates ecosystem zones with descriptions (watershed, estuary, inner shelf, and basin), sewage outfall sites, and rock types. Links are provided for more information on this region.
Metformin is a well-known antidiabetic medication, which, besides diabetes, may be involved into modulation of other age-related pathologies, including cancer. The study concerns 12 gene polymorphisms divided into 2 groups consisting of 6 genes each. The first group was composed from so-called "standard" (S) polymorphisms, for which the connection with metabolic response to metformin is already established. The second group included polymorphisms of genes encoding proteins possibly connected with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), impaired glucose tolerance or cancer and entitled here as "associated" (A). A total of 156 postmenopausal women (average age 60.7 ± 0.7) were included, 37 of them healthy, 64 with type DM2 and concurrent treatment-naïve cancer (mostly breast, endometrial or colorectal cancer), 32 with DM2 without cancer, and 23 with treatment-naïve cancer and normal glucose tolerance. The leading metformin response S-marker in combined group of DM2 patients was the CC variant of OCT1-R61C polymorphism of organic cation transporter protein 1 gene. In cancer patients without DM2, this position belonged to AC and AA genotypes of OCT1_rs622342 polymorphism. Among the A-polymorphisms, GA variant of sex hormone-binding globulin gene SHBG_D356N was less frequently observed in DM2 patients with or without cancer. Besides, in diabetics, the same polymorphic variant of SHBG as well as GC genotype of oxidized lipoprotein receptor OLR1_G501C and GG genotype of locus rs11065987 near BRAP gene were carried rather often in combination with "metformin-positive" variant of OCT1_R61C. In addition, carriers of OCT1_R61C and OCT1_rs622342 polymorphisms with potentially positive reaction to metformin had higher insulin resistance score (HOMA-IR) values. Received data lead to the conclusion that postmenopausal diabetics, both with and without cancer, differ in genetic stigmata of potential response to metformin less than they differ from cancer patients without DM2. As genetic polymorphisms associated with metabolic and anticancer metformin (and, possibly, phenformin) effects may be different, this subject requires further investigation. PMID:24145224
Berstein, Lev M; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Vasilyev, Dmitry; Poroshina, Tatyana E; Imyanitov, Evgeny N
Two new genetic polymorphisms (Pe and Po) are found in human parotid saliva. Each polymorphism is determined by the autosomal inheritance of one expressed (dominant) and one unexpressed (recessive) allele. Autosomal inheritance is supported by studies of 63 families including 264 children for Pe and 57 families including 242 children for Po. For randomly collected salivas, gene frequencies in 317
Edwin A. Azen; Pao-Lo Yu
Genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in estrogen synthesizing/transporting can influence the risk of hormone-dependent diseases. The incidence rate and relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are higher in men than in women. This study was conducted to explore the relationship of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 ?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD17B1 and HSD17B2) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) genes with the risk of HCC within Chinese Han population. Polymorphisms of HSD17B1 rs676387, HSD17B2 rs8191246 and SHBG rs6259 were genotyped in 253 HCC patients and 438 healthy control subjects using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Significantly increased HCC risk was found to be associated with T allele of rs676387 and G allele of rs8191246. Increased HCC risks were found in different genetic model (TT genotype in a recessive model, T allele carriers in a dominant model, TT genotype and TG genotype in a codominant model for HSD17B1 rs676387, G allele carriers in a dominant model and AG genotype in a codominant model for HSD17B2 rs8191246, respectively). No association between SHBG rs6259 and HCC risk was observed. The present study provided evidence that HSD17B1 rs676387 and HSD17B2 rs8191246 were association with HCC development. Further studies in diverse ethnic population with larger sample size were recommended to confirm the findings. PMID:24563232
Zhang, Lu Shun; Yuan, Fang; Guan, Xuan; Li, Juan; Liu, Xin Lian; Sun, Jing; Liu, Bo; Ma, Wei; Deng, Feng Mei
Direct amplification of length polymorphisms (DALP) uses an arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) to produce genomic fingerprints and to enable sequencing of DNA polymorphisms in virtually any species. Oligonucleotide pairs were designed to each produce a specific multi-banded pattern and all the fragments thus generated can be directly sequenced with the same two universal M13 sequencing primers. This strategy combines the advantages of a high resolution fingerprint technique and the possibility of characterizing the polymorphisms. The use of family members as templates in the multi-locus detection step allows a direct test of allele transmission, as well as early mapping of the markers or selection of loci associated with some traits or diseases. We used this method to detect micro-deletions/insertions and microsatellite DNA loci useful in population genetics studies, but it could be applied in many other fields of biology, such as genome mapping for definition of polymorphic sequence tagged sites, directly localized on a genetic map.
Desmarais, E; Lanneluc, I; Lagnel, J
A failure of neural changes initiated by the estrogen surge in late pregnancy to reverse the valence of infant stimuli from aversive to rewarding is associated with dysfunctional maternal behavior in nonhuman mammals. Estrogen receptor-? plays the crucial role in mediating these neural effects of estrogen priming. This preliminary study examines associations between estrogen receptor-? gene polymorphisms and human maternal behavior. Two polymorphisms were associated with human negative maternal parenting. Furthermore, hemodynamic responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging to child stimuli in neural regions associated with social cognition fully mediated the association between genetic variation and negative parenting. This suggests testable hypotheses regarding a biological pathway between genetic variants and dysfunctional human maternal parenting.
Lahey, Benjamin B.; Michalska, Kalina J.; Liu, Chunyu; Chen, Qi; Hipwell, Alison E.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Decety, Jean
Background Rituximab in the combination of CHOP chemotherapy has been widely used as the standard treatment for several kinds of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Inactivation of phosphorylation of STAT3 plays an essential role in rituximab-induced anti-proliferative activity in B-cell lymphoma. However, the relationship between STAT3 genetic polymorphisms and clinical response to standard frontline treatment with rituximab has not been well illustrated yet. Methods In this study we analyzed the STAT3 polymorphisms and prognosis of 166 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients who were treated with rituximab from 2007 to 2010. Determination of the STAT3 polymorphisms of rs2293152 from genomic DNA was achieved by Sanger chain termination sequencing. Results We did not observe obvious correlation between patients’ disease features and STAT3 polymorphisms, but patients with homozygous genotypes at rs2293162 showed a trend of higher CR rate than those with the heterozygous genotype, especially in non-GCB subgroup (p?=?0.011). Furthermore, homozygous genotypes GG and CC also showed advantages of long-term survival compared with heterozygous genotype patients (p?=?0.022). Conclusions These results suggest that STAT3 polymorphisms could be a suitable biomarker related to clinical outcome of DLBCL patients treated with rituximab.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) is associated with specific germ-line missense mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. Only a minor fraction of human disorders are simple monogenic diseases, and the identification of polymorphisms that increase susceptibility, including variations in pathological phenotypes, to human diseases is one of the key problems in medical genetics. To explore this idea, we analyzed the polymorphisms G691S (exon 11) and S904S (TCC-TCG, exon 15) of RET in 198 individuals corresponding to 35 unrelated Spanish MEN 2A families (104 patients with oncogenic MEN 2A mutation and 94 healthy relatives). We found strong cosegregation between both polymorphisms (100% Fisher's exact test, P < 0.001) using a control population containing 653 healthy individuals (362 females and 291 males). Interestingly, we found that the homozygous for these polymorphisms were, on average, 10 years younger at diagnosis compared with heterozygous and wild-type homozygous (P = 0.037). Taken together, all these findings could indicate that the G691S and S904S variants of RET have a modifier effect on the age at onset of MEN 2A. Moreover, compared with the control population, the homozygote status was significantly more prevalent in a series of 110 sporadic thyroid carcinoma (odds ratio = 2.36), suggesting that these polymorphisms may play a role as a low penetrance risk factor. PMID:12702567
Robledo, Mercedes; Gil, Laura; Pollán, Marina; Cebrián, Arancha; Ruíz, Sergio; Azañedo, Marta; Benitez, Javier; Menárguez, Javier; Rojas, José M
Genetic polymorphism of human apolipoprotein E (apo E) has previously been demonstrated by one-dimensional isoelectric focusing (Utermann et al. 1977b) and by two-dimensional electrophoresis of apolipoproteins (Zannis et al. 1981), but the relationship between the results obtained by these methods remained unclear. We therefore performed comparative phenotyping by one-dimensional and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Apoproteins from very low-density lipoproteins (apo VLDL) prepared
Gerd Utermann; Armin Steinmetz; Wilfried Weber
Background: Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant drug for prophylaxis and treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolic disorders. Its anticoagulant effect is widely variable between patients because of pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacogenetic factors.Objective: This study was conducted to identify the associations between demographic characteristics, warfarin maintenance dose, and genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19, CYP2C9, and vitamin
Soha Namazi; Negar Azarpira; Fatemeh Hendijani; Maryam Banan Khorshid; Ghazal Vessal; Ahmad Reza Mehdipour
BackgroundCYP2E1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, which is involved in the metabolism and activation of both endobiotics and xenobiotics. The genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 gene (Chromosome 10q26.3, Accession Number NC_000010.10) are reported to be related to the development of several mental diseases and to be involved in the clinical efficacy of some psychiatric medications. We investigated the
Ran Huo; Kefu Tang; Zhiyun Wei; Lu Shen; Yuyu Xiong; Xi Wu; Jiamin Niu; Xia Han; Zhengan Tian; Lun Yang; Guoyin Feng; Lin He; Shengying Qin
Using to analysis of hypervariable fragment polymorphism in the control region of mitochondrial DNA(268 bp), the genetic variability\\u000a of Swan goose Anser cygnoides L., included in the first category of endangered species in the Russian Red Book, has been investigated. Samples from the\\u000a two main groups nesting in Russia—the Far Eastern group (Khabarovsk krai, n = 38) and the Dauric
N. D. Poyarkov; A. V. Klenova; M. V. Kholodova
