Science.gov

Sample records for hard outer shell

  1. Apparatus and methods for installing, removing and adjusting an inner turbine shell section relative to an outer turbine shell section

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen; Waldo, Stuart Forrest; Smith, Robert Leroy; Phelps, Robert Kim

    2001-01-01

    A turbine includes upper and lower inner shell sections mounting the nozzles and shrouds and which inner shell is supported by pins secured to a surrounding outer shell. To disassemble the turbine for access to the inner shell sections and rotor, an alignment fixture is secured to the lower outer shell section and has pins engaging the inner shell section. To disassemble the turbine, the inner shell weight is transferred to the lower outer shell section via the alignment fixture and cradle pins. Roller assemblies are inserted through access openings vacated by support pins to permit rotation of the lower inner shell section out of and into the lower outer shell section during disassembly and assembly. The alignment fixture includes adjusting rods for adjusting the inner shell axially, vertically, laterally and about a lateral axis. A roller over-cage is provided to rotate the inner shell and a dummy shell to facilitate assembly and disassembly in the field.

  2. H I shells in the outer Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlerová, S.; Palouš, J.

    2005-07-01

    We present results of a method for an automatic search for HI shells in 3D data cubes and apply it to the Leiden-Dwingeloo HI survey of the northern Milky Way. In the 2nd Galactic quadrant, where identifications of structures are not substantially influenced by overlapping, we find nearly 300 structures. The Galactic distribution of shells has an exponential profile in the radial direction with a scale length of σgsh = 3 kpc. In the z direction, one half of the shells are found at distances smaller than 500 pc. We also calculate the energies necessary to create the shells: there are several structures with energies greater than 10ESN but only one with an energy exceeding 100ESN. Their size distribution, corrected for distance effects, is approximated by a power-law with an index α = 2.1. Our identifications provide a lower limit to the filling factor of shells in the outer Milky Way: f2D = 0.4 and f3D = 0.05.

  3. Architecture in outer space. [multilayer shell systems filled with gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokrovskiy, G. I.

    1974-01-01

    Mulilayer thin film structures consisting of systems of shells filled with gas at some pressure are recommended for outer space structures: Large mirrors to collect light and radio waves, protection against meteoric impact and damage, and for connectors between state space stations in the form of orbital rings. It is projected that individual orbital rings will multiply and completely seal a star trapping its high temperature radiation and transforming it into low temperature infrared and short wave radio emission; this radiation energy could be utilized for technological and biological processes.

  4. Comparative study of the shell development of hard- and soft-shelled turtles

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Mari; Ueno, Shintaro; Kamezaki, Naoki; Sato, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    The turtle shell provides a fascinating model for the investigation of the evolutionary modifications of developmental mechanisms. Different conclusions have been put forth for its development, and it is suggested that one of the causes of the disagreement could be the differences in the species of the turtles used – the differences between hard-shelled turtles and soft-shelled turtles. To elucidate the cause of the difference, we compared the turtle shell development in the two groups of turtle. In the dorsal shell development, these two turtle groups shared the gene expression profile that is required for formation, and shared similar spatial organization of the anatomical elements during development. Thus, both turtles formed the dorsal shell through a folding of the lateral body wall, and the Wnt signaling pathway appears to have been involved in the development. The ventral portion of the shell, on the other hand, contains massive dermal bones. Although expression of HNK-1 epitope has suggested that the trunk neural crest contributed to the dermal bones in the hard-shelled turtles, it was not expressed in the initial anlage of the skeletons in either of the types of turtle. Hence, no evidence was found that would support a neural crest origin. PMID:24754673

  5. Elasticity of interfacial rafts of hard particles with soft shells.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2015-05-19

    We study an elasticity model for compressed protein monolayers or particle rafts at a liquid interface. Based on the microscopic view of hard-core particles with soft shells, a bead-spring model is formulated and analyzed in terms of continuum elasticity theory. The theory can be applied, for example, to hydrophobin-coated air-water interfaces or, more generally, to liquid interfaces coated with an adsorbed monolayer of interacting hard-core particles. We derive constitutive relations for such particle rafts and describe the buckling of compressed planar liquid interfaces as well as their apparent Poisson ratio. We also use the constitutive relations to obtain shape equations for pendant or buoyant capsules attached to a capillary, and to compute deflated shapes of such capsules. A comparison with capsules obeying the usual Hookean elasticity (without hard cores) reveals that the hard cores trigger capsule wrinkling. Furthermore, it is shown that a shape analysis of deflated capsules with hard-core/soft-shell elasticity gives apparent elastic moduli which can be much higher than the original values if Hookean elasticity is assumed. PMID:25901364

  6. DETECTING THE RAPIDLY EXPANDING OUTER SHELL OF THE CRAB NEBULA: WHERE TO LOOK

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiang; Ferland, G. J.; Baldwin, J. A.; Loh, E. D.; Richardson, C. T.

    2013-09-10

    We present a range of steady-state photoionization simulations, corresponding to different assumed shell geometries and compositions, of the unseen postulated rapidly expanding outer shell to the Crab Nebula. The properties of the shell are constrained by the mass that must lie within it, and by limits to the intensities of hydrogen recombination lines. In all cases the photoionization models predict very strong emissions from high ionization lines that will not be emitted by the Crab's filaments, alleviating problems with detecting these lines in the presence of light scattered from brighter parts of the Crab. The near-NIR [Ne VI] {lambda}7.652 {mu}m line is a particularly good case; it should be dramatically brighter than the optical lines commonly used in searches. The C IV {lambda}1549 doublet is predicted to be the strongest absorption line from the shell, which is in agreement with Hubble Space Telescope observations. We show that the cooling timescale for the outer shell is much longer than the age of the Crab, due to the low density. This means that the temperature of the shell will actually ''remember'' its initial conditions. However, the recombination time is much shorter than the age of the Crab, so the predicted level of ionization should approximate the real ionization. In any case, it is clear that IR observations present the best opportunity to detect the outer shell and so guide future models that will constrain early events in the original explosion.

  7. Outer-shell double photoionization of CH2Cl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, K. F.; Gomes, A. H. A.; Wolff, W.; Sigaud, L.; Santos, A. C. F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work the roles of the shake-off and knockout processes in the double photoionization of the CH2Cl2 molecule have been studied. The probabilities for both mechanisms accompanying valence-shell photoionization have been estimated as a function of incident photon energy using Samson's (1990) [5] and Thomas's (1994) [3] models, respectively. The experimental results are in qualitative accord with the models.

  8. Electronic transport properties of inner and outer shells in near ohmic-contacted double-walled carbon nanotube transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuchun; Zhou, Liyan; Zhao, Shangqian; Wang, Wenlong; Liang, Wenjie; Wang, Enge

    2014-06-14

    We investigate electronic transport properties of field-effect transistors based on double-walled carbon nanotubes, of which inner shells are metallic and outer shells are semiconducting. When both shells are turned on, electron-phonon scattering is found to be the dominant phenomenon. On the other hand, when outer semiconducting shells are turned off, a zero-bias anomaly emerges in the dependence of differential conductance on the bias voltage, which is characterized according to the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid model describing tunneling into one-dimensional materials. We attribute these behaviors to different contact conditions for outer and inner shells of the double-walled carbon nanotubes. A simple model combining Luttinger liquid model for inner metallic shells and electron-phonon scattering in outer semiconducting shells is given here to explain our transport data at different temperatures.

  9. 77 FR 3771 - Notice of Issuance of Final Outer Continental Shelf Air Permit for Shell Offshore, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Issuance of Final Outer Continental Shelf Air Permit for Shell Offshore, Inc. AGENCY... on November 30, 2011, EPA issued a final Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) air permit for Shell...

  10. Generalization of atoms-in-molecules theory to include independent scaling of inner and outer shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Frank O.; Chen, Cheng

    1984-12-01

    Scaled atoms-in-molecules (SAIM) theory is required for obtaining diatomic fragment eigenvectors, and often useful for providing diatomic fragment potential energy curves, needed as input in the scaled diatomic-in-molecules (SDIM) method. Independent scaling of inner shells and valence shells is not admitted in the current formulation of SAIM. A new extension is developed here in which atomic eigenfunctions are partitioned into inner-shell and outer-shell components. These component functions are rigorously defined as solutions of two simultaneous eigenvalue equations; the Hamiltonians in these equations add to yield the original total atomic Hamiltonian. The component Hamiltonians so defined are shown to contain potential energy functions which are approximately homogeneous functions of degree minus one; hence, Coulomb-like. Thus, the inner-shell and outer-shell eigenfunctions may be scaled independently using methods generalized from standard scaled atoms-in-molecules (SAIM) theory. Preliminary applications to LiH, BeH, and Li2, and their positive ions, yield dissociation energies accurate to 7 kcal/mol or better.

  11. Strong exchange coupling in conventional and inverse ferrimagnetic hard/soft and soft/hard core/shell heterostructured nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogues, Josep

    2013-03-01

    Bi-magnetic core/shell nanoparticles are becoming increasingly appealing for diverse fields such as for permanent magnets, microawave absortion, biomedical applications, sensing applications, or future magnetic recording media. Ferrromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) core/shell nanoparticles (or inverted AFM/FM) have been extensively studied. However, exchange coupled hard/soft, or inverse soft/hard, core/shell nanoparticles have been far less investigated. Interestingly, most bi-magnetic core/shell systems are derived by simple partial oxidation of the core, e.g., Co/CoO (FM/AFM) or FePt/Fe3O4 (hard/soft) and only few studies of heterostructured (where core and shell are formed by different magnetic ions) can be found in the literature. We have investigated conventional hard/soft and inverted soft/hard core/shell hetroestructured nanoparticles based on magnetically soft iron oxide (Fe3O4) and magnetically hard manganese oxide (Mn3O4) . The core/shell samples were synthesized by seeded growth using either Fe3O4 or Mn3O4 nanoparticles as seeds. Subsequently, thin layers of the complementary material were grown by thermal decomposition of the corresponding metallorganic precursors. The structure characterization (X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction) confirms the presence of cubic (Fe3O4) and tetragonal (Mn3O4) phases both at the bulk and local levels. In addition, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) mapping confirms the core/shell structure of the nanopartciles. Magnetic characterization and element-selective hysteresis loops obtained by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) reveal a strong exchange coupling between the core and the shell which results in homogeneous loops with moderate coercivity. Moreover, the magnetic properties can be tuned by controlling the core diameter or shell thickness. However, the results depend only weakly on the hard/soft or inverse soft/hard morphology

  12. Coherent correlation enhancement of outer shell photoionization cross sections of alkali-like ions

    SciTech Connect

    Amusia, M.Y.; Avdonina, B.; Pratt, R.H.

    1995-08-01

    An alkali-like ion interaction with inner electrons of an alkali-like ion leads to a significant increase in the photoionization cross section of the outer s electron. This occurs not only for ground-state ions with one s electron in the outer shell, but also when the outer s electron is in an excited state. The reason for this amplification, in addition to coherent enhancement in summing of the correlation amplitudes, is that the zero in the direct amplitude occurs below threshold. This leads to a constructive interference with the correlation amplitude above the photoionization threshold, in contrast to a destructive interference in the case of a neutral atom with the same electronic configuration, for which the zero occurs above threshold. Results of this research were published.

  13. 77 FR 27054 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Offshore, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...This notice announces that EPA Region 10 has issued a final permit decision granting a Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) permit to construct and Title V air quality operating permit to Shell Offshore, Inc. (``Shell'') for operation of the Kulluk conical drilling unit in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of...

  14. Inner and Outer Coordination Shells of Mg(2+) in CorA Selectivity Filter from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Kitjaruwankul, Sunan; Wapeesittipan, Pattama; Boonamnaj, Panisak; Sompornpisut, Pornthep

    2016-01-28

    Structural data of CorA Mg(2+) channels show that the five Gly-Met-Asn (GMN) motifs at the periplasmic loop of the pentamer structure form a molecular scaffold serving as a selectivity filter. Unfortunately, knowledge about the cation selectivity of Mg(2+) channels remains limited. Since Mg(2+) in aqueous solution has a strong first hydration shell and apparent second hydration sphere, the coordination structure of Mg(2+) in a CorA selectivity filter is expected to be different from that in bulk water. Hence, this study investigated the hydration structure and ligand coordination of Mg(2+) in a selectivity filter of CorA using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The simulations reveal that the inner-shell structure of Mg(2+) in the filter is not significantly different from that in aqueous solution. The major difference is the characteristic structural features of the outer shell. The GMN residues engage indirectly in the interactions with the metal ion as ligands in the second shell of Mg(2+). Loss of hydrogen bonds between inner- and outer-shell waters observed from Mg(2+) in bulk water is mostly compensated by interactions between waters in the first solvation shell and the GMN motif. Some water molecules in the second shell remain in the selectivity filter and become less mobile to support the metal binding. Removal of Mg(2+) from the divalent cation sensor sites of the protein had an impact on the structure and metal binding of the filter. From the results, it can be concluded that the GMN motif enhances the affinity of the metal binding site in the CorA selectivity filter by acting as an outer coordination ligand. PMID:26727882

  15. Triple assembly of ZnO, large-scale hollow spherical shells with flower-like species consisting of rods grown on the outer surfaces of shells

    SciTech Connect

    Shang Yazhuo; Hu Jun; Liu Honglai; Hu Ying

    2010-03-15

    Novel large-scale hollow ZnO spherical shells were synthesized by ionic liquids assisted hydrothermal oxidization of pure zinc powder without any catalyst at a relatively low temperature of 160 deg. C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) patterns show that the shells are composed of ZnO and the structure of the shells is very unique. Textured flower-like ZnO consisting of ZnO rods is grown on the outer surfaces of shells forming a triple assembly. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the oxidized material show a sharp peak at 379 nm and a wider broad peak centered at 498 nm. The possible growth mechanism of the triple assembly of ZnO is discussed in detail. - Graphical abstract: A proposed growth mechanism of large scale hollow ZnO. Bubbles provide the aggregation center for ionic liquids that leads to the formation of hollow Zn particle-dotted shells, buoyancy promotes shells to go upward, the breach occurs when shells are subjected to overpressure.

  16. Transcriptome response to copper heavy metal stress in hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meiying; Jiang, Lihua; Shen, Kang-Ning; Wu, Changwen; He, Guangyuan; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2015-01-01

    The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) has considerably one of the most economically important marine shellfish worldwide and considered as a good invertebrate model for ecotoxicity study for a long time. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000) to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the hard-shelled mussel which challenged with copper pollution. A total of 21,723,913 paired-end clean reads (NCBI SRA database SRX1411195) were generated from HiSeq2000 sequencer and 96,403 contigs (with N50 = 1118 bp) were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 1156 unigenes are upregulated and 1681 unigenes are downregulated when challenged with copper. By KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, we found that unigenes in four KEGG pathways (aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, apoptosis, DNA replication and mismatch repair) show significant differential expressed between control and copper treated groups. We hope that the gill transcriptome in copper treated hard-shelled mussel can give useful information to understand how mussel handles with heavy metal stress at molecular level. PMID:26981394

  17. Transcriptome response to copper heavy metal stress in hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus).

    PubMed

    Xu, Meiying; Jiang, Lihua; Shen, Kang-Ning; Wu, Changwen; He, Guangyuan; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-03-01

    The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) has considerably one of the most economically important marine shellfish worldwide and considered as a good invertebrate model for ecotoxicity study for a long time. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000) to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the hard-shelled mussel which challenged with copper pollution. A total of 21,723,913 paired-end clean reads (NCBI SRA database SRX1411195) were generated from HiSeq2000 sequencer and 96,403 contigs (with N50 = 1118 bp) were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 1156 unigenes are upregulated and 1681 unigenes are downregulated when challenged with copper. By KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, we found that unigenes in four KEGG pathways (aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, apoptosis, DNA replication and mismatch repair) show significant differential expressed between control and copper treated groups. We hope that the gill transcriptome in copper treated hard-shelled mussel can give useful information to understand how mussel handles with heavy metal stress at molecular level. PMID:26981394

  18. Building nanocomposite magnets by coating a hard magnetic core with a soft magnetic shell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhu, Jinghan; Yang, Wenlong; Dong, Yunhe; Hou, Yanglong; Zhang, Chenzhen; Yin, Han; Sun, Shouheng

    2014-02-17

    Controlling exchange coupling between hard magnetic and soft magnetic phases is the key to the fabrication of advanced magnets with tunable magnetism and high energy density. Using FePt as an example, control over the magnetism in exchange-coupled nanocomposites of hard magnetic face-centered tetragonal (fct) FePt and soft magnetic Co (or Ni, Fe2C) is shown. The dispersible hard magnetic fct-FePt nanoparticles are first prepared with their coercivity (Hc) reaching 33 kOe. Then core/shell fct-FePt/Co (or Ni, Fe2C) nanoparticles are synthesized by reductive thermal decomposition of the proper metal precursors in the presence of fct-FePt nanoparticles. These core/shell nanoparticles are strongly coupled by exchange interactions and their magnetic properties can be rationally tuned by the shell thickness of the soft phase. This work provides an ideal model system for the study of exchange coupling at the nanoscale, which will be essential for building superstrong magnets for various permanent magnet applications in the future. PMID:24453167

  19. The active outer shell of Earth: What remains to be explored in carbon and life interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in methods and technologies have allowed us to explore the interaction between life and abiotic resources from nano to megascales in space and time, and this has set new challenges to the geosciences. This lecture aims at discussing key biological factors in the question of the dynamics of carbon reservoirs and fluxes on Earth, and the challenges to the geosciences to incorporate and further this knowledge. Humans themselves as one such biological factor have considerably changed the dynamics of carbon and other elements, with repercussions to most other life forms on Earth. Which other life forms shape carbon fluxes and reservoirs, and what do we know about their key traits in catalyzing geochemical reactions, their past and their future? I will use case studies from my own research field - geobiology of the oceans and the cryosphere - and from other geoscience areas to highlight the considerable non-linearity introduced by life to element fluxes and the environment; and discuss advances but also gaps in knowledge and research approaches concerning assessing and predicting carbon transformations in the active outer shell of Earth.

  20. GSH 91.5+2-114: A large H i shell in the outer part of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.

    2011-01-01

    GSH 91.5+2-114 is a large H i shell located in the outer Galaxy at a kinematic distance of about 15 kpc. It was first identified in the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) by Pineault et al. (2002, ASP Conf. Ser., 276, 332) as being possibly associated with objects possessing infrared colors, which indicates strong stellar winds. The H i shell has no obvious continuum counterpart in the CGPS radio images at 408 and 1420 MHz or in the IRAS images. We found no evidence for early-type massive stars, most likely as a result of the large extinction that is expected for this large distance. An analysis of the energetics and of the main physical parameters of the H i shell shows that this shell is likely the result of the combined action of the stellar winds and supernova explosions of many stars. We investigate whether a number of slightly extended regions characterized by a thermal radio continuum and located near the periphery of the H i shell could be the result of star formation triggered by the expanding shell.

  1. Collision safety of a hard-shell low-mass vehicle.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, R; Walz, F H; Brunner, A

    1994-06-01

    Low-mass vehicles and in particular low-mass electric vehicles as produced today in very small quantities are in general not designed for crashworthiness in collisions. Particular problems of compact low-mass cars are: reduced length of the car front, low mass compared to other vehicles, and heavy batteries in the case of an electric car. With the intention of studying design improvements, three frontal crash tests were run last year: the first one with a commercial, lightweight electric car; the second with a reinforced version of the same car; and the last one with a car based on a different structural design with a "hard-shell" car body. Crash tests showed that the latter solution made better use of the small zone available for continuous energy absorption. The paper discusses further the problem of frontal collisions between vehicles of different weight and, in particular, the side collision. A side-collision test was run with the hard-shell vehicle following the ECE lateral-impact test procedure at 50 km/h and led to results for the EuroSID1-dummy well below current injury tolerance criteria. PMID:8011053

  2. Semi-wild chimpanzees open hard-shelled fruits differently across communities.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Bruce; Davila-Ross, Marina; Boysen, Sarah T

    2014-07-01

    Researchers investigating the evolutionary roots of human culture have turned to comparing behaviours across nonhuman primate communities, with tool-based foraging in particular receiving much attention. This study examined whether natural extractive foraging behaviours other than tool selection differed across nonhuman primate colonies that had the same foods available. Specifically, the behaviours applied to open the hard-shelled fruits of Strychnos spp. were examined in three socially separate, semi-wild colonies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that lived under shared ecological conditions at Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage, and were comparable in their genetic makeup. The chimpanzees (N=56) consistently applied six techniques to open these fruits. GLMM results revealed differences in the number of combined technique types to open fruits across the colonies. They also showed colony differences in the application of three specific techniques. Two techniques (full biting and fruit cracking) were entirely absent in some colonies. This study provides empirical evidence that natural hard-shelled fruit-opening behaviours are distinct across chimpanzee colonies, differences that most likely have not resulted from ecological and genetic reasons. PMID:24337784

  3. Collision safety of a hard-shell low-mass vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeser, R.; Walz, F.H.; Brunner, A.

    1994-06-01

    Low-mass vehicles and in particular low-mass electric vehicles as produced today in very small quantities are in general not designed for crashworthiness in collisions. Particular problems of compact low-mass cars are: reduced length of the car front, low mass compared to other vehicles, and heavy batteries in the case of an electric car. With the intention of studying design improvements, three frontal crash tests were run last year: the first one with a commercial, lightweight electric car; the second with a reinforced version of the same car; and the last one with a car based on a different structural design with a `hard-shell` car body. Crash tests showed that the latter solution made better use of the small zone available for continuous energy absorption. The paper discusses further the problem of frontal collisions between vehicles of different weight and, in particular, the side collision. A side-collision test was run with the hard-shell vehicle following the ECE lateral-impact test procedure at 50 km/h and led to results for the EuroSIDI-dummy well below current injury tolerance criteria.

  4. Outer electrospun polycaprolactone shell induces massive foreign body reaction and impairs axonal regeneration through 3D multichannel chitosan nerve guides.

    PubMed

    Duda, Sven; Dreyer, Lutz; Behrens, Peter; Wienecke, Soenke; Chakradeo, Tanmay; Glasmacher, Birgit; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    We report on the performance of composite nerve grafts with an inner 3D multichannel porous chitosan core and an outer electrospun polycaprolactone shell. The inner chitosan core provided multiple guidance channels for regrowing axons. To analyze the in vivo properties of the bare chitosan cores, we separately implanted them into an epineural sheath. The effects of both graft types on structural and functional regeneration across a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve gap were compared to autologous nerve transplantation (ANT). The mechanical biomaterial properties and the immunological impact of the grafts were assessed with histological techniques before and after transplantation in vivo. Furthermore during a 13-week examination period functional tests and electrophysiological recordings were performed and supplemented by nerve morphometry. The sheathing of the chitosan core with a polycaprolactone shell induced massive foreign body reaction and impairment of nerve regeneration. Although the isolated novel chitosan core did allow regeneration of axons in a similar size distribution as the ANT, the ANT was superior in terms of functional regeneration. We conclude that an outer polycaprolactone shell should not be used for the purpose of bioartificial nerve grafting, while 3D multichannel porous chitosan cores could be candidate scaffolds for structured nerve grafts. PMID:24818158

  5. Outer Electrospun Polycaprolactone Shell Induces Massive Foreign Body Reaction and Impairs Axonal Regeneration through 3D Multichannel Chitosan Nerve Guides

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Peter; Wienecke, Soenke; Chakradeo, Tanmay; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    We report on the performance of composite nerve grafts with an inner 3D multichannel porous chitosan core and an outer electrospun polycaprolactone shell. The inner chitosan core provided multiple guidance channels for regrowing axons. To analyze the in vivo properties of the bare chitosan cores, we separately implanted them into an epineural sheath. The effects of both graft types on structural and functional regeneration across a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve gap were compared to autologous nerve transplantation (ANT). The mechanical biomaterial properties and the immunological impact of the grafts were assessed with histological techniques before and after transplantation in vivo. Furthermore during a 13-week examination period functional tests and electrophysiological recordings were performed and supplemented by nerve morphometry. The sheathing of the chitosan core with a polycaprolactone shell induced massive foreign body reaction and impairment of nerve regeneration. Although the isolated novel chitosan core did allow regeneration of axons in a similar size distribution as the ANT, the ANT was superior in terms of functional regeneration. We conclude that an outer polycaprolactone shell should not be used for the purpose of bioartificial nerve grafting, while 3D multichannel porous chitosan cores could be candidate scaffolds for structured nerve grafts. PMID:24818158

  6. Equatorial symmetry of Boussinesq convective solutions in a rotating spherical shell allowing rotation of the inner and outer spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Keiji; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Michio

    2014-08-15

    We investigate properties of convective solutions of the Boussinesq thermal convection in a moderately rotating spherical shell allowing the respective rotation of the inner and outer spheres due to the viscous torque of the fluid. The ratio of the inner and outer radii of the spheres, the Prandtl number, and the Taylor number are fixed to 0.4, 1, and 500{sup 2}, respectively. The Rayleigh number is varied from 2.6 × 10{sup 4} to 3.4 × 10{sup 4}. In this parameter range, the behaviours of obtained asymptotic convective solutions are almost similar to those in the system whose inner and outer spheres are restricted to rotate with the same constant angular velocity, although the difference is found in the transition process to chaotic solutions. The convective solution changes from an equatorially symmetric quasi-periodic one to an equatorially symmetric chaotic one, and further to an equatorially asymmetric chaotic one, as the Rayleigh number is increased. This is in contrast to the transition in the system whose inner and outer spheres are assumed to rotate with the same constant angular velocity, where the convective solution changes from an equatorially symmetric quasi-periodic one, to an equatorially asymmetric quasi-periodic one, and to equatorially asymmetric chaotic one. The inner sphere rotates in the retrograde direction on average in the parameter range; however, it sometimes undergoes the prograde rotation when the convective solution becomes chaotic.

  7. Wrinkle-assisted linear assembly of hard-core/soft-shell particles: impact of the soft shell on the local structure.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mareen; Karg, Matthias; Fortini, Andrea; Hellweg, Thomas; Fery, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    This article addresses wrinkle assisted assembly of core-shell particles with hard cores and soft poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) shells. As core materials we chose silica as well as silver nanoparticles. The assembled structures show that the soft shells act as a separator between the inorganic cores. Anisotropic alignment is found on two length scales, macroscopically guided through the wrinkle structure and locally due to deformation of the polymer shell leading to smaller inter-core separations as compared to assembly on flat substrates without confinement. The structures were analysed by means of scanning electron microscopy. Radial distribution functions are shown, clearly highlighting the impact of confinement on nearest neighbour distances and symmetry. The observed ordering is directly compared to Monte-Carlo simulations for hard-core/soft-shell particles, showing that the observed symmetries are a consequence of the soft interaction potential and differ qualitatively from a hard-sphere situation. For the silver-poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) particles, we show UV-vis absorbance measurements revealing optical anisotropy of the generated structures due to plasmon coupling. Furthermore, the high degree of order of the assembled structures on macroscopic areas is demonstrated by laser diffraction effects. PMID:22395669

  8. Some Investigations on Hardness of Investment Casting Process After Advancements in Shell Moulding for Reduction in Cycle Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Mahajan, V.

    2014-07-01

    In the present work surface hardness investigations have been made on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pattern based investment castings after advancements in shell moulding for replication of biomedical implants. For the present study, a hip joint, made of ABS material, was fabricated as a master pattern by fused deposition modelling (FDM). After preparation of master pattern, mold was prepared by deposition of primary (1°), secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) coatings with the addition of nylon fibre (1-2 cm in length of 1.5D). This study outlines the surface hardness mechanism for cast component prepared from ABS master pattern after advancement in shell moulding. The results of study highlight that during shell production, fibre modified shells have a much reduced drain time. Further the results are supported by cooling rate and micro structure analysis of casting.

  9. Environmental salinity modulates the effects of elevated CO2 levels on juvenile hard-shell clams, Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Matoo, Omera B; Tourek, Robert T; Sokolova, Inna M; Beniash, Elia

    2013-07-15

    Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations results in a decrease in seawater pH and shifts in the carbonate chemistry that can negatively affect marine organisms. Marine bivalves such as the hard-shell clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, serve as ecosystem engineers in estuaries and coastal zones of the western Atlantic and, as for many marine calcifiers, are sensitive to the impacts of ocean acidification. In estuaries, the effects of ocean acidification can be exacerbated by low buffering capacity of brackish waters, acidic inputs from freshwaters and land, and/or the negative effects of salinity on the physiology of organisms. We determined the interactive effects of 21 weeks of exposure to different levels of CO2 (~395, 800 and 1500 μatm corresponding to pH of 8.2, 8.1 and 7.7, respectively) and salinity (32 versus 16) on biomineralization, shell properties and energy metabolism of juvenile hard-shell clams. Low salinity had profound effects on survival, energy metabolism and biomineralization of hard-shell clams and modulated their responses to elevated PCO2. Negative effects of low salinity in juvenile clams were mostly due to the strongly elevated basal energy demand, indicating energy deficiency, that led to reduced growth, elevated mortality and impaired shell maintenance (evidenced by the extensive damage to the periostracum). The effects of elevated PCO2 on physiology and biomineralization of hard-shell clams were more complex. Elevated PCO2 (~800-1500 μatm) had no significant effects on standard metabolic rates (indicative of the basal energy demand), but affected growth and shell mechanical properties in juvenile clams. Moderate hypercapnia (~800 μatm PCO2) increased shell and tissue growth and reduced mortality of juvenile clams in high salinity exposures; however, these effects were abolished under the low salinity conditions or at high PCO2 (~1500 μatm). Mechanical properties of the shell (measured as microhardness and

  10. The F type mitochondrial genome of hard-shelled mussel: Mytilus coruscus (Mytiloida, Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Cheol; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the female hard-shelled mussel Mytilus coruscus (Gould, 1869) (F type). The F type genome is composed of 16,642 bp in length including 12 protein coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 23 tRNA with the same gene content and order as the other Mytilus species which is characterized by the absence of the ATPase8 gene and addition of tRNA(Met) (AUA). The nucleotide composition of the genome shows that the percentage of A+T (63.2%) is higher than those of M. edulis complex species (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. trossulus) but lower than that of M. californianus. The F type mitochondrial genome of M. coruscus will provide useful information on the evolutionary history of the Mytilus species in the family Mitilidae. PMID:24730572

  11. Shells of charge: a density functional theory for charged hard spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Roland; Gillespie, Dirk

    2016-06-01

    A functional for the electrostatic excess free-energy for charged, hard sphere fluids is proposed. The functional is derived from two complementary, but equivalent, interpretations of the mean spherical approximation (MSA). The first combines fundamental measure theory (FMT) from hard-core interactions with the idea that MSA can be interpreted in terms of the interaction spherical shells of charge. This formulation gives the free-energy density as a function of weighted densities. When all the ions have the same size, the functional adopts an FMT-like form. The second in effect ‘functionalizes’ the derivation of MSA; that is, it generalizes the MSA as a functional-based version of MSA (fMSA). This formulation defines the free-energy density as a function of a position-dependent MSA screening parameter and the weighted densities of the FMT approach. This FMT/fMSA functional is shown to give accurate density profiles, as compared to Monte Carlo simulations, under a wide range of ion concentrations, size asymmetries, and valences.