We analyzed changes in the genetic structure and effective population size of two ecologically distinct populations of Drosophila subobscura over several years. Population sizes of D. subobscura in beech and oak wood habitats for a period of 6 years were estimated by the capture-mark-release-recapture method. Inversion polymorphism\\u000a parameters were also assessed in the same populations for a period of 3 years.\\u000a \\u000a Significant
Marina Stamenkovic-Radak; Gordana Rasic; Tatjana Savic; Predrag Kalajdzic; Zorana Kurbalija; Bojan Kenig; Marko Andjelkovic
DNA polymorphisms have been identified in the genes encoding a number of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, leading to wide interindividual variation in drug clearance. CYP2D6 metabolizes a significant number of clinically used medications, and genetic vari- ants of the CYP2D6 isozyme that result in varying levels of metabolic activity are of clinical importance in some settings. The exact nature
Stephen Bernard; Kathleen A. Neville; Anne T. Nguyen; David A. Flockhart
Fifteen plastid fragments were amplified from a set of Tunisian date-palm accessions by PCR with consensus primers and analysed by RFLP. Polymorphic DNA bands were obtained as reliable molecular markers to estimate genetic distances among the accessions and to examine their phylogenetic relationships. The ctDNA PCR-RFLP method permitted the identification of two haplotypes that differ in the presence or absence
Sakka Hela; Zehdi Salwa; Ould Mohamed Salem Ali; Rhouma Abdelmajid; Marrakchi Mohamed; Trifi Mokhtar
The cytochrome P450 2C19 and 2D6 enzymes are predominantly found in the human liver, and have important functions in the metabolism of many different classes of commonly used drugs. Their genetic polymorphisms give rise to both important interethnic variability in metabolism and the risk of treatment failure or dose-dependent drug toxicity. To investigate genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genes
Q Zhou; X M Yu; H B Lin; L Wang; Q Z Yun; S N Hu; D-M Wang
The objective of this study was to determine the association of 5-HT2C (serotonin 2C receptor) and MDR1 (multidrug resistant protein) genetic polymorphisms and antipsychotic-induced metabolic abnormalities among female patients with DSM IV schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We have previously reported the associations of ?759CT 5-HT2C and G2677T and C3435T MDR1 genetic polymorphisms and olanzapine\\/risperidone-induced weight gain in a similar sample of
M R Kuzman; V Medved; N Bozina; J Grubišin; N Jovanovic; J Sertic; Kuzman
The investigation of the importance of the genetics of Trypanosoma cruzi in determining the clinical course of Chagas disease will depend on precise characterisation of the parasites present in the tissue lesions. This can be adequately accomplished by the use of hypervariable nuclear markers such as microsatellites. However the unilocal nature of these loci and the scarcity of parasites in chronic lesions make it necessary to use high sensitivity PCR with nested primers, whose design depends on the availability of long flanking regions, a feature not hitherto available for any known T. cruzi microsatellites. Herein, making use of the extensive T. cruzi genome sequence now available and using the Tandem Repeats Finder software, it was possible to identify and characterise seven new microsatellite loci--six composed of trinucleotide (TcTAC15, TcTAT20, TcAAT8, TcATT14, TcGAG10 and TcCAA10) and one composed of tetranucleotide (TcAAAT6) motifs. All except the TcCAA10 locus were physically mapped onto distinct intergenic regions of chromosome III of the CL Brener clone contigs. The TcCAA10 locus was localised within a hypothetical protein gene in the T. cruzi genome. All microsatellites were polymorphic and useful for T. cruzi genetic variability studies. Using the TcTAC15 locus it was possible to separate the strains belonging to the T. cruzi I lineage (DTU I) from those belonging to T. cruzi II (DTU IIb), T. cruzi III (DTU IIc) and a hybrid group (DTU IId, IIe). The long flanking regions of these novel microsatellites allowed construction of nested primers and the use of full nested PCR protocols. This strategy enabled us to detect and differentiate T. cruzi strains directly in clinical specimens including heart, blood, CSF and skin tissues from patients in the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. PMID:18154957
Valadares, Helder Magno Silva; Pimenta, Juliana Ramos; de Freitas, Jorge Marcelo; Duffy, Tomás; Bartholomeu, Daniella C; Oliveira, Riva de Paula; Chiari, Egler; Moreira, Maria da Consolação Vieira; Filho, Geraldo Brasileiro; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Franco, Glória Regina; Machado, Carlos Renato; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho; Macedo, Andréa Mara
Background The gene zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3) encodes a transcription factor with cardiac expression and its genetic variants are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to explore the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ZFHX3 and the risk of AF in a Chinese Han population. Methods We genotyped eight SNPs, including seven potentially functional SNPs and one previously reported SNP by using the middle-throughput iPLEX Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in logistic regression models. Results We enrolled a total of 1,593 Chinese Han origin individuals in the study, including 597 AF patients and 996 non-AF controls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that potentially functional SNPs rs6499600 and rs16971436 were associated with a decreased risk of AF (adjusted OR ?=?0.73, 95% CI: 0.63–0.86, P?=?1.07×10?4; adjusted OR ?=?0.74, 95% CI: 0.56–0.98, P?=?0.039, respectively). In addition, rs2106261 showed a robust association with an increased risk of AF (adjusted OR ?=?1.71, 95% CI: 1.46–2.00, P?=?1.85×10?11). After multiple comparisons, rs16971436 conferred a borderline significant association with the risk of AF. Stratification analysis indicated that the risks of AF were statistically different among subgroups of age for rs2106261, and the effect for rs16971436 was more evident in subgroups of patients with coronary artery disease. Conclusion In summary, our study investigated the role of genetic variants of ZFHX3 in AF and two SNPs (rs2106261, rs6499600) showed significant associations while rs16971436 conferred a borderline significant association with AF risk in Chinese Han populations. However, further large and functional studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
Lin, Yuan; Chen, Xin-guang; Fang, Zhen; Zhao, Liyan; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Fengxiang
Cow milk allergy is the most frequent allergy in the first years of life. Milk from other mammalian species has been suggested as a possible nutritional alternative to cow milk, but in several cases, the clinical studies showed a high risk of cross-reactivity with cow milk. In the goat species, ?S?-casein (?S?-CN), coded by the CSN1S1 gene, is characterized by extensive qualitative and quantitative polymorphisms. Some alleles are associated with null (i.e., CSN1S1 0(1)) or reduced (i.e., CSN1S1 F) expression of the specific protein. The aim of this work was to obtain new information on goat milk and to evaluate its suitability for allergic subjects, depending on the genetic variation at ?s?-CN. Individual milk samples from 25 goats with different CSN1S1 genotypes were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and immunoblotting, using monoclonal antibodies specific for bovine ?-CN and sera from children allergic to cow milk. A lower reaction was observed to 2 goat milk samples characterized by the CSN1S1 0(1)0(1) and 0(1)F genotypes. Moreover, a fresh food skin prick test, carried out on 6 allergic children, showed the lack of positive reaction to the 0(1)0(1) milk sample and only one weak reactivity to the 0(1)F sample. The risk of cross-reactivity between cow and goat milk proteins suggests the need for caution before using goat milk for infant formulas. However, we hypothesize that it can be used successfully in the preparation of modified formulas for selected groups of allergic patients. The importance of taking the individual goat CN genetic variation into account in further experimental studies is evident from the results of the present work. PMID:21257068
Ballabio, C; Chessa, S; Rignanese, D; Gigliotti, C; Pagnacco, G; Terracciano, L; Fiocchi, A; Restani, P; Caroli, A M
Summary Background Germline genetic polymorphisms may affect the risk of recurrence in patients with localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Our aim was to investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms with RCC recurrence. Patients and Methods We analyzed germline DNA samples extracted from 554 (discovery cohort of 403 and an independent validation cohort of 151) patients with localized RCC treated at Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (DF/HCC) and of European-American ancestry (Caucasians). The discovery cohort was selected from a prospective database at Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center and the validation cohort was identified from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital surgery and pathology department records. Single nucleotide polymorphims (SNPs) residing in 70 genes involved in RCC pathogenesis including the VHL/HIF/VEGF, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways, and genes involved in immune regulation and metabolism were genotyped for the discovery cohort (total 285 SNPs successfully genotyped and assessable for analysis). The analyses of genotype associations with recurrence free survival (RFS) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards model, Kaplan-Meier method and logrank test. False discovery rate (FDR) q-value was used to adjust for multiple comparisons in selecting potential SNPs with RFS association. The finding from the discovery cohort was validated in an external independent cohort. Findings We report the significant association between genotype variants of SNP rs11762213 (c.144G>A; p.Ala48Ala, located in exon two c-MET) and primary analysis endpoint of RFS using both univariate and multivariable analysis. Specifically, patients carrying one or two copies of the minor (risk) allele had an increased risk of recurrence or death (hazard ratio (HR) =1·86, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1·17,2·95; p=0·0084) in the multivariate analysis adjusted for clinical and pathological factors. The median RFS for carriers of the risk allele was 19 months (95%CI: 9,*) compared to 50 months (95%CI: 37,75) for homozygotes of the non-risk allele. The significant association was validated using data from the validation cohort with a HR of 2·45 (95%CI: 1·01,5·95; p=0·048), although of borderline significance. The rs11762213 results in a synonymous aminoacid change in cMET gene. * unable to estimate due to small sample. Interpretation Patients with localized RCC and c-MET polymorphism (rs11762213) may have an increased risk of recurrence after nephrectomy. If these results are further validated, it may be incorporated in future prognostic tools, potentially aiding in the design of adjuvant clinical trials with c-MET inhibitors, and clinical management. Funding This project is funded by the Conquer Cancer Foundation and ASCO under a Career Development Award (CDA) for Dr. Choueiri, The Trust Family Research for Kidney cancer for Dr. Choueiri and the NIH/NCI Kidney cancer SPORE.
Schutz, Fabio A. B.; Pomerantz, Mark M.; Gray, Kathryn P.; Atkins, Prof Michael B.; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; Hirsch, Michelle S.; McDermott, David F.; Lampron, Megan E.; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Signoretti, Sabina; Kantoff, Prof Philip W.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Choueiri, Toni K.
In order to study the molecular genetic structure of Mulam ethnic group in Guangxi, China, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA)polymorphisms were genotyped. High frequencies of the Y chromosome haplogroups O1a1-P203 and O2a1*-M95 were found in Mulam, exhibiting a pattern similar to the neighboring indigenous populations, especially the Daic populations. MtDNA lineages F1a, M*, B4a, B5a, M7b, and N9a were found in Mulam, which always present at high frequencies among the populations of East Asia. Mulam exhibits genetic characteristics of southern Chinese in both paternal and maternal lineages. Multiplex detection of the 17 Y-STR loci and mtDNA HVS-I revealed the distribu-tion of highly genetic diversity in Mulam, which would have potential application in population genetics and forensic practice. PMID:23448929
Wang, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Deng, Qiong-Ying; Li, Hui
The efficiency of insertion and/or deletion (indels) polymorphisms as genetic markers was evaluated by genotyping 102 indels loci in native chicken populations from Myanmar and Indonesia as well as Red jungle fowls and Green jungle fowls from Java Island. Out of the 102 indel markers, 97 were polymorphic. The average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.206 to 0.268 and 0.229 to 0.284 in native chicken populations and 0.003 to 0.101 and 0.012 to 0.078 in jungle fowl populations. The coefficients of genetic differentiation (Gst) of the native chicken populations from Myanmar and Indonesia were 0.041 and 0.098 respectively. The genetic variability is higher among native chicken populations than jungle fowl populations. The high Gst value was found between native chicken populations and jungle fowl populations. Neighbor-joining tree using genetic distance revealed that the native chickens from two countries were genetically close to each other and remote from Red and Green jungle fowls of Java Island.
Maw, Aye Aye; Shimogiri, Takeshi; Riztyan; Kawabe, Kotaro; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Shin
Information is presented on the genetic polymorphism of the Type 1 intermediate filament wool keratin gene in 15 native Indian sheep breeds belonging to different agro-ecological regions of India. The study analyzed random blood samples of the 638 sheep by the PCR-RFLP technique. Restriction digestion analysis of a 480 bp PCR fragment of the first exon region with MspI revealed two allelic variants (M = 0.748 and N = 0.252) and three genotypes (MM = 0.543, MN = 0.410, and NN = 0.047) across the 15 sheep breeds. The allelic frequency differences for both alleles across the Indian breeds, irrespective of their geographic distribution, color pattern, and utility traits, were observed to be statistically insignificant by a chi-square test (P > 0.05). According to the pattern of occurrence of allelic variants (M > N), the Indian breeds exhibited similarity to some of the reported European sheep breeds. The average heterozygosity was 0.420, and none of the breeds deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The predominance of the M over the N allele supported its ancestry in Indian sheep too. PMID:18512146
Arora, R; Bhatia, S; Sehrawat, A; Pandey, A K; Sharma, R; Mishra, B P; Jain, A; Prakash, B
Aim: To determine the concentration of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) as well as different genotypes of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR (C677T) in healthy subjects and patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Material and methods: The investigation comprised a total of 160 subjects divided in two main groups: 80 healthy subjects (control group) and 80 patients with deep vein thrombosis. Concentration of tHcy was determined by spectrophotometric cyclic enzymatic method and mutation of MTHFR (C677T) gene was examined by polymerase chain reaction according to Schneider. Results: The results obtained for plasma tHcy in the control group were 11.62±3.43 ?mol/L, while tHcy level was significantly higher in patients with deep vein thrombosis as compared to the control group, 15.19±3.63 ?mol/L (?<0.001). The analysis of the results has shown that MTHFR (C677T) genetic polymorphism was responsible for mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in the majority of subjects. Conclusion: The level of tHcy in the examined patients was significantly higher in comparison with the control group. Multiple regression analysis has shown that tHcy level in CT and TT genotypes of MTHFR (C677T) was statistically higher in comparison with CC genotype of MTHFR (C677T) in both, the control group and the DVT patients.
Brezovska-Kavrakova, Julijana; Krstevska, Marija; Bosilkova, Gordana; Alabakovska, Sonja; Panov, Saso; Orovchanec, Nikola
Newcastle disease and Avian Influenza are considered to be the most dangerous fowl diseases which may cause huge economic losses. Newcastle disease is caused by the enveloped, and single-stranded RNA virus (NDV, APMV-1; belonging to Paramyxoviridae family), which can be further divided into sixteen different genotypes grouped into five pathotypes according to their pathogenicity. It has been reported that low pathogenic virus can greatly increase its pathogenicity even during a single passage. Additionally, due to the widespread use of live vaccines, a mixture of two or more different viruses in one sample can be detected. Hence, there is a great need for establishment of fast, inexpensive, sensitive, and relatively simple diagnostic method for multistrain and quasispecies detection of NDV infection. In this paper we describe a diagnostic method based on RT-PCR followed by a modified version of single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis using short DNA fragments of gene encoding viral F protein. The method allows for rapid diagnosis of genetic variant emerging from previously stable population which may prevent the spread of the pathogenic viral variant. PMID:24812625
Rabalski, Lukasz; Smietanka, Krzysztof; Minta, Zenon; Szewczyk, Boguslaw
Background This study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes within the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway altered the risk of breast cancer alone or in combination, as well as whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) modified the effect of these SNPs on breast cancer risk. Methods In a population-based case-control study of breast cancer, 891 cases and 878 controls were genotyped for six functional SNPs in the COMT, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 genes. Results Women homozygous with the T allele in CYP1B1*2 (Ser119; rs1056827) were at 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–2.46) times the risk of women homozygous with the G allele; women homozygous with the G allele in GSTP1 (Val105; rs1695) were at 0.73 (95% CI: 0.54–0.99) times the risk of breast cancer compared to women homozygous with the A allele. No other SNPs tested were associated with breast cancer to any appreciable degree. Potential gene-gene and gene-HT interactions were investigated. Conclusion With the exception of GSTP1 and possibly CYP1B1*2, our findings do not provide support for the role of genetic variation in the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk in post-menopausal women.
Reding, Kerryn W.; Weiss, Noel S.; Chen, Chu; Li, Christopher I.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Farin, Federico M.; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Daling, Janet R.; Malone, Kathleen E.
Newcastle disease and Avian Influenza are considered to be the most dangerous fowl diseases which may cause huge economic losses. Newcastle disease is caused by the enveloped, and single-stranded RNA virus (NDV, APMV-1; belonging to Paramyxoviridae family), which can be further divided into sixteen different genotypes grouped into five pathotypes according to their pathogenicity. It has been reported that low pathogenic virus can greatly increase its pathogenicity even during a single passage. Additionally, due to the widespread use of live vaccines, a mixture of two or more different viruses in one sample can be detected. Hence, there is a great need for establishment of fast, inexpensive, sensitive, and relatively simple diagnostic method for multistrain and quasispecies detection of NDV infection. In this paper we describe a diagnostic method based on RT-PCR followed by a modified version of single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis using short DNA fragments of gene encoding viral F protein. The method allows for rapid diagnosis of genetic variant emerging from previously stable population which may prevent the spread of the pathogenic viral variant.
Rabalski, Lukasz; Smietanka, Krzysztof
Molecular analysis encouraged discovery of genetic diversity and relationships of cultivated melon (Cucumis melo L.). We sequenced nine inter- and intra-genic regions of the chloroplast genome, about 5500 bp, using 60 melon accessions and six reference accessions of wild species of Cucumis to show intra-specific variation of the chloroplast genome. Sequence polymorphisms were detected among melon accessions and other Cucumis species, indicating intra-specific diversification of the chloroplast genome. Melon accessions were classified into three subclusters by cytoplasm type and then into 12 subgroups. Geographical origin and seed size also differed between the three subclusters. Subcluster Ia contained small-seed melon from Southern Africa and South and East Asia and subcluster Ib mainly consisted of large-seed melon from northern Africa, Europe and USA. Melon accessions of subcluster Ic were only found in West, Central and Southern Africa. Our results indicated that European melon groups and Asian melon groups diversified independently and shared the same maternal lineage with northern African large-seed melon and Southern African small-seed melon, respectively. Cultivated melon of subcluster Ic may have been domesticated independently in Africa. The presence of 11 cytoplasm types in Africa strongly supported African origin of cultivated melon and indicated the importance of germplasm from Africa. PMID:23853513
Tanaka, Katsunori; Akashi, Yukari; Fukunaga, Kenji; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Aierken, Yasheng; Nishida, Hidetaka; Long, Chun Lin; Yoshino, Hiromichi; Sato, Yo-Ichiro; Kato, Kenji
Here, we studied the genetic diversity of native fowls in Laos by analyzing a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphism. A 546-bp fragment of the mtDNA D-loop region was sequenced in 129 chickens from the areas of Vientiane, Luang Prabang and Pakse. In total, 29 haplotypes were identified and formed five clades. Haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of the native fowls in Laos were 0.85536±0.0172 and 0.010158±0.005555, respectively. Although the Laotian native fowls were distributed across five clades, most of them were clustered in two main clades (A and B), which were originated in China. The other haplotypes were contained in clades D, F, and I, which originated from continental southeast Asia. These results suggest that multiple maternal lineages were involved in the origin of domestic chicken in Laos. Moreover, there appear to be at least two maternal lineages, one from China and the other from the southeast Asian continent.
Kawabe, K.; Worawut, R.; Taura, S.; Shimogiri, T.; Nishida, T.; Okamoto, S.
Non-additive genetic variation is usually ignored when genome-wide markers are used to study the genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits in human, wild life, model organisms or farm animals. However, non-additive genetic effects may have an important contribution to total genetic variation of complex traits. This study presented a genomic BLUP model including additive and non-additive genetic effects, in which additive and non-additive genetic relation matrices were constructed from information of genome-wide dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. In addition, this study for the first time proposed a method to construct dominance relationship matrix using SNP markers and demonstrated it in detail. The proposed model was implemented to investigate the amounts of additive genetic, dominance and epistatic variations, and assessed the accuracy and unbiasedness of genomic predictions for daily gain in pigs. In the analysis of daily gain, four linear models were used: 1) a simple additive genetic model (MA), 2) a model including both additive and additive by additive epistatic genetic effects (MAE), 3) a model including both additive and dominance genetic effects (MAD), and 4) a full model including all three genetic components (MAED). Estimates of narrow-sense heritability were 0.397, 0.373, 0.379 and 0.357 for models MA, MAE, MAD and MAED, respectively. Estimated dominance variance and additive by additive epistatic variance accounted for 5.6% and 9.5% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. Based on model MAED, the estimate of broad-sense heritability was 0.506. Reliabilities of genomic predicted breeding values for the animals without performance records were 28.5%, 28.8%, 29.2% and 29.5% for models MA, MAE, MAD and MAED, respectively. In addition, models including non-additive genetic effects improved unbiasedness of genomic predictions.