  12. Shells of charge: a density functional theory for charged hard spheres.

    PubMed

    Roth, Roland; Gillespie, Dirk

    2016-06-22

    A functional for the electrostatic excess free-energy for charged, hard sphere fluids is proposed. The functional is derived from two complementary, but equivalent, interpretations of the mean spherical approximation (MSA). The first combines fundamental measure theory (FMT) from hard-core interactions with the idea that MSA can be interpreted in terms of the interaction spherical shells of charge. This formulation gives the free-energy density as a function of weighted densities. When all the ions have the same size, the functional adopts an FMT-like form. The second in effect 'functionalizes' the derivation of MSA; that is, it generalizes the MSA as a functional-based version of MSA (fMSA). This formulation defines the free-energy density as a function of a position-dependent MSA screening parameter and the weighted densities of the FMT approach. This FMT/fMSA functional is shown to give accurate density profiles, as compared to Monte Carlo simulations, under a wide range of ion concentrations, size asymmetries, and valences. PMID:27116385

  13. Double-Shelled Nanocages with Cobalt Hydroxide Inner Shell and Layered Double Hydroxides Outer Shell as High-Efficiency Polysulfide Mediator for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintao; Hu, Han; Li, Zhen; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2016-03-14

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been considered as a promising candidate for next-generation electrochemical energy-storage technologies because of their overwhelming advantages in energy density. Suppression of the polysulfide dissolution while maintaining a high sulfur utilization is the main challenge for Li-S batteries. Here, we have designed and synthesized double-shelled nanocages with two shells of cobalt hydroxide and layered double hydroxides (CH@LDH) as a conceptually new sulfur host for Li-S batteries. Specifically, the hollow CH@LDH polyhedra with complex shell structures not only maximize the advantages of hollow nanostructures for encapsulating a high content of sulfur (75 wt %), but also provide sufficient self-functionalized surfaces for chemically bonding with polysulfides to suppress their outward dissolution. When evaluated as cathode material for Li-S batteries, the CH@LDH/S composite shows a significantly improved electrochemical performance. PMID:26894940

  14. Outer-Shell Double Photoionization of CH4 and CH2Cl2 Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, K. F.; Gomes, A. H. A.; Sigaud, L.; Wolf, W.; Santos, A. C. F.

    In this work the roles of the shake-off and knockout processes in the double photoionization of the CH2Cl2 and CH4 molecules have been studied. The probabilities for both mechanisms accompanying valence-shell photoionization have been estimated as a function of incident photon energy using Samson's (1990) and Thomas's (1994) models, respectively. The experimental results are in qualitative accord with the models.

  15. Flexural models of trench/outer rise topography of coronae on Venus with axisymmetric spherical shell elastic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W.; Schubert, Gerald; Sandwell, David T.

    1992-01-01

    Magellan altimetry has revealed that many coronae on Venus have trenches or moats around their peripheries and rises outboard of the trenches. This trench/outer rise topographic signature is generally associated with the tectonic annulus of the corona. Sandwell and Schubert have interpreted the trench/outer rise topography and the associated tectonic annulus around coronae to be the result of elastic bending of the Venus lithosphere (though the tectonic structures are consequences of inelastic deformation of the lithosphere). They used two-dimensional elastic plate flexure theory to fit topographic profiles across a number of large coronae and inferred elastic lithosphere thicknesses between about 15 and 40 km, similar to inferred values of elastic thickness for the Earth's lithosphere at subduction zones around the Pacific Ocean. Here, we report the results of using axisymmetric elastic flexure theory for the deformation of thin spherical shell plates to interpret the trench/outer rise topography of the large coronae modeled by Sandwell and Schubert and of coronae as small as 250 km in diameter. In the case of a corona only a few hundred kilometers in diameter, the model accounts for the small planform radius of the moat and the nonradial orientation of altimetric traces across the corona. By fitting the flexural topography of coronae we determine the elastic thickness and loading necessary to account for the observed flexure. We calculate the associated bending moment and determine whether the corona interior topographic load can provide the required moment. We also calculate surface stresses and compare the stress distribution with the location of annular tectonic features.

  16. Excitation and ionization of outer shells in Rb by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, V.; Kupliauskienė, A.; Borovik, A.

    2015-10-01

    The relativistic distorted-wave and binary-encounter-dipole approximations were employed for calculating the electron-impact single ionization cross sections of the 5s, 4p6, 4s2, 3d10 shells and 4p6 excitation cross section for Rb atom taking into account both configuration interaction and relativistic effects. The capabilities of the most used theoretical approaches in describing the single ionization of Rb atom were considered by comparing the present and other available calculated data with the experimental total ionization and total direct single ionization cross sections over the electron-impact energy range from the 5s threshold to 600 eV. The best agreement within experimental uncertainty was obtained by using the non-relativistic binary-encounter-dipole approximation included in the LANL Atomic Physics Codes package. At present none of the used approximations (plane-wave Born or relativistic distorted wave) can satisfactorily describe the experimental excitation-autoionization cross section in rubidium because the efficient formation of the 4p6 core-excited negative-ion rubidium states at near-threshold impact energies is ignored in calculations.

  17. Light absorption and plasmon - exciton interaction in three-layer nanorods with a gold core and outer shell composed of molecular J- and H-aggregates of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, B. I.; Tyshkunova, E. S.; Kondorskiy, A. D.; Lebedev, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    Optical properties of hybrid rod-like nanoparticles, consisting of a gold core, an intermediate passive organic layer (spacer) and outer layer of ordered molecular cyanine dye aggregates, are experimentally and theoretically investigated. It is shown that these dyes can form not only ordered J-aggregates but also H-aggregates (differing by the packing angle of dye molecules in an aggregate and having other spectral characteristics) in the outer shell of the hybrid nanostructure. Absorption spectra of synthesised three-layer nanorods are recorded, and their sizes are determined. The optical properties of the composite nanostructures under study are found to differ significantly, depending on the type of the molecular aggregate formed in the outer shell. The experimental data are quantitatively explained based on computer simulation using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and characteristic features of the plasmon - exciton interaction in the systems under study are revealed.

  18. The development of a sensitive methodology to characterise hard shell capsule puncture by dry powder inhaler pins.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, Barbara M; Birchall, James C; Jones, Brian E; Díez, Fernando; Coulman, Sion A

    2013-11-18

    In order for hard-shell capsules to function effectively as drug reservoirs in dry powder inhalers, the capsule must be punctured with sharpened pins to release the powdered medicament upon inspiration. Capsule performance in this setting is poorly understood. This study aims to develop a methodology to characterise hard shell capsule penetration by needles from commercial dry powder inhalers, to determine whether changes to capsule materials impact on their performance. Two pin types from two commercial dry powder inhalers were mounted in a material-testing machine, equipped with a 500 N load cell. A stainless steel bush was used to secure a capsule directly below the steel pin. Hypromellose (n=10) and gelatin capsules (n=10) were conditioned in 'normal' or low humidity conditions and were subsequently punctured with both types of pin. Each puncture event was recorded on a load-displacement curve. The force required for puncture was 2.82±0.26 N for hypromellose capsules and 4.54±0.26 N for gelatin capsules, stored in normal humidity. Different capsule materials possessed distinguishable signature profiles but repeated force-displacement profiles were highly reproducible i.e. intra-individual variability was minimal. A rapid, robust yet sensitive methodology has therefore been developed that is able to characterise hard shell capsule materials based on the puncture performance. PMID:23965433

  19. A DETAILED KINEMATIC MAP OF CASSIOPEIA A'S OPTICAL MAIN SHELL AND OUTER HIGH-VELOCITY EJECTA

    SciTech Connect

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Fesen, Robert A.

    2013-08-01

    We present three-dimensional (3D) kinematic reconstructions of optically emitting material in the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). These Doppler maps have the highest spectral and spatial resolutions of any previous survey of Cas A and represent the most complete catalog of its optically emitting material to date. We confirm that the bulk of Cas A's optically bright ejecta populate a torus-like geometry tilted approximately 30 Degree-Sign with respect to the plane of the sky with a -4000 to +6000 km s{sup -1} radial velocity asymmetry. Near-tangent viewing angle effects and an inhomogeneous surrounding circumstellar material/interstellar medium environment suggest that this geometry and velocity asymmetry may not be faithfully representative of the remnant's true 3D structure or the kinematic properties of the original explosion. The majority of the optical ejecta are arranged in several well-defined and nearly circular ring-like structures with diameters between approximately 30'' (0.5 pc) and 2' (2 pc). These ejecta rings appear to be a common phenomenon of young core-collapse remnants and may be associated with post-explosion input of energy from plumes of radioactive {sup 56}Ni-rich ejecta that rise, expand, and compress non-radioactive material. Our optical survey encompasses Cas A's faint outlying ejecta knots and exceptionally high-velocity NE and SW streams of S-rich debris often referred to as ''jets''. These outer knots, which exhibit a chemical make-up suggestive of an origin deep within the progenitor star, appear to be arranged in opposing and wide-angle outflows with opening half-angles of Almost-Equal-To 40 Degree-Sign.

  20. Influence of capsule shell composition on the performance indicators of hypromellose capsule in comparison to hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Arida, Adi Issam; Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Sadek, Bassem; Saeed, Dima Ahmed; Abu Jarad, Rami A; Jawadi, Jeevani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro performances of "vegetable" capsules in comparison to hard gelatin capsules in terms of shell weight variation, reaction to different humidity conditions, resistance to stress in the absence of moisture, powder leakage, disintegration and dissolution. Two types of capsules made of HPMC produced with (Capsule 2) or without (Capsule 3) a gelling agent and hard gelatin capsules (Capsule 1) were assessed. Shell weight variability was relatively low for all tested capsules shells. Although Capsule 1 had the highest moisture content under different humidity conditions, all capsule types were unable to protect the encapsulated hygroscopic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powder from surrounding humidity. The initial disintegration for all Capsule 1 occurred within 3 min, but for other types of capsules within 6 min (n = 18). Dissolution of acetaminophen was better when the deionized water (DIW) temperature increased from 32 to 42 °C in case of Capsule 1, but the effect of temperature was not significant for the other types of capsules. Acetaminphen dissolution from Capsule 1 was the fastest (i.e. >90% in 10 min) and independent of the media pH or contents unlike Capsule 2 which was influenced by the pH and dissolution medium contents. It is feasible to use hypromellose capsules shells with or without gelling agent for new lines of pharmaceutical products, however, there is a window for capsule shells manufacturing companies to improve the dissolution of their hypromellose capsules to match the conventional gelatin capsule shells and eventually replace them. PMID:25586554

  1. Neutron production in deuterium gas-puff z-pinch with outer plasma shell at current of 3 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Frusov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.; Krasa, J.

    2015-11-01

    Z-pinch experiments at the current of about 3 MA were carried out on the GIT-12 generator. The outer plasma shell of deuterium gas-puff was generated by the system of 48 plasma guns. This configuration exhibits a high efficiency of the production of DD fusion neutrons with the yield of above 1012 neutrons produced in a single shot with the duration of about 20 ns. The maximum energy of the neutrons produced in this pulse exceeded 30 MeV. The neutron radiation was measured using scintillation TOF detectors, CR-39 nuclear track detectors, bubble detectors BD-PND and BDS-10000 and by several types of nuclear activation detectors. These diagnostic tools were used to measure the anisotropy of neutron fluence and neutron energy spectra. It allows us to estimate the total number of DD neutrons, the contribution of other nuclear reactions, the amount of scattered neutrons, and other parameters of neutron production. This work was supported by the MSMT grants LH13283, LD14089.

  2. On-shell effective field theory: A systematic tool to compute power corrections to the hard thermal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Cristina; Soto, Joan; Stetina, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    We show that effective field theory techniques can be efficiently used to compute power corrections to the hard thermal loops in a high temperature T expansion. To this aim, we use the recently proposed on-shell effective field theory, which describes the quantum fluctuations around on-shell degrees of freedom. We provide the on-shell effective field theory Lagrangian up to third order in the energy expansion for QED and use it for the computation of power corrections to the retarded photon polarization tensor for soft external momenta. Here soft denotes a scale of order e T , where e is the gauge coupling constant. We develop the necessary techniques to perform these computations and study the contributions to the polarization tensor proportional to e2T2, e2T , and e2T0. The first one describes the hard thermal loop contribution, the second one vanishes, while the third one provides corrections of order e2 to the soft photon propagation. We check that the results agree with the direct calculation from QED, up to local pieces, as expected in an effective field theory.

  3. K(h)α1,2 x-ray hypersatellite line broadening as a signature of K-shell double photoionization followed by outer-shell ionization and excitation.

    PubMed

    Polasik, M; Słabkowska, K; Rzadkiewicz, J; Kozioł, K; Starosta, J; Wiatrowska-Kozioł, E; Dousse, J-Cl; Hoszowska, J

    2011-08-12

    We propose a novel approach for the theoretical analysis of the photoinduced high-resolution K(h)α(1,2) x-ray hypersatellite spectra, which allows us to obtain reliable values of lifetimes of the doubly K-shell ionized states and fundamental information about the relative role of K-shell double photoionization (DPI) mechanisms. It is demonstrated for the first time that the K(h)α(1,2) hypersatellite natural line broadening observed for selected metal atoms with 20 ≤ Z ≤ 30 can be well reproduced quantitatively by taking into account the influences of the open-shell valence configuration (adopted from predictions of the band-structure method) and the outer-shell ionization and excitation following the DPI process. PMID:21902389

  4. Migration of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 through almond hulls and shells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of Salmonella to migrate from an external aqueous environment through the almond hull and shell, and to colonize the kernel, was evaluated in two ways. First, the outer surface of shell halves from five varieties of almonds that differed in shell hardness were placed in contact with a s...

  5. 77 FR 7148 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ..., Resisting Environmental Destruction of Indigenous Lands, Alaska Wilderness League, Center for Biological... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..., Inc., and Shell Offshore, Inc. for the Discoverer Drillship AGENCY: United States...

  6. Stratigraphy and paleoenvironments of the Shell 410-1 well, Georges Bank Basin, US North Atlantic outer continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Poag, C.W.; Swift, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Shell 410-1 well is the most downdip (seaward) hydrocarbon exploratory well in the Georges Bank Basin. It was drilled to a total depth of 4745 m RKB, and penetrated a section composed of Middle Jurassic to Quaternary sedimentary rocks. The lithostratigraphy of the section is described. The strata penetrated by the Shell 410-1 well are more marine than rocks at the updip (landward) COST G-1, Exxon 975-1, COST G-2, and Conoco 145-1 well sites. Limestones and calcareous mudstones dominate at the Shell 410-1 site. Dolomite and anhydrite are much more abundant in the Bajocian-Callovian strata of the Shell 410-1 well, which is evidence that the carbonate-bank palaeoenvironments recorded in the Iroquois and Abenaki Formations were more restricted (less marine) here than 47 km to the west-northwest at the Mobil 312-1 well site near the edge of the Jurassic carbonate platform. -from Authors

  7. L-shell bifurcation of electron outer belt at the recovery phase of geomagnetic storm as observed by STEP-F and SphinX instruments onboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Podgorski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    Radiation belts and sporadically arising volumes comprising enhanced charged particle fluxes in the Earth's magnetosphere are typically studied by space-borne telescopes, semiconductor, scintillation, gaseous and other types of detectors. Ambient and internal electron bremsstrahlung in hard X-ray arises as a result of interaction of precipitating particles with the atmosphere (balloon experiments) and with the satellite's housings and instrument boxes (orbital experiments). Theses emissions provide a number of new information on the physics of radiation belts. The energies of primary electrons and their spectra responsible for measured X-ray emissions remain usually unknown. Combined measurements of particle fluxes, and their bremsstrahlung by individual satellite instruments placed next to each other provide insight to respective processes. The satellite telescope of electrons and protons STEP-F and the solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX were placed in close proximity to each other aboard CORONAS-Photon, the low, circular and highly inclined orbit satellite. Based on joint analysis of the data we detected new features in the high energy particle distributions of the Earth's magnetosphere during deep minimum of solar activity [1-3]. In this research the bifurcation of Van Allen outer electron radiation belt during the weak geomagnetic storm and during passage of interplanetary shock are discussed. Outer belt bifurcation and growth of electron fluxes in a wide energy range were recorded by both instruments during the recovery phase of May 8, 2009 substorm. STEP-F recorded also barely perceptible outer belt splitting on August 5, 2009, after arrival of interplanetary shock to the Earth's magnetosphere bowshock. The STEP-F and SphinX data are compared with the space weather indexes, and with relativistic electron fluxes observed at geostationary orbit. We discuss possible mechanism of the phenomena consisting in the splitting of drift shells because of Earth

  8. Hard sphere packings within cylinders.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Steinhardt, William; Zhao, Hao; Socolar, Joshua E S; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-02-23

    Arrangements of identical hard spheres confined to a cylinder with hard walls have been used to model experimental systems, such as fullerenes in nanotubes and colloidal wire assembly. Finding the densest configurations, called close packings, of hard spheres of diameter σ in a cylinder of diameter D is a purely geometric problem that grows increasingly complex as D/σ increases, and little is thus known about the regime for D > 2.873σ. In this work, we extend the identification of close packings up to D = 4.00σ by adapting Torquato-Jiao's adaptive-shrinking-cell formulation and sequential-linear-programming (SLP) technique. We identify 17 new structures, almost all of them chiral. Beyond D ≈ 2.85σ, most of the structures consist of an outer shell and an inner core that compete for being close packed. In some cases, the shell adopts its own maximum density configuration, and the stacking of core spheres within it is quasiperiodic. In other cases, an interplay between the two components is observed, which may result in simple periodic structures. In yet other cases, the very distinction between the core and shell vanishes, resulting in more exotic packing geometries, including some that are three-dimensional extensions of structures obtained from packing hard disks in a circle. PMID:26843132

  9. Evaluating the sensitivity, reproducibility and flexibility of a method to test hard shell capsules intended for use in dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Chong, Rosalind H E; Jones, Brian E; Díez, Fernando; Birchall, James C; Coulman, Sion A

    2016-03-16

    Pharmaceutical tests for hard shell capsules are designed for orally administered capsules. The use of capsules in dry powder inhalers is widespread and increasing and therefore more appropriate tests are required to ensure quality and determine if these capsules are fit for purpose. This study aims to determine the flexibility, reproducibility and sensitivity of a quantitative method that is designed to evaluate the puncture characteristics of different capsule shell formulations under different climatic conditions. A puncture testing method was used to generate force displacement curves for five capsule formulations that were stored and tested at two different temperatures (5°C and 19°C). Force-displacement puncture profiles were reproducible for individual capsule shell formulations. The methodology was able to discriminate between capsules produced using different primary materials i.e. gelatin versus hypromellose, as well as more minor changes to capsule formulation i.e. different material grades and excipients. Reduced temperature increased the forces required for capsule puncture however further work is required to confirm its significance. Results indicate the method provides a reproducible and sensitive means of evaluating capsule puncture. Future studies should validate the methodology at different test sites, using different operators and with different capsule shell formulations. PMID:26806464

  10. LC and ferromagnetic resonance in soft/hard magnetic microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Bin; Vazquez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic behavior of soft/hard biphase microwires is introduced here. The microwires consist of a Co59.1Fe14.8Si10.2B15.9 soft magnetic nucleus and a Co90Ni10 hard outer shell separated by an intermediate insulating Pyrex glass microtube. By comparing the resistance spectrums of welding the ends of metallic core (CC) or welding the metallic core and outer shell (CS) to the connector, it is found that one of the two peaks in the resistance spectrum is because the LC resonance depends on the inductor and capacitors in which one is the capacitor between the metallic core and outer shell, and the other is between the outer shell and connector. Correspondingly, another peak is for the ferromagnetic resonance of metallic core. After changing the capacitance of the capacitors, the frequency of LC resonance moves to high frequency band, and furthermore, the peak of LC resonance in the resistance spectrum disappeared. These magnetostatically coupled biphase systems are thought to be of large potential interest as sensing elements in sensor devices.

  11. Structural determinants of the outer shell of β-carboxysomes in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942: roles for CcmK2, K3-K4, CcmO, and CcmL.

    PubMed

    Rae, Benjamin D; Long, Benedict M; Badger, Murray R; Price, G Dean

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacterial CO(2)-fixation is supported by a CO(2)-concentrating mechanism which improves photosynthesis by saturating the primary carboxylating enzyme, ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), with its preferred substrate CO(2). The site of CO(2)-concentration is a protein bound micro-compartment called the carboxysome which contains most, if not all, of the cellular RuBisCO. The shell of β-type carboxysomes is thought to be composed of two functional layers, with the inner layer involved in RuBisCO scaffolding and bicarbonate dehydration, and the outer layer in selective permeability to dissolved solutes. Here, four genes (ccmK2-4, ccmO), whose products were predicted to function in the outer shell layer of β-carboxysomes from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, were investigated by analysis of defined genetic mutants. Deletion of the ccmK2 and ccmO genes resulted in severe high-CO(2)-requiring mutants with aberrant carboxysomes, whilst deletion of ccmK3 or ccmK4 resulted in cells with wild-type physiology and normal ultrastructure. However, a tandem deletion of ccmK3-4 resulted in cells with wild-type carboxysome structure, but physiologically deficient at low CO(2) conditions. These results revealed the minimum structural determinants of the outer shell of β-carboxysomes from this strain: CcmK2, CcmO and CcmL. An accessory set of proteins was required to refine the function of the pre-existing shell: CcmK3 and CcmK4. These data suggested a model for the facet structure of β-carboxysomes with CcmL forming the vertices, CcmK2 forming the bulk facet, and CcmO, a "zipper protein," interfacing the edges of carboxysome facets. PMID:22928045

  12. Interfacial effect on physical properties of composite media: Interfacial volume fraction with non-spherical hard-core-soft-shell-structured particles

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenxiang; Duan, Qinglin; Ma, Huaifa; Chen, Wen; Chen, Huisu

    2015-01-01

    Interfaces are known to be crucial in a variety of fields and the interfacial volume fraction dramatically affects physical properties of composite media. However, it is an open problem with great significance how to determine the interfacial property in composite media with inclusions of complex geometry. By the stereological theory and the nearest-surface distribution functions, we first propose a theoretical framework to symmetrically present the interfacial volume fraction. In order to verify the interesting generalization, we simulate three-phase composite media by employing hard-core-soft-shell structures composed of hard mono-/polydisperse non-spherical particles, soft interfaces, and matrix. We numerically derive the interfacial volume fraction by a Monte Carlo integration scheme. With the theoretical and numerical results, we find that the interfacial volume fraction is strongly dependent on the so-called geometric size factor and sphericity characterizing the geometric shape in spite of anisotropic particle types. As a significant interfacial property, the present theoretical contribution can be further drawn into predicting the effective transport properties of composite materials. PMID:26522701

  13. Interfacial effect on physical properties of composite media: Interfacial volume fraction with non-spherical hard-core-soft-shell-structured particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenxiang; Duan, Qinglin; Ma, Huaifa; Chen, Wen; Chen, Huisu

    2015-01-01

    Interfaces are known to be crucial in a variety of fields and the interfacial volume fraction dramatically affects physical properties of composite media. However, it is an open problem with great significance how to determine the interfacial property in composite media with inclusions of complex geometry. By the stereological theory and the nearest-surface distribution functions, we first propose a theoretical framework to symmetrically present the interfacial volume fraction. In order to verify the interesting generalization, we simulate three-phase composite media by employing hard-core-soft-shell structures composed of hard mono-/polydisperse non-spherical particles, soft interfaces, and matrix. We numerically derive the interfacial volume fraction by a Monte Carlo integration scheme. With the theoretical and numerical results, we find that the interfacial volume fraction is strongly dependent on the so-called geometric size factor and sphericity characterizing the geometric shape in spite of anisotropic particle types. As a significant interfacial property, the present theoretical contribution can be further drawn into predicting the effective transport properties of composite materials. PMID:26522701

  14. Interfacial effect on physical properties of composite media: Interfacial volume fraction with non-spherical hard-core-soft-shell-structured particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenxiang; Duan, Qinglin; Ma, Huaifa; Chen, Wen; Chen, Huisu

    2015-11-01

    Interfaces are known to be crucial in a variety of fields and the interfacial volume fraction dramatically affects physical properties of composite media. However, it is an open problem with great significance how to determine the interfacial property in composite media with inclusions of complex geometry. By the stereological theory and the nearest-surface distribution functions, we first propose a theoretical framework to symmetrically present the interfacial volume fraction. In order to verify the interesting generalization, we simulate three-phase composite media by employing hard-core-soft-shell structures composed of hard mono-/polydisperse non-spherical particles, soft interfaces, and matrix. We numerically derive the interfacial volume fraction by a Monte Carlo integration scheme. With the theoretical and numerical results, we find that the interfacial volume fraction is strongly dependent on the so-called geometric size factor and sphericity characterizing the geometric shape in spite of anisotropic particle types. As a significant interfacial property, the present theoretical contribution can be further drawn into predicting the effective transport properties of composite materials.

  15. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells.

    PubMed

    Fitzer, Susan C; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-02-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature. PMID:25540244

  16. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells

    PubMed Central

    Fitzer, Susan C.; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K. Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Kamenos, Nicholas A.; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature. PMID:25540244

  17. Lipid Extract from Hard-Shelled Mussel (Mytilus coruscus) Improves Clinical Conditions of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yuanqing; Li, Guipu; Zhang, Xinhua; Xing, Gengyan; Hu, Xiaojie; Yang, Lifeng; Li, Duo

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested a lipid extract from hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) (HMLE) possessed strong anti-inflammatory activity in arthritis model of rats. This study investigated whether HMLE could improve clinical conditions of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Fifty rheumatoid arthritis patients (28–75 years) were randomly assigned to receive HMLE capsules or receive placebo capsules for 6 months. Forty-two subjects and 50 subjects were included in per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis, respectively. Significant differences in changes on disease activity score (DAS28) and clinical disease activity index (CDAI) after 6-month intervention (p < 0.01) were observed in both analyses with more evident efficacy shown in per-protocol population (∆DAS28 = 0.47; ∆CDAI = 4.17), which favored the benefits of the HMLE group. TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α), interleukin (IL)-1β and PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) but not IL-6, were significantly decreased in both groups, and the decrements were much larger in the HMLE group for TNF-α and PGE2 after 6 months from baseline (p < 0.05). IL-10 was significantly increased in both groups and the change was much more evident in the HMLE group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, HMLE exhibited benefits for the clinical conditions of rheumatoid patients in relation to improvement in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors, which indicated its potential to serve as adjunctive treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02173587). PMID:25602164

  18. Material with core-shell structure

    DOEpatents

    Luhrs, Claudia; Richard, Monique N.; Dehne, Aaron; Phillips, Jonathan; Stamm, Kimber L.; Fanson, Paul T.

    2011-11-15

    Disclosed is a material having a composite particle, the composite particle including an outer shell and a core. The core is made from a lithium alloying material and the outer shell has an inner volume that is greater in size than the core of the lithium alloying material. In some instances, the outer mean diameter of the outer shell is less than 500 nanometers and the core occupies between 5 and 99% of the inner volume. In addition, the outer shell can have an average wall thickness of less than 100 nanometers.

  19. Multi-Shell Hollow Nanogels with Responsive Shell Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Andreas J.; Dubbert, Janine; Rudov, Andrey A.; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Lindner, Peter; Karg, Matthias; Potemkin, Igor I.; Richtering, Walter

    2016-03-01

    We report on hollow shell-shell nanogels with two polymer shells that have different volume phase transition temperatures. By means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) employing contrast variation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we show that hollow shell-shell nanocontainers are ideal systems for controlled drug delivery: The temperature responsive swelling of the inner shell controls the uptake and release, while the thermoresponsive swelling of the outer shell controls the size of the void and the colloidal stability. At temperatures between 32 °C < T < 42 °C, the hollow nanocontainers provide a significant void, which is even larger than the initial core size of the template, and they possess a high colloidal stability due to the steric stabilization of the swollen outer shell. Computer simulations showed, that temperature induced switching of the permeability of the inner shell allows for the encapsulation in and release of molecules from the cavity.

  20. Multi-Shell Hollow Nanogels with Responsive Shell Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas J.; Dubbert, Janine; Rudov, Andrey A.; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Lindner, Peter; Karg, Matthias; Potemkin, Igor I.; Richtering, Walter

    2016-01-01

    We report on hollow shell-shell nanogels with two polymer shells that have different volume phase transition temperatures. By means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) employing contrast variation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we show that hollow shell-shell nanocontainers are ideal systems for controlled drug delivery: The temperature responsive swelling of the inner shell controls the uptake and release, while the thermoresponsive swelling of the outer shell controls the size of the void and the colloidal stability. At temperatures between 32 °C < T < 42 °C, the hollow nanocontainers provide a significant void, which is even larger than the initial core size of the template, and they possess a high colloidal stability due to the steric stabilization of the swollen outer shell. Computer simulations showed, that temperature induced switching of the permeability of the inner shell allows for the encapsulation in and release of molecules from the cavity. PMID:26984478

  1. Multi-Shell Hollow Nanogels with Responsive Shell Permeability.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Andreas J; Dubbert, Janine; Rudov, Andrey A; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Lindner, Peter; Karg, Matthias; Potemkin, Igor I; Richtering, Walter

    2016-01-01

    We report on hollow shell-shell nanogels with two polymer shells that have different volume phase transition temperatures. By means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) employing contrast variation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we show that hollow shell-shell nanocontainers are ideal systems for controlled drug delivery: The temperature responsive swelling of the inner shell controls the uptake and release, while the thermoresponsive swelling of the outer shell controls the size of the void and the colloidal stability. At temperatures between 32 °C < T < 42 °C, the hollow nanocontainers provide a significant void, which is even larger than the initial core size of the template, and they possess a high colloidal stability due to the steric stabilization of the swollen outer shell. Computer simulations showed, that temperature induced switching of the permeability of the inner shell allows for the encapsulation in and release of molecules from the cavity. PMID:26984478

  2. The ultrastructure of shelled and unshelled cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Celli R; Freire, Francisco C O; Soares, Arlete Aparecida; Cooke, Peter H; Guedes, Maria I F

    2013-01-01

    Cashew nuts have many attributes, including sensory, nutritional and health appeal, which contribute to their worldwide acceptance. We demonstrate details of the microstructure of shelled and unshelled cashew kernels with regard to pericarp and cotyledon organization. This study also provides evidence of the colonization of these kernels by filamentous fungi. Nuts were examined by scanning electron and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Staining with acridine orange was performed. A tight lignified palisade layer adjacent to the exocarp surface explains the hardness of the shell's pericarp. The mesocarp contains large secretory cavities that confer a spongy property to this tissue. Papillose cells, which are responsible for secreting CNSL (cashew nutshell liquid), were observed to cover the inner wall of these cavities. Lipid components are readily released from the parenchyma and appear as oil droplets. The outer surface of the shelled samples exhibited a dense Aspergillus infestation. PMID:24045033

  3. Inner shell radial pin geometry and mounting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen

    2002-01-01

    Circumferentially spaced arrays of support pins are disposed through access openings in an outer turbine shell and have projections received in recesses in forward and aft sections of an inner turbine shell supported from the outer shell. The projections have arcuate sides in a circumferential direction affording line contacts with the side walls of the recesses and are spaced from end faces of the recesses, enabling radial and axial expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. All loads are taken up in a tangential direction by the outer shell with the support pins taking no radial loadings.

  4. Shell forming apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Granett, Dan (Inventor); Akutagawa, Wesley M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A nozzle assembly is described for use in a system that forms small gas-filled shells, which avoids the need for holding a miniature inner nozzle precisely concentric with a miniature outer nozzle. The outer nozzle has a diameter which is less than about 0.7 millimeter, which results in fluid passing through the nozzle having a progressively greater velocity at locations progressively further from the walls of the outer nozzle across most of the nozzle. This highly variable velocity profile automatically forces gas to the center of the outer nozzle. The end of the inner nozzle, which emits gas, is spaced upstream from the tip of the outer nozzle, to provide a distance along which to center the gas. This self-centering characteristic permits the inner nozzle to be positioned so its axis is not concentric with the axis of the outer nozzle.

  5. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  6. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  7. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  8. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  9. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  10. Outer atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    The region above the earth from about 90 km to 150 km is a major part of the upper or outer atmosphere. It is relatively unexplored, being too high for balloons or aircraft and too low for persistent orbiting spacecraft. However, the concept of a tethered subsatellite, deployed downward from an orbiting, more massive craft such as the Space Shuttle, opens the possibility of a research capability that could provide global mapping of this region. The need for research in this thick spherical shell above the earth falls into two major categories: (1) scientific data for understanding and modeling the global atmosphere and thereby determining its role in the earth system, and (2) engineering data for the design of future aerospace vehicles that will operate there. This paper presents an overview and synthesis of the currently perceived research needs and the state-of-the-art of the proposed tethered research capability.

  11. Shell forming system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Hollow shells of high uniformity are formed by emitting liquid through an outer nozzle and gas through an inner nozzle, to form a hollow extrusion, by flowing the gas at a velocity between about 1.3 and 10 times the liquid velocity. The natural breakup rate of the extrusion can be increased to decrease shell size by applying periodic perturbations to one of the materials prior to exiting the nozzles, to a nozzle, or to the extrusion.

  12. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Chen, Yongfen; Klimov, Victor I.; Htoon, Han; Vela, Javier

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  13. Optimum rotationally symmetric shells for flywheel rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    A flywheel rim support formed from two shell halves. Each of the shell halves has a disc connected to the central shaft. A first shell element connects to the disc at an interface. A second shell element connects to the first shell element. The second shell element has a plurality of meridional slits. A cylindrical shell element connects to the second shell element. The cylindrical shell element connects to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim support having a disc connected an outer diameter of a shaft. Two optimally shaped shell elements connect to the optimally shaped disc at an interface. The interface defines a discontinuity in a meridional slope of said support. A cylindrical shell element connects to the two shell elements. The cylindrical shell element has an outer surface for connecting to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim casing includes an annular shell connected to the central shaft. The annular shell connects to the flywheel rim. A composite shell surrounds the shaft, annular shell and flywheel rim.

  14. Removable inner turbine shell with bucket tip clearance control

    DOEpatents

    Sexton, Brendan F.; Knuijt, Hans M.; Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Myers, Albert; Coneybeer, Kyle E.; Johnson, David Martin; Kellock, Iain R.

    2000-01-01

    A turbine includes a plurality of inner shell sections mounting first and second stage nozzle and shroud portions. The inner shell sections are pinned to an outer containment shell formed of sections to preclude circumferential movement of the inner shell relative to the outer shell and enable thermal expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. Positive bucket tip clearance control is afforded by passing a thermal medium about the inner shell in heat transfer relation with the shrouds about the first and second stage bucket tips, the thermal medium being provided from a source of heating/cooling fluid independent of the turbine. Access is provided to the rotor and turbine buckets by removing the outer and inner shell sections.

  15. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1985-01-01

    Large, uniform hollow spherical shells are produced by forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, evaporating the drops to form dried particles, coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material, and heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble which expands the outer layer. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the hollow shells, spherical shells with uniform walls are produced.

  16. Hard X-ray identification of η Carinae and steadiness close to periastron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyder, J.-C.; Walter, R.; Rauw, G.

    2010-12-01

    Context. The colliding-wind binary η Carinae exhibits soft X-ray thermal emission that varies strongly around the periastron passage. It has been found to have non-thermal emission, thanks to its detection in hard X-rays using INTEGRAL and Suzaku, and also in γ-rays with AGILE and Fermi. Aims: This paper attempts to definitively identify η Carinae as the source of the hard X-ray emission, to examine how changes in the 2-10 keV band influence changes in the hard X-ray band, and to understand more clearly the mechanisms producing the non-thermal emission using new INTEGRAL observations obtained close to periastron passage. Methods: To strengthen the identification of η Carinae with the hard X-ray source, a long Chandra observation encompassing the INTEGRAL/ISGRI error circle was analysed, and all other soft X-ray sources (including the outer shell of η Carinae itself) were discarded as likely counter-parts. To expand the knowledge of the physical processes governing the X-ray lightcurve, new hard X-ray images of η Carinae were studied close to periastron, and compared to previous observations far from periastron. Results: The INTEGRAL component, when represented by a power law (with a photon index Γ of 1.8), would produce more emission in the Chandra band than observed from any point source in the ISGRI error circle apart from η Carinae, as long as the hydrogen column density to the ISGRI source is lower than NH ≲ 1024 cm-2. Sources with such a high absorption are very rare, thus the hard X-ray emission is very likely to be associated with η Carinae. The eventual contribution of the outer shell to the non-thermal component also remains fairly limited. Close to periastron passage, a 3-σ detection is achieved for the hard X-ray emission of η Carinae, with a flux similar to the average value far from periastron. Conclusions: Assuming a single absorption component for both the thermal and non-thermal sources, this 3-σ detection can be explained with a

  17. Sound Transmission through Two Concentric Cylindrical Sandwich Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Yvette Y.; Silcox, Richard J.; Robinson, Jay H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of sound transmission through a system of two infinite concentric cylindrical sandwich shells. The shells are surrounded by external and internal fluid media and there is fluid (air) in the annular space between them. An oblique plane sound wave is incident upon the surface of the outer shell. A uniform flow is moving with a constant velocity in the external fluid medium. Classical thin shell theory is applied to the inner shell and first-order shear deformation theory is applied to the outer shell. A closed form for transmission loss is derived based on modal analysis. Investigations have been made for the impedance of both shells and the transmission loss through the shells from the exterior into the interior. Results are compared for double sandwich shells and single sandwich shells. This study shows that: (1) the impedance of the inner shell is much smaller than that of the outer shell so that the transmission loss is almost the same in both the annular space and the interior cavity of the shells; (2) the two concentric sandwich shells can produce an appreciable increase of transmission loss over single sandwich shells especially in the high frequency range; and (3) design guidelines may be derived with respect to the noise reduction requirement and the pressure in the annular space at a mid-frequency range.

  18. Methanotroph outer membrane preparation.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Odd A; Berven, Frode S; Jensen, Harald B; Fjellbirkeland, Anne

    2011-01-01

    All presently known methanotrophs are gram-negative bacteria suggesting that they are surrounded by a two-layered membrane: an inner or cytoplasmic membrane and an outer membrane. In the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), separation of the two membranes has allowed studies on protein and lipid composition of the outer membrane. Its outer membrane can be isolated from purified cell envelopes by selective solubilization of the inner membranes with the detergent Triton X-100. The proteins associated with the outer membrane can further be fractionated into integral and tightly associated proteins and peripheral loosely associated proteins. We present here protocols for this fractionation and show how the proteins associated with the outer leaflet of the outer membrane can be isolated and identified by whole-cell biotin surface labeling. PMID:21419921

  19. Monodisperse functional colloidosomes with tailored nanoparticle shells.

    PubMed

    Sander, J S; Studart, A R

    2011-04-01

    We report the assembly of monodisperse colloidosomes containing a wide range of functional nanoparticles in the outer shell using a double emulsion templating method in a microfluidic device. By selecting nanoparticles of specific functionalities, hollow capsules with inert, magnetic, photocatalytic, and potentially biocompatible and piezoelectric shells are easily obtained. Proper control over the surface chemistry of the nanoparticles forming the shell and of the liquid interfaces involved is key to enable the assembly of colloidosomes using this double emulsification route. PMID:21384846

  20. Method of fabricating nested shells and resulting product

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Kool, Lawrence B.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple shell structure and a method of manufacturing such structure wherein a hollow glass microsphere is surface treated in an organosilane solution so as to render the shell outer surface hydrophobic. The surface treated glass shell is then suspended in the oil phase of an oil-aqueous phase dispersion. The oil phase includes an organic film-forming monomer, a polymerization initiator and a blowing agent. A polymeric film forms at each phase boundary of the dispersion and is then expanded in a blowing operation so as to form an outer homogeneously integral monocellular substantially spherical thermoplastic shell encapsulating an inner glass shell of lesser diameter.

  1. The Outer Limits: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Barbara R.; Biesekerski, Joan

    The Quinmester course "The Outer Limits" involves an exploration of unknown worlds, mental and physical, through fiction and nonfiction. Its purpose is to focus attention on the ongoing conquest of the frontiers of the mind, the physical world, and outer space. The subject matter includes identification and investigation of unknown worlds in the…

  2. Core-shell nanostructured catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Lee, Ilkeun; Joo, Ji Bong; Zaera, Francisco; Yin, Yadong

    2013-08-20

    Novel nanotechnologies have allowed great improvements in the syn-thesis of catalysts with well-controlled size, shape, and surface properties. Transition metal nanostructures with specific sizes and shapes, for instance, have shown great promise as catalysts with high selectivities and relative ease of recycling. Researchers have already demonstrated new selective catalysis with solution-dispersed or supported-metal nanocatalysts, in some cases applied to new types of reactions. Several challenges remain, however, particularly in improving the structural stability of the catalytic active phase. Core-shell nanostructures are nanoparticles encapsulated and protected by an outer shell that isolates the nanoparticles and prevents their migration and coalescence during the catalytic reactions. The synthesis and characterization of effective core-shell catalysts has been at the center of our research efforts and is the focus of this Account. Efficient core-shell catalysts require porous shells that allow free access of chemical species from the outside to the surface of nanocatalysts. For this purpose, we have developed a surface-protected etching process to prepare mesoporous silica and titania shells with controllable porosity. In certain cases, we can tune catalytic reaction rates by adjusting the porosity of the outer shell. We also designed and successfully applied a silica-protected calcination method to prepare crystalline shells with high surface area, using anatase titania as a model system. We achieved a high degree of control over the crystallinity and porosity of the anatase shells, allowing for the systematic optimization of their photocatalytic activity. Core-shell nanostructures also provide a great opportunity for controlling the interaction among the different components in ways that might boost structural stability or catalytic activity. For example, we fabricated a SiO₂/Au/N-doped TiO₂ core-shell photocatalyst with a sandwich structure that showed

  3. Turbine blade with spar and shell

    DOEpatents

    Davies, Daniel O.; Peterson, Ross H.

    2012-04-24

    A turbine blade with a spar and shell construction in which the spar and the shell are both secured within two platform halves. The spar and the shell each include outward extending ledges on the bottom ends that fit within grooves formed on the inner sides of the platform halves to secure the spar and the shell against radial movement when the two platform halves are joined. The shell is also secured to the spar by hooks extending from the shell that slide into grooves formed on the outer surface of the spar. The hooks form a serpentine flow cooling passage between the shell and the spar. The spar includes cooling holes on the lower end in the leading edge region to discharge cooling air supplied through the platform root and into the leading edge cooling channel.

  4. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  5. Must "Hard Problems" Be Hard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1985-01-01

    To determine how hard it is for computers to solve problems, researchers have classified groups of problems (polynomial hierarchy) according to how much time they seem to require for their solutions. A difficult and complex proof is offered which shows that a combinatorial approach (using Boolean circuits) may resolve the problem. (JN)

  6. Interior remodeling of the shell by a gastropod mollusc

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Alan J.; Myers, Elizabeth R.; Meenakshi, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    As the Conus shell grows by spiraling of the outer lip around the axis, profound internal shell dissolution thins the walls of the protected penultimate whorl from several millimeters to <50μm. Shell material is added to the inside of the spire and the anterior part of the columella. The resulting shell has a uniformly thick last whorl and thickened spire that enhance defense against crushing predators and a greatly expanded interior living space for the animal. Images PMID:16592680

  7. Outer Planet Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J.

    2008-09-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn (TSSM) and Europa/Jupiter Missions (EJSM). We provide an update on the background, organization and schedule for these two mission studies.

  8. Outer Planet Flagship Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J.; Cutts, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEM and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn and Europa/Jupiter Missions. We provide the background, organization and schedule that are presently envisaged for these two mission studies.

  9. Outer Planets Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J. P.; Cutts, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn (TSSM) and Europa/Jupiter Missions (EJSM). We provide an update on the background, organization and schedule for these two mission studies.

  10. Saturn's outer magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like Earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  11. Outer membrane protein purification.

    PubMed

    Arigita, C; Jiskoot, W; Graaf, M R; Kersten, G F

    2001-01-01

    The major outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from Neisseria meningitidis, which are expressed at high levels, are subdivided in five classes based on molecular weight (1,2) (see Table 1). Table 1 Major Meningococcal Outer-Membrane Proteins Outer-membrane proteins Name Molecular maass Function/characteristics Class 1 PorA 44-47 kDa Porin Class 2/3 PorB 37-42 kDa Porin Class 4 Rmp Reductionmodifiableprotein, unknown Class 5 Opa 26-30 kDa Adhesion,opacity protein Opc 25 kDa Invasion, opacity protein Iron-regulated proteins Mirp 37 kDa Iron acquisition (?);majoriron-regulatedprotein FrpB 70 kDa Ferric enterobactin receptor (also FetA) Adapted from ref. (1). PMID:21336748

  12. 78 FR 1759 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Minor Source/Title V Minor Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...This notice announces that EPA Region 10 has issued a final decision granting Shell Offshore Inc.'s (``Shell'') request for minor modifications of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Minor Source/Title V Permit No. R10OCS03000 (``permits''). The permits authorize air emissions associated with Shell's operation of the Kulluk Conical Drilling Unit (``Kulluk'') in the Beaufort Sea to......

  13. Ionic bonding of lanthanides, as influenced by d- and f-atomic orbitals, by core-shells and by relativity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wen-Xin; Xu, Wei; Schwarz, W H Eugen; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2015-03-15

    Lanthanide trihalide molecules LnX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) were quantum chemically investigated, in particular detail for Ln = Lu (lutetium). We applied density functional theory (DFT) at the nonrelativistic and scalar and SO-coupled relativistic levels, and also the ab initio coupled cluster approach. The chemically active electron shells of the lanthanide atoms comprise the 5d and 6s (and 6p) valence atomic orbitals (AO) and also the filled inner 4f semivalence and outer 5p semicore shells. Four different frozen-core approximations for Lu were compared: the (1s(2) -4d(10) ) [Pd] medium core, the [Pd+5s(2) 5p(6) = Xe] and [Pd+4f(14) ] large cores, and the [Pd+4f(14) +5s(2) 5p(6) ] very large core. The errors of LuX bonding are more serious on freezing the 5p(6) shell than the 4f(14) shell, more serious upon core-freezing than on the effective-core-potential approximation. The LnX distances correlate linearly with the AO radii of the ionic outer shells, Ln(3+) -5p(6) and X(-) -np(6) , characteristic for dominantly ionic Ln(3+) -X(-) binding. The heavier halogen atoms also bind covalently with the Ln-5d shell. Scalar relativistic effects contract and destabilize the LuX bonds, spin orbit coupling hardly affects the geometries but the bond energies, owing to SO effects in the free atoms. The relativistic changes of bond energy BE, bond length Re , bond force k, and bond stretching frequency vs do not follow the simple rules of Badger and Gordy (Re ∼BE∼k∼vs ). The so-called degeneracy-driven covalence, meaning strong mixing of accidentally near-degenerate, nearly nonoverlapping AOs without BE contribution is critically discussed. PMID:25565146

  14. MVC Shell

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Zachary; McCain, Jonathan; Bauer, Travis

    2008-06-03

    Provides the shell of a plugin based application environment that builds on MVC Framework to allow one to rapidly construct an application by using a collection of plugins. The MVC Shell is implemented in C# as a .NET 2.0 application that can then be used as a shell for building a plugin based application. The infrastructure allows for dynamically processing a specified collection of plugins in order to determine the functionality of the application, where all plugins operate within the context of the underlying MVC Framework environment.

  15. MVC Shell

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-06-03

    Provides the shell of a plugin based application environment that builds on MVC Framework to allow one to rapidly construct an application by using a collection of plugins. The MVC Shell is implemented in C# as a .NET 2.0 application that can then be used as a shell for building a plugin based application. The infrastructure allows for dynamically processing a specified collection of plugins in order to determine the functionality of the application, wheremore » all plugins operate within the context of the underlying MVC Framework environment.« less

  16. Law in Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

  17. Sr heterogeneity in textit{Arctica islandica} shells and the potential use of Sr/Ca ratios as paleotemperature proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radermacher, Pascal; Schöne, Bernd R.; Nunn, Elizabeth V.; Zengjie, Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Quantifiable paleotemperature data can help to verify predictions made by numerical climate models. Traditionally, paleotemperature estimates are based on δ18O values of biogenic hard parts. However, oxygen isotope values not only reflect changes in ambient temperature, but also changes in δ18Owater, i.e. driven by freshwater influx, evaporation etc. Information regarding the δ18Owater value of past environments is limited for the geological past. The validity of published δ18O paleotemperature data can be tested using element-to-calcium ratios of bivalve shells such as the long-lived ocean quahog, Arctica islandica. Preliminary investigations suggest that Sr/Ca ratios of this species may provide more reliable paleotemperature data. However, contemporaneously deposited shell portions within the outer shell layer demonstrate at least a 30% variability in the Sr/Ca value. This study presents Sr/Ca ratios measured by ICP-OES wet-chemical analyses. Significantly different distributions of Sr/Ca ratios were recorded from the shell surface (over 1330 ppm), through the interior (850 ppm) and to the inner shell surface (1860 ppm). Furthermore, this study showed that different shell crystal fabrics incorporate different amounts of Sr into the CaCO3 lattice of the A. islandica shell. Disparate Sr distribution could potentially be explained either by postdepositional diagenetic processes or syndepositional processes during biomineralization (i.e. different amounts of Sr incorporated into the shell). Understanding the mechanism of the observed Sr heterogeneity is essential if Sr/Ca ratios are to be used confidently in paleotemperature reconstructions.

  18. Shelled opisthobranchs.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Paula M

    2002-01-01

    In his contributions to the monographic series "Manual of Conchology", Henry Pilsbry reviewed the subgroup Tectibranchiata, comprising those opisthobranch snails that (at least primitively) still possess a shell (Pilsbry, 1894-1896). Exemplified by the Cephalaspidea (bubble shells), others included in this group at Pilsbry's time and since were Anaspidea (sea hares) and the shelled members of Notaspidea (side-gilled slugs) and Sacoglossa (leaf slugs). Pilsbry (and others since his time) considered tectibranchs to be the "root stock" from which more advanced gastropods such as Nudibranchia and Pulmonata were derived. Tectibranch systematics is firmly based on conchology and most species were originally described from empty shells. However, soft-anatomical characters were acknowledged quite early on as equally important in tectibranchs, due to the reduction of their shells and their evolutionary proximity to unshelled gastropods. Today, Tectibranchiata is not recognized as a natural taxon although the word "tectibranch" (like "prosobranch" and "mesogastropod") continues in vernacular use. Shelled opisthobranchs have been redistributed among various taxa, including several new ones--the unresolved basal opisthobranchs (Architectibranchia) and the "lower Heterobranchia", an enigmatic and currently much-studied group of families considered basal to all of Euthyneura (Opisthobranchia and landsnails (Pulmonata)). Despite their polyphyletic status, shelled opisthobranchs remain important subjects in evolutionary studies of gastropods--as the most basal members of nearly every opisthobranch clade and as organisms with mosaic combinations of primitive and derived features within evolutionary "trends" (e.g., loss of the shell, detorsion, concentration of the nervous system, ecological specialization, etc.). Although they play a pivotal role, the shelled opisthobranchs have received minimal attention in more comprehensive gastropod studies, often relegated to token

  19. Nuclear interlevel transfer driven by collective outer shell electron oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, G.A.; Solem, J.G.; Biedenharn, L.C.

    1986-10-20

    The general problem of dynamic electron-nucleus coupling is discussed, and the possibility of using this mechanism to initiate gamma-ray lasing. Single-particle and collective mechanisms are considered. The problems associated with accurate calculation of these processes are discussed, and some numerical results are given. Work in process in described. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Shell-in-Shell TiO2 hollow microspheres and optimized application in light-trapping perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongxia; Ruan, Peng; Bao, Zhongqiu; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Xingfu

    2015-02-01

    The shell-in-shell structured TiO2 hollow microspheres with enhanced light scattering ability were synthesized via a facile one step hydrothermal process. The diameter of the microsphere is about 1.5 μm, the core of the unique shell-in-shell structure is composed of TiO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of about 15 nm, while the shell is constructed with ∼50 nm TiO2 nanocubes. The hollow space between the outer shell and the inner shell is about 230 nm. The formation mechanism of the unique shell-in-shell structure is interpreted. The design and the optimized application of shell-in-shell structured TiO2 hollow microspheres in the light-trapping perovskite solar cells are also investigated. Owing to the light scattering properties of the shell-in-shell structure of the hollow microsphere, the optimized photoelectrode exhibits an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.29% using perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 as the sensitizer. The shell-in-shell hollow TiO2 microsphere shows a 21.2% increase in conversion efficiency when compared with P25 nanoparticels photoanode. The conversion efficiency enhancement is mainly attributed to the increase of short-current density induced by the light scattering effect.

  1. Photoionization of the outer electrons in noble gas endohedral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Amusia, M. Ya. Baltenkov, A. S.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2008-08-15

    We suggest a prominent modification of the outer shell photoionization cross section in noble gas (NG) endohedral atoms NG-C{sub n} under the action of the electron shell of fullerene C{sub n}. This shell leads to two important effects: a strong enhancement of the cross section due to fullerene shell polarization under the action of the incoming electromagnetic wave and to prominent oscillation of this cross section due to the reflection of a photoelectron from the NG by the fullerene shell. Both factors lead to powerful maxima in the outer shell ionization cross sections of NG-C{sub n}, which we call giant endohedral resonances. The oscillator strength reaches a very large value in the atomic scale, 25. We consider atoms of all noble gases except He. The polarization of the fullerene shell is expressed in terms of the total photoabsorption cross section of the fullerene. The photoelectron reflection is taken into account in the framework of the so-called bubble potential, which is a spherical {delta}-type potential. It is assumed in the derivations that the NG is centrally located in the fullerene. It is also assumed, in accordance with the existing experimental data, that the fullerene radius R{sub C} is much larger than the atomic radius r{sub A} and the thickness {delta}{sub C} of the fullerene shell. As was demonstrated recently, these assumptions allow us to represent the NG-C{sub n} photoionization cross section as a product of the NG cross section and two well-defined calculated factors.

  2. Probabilistic Dynamic Buckling of Smart Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib H.

    2007-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to evaluate the deterministic and nondeterministic dynamic buckling of smart composite shells. The combined use of intraply hybrid composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right next to the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 10% at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load while uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects. For the specific shell considered in this evaluation, the use of smart composite material is not recommended because the shell buckling resistance can be improved by simply re-arranging the orientation of the outer plies, as shown in the dynamic buckling analysis results presented in this report.

  3. Probabilistic Dynamic Buckling of Smart Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to evaluate the deterministic and nondeterministic dynamic buckling of smart composite shells. The combined use of composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right below the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 10 percent at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load while uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects. For the specific shell considered in this evaluation, the use of smart composite material is not recommended because the shell buckling resistance can be improved by simply re-arranging the orientation of the outer plies, as shown in the dynamic buckling analysis results presented in this report.

  4. The microindentation behavior of several mollusk shells

    SciTech Connect

    Laraia, V.J.; Heuer, A.H. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of the relationship between structure and mechanical behavior is reported for mollusk shells employing foliated, nacreous, and crossed-lamellar structures by microindentation in the Knoop and Vickers geometries. Indentation damage zones develop crack systems that reflect the micro-architecture. For the crosed-lamellar structure, the system of cracks about the indentation normally developed in a brittle material is suppressed. Previous reports that shells are harder than the corresponding minerals, calcite and aragonite, are confirmed, but it is found that this effect can be strongly dependent on orientation. This anomalous hardness is not an artifact of the indentation test technique, since scratch tests confirm the relative hardness of shell over the mineral. It is suggested that microstructural organization is of central importance in producing this hardness, as opposed to intrinsic properties of the mineral or matrix phases. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.

    1998-01-01

    The Principal Investigator's responsibilities on this grant fell into two categories according to his participation. In the nomenclature work of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Owen is chair of the Task Group for the Outer Solar System. He is also a member of the IAU's Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) which is composed of the chairs of the several Task Groups plus the presidents of two IAU Commissions and several outside consultants. The WGPSN is presided over by its President, Professor Kaare Aksnes from the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway.

  6. Jupiter's outer atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brice, N. M.

    1973-01-01

    The current state of the theory of Jupiter's outer atmosphere is briefly reviewed. The similarities and dissimilarities between the terrestrial and Jovian upper atmospheres are discussed, including the interaction of the solar wind with the planetary magnetic fields. Estimates of Jovian parameters are given, including magnetosphere and auroral zone sizes, ionospheric conductivity, energy inputs, and solar wind parameters at Jupiter. The influence of the large centrifugal force on the cold plasma distribution is considered. The Jovian Van Allen belt is attributed to solar wind particles diffused in toward the planet by dynamo electric fields from ionospheric neutral winds, and the consequences of this theory are indicated.

  7. Shell Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Bill

    1982-01-01

    The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)

  8. Outer planets satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation takes into account the published literature on outer planet satellites for 1979-1982. It is pointed out that all but three (the moon and the two Martian satellites) of the known planetary satellites are found in the outer solar system. Most of these are associated with the three regular satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. The largest satellites are Titan in the Saturn system and Ganymede and Callisto in the Jupiter system. Intermediate in size between Mercury and Mars, each has a diameter of about 5000 km. Presumably each has an internal composition about 60 percent rock and 40 ice, and each is differentiated with a dense core extending out about 75 percent of the distance to the surface, with a mantle of high-pressure ice and a crust of ordinary ice perhaps 100 km thick. Attention is also given to Io, Europa, the icy satellites of Saturn, the satellites of Uranus, the small satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, Triton and the Pluto system, and plans for future studies.

  9. Plans for Double Shell Experiments on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Gunderson, M. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Watt, R. G.; Kline, J. L.; Hayes, A. C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Boswell, M.; Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Batha, S. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.