Su, Guosheng; Christensen, Ole F.; Ostersen, Tage; Henryon, Mark; Lund, Mogens S.
Purpose To examine the effects of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450, subfamily 1, polypeptide 1 (C1P1B1) on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods A systematic literature search was performed, and random-effects meta-analyses were used to evaluate genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 with POAG. A gene-based analysis was conducted to investigate the cumulative effects of genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1. Results A total of six studies from published papers were included in our analysis. Random-effects meta-analyses failed to detect any significant association of POAG with genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1, including rs180040, rs1056836, rs10012, rs1056827, rs1056837, and rs2567206. The gene-based analysis indicated that the cumulative effect of genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 is not associated with POAG (p>0.50). Conclusions We did not find any evidence of strong association of POAG with CYP1B1 genetic polymorphisms and their cumulative effect.
Dong, Shuqian; Yang, Jingyun; Yu, Weihong; Kota, Pravina; Xia, Xiaobo
Background Although the role of microRNA’s (miRNA’s) biogenesis pathway genes in cancer development and progression has been well established, the association between genetic variants of this pathway genes and breast cancer survival is still unknown. Methods We used genotype data available from a previously conducted case–control study to investigate association between common genetic variations in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes and breast cancer survival. We investigated the possible associations between 41 germ-line single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and both disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) among 488 breast cancer patients. During the median follow-up of 6.24?years, 90 cases developed disease progression and 48 cases died. Results Seven SNPs were significantly associated with breast cancer survival. Two SNPs in AGO2 (rs11786030 and rs2292779) and DICER1 rs1057035 were associated with both DFS and OS. Two SNPs in HIWI (rs4759659 and rs11060845) and DGCR8 rs9606250 were associated with DFS, while DROSHA rs874332 and GEMIN4 rs4968104 were associated with only OS. The most significant association was observed in variant allele of AGO2 rs11786030 with 2.62-fold increased risk of disease progression (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41-4.88) and in minor allele homozygote of AGO2 rs2292779 with 2.94-fold increased risk of death (95% CI, 1.52-5.69). We also found cumulative effects of SNPs on DFS and OS. Compared to the subjects carrying 0 to 2 high-risk genotypes, those carrying 3 or 4–6 high-risk genotypes had an increased risk of disease progression with a hazard ratio of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.18- 3.93) and 4.47 (95% CI, 2.45- 8.14), respectively (P for trend, 6.11E-07). Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic variants in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes may be associated with breast cancer survival. Further studies in larger sample size and functional characterizations are warranted to validate these results.
Purpose Age-related cataract (ARC) is a complex multifactorial disorder, including genetic and environmental factors. Ezrin (EZR), a member of the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) protein family, plays a crucial role in the development of the lens as a plasma membrane–cytoskeleton linker. We conducted this study to investigate the role of genetic variations of ezrin and the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EZR and susceptibility to ARC in a Chinese population. Methods A total of 205 sporadic age-related cataract patients and 218 unrelated random healthy controls participated in our study. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. All exons of EZR were sequenced after being amplified with polymerase chain reaction. The functional consequences of the mutations were analyzed using PolyPhen2. SNP statistical analysis was performed using SNPstats. Results We found three novel variations in 205 patients. None presented in the 218 controls, including c.441C>G, c.924G>C, and c.1503G>A. PolyPhen2 predicted that the c.924G>C mutation probably had pathogenicity. Compared with the healthy controls, the rs5881286 -/GT genotype and - allele frequencies (p=0.0012; odds ratio [OR]=3.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.70–6.70; p=3.96e-5; ?2=18.98, respectively), rs2242318 T/C genotype and C allele frequencies (p=0.0045; OR=3.40; 95% CI=1.70–6.79; p=8.82e-6; ?2=21.86, respectively), and rs144581330 A/G genotype and G allele frequencies (p=0.0472; OR=14.46; 95% CI=1.29–162.43; p=0.0244, ?2=6.99, respectively) were higher in the patients with age-related cataract. SNP rs144581330 in exon 2 was also predicted to be probably damaging by PolyPhen2. Haplotype association including the - allele of rs5881286, C allele of rs2242318, and A allele of rs144581330 exhibited significantly higher distribution in the patients with ARC (p=8.0e-4; OR=3.38; 95% CI=1.66–6.87). Conclusions This study suggests that the genetic variations and SNPs in the gene EZR possibly contribute to the development of age-related cataracts in the Chinese population.
Lin, Qinghong; Zhou, Nan; Zhang, Na; Zhu, Bidan; Hu, Shanshan; Zhou, Zhou
Background and purpose Corticosteroid treatment is associated with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ON) in certain patients. The degree of drug sensitivity in general is governed by genetic variation between individuals. We investigated the relationship between ON and the presence of different alleles of the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP3A4), the product of which metabolizes corticosteroids, and of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) gene (ABCB1), the product of which modulates cellular uptake of corticosteroids, to determine whether patients with certain alleles may be at higher risk of ON after corticosteroid treatment. Methods We studied 31 patients from Guangdong, China who were both treated with corticosteroid therapy and developed ON, and 17 corticosteroid-therapy patients without ON. Patient DNA was screened for known polymorphisms in the CYP3A4 gene (CYP3A4*4, CYP3A4*5, CYP3A4*6) and the P-gp gene ABCB1 (mutations C3435T, G2677T/A). Results The majority (20/31) of the corticosteroid-treated patients who developed ON were heterozygous for ABCB1, whereas only 3/17 without ON were heterozygous. Statistical significance was observed between the ON and the control groups for the ABCB1 G2677T/A polymorphism. Analysis of haplotypic frequencies indicated significant linkage disequilibrium between the two ABCB1 polymorphisms, C3435T and G2677T/A (D' = 0.034). No CYP3A4 polymorphisms were detected in any of the patients. Interpretation Patients carrying an ABCB1 polymorphism had a higher risk of having corticosteroid-associated ON than those with wild-type genotypes. This statistically significant association conflicts with previous studies, possibly due to different sampling methods. Knowing which genetic backgrounds are most strongly associated with corticosteroid-associated ON provides a method of screening for patients who are most at risk of developing ON.
Detection of enterococcal surface protein gene (esp) and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing of glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium during its emergence in a Greek intensive care unit.
The emergence of glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GREF) in a Greek intensive care unit was studied by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and esp gene detection. Three GREF clones harboring the esp gene were recovered from 17 out of 21 patients, indicating the dissemination of genetically homogenous and virulent strains of GREF. PMID:14662973
Routsi, C; Platsouka, E; Willems, R J L; Bonten, M J M; Paniara, O; Saroglou, G; Roussos, C
Background: Eosinophilic infiltration and peripheral blood eosinophilia in asthma require the cooperation of eosinophil- specific cytokines and chemokines and their receptors. Objective: We investigated the association of polymorphisms in CCR3 and IL5RA with asthma susceptibility or peripheral blood eosinophilia and the effects of the polymorphisms on receptor expression. Methods: Polymorphisms in CCR3 and IL5RA were identified and genotyped in 576
June-Hyuk Lee; Hun Soo Chang; Ji Hyun Kim; Mok Lee; Soo Taek Uh; Yong-Hoon Kim; Hyoung Doo Shin
The MLH1 -93 G>A promoter polymorphism has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer. Other than microsatellite instability, however, the genetic and most epigenetic changes of tumors associated with this polymorphism have not been studied. We evaluated associations between the -93 G>A polymorphism and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), BRAF V600E mutations, and MLH1 methylation in tumors from a sample of 1,211 individuals with colon cancer and 1,968 controls from Utah, Northern California and Minnesota. The -93 G>A polymorphism was determined by the five prime nuclease assay. CIMP was determined previously by methylation-specific PCR of CpG islands in MLH1, methylated in tumors (MINT)1, MINT2, MINT31 and CDKN2A (p16). The BRAF V600E mutation was determined by sequencing exon 15. The MLH1 -93 G>A promoter polymorphism was associated with CIMP (odds ratio (OR) 3.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85, 6.42), MLH1 methylation (OR 4.16, 95%CI 2.20, 7.86), BRAF mutations (OR 4.26, 95%CI 1.83, 9.91) and older age at diagnosis (OR 3.65, 95%CI 2.08, 6.39) in microsatellite unstable tumors. These associations were not observed in stable tumors. Increased age at diagnosis and tumor characteristics of microsatellite unstable tumors associated with MLH1 -93 G>A suggests the polymorphism is acting at a relatively late stage of colorectal carcinogenesis to drive CIMP+ tumors down the microsatellite instability pathway.
Samowitz, Wade S.; Curtin, Karen; Wolff, Roger K.; Albertsen, Hans; Sweeney, Carol; Caan, Bette J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Potter, John D.; Slattery., Martha L.
Data concerning the effects of increased body mass index (BMI) on ovarian and pregnancy outcome are rich, but the results are rather controversial. Regarding pharmacogenetics, gene polymorphisms of hormonal receptor genes, such as Estrogen Receptor alpha (ESR1), Estrogen Receptor beta (ESR2) and FSH receptor (FSHR) genes, are associated with ovarian stimulation and pregnancy outcome and may constitute a useful tool for ART experts for the prediction of this outcome. The aim of this study is to track differences in the distribution of gene polymorphisms among obese non-PCOS and non-obese patients concerning three distinct genes which are involved in the ovarian stimulation mechanism: PvuII polymorphism of ESR1 gene, RsaI polymorphism of ESR2 gene and Ser680Asn variation of FSHR gene, using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction. A total of 151 normally ovulating female patients underwent IVF or ICSI. Interestingly, the pregnancy rate in the BMI?30 kg/m² group was higher in a statistically significant way (40.9% versus 17.8%, p=0.023). The obese patients of this study were in need of increased total FSH dose in order to achieve a satisfactory oocyte number (p<0.001) and needed more days of stimulation (p=0.002), but also presented lower basal FSH levels (p=0.032), which may explain, to an extend, the better pregnancy outcome. Concerning the polymorphisms of ESR1, ESR2 and FSHR genes, we did not observe differences in the genotype distribution when we compared the obese non-PCOS population with the non-obese population. Thus, obesity does not constitute an additional indication to perform a genetic analysis before entering an IVF/ICSI program. PMID:23614677
Anagnostou, Elli; Drakakis, Petros; Marinopoulos, Spyridon; Mavrogianni, Despina; Loutradis, Dimitrios
Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3' untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3' UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, "Stella" was separated from "Compact Stella." This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3' UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry. PMID:22737155
Fernandez I Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font I Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie
Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3? untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3? UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, “Stella” was separated from “Compact Stella.” This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3? UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry.
Fernandez i Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie
Linkage and association studies suggested the relationship between alpha-adducin polymorphism (Gly460Trp; rs4961) and genetic susceptibility to salt-sensitivity. However, the currently available results were inconsistent. This study aimed to define quantitatively the association between salt-sensitivity and alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism in all published case-control studies. Publications from PubMed and other databases were retrieved. The major inclusion criteria were: (1) case-control design; (2) salt-sensitivity confirmed by sodium loading tests, and (3) the distribution of genotypes given in detail. Seven case-control studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In total they involved 820 subjects (454 salt-sensitive and 366 non-salt-sensitive). The meta-analysis shows that Gly460Trp polymorphism in general is not significantly associated with salt-sensitivity [OR (95%CI): 1.40 (0.96, 2.04), P = 0.08]. Subgroup analysis showed that the association is statistically significant in Asian people [OR (95%CI):1.33 (1.06, 1.69), P = 0.02] but not in Caucasian people [OR (95%CI):1.98 (0.57, 6.92), P = 0.28]. This indicates that blood pressure response to sodium varies between ethnical groups. More studies based on a larger population are required to evaluate further the role of alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:20145305
Wang, R; Zhong, B; Liu, Y; Wang, C
Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps) play a role in the delivery and presentation of antigenic peptides and are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of multifactorial diseases. Objective To investigate genes encoding cytosolic Hsp70 proteins for associations of allelic variants with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Case–control studies of two independent Caucasian SLE cohorts were performed. In a haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism approach, common variants of HspA1L, HspA1A and HspA1B were genotyped and principal component analyses were performed for the cohort from the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (OMRF). Relative quantification of mRNA was carried out for each Hsp70 gene in healthy controls. Conditional regression analysis was performed to determine if allelic variants in Hsp70 act independently of HLA-DR3. Results On analysis of common genetic variants of HspA1L, HspA1A and HspA1B, a haplotype significantly associated with SLE in the Erlangen-SLE cohort was identified, which was confirmed in the OMRF cohort. Depending on the cohorts, OR ranging from 1.43 to 1.88 and 2.64 to 3.16 was observed for individuals heterozygous and homozygous for the associated haplotype, respectively. Patients carrying the risk haplotype or the risk allele more often displayed autoantibodies to Ro and La in both cohorts. In healthy controls bearing this haplotype, the amount of HspA1A mRNA was significantly increased, whereas total Hsp70 protein concentration was not altered. Conclusions Allelic variants of the Hsp70 genes are significantly associated with SLE in Caucasians, independently of HLA-DR3, and correlate with the presence of autoantibodies to Ro and La. Hence, the Hsp70 gene locus appears to be involved in SLE pathogenesis.
Furnrohr, Barbara G; Wach, Sven; Kelly, Jennifer A; Haslbeck, Martin; Weber, Christian K; Stach, Christian M; Hueber, Axel J; Graef, Daniela; Spriewald, Bernd M; Manger, Karin; Herrmann, Martin; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Frank, Summer G; Goodmon, Ellen; James, Judith A; Schett, Georg; Winkler, Thomas H; Harley, John B; Voll, Reinhard E
Success rate in human pregnancies is believed to be very low and sex-specific mechanisms may operate in prenatal loss. Assuming a sex-differential in prenatal loss exists, we examined genetic markers in biologically plausible targets in the HLA complex, other immune system-related and iron-regulatory genes in 388 healthy newborns from Wales (UK) using one sex as a control group for the other. Genotyping of 333 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 107 genes was achieved mainly by TaqMan assays. Twenty-two of autosomal SNPs showed frequency differences between 187 male and 201 female newborns either individually or as part of a haplotype. Of these, six markers (RXRB rs2076310, HLA complex haplotype HLA-DQA1 rs1142316-HLA-DRA rs7192-HSPA1B rs1061581, HIST1H1T rs198844, IFNG rs2069727, NKG2D rs10772266 and IRF4 heterozygosity) showed statistically robust differences between male and female newborns and multivariable modeling confirmed their independence. There were fewer males homozygote for combined wildtype genotypes of LIF rs929271, TP53 rs1042522 and MDM2 rs2279744 compared with females [OR = 0.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.1-0.8; P < 0.01] although these SNPs did not show any association individually. It is unlikely that SNPs have clinical utility as single markers in any trait with complex etiology but polygenic predictive models remain a possibility. If their validity is confirmed in larger studies of different populations and functional mechanisms of these preliminary associations are elucidated, these markers from the HLA complex, NKG2D region and cytokines may cumulatively have sufficient predictive value for susceptibility to prenatal selection in each sex. PMID:20587610
Ucisik-Akkaya, Esma; Davis, Charronne F; Do, Thuy N; Morrison, Brittany A; Stemmer, Shlomo M; Amadio, William J; Dorak, M Tevfik
PTPN22 has been previously found associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). In the present note we have studied the effect of p53 codon 72, acid phosphatse locus 1 (ACP1) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) genetic polymorphism on the strength of association between PTPN22 and CAD. We have studied 133 non diabetic subjects with CAD, 122 non diabetic cardiovascular patients without CAD and 269 healthy blood donors. Informed written consent was obtained from all subjects and the study was approved by the Ethical Committee. A high significant association between PTPN22 and CAD is observed in carriers of *A allele of ACP1 with a higher proportion of *T allele carriers in non diabetic subjects with CAD as compared to controls and to non diabetic subjects with cardiovascular disease without CAD. A similar pattern is observed in carriers of *Pro allele of p53 codon 72 with a higher proportion of *T allele carriers in non diabetic subjects with CAD as compared to other groups. A highly significant association between PTPN22 and CAD is observed in carriers of ADA2 *2 allele with higher proportion of *T allele carriers in non diabetic subjects with CAD as compared to other group. There is a high significant correlation between the number of factors that contributes to increase the strength of association between PTPN22 *T and CAD and the proportion of *T carriers in CAD. ACP1, p53 codon 72 and ADA are involved in immune reaction and give an important additive contribution to the strength of association between PTPN22 and CAD. This study stresses the importance of the simultaneous analysis of multiple genes functionally related to a specific disease: the approach may give important hints to understand multifactorial disorders.
Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Saccucci, Patrizia; Banci, Maria; Nardi, Paolo; Scognamiglio, Mattia; Pellegrino, Antonio; Bottini, Egidio; Chiariello, Luigi
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was evaluated as a method for genotypic characterization and subtyping within the bacterial species Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. A total of 155 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae, representing the serotypic variation described to occur within this species, were analyzed. In order to elucidate the species boundaries, six strains of the phylogenetically closely related species Actinobacillus lignieresii were also included. Furthermore, the ability of AFLP to subtype was studied using 42 isolates of serovar 2 and the performance compared to that obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). AFLP analysis provided a clear separation of A. lignieresii and A. pleuropneumoniae and divided the isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae into 20 clusters. Most of the serovars of A. pleuropneumoniae were represented by single and quite homogeneous clusters. The exceptions were serovars 10, K2:O7, and K1:O7, which were represented by two clusters each. In the cases where the serovars were represented by more than one cluster, the existence of these clusters was supported by additional phenotypic or genotypic properties. Furthermore, AFLP typing was able to allocate serologically nontypeable isolates to appropriate genetic groups within the species. Further investigations are needed to determine whether some of the clusters revealed through AFLP analysis represent additional serovars. When evaluated as a method for subtyping within serovar 2 of A. pleuropneumoniae, AFLP was found to achieve a degree of separation among isolates superior to that obtained by PFGE. However, a higher degree of separation between serovar 2 isolates was obtained by a combination of the two methods. PMID:17959758
Kokotovic, Branko; Angen, Øystein
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was evaluated as a method for genotypic characterization and subtyping within the bacterial species Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. A total of 155 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae, representing the serotypic variation described to occur within this species, were analyzed. In order to elucidate the species boundaries, six strains of the phylogenetically closely related species Actinobacillus lignieresii were also included. Furthermore, the ability of AFLP to subtype was studied using 42 isolates of serovar 2 and the performance compared to that obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). AFLP analysis provided a clear separation of A. lignieresii and A. pleuropneumoniae and divided the isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae into 20 clusters. Most of the serovars of A. pleuropneumoniae were represented by single and quite homogeneous clusters. The exceptions were serovars 10, K2:O7, and K1:O7, which were represented by two clusters each. In the cases where the serovars were represented by more than one cluster, the existence of these clusters was supported by additional phenotypic or genotypic properties. Furthermore, AFLP typing was able to allocate serologically nontypeable isolates to appropriate genetic groups within the species. Further investigations are needed to determine whether some of the clusters revealed through AFLP analysis represent additional serovars. When evaluated as a method for subtyping within serovar 2 of A. pleuropneumoniae, AFLP was found to achieve a degree of separation among isolates superior to that obtained by PFGE. However, a higher degree of separation between serovar 2 isolates was obtained by a combination of the two methods.