    2015-11-01

    Double-shells are an alternative approach to achieving indirect drive ignition. These targets consist of a low-Z ablatively-driven outer shell that impacts a high-Z inner shell filled with DT fuel. In contrast to single-shell designs, double-shell targets burn the fuel via volume ignition, albeit with a lower gain. While double-shell capsules are complicated to fabricate, their design includes several beneficial metrics such as a low convergence pusher (C.R. < 10), low implosion speed (~ 250 km/s), a simple few-ns laser drive in a vacuum hohlraum, less sensitivity to hohlraum asymmetries, and low expected laser-plasma instabilities. We present preliminary double-shell capsule designs for NIF using a cryogenic gas DT fill which are optimized for yield and minimized for fall-line mix. Challenges will be discussed, as well as uncertainties and trade-offs in the physics issues compared to single-shells. A development path for double-shell experiments on NIF will be presented. Work performed under the auspices of DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  10. Energetic particle drift motions in the outer dayside magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Models of the geomagnetic field predict that within a distance of approximately one earth radius inside the dayside magnetopause, magnetic fields produced by the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents create high-latitude minimum-B ''pockets'' in the geomagnetic field. Drift-shell branching caused by the minimum-B pockets is analyzed and interpreted in terms of an adiabatic shell branching and rejoining process. We examine the shell-branching process for a static field in detail, using the Choe-Beard 1974 magnetospheric magnetic field model. We find that shell branching annd rejoining conserves the particle mirror field B/sub M/, the fieldline integral invariant I, and the directional electron flux j. We determine the spatial extent of the stable trapping regions for the Choe-Beard model. We develop an adiabatic branching map methodology which completely identifies and describes the location of shell-branching points and the adiabatic trajectories of particles on branched shells, for any model field. We employ the map to develop synthetic pitch angle distributions near the dayside magnetopause by adiabatically transforming observed midnight distributions to the dayside. We find that outer dayside lines contain particles moving on branched and unbranched shells, giving rise to distinctive pitch angle distribution features. We find a good correlation between the pitch angles which mark the transition from branched to unbranched shells in the model, and the distinctive features of the OGO-5 distributions. In the morning sector, we observe large flux changes at critical pitch angles which correspond to B-pocket edges in the model. Measurements on inbound passes in the afternoon sector show first the adiabatic particle shadow, then the arrival of fluxes on rejoined shells, then fluxes on unbranced shells - in accord with model predictions. 204 refs., 138 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. K-shell photoionization of multielectron atomic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified procedure is proposed for calculating the cross section for photoionization from the K-shell for a general atomic system that contains an arbitrary number of outer-shell electrons. The procedure retains the formalism of the one-electron atom case (pure Coulomb-field problem) by determining the effective nuclear charge reduced from Z by 'screening parameters' associated with the other K-shell electron and the outer-bound electrons. The parameters are determined essentially by fitting the atom's radial electric field to Coulomb form at the distance from the nucleus where the integrand of the dipole radial integral is peaked.

  12. Vibration of Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissa, A. W.

    1973-01-01

    The vibrational characteristics and mechanical properties of shell structures are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) fundamental equations of thin shell theory, (2) characteristics of thin circular cylindrical shells, (3) complicating effects in circular cylindrical shells, (4) noncircular cylindrical shell properties, (5) characteristics of spherical shells, and (6) solution of three-dimensional equations of motion for cylinders.

  13. Studies on Shell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Tsujii, Tadashi; Sharp, D. Gordon; Wilbur, Karl M.

    1958-01-01

    The submicroscopic structure of the growing surface of the shell of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, was studied by means of shadowed replicas. The outer edge of the prismatic region consists of a fine grained matrix enclosing crystals, the surfaces of which show a finely pebbled structure. Crystal size varies continously from 0.01 µ to 8 µ. The matrix surface shows no evidence of fibrous structure. The outer portions of the prismatic region exhibit a tile-like arrangement of large crystals separated by granular matrix 0.02 to 0.08 µ in thickness. The exposed crystal surfaces have indentations of varying form which appear as roughly parallel grooves spaced at intervals of approximately 0.3 µ. The final form of this region is believed to result from the random distribution of crystal seeds, which grow without orientation and through coalescence and growth come into contact, producing polygonal areas. The crystal arrangement of the nacreous region is one of overlapping rows of crystals in side to side contact, and with one end of each crystal free, permitting continued increase in length. Crystal angles and plane indices are presented. PMID:13549498

  14. Building Atoms Shell by Shell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Describes an atom-building activity where students construct three-dimensional models of atoms using a styrofoam ball as the nucleus and pom-poms, gum drops, minimarshmallows, or other small items of two different colors to represent protons and neutrons attached. Rings of various sizes with pom-poms attached represent electron shells and…

  15. STUDIES ON SHELL FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Watabe, Norimitsu; Wilbur, Karl M.

    1961-01-01

    Details of crystal growth in the calcitostracum of Crassostrea virginica have been studied with the purpose of analyzing the formation of the overlapping rows of oriented tabular crystals characteristic of this part of the shell. Crystal elongation, orientation, and dendritic growth suggest the presence of strong concentration gradients in a thin layer of solution in which crystallization occurs. Formation of the overlapping rows can be explained by three processes observed in the shell: a two-dimensional tree-like dendritic growth in which one set of crystal branchings creeps over an adjacent set of branchings; three-dimensional dendritic growth; and growth by dislocation of crystal surfaces. Multilayers of crystals may thus be formed at one time. This is favored by infrequent secretion of a covering organic matrix which would inhibit crystal growth. The transitional zone covering the outer part of the calcitostracum and the inner part of the prismatic region is generally characterized by aggregates of small crystals with definite orientation. Growth in this zone appears to take place in a relatively homogeneous state of solution without strong concentration gradients. Thin membranes and bands of organic matrix were commonly observed in the transitional zone bordering the prismatic region. The membrane showed a very fine oriented network pattern. PMID:13783329

  16. Inner and outer beauty.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Kenneth N; Brown, Casey J

    2012-01-01

    Symmetry and pattern are precious forms of beauty that can be appreciated on both the macroscopic and molecular scales. Crystallographers have long appreciated the intimate connections between symmetry and molecular structure, reflected in their appreciation for the artwork of Escher. This admiration has been applied in the design of highly symmetrical coordination compounds. Two classes of materials are discussed: extended coordination arrays and discrete supramolecular assemblies. Extended coordination polymers have been implemented in gas separation and storage due to the remarkably porosity of these materials, aided by the ability to design ever-larger inner spaces within these frameworks. In the case of discrete symmetrical structures, defined inner and outer space present a unique aesthetic and chemical environment. The consequent host-guest chemistry and applications in catalysis are discussed. PMID:22076081

  17. Shell worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  18. CORNER OF SUBPILE ROOM: NORTH AND EAST SIDES. STEEL OUTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CORNER OF SUBPILE ROOM: NORTH AND EAST SIDES. STEEL OUTER SHELL HAS BEEN AFFIXED. SIGN SAYS "HERRICK IRON WORKS STEEL, OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA." NOTE CONDUIT FOR FUTURE INSTRUMENTATION. TOP OF STEEL CASE WILL BE LEVEL WITH BASEMENT CEILING. CAMERA FACES SOUTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 734. Unknown Photographer, 10/6/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Strategy for outer planets exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Programs Office formed a number of scientific working groups to study in depth the potential scientific return from the various candidate missions to the outer solar system. The results of these working group studies were brought together in a series of symposia to evaluate the potential outer planet missions and to discuss strategies for exploration of the outer solar system that were consistent with fiscal constraints and with anticipated spacecraft and launch vehicle capabilities. A logical, scientifically sound, and cost effective approach to exploration of the outer solar system is presented.

  20. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1983-09-26

    The invention is a method to produce large uniform hollow spherical shells by (1) forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, (2) evaporating the drops to form dried particles, (3) coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material and (4) heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and to decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble. The expanding gas bubble forms the molten outer layer into a shell of relatively large diameter. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the molten shell, nonuniformities in wall thickness can be reduced. The method of the invention is utilized to produce large uniform spherical shells, in the millimeter to centimeter diameter size range, from a variety of materials and of high quality, including sphericity, concentricity and surface smoothness, for use as laser fusion or other inertial confinement fusion targets as well as other applications.

  1. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.; Grant, John (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This grant has supported work by T. Owen and B. A. Smith on planetary and satellite nomenclature, carried out under the general auspices of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The IAU maintains a Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) whose current chair is Prof.Kaare Aksnes of the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway. Both Owen and Smith are members of the WGPSN; Owen as chair of the Outer Solar System Task Group, and Smith as chair of the Mars Task Group. The major activity during the last grant period (2002) was the approval of several new names for features on Mars by Smith's group and features on Jovian satellites plus new names for satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus by Owen's group. Much of this work was accomplished by e-mail exchanges, but the new nomenclature was formally discussed and approved at a meeting of the WGPSN held in conjunction with the Division for Planetary Sciences meeting in Birmingham, Alabama in October 2002.

  2. Chemistry and processing of polymer shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Emmanuel Limjuco

    The fabrication of high-quality spherical shells, used as fuel capsules in fusion experiments, is essential to the progress of the inertial confinement fusion program. Two types of shell were produced: (1) Polystyrene shells were made in a microencapsulation method. The yield, diameter, wall thickness, vacuole content, and surface finish were determined for shells prepared with an organic phase of toluene and 1,2-dichloroethane with polystyrene concentrations varied from 5 to 13 wt% and an internal water phase that sometimes contained surfactants. (2) Polyimide shells were made by vapor-phase deposition onto depolymerizable spherical mandrels. High-aspect-ratio polyimide shells with diameters ranging from 700 to 1000 mum and wall thicknesses from 2 to 13 mum have been fabricated. Estimates of the composition, surface roughness, burst and buckle pressures, elastic modulus, tensile strength, permeability, and film stress have been obtained. These shells have been characterized in terms of morphological properties: the shell dimensions (diameter and wall thickness), sphericity, wall structure, outer and inner surface finish, and transparency. The structure of the outer surface and wall cross section varied strongly with the processing conditions (e.g., deposition temperatures, system pressure), while the inner surface was shown to be very smooth. The transparency of near-stoichiometric polyimide shells and flat films was demonstrated. Rutherford backscattering and nuclear resonance analysis techniques were used to provide the elemental composition and density, which were very near the theoretical values. Polyimide shells' minimum tensile strengths and moduli were determined from burst and buckle pressure tests. The tensile strength approached that reported for Kapton-HN film. The elastic moduli varied with processing conditions. The vapor-deposited polyimide was found to possess mechanical strength properties similar to commercially available polyimides. The room

  3. Nanostructued core-shell Sn nanowires @ CNTs with controllable thickness of CNT shells for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yu; Li, Xifei; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ruying; Cai, Mei; Sun, Xueliang

    2015-03-01

    Core-shell structure of Sn nanowires encapsulated in amorphous carbon nanotubes (Sn@CNTs) with controlled thickness of CNT shells was in situ prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The thickness of CNT shells was accurately controlled from 4 to 99 nm by using different growth time, flow rate of hydrocarbon gas (C2H4) and synthesis temperature. The microstructure and composition of the coaxial Sn@CNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Moreover, the Sn@CNTs were studied as anode materials for Li-ion batteries and showed excellent cycle performance. The capacity was affected by the thickness of outer CNT shells: thick CNT shells contributed to a better retention while thin CNT shells led to a higher capacity. The thin CNT shell of 6 nm presented the highest capacity around 630 mAh g-1.

  4. Solutocapillary convection in spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Pravin; Zebib, Abdelfattah; McQuillan, Barry

    2005-01-01

    A linear stability study of solutocapillary driven Marangoni instabilities in small spherical shells is presented. The shells contain a binary fluid with an evaporating solvent. The viscosity is a strong function of the solvent concentration, the inner surface of the shell is assumed impermeable and stress free, while nonlinear boundary conditions are modeled and prescribed at the receding outer boundary. A time-dependent diffusive state is possible and may lose stability through the Marangoni mechanism due to surface tension dependence on solvent concentration (buoyant forces are negligible in this microscale problem). A frozen-time or quasisteady state linear stability analysis is performed to compute the critical Reynolds number and degree of surface harmonics, as well as the maximum growth rate of perturbations at specified parameters. The development of maximum growth rates in time was also computed by solving the initial value problem with random initial conditions. Results from both approaches are in good agreement except at short times where there is dependence on initial conditions. The physical problem models the manufacturing of spherical shells used as targets in inertial confinement fusion experiments where perfect sphericity is demanded for efficient fusion ignition. It is proposed that the Marangoni instability might be the source of observed surface roughness. Comparisons with the available experiments are made with reasonable qualitative and quantitative agreement.

  5. Separating in shell pistachio nuts from kernels using impact vibration analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sorting system has been developed for the separation of small in-shell pistachio nuts from kernels without shells on the basis of vibrations generated when moving samples strike a steel plate. Impacts between the steel plate and the hard shells, as measured using an accelerometer attached to the...

  6. Outer Planet Assessment Group (OPAG) Recommended Exploration Strategy for the Outer Planets 2013-2022

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, William B.; Steering Committee, Opag; Planets Community, Outer

    2010-05-01

    The Outer Solar System provides critical clues to how solar systems form and evolve, how planetary systems become habitable, and how life has evolved in our solar system. NASA's Outer Planets Assessment Group (OPAG) was established to identify scientific priorities and pathways for Outer Solar System exploration. Fundamental new discoveries are best made with a mixture of mission sizes that includes large (flagship) missions, and medium-sized and smaller-sized (as practical) missions, along with vigorous support for basic research, data analysis, and technology development — a balanced strategy most efficiently implemented as an Outer Planets Exploration Program. Missions to the Outer Solar System are major undertakings, requiring large and expensive launch vehicles, long mission durations, highly reliable (frequently radiation hard) and autonomous spacecraft, and radioisotope power sources in most cases. OPAG has recommended to the US National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey to explore the possibilities for ‘small flagship' class missions to be considered, providing a greater range of choice and capabilities in the mix to balance program size and science return. With the Galileo mission concluded, the Cassini equinox mission in progress, and Juno in development, OPAG has strongly endorsed the competitive selection by NASA of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) as the next Outer Planets Flagship and as part of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) with ESA, a collaboration that includes a Ganymede orbiter and an increased focus on Jupiter science; OPAG has strongly recommended support of JEO and EJSM in the Decadal Survey. In addition, OPAG has strongly endorsed approval by NASA of the Cassini Solstice Mission, including the Juno-like end-of-mission scenario, given the likely phenomenal return on investment. OPAG also advocates the need for a focused technology program for the next Outer Planet Flagship Mission after EJSM, in order to be ready

  7. The Leptospiral Outer Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Haake, David A; Zückert, Wolfram R

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) is the front line of leptospiral interactions with their environment and the mammalian host. Unlike most invasive spirochetes, pathogenic leptospires must be able survive in both free-living and host-adapted states. As organisms move from one set of environmental conditions to another, the OM must cope with a series of conflicting challenges. For example, the OM must be porous enough to allow nutrient uptake, yet robust enough to defend the cell against noxious substances. In the host, the OM presents a surface decorated with adhesins and receptors for attaching to, and acquiring, desirable host molecules such as the complement regulator, Factor H. On the other hand, the OM must enable leptospires to evade detection by the host’s immune system on their way from sites of invasion through the bloodstream to the protected niche of the proximal tubule. The picture that is emerging of the leptospiral OM is that, while it shares many of the characteristics of the OMs of spirochetes and Gram-negative bacteria, it is also unique and different in ways that make it of general interest to microbiologists. For example, unlike most other pathogenic spirochetes, the leptospiral OM is rich in lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Leptospiral LPS is similar to that of Gram-negative bacteria but has a number of unique structural features that may explain why it is not recognized by the LPS-specific Toll-like receptor 4 of humans. As in other spirochetes, lipoproteins are major components of the leptospiral OM, though their roles are poorly understood. The functions of transmembrane OMPs in many cases are better understood thanks to homologies with their Gram-negative counterparts and the emergence of improved genetic techniques. This chapter will review recent discoveries involving the leptospiral OM and its role in leptospiral physiology and pathogenesis. Readers are referred to earlier, excellent summaries related to this subject (Adler and de la Peña Moctezuma

  8. Waste Package Outer Barrier Stress Due to Thermal Expansion with Various Barrier Gap Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Lewis

    2001-11-27

    The objective of this activity is to determine the tangential stresses of the outer shell, due to uneven thermal expansion of the inner and outer shells of the current waste package (WP) designs. Based on the results of the calculation ''Waste Package Barrier Stresses Due to Thermal Expansion'', CAL-EBS-ME-000008 (ref. 10), only tangential stresses are considered for this calculation. The tangential stresses are significantly larger than the radial stresses associated with thermal expansion, and at the WP outer surface the radial stresses are equal to zero. The scope of this activity is limited to determining the tangential stresses the waste package outer shell is subject to due to the interference fit, produced by having two different shell coefficients of thermal expansions. The inner shell has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than the outer shell, producing a pressure between the two shells. This calculation is associated with Waste Package Project. The calculations are performed for the 21-PWR (pressurized water reactor), 44-BWR (boiling water reactor), 24-BWR, 12-PWR Long, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF - Short (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel), 2-MCO/2-DHLW (multi-canister overpack), and Naval SNF Long WP designs. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design for the types of WPs considered in this calculation. This calculation is performed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for SR (Ref.7). The calculation is documented, reviewed, and approved in accordance with AP-3.12Q, Calculations (Ref.1).

  9. Carbon nanotube core graphitic shell hybrid fibers.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Myung Gwan; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Hart, Amelia H C; Song, Sung Moo; Nam, Jaewook; Jung, Hyun Young; Hashim, Daniel Paul; Li, Bo; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Park, Chi-Dong; Zhao, Yao; Vajtai, Robert; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Hayashi, Takuya; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Endo, Morinobu; Barrera, Enrique; Jung, Yung Joon; Thomas, Edwin L; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2013-12-23

    A carbon nanotube yarn core graphitic shell hybrid fiber was fabricated via facile heat treatment of epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU-8) on carbon nanotube yarn. The effective encapsulation of carbon nanotube yarn in carbon fiber and a glassy carbon outer shell determines their physical properties. The higher electrical conductivity (than carbon fiber) of the carbon nanotube yarn overcomes the drawbacks of carbon fiber/glassy carbon, and the better properties (than carbon nanotubes) of the carbon fiber/glassy carbon make up for the lower thermal and mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube yarn via synergistic hybridization without any chemical doping and additional processes. PMID:24224730

  10. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  11. Wear of hard materials by hard particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2003-10-01

    Hard materials, such as WC-Co, boron carbide, titanium diboride and composite carbide made up of Mo2C and WC, have been tested in abrasion and erosion conditions. These hard materials showed negligible wear in abrasion against SiC particles and erosion using Al2O3 particles. The WC-Co materials have the highest wear rate of these hard materials and a very different material removal mechanism. Wear mechanisms for these materials were different for each material with the overall wear rate controlled by binder composition and content and material grain size.

  12. Role of reactant transport in determining the properties of NIF shells made by interfacial polycondensation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, K.E.; Letts, S.A.; Buckley, S.R.; Fearon, E.M.; Wilemski, G.; Cook, R.C.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1997-03-01

    Polymer shells up to 2 mm in diameter were prepared using an interfacial polycondensation / cross-linking reaction occurring at the surface of an oil drop. The oil phase is comprised of a solution (20 wt% or less) of isophthaloyl dichloride (IPC) dissolved in an organic solvent. An interfacial reaction is initiated when the IPC-loaded oil drop is submerged in an aqueous solution of poly(p-vinylphenol) (PVP), a poly(electrolyte) at elevated pH. Composition, structure, and surface finish for fully-formed dry shells were assessed using a number of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC) mass spectroscopy (MS), microhardness measurements, gas permeability, and solvent permeability measurements. From deposition rate data, a reaction mechanism and key reaction parameters were identified. The deposition rate of shell membrane material was found to be a diffusion limited reaction of IPC through the forming membrane to the exterior shell interface (which is believed to be the reaction front). The final thickness of the film deposited at the interface and the rate of deposition were found to be strong functions of the IPC concentration and oil phase solvent. Films made with diethyl phthalate (DEP) were thinner and harder than films made using 1,6-dichlorohexane (DCH) as a solvent. Differences in solubility of the forming membrane in DCH and DEP appear to be able to account for the differences in deposition rate and the hardness (related to cross-linking density). The deposition can be thought of as a phase separation which is affected by both the poly(electrolyte) / ionomer transition and the amount of cross-linking. Finally, it was found that the choice of oil phase solvent profoundly affects the evolution of the outer surface roughness.

  13. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  14. The structure of the dust shells around IRC +10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, G. C.; Egan, M. P.

    1995-05-01

    We have investigated IRC +10216 using a long-slit mid-infrared spectrometer and modeling the circumstellar dust with a radiative transfer algorithm. Maximum entropy reconstructions of the spectral images made with the slit oriented north/south and east/west reveal three components. Two shells of cool carbon-rich dust are seen, as well as a region of blue emission between the shells, approximately 1 sec north of the central source. The dust shell structure agrees well with previous interferometric observations: a circularly symmetric inner shell enclosed within an outer shell elongated roughly north/south. The blue emission appears to arise from a region of small grains of radiatively heated amorphous carbon and implies that the polar regions of the inner shell are optically thinner that the equatorial regions.

  15. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET OUTER COIL SET

    SciTech Connect

    J. BACON; A. BACA; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    The controlled power outer coil set of the first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet is described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND controlled power outer coil set consists of seven nested, mechanically independent externally reinforced coils. These coils, in combination, will produce a 47 T platform field in a 225-mm diameter bore. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator provides ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. Each coil consists of a multi-layer winding of high strength conductor supported by an external high strength stainless steel shell. Coils with the highest magnetic loads will utilize a reinforcing shell fabricated from highly cold worked 301 stainless steel strip. The autofrettage conditioning method will be used to pre-stress the coils and thereby limit conductor and reinforcement strains to the elastic range. The purpose of pre-stressing the coils is to attain a design life of 10,000 full field pulses. The operation and conditioning of the coil set will be described along with special features of its design, magnetic and structural analyses and construction.

  16. Shell-armored wood cobbles as a potential criterion for detrital coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarco, M.J.; Nummedal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Shell-armored wood cobbles occur on detrital-peat beaches along the seaward edge of the Mississippi Delta. Shell material consists exclusively of Mulinia lateralis, a dwarf surf clam. Soft, heavy, waterlogged wood fragments are abraded and become armored by hard shells in response to wave activity on the beach. Although their preservation potential is suspect, fossilized shell-armored wood clasts would probably be recognized as a type of coal ball and might indicate an allochthonous origin for the host coal.

  17. Mussel Shell Evaluation as Bioindicator For Heavy Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Lopes, Fábio; Galvão, Tiago Dutra

    2010-05-01

    Recently, in Brazil, it has appeared a new and unusual "plague" in lazer and commercial fishing. It is caused by the parasitic larval phase of certain native bivalve mollusks of fresh water known as "Naiades" and its involves the presence of big bivalve of fresh water, mainly Anodontites trapesialis, in the tanks and dams of the fish creation. These bivalve mollusks belong to the Unionoida Order, Mycetopodidae Family. The objective of the present work was to analyze the shells of these mollusks to verify the possibility of use as bioindicators for heavy metals in freshwater. The mollusks shells were collected in a commercial fishing at Londrina-PR. A qualitative analysis was made to determine the chemical composition of the shells and verify a possible correlation with existent heavy metals in the aquatic environment. In the inner part of the shells were identified the elements Ca, P, Fe, Mn and Sr and in the outer part were identified Ca, P, Fe, Mn, Sr and Cu. The Ca ratio of the outer part by inner part of the analyzed shells is around of 1, as expected, because Ca is the main compound of mollusks shells. The ratio of P, Fe, Mn, and Sr to the Ca were constant in all analyzed shells, being close to 0.015. The ratio Cu/Ca varied among the shells, showing that this mollusk is sensitive to concentration of this element in the aquatic environment.

  18. Distributed neural signals on parabolic cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. D.; Li, H.; Tzou, H. S.

    2013-06-01

    Parabolic cylindrical shells are commonly used as key components in communication antennas, space telescopes, solar collectors, etc. This study focuses on distributed modal neural sensing signals on a flexible simply-supported parabolic cylindrical shell panel. The parabolic cylindrical shell is fully laminated with a piezoelectric layer on its outer surface and the piezoelectric layer is segmented into infinitesimal elements (neurons) to investigate the microscopic distributed neural sensing signals. Since the dominant vibration component of the shell is usually the transverse oscillation, a new transverse mode shape function is defined. Two shell cases, i.e., the ratio of the meridian height to the half span distance of a parabola at 1:4 (shallow) and 1:1 (deep), are studied to reveal the curvature effect to the neural sensing signals. Studies suggest that the membrane signal component dominates for lower natural modes and the bending signal component dominates for higher natural modes. The meridional membrane and bending signal components are mostly concentrated on the high-curvature areas, while the longitudinal bending component is mostly concentrated on the relatively flat areas. The concentration behavior becomes more prominent as the parabolic cylindrical shell deepens, primarily resulting from the enhanced membrane effect due to the increased curvature.

  19. η Carinae - The outer ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, K.

    2009-03-01

    η Carinae is a unique object among the most massive evolved stars in the LBV phase. The central object(s) is(are) surrounded by a complex circumstellar nebula ejected during more than one eruption in the 19th century. Beyond the well-defined edges of its famous bipolar nebula, the Homunculus, are additional nebulous features referred to as the outer ejecta. The outer ejecta contains a large variety of structures of very different sizes and morphologies distributed in a region 0.67 pc in diameter. Individual features in the outer ejecta are moving extremely fast, up to 3200 km/s, in general the expansion velocities are between 400-900 km/s. A consequence of these high velocities is that structures in the outer ejecta interact with the surrounding medium and with each other. The strong shocks that arise from these interactions give rise to soft X-ray emission. The global expansion pattern of the outer ejecta reveals an overall bipolar distribution, giving a symmetric structure to its morphologically more irregular appearance. The long, highly collimated filaments, called strings, are particularly unusual. The material in the strings follows a Hubble-flow and appears to originate at the central object.

  20. Origin of Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  1. Ordering of hard particles between hard walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowska, A.; Teixeira, P. I. C.; Ehrentraut, H.; Cleaver, D. J.

    2001-05-01

    The structure of a fluid of hard Gaussian overlap particles of elongation κ = 5, confined between two hard walls, has been calculated from density-functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations. By using the exact expression for the excluded volume kernel (Velasco E and Mederos L 1998 J. Chem. Phys. 109 2361) and solving the appropriate Euler-Lagrange equation entirely numerically, we have been able to extend our theoretical predictions into the nematic phase, which had up till now remained relatively unexplored due to the high computational cost. Simulation reveals a rich adsorption behaviour with increasing bulk density, which is described semi-quantitatively by the theory without any adjustable parameters.

  2. 75 FR 3915 - Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Sand and Gravel Activities on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Sand and Gravel Activities on... for three sand and gravel activities proposed on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) and described in... noncompetitive basis, the rights to OCS sand, gravel, or shell resources for shore protection, beach or...

  3. 76 FR 3152 - Agency Information Collection Activity: 1010-NEW, Upcoming Projects Considering the Use of Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... September 7, 2010, we published a Federal Register notice (75 FR 54369) announcing that we would submit this...: 1010-NEW, Upcoming Projects Considering the Use of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand, Gravel, and... respondents will submit to BOEMRE to obtain OCS sand, gravel, and shell resources for use in shore...

  4. 75 FR 803 - Safety Zone; FRONTIER DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and Beaufort Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... the Chukchi and Beaufort Sea Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska, from 12:01 a.m. on July 1, 2010 through..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Continental Shelf, Alaska. Shell Exploration & Production Company has five proposed drill sites within...

  5. Outer Shock Interaction in Young Core-Collapse SNRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Studying the environments in which core-collapse supernovae (SNe) explode and then subsequently evolve is essential to establish the nature of the mass loss and the explosion of the progenitor star. The spatial structure of the outer shock in young core-collapse SNRs provides an opportunity to study the nature of the medium into which the remnant has been expanding. We present our X-ray study of the outer shocks in young core-collapse SNRs in our Galaxy. For Cas A and G292.0+1.8, we find that both remnants have been likely interacting with dense red supergiant winds. For other remnants with bright thermal X-ray emission from the shell, we suggest that they are interacting with pre-existing circumstellar structure. We discuss the nature of the winds and the progenitor stars.

  6. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  7. Hardness Tester for Polyur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, D. L.; Buras, D. F.; Corbin, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Rubber-hardness tester modified for use on rigid polyurethane foam. Provides objective basis for evaluation of improvements in foam manufacturing and inspection. Typical acceptance criterion requires minimum hardness reading of 80 on modified tester. With adequate correlation tests, modified tester used to measure indirectly tensile and compressive strengths of foam.

  8. The hard metal diseases.

    PubMed

    Cugell, D W

    1992-06-01

    Hard metal is a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, to which small amounts of other metals may be added. It is widely used for industrial purposes whenever extreme hardness and high temperature resistance are needed, such as for cutting tools, oil well drilling bits, and jet engine exhaust ports. Cobalt is the component of hard metal that can be a health hazard. Respiratory diseases occur in workers exposed to cobalt--either in the production of hard metal, from machining hard metal parts, or from other sources. Adverse pulmonary reactions include asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis. A peculiar, almost unique form of lung fibrosis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is closely linked with cobalt exposure. PMID:1511554

  9. Circumstellar shells resolved in IRAS survey data. II - Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K.; Phillips, T. G.; Knapp, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    IRAS survey data for 512 red giant stars and young planetary nebulae were processed using a computer program which fitted the data to an idealized model of a circumstellar shell. Seventy-six of these stars were found to have circumstellar shells resolved in the 60-micron survey data. Forty pct of the 76 stars are carbon stars. Thirteen are Mira variables. The evolution of these shells, involving the interaction of the expelled material with the ISM, is modeled, and the results suggest that the period during which Mira variables lose mass lasts for approximately 10 exp 5 yr. Carbon stars are found to shed mass for about 2 x 10 exp 5 yr. The expansion velocity of the outer shell for the largest shells will normally be lower by a factor of 3-5 than the expansion velocity obtained from CO observations.