Kokotovic, Branko; Angen, ?ystein
Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1) may influence asthma by modulating allergic airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TGFB1 in asthma remains inconclusive. We examined TGFB1 SNPs in relation to asthma risk and degree of atopy among 546 case-parent triads, consisting of asthmatics aged 4 to 17 years and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy to 24 aeroallergens was determined by skin prick tests. We genotyped five TGFB1 SNPs, including two known functional SNPs [C-509T (rs1800469), T869C (rs1982073)] and three others (rs7258445, rs1800472, rs8179181), using TaqMan and Masscode assays. We analyzed the data using log-linear and polytomous logistic methods. Three associated SNPs, including the two known functional SNPs, were statistically significantly related to asthma risk. Individuals carrying the T allele of C-509T had an increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–1.87 for one copy; RR (95%CI) = 1.95 (1.36–2.78) for two copies]. For T869C, the RRs (95%CI) were 1.47 (1.09–1.98) for one and 2.00 (1.38–2.90) for two copies of the C allele. Similar results were found for rs7258445. The haplotype containing all three risk alleles conferred an increased risk of asthma (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.11–1.95 for one copy; RR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.22–2.57 for two copies). These three SNPs were also related to the degree of atopy. This largest study to date of genetic variation in TGFB1 and asthma and atopy adds to increasing evidence for a role in these disorders.
Li, Huiling; Romieu, Isabelle; Wu, Hao; Sienra-Monge, Juan-Jose; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; del Rio-Navarro, Blanca Estela; Lara-Sanchez, Irma del Carmen; Kistner, Emily O.; Gjessing, Hakon K.; London, Stephanie J.
Weight gain, leading to further morbidity and poor treatment compliance, is a common consequence of treatment with clozapine. The substantial interindividual and interracial differences in drug-induced weight gain suggest that genetic factors may be important. Several studies showed that alpha-2, adrenoceptor may related to feeding behavior with rat or lipolytic activity of human adipocyte tissue, they are related to body weight change. In the study, we try to test the possible relation of clozapine-induced weight gain and adrenergic receptor alpha 2a -1291C>G genetic polymorphism in a long term follow up (14.0 +/- 6.2 months). Our results show the genotype GG (8.45 +/- 7.2 Kg) with higher mean body weight gain than genotype CC (2.79 +/- 6.1 Kg) (p = 0.023). The finding identify a genetic factor associated with clozapine-induced weight gain in schizophrenic patients. PMID:15795790
Wang, Y-C; Bai, Y-M; Chen, J-Y; Lin, C-C; Lai, I-C; Liou, Y-J
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of VKORC1, CYP2C9, GGCX, PROC, EPHX1 and CYP4F2 gene polymorphisms on Warfarin maintenance dose variation in Chinese Han Population. METHODS Four hundred eighty-eight patients with prosthetic heart valves, atrial fibrillation or pulmonary thromboembolism and achieved stable Warfarin dose were enrolled. TaqMan probe or direct sequencing were used to genotype Y9VKORC1, CYP2C9, GGCX, EPHX1 and CYP4F2 gene polymorphisms. Demographic characteristics, stable therapeutic dose of Warfarin and concomitant medications were collected for all patients. The effect of VKORC1, CYP2C9, GGCX, PROC, EPHX1 and CYP4F2 gene polymorphisms, demographic characteristics and concomitant medications on Warfarin daily maintenance dose were analyzed with statistical method. RESULTS VKORC1 and CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms could explain more than 50% Warfarin maintenance dose variation in recruited patients, while CYP4F2 gene polymorphisms could only explain 1%. GGCX, PROC and EPHX1 gene polymorphisms had no impact no Warfarin maintenance dose. VKORC1 and CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms have a greater impact on Warfarin maintenance dose compared with demographic characteristics and concomitant medications. CONCLUSION VKORC1 and CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms have a significant impact on Warfarin maintenance dose in Chinese Han population. PMID:24928022
Lou, Ying; Han, Lulu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Zhihong; Tang, Min; Yu, Haiwen; Wang, Wei; Xu, Jianping; Liu, Hong; Li, Yishi
Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to analyze the relationships between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars and selections from the breeding program at the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre in Summerland, Canada. Six pairs of preselected primers were used for the analysis of a total of 67 cultivars and selections. Scoring the absence and presence of 118 polymorphic DNA
Lili Zhou; Frank Kappel; Cheryl Hampson; Paul A. Wiersma; Guus Bakkeren
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify disease-associations for single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) from scattered genomic-locations. However, SNPs frequently reside on several different SNP-haplotypes, only some of which may be disease-associated. This circumstance lowers the observed odds-ratio for disease-association. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we develop a method to identify the two SNP-haplotypes, which combine to produce each person’s SNP-genotype over specified chromosomal segments. Two multiple sclerosis (MS)-associated genetic regions were modeled; DRB1 (a Class II molecule of the major histocompatibility complex) and MMEL1 (an endopeptidase that degrades both neuropeptides and ?-amyloid). For each locus, we considered sets of eleven adjacent SNPs, surrounding the putative disease-associated gene and spanning ?200 kb of DNA. The SNP-information was converted into an ordered-set of eleven-numbers (subject-vectors) based on whether a person had zero, one, or two copies of particular SNP-variant at each sequential SNP-location. SNP-strings were defined as those ordered-combinations of eleven-numbers (0 or 1), representing a haplotype, two of which combined to form the observed subject-vector. Subject-vectors were resolved using probabilistic methods. In both regions, only a small number of SNP-strings were present. We compared our method to the SHAPEIT-2 phasing-algorithm. When the SNP-information spanning 200 kb was used, SHAPEIT-2 was inaccurate. When the SHAPEIT-2 window was increased to 2,000 kb, the concordance between the two methods, in both of these eleven-SNP regions, was over 99%, suggesting that, in these regions, both methods were quite accurate. Nevertheless, correspondence was not uniformly high over the entire DNA-span but, rather, was characterized by alternating peaks and valleys of concordance. Moreover, in the valleys of poor-correspondence, SHAPEIT-2 was also inconsistent with itself, suggesting that the SNP-string method is more accurate across the entire region. Conclusions/Significance Accurate haplotype identification will enhance the detection of genetic-associations. The SNP-string method provides a simple means to accomplish this and can be extended to cover larger genomic regions, thereby improving a GWAS’s power, even for those published previously.
Goodin, Douglas S.; Khankhanian, Pouya
Sarcoidosis is a heterogeneous disorder, both phenotypically and genetically. Two independent studies have recently shown that a functional polymorphism within butyrophilin-like 2 (BTNL2) gene predisposes to sarcoidosis independently of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles. However, in both studies, data analysis was not stratified by Löfgren's syndrome, a clinically and genetically distinct sarcoidosis subset. BTNL2, potentially encoding an immune coreceptor, is adjacent and in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with HLA-DRB1. We investigated six BTNL2 variants, including the functional rs2076530 (G > A), as well as HLA-DRB1 alleles, by sequence-specific primers-polymerase chain reaction, in 288 patients and 446 controls from two European countries. In the patient group as a whole, the HLA-DRB1*14 [odds ratio (OR) = 3.1, P(c) = 0.0003], DRB1*12 (OR = 2.5, P(c) = 0.003), and BTNL2 rs2076530 A allele (OR = 1.49, P(c) = 0.002) were all associated with disease susceptibility. However, after exclusion of patients presenting with Löfgren's syndrome and after adjusting for HLA-DRB1 alleles, the association between BTNL2 rs2076530 A and disease disappeared (P = 0.23). By contrast, both HLA-DRB1*14 and DRB1*12 remained strongly significant (OR = 3.60, P < 0.0001 and OR = 3.03, P = 0.003, respectively). BTNL2 haplotype 4, tagged by the rs2076530 G allele, also remained associated with non-Löfgren sarcoidosis after adjusting for HLA-DRB1 alleles (OR 0.37, P = 0.016). In summary, HLA-DRB1*14, DRB1*12, and BTNL2 haplotype 4--but not rs2076530 A--are associated with non-Löfgren sarcoidosis. However, the tight LD across the HLA complex makes it difficult to identify the precise location of the susceptibility locus/i. Larger sample sets from different ethnic groups, finer mapping, and more robust LD analyses across the HLA region are needed. PMID:17661910
Spagnolo, P; Sato, H; Grutters, J C; Renzoni, E A; Marshall, S E; Ruven, H J T; Wells, A U; Tzouvelekis, A; van Moorsel, C H M; van den Bosch, J M M; du Bois, R M; Welsh, K I
The escalating occurrence of cyanobacterial toxic b looms demands a better understanding of genetic var iability as an auxiliary expedient in species identification, c ollaborating with the monitoring of water destined to public supply. This study aimed at the unraveling of genet ic polymorphism in the toxic and nontoxic strains o f Microcystis (Cyanobacteria) species, isolated from diverse Braz ilian
Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira; Maristela Casé Costa Cunha; Ariadne do Nascimento Moura
Genetic susceptibility to tobacco smoke might have relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. To estimate the effects of maternal smoking and genetic polymorphisms on infant birth weight and length, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 293 women who delivered singleton live births in Sapporo, Japan. Birth weight and length were significantly lower among infants born to continuously smoking women having
S. Sasaki; T. Kondo; F. Sata; Y. Saijo; S. Katoh; S. Nakajima; M. Ishizuka; S. Fujita; R. Kishi
Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to study the genetic variation of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis isolates causing wheat tan spot. Two independent experiments were conducted in 2002 – 2003. In 2002, 40 isolates collected in Russia (Krasnodar region, Bashkiria), Germany, and the Czech Republic were studied and 35 unique RAPD genotypes were identified. Most of the genetic variation (72%) was observed within
Nina Mironenko; Elena Timopheeva; Ludmila Mikhailova; Doris Kopahnke; Ilona Krämer; Frank Ordon
Pomegranate is a valuable crop that is grown commercially in many parts of the world. Wild species have been reported from India, Turkmenistan and Socotra. Pomegranate fruit has a variety of health-beneficial qualities. However, despite this crop's importance, only moderate effort has been invested in studying its biochemical or physiological properties or in establishing genomic and genetic infrastructures. In this study, we reconstructed a transcriptome from two phenotypically different accessions using 454-GS-FLX Titanium technology. These data were used to explore the functional annotation of 45,187 fully annotated contigs. We further compiled a genetic-variation resource of 7,155 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and 6,500 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A subset of 480 SNPs was sampled to investigate the genetic structure of the broad pomegranate germplasm collection at the Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), which includes accessions from different geographical areas worldwide. This subset of SNPs was found to be polymorphic, with 10.7% loci with minor allele frequencies of (MAF<0.05). These SNPs were successfully used to classify the ARO pomegranate collection into two major groups of accessions: one from India, China and Iran, composed of mainly unknown country origin and which was more of an admixture than the other major group, composed of accessions mainly from the Mediterranean basin, Central Asia and California. This study establishes a high-throughput transcriptome and genetic-marker infrastructure. Moreover, it sheds new light on the genetic interrelations between pomegranate species worldwide and more accurately defines their genetic nature.
Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Rubinstein, Mor; Eshed, Ravit; Sharabi Schwager, Michal; Harel-Beja, Rotem; Bar-Ya'akov, Irit; Holland, Doron
Pomegranate is a valuable crop that is grown commercially in many parts of the world. Wild species have been reported from India, Turkmenistan and Socotra. Pomegranate fruit has a variety of health-beneficial qualities. However, despite this crop's importance, only moderate effort has been invested in studying its biochemical or physiological properties or in establishing genomic and genetic infrastructures. In this study, we reconstructed a transcriptome from two phenotypically different accessions using 454-GS-FLX Titanium technology. These data were used to explore the functional annotation of 45,187 fully annotated contigs. We further compiled a genetic-variation resource of 7,155 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and 6,500 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A subset of 480 SNPs was sampled to investigate the genetic structure of the broad pomegranate germplasm collection at the Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), which includes accessions from different geographical areas worldwide. This subset of SNPs was found to be polymorphic, with 10.7% loci with minor allele frequencies of (MAF<0.05). These SNPs were successfully used to classify the ARO pomegranate collection into two major groups of accessions: one from India, China and Iran, composed of mainly unknown country origin and which was more of an admixture than the other major group, composed of accessions mainly from the Mediterranean basin, Central Asia and California. This study establishes a high-throughput transcriptome and genetic-marker infrastructure. Moreover, it sheds new light on the genetic interrelations between pomegranate species worldwide and more accurately defines their genetic nature. PMID:24558460
Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Rubinstein, Mor; Eshed, Ravit; Sharabi Schwager, Michal; Harel-Beja, Rotem; Bar-Ya'akov, Irit; Holland, Doron
A genetic polymorphism of the newly discovered interferon-? 4 (IFNL4) gene was associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance in individuals of African ancestry. To assess whether a dinucleotide variant of IFNL4 (ss469415590) also affected treatment outcome of antiviral therapy in Japan, we genotyped 213 patients with chronic genotype 1 HCV infection and 176 healthy subjects. The ?G allele was associated with treatment failure [odds ratio (OR) 4.73, P?=?0.019], as was the IFL3 rs8099917 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (OR 5.06, P?=?0.068). The correlation between ss469415590 and rs8099917 was high (r(2) ?=?0.92, D'?=?0.98). Multivariate analysis revealed that the rs8099917 SNP was independently associated with treatment failure (OR 5.28, P?=?0.009). Therefore, ss469415590 may be another predictive marker of antiviral therapy outcome in the Japanese population. PMID:24355007
Nozawa, Y; Umemura, T; Katsuyama, Y; Shibata, S; Kimura, T; Morita, S; Joshita, S; Komatsu, M; Matsumoto, A; Yoshizawa, K; Ota, M; Tanaka, E
Allozyme electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses were used to examine the genetic diversity of a collection of 18 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, 1 R. leguminosarum bv. viciae, and 2 R. meliloti strains. Allozyme analysis at 28 loci revealed 16 electrophoretic types. The mean genetic distance between electrophoretic types of R. leguminosarum and R. meliloti was 0.83. Within R. leguminosarum, the single strain of bv. viciae differed at an average of 0.65 from strains of bv. trifolii, while electrophoretic types of bv. trifolii differed at a range of 0.23 to 0.62. Analysis of RFLPs around two chromosomal DNA probes also delineated 16 unique RFLP patterns and yielded genetic diversity similar to that revealed by the allozyme data. Analysis of RFLPs around three Sym (symbiotic) plasmid-derived probes demonstrated that the Sym plasmids reflect genetic divergence similar to that of their bacterial hosts. The large genetic distances between many strains precluded reliable estimates of their genetic relationships.
Demezas, David H.; Reardon, Terry B.; Watson, John M.; Gibson, Alan H.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial disease, that cause visual impairment in premature children. The exact pathogenesis and etiology of ROP is unknown and genetic susceptibility is considered as risk factor. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a major role in retinal neovascularization and subsequently retinal detachment. VEGF polymorphism is associated with proliferative ROP in some studies. We examined the possible association of the VEGF gene polymorphisms with ROP in preterm infants in south of Iran. A total of 111 preterm infants were examined by ophthalmologist and after that were genotyped. Genotyping of the VEGF +405 (rs2010963) and VEGF +936 (rs3025039) was done by the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The frequency of VEGF alleles, genotypes and haplotype distribution were compared between groups. The patients were divided in three groups: 66 to the normal group (normal fundoscopy), and 45 to the ROP group; 30 infants were not treated with Lasertherapy (Regressive group) and 15 treated with Lasertherapy. The frequency of VEGF +405 and VEGF +936 G/C genotypes as well as allele frequencies was not different between groups. No significant difference was found between ROP with treatment and ROP without lasertherapy. Our report indicate that there is no association between the carrier states of gene polymorphisms VEGF +405, VEGF +936 and progression or spontaneous regression of ROP in preterm infants in Iranian population. However, it should be considered that angiogenesis is a complex process and genetic factors in addition to environmental factors are contributed in this pathway. PMID:23644986
Kalmeh, Zahra Asadi; Azarpira, Negar; Mosallaei, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Hamid; Malekpour, Zahra
Several lines of evidence are implicating an increased persistence of apoptotic cells in patients with asthma. This is largely due to a combination of inhibition, or defects in the apoptotic process and/or impaired apoptotic cell removal mechanisms. Among apoptosis-inducing genes, an important role is played by p53. In the present study, we have investigated the possible relationship between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and asthma and the interaction with ACP1, a genetic polymorphism involved in the susceptibility to allergic asthma. We studied 125 asthmatic children and 123 healthy subjects from the Caucasian population of Central Italy. p53 codon 72 and ACP1 polymorphisms were evaluated using a restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) method. There is a statistically significant association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and allergic asthma: Arg/Arg genotype is more represented in asthmatic patients than in controls (P=0.018). This association, however, is present in subjects with low ACP1 activity A/A and A/B only (P=0.023). The proportion of children with A/A and A/B genotype carrying Arg/Arg genotype is significantly high in asthmatic children than in controls (OR=1.941; 95% C.I. 1.042-3.628). Our finding could have important clinical implications since the subjects with A/A and A/B genotypes of ACP1 carrying Arg/Arg genotype are more susceptible to allergic asthma than Pro/Pro genotype. PMID:24843801
Saccucci, Patrizia; Verrotti, Alberto; Giannini, Cosimo; Verini, Marcello; Chiarelli, Francesco; Neri, Anna; Magrini, Andrea
Several lines of evidence are implicating an increased persistence of apoptotic cells in patients with asthma. This is largely due to a combination of inhibition, or defects in the apoptotic process and/or impaired apoptotic cell removal mechanisms. Among apoptosis-inducing genes, an important role is played by p53. In the present study, we have investigated the possible relationship between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and asthma and the interaction with ACP1, a genetic polymorphism involved in the susceptibility to allergic asthma. We studied 125 asthmatic children and 123 healthy subjects from the Caucasian population of Central Italy. p53 codon 72 and ACP1 polymorphisms were evaluated using a restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) method. There is a statistically significant association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and allergic asthma: Arg/Arg genotype is more represented in asthmatic patients than in controls (P=0.018). This association, however, is present in subjects with low ACP1 activity A/A and A/B only (P=0.023). The proportion of children with A/A and A/B genotype carrying Arg/Arg genotype is significantly high in asthmatic children than in controls (OR=1.941; 95% C.I. 1.042-3.628). Our finding could have important clinical implications since the subjects with A/A and A/B genotypes of ACP1 carrying Arg/Arg genotype are more susceptible to allergic asthma than Pro/Pro genotype.
Verrotti, Alberto; Giannini, Cosimo; Verini, Marcello; Chiarelli, Francesco; Neri, Anna; Magrini, Andrea
Inflammation and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) may play important role in ovarian cancer. However, epidemiologic data are inconsistent, possibly reflecting inter-individual genetic differences affecting the metabolism of NSAIDs. We examined whether common polymorphisms affecting the metabolism of NSAIDs modify the association between NSAIDs and ovarian cancer risk. We genotyped 1,353 DNA samples from women who developed ovarian cancer and 1,823 samples from matched controls participating in the New England Case-Control study and the Nurses' Health Studies. Conditional logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with regular use of NSAIDs and with relevant polymorphisms on ovarian cancer risk. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression estimated the association of NSAID use across stratum of each genotype. Regular use of NSAIDs was not associated with ovarian cancer risk. Multivariable OR (95% CI) associated with use NSAIDs was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.71-1.02). Associations between NSAID use and ovarian cancer risk did not differ significantly across strata of genotypes. None of the studied polymorphisms was associated with ovarian cancer risk. The multivariable ORs (95% CI) associated with CYP2C9 and UGT1A6 variant genotypes were 0.99 (0.90-1.08) and 0.93 (0.82-1.05), respectively. The multivariable ORs (95% CI) associated with PPAR-?, COX-2 -765G>C, and COX-2 Ex10+837T>C polymorphisms were 1.02 (0.87-1.20), 0.87 (0.75-1.00), and 0.97 (0.87-1.09), respectively. In this relatively large study, we found no convincing evidence supporting an association between NSAIDs use and ovarian cancer risk. Furthermore, data did not suggest interaction between selected polymorphisms and use of NSAIDs in relation to ovarian cancer risk.