  10. Endoliths in Lithophaga lithophaga shells--Variation in intensity of infestation and species occurrence.

    PubMed

    Peharda, Melita; Calcinai, Barbara; Puljas, Sanja; Golubić, Stjepko; Arapov, Jasna; Thébault, Julien

    2015-07-01

    Pronounced differences with respect to the extent of infestation and the degree of Lithophaga lithophaga shell damage inflicted by euendolithic taxa at two sites in the Adriatic Sea representing different productivity conditions, are described. Shells collected from the eastern part of Kaštela Bay, which is characterized by higher primary productivity, have significantly more shell damage then the shell collected from a site on the outer coast of the island of Čiovo exposed to the oligotrophic Adriatic Sea. The presence of endoliths and their perforations were detected in different layers of the shell, including solidly mineralized parts of the skeleton and within the organic lamellae incorporated into the shell. Phototrophic endoliths were not observed in the specimens. The most serious damage to L. lithophaga shells was the boring clionaid sponge Pione vastifica, which was more common in shells collected from Kaštela. PMID:25982321

  11. Strategy for exploration of the outer planets: 1986-1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Over the past decade COMPLEX has published three strategy reports which, taken together, encompass the entire planetary system and recommend a coherent program of planetary exploration. The highest priority for outer planet exploration during the next decade is intensive study of Saturn (the planet, satellites, rings, and magnetosphere) as a system. The Committee additionally recommends that NASA engage in the following supporting activities: increased support of laboratory and theoretical studies; pursuit of earth-based and earth-orbital observations; commitment to continued operation of productive spacecraft; implementation of the instrument development plan as appropriate for the outer solar system; studies of deep atmospheric probes; development of penetrators or other hard landers; development of radiation-hardened spacecraft; and development of low-thrust propulsion systems. Longer-term objectives include exploration and intensive study of: the Uranus and Neptune systems; planetology of the Galilean satellites and Titan; and the inner Jovian system.

  12. Hollow Pollen Shells to Enhance Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Diego-Taboada, Alberto; Beckett, Stephen T.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Mackenzie, Grahame

    2014-01-01

    Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly of sporopollenin. The relative proportion of each varies according to the plant species. The structure of sporopollenin has not been fully characterised but different studies suggest the presence of conjugated phenols, which provide antioxidant properties to the microcapsule and UV (ultraviolet) protection to the material inside it. These microcapsule shells have many advantageous properties, such as homogeneity in size, resilience to both alkalis and acids, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 250 °C. These hollow microcapsules have the ability to encapsulate and release actives in a controlled manner. Their mucoadhesion to intestinal tissues may contribute to the extended contact of the sporopollenin with the intestinal mucosa leading to an increased efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. The hollow microcapsules can be filled with a solution of the active or active in a liquid form by simply mixing both together, and in some cases operating a vacuum. The active payload can be released in the human body depending on pressure on the microcapsule, solubility and/or pH factors. Active release can be controlled by adding a coating on the shell, or co-encapsulation with the active inside the shell. PMID:24638098

  13. Hollow pollen shells to enhance drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Diego-Taboada, Alberto; Beckett, Stephen T; Atkin, Stephen L; Mackenzie, Grahame

    2014-01-01

    Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly of sporopollenin. The relative proportion of each varies according to the plant species. The structure of sporopollenin has not been fully characterised but different studies suggest the presence of conjugated phenols, which provide antioxidant properties to the microcapsule and UV (ultraviolet) protection to the material inside it. These microcapsule shells have many advantageous properties, such as homogeneity in size, resilience to both alkalis and acids, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 250 °C. These hollow microcapsules have the ability to encapsulate and release actives in a controlled manner. Their mucoadhesion to intestinal tissues may contribute to the extended contact of the sporopollenin with the intestinal mucosa leading to an increased efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. The hollow microcapsules can be filled with a solution of the active or active in a liquid form by simply mixing both together, and in some cases operating a vacuum. The active payload can be released in the human body depending on pressure on the microcapsule, solubility and/or pH factors. Active release can be controlled by adding a coating on the shell, or co-encapsulation with the active inside the shell. PMID:24638098

  14. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X.; Morrison, Jay A.

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  15. Physics of the outer heliosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gazis, P.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Major advances in the physics of the outer heliosphere are reviewed for the 1987-1990 time frame. Emphasis is placed on five broad topics: the detailed structure of the solar wind at large heliocentric distances, the global structure of the interplanetary field, latidudinal variations and meridional flows, radial and temporal variations, and the interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium. 122 refs.

  16. Origin of Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Boyce, J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We feel that at the present moment the available theoretical models of the Kuiper belt are still in advance of the data, and thus our main task has been to conduct observational work guided by theoretical motivations. Our efforts over the past year can be divided into four categories: A) Wide-field Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects; B) Pencil-beam Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects; C) Wide-field Searches for Moons of the Outer Planets; D) Pencil-beam Searches for Faint Uranian and Neptunian Moons; E) Recovery Observations. As of April 2002, we have conducted several searches for Kuiper belt objects using large-format mosaic CCD camera on 4-meter class telescopes. In May 1999, we used the Kitt Peak 4-meter with the NOAO Mosaic camera we attempted a search for KBOs at a range of ecliptic latitudes. In addition to our wide-field searches, we have conducted three 'pencil-beam' searches in the past year. In a pencil-beam search we take repeated integrations of the same field throughout a night. After preprocessing the resulting images we shift and recombine them along a range of rates and directions consistent with the motion of KBOs. Stationary objects then smear out, while objects moving at near the shift rate appear as point sources. In addition to our searches for Kuiper belt objects, we are completing the inventory of the outer solar system by search for faint satellites of the outer planets. In August 2001 we conducted pencil beam searches for faint Uranian and Neptunian satellites at CFHT and CTIO. These searches resulted in the discover of two Neptunian and four Uranian satellite candidates. The discovery of Kuiper belt objects and outer planet satellites is of little use if the discoveries are not followed by systematic, repeated astrometric observations that permit reliable estimates of their orbits.

  17. 76 FR 54787 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY... revised North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram,...

  18. 76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and...

  19. Organizing Your Hard Disk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, H. Robert; Hilton, Thomas S. E.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests strategies that make hard disk organization easy and efficient, such as making, changing, and removing directories; grouping files by subject; naming files effectively; backing up efficiently; and using PATH. (JOW)

  20. Shell Worlds: The Question of Shell Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, K. L.; Kennedy, R. G., III; Fields, D. E.

    The initial idea of shell worlds was first proposed in the January 2009 edition of JBIS. In that paper the stability of the shell around a central world was not discussed at any length except to say that it was stable due to forces induced by gravity. This paper demonstrates in a qualitative and quantitative manner that a material shell supported by atmospheric pressure around a moon or small planet is indeed stable and does not require active measures to remain centered, provided that the central body is large enough. The minimal size of the central body to provide this stability is discussed.

  1. Geometrical interpretation for the outer SU(3) outer multiplicity label

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draayer, Jerry P.; Troltenier, D.

    1995-01-01

    A geometrical interpretation for the outer multiplicity rho that occurs in a reduction of the product of two SU(3) representations, (lambda(sub pi), mu(sub pi)) x (lambda(sub nu), mu(sub nu)) approaches sigma(sub rho)(lambda, mu)(sub rho), is introduced. This coupling of proton (pi) and neutron (nu) representations arises, for example, in both boson and fermion descriptions of heavy deformed nuclei. Attributing a geometry to the coupling raises the possibility of introducing a simple interaction that provides a physically meaningful way for distinguishing multiple occurrences of (lambda, mu) values that can arise in such products.

  2. How 'hard' are hard-rock deformations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2003-04-01

    The study of soft-rock deformations has received increasing attention during the past two decades, and much progress has been made in the understanding of their genesis. It is also recognized now that soft-rock deformations—which show a wide variety in size and shape—occur frequently in sediments deposited in almost all types of environments. In spite of this, deformations occurring in lithified rocks are still relatively rarely attributed to sedimentary or early-diagenetic processes. Particularly faults in hard rocks are still commonly ascribed to tectonics, commonly without a discussion about a possible non-tectonic origin at a stage that the sediments were still unlithified. Misinterpretations of both the sedimentary and the structural history of hard-rock successions may result from the negligence of a possible soft-sediment origin of specific deformations. It is therefore suggested that a re-evaluation of these histories, keeping the present-day knowledge about soft-sediment deformations in mind, may give new insights into the geological history of numerous sedimentary successions in which the deformations have not been studied from both a sedimentological and a structural point of view.

  3. Manipulation of emission energy in GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires with radial heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, B. G.; Arakaki, H.; Souza, C. A. de; Pusep, Yu. A.

    2014-03-21

    Photoluminescence was studied in GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires (NWs) with different radial heterostructures. We demonstrated that manipulation of the emission energy may be achieved by appropriate choice of the shell structure. The emission at highest energy is generated in the NWs with tunneling thin AlGaAs inner shell and thin GaAs outer shell due to recombination of the photoexcited electrons confined in the outer shell with the holes in the core. Lower energy emission was shown to occur in the NWs with thick outer shell grown in the form of a short-period GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structure. In this case, the tunneling probability through the multiple quantum wells controls the energy emitted by the NWs. The doping of core results in dominated low energy emission from the GaAs core.

  4. Fluctuating shells under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558

  5. Exchange coupled SrFe12O19/Fe-Co core/shell particles with different shell thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Hong, Yang-Ki; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Woncheol; Lane, Alan M.

    2015-11-01

    SrFe12O19/Fe-Co core/shell particles with different shell thickness were synthesized by polyol reduction of Fe and Co ions at 180°C with SrFe12O19 particles dispersed in solvent. The core/shell structure is formed by magnetic self-assembly due to the remanent magnetization of SrFe12O19 particles. Within a limited concentration range, the shell thickness could be controlled by regulating the concentration of Fe and Co ions. Core/shell structured SrFe12O19/Fe-Co particles showed more effective exchange coupling effects between hard and soft phases than physically mixed SrFe12O19 and Fe-Co particles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Magnetospheres of the outer planets

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.F.

    1986-12-01

    The magnetospheres of the outer planets have been shown by Voyager explorations to strongly interact with the surfaces and atmospheres of their planetary satellites and rings. In the cases of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus, the processes of charged particle sputtering, neutral gas cloud formation, and rapid plasma injection from the ionization of the neutral clouds, have important implications both for the magnetospheres as a whole and for the surfaces and atmospheres of their satellites. The general methodology employed in these researches has involved comparisons of the planetary magnetospheres in order to identify common physical processes. 16 references.

  7. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: classifications, synthesis, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2015-12-21

    Core/shell nanoparticles were first reported in the early 1990s with a simple spherical core and shell structure, but the area is gradually diversifying in multiple directions such as different shapes, multishells, yolk/shell etc., because of the development of different new properties of the materials, which are useful for several advanced applications. Among different sub-areas of core/shell nanoparticles, yolk/shell nanoparticles (YS NPs) have drawn significant attention in recent years because of their unique properties such as low density, large surface area, ease of interior core functionalization, a good molecular loading capacity in the void space, tunable interstitial void space, and a hollow outer shell. The YS NPs have better properties over simple core/shell or hollow NPs in various fields including biomedical, catalysis, sensors, lithium batteries, adsorbents, DSSCs, microwave absorbers etc., mainly because of the presence of free void space, porous hollow shell, and free core surface. This review presents an extensive classification of YS NPs based on their structures and types of materials, along with synthesis strategies, properties, and applications with which one would be able to draw a complete picture of this area. PMID:26567966

  8. Galactic Center Shells and a Recurrent Starburst Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2003-04-01

    By applying filtering techniques to remove straight filaments in the 20-cm VLA radio image of the Galactic Center Arc region, we have shown that numerous concentric radio shells of radii 5 to 20pc are surrounding the Pistol and Sickle region, which we call Galactic Center Shells (GCS).Each shell has thermal energy of the order of1049-50erg.Several CO-line shells are associated, whose kinetic energies are of the order of 1049-50erg. Summing up the energies of recognized GCSs, the total energy amounts to ˜ 1051erg.The GCSs show an excellent correlation with the FIR shells observed at 16-26μm with the MSX.We propose a model in which GCSs were produced by recurrent and/or intermittent starbursts in the Pistol area during the last million years.The most recent burst occurred some 105 years ago, producing an inner round-shaped shell (GCS I);earlier ones a million years ago produced outer shells (GCS II and III), which a re more deformed by interactions with the surrounding ISM and Sgr A halo.We argue that recurrent starbursts had also occurred in the past, which produced larger scale hyper-shell structures as well.A burst some million years ago produced the Galactic Center Lobe, and a much stronger one 15 million years ago produced the North Polar Spur.

  9. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: classifications, synthesis, properties, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2015-11-01

    Core/shell nanoparticles were first reported in the early 1990s with a simple spherical core and shell structure, but the area is gradually diversifying in multiple directions such as different shapes, multishells, yolk/shell etc., because of the development of different new properties of the materials, which are useful for several advanced applications. Among different sub-areas of core/shell nanoparticles, yolk/shell nanoparticles (YS NPs) have drawn significant attention in recent years because of their unique properties such as low density, large surface area, ease of interior core functionalization, a good molecular loading capacity in the void space, tunable interstitial void space, and a hollow outer shell. The YS NPs have better properties over simple core/shell or hollow NPs in various fields including biomedical, catalysis, sensors, lithium batteries, adsorbents, DSSCs, microwave absorbers etc., mainly because of the presence of free void space, porous hollow shell, and free core surface. This review presents an extensive classification of YS NPs based on their structures and types of materials, along with synthesis strategies, properties, and applications with which one would be able to draw a complete picture of this area.

  10. Hard tissue laser procedures.

    PubMed

    Gimbel, C B

    2000-10-01

    A more conservative, less invasive treatment of the carious lesion has intrigued researchers and clinicians for decades. With over 170 million restorations placed worldwide each year, many of which could be treated using a laser, there exists an increasing need for understanding hard tissue laser procedures. An historical review of past scientific and clinical hard research, biophysics, and histology are discussed. A complete review of present applications and procedures along with their capabilities and limitations will give the clinician a better understanding. Clinical case studies, along with guidelines for tooth preparation and hard tissue laser applications and technological advances for diagnosis and treatment will give the clinician a look into the future. PMID:11048281

  11. Replicated Nickel Optics for the Hard-X-Ray Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Replicated nickel optics has been used extensively in x-ray astronomy, most notable for the XMM/Newton mission. Thc combination of relative ease of fabrication and the inherent stability of full shell optics, make them FIJI attractive approach for medium-resolution, high-throughput applications. MSFC has been developing these optics for use in the hard-x-ray region. Efforts at improving the resolution of these, particularly the very-thin shells required to meet thc weight budget of future missions, will be described together with the prospects for significant improvements down to the 5-arcsec level.

  12. Imperfection Insensitive Thin Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xin

    The buckling of axially compressed cylindrical shells and externally pressurized spherical shells is extremely sensitive to even very small geometric imperfections. In practice this issue is addressed by either using overly conservative knockdown factors, while keeping perfect axial or spherical symmetry, or adding closely and equally spaced stiffeners on shell surface. The influence of imperfection-sensitivity is mitigated, but the shells designed from these approaches are either too heavy or very expensive and are still sensitive to imperfections. Despite their drawbacks, these approaches have been used for more than half a century. This thesis proposes a novel method to design imperfection-insensitive cylindrical shells subject to axial compression. Instead of following the classical paths, focused on axially symmetric or high-order rotationally symmetric cross-sections, the method in this thesis adopts optimal symmetry-breaking wavy cross-sections (wavy shells). The avoidance of imperfection sensitivity is achieved by searching with an evolutionary algorithm for smooth cross-sectional shapes that maximize the minimum among the buckling loads of geometrically perfect and imperfect wavy shells. It is found that the shells designed through this approach can achieve higher critical stresses and knockdown factors than any previously known monocoque cylindrical shells. It is also found that these shells have superior mass efficiency to almost all previously reported stiffened shells. Experimental studies on a design of composite wavy shell obtained through the proposed method are presented in this thesis. A method of making composite wavy shells and a photogrametry technique of measuring full-field geometric imperfections have been developed. Numerical predictions based on the measured geometric imperfections match remarkably well with the experiments. Experimental results confirm that the wavy shells are not sensitive to imperfections and can carry axial compression

  13. A surface crack in shells under mixed-mode loading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, P. F.; Erdogan, F.

    1988-01-01

    The present consideration of a shallow shell's surface crack under general loading conditions notes that while the mode I state can be separated, modes II and III remain coupled. A line spring model is developed to formulate the part-through crack problem under mixed-mode conditions, and then to consider a shallow shell of arbitrary curvature having a part-through crack located on the outer or the inner surface of the shell; Reissner's transverse shear theory is used to formulate the problem under the assumption that the shell is subjected to all five moment and stress resultants.

  14. Effect of milling time and CNT concentration on hardness of CNT/Al{sub 2024} composites produced by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Bustamante, R.; Perez-Bustamante, F.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2013-01-15

    Carbon nanotube/2024 aluminum alloy (CNT/Al{sub 2024}) composites were fabricated with a combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and powder metallurgy routes. Composites were microstructurally and mechanically evaluated at sintering condition. A homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in the Al matrix was observed by a field emission scanning electron microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed not only the presence of well dispersed CNTs but also needle-like shape aluminum carbide (Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}) crystals in the Al matrix. The formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was suggested as the interaction between the outer shells of CNTs and the Al matrix during MA process in which crystallization took place after the sintering process. The mechanical behavior of composites was evaluated by Vickers microhardness measurements indicating a significant improvement in hardness as function of the CNT content. This improvement was associated to a homogeneous dispersion of CNTs and the presence of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} in the aluminum alloy matrix. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 2024 aluminum alloy was reinforced by CNTs by mechanical alloying process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composites were microstructural and mechanically evaluated after sintering condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The greater the CNT concentration, the greater the hardness of the composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher hardness in composites is achieved at 20 h of milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} does not present a direct relationship with the milling time.

  15. CSI: Hard Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.…

  16. Running in Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    Roberta Stevens and Kent Oliver are campaigning hard for the presidency of the American Library Association (ALA). Stevens is outreach projects and partnerships officer at the Library of Congress. Oliver is executive director of the Stark County District Library in Canton, Ohio. They have debated, discussed, and posted web sites, Facebook pages,…

  17. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  18. Diffractive hard scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-03-01

    I discuss events in high energy hadron collisions that contain a hard scattering, in the sense that very heavy quarks or high P/sub T/ jets are produced, yet are diffractive, in the sense that one of the incident hadrons is scattered with only a small energy loss. 8 refs.

  19. Outer Appearances Can Be Deceiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the chemical composition of the rock at Gusev Crater dubbed 'Mazatzal' after it was brushed and ground by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rock abrasion tool. The data, taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer over the last few sols, show that the amount of chlorine and sulfur tri-oxide in Mazatzal first increased after brushing, then diminished after grinding. The interior of the rock appears to have the same chemical make-up as other volcanic or basalt rocks studied in the Gusev Crater area ('Adirondack' and 'Humphrey'). Its outer coating or rind, on the other hand, appears to be of a different constitution. Scientists are still puzzling out the implications of these data.

    The larger symbols on the graph represent inferred rock compositions, while the smaller symbols are actual data points. Observations were made at the target dubbed 'New York' on Mazatzal.

  20. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  1. Chemistry of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Various aspects were studied of past or present chemistry in the atmospheres of the outer planets and their satellites using lab simulations. Three areas were studied: (1) organic chemistry induced by kinetically hot hydrogen atoms in the region of Jupiter's atmosphere containing the ammonia cirrus clouds; (2) the conversion of NH3 into N2 by plasmas associated with entry of meteors and other objects into the atmosphere of early Titan; and (3) the synthesis of simple hydrocarbons and HCN by lightning in mixtures containing N2, CH4, and NH3 representing the atmospheres of Titan and the outer planets. The results showed that: (1) hot H2 atoms formed from the photodissociation of NH3 in Jupiter's atmosphere could account for some of the atmospheric chemistry in the ammonia cirrus cloud region; (2) the thermalization of hot H2 atoms in atmospheres predominated by molecular H is not as rapid as predicted by elastic collision theory; (3) the net quantum loss of NH3 in the presence of a 200 fold excess of H2 is 0.02, much higher than was expected from the amount of H2 present; (4) the conversion of NH3 into N2 in plasmas associated with infalling meteors is very efficient and rapid, and could account for most of the N2 present on Titan; (5) the yields of C2H2 and HCN from lightning induced chemistry in mixtures of CH4 and N2 is consistent with quenched thermodynamic models of the discharge core; and (6) photolysis induced by the UV light emitted by the gases in the hot plasmas may account for some, if not most, of the excess production of C2H6 and the more complex hydrocarbons.

  2. Shell Cracking Strength in Almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D.A. Webb.)and its implication in uses as a value-added product.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers are currently developing new uses for almond shells, an abundant agricultural by-product. While almond varieties are classified by processing facilities as being either hard or soft shelled, shell morphological characteristics and compositional components contribute to the variability p...

  3. Iridescence color of shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan

    2002-06-01

    Some shells from both salt water and fresh water show the phenomenon of iridescence color. Pearls and mother-of-pearls also display this phenomenon. In the past, the cause of the iridescence color was attributed to interference. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the surface structure of the shell of the mollusk Pinctada Margaritifera. There is a groove structure of reflection grating on the surface area in where the iridescence color appears. An optic experiment with a laser obtained a diffraction pattern produced by the reflection grating structure of the shell. The study led to a conclusion that the iridescence color of the shell is caused by diffraction. A SEM image of the shells of an abalone Haliotis Rufescens (red abalone) showed a statistically regularly arranged tile structure that serves as a two-dimensional grating. This grating structure causes the iridescence color of the shell of red abalone. The dominant color of the iridescence of shells is caused by the uneven grating efficiency in the visible wavelength range when a shell functions as a reflection grating. The wavelength of the dominant color should be at or near the wavelength of the maximum efficiency of the grating.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of hard/soft bimagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandwana, Vikas; Shankar Chaubey, Girija; Yano, Kazuaki; Liu, J. Ping

    2007-03-01

    Bimagnetic nanoparticles are synthesized from high-temperature solution method by growing soft magnetic phases on a hard magnetic phase. The hard phase is chosen as the FePt phase and the soft phases include Fe3O4, CoFe2O4 and FeCo. The soft phases can be coated or attached to the hard phase by changing reaction conditions. When the soft phases are coated on the hard phase, core/shell structured bimagnetic nanoparticles are formed; when the soft phases are attached to the hard phase, brick-like bimagnetic nanoparticles are formed. Magnetic properties of these nanoparticles are affected by dimensions of the soft and hard components due to the exchange coupling between them. Upon reductive annealing, an assembly of the bimagnetic nanoparticles is transformed into a hard magnetic nanocomposite with enhanced energy product which is 35% higher than single FePt phase. With proper choice of materials and dimension of both phases, these bimangetic nanoparticles may be used as building blocks for novel functional nanomaterials for various applications.

  5. Cohesive Elements for Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; Turon, Albert

    2007-01-01

    A cohesive element for shell analysis is presented. The element can be used to simulate the initiation and growth of delaminations between stacked, non-coincident layers of shell elements. The procedure to construct the element accounts for the thickness offset by applying the kinematic relations of shell deformation to transform the stiffness and internal force of a zero-thickness cohesive element such that interfacial continuity between the layers is enforced. The procedure is demonstrated by simulating the response and failure of the Mixed Mode Bending test and a skin-stiffener debond specimen. In addition, it is shown that stacks of shell elements can be used to create effective models to predict the inplane and delamination failure modes of thick components. The results indicate that simple shell models can retain many of the necessary predictive attributes of much more complex 3D models while providing the computational efficiency that is necessary for design.

  6. Elbow and knee joint for hard space suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    An elbow or knee joint for a hard space suit or similar usage is formed of three serially connected rigid sections which have truncated spherical configurations. The ends of each section form solid geometric angles, and the sections are interconnected by hermetically sealed ball bearings. The outer two sections are fixed together for rotation in a direction opposite to rotation of the center section. A preferred means to make the outer sections track each other in rotation comprises a rotatable continuous bead chain which engages sockets circumferentially spaced on the facing sides of the outer races of the bearings. The joint has a single pivot point and the bearing axes are always contained in a single plane for any articulation of the joint. Thus flexure of the joint simulates the coplanar flexure of the knee or elbow and is not susceptible to lockup.

  7. Strontium distribution in the shell of the aragonite bivalve Arctica islandica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Laura C.; Allison, Nicola; Finch, Adrian A.; Andersson, Carin

    2009-03-01

    The behavior of Sr in the aragonite shells of the bivalve Arctica islandica has been explored to determine its potential for high-resolution environmental reconstruction. The structural state of Sr in the shell was investigated using X ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and Sr/Ca variations across the prismatic layer in the umbo and outer shell were determined by secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) respectively. XAFS data suggest that Sr randomly substitutes for Ca within the shell aragonite. Sr/Ca in both the umbo and the outer shell exhibits significant seasonal variation but does not correlate with seawater temperature. Sr/Ca varies significantly between parallel transects across the same annual bands. Sr concentrations are highest in transects along the maximum growth axis of the outer shell but lowest in these transects in the umbo. Scanning electron microscopy indicates changes in crystal morphology both within and between transects. We do not, however, observe a clear relationship between shell growth rate and Sr/Ca. Fluctuations in Sr/Ca are most likely to be controlled by a complex interaction of biological and kinetic processes.

  8. Chemical Component and Proteomic Study of the Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite Shell

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-sheng; Wong, Yue-Him; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Pei-yuan

    2015-01-01

    As typical biofoulers, barnacles possess hard shells and cause serious biofouling problems. In this study, we analyzed the protein component of the barnacle Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite shell using gel-based proteomics. The results revealed 52 proteins in the A. Amphitrite shell. Among them, 40 proteins were categorized into 11 functional groups based on KOG database, and the remaining 12 proteins were unknown. Besides the known proteins in barnacle shell (SIPC, carbonic anhydrase and acidic acid matrix protein), we also identified chorion peroxidase, C-type lectin-like domains, serine proteases and proteinase inhibitor proteins in the A. Amphitrite shell. The sequences of these proteins were characterized and their potential functions were discussed. Histology and DAPI staining revealed living cells in the shell, which might secrete the shell proteins identified in this study. PMID:26222041

  9. Chemical Component and Proteomic Study of the Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite Shell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Wong, Yue-Him; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    As typical biofoulers, barnacles possess hard shells and cause serious biofouling problems. In this study, we analyzed the protein component of the barnacle Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite shell using gel-based proteomics. The results revealed 52 proteins in the A. Amphitrite shell. Among them, 40 proteins were categorized into 11 functional groups based on KOG database, and the remaining 12 proteins were unknown. Besides the known proteins in barnacle shell (SIPC, carbonic anhydrase and acidic acid matrix protein), we also identified chorion peroxidase, C-type lectin-like domains, serine proteases and proteinase inhibitor proteins in the A. Amphitrite shell. The sequences of these proteins were characterized and their potential functions were discussed. Histology and DAPI staining revealed living cells in the shell, which might secrete the shell proteins identified in this study. PMID:26222041

  10. Hard Times Hit Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Hard-to-grasp dollar amounts are forcing real cuts in K-12 education at a time when the cost of fueling buses and providing school lunches is increasing and the demands of the federal No Child Left Behind Act still loom larger over states and districts. "One of the real challenges is to continue progress in light of the economy," said Gale Gaines,…

  11. Work Hard. Be Nice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Jay

    2009-01-01

    In 1994, fresh from a two-year stint with Teach for America, Mike Feinberg and Dave Levin inaugurated the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) in Houston with an enrollment of 49 5th graders. By this Fall, 75 KIPP schools will be up and running, setting children from poor and minority families on a path to college through a combination of hard work,…

  12. SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mansur, Louis K; Bhattacharya, R; Blau, Peter Julian; Clemons, Art; Eberle, Cliff; Evans, H B; Janke, Christopher James; Jolly, Brian C; Lee, E H; Leonard, Keith J; Trejo, Rosa M; Rivard, John D

    2010-01-01

    High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

  13. The development of hard x-ray optics at MSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ron F.; Engelhaupt, Darell; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Speegle, Chet O.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2004-02-01

    We have developed the electroformed-nickel replication process to enable us to fabricate light-weight, high-quality mirrors for the hard-x-ray region. Two projects currently utilizing this technology are the production of 240 mirror shells, of diameters ranging from 50 to 94 mm, for our HERO balloon payload, and 150- and 230-mm-diameter shells for a prototype Constellation-X hard-x-ray telescope module. The challenge for the former is to fabricate, mount, align and fly a large number of high-resolution mirrors within the constraints of a modest budget. For the latter, the challenge is to maintain high angular resolution despite weight-budget-driven mirror shell thicknesses (100 μm) which make the shells extremely sensitive to fabrication and handling stresses, and to ensure that the replication process does not degrade the ultra-smooth surface finish (~3 Å) required for eventual multilayer coatings. We present a progress report on these two programs.

  14. Applications of spherical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique of producing hollow spheres of many materials at a very rapid rate, at very low cost, and with high reproducibility of shell diameter and wall thickness has been developed. Shells formed of metal or of other solid materials are expected to find numerous technical and industrial applications. For example, metal shells might be used as inertial confinement fusion targets, or as the principal constituents in lightweight structural materials for NASA Space Stations or DOD large antennas and mirrors, or be employed as containers for phase-change heat-storage media, or serve as containers for hazardous materials, or be employed as catalytic surface agents.

  15. Failure of Viral Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, William S.; Bruinsma, Robijn F.; Michel, Jean-Philippe; Knobler, Charles M.; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We report a combined theoretical and experimental study of the structural failure of viral shells under mechanical stress. We find that discontinuities in the force-indentation curve associated with failure should appear when the so-called Föppl von Kármán (FvK) number exceeds a critical value. A nanoindentation study of a viral shell subject to a soft-mode instability, where the stiffness of the shell decreases with increasing pH, confirms the predicted onset of failure as a function of the FvK number.

  16. Shell microstructure of the late Carboniferous rostroconch mollusc Apotocardium lanterna (Branson, 1965)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogalla, N.S.; Carter, J.G.; Pojeta, J., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The Late Carboniferous bransoniid conocardioidean Apotocardium lanterna (Branson, 1965) had an entirely aragonitic shell with a finely prismatic outer shell layer, a predominantly crossed lamellar to complex crossed lamellar middle shell layer, and an "inner" shell layer of finely textured porcelaneous and/or matted structure. This "inner" layer is probably homologous with the inner part of the middle shell layer and the inner layer sensu stricto of bivalved molluscs. Shell morphological and microstructural convergences between conocardioids and living heart cockles suggest that at least some conocardioids may have farmed algal endosymbionts in their posterior mantle margins. This symbiosis may have helped conocardioids compete with the biomechanically more efficient bivalves during the latter part of the Paleozoic.

  17. Ultrasonic characterization of materials hardness

    PubMed

    Badidi Bouda A; Benchaala; Alem

    2000-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental technique has been developed to measure velocities and attenuation of ultrasonic waves through a steel with a variable hardness. A correlation between ultrasonic measurements and steel hardness was investigated. PMID:10829663

  18. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of spherical dome shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kangxian; Liu, Guanghui; Huang, Lu; Zheng, Xianyi

    2015-08-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of spherical dome shells are theoretically investigated within analytical wave functions and numerical quantized energy levels. Our results show that the inner radius, the outer radius and the cut-off angle of spherical dome shells have great influences on linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the total optical absorption coefficients. It is found that with the increase of the inner radius and the outer radius, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients exhibit a blueshift and a redshift, respectively. However, with the increase of the cut-off angle, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients do not shift. Besides, the resonant peaks of linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients climb up and then decrease with increasing the cut-off angle. The influences of the incident optical intensity on the total optical absorption coefficients are studied. It is found that the bleaching effect occurs at higher incident optical intensity.

  19. The outer profile of dark matter haloes: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xun

    2016-07-01

    A steepening feature in the outer density profiles of dark matter haloes indicating the splashback radius has drawn much attention recently. Possible observational detections have even been made for galaxy clusters. Theoretically, Adhikari et al. have estimated the location of the splashback radius by computing the secondary infall trajectory of a dark matter shell through a growing dark matter halo with an NFW profile. However, since they imposed a shape of the halo profile rather than computing it consistently from the trajectories of the dark matter shells, they could not provide the full shape of the dark matter profile around the splashback radius. We improve on this by extending the self-similar spherical collapse model of Fillmore & Goldreich to a ΛCDM universe. This allows us to compute the dark matter halo profile and the trajectories simultaneously from the mass accretion history. Our results on the splashback location agree qualitatively with Adhikari et al. but with small quantitative differences at large mass accretion rates. We present new fitting formulae for the splashback radius Rsp in various forms, including the ratios of Rsp/R200c and Rsp/R200m. Numerical simulations have made the puzzling discovery that the splashback radius scales well with R200m but not with R200c. We trace the origin of this to be the correlated increase of Ωm and the average halo mass accretion rate with an increasing redshift.

  20. The outer profile of dark matter halos: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xun

    2016-04-01

    A steepening feature in the outer density profiles of dark matter halos indicating the splashback radius has drawn much attention recently. Possible observational detections have even been made for galaxy clusters. Theoretically, Adhikari et al. have estimated the location of the splashback radius by computing the secondary infall trajectory of a dark matter shell through a growing dark matter halo with an NFW profile. However, since they imposed a shape of the halo profile rather than computing it consistently from the trajectories of the dark matter shells, they could not provide the full shape of the dark matter profile around the splashback radius. We improve on this by extending the self-similar spherical collapse model of Fillmore & Goldreich to a ΛCDM universe. This allows us to compute the dark matter halo profile and the trajectories simultaneously from the mass accretion history. Our results on the splashback location agree qualitatively with Adhikari et al. but with small quantitative differences at large mass accretion rates. We present new fitting formulae for the splashback radius Rsp in various forms, including the ratios of Rsp/R200c and Rsp/R200m. Numerical simulations have made the puzzling discovery that the splashback radius scales well with R200m but not with R200c. We trace the origin of this to be the correlated increase of Ωm and the average halo mass accretion rate with an increasing redshift.

  1. Non-uniform thickness in Europa's icy shell: implications for astrobiology mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairén, A.; Amils, R.

    The exploration of Europa's subsurface ocean is hardly constrained by the presence of an outer ice shell of unknown thickness: a somewhat thin crust would allow easier access to the ocean below. Current estimates for the thickness of Europa's icy surface range from a few km [1] to a few tens of km [2], the shell overlying a liquid water ocean up to 150 km thick [3,4,5]. The surface is believed to be young (mean age of 30-80 Myr [6]) and geologically active [7,8,9], as it is sparsely cratered. Here we report geological evidence indicating that the thickness of Europa's ice crust is actually a complex combination of thicker and thinner areas, highlighting the implications of such structure in the future exploration of the inner ocean. Detailed geologic mapping of impact craters, palimpsests and chaotic terrains distribution on Europa's surface, offers an initial approach to a comprehensive description of the thickness variation in the ice shell. Our analysis is based in: (1) Crater distribution, morphology, diameter and depth. Seminal work by Schenk [2] of transitions in crater shape/diameter suggested enhanced structural collapse of craters with diameter >27-33 km, that will consequently form multiring basins, due to weaker ice or a global ocean at depths >19-25 km. This being true, strictly can only be interpreted regionally: multiring basins indicate regions where the ice shell is thick; in those regions where the icy surface is thin, a bolide impact will breach the ice and leave neither crater nor multiring basin behind, but probably Ganymede's type palimpsests. (2) Palimpsest-type features distribution, indicating regions where the ice shell is too thin to support crater formation after big bolide impacts. In Ganymede, palimpsests are circular, low albedo and relief features formerly formed by impacts [10,11]. (3) Chaotic terrain distribution, considering features tens to hundreds of km across, that may be the evidence for very thin ice areas (from ˜ 2 km to

  2. Hard-pan soils - Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard pans, hard layers, or compacted horizons, either surface or subsurface, are universal problems that limit crop production. Hard layers can be caused by traffic or soil genetic properties that result in horizons with high density or cemented soil particles; these horizons have elevated penetrati...

  3. Production of Polymer Core-Shell Colloids with High Uniformity via Coaxial Electrospray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yoon Kyun; Jeong, Unyong

    2008-03-01

    Although nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning have been attracting wide interest, the production of colloids by electrospraying has not much studied so far. We have developed a simple method for the production of core-shell colloids with high uniformity by means of the coaxial electrospray. Contrary to usual coaxial setup, the inner nozzle was set to touch the inside wall of the outer nozzle for reproducible production. A polymer solution for the core was introduced through the outer nozzle and another solution for the shell was provided through the inner nozzle. The structure of the colloids was dependent on the polymer concentration, relative feed ratio between the polymer solutions. Especially, core-shell structured colloids are our primary interest due to their promising uses in drug-delivery systems, cosmetics, and food industries. This talk will present the production of core-shell colloids consisting of two polymer components.

  4. Interiors and atmospheres of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    This theoretical/observational project constrains structure of outer planet atmospheres and interiors through observational data. The primary observation tool is through observations of occultations of stars by outer solar system objects, which yield information about atmospheric temperatures and dynamics, and planetary dimensions and oblateness. The theoretical work relates the data to interior structures in a variety of ways.

  5. Design Of Robots For Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roston, Gerald P.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses design of robots for use in zero gravity and vacuum, with attention to differences between requirements imposed on designs by outer space and by terrestrial applications. Terrestrial robots designed for multiple purposes and for minimal cost. Outer-space robots designed specialized to one task where cost has relatively low priority. Design optimal in one environment unlikely optimal in another.

  6. Low-Frequency Waves in the Outer Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The outer heliosphere beyond some 10 AU is dominated by mass by interstellar neutral Hydrogen (H). Neutral H is coupled to the background solar wind plasma by charge exchange processes, which leads to the creation of a suprathermal pickup ion (PUI) population. The initially unstable ring beam PUI distribution is isotropized to form a filled shell distribution. The PUI contribution to the thermal solar wind pressure/temperature is sizable and in fact can dominate that of the colder thermal solar wind protons. Furthermore, the PUI distribution does not equilibrate or thermalize with the background solar wind plasma, and should therefore be regarded as a distinct distribution. Based on an elaboration of a three-fluid model, we investigate the effect of PUIs on the low-frequency wave properties of the outer heliosphere. To maintain tractability initially, we neglect the electron mass and obtain a 10th-order dispersion relation (compared to the 6th-order two-fluid dispersion relation). Our analysis reveals the existence of several wave modes that do not have a standard solar wind two-fluid plasma counterpart. For the zero angle case, of the 10 solutions, it is possible to obtain 6 analytic solutions for a general value of the ratio of electron number density to the thermal proton number density, four of which are dispersive Alfven waves (left and right polarized, two forward and two backward). Two other solutions are finite frequency modes, and the remaining four modes are magnetoacoustic modes (2 forward, 2 backward). One solution is a (magneto)acoustic wave with the usual 2-fluid sound speed, and the second is a (magneto)acoustic mode with a sound speed associated with the PUI distribution. Both (magneto)acoustic modes couple to the 'other fluids.' We present an analysis of the full dispersion relation for wave modes in the outer heliosphere, clarifying the role of PUIs in determining the properties of low-frequency fluctuations.

  7. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, T.P.

    1991-11-26

    A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

  8. C-Shell Cookbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.

    This cookbook describes the fundamentals of writing scripts using the UNIX C shell. It shows how to combine Starlink and private applications with shell commands and constructs to create powerful and time-saving tools for performing repetitive jobs, creating data-processing pipelines, and encapsulating useful recipes. The cookbook aims to give practical and reassuring examples to at least get you started without having to consult a UNIX manual. However, it does not offer a comprehensive description of C-shell syntax to prevent you from being overwhelmed or intimidated. The topics covered are: how to run a script, defining shell variables, prompting, arithmetic and string processing, passing information between Starlink applications, obtaining dataset attributes and FITS header information, processing multiple files and filename modification, command-line arguments and options, and loops. There is also a glossary.

  9. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

  10. 76 FR 63654 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Availability of revised North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental...

  11. Astroparticles: Messengers from Outer Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desiati, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Since Galileo pointed a spyglass toward the sky, 400 years ago, observations empowered by man-made instrumentation have provided us with an enormous leap in the knowledge of how the Universe functions. More and more powerful optical telescopes made it possible for us to reach the farthest corners of space. At the same time, the advances in microphysics and the discovery of the electromagnetic spectrum, made it possible to directly look at the Universe in a way that our eyes cannot see. The discoveries of the intimate structure of matter, of subatomic particles and of how they interact with each other, have led astronomers to use the smallest objects in Nature to observe the farthest reaches of the otherwise invisible Universe. Not unlike Galileo, today we observe Outer Space with visible light and beyond, across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from long wavelength radio waves to short wavelength gamma rays. But also with instruments detecting cosmic rays (the atomic nuclei we know on Earth) neutrinos (neutral subatomic particles that interact very weakly with matter) and gravitational waves (perturbations of spacetime predicted by General Relativity). Each cosmic messenger provides us with a unique piece of information about their source and the history of their journey to us. Modern astrophysics has the challenging goal to collect as much information as possible from all those messengers, to reconstruct the story of the Universe and how it became what it is today. This journey started with the unsettling discovery that we are only one minuscule dot in the immensity of the Universe and yet we are able to observe objects that are far in space and time. This journey is yet to complete its course, and the more we advance our knowledge, the more we need to understand. This interdisciplinary talk provides an overview of this journey and the future perspectives.

  12. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the self-diusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diusion coecients D0 s for the shells and D0 y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of eective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We nd that the yolks, which have no eect on the shell-shell static structure, in uence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.

  13. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the self-diusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diusion coecients D0 s for the shells and D0 y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function ofmore » the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of eective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We nd that the yolks, which have no eect on the shell-shell static structure, in uence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.« less

  14. Shells and Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  15. Evolving dust shells

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, H.P.

    1981-06-15

    The reduction of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner canonical formulation of general relativity developed in the first paper of this series is applied to the full time-evolution problem for spherically symmetric charged dust shells. Detailed pictures of shell evolution are produced. Among other things, it is found that under certain well-defined circumstances the asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurfaces of constant time ''pinch off'' and become completely closed, the closure point being a locally naked singularity.

  16. [Scattering properties of core-shell structure of mist wrapped dust particles].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-qi; Song, Wei; Wang, Yan; Miao, Xin-hui; Xu, Li-jun; Liu, Yu; Li, Cheng; Li Wen-long; Wang, Yi-ran; Cai, Hong-xing

    2014-12-01

    The authors have investigated the optical properties of core-shell structure of mist wrapped dust particles based on the method of discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The influence on the thickness of the elliptical core-shell structure were calculated which the ratio of long axis and short axis is 2:1, and the change of scattering angle for scattering characteristics. The results shows that the thickness of outer layer increase from 1.2 to 4.8 μm with the scattering and extinction coefficient of double core-shell layers particles decrease from 3.4 and 3.43 to 2.543 and 2.545, when the size of inner core isn't change. And scattering relative strength also increased obviously. The thickness of inner core increase from 0.6 to 2.4 μm with the of scattering and extinction coefficient change from 2.59 and 2.88 to 2.6 and 2.76 when thickness of outer remain constant. Effect of the thickness of visible outer layer on the scattering characteristics of double core-shell layers particles is greater, because of the interaction between scattering light and outer materials. The scattering relative intensity decrease with wavelength increased, while increased with the scale of core-shell structure increase. The results make a promotion on the study of the transportation characteristics of laser and scattering characteristics when the atmospheric aerosol and water mist interact together. PMID:25881412

  17. Statistical theory of correlations in random packings of hard particles.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuliang; Puckett, James G; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-05-01

    A random packing of hard particles represents a fundamental model for granular matter. Despite its importance, analytical modeling of random packings remains difficult due to the existence of strong correlations which preclude the development of a simple theory. Here, we take inspiration from liquid theories for the n-particle angular correlation function to develop a formalism of random packings of hard particles from the bottom up. A progressive expansion into a shell of particles converges in the large layer limit under a Kirkwood-like approximation of higher-order correlations. We apply the formalism to hard disks and predict the density of two-dimensional random close packing (RCP), ϕ(rcp) = 0.85 ± 0.01, and random loose packing (RLP), ϕ(rlp) = 0.67 ± 0.01. Our theory also predicts a phase diagram and angular correlation functions that are in good agreement with experimental and numerical data. PMID:25353787

  18. Hard metal composition

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    1986-01-01

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  19. Hard metal composition

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  20. Stress Localization in Elastic Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selden, Sarah; Evans, Arthur; Bende, Nakul; Hayward, Ryan; Santangelo, Christian

    Upon indentation, thin shells react by localizing strain energy in polygonal structures as opposed to a uniform axisymmetric distribution. While the formation of these localized structures are well-characterized for perfect shells, a change in shell thickness or the introduction of a crease fundamentally changes the nature of the shell deformation. We perform finite element simulations, in tandem with experiments to explore the effect of different shell geometries on the energy landscape. We find that the crease induces a new symmetry-breaking localization that does not appear in perfect shells, and we explore the deformation characteristics of the creased shell over a wide range of crease radii, and crease orientations.

  1. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. S.; Yao, York-Peng

    2016-06-01

    The Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  2. Corrasion of a remoulded cohesive bed by saltating littorinid shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, C. L.; Sutherland, T. F.; Cloutier, D.; Patterson, S.

    2000-07-01

    along the rounded outer lip of the aperture (measured to be 0.5% of the nominal cross-sectional area of the shell). T increased with shell mass ( Mg) and current speed ( Uy). Below 0.29 m s -1, T< τo; for 0.29< Uy<0.35 m s -1, T≈ τo; and for Uy>0.35 m s -1, T> τo where τo is the fluid-induced shear stress. The total erosion rate ( Etot= Es+ Eo) was compared to the excess total bed shear stress ( τtot- τcrit) and found to be linearly related in the form: E tot=0.010 [τ tot-τ crit] gm -2 s -1. Es appeared to be in linear continuity with Eo if the impact area was set to 0.05% of the estimated shell nominal cross-sectional area.

  3. Dinosaurs, Diamonds, and Things from Outer Space, The Great Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, David Brez

    This book explains, in a new and convincing theory, why most life on earth perished 65 million years ago. Intended for a broad audience, the book will also be of great interest to scientists - most of whom now agree that an object from outer space hit the earth with unimaginable force 65 million years ago. But what kind of object? Carlisle's scenario suggests that the event was a complex sequence, beginning with a nearby star turning supernova. The first effect of this on earth was the arrival of massive radiation, ten or twenty times the heat of the sun, igniting worldwide forest fires. The blast also perturbed the cloud of comets that surrounds the solar system, and some few centuries later one or more of these (loaded with interstellar diamonds) hit the earth, producing `nuclear winter' and causing a tremendous acidification of the oceans. Each step of this theory is backed up by hard evidence.

  4. Outer organic layer and internal repair mechanism protects pteropod Limacina helicina from ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Victoria L.; Tarling, Geraint A.; Manno, Clara; Harper, Elizabeth M.; Tynan, Eithne

    2016-05-01

    Scarred shells of polar pteropod Limacina helicina collected from the Greenland Sea in June 2012 reveal a history of damage, most likely failed predation, in earlier life stages. Evidence of shell fracture and subsequent re-growth is commonly observed in specimens recovered from the sub-Arctic and further afield. However, at one site within sea-ice on the Greenland shelf, shells that had been subject to mechanical damage were also found to exhibit considerable dissolution. It was evident that shell dissolution was localised to areas where the organic, periostracal sheet that covers the outer shell had been damaged at some earlier stage during the animal's life. Where the periostracum remained intact, the shell appeared pristine with no sign of dissolution. Specimens which appeared to be pristine following collection were incubated for four days. Scarring of shells that received periostracal damage during collection only became evident in specimens that were incubated in waters undersaturated with respect to aragonite, ΩAr≤1. While the waters from which the damaged specimens were collected at the Greenland Sea sea-ice margin were not ΩAr≤1, the water column did exhibit the lowest ΩAr values observed in the Greenland and Barents Seas, and was likely to have approached ΩAr≤1 during the winter months. We demonstrate that L. helicina shells are only susceptible to dissolution where both the periostracum has been breached and the aragonite beneath the breach is exposed to waters of ΩAr≤1. Exposure of multiple layers of aragonite in areas of deep dissolution indicate that, as with many molluscs, L. helicina is able to patch up dissolution damage to the shell by secreting additional aragonite internally and maintain their shell. We conclude that, unless breached, the periostracum provides an effective shield for pteropod shells against dissolution in waters ΩAr≤1, and when dissolution does occur the animal has an effective means of self-repair. We suggest

  5. Hard Metal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bech, A. O.; Kipling, M. D.; Heather, J. C.

    1962-01-01

    In Great Britain there have been no published reports of respiratory disease occurring amongst workers in the hard metal (tungsten carbide) industry. In this paper the clinical and radiological findings in six cases and the pathological findings in one are described. In two cases physiological studies indicated mild alveolar diffusion defects. Histological examination in a fatal case revealed diffuse pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with marked peribronchial and perivascular fibrosis and bronchial epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia. Radiological surveys revealed the sporadic occurrence and low incidence of the disease. The alterations in respiratory mechanics which occurred in two workers following a day's exposure to dust are described. Airborne dust concentrations are given. The industrial process is outlined and the literature is reviewed. The toxicity of the metals is discussed, and our findings are compared with those reported from Europe and the United States. We are of the opinion that the changes which we would describe as hard metal disease are caused by the inhalation of dust at work and that the component responsible may be cobalt. Images PMID:13970036

  6. Spins, phonons, and hardness

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    In crystals (and/or glasses) with localized sp{sup 3} or spd-bonding orbitals, dislocations have very low mobilities, making the crystals very hard. Classical Peierls-Nabarro theory does not account for the low mobility. The breaking of spin-pair bonds which creates internal free-radicals must be considered. Therefore, a theory based on quantum mechanics has been proposed (Science, 261, 1436 (1993)). It has been applied successfully to diamond, Si, Ge, SiC, and with a modification to TiC and WC. It has recently been extended to account for the temperature independence of the hardness of silicon at low temperatures together with strong softening at temperatures above the Debye temperature. It is quantitatively consistent with the behaviors of the Group 4 elements (C, Si, Ge, Sn) when their Debye temperatures are used as normalizing factors; and appears to be consistent with data for TiC if an Einstein temperature for carbon is used. Since the Debye temperature marks the approximate point at which phonons of atomic wavelengths become excited (as contrasted with collective acoustic waves), this confirms the idea that the process which limits dislocation mobility is localized to atomic dimensions (sharp kinks).

  7. Improved Method of Design for Folding Inflatable Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    An improved method of designing complexly shaped inflatable shells to be assembled from gores was conceived for original application to the inflatable outer shell of a developmental habitable spacecraft module having a cylindrical mid-length section with toroidal end caps. The method is also applicable to inflatable shells of various shapes for terrestrial use. The method addresses problems associated with the assembly, folding, transport, and deployment of inflatable shells that may comprise multiple layers and have complex shapes that can include such doubly curved surfaces as toroids and spheres. One particularly difficult problem is that of mathematically defining fold lines on a gore pattern in a double- curvature region. Moreover, because the fold lines in a double-curvature region tend to be curved, there is a practical problem of how to implement the folds. Another problem is that of modifying the basic gore shapes and sizes for the various layers so that when they are folded as part of the integral structure, they do not mechanically interfere with each other at the fold lines. Heretofore, it has been a common practice to design an inflatable shell to be assembled in the deployed configuration, without regard for the need to fold it into compact form. Typically, the result has been that folding has been a difficult, time-consuming process resulting in a An improved method of designing complexly shaped inflatable shells to be assembled from gores was conceived for original application to the inflatable outer shell of a developmental habitable spacecraft module having a cylindrical mid-length section with toroidal end caps. The method is also applicable to inflatable shells of various shapes for terrestrial use. The method addresses problems associated with the assembly, folding, transport, and deployment of inflatable shells that may comprise multiple layers and have complex shapes that can include such doubly curved surfaces as toroids and spheres. One

  8. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J. )

    1990-08-15

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from ({sup 3}H)acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms.

  9. Appearance of hot spots due to deposits in the JET MKII-HD outer divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooij, G. J.; Brezinsek, S.; Coad, J. P.; Fundamenski, W.; Philipps, V.; Arnoux, G.; Stamp, M. F.; EFDA contributors, JET

    2009-06-01

    Deposited layers in the JET MKII-HD outer divertor have been investigated on the basis of their transient heating. The Planck radiation in the 400-600 nm wavelength range and IR thermography data were analyzed to correlate the appearance of the layers with plasma conditions. Both methods yielded significantly different surface temperatures: typically >2000 K for the visible light spectroscopy and down to 800 K for the thermography. This is explained by the existence of high temperature emission areas as small as 1-2 mm 2. Analysis of the reoccurrence of hot spots in the outer divertor throughout the 2006 campaigns indicated that the formation is determined by the combination of the outer strike point location and the plasma stored energy. The observations did not indicate any changes in thermal properties nor cyclic formation and disintegration of the layers, i.e. it was stable and so-called hard layers.

  10. Shape transformation of bimetallic Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes to multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattarai, Nabraj; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-11-05

    Transformation of metallic or bimetallic (BM) nanoparticles (NPs) from one shape to another desired shape is of importance to nanoscience and nanotechnology, where new morphologies of NPs lead to enhancement of their exploitable properties. In this report, we present the shape transformation of Au octahedral NPs to Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes, followed by their transformation to nanostars and finally to multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets in the presence of T30 DNA. The weaker binding affinity of T30 DNA directs the growth to favor the formation of lower energy {111} facets, changing the morphology from nanocubes to nanostar. The nanostars, exhibiting unusual intermediate morphologies, are comprised two sets of shell layers and have Au core, Pd intermediate shell, and Au outer shell. Similarly, the hexagonal platelets, which also have Au core and inner Pd shell, are encased in an external gold shell. As a result, the formation of multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets from Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes via the multilayered nanostars is monitored using scanning/transmission electron microscopy analysis.

  11. Shape transformation of bimetallic Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes to multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bhattarai, Nabraj; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-11-05

    Transformation of metallic or bimetallic (BM) nanoparticles (NPs) from one shape to another desired shape is of importance to nanoscience and nanotechnology, where new morphologies of NPs lead to enhancement of their exploitable properties. In this report, we present the shape transformation of Au octahedral NPs to Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes, followed by their transformation to nanostars and finally to multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets in the presence of T30 DNA. The weaker binding affinity of T30 DNA directs the growth to favor the formation of lower energy {111} facets, changing the morphology from nanocubes to nanostar. The nanostars, exhibiting unusualmore » intermediate morphologies, are comprised two sets of shell layers and have Au core, Pd intermediate shell, and Au outer shell. Similarly, the hexagonal platelets, which also have Au core and inner Pd shell, are encased in an external gold shell. As a result, the formation of multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets from Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes via the multilayered nanostars is monitored using scanning/transmission electron microscopy analysis.« less

  12. Effects of alga polysaccharide capsule shells on in-vivo bioavailability and disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Guo, Shuju; Ma, Lin; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Gelatin has been used in hard capsule shells for more than a century, and some shortcomings have appeared, such as high moisture content and risk of transmitting diseases of animal origin to people. Based on available studies regarding gelatin and vegetable shells, we developed a new type of algal polysaccharide capsule (APPC) shells. To test whether our products can replace commercial gelatin shells, we measured in-vivo plasma concentration of 12 selected volunteers with a model drug, ibuprofen, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by calculating the relative bioavailability of APPC and Qualicaps® referenced to gelatin capsules and assessing bioequivalence of the three types of shells, and calculated pharmacokinetic parameters with the software DAS 2.0 (China). The results show that APPC shells possess bioequivalence with Qualicaps® and gelatin shells. Moreover, the disintegration behavior of four types of shells (APPC, Vegcaps®, Qualicaps® and gelatin shells) with the content of lactose and radioactive element (99mTc) was observed via gamma-scintigraphic images. The bioavailability and gamma-scintigraphic studies showed that APPC was not statistically different from other vegetable and gelatin capsule shells with respect to in-vivo behavior. Hence, it can be concluded that APPCs are exchangeable with other vegetable and gelatin shells.

  13. Depletion of the Outer Asteroid Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Malhotra, Renu

    1997-01-01

    During the early history of the solar system, it is likely that the outer planets changed their distance from the sun, and hence, their influence on the asteroid belt evolved with time. The gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbital evolution of asteroids in the outer asteroid belt was calculated. The results show that the sweeping of mean motion resonances associated with planetary migration efficiently destabilizes orbits in the outer asteroid belt on a time scale of 10 million years. This mechanism provides an explanation for the observed depletion of asteroids in that region.

  14. Core-shell diodes for particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guobin; Plentz, Jonathan; Höger, Ingmar; Dellith, Jan; Dellith, Andrea; Falk, Fritz

    2016-02-01

    High performance particle detectors are needed for fundamental research in high energy physics in the exploration of the Higgs boson, dark matter, anti-matter, gravitational waves and proof of the standard model, which will extend the understanding of our Universe. Future particle detectors should have ultrahigh radiation hardness, low power consumption, high spatial resolution and fast signal response. Unfortunately, some of these properties are counter-influencing for the conventional silicon drift detectors (SDDs), so that they cannot be optimized simultaneously. In this paper, the main issues of conventional SDDs have been analyzed, and a novel core-shell detector design based on micro- and nano-structures etched into Si-wafers is proposed. It is expected to simultaneously reach ultrahigh radiation hardness, low power consumption, fast signal response and high spatial resolution down to the sub-micrometer range, which will probably meet the requirements for the most powerful particle accelerators in the near future. A prototype core-shell detector was fabricated using modern silicon nanotechnology and the functionality was tested using electron-beam-induced current measurements. Such a high performance detector will open many new applications in extreme radiation environments such as high energy physics, astrophysics, high resolution (bio-) imaging and crystallography, which will push these fields beyond their current boundaries.

  15. Energy-dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reiner H. W.; Larsen, Brian A.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Turner, Drew L.; Denton, Mick H.; Spence, Harlan E.; Blake, J. Bernard; Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of the radiation belts from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron and Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy dependence and L shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on 1 March in more detail. The observations show the following: (a) at all L shells, lower energy electrons are enhanced more often than higher energies; (b) events that fill the slot region are more common at lower energies; (c) enhancements of electrons in the inner zone are more common at lower energies; and (d) even when events do not fully fill the slot region, enhancements at lower energies tend to extend to lower L shells than higher energies. During enhancement events the outer zone extends to lower L shells at lower energies while being confined to higher L shells at higher energies. The inner zone shows the opposite with an outer boundary at higher L shells for lower energies. Both boundaries are nearly straight in log(energy) versus L shell space. At energies below a few 100 keV, radiation belt electron penetration through the slot region into the inner zone is commonplace, but the number and frequency of "slot filling" events decreases with increasing energy. The inner zone is enhanced only at energies that penetrate through the slot. Energy- and L shell-dependent losses (that are consistent with whistler hiss interactions) return the belts to more quiescent conditions.

  16. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. D.; Wilson, M. A.