Pinheiro, Simone P; Gates, Margaret A; DeVivo, Immaculata; Rosner, Bernard A; Tworoger, Shelley S; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Hankinson, Susan E; Cramer, Daniel W
Persistent infections by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been established as the etiological agent of cervical cancer. The integration of the HPV genome into the host genome is a crucial step in cervical carcinogenesis, although, correct activation of DNA damage repair pathways will avoid the development of cancer. Recent data indicate that several polymorphisms of key regulators from the DNA damage repair pathway (i.e. 53BP1 and ATM) are associated with cancer development susceptibility. We have developed a hospital-based retrospective study considering 429 cervical specimens from women with different cervical lesions including invasive carcinoma. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the ATM D1853N (5557G>A) and 53bp1 D353E (1236C>G) polymorphisms in the development of cervical cancer, using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Statistical analysis revealed that ATM 5557GG homozygous individuals (OR=1.94; p=0.044) are at increased risk of developing LSIL, while for the 53BP1 1236C>G polymorphism no association was found. Nevertheless, we observed a tendency for an increased risk of LSIL in 53BP1 1236C allele carriers (OR=1.63; p=0.069). Logistic regression adjusted for age revealed no significant differences from the non-adjusted analysis. This is the first study to evaluate the role of ATM G5557A and P53BP1 C1236G polymorphisms in cervical cancer susceptibility. This study reveals a possible trend of both polymorphisms for a genetic susceptibility pattern of cervical cancer development. Hence, our results may be of interest for future understanding of the progression of cervical cancer. PMID:22200742
Oliveira, S; Ribeiro, J; Sousa, H; Pinto, D; Baldaque, I; Medeiros, R
Background The human multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1), which encodes the major trans-membrane transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), was found to be associated with susceptibility to cancer and response to chemotherapy. The C3435T Polymorphism of MDR1 gene was correlated with expression levels and functions of P-gp. Here, we studied the association between MDR1 C3435T polymorphism and susceptibility to Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and patient's response to ABVD chemotherapy regimen. Methods a total of 130 paraffin embedded tissue samples collected from HL patients were analyzed to identify the C3435T polymorphism. As a control group, 120 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. The C3435T Polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Data analysis was carried out using the statistical package SPSS version 17 to compute all descriptive statistics. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to evaluate the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the studied polymorphism. Results these studies revealed that the frequency of T allele was significantly higher in HL patients compared to the controls (P < 0.05). In addition, the frequency of CT and TT genotypes were also significantly higher in HL patients compared to the controls (P < 0.05). No association between C3435T polymorphism and response to ABVD was detected among HL patients (P > 0.05). Conclusions these results suggest that MDR1 C3435T polymorphism might play a role in HL occurrence; however this polymorphism is not correlated with the clinical response to ABVD.
The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, native to North America, is the causative agent of pine wilt disease and among the most important invasive forest pests in the East-Asian countries, such as Japan and China. Since 1999, it has been found in Europe in the Iberian Peninsula, where it also causes significant damage. In a previous study, 94 pairs of microsatellite primers have been identified in silico in the pinewood nematode genome. In the present study, specific PCR amplifications and polymorphism tests to validate these loci were performed and 17 microsatellite loci that were suitable for routine analysis of B. xylophilus genetic diversity were selected. The polymorphism of these markers was evaluated on nematodes from four field origins and one laboratory collection strain, all originate from the native area. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity varied between 2 and 11 and between 0.039 and 0.777, respectively. First insights into the population genetic structure of B. xylophilus were obtained using clustering and multivariate methods on the genotypes obtained from the field samples. The results showed that the pinewood nematode genetic diversity is spatially structured at the scale of the pine tree and probably at larger scales. The role of dispersal by the insect vector versus human activities in shaping this structure is discussed.
Mallez, Sophie; Castagnone, Chantal; Espada, Margarida; Vieira, Paulo; Eisenback, Jonathan D.; Mota, Manuel; Guillemaud, Thomas; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe
Numerical zymotaxonomy and variability of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) between the small and large subunits of the rRNA genes were used to examine strain variation and relationships in natural populations of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. A total of 101 strains from distinct hosts and Brazilian geographic regions were assigned to 15 zymodemes clustered in two major genetic groups. The great number of isolates (48.5%) placed in zymodeme IOC/Z-27 were collected on the Atlantic coast. The high molecular diversity found in populations in the Amazon Basin was related to the great number of sandfly vector(s) in that region. The results of the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the ITS depicted considerable intraspecific variation. Genotypic groups A, B, and C contained 39, 40, and 22 isolates, which were divided into 16, 10, and 15 genotypes, respectively. The genetic polymorphism observed demonstrates the degree of diversity of L. (V.) braziliensis strains from different regions where they are endemic. The results reinforce the clonal theory for Leishmania parasites showing the genetic diversity of this pathogen and an association of L. (V.) braziliensis genotypes with specific transmission cycles, probably reflecting an adaptation of different clones to the vector species involved.
Cupolillo, Elisa; Brahim, Lucia Regina; Toaldo, Cristiane B.; de Oliveira-Neto, Manoel Paes; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Falqueto, Aloisio; de Farias Naiff, Maricleide; GrimaldiJr., Gabriel
HLA class II loci are useful markers in human population genetics, because they are extremely variable and because new molecular techniques allow large-scale analysis of DNA allele frequencies. Direct DNA typing by hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (HLA oligotyping) after enzymatic in vitro PCR amplification detects HLA allelic polymorphisms for all class II loci. A detailed HLA-DR oligotyping analysis of 191 individuals from a geographically, culturally, and genetically well-defined western African population, the Mandenkalu, reveals a high degree of polymorphism, with at least 24 alleles and a heterozygosity level of .884 for the DRB1 locus. The allele DRB1*1304, defined by DNA sequencing of the DRB1 first-domain exon, is the most frequent allele (27.1%). It accounts for an unusually high DR13 frequency, which is nevertheless within the neutral frequency range. The next most frequent specificities are DR11, DR3, and DR8. Among DRB3-encoded alleles, DR52b (DRB3*02) represents as much as 80.7% of all DR52 haplotypes. A survey of HLA-DR specificities in populations from different continents shows a significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic differentiation patterns. A homozygosity test for selective neutrality of DR specificities is not significant for the Mandenka population but is rejected for 20 of 24 populations. Observed high heterozygosity levels in tested populations are compatible with an overdominant model with a small selective advantage for heterozygotes.
Tiercy, J M; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Excoffier, L; Shi-Isaac, X; Jeannet, M; Mach, B; Langaney, A
The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, native to North America, is the causative agent of pine wilt disease and among the most important invasive forest pests in the East-Asian countries, such as Japan and China. Since 1999, it has been found in Europe in the Iberian Peninsula, where it also causes significant damage. In a previous study, 94 pairs of microsatellite primers have been identified in silico in the pinewood nematode genome. In the present study, specific PCR amplifications and polymorphism tests to validate these loci were performed and 17 microsatellite loci that were suitable for routine analysis of B. xylophilus genetic diversity were selected. The polymorphism of these markers was evaluated on nematodes from four field origins and one laboratory collection strain, all originate from the native area. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity varied between 2 and 11 and between 0.039 and 0.777, respectively. First insights into the population genetic structure of B. xylophilus were obtained using clustering and multivariate methods on the genotypes obtained from the field samples. The results showed that the pinewood nematode genetic diversity is spatially structured at the scale of the pine tree and probably at larger scales. The role of dispersal by the insect vector versus human activities in shaping this structure is discussed. PMID:23554990
Mallez, Sophie; Castagnone, Chantal; Espada, Margarida; Vieira, Paulo; Eisenback, Jonathan D; Mota, Manuel; Guillemaud, Thomas; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe
Background The Indigenous Arctic population is of Asian descent, and their genetic background is different from the Caucasian populations. Relatively little is known about the specific genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in the activation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental contaminants in Inuit and its relation to health risk. The Greenlandic Inuit are highly exposed to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and an elucidation of gene–environment interactions in relation to health risks is needed. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine and compare the genotype and allele frequencies of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 Ile462Val (rs1048943), CYP1B1 Leu432Val (rs1056836) and catechol-O-methyltransferase COMT Val158Met (rs4680) in Greenlandic Inuit (n=254) and Europeans (n=262) and explore the possible relation between the genotypes and serum levels of POPs. Results The genotype and allele frequency distributions of the three genetic polymorphisms differed significantly between the Inuit and Europeans. For Inuit, the genotype distribution was more similar to those reported for Asian populations. We observed a significant difference in serum polychlorinated biphenyl (CB-153) and the pesticide 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p?-DDE) levels between Inuit and Europeans, and for Inuit also associations between the POP levels and genotypes for CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT. Conclusion Our data provide new information on gene polymorphisms in Greenlandic Inuit that might support evaluation of susceptibility to environmental contaminants and warrant further studies.
Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-J?rgensen, Eva C.
Background Olfaction plays a significant role in insect behavior during critical steps of their life-cycle, such as host-seeking during foraging or the search for a mate. Here, we explored genetic polymorphism within and divergence between sibling species of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in the gene sequence and encoded peptides of an odorant receptor, Or39. This study included sympatric specimens of An. gambiae sensu stricto, An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis sampled together in the village of Dielmo, Senegal. Results A 1,601 bp genomic sequence composed of 6 exons and 5 introns was obtained for Or39 from 6–8 mosquitoes in each of the 3 species. DNA sequence analysis revealed a high level of molecular polymorphism (??=?0.0154; Haplotype diversity?=?0.867) and high overall genetic differentiation between taxa (Fst?>?0.92, P?0.01). In total, 50 parsimony informative sites were recorded. Throughout the whole dataset, there were 13 non-synonymous mutations resulting in aminoacid changes in the encoded protein. Each of the 6 different identified peptides was species-specific and none was shared across species. Most aminoacid changes were located on the intracellular domains of the protein. However, intraspecific polymorphisms in An. gambiae and An. arabiensis as well as species-specific mutations also occurred in the first extracellular domain. Conclusions Although obtained from a limited number of specimens, our resu