    2003-07-01

    Marine organisms have occupied hard substrates since the Archaean. Shells, rocks, wood and sedimentary hardgrounds offer relatively stable habitats compared to unconsolidated sediments, but the plants and animals which inhabit them must develop means to gain and defend this premium attachment space. Hard substrate communities are formed by organisms with a variety of strategies for adhering to and/or excavating the substrates they inhabit. While mobile grazers, organically attached and even soft-bodied organisms may leave evidence of their former presence in ancient hard substrate communities, a superior fossil record is left by sessile encrusters with mineralised skeletons and by borers which leave trace fossils. Furthermore, encrusters and borers are preserved in situ, retaining their spatial relationships to one another and to the substrate. Spatial competition, ecological succession, oriented growth, and differential utilisation of exposed vs. hidden substrate surfaces can all be observed or inferred. Hard substrate communities are thus excellent systems with which to study community evolution over hundreds of millions of years. Here we review the research on modern and ancient hard substrate communities, and point to some changes that have affected them over geological time scales. Such changes include a general increase in bioerosion of hard substrates, particularly carbonate surfaces, through the Phanerozoic. This is, at least in part, analogous to the infaunalisation trends seen in soft substrate communities. Encrusting forms show an increase in skeletalisation from the Palaeozoic into the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, which may be a response to increasing levels of predation. Hard substrate communities, considering borers and encrusters together, show a rough increase in tiering through the Phanerozoic which again parallels trends seen in soft substrate communities. This extensive review of the literature on living and fossil hard substrate organisms shows that

  17. Bivalve shells as high resolution biomineral archives of early Pleistocene seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, Gaia; Angiolini, Lucia; Leng, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    Bivalves are among the best tools for palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions because they are known to precipitate their shells in isotopic equilibrium with the seawater in which they live. Also, the analysis of their shell microstructure shows that these organisms modify their shell fabric in response to environmental variations forming growth lines. However, diagenetic processes may alter fossil bivalve shell microstructure and shell isotopic composition; for this reason it is important to perform screening tests to check if the shell is pristine and thus confidently identify biogenic calcium carbonate as a reliable proxy of primary seawater chemistry. Here, we performed a detailed study of the microstructure of ten aragonite bivalves shells belonging to Glycymeris insubrica, Glycymeris inflata and Arctica islandica, collected from the lower Pleistocene Arda River marine succession (northern Italy), to check their preservation for subsequent sclerochemical stable isotope analyses (δ18O, δ13C). To assess shell preservation 4 different screening techniques were used: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Catholuminescence (CL), X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) and Feigl's solution. Shells of species of Glycymeris, under SEM, show an outer crossed lamellar layer, an inner irregular and cone complex crossed lamellar layer and an irregular simple prismatic pallial myostracum; all the layers are penetrated by cylindrical tubules. Arctica islandica has an outer homogenous/crossed lamellar/crossed acicular layer, an inner fine complex crossed lamellar layer and an irregular simple prismatic pallial myostracum. The comparative analysis with recent fabrics shows a consistent pattern for species of both Glycymeris and Arctica genera, the recent and fossils shell microstructures being almost identical. Analyses at CL, XRD and Feigl's solution support that these fossil species have a non luminescent shells composed of pure aragonite. The excellent preservation

  18. Outer planet probe engineering model structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smittkamp, J. A.; Gustin, W. H.; Griffin, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    A series of proof of concept structural tests was performed on an engineering model of the Outer Planets Atmospheric Entry Probe. The tests consisted of pyrotechnic shock, dynamic and static loadings. The tests partially verified the structural concept.

  19. Outer Membrane Permeability and Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Delcour, Anne H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary To date most antibiotics are targeted at intracellular processes, and must be able to penetrate the bacterial cell envelope. In particular, the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria provides a formidable barrier that must be overcome. There are essentially two pathways that antibiotics can take through the outer membrane: a lipid-mediated pathway for hydrophobic antibiotics, and general diffusion porins for hydrophilic antibiotics. The lipid and protein compositions of the outer membrane have a strong impact on the sensitivity of bacteria to many types of antibiotics, and drug resistance involving modifications of these macromolecules is common. This review will describe the molecular mechanisms for permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane, and the strategies that bacteria have deployed to resist antibiotics by modifications of these pathways. PMID:19100346

  20. The Impact of Ceramic Shell Strength on Hot Tearing during Investment Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Norouzi, Saeid; Farhangi, Hassan

    2011-01-17

    The effect of ceramic shell strength on hot tearing susceptibility during solidification was inspected practicing investment casting of the cobalt-base superalloy samples with the same casting conditions, but different ceramic shell systems. Results showed that the lower the ceramic shell strength upon using polymer additives, the lower the hindered contraction rate, and the lower the hindered contraction rate, the smaller the hot tearing tendency. Optical microscopy and electron microscopy scanning revealed that the hot tear propagated along the last solidified interdendritic phase, and that the hot tear surface had two major modes: (1) the ductile region in the outer layer; and (2) the inner region of liquid embrittlement.

  1. Tailoring the core electron density in modulation-doped core‑multi-shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscemi, Fabrizio; Royo, Miquel; Goldoni, Guido; Bertoni, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    We show how a proper radial modulation of the composition of core-multi-shell nanowires (NWs) critically enhances the control of the free-carrier density in the high-mobility core with respect to core‑single-shell structures, thus overcoming the technological difficulty of fine tuning the remote doping density. We calculate the electron population of the different NW layers as a function of the doping density and of several geometrical parameters by means of a self-consistent Schrödinger–Poisson approach: free carriers tend to localize in the outer shell and screen the core from the electric field of the dopants.

  2. The outer solar system - Perspectives for exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt is made to summarize the current knowledge about the composition and structures of outer planet atmospheres with special emphasis on Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan. The nature of the substances which are responsible for the yellow coloration observed on both Jupiter and Saturn is discussed. The analysis of planetary conditions conducted shows that the outer solar system offers a variety of environments in which natural experiments in prebiotic organic synthesis must be taking place at the present time.

  3. Shell Biorefinery: Dream or Reality?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Yang, Huiying; Yan, Ning

    2016-09-12

    Shell biorefinery, referring to the fractionation of crustacean shells into their major components and the transformation of each component into value-added chemicals and materials, has attracted growing attention in recent years. Since the large quantities of waste shells remain underexploited, their valorization can potentially bring both ecological and economic benefits. This Review provides an overview of the current status of shell biorefinery. It first describes the structural features of crustacean shells, including their composition and their interactions. Then, various fractionation methods for the shells are introduced. The last section is dedicated to the valorization of chitin and its derivatives for chemicals, porous carbon materials and functional polymers. PMID:27484462

  4. Deformation of an elastic shell with variable thickness: a comparison of different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousová, K.; Souček, O.; Čadek, O.

    2012-08-01

    Deformation of the outermost parts of single-plate planetary bodies is often modelled in terms of the response of a spherical elastic shell to surface or basal loading. As the thickness of such elastic lithosphere is usually much smaller than the radius of the body, the deformation is commonly approximated by that obtained for a thin elastic shell of uniform thickness. The main advantage of the thin shell approximation is its simplicity—the solution can be expressed analytically if the thickness of the shell is uniform, but even in the case of a thin shell of variable thickness, when the problem must be solved numerically, the computational costs are much lower than in a fully 3-D case. Here we analyse the error of the thin shell approximation by comparing it with the solution obtained for a shell of finite thickness using finite element methods. Special attention is paid to a shell of variable thickness and, in general, to the effect of elastic thickness variations on local deformation. For a shell of uniform thickness with the outer radius corresponding to Mars, we find that the error in radial displacement at low harmonic degrees (ℓ≤ 20) does not exceed 5 per cent for small shell thicknesses (d≤ 50 km) and 10 per cent for thick shells (d˜ 250 km). Similar accuracy is also found for a shell of variable thickness if the thin shell approximation is used. Our numerical tests indicate that local deformation of a shell is mostly sensitive to the average thickness of the shell in the near zone while the effect of thickness variations in the far zone can be neglected in the first approximation. Consequently, the extremely simple thin shell method, designed for shells of uniform thickness, can be effectively used to obtain a reasonably accurate estimate of deflection even in the case of a shell with varying thickness. Finally, we investigate the deformation of an elastic lithosphere due to viscous flow beneath the shell, and we propose an extension of the

  5. Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock into the receiving room housed in the 1965 concrete block addition. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  6. Simulation on the aggregation process of spherical particle confined in a spherical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Xu, J. J.; Zhang, L.

    2016-04-01

    The aggregation process of spherical particles confined in a spherical shell was studied by using a diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (DLCA) model. The influence of geometrical confinement and wetting-like properties of the spherical shell walls on the particle concentration profile, aggregate structure and aggregation kinetics had been explored. The results show that there will be either depletion or absorption particles near the shell walls depending on the wall properties. It is observed that there are four different types of density distribution which can be realized by modifying the property of the inner or outer spherical shell wall. In addition, the aggregate structure will become more compact in the confined spherical shell comparing to bulk system with the same particle volume fraction. The analysis on the aggregation kinetics indicates that geometrical confinement will promote the aggregation process by reducing the invalid movement of the small aggregates and by constraining the movement of those large aggregates. Due to the concave geometrical characteristic of the outer wall of the spherical shell, its effects on the aggregating kinetics and the structure of the formed aggregates are more evident than those of the inner wall. This study will provide some instructive information of controlling the density distribution of low-density porous polymer hollow spherical shells and helps to predict gel structures developed in confined geometries.

  7. Sound Transmission through Cylindrical Shell Structures Excited by Boundary Layer Pressure Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Yvette Y.; Silcox, Richard J.; Robinson, Jay H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines sound transmission into two concentric cylindrical sandwich shells subject to turbulent flow on the exterior surface of the outer shell. The interior of the shells is filled with fluid medium and there is an airgap between the shells in the annular space. The description of the pressure field is based on the cross-spectral density formulation of Corcos, Maestrello, and Efimtsov models of the turbulent boundary layer. The classical thin shell theory and the first-order shear deformation theory are applied for the inner and outer shells, respectively. Modal expansion and the Galerkin approach are used to obtain closed-form solutions for the shell displacements and the radiation and transmission pressures in the cavities including both the annular space and the interior. The average spectral density of the structural responses and the transmitted interior pressures are expressed explicitly in terms of the summation of the cross-spectral density of generalized force induced by the boundary layer turbulence. The effects of acoustic and hydrodynamic coincidences on the spectral density are observed. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the method for both subsonic and supersonic flows.

  8. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with... informational purposes only. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams in the North Atlantic,...

  9. First Images from HERO: A Hard-X-Ray Focusing Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Alexander, Cheryl D.; Apple, Jeff A.; Benson, Carl M.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Engelhaupt, Darell E.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; ODell, Stephen L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We are developing a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope that utilizes grazing incidence optics. Termed HERO, for High-Energy Replicated Optics, the instrument will provide unprecented sensitivity in the hard-x-ray region and will achieve milliCrab-level sensitivity in a typical 3-hour balloon-flight observation and 50 microCrab sensitivity on ultra-long-duration flights. A recent proof-of-concept flight, featuring a small number of mirror shells captured the first focused hard-x-ray images of galactic x-ray sources. Full details of the payload, its expected future performance and its recent measurements are provided.

  10. Fabrication of a New Type of Double-Shell Target Having a PVA Inner Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.A.; Wallace, R.; Grant, S.; Hoppe, M.C.; Smith, J.N. Jr.

    2004-03-15

    The General Atomics Target Fabrication team was tasked in FY03, under its ICF Target Support contract, to make a new type of double-shell target. Its specifications called for the outer shell to have an inner lining of PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) that would keep the xenon gas fill from occupying the target wall. The inner shell consisted of a glass shell coated with 2000 Angst of silver and filled with 9 atm of deuterium. Furthermore, the delivery deadline was less than seven weeks away. This paper describes the fielding of this double-shell target, made possible through the combined efforts of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and General Atomics target fabrication specialists.

  11. Physical Mechanisms and Scaling Laws of K-Shell Double Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Berset, M.; Cao, W.; Fennane, K.; Kayser, Y.; Szlachetko, J.; Szlachetko, M.; Kheifets, A. K.; Bray, I.; Kavcic, M.

    2009-02-20

    We report on the photon energy dependence of the K-shell double photoionization (DPI) of Mg, Al, and Si. The DPI cross sections were derived from high-resolution measurements of x-ray spectra following the radiative decay of the K-shell double vacancy states. Our data evince the relative importance of the final-state electron-electron interaction to the DPI. By comparing the double-to-single K-shell photoionization cross-section ratios for neutral atoms with convergent close-coupling calculations for He-like ions, the effect of outer shell electrons on the K-shell DPI process is assessed. Universal scaling of the DPI cross sections with the effective nuclear charge for neutral atoms is revealed.

  12. FABRICATION OF A NEW TYPE OF DOUBLE SHELL TARGET HAVING A PVA INNER LAYER

    SciTech Connect

    STEINMAN,D.A; WALLACE,R; GRANT,S.E; HOPPE,M.L; SMITH,JR.J.N

    2003-06-01

    OAK-B135 The General Atomics Target Fabrication team was tasked in FY03, under its ICF Target Support contract, to make a new type of double-shell target. its specifications called for the outer shell to have an inner lining of PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) that would keep the xenon gas fill from occupying the target wall. The inner shell consisted of a glass shell coated with 2000 {angstrom} of silver and filled with 9 atm of deuterium. Furthermore, the delivery deadline was less than seven weeks away. This paper describes the fielding of this double-shell target, made possible through the combined efforts of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and General Atomics target fabrication specialists.

  13. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  14. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  15. Outer Hair Cell Electromotility and Otoacoustic Emissions*

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Outer hair cell electromotility is a rapid, force generating, length change in response to electrical stimulation. DC electrical pulses either elongate or shorten the cell and sinusoidal electrical stimulation results in mechanical oscillations at acoustic frequencies. The mechanism underlying outer hair cell electromotility is thought to be the origin of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. The ability of the cell to change its length requires that it be mechanically flexible. At the same time the structural integrity of the organ of Corti requires that the cell possess considerable compressive rigidity along its major axis. Evolution appears to have arrived at novel solutions to the mechanical requirements imposed on the outer hair cell. Segregation of cytoskeletal elements in specific intracellular domains facilitates the rapid movements. Compressive strength is provided by a unique hydraulic skeleton in which a positive hydrostatic pressure in the cytoplasm stabilizes a flexible elastic cortex with circumferential tensile strength. Cell turgor is required in order that the pressure gradients associated with the electromotile response can be communicated to the ends of the cell. A loss in turgor leads to loss of outer hair cell electromotility. Concentrations of salicylate equivalent to those that abolish spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in patients weaken the outer hair cell’s hydraulic skeleton. There is a significant diminution in the electromotile response associated with the loss in cell turgor. Aspirin’s effect on outer hair cell electromotility attests to the role of the outer hair cell in generating otoacoustic emissions and demonstrates how their physiology can influence the propagation of otoacoustic emissions. PMID:2187727

  16. Effect of shells on photoluminescence of aqueous CdTe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Zhimin; Yang, Ping

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Size-tunable CdTe coated with several shells using an aqueous solution synthesis. CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots exhibited high PL efficiency up to 80% which implies the promising applications for biomedical labeling. - Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots were fabricated using an aqueous synthesis. • CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS shells were subsequently deposited on CdTe cores. • Outer ZnS shells provide an efficient confinement of electron and hole inside the QDs. • Inside CdS shells can reduce the strain on the QDs. • Aqueous CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs exhibited high stability and photoluminescence efficiency of 80%. - Abstract: CdTe cores with various sizes were fabricated in aqueous solutions. Inorganic shells including CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS were subsequently deposited on the cores through a similar aqueous procedure to investigate the effect of shells on the photoluminescence properties of the cores. In the case of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots, the outer ZnS shell provides an efficient confinement of electron and hole wavefunctions inside the quantum dots, while the middle CdS shell sandwiched between the CdTe core and ZnS shell can be introduced to obviously reduce the strain on the quantum dots because the lattice parameters of CdS is situated at the intermediate-level between those of CdTe and ZnS. In comparison with CdTe/ZnS core–shell quantum dots, the as-prepared water-soluble CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots in our case can exhibit high photochemical stability and photoluminescence efficiency up to 80% in an aqueous solution, which implies the promising applications in the field of biomedical labeling.

  17. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  18. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a distance of more than one-fourth the circumference of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack....

  19. Simulated evolution process of core-shell microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tao; Wang, Haipeng; Wei, Bingbo

    2007-08-01

    The evolution process of core-shell microstructures formed in monotectic alloys under the space environment condition was investigated by the numerical simulation method. In order to account for the effect of surface segregation on phase separation, Model H was modified by introducing a surface free energy term into the total free energy of alloy droplet. Three Fe-Cu alloys were taken as simulated examples, which usually exhibit metastable phase separation in undercooled and microgravity states. It was revealed by the dynamic simulation process that the formation of core-shell microstructures depends mainly on surface segregation and Marangoni convection. The phase separation of Fe65Cu35 alloy starts from a dispersed structure and gradually evolves into a triple-layer core-shell micro-structure. Similarly, Fe50Cu50 alloy experiences a structural evolution process of “bicontinuous phase → quadruple-layer core-shell → triple-layer core-shell”, while the microstructures of Fe35Cu65 alloy transfer from the dispersed structure into the final double-layer core-shell morphology. The Cu-rich phase always forms the outer layer because of surface segregation, whereas the internal microstructural evolution is controlled mainly by the Marangoni convection resulting from the temperature gradient.

  20. Cyclic strength of hard metals

    SciTech Connect

    Sereda, N.N.; Gerikhanov, A.K.; Koval'chenko, M.S.; Pedanov, L.G.; Tsyban', V.A.

    1986-02-01

    The authors study the strength of hard-metal specimens and structural elements under conditions of cyclic loading since many elements of processing plants, equipment, and machines are made of hard metals. Fatigue tests were conducted on KTS-1N, KTSL-1, and KTNKh-70 materials, which are titanium carbide hard metals cemented with nickel-molybdenum, nickelcobalt-chromium, and nickel-chromium alloys, respectively. As a basis of comparison, the standard VK-15 (WC+15% Co) alloy was used. Some key physicomechanical characteristics of the materials investigated are presented. On time bases not exceeding 10/sup 6/ cycles, titanium carbide hard metals are comparable in fatigue resistance to the standard tungstencontaining hard metals.

  1. Spontaneous Regeneration of Human Photoreceptor Outer Segments

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Jonathan C.; Parker, Alicia B.; Botelho, James V.; Duncan, Jacque L.

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptors are damaged in many common eye diseases, such as macular degeneration, retinal detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa. The development of methods to promote the repair or replacement of affected photoreceptors is a major goal of vision research. In this context, it would be useful to know whether photoreceptors are capable of undergoing some degree of spontaneous regeneration after injury. We report a subject who lost retinal function in a wide zone around the optic disc, giving rise to massive enlargement of the physiological blind spot. Imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) showed depletion of cone outer segments in the affected retina. A year later visual function had improved, with shrinkage of the enlarged blind spot. AOSLO imaging showed repopulation of cone outer segments, although their density remained below normal. There was a one-to-one match between sites of formerly missing outer segments and new outer segments that had appeared over the course of the year’s recovery. This correspondence provided direct morphological evidence that damaged cones are capable, under some circumstances, of generating new outer segments. PMID:26213154

  2. MISTIC: Radiation hard ECRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrecque, F.; Lecesne, N.; Bricault, P.

    2008-10-01

    The ISAC RIB facility at TRIUMF utilizes up to 100 μA from the 500 MeV H- cyclotron to produce RIB using the isotopic separation on line (ISOL) method. In the moment, we are mainly using a hot surface ion source and a laser ion source to produce our RIB. A FEBIAD ion source has been recently tested at ISAC, but these ion sources are not suitable for gaseous elements like N, O, F, Ne, … , A new type of ion source is then necessary. By combining a high frequency electromagnetic wave and a magnetic confinement, the ECRIS [R. Geller, Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source and ECR Plasmas, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 1996], [1] (electron cyclotron resonance ion source) can produce high energy electrons essential for efficient ionization of those elements. To this end, a prototype ECRIS called MISTIC (monocharged ion source for TRIUMF and ISAC complex) has been built at TRIUMF using a design similar to the one developed at GANIL [GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds), www.ganil.fr], [2] The high level radiation caused by the proximity to the target prevented us to use a conventional ECRIS. To achieve a radiation hard ion source, we used coils instead of permanent magnets to produce the magnetic confinement. Each coil is supplied by 1000 A-15 V power supply. The RF generator cover a frequency range from 2 to 8 GHz giving us all the versatility we need to characterize the ionization of the following elements: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, C, O, N, F. Isotopes of these elements are involved in star thermonuclear cycles and, consequently, very important for researches in nuclear astrophysics. Measures of efficiency, emittance and ionization time will be performed for each of those elements. Preliminary tests show that MISTIC is very stable over a large range of frequency, magnetic field and pressure.

  3. Structure and mechanical properties of Saxidomus purpuratus biological shells.

    PubMed

    Yang, W; Zhang, G P; Zhu, X F; Li, X W; Meyers, M A

    2011-10-01

    The strength and fracture behavior of Saxidomus purpuratus shells were investigated and correlated with the structure. The shells show a crossed lamellar structure in the inner and middle layers and a fibrous/blocky and porous structure composed of nanoscaled particulates (~100 nm diameter) in the outer layer. It was found that the flexure strength and fracture mode are a function of lamellar organization and orientation. The crossed lamellar structure of this shell is composed of domains of parallel lamellae with approximate thickness of 200-600 nm. These domains have approximate lateral dimensions of 10-70 μm with a minimum of two orientations of lamellae in the inner and middle layers. Neighboring domains are oriented at specific angles and thus the structure forms a crossed lamellar pattern. The microhardness across the thickness was lower in the outer layer because of the porosity and the absence of lamellae. The tensile (from flexure tests) and compressive strengths were analyzed by means of Weibull statistics. The mean tensile (flexure) strength at probability of 50%, 80-105 MPa, is on the same order as the compressive strength (~50-150 MPa) and the Weibull moduli vary from 3.0 to 7.6. These values are significantly lower than abalone nacre, in spite of having the same aragonite structure. The lower strength can be attributed to a smaller fraction of the organic interlayer. The fracture path in the specimens is dominated by the orientation of the domains and proceeds preferentially along lamella boundaries. It also correlates with the color changes in the cross section of the shell. The cracks tend to undergo a considerable change in orientation when the color changes abruptly. The distributions of strengths, cracking paths, and fracture surfaces indicate that the mechanical properties of the shell are anisotropic with a hierarchical nature. PMID:21783161

  4. Grinding tool for making hemispherical bores in hard materials

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.

    1985-04-03

    A grinding tool for forming hemispherical bores in hard materials such as boron carbide. The tool comprises a hemicircular grinding bit, formed of a metal bond diamond matrix, which is mounted transversely on one end of a tubular tool shaft. The bit includes a spherically curved outer edge surface which is the active grinding surface of the tool. Two coolant fluid ports on opposite sides of the bit enable introduction of coolant fluid through the bore of the tool shaft so as to be emitted adjacent the opposite sides of the grinding bit, thereby providing optimum cooling of both the workpiece and the bit.

  5. Baseline Microstructural Characterization of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, Phillip E.; Dunn, Kerry A

    2005-07-31

    Three DOE Standard 3013 outer storage containers were examined to characterize the microstructure of the type 316L stainless steel material of construction. Two of the containers were closure-welded yielding production-quality outer 3013 containers; the third examined container was not closed. Optical metallography and Knoop microhardness measurements were performed to establish a baseline characterization that will support future destructive examinations of 3013 outer containers in the storage inventory. Metallography revealed the microstructural features typical of this austenitic stainless steel as it is formed and welded. The grains were equiaxed with evident annealing twins. Flow lines were prominent in the forming directions of the cylindrical body and flat lids and bottom caps. No adverse indications were seen. Microhardness values, although widely varying, were consistent with annealed austenitic stainless steel. The data gathered as part of this characterization will be used as a baseline for the destructive examination of 3013 containers removed from the storage inventory.

  6. Origin of the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Matthew J. (Principal Investigator); Boyce, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; (2) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; (5) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  7. Chasing shadows in the outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Federica

    The characteristics of the populations of objects that inhabit the outer solar system carry the fingerprint of the processes that governed the formation and evolution of the solar system. Occultation surveys push the limit of observation into the very small and distant outer solar system objects, allowing us to set constraints on the structure of the Kuiper belt, Scattered disk and Sedna populations. I collected, reduced, and analyzed vast datasets looking for occultations of stars by outer solar system objects, both working with the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS) collaboration and leading the MMT/Megacam occultation effort. Having found no such events in my data, I was able to place upper limits on the Kuiper belt, scattered disk and Sedna population. These limits and their derivation are described here.

  8. Natural melting within a spherical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, Parviz A.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental heat transfer experiments were performed on the melting of a phase change medium in a spherical shell. Free expansion of the medium into a void space within the sphere was permitted. A step function temperature jump on the outer shell wall was imposed and the timewise evolution of the melting process and the position of the solid-liquid interface was photographically recorded. Numerical integration of the interface position data yielded information about the melted mass and the energy of melting. It was found that the rate of melting and the heat transfer were significantly affected by the movement of the solid medium to the base of the sphere due to gravity. The energy transfer associated with melting was substantially higher than that predicted by the conduction model. Furthermore, the radio of the measured values of sensible energy in the liquid melt to the energy of melting were nearly proportional to the Stefan number. The experimental results are in agreement with a theory set forth in an earlier paper.

  9. Rollable Thin-Shell Nanolaminate Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Barbee, Troy, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A class of lightweight, deployable, thin-shell, curved mirrors with built-in precise-shape-control actuators is being developed for high-resolution scientific imaging. This technology incorporates a combination of advanced design concepts in actuation and membrane optics that, heretofore, have been considered as separate innovations. These mirrors are conceived to be stowed compactly in a launch shroud and transported aboard spacecraft, then deployed in outer space to required precise shapes at much larger dimensions (diameters of the order of meters or tens of meters). A typical shell rollable mirror structure would include: (1) a flexible single- or multiple-layer face sheet that would include an integrated reflective surface layer that would constitute the mirror; (2) structural supports in the form of stiffeners made of a shape-memory alloy (SMA); and (3) piezoelectric actuators. The actuators, together with an electronic control subsystem, would implement a concept of hierarchical distributed control, in which (1) the SMA actuators would be used for global shape control and would generate the large deformations needed for the deployment process and (2) the piezoelectric actuators would generate smaller deformations and would be used primarily to effect fine local control of the shape of the mirror.

  10. Hard-Core Repulsion and Supersolid Cluster Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boninsegni, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    We study the effect of a short-ranged hard-core repulsion on the stability and superfluid properties of the cluster crystal phase of two-dimensional (2D) soft-core bosons. Results of Quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a cogent test case suggest that the main physical properties of the phase remain unaltered if the range d of the inner repulsive core is sufficiently short, even if the strength of the repulsion is several orders of magnitude greater than the outer soft-core barrier. Only if d is an appreciable fraction of the size of the clusters ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] 5 %) does a sufficiently strong hard-core repulsion cause the crystal to break down into a homogeneous superfluid; a moderate inner core repulsion enhances the superfluid response of the crystalline phase.

  11. Hard-Core Repulsion and Supersolid Cluster Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boninsegni, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    We study the effect of a short-ranged hard-core repulsion on the stability and superfluid properties of the cluster crystal phase of two-dimensional (2D) soft-core bosons. Results of Quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a cogent test case suggest that the main physical properties of the phase remain unaltered if the range d of the inner repulsive core is sufficiently short, even if the strength of the repulsion is several orders of magnitude greater than the outer soft-core barrier. Only if d is an appreciable fraction of the size of the clusters ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] 5 %) does a sufficiently strong hard-core repulsion cause the crystal to break down into a homogeneous superfluid; a moderate inner core repulsion enhances the superfluid response of the crystalline phase.

  12. Commissioning of the 4 K Outer Cryostat for the CUORE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Alessandria, F.; Biassoni, M.; Bucci, C.; Ceruti, G.; Chiarini, A.; Clemenza, M.; Cremonesi, O.; Datskov, V.; Dossena, S.; Faverzani, M.; Franceschi, M. A.; Gaigher, R.; Gorla, P.; Guetti, M.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T.; Nucciotti, A.; Pelosi, A.; Perego, M.; Previtali, E.; Sisti, M.; Taffarello, L.; Terranova, F.

    2014-09-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a 1-ton scale bolometric experiment. The CUORE detector is an array of 988 TeO crystals arranged in a cylindrical, compact, and granular structure of 19 towers. These detectors will need a base temperature lower than 10 mK in order to meet the performance specifications. To cool the CUORE detector, a large cryogen free cryostat with five pulse tubes and one custom designed high power dilution refrigerator has been designed. The three vessels that form the outer shell of the CUORE cryostat were produced in 2012 and are now assembled in the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS). We report here the detailed description of the 4 K outer cryostat for the CUORE experiment together with the results of the validation tests done at the production site in 2012 and of the first commissioning to 4 K at LNGS in 2013.

  13. Design of multiple-shell gas nozzles for refurbished Z.

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliani, J. L.; Waisman, Eduardo Mario; Velikovich, Aleksandr Lazarevich; Madden, R.; Thornhill, W.; Ampleford, David J.; Krishnan, Mahadevan; Coleman, P. L.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Wilson Elliott, Kristi; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Clark, R.; Jones, Brent Manley

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents initial designs of multiple-shell gas puff imploding loads for the refurbished Z generator. The nozzle has three independent drivers for three independent plena. The outer and middle plena may be charged to 250psia whilst the central jet can be charged to 1000psia. 8-cm and 12-cm outer diameter nozzles have been built and tested on the bench. The unique valve design provides a very fast opening, hence the amount of stray gas outside the core nozzle flow is minimized. A similar 8-cm nozzle was characterized earlier using a fiber optic interferometer, but at lower pressures and without the central jet. Those data have been scaled to the higher pressures required for refurbished Z and used to estimate performance. The use of three independent plena allows variation of the pressure (hence mass distribution) in the nozzle flow, allowing optimization of implosion stability and the on-axis mass that most contributes to K-shell emission. Varying the outer/middle mass ratios influences the implosion time and should affect the details of the assembly on axis as well as the radiation physics. Varying the central jet pressure will have a minor effect on implosion dynamics, but a strong effect on pinch conditions and radiation physics. Optimum mass distributions for planned initial Ar shots on refurbished Z are described. Additional interferometer data including the central jet and at higher pressures will also be presented.

  14. Outer planet probe cost estimates: First impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niehoff, J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination was made of early estimates of outer planetary atmospheric probe cost by comparing the estimates with past planetary projects. Of particular interest is identification of project elements which are likely cost drivers for future probe missions. Data are divided into two parts: first, the description of a cost model developed by SAI for the Planetary Programs Office of NASA, and second, use of this model and its data base to evaluate estimates of probe costs. Several observations are offered in conclusion regarding the credibility of current estimates and specific areas of the outer planet probe concept most vulnerable to cost escalation.

  15. Ptolemy's treatment of the outer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether for the outer planets Ptolemy followed his otherwise consistent custom of describing a scenario that did not happen as he says, or whether, at least for the outer planets, he left us a more accurate rendition of events. The detailed reconstructions of Ptolemy's calculations that follow show that, at least in the Almagest, Ptolemy is a writer with consistent habits when it comes to observations. We begin by reviewing, with minimal editorial comment, Ptolemy's calculations for each planet.

  16. Titan exploration in the Outer Planets Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, Curt

    2010-04-01

    Although the next NASA Outer Planets Flagship Mission is expected to be directed to the Jovian system focusing on Europa, Titan after Cassini-Huygens remains a high priority target of interest due to its parallels with the Earth (including weather) and potential for astrobiology. This talk will discuss the possibilities for future robotic exploration of Titan in the context of the NASA Outer Planets Program, including Discovery and New Frontiers-class spacecraft, and the necessary precursor activities to missions such as technology development.

  17. Cochlear amplification, outer hair cells and prestin

    PubMed Central

    Dallos, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical amplification of acoustic signals is apparently a common feature of vertebrate auditory organs. In non-mammalian vertebrates amplification is produced by stereociliary processes, related to the mechanotransducer channel complex and probably to the phenomenon of fast adaptation. The extended frequency range of the mammalian cochlea has likely co-evolved with a novel hair cell type, the outer hair cell and its constituent membrane protein, prestin. Cylindrical outer hair cells are motile and their somatic length changes are voltage driven and powered by prestin. One of the central outstanding problems in mammalian cochlear neurobiology is the relation between the two amplification processes. PMID:18809494

  18. Hard-X-Ray-Induced Multistep Ultrafast Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travnikova, Oksana; Marchenko, Tatiana; Goldsztejn, Gildas; Jänkälä, Kari; Sisourat, Nicolas; Carniato, Stéphane; Guillemin, Renaud; Journel, Loïc; Céolin, Denis; Püttner, Ralph; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Shigemasa, Eiji; Piancastelli, Maria Novella; Simon, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Creation of deep core holes with very short (τ ≤1 fs ) lifetimes triggers a chain of relaxation events leading to extensive nuclear dynamics on a few-femtosecond time scale. Here we demonstrate a general multistep ultrafast dissociation on an example of HCl following Cl 1 s →σ* excitation. Intermediate states with one or multiple holes in the shallower core electron shells are generated in the course of the decay cascades. The repulsive character and large gradients of the potential energy surfaces of these intermediates enable ultrafast fragmentation after the absorption of a hard x-ray photon.

  19. Hard-X-Ray-Induced Multistep Ultrafast Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Travnikova, Oksana; Marchenko, Tatiana; Goldsztejn, Gildas; Jänkälä, Kari; Sisourat, Nicolas; Carniato, Stéphane; Guillemin, Renaud; Journel, Loïc; Céolin, Denis; Püttner, Ralph; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Shigemasa, Eiji; Piancastelli, Maria Novella; Simon, Marc

    2016-05-27

    Creation of deep core holes with very short (τ≤1  fs) lifetimes triggers a chain of relaxation events leading to extensive nuclear dynamics on a few-femtosecond time scale. Here we demonstrate a general multistep ultrafast dissociation on an example of HCl following Cl 1s→σ^{*} excitation. Intermediate states with one or multiple holes in the shallower core electron shells are generated in the course of the decay cascades. The repulsive character and large gradients of the potential energy surfaces of these intermediates enable ultrafast fragmentation after the absorption of a hard x-ray photon. PMID:27284654

  20. Low-energy outer-shell photodetachment of the negative ion of boron.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kedong; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    The photodetachment of the negative ion of boron, B-(2s2 2p2) 3 P , was investigated by employing the B-spline R-matrix method for photon energies ranging from threshold to 12 eV. A multi-configuration Hartree-Fock method with nonorthogonal, term-dependent orbitals was used to generate accurate initial bound-state and final continuum-state wavefunctions. The close-coupling expansion included all principal scattering channels for photodetachment from both the 2p and 2s orbitals. The resulting equation were solved using a parallelized version of the BSR computer code. The calculated photodetachment cross sections are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Several prominent resonance features are predicted, thereby providing new challenges in the study of this highly correlated process. To classify the resonance structure, both the partial cross sections and the main contributions of the individual scattering channels are discussed. Work supported by the China Scholarship Council and the United States National Science Foundation under Grants PHY-1403245 and PHY-1520970, and by the XSEDE allocation PHY-090031.

  1. New surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles using N-glutaryl phosphatidylethanolamine as the outer shell

    PubMed Central

    Kashanian, Soheila; Azandaryani, Abbas Hemati; Derakhshandeh, Katayoun

    2011-01-01

    Background Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are colloidal carrier systems which provide controlled-release profiles for many substances. In this study, we prepared aqueous dispersions of lipid nanoparticles using a modified, pH-sensitive derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine. Methods SLNs were prepared using polysorbate 80 as the surfactant and tripalmitin glyceride and N-glutaryl phosphatidylethanolamine as the lipid components. Particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential were examined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Morphological evaluation was performed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Results Photon correlation spectroscopy revealed a particle hydrodynamic diameter of 165.8 nm and zeta potential of −41.6.0 mV for the drug-loaded nanoparticles. Atomic force microscopy investigation showed the nanoparticles to be 50–600 nm in length and 66.5 nm in height. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the majority of SLNs possessed less ordered arrangements of crystals compared with corresponding bulk lipids, which is favorable for improving drug-loading capacity. Drug-loading capacity and drug entrapment efficiency values for the SLNs were 25.32% and 94.32%, respectively. Conclusion The SLNs prepared in this study were able to control the release of triamcinolone acetonide under acidic conditions. PMID:22114489

  2. Shape evolution of a core-shell spherical particle under hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Colin, Jérôme

    2012-03-01

    The morphological evolution by surface diffusion of a core-shell spherical particle has been investigated theoretically under hydrostatic pressure when the shear modulii of the core and shell are different. A linear stability analysis has demonstrated that depending on the pressure, shear modulii, and radii of both phases, the free surface of the composite particle may be unstable with respect to a shape perturbation. A stability diagram finally emphasizes that the roughness development is favored in the case of a hard shell with a soft core. PMID:22587137

  3. Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Gennady P.

    2002-01-01

    9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover

  4. Optimum shell design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, A. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison of two methods, namely Nedler and Mead's (1965) simplex method and Davidon's (1959) variable metric method, for achieving optimum design in terms of minimum weight for rotational shells under certain constraints. The superiority of one of the methods over the other is shown to depend, among other things, upon the form of the function to be minimized, and whether or not it is continuous everywhere in values and derivatives.

  5. Beta Backscatter Measures the Hardness of Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, E. T.; Roje, F. N.

    1986-01-01

    Nondestructive testing method determines hardness, on Shore scale, of room-temperature-vulcanizing silicone rubber. Measures backscattered beta particles; backscattered radiation count directly proportional to Shore hardness. Test set calibrated with specimen, Shore hardness known from mechanical durometer test. Specimen of unknown hardness tested, and radiation count recorded. Count compared with known sample to find Shore hardness of unknown.

  6. Bioluminescent signals spatially amplified by wavelength-specific diffusion through the shell of a marine snail

    PubMed Central

    Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Wilson, Nerida G.

    2011-01-01

    Some living organisms produce visible light (bioluminescence) for intra- or interspecific visual communication. Here, we describe a remarkable bioluminescent adaptation in the marine snail Hinea brasiliana. This species produces a luminous display in response to mechanical stimulation caused by encounters with other motile organisms. The light is produced from discrete areas on the snail's body beneath the snail's shell, and must thus overcome this structural barrier to be viewed by an external receiver. The diffusion and transmission efficiency of the shell is greater than a commercial diffuser reference material. Most strikingly, the shell, although opaque and pigmented, selectively diffuses the blue-green wavelength of the species bioluminescence. This diffusion generates a luminous display that is enlarged relative to the original light source. This unusual shell thus allows spatially amplified outward transmission of light communication signals from the snail, while allowing the animal to remain safely inside its hard protective shell. PMID:21159673

  7. Thickness Constraints on the Icy Shells of the Galilean Satellites from a Comparison of Crater Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    A thin outer ice shell on Jupiter's large moon Europa would imply easy exchange between the surface and any organic or biotic material in its putative subsurface ocean. The thickness of the outer ice shell is poorly constrained, however, with model-dependent estimates ranging from a few kilometers of depths of impact craters on Europa, Ganymede and Callisto that reveal two anomalous transitions in crater shape with diameter. The first transition is probably related to temperature-dependent ductility of the crust at shallow depths (7-8 km on Europa). The second transition is attributed to the influence of subsurface oceans on all three satellites, which constrains Europa's icy shell to be at least 19 km thick. The icy lithospheres of Ganymede and Callisto are equally ice-rich, but Europa's icy shell has a thermal structure about 0.25-0.5 times the thickness of Ganymede's or Callisto's shells, depending on epoch. The appearances of the craters on Europa are inconsistent with thin-ice-shell models and indicate that exchange of oceanic and surface material could be difficult.

  8. Influence of the Inner-Shell Architecture on Quantum Yield and Blinking Dynamics in Core/Multishell Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Pooja; Gao, Feng; Nguyen, Anh; Omogo, Benard; Heyes, Colin D

    2016-03-01

    Choosing the composition of a shell for QDs is not trivial, as both the band-edge energy offset and interfacial lattice mismatch influence the final optical properties. One way to balance these competing effects is by forming multishells and/or gradient-alloy shells. However, this introduces multiple interfaces, and their relative effects on quantum yield and blinking are not yet fully understood. Here, we undertake a systematic, comparative study of the addition of inner shells of a single component versus gradient-alloy shells of cadmium/zinc chalogenides onto CdSe cores, and then capping with a thin ZnS outer shell to form various core/multishell configurations. We show that architecture of the inner shell between the CdSe core and the outer ZnS shell significantly influences both the quantum yield and blinking dynamics, but that these effects are not correlated-a high ensemble quantum yield doesn't necessarily equate to reduced blinking. Two mathematical models have been proposed to describe the blinking dynamics-the more common power-law model and a more recent multiexponential model. By binning the same data with 1 and 20 ms resolution, we show that the on times can be better described by the multiexponential model, whereas the off times can be better described by the power-law model. We discuss physical mechanisms that might explain this behavior and how it can be affected by the inner-shell architecture. PMID:26693950

  9. The magnetospheres of the outer planets

    SciTech Connect

    Mcnutt, R.L., Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on the magnetospheres of all of the outer planets including Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto is reviewed for the 1987-1990 time period. Particular attention is given to magnetospheric structure, plasma transport, Jovian aurora, Io and the plasma torus, Titan and its magnetospheric interactions, rings and dusty plasmas, magnetospheric convection, and satellite interactions.

  10. Assembly Platform For Use In Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Niranjan S.; Buddington, Patricia A.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes conceptual platform or framework for use in assembling other structures and spacecraft in outer space. Consists of three fixed structural beams comprising central beam and two cross beams. Robotic manipulators spaced apart on platform to provide telerobotic operation of platform by either space-station or ground crews. Platform and attached vehicles function synergistically to achieve maximum performance for intended purposes.

  11. The processing of materials in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelles, S. H.; Colling, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    Zero-gravity environment may lead to fabrication of new and improved materials. According to comprehensive study of application of this promising technology to superconducting and electrical contact materials, outer space processing could improve microstructure and homogeneity of many single and multicomponent systems formed from solidification of fluid phases. New structures that are impossible to form terrestrially may also be accessible in space environment.

  12. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  13. Ground Based Studies of the Outer Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, Laurence M.

    2005-01-01

    This report covers progress to date under this grant on our continuing program to conduct ground based studies of the outer solar system planets and satellites, with emphasis on spectroscopy and atmospheric phenomena. The research continues under our new PAST grant, NNG04G131G beginning 5/1/2004. The original period of performance of the subject grant was 3/1/2001 to 2/28/2004, but was extended one year at no cost. Although there is some overlap in the scientific projects conducted during the extended year with those of the new grant, this report is confined to the portion of the work funded under NAG5-10435. The primary goals for this grant period were a comparative study of outer planet thermospheres/ionospheres near solar maximum, extended to the mid-IR, and the investigation of molecular dimers in outer solar system atmospheres. This project supports NASA's planned space missions, Jupiter Polar Orbiter, outer Planet Microprobes, and the recent Cassini flyby of Jupiter. It also supports the OSS strategic plan themes, The Exploration of the Solar System and The Sun-Earth Connection/ Understanding comparative planetary space environments.

  14. THE ORBITS OF THE OUTER URANIAN SATELLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Brozovic, M.; Jacobson, R. A.

    2009-04-15

    We report on the numerically integrated orbits for the nine outer Uranian satellites. The orbits are calculated based on fits to the astrometric observations for the period from 1984 to 2006. The results include the state vectors, post-fit residuals, and mean orbital elements. We also assess the accuracy of the orbital fits and discuss the need for future measurements.

  15. Shoulder and hip joints for hard space suits and the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    For use in hard space suits and the like, a joint between the torso covering and the upper arm covering (i.e., shoulder) or between the torso covering and upper leg covering (i.e., hip) is disclosed. Each joint has an outer covering and a inner covering. The outer covering has plural perferably truncated toroidal sections decreasing in size proceeding outwardly. In one embodiment at each joint there are two bearings, the first larger than the second. The outer race of the larger bearing is attached to the outer edge of the smaller end of each section and the inner race of the larger bearing is attached to the end wall. The inner race of the smaller bearing is attached to the end wall. The outer race of the smaller bearing is attached to the larger end of the next section. Each bearing hask appropriate seals. Between each section is a rubber ring for the comfort of the wearer. Such rubber rings have radial flanges attached to the inner races of two adjacent bearings. Matching semicircular grooves are formed in the abutting overlapping surfaces. Bellows-like inner walls are also provided for each section fixed at one end to an inner cylindrical flange and, at the opposite end, to an end wall. Each outer section may rotate 360 deg relative to the next outer section, whereas the bellows sections do not rotate, but rather expand or contract locally as the rigid sections rotate relative to each other.

  16. Drift shells and aurora computed using the O8 magnetic field model for Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paranicas, C.; Cheng, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    Charged particle drift shells are calculated using the O8 magnetic field model for Neptune. Inner drift shell morphologies differ significantly from dipolar drift shells for the parts of drift shells inward of r = 2 R(sub N). Outer drift shells (L approx. greater than 10), when traced down to Neptune's surface following magnetic field lines, are simple closed loops around magnetic poles. Inner drift shells (L approx. less than 4), on the other hand, when traced to the surface, are also single loops but stretched in a previously unknown way: sometimes with a cusp and sometimes into two joined loops. Inner drift shell footprints on R = 1 provide the basis for identifying precipitation L shells, interpreting observed aurora, and predicting additional emissions on that part of Neptune's surface unobserved by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS). Precipitation in a global magnetic anomaly, `ordinary' auroral precipitation near the south magnetic pole, and precipitation from field lines with no magnetic field minimum above Neptune's exobase collectively appear to account for all of the observed auroral emission regions at Neptune. To the extent that aurora can be understood in this model, it is suggested O8 may be reasonably accurate.

  17. Long-term loss and re-formation of the outer radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.-Y.; Shin, D.-K.; Kim, J.-H.; Cho, J.-H.; Kim, K.-C.; Hwang, J. A.; Turner, D. L.; Kim, T. K.; Park, M.-Y.

    2013-06-01

    Earth's outer radiation belt is known to vary often and significantly on various time scales. In this study, we have used the data of various instruments onboard the THEMIS spacecraft to study long-term changes of the outer radiation belt electrons around the year 2009. We find that the entire outer belt became extremely weak for nearly a year and was practically lost a few times, each time lasting ~20 days up to ~2 months, before eventually re-forming. This was revealed at a wide energy range from several tens of keV to up to 719 keV, which was covered by the THEMIS spacecraft measurements. The loss of the outer belt was associated with extremely weak solar wind conditions, i.e., low interplanetary magnetic field magnitude and slow solar wind speed. In particular, this set greatly reduced magnetospheric convection and/or injections for a prolonged time interval, which led to a large expansion of the plasmasphere, even beyond geosynchronous altitude and thus invading the majority of the typical outer belt territory for the same prolonged time interval. Consequently, preexisting electrons inside the plasmasphere had enough time to be lost into the atmosphere gradually over a time scale of several days without being supplied with fresh electrons from the plasma sheet under the same reduced convection and/or injections. Plasmaspheric hiss waves with an amplitude of up to a few tens of pT persisted to exist during the gradual decay periods, implying that they are likely responsible for the continual loss of the electrons inside the plasmasphere. A complete re-formation of the outer belt to full intensity was then realized over an interval of a few months. During the re-formation process, the magnetospheric convection and/or injections increased, which led to a gradual increase of whistler chorus wave activity, contraction of the plasmasphere, and supply of the plasma sheet electrons at high L shells. This set first an outward increasing profile of the phase space

  18. Hard-phase engineering in hard/soft nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudyal, Narayan; Rong, Chuanbing; Vuong Nguyen, Van; Liu, J. Ping

    2014-03-01

    Bulk SmCo/Fe(Co) based hard/soft nanocomposite magnets with different hard phases (1:5, 2:17, 2:7 and 1:3 types) were fabricated by high-energy ball-milling followed by a warm compaction process. Microstructural studies revealed a homogeneous distribution of bcc-Fe(Co) phase in the matrix of hard magnetic Sm-Co phase with grain size ⩽20 nm after severe plastic deformation and compaction. The small grain size leads to effective inter-phase exchange coupling as shown by the single-phase-like demagnetization behavior with enhanced remanence and energy product. Among the different hard phases investigated, it was found that the Sm2Co7-based nanocomposites can incorporate a higher soft phase content, and thus a larger reduction in rare-earth content compared with the 2:17, 1:5 and 1:3 phase-based nanocomposite with similar properties. (BH)max up to 17.6 MGOe was obtained for isotropic Sm2Co7/FeCo nanocomposite magnets with 40 wt% of the soft phase which is about 300% higher than the single-phase counterpart prepared under the same conditions. The results show that hard-phase engineering in nanocomposite magnets is an alternative approach to fabrication of high-strength nanocomposite magnets with reduced rare-earth content.

  19. Dispersion properties of three-layered orthotropic shells

    SciTech Connect

    Markus, S.

    1995-05-01

    This paper studies the harmonic wave propagation in thick, cylindrical, three-layered shells of infinite length. Both the outer layers and the core are composites made of short strand fiberglass and polyester resin. The randomly oriented fibers were approximately in parallel planes to constitute a transversely isotropic fibre composite. The planes of isotropy in the outer layers are orthogonal to the plane of isotropy at the core. A closed form solution of the exact linear equations of elasticity in sought in terms of a Frobenius series. The influence of the core thickness on the dynamics of the wave motion is estimated from numerically computed dispersion curves. Asymmetric wave motion is given prime consideration and the different types of waves which can occur are identified over a wide range of wave numbers.

  20. Hardness-based plasticity and fracture model for quench-hardenable boron steel (22MnB5)

    SciTech Connect

    Greve, L. Medricky, M. Andres, M.; Eller, T. K.

    2013-12-16

    A comprehensive strain hardening and fracture characterization of different grades of boron steel blanks has been performed, providing the foundation for the implementation into the modular material model (MMM) framework developed by Volkswagen Group Research for an explicit crash code. Due to the introduction of hardness-based interpolation rules for the characterized main grades, the hardening and fracture behavior is solely described by the underlying Vickers hardness. In other words, knowledge of the hardness distribution within a hot-formed component is enough to set up the newly developed computational model. The hardness distribution can be easily introduced via an experimentally measured hardness curve or via hardness mapping from a corresponding hot-forming simulation. For industrial application using rather coarse and computationally inexpensive shell element meshes, the user material model has been extended by a necking/post-necking model with reduced mesh-dependency as an additional failure mode. The present paper mainly addresses the necking/post-necking model.

  1. Shell structure from nuclear observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, I.; Rodríguez, Y. Colón; Cunningham, S.; Aprahamian, A.

    2016-04-01

    The appearance and disappearance of shells and subshells are determined using a previously introduced method of structural analysis. This work extends the approach and applies it to protons, in addition to neutrons, in an attempt to provide a more complete understanding of shell structure in nuclei. Experimental observables including the mean-square charge radius, as well as other spectroscopic and mass related quantities are analyzed for extrema. This analysis also uses differential observables among adjacent even-even nuclei to serve as the derivatives for these quantities of interest. Local extrema in these quantities indicate shell structure and the lack of local extrema indicate missing shell closures. The shell structure of low-mass nuclei is inconsistent likely as a consequence of the single-particle structure. Additionally, multiple shell features occurring in midshell regions are determined by combining information from two or more observables. Our results near stability complement previous observations further out.

  2. Oxygen Isotope Variability within Nautilus Shell Growth Bands

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nautilus is often used as an analogue for the ecology and behavior of extinct externally shelled cephalopods. Nautilus shell grows quickly, has internal growth banding, and is widely believed to precipitate aragonite in oxygen isotope equilibrium with seawater. Pieces of shell from a wild-caught Nautilus macromphalus from New Caledonia and from a Nautilus belauensis reared in an aquarium were cast in epoxy, polished, and then imaged. Growth bands were visible in the outer prismatic layer of both shells. The thicknesses of the bands are consistent with previously reported daily growth rates measured in aquarium reared individuals. In situ analysis of oxygen isotope ratios using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with 10 μm beam-spot size reveals inter- and intra-band δ18O variation. In the wild-caught sample, a traverse crosscutting 45 growth bands yielded δ18O values ranging 2.5‰, from +0.9 to -1.6 ‰ (VPDB), a range that is larger than that observed in many serial sampling of entire shells by conventional methods. The maximum range within a single band (~32 μm) was 1.5‰, and 27 out of 41 bands had a range larger than instrumental precision (±2 SD = 0.6‰). The results from the wild individual suggest depth migration is recorded by the shell, but are not consistent with a simple sinusoidal, diurnal depth change pattern. To create the observed range of δ18O, however, this Nautilus must have traversed a temperature gradient of at least ~12°C, corresponding to approximately 400 m depth change. Isotopic variation was also measured in the aquarium-reared sample, but the pattern within and between bands likely reflects evaporative enrichment arising from a weekly cycle of refill and replacement of the aquarium water. Overall, this work suggests that depth migration behavior in ancient nektonic mollusks could be elucidated by SIMS analysis across individual growth bands. PMID:27100183

  3. Oxygen Isotope Variability within Nautilus Shell Growth Bands.

    PubMed

    Linzmeier, Benjamin J; Kozdon, Reinhard; Peters, Shanan E; Valley, John W

    2016-01-01

    Nautilus is often used as an analogue for the ecology and behavior of extinct externally shelled cephalopods. Nautilus shell grows quickly, has internal growth banding, and is widely believed to precipitate aragonite in oxygen isotope equilibrium with seawater. Pieces of shell from a wild-caught Nautilus macromphalus from New Caledonia and from a Nautilus belauensis reared in an aquarium were cast in epoxy, polished, and then imaged. Growth bands were visible in the outer prismatic layer of both shells. The thicknesses of the bands are consistent with previously reported daily growth rates measured in aquarium reared individuals. In situ analysis of oxygen isotope ratios using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with 10 μm beam-spot size reveals inter- and intra-band δ18O variation. In the wild-caught sample, a traverse crosscutting 45 growth bands yielded δ18O values ranging 2.5‰, from +0.9 to -1.6 ‰ (VPDB), a range that is larger than that observed in many serial sampling of entire shells by conventional methods. The maximum range within a single band (~32 μm) was 1.5‰, and 27 out of 41 bands had a range larger than instrumental precision (±2 SD = 0.6‰). The results from the wild individual suggest depth migration is recorded by the shell, but are not consistent with a simple sinusoidal, diurnal depth change pattern. To create the observed range of δ18O, however, this Nautilus must have traversed a temperature gradient of at least ~12°C, corresponding to approximately 400 m depth change. Isotopic variation was also measured in the aquarium-reared sample, but the pattern within and between bands likely reflects evaporative enrichment arising from a weekly cycle of refill and replacement of the aquarium water. Overall, this work suggests that depth migration behavior in ancient nektonic mollusks could be elucidated by SIMS analysis across individual growth bands. PMID:27100183

  4. The structure of circumstellar shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This document provides a report on research activities carried out with the support of NASA grant NAG 5-1174, the Structure of Circumstellar Shells, funded under the Astrophysics Data Program. The research carried out with the support of this grant is a study of the properties of circumstellar dust shells for which spectra are available through IRAS low resolution spectrometry (LRS). This research consisted of the development and application of models of axisymmetric circumstellar shells and a preliminary survey of the applicability of neural nets for analysis of the IRAS LRS spectra of circumstellar dust shells.

  5. Myxobacteria Produce Outer Membrane-Enclosed Tubes in Unstructured Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xueming; Vassallo, Christopher N.; Pathak, Darshankumar T.

    2014-01-01

    Myxobacteria are social microbes that exhibit complex multicellular behaviors. By use of fluorescent reporters, we show that Myxococcus xanthus isolates produce long narrow filaments that are enclosed by the outer membrane (OM) and contain proteins. We show that these OM tube (OMT) structures are produced at surprisingly high levels when cells are placed in liquid medium or buffer without agitation. OMTs can be long and easily exceed multiple cell lengths. When viewed by transmission electron microscopy, their morphology varies between tubes and chain-like structures. Intermediate-like structures are also found, suggesting that OMTs may transition between these two morphotypes. In support of this, video epifluorescence microscopy found that OMTs in solution dynamically twist and jiggle. On hard surfaces, myxobacteria glide, and upon cell-cell contact, they can efficiently exchange their OM proteins and lipids by a TraAB-dependent mechanism. Although the structure of OMTs hints at a possible role as conduits for exchange, evidence is presented to the contrary. For example, abundant OMT production occurs in traA or traB mutants and when cells are grown in liquid medium, yet transfer cannot occur under these conditions. Thus, genetic and environmental conditions that promote OMT production are incongruent with OM exchange. PMID:24391054

  6. Influence of interface stabilisers and surrounding aqueous phases on nematic liquid crystal shells.

    PubMed

    Noh, JungHyun; Reguengo De Sousa, Kevin; Lagerwall, Jan P F

    2016-01-14

    We investigate the nematic-isotropic (N-I) transition in shells of the liquid crystal 5CB, surrounded by aqueous phases that conventionally are considered to be immiscible with 5CB. The aqueous phases contain either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as stabiliser, the former additionally promoting homeotropic director alignment. For all shell configurations we find a depression of the clearing point compared to pure 5CB, indicating that a non-negligible fraction of the constituents of the surrounding phases enter the shell, predominantly water. In hybrid-aligned shells, with planar outer and homeotropic inner boundary (or vice versa), the N-I transition splits into two steps, with a consequent three-step textural transformation. We explain this as a result of the order-enhancing effect of a monolayer of radially aligned SDS molecules adsorbed at the homeotropic interface. PMID:26512764

  7. Controllable fabrication and magnetic properties of double-shell cobalt oxides hollow particles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Zhu, Jianyu; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Tao; Chen, Limiao; Liu, Xiaohe; Ma, Renzhi; Zhang, Haitao; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2015-01-01

    Double-shell cobalt monoxide (CoO) hollow particles were successfully synthesized by a facile and effective one-pot solution-based synthetic route. The inner architecture and outer structure of the double-shell CoO hollow particles could be readily created through controlling experimental parameters. A possible formation mechanism was proposed based on the experimental results. The current synthetic strategy has good prospects for the future production of other transition-metal oxides particles with hollow interior. Furthermore, double-shell cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hollow particles could also be obtained through calcinating corresponding CoO hollow particles. The magnetic measurements revealed double-shell CoO and Co3O4 hollow particles exhibit ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic behaviour, respectively. PMID:25736824

  8. In situ lyophilisation of nifedipine directly in hard gelatine capsules.

    PubMed

    Crum, Matthew; Elkordy, Amal Ali; Zarara, Moataz; Elkordy, Eman Ali

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophobic drugs present a challenge due to: (i) adhesion and agglomeration; hence the choice of the suitable processing technique to have the drugs into orally administered dosage forms is critical. (ii) Poor dissolution and poor aqueous solubility; hence poor bioavailability. A novel method which is in situ lyophilisation directly in hard gelatin capsule shells was used in this research to enhance the dissolution of nifedipine (a model hydrophobic drug) in the presence of co-povidone, Pluronic(®)F-127 and inulin as enhancement excipients (to the best of our knowledge those excipients have not been previously used with nifedipine in lyophilised forms). Solutions of nifedipine and excipients in a range of concentrations (0.5, 1, 5 and 10%w/v) were prepared using a co-solvent system of tert- butyl alcohol/water mixture. These solutions were filled directly into bodies of size 000 hard gelatin capsule shells and freeze dried. Pure drug and all formulations were characterised by solubility, wetting studies and in vitro dissolution. Also, conformational integrity and thermal characteristics of nifedipine formulations were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The in situ lyophilisation of nifedipine with excipients, looks a promising method not only to improve the hydrophobic drug dissolution but also to be cost effective. PMID:22992055

  9. Estimating Gaia's performance for O stars in the Outer Galactic plane using Herschel data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygl, K. L. J.; Molinari, S.; Prusti, T.; Antoja, T.; Elia, D.; de Bruijne, J.

    2014-07-01

    It is in the less dense Outer Galaxy where Gaia can contribute much to stellar studies of the Galactic Plane. As O stars are by definition young objects, their positions and kinematics can still be related to their formation site and history. O star astrometry will not only be important for studies of high-mass star formation, such as triggered star-formation in shells, but also an interesting complement to the radio maser astrometry of star-forming regions and the structure of spiral arms. With the TLUSTY (Lanz & Hubeny 2013) model atmospheres and the nominal Gaia parallax uncertainty, we estimate the parallax uncertainty for all subtypes of main sequence O stars given a visual extinction. The expected extinction is an important limitation for Gaia's astrometric performance and we estimate the extinction from the column density maps calculated from the Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane survey (Molinari et al. 2010), a thermal cold dust emission survey of unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity. In the 10∘ strip, taken to represent the first estimate of the average extinction in the Outer Galaxy, we find that most of the visual extinction is less than 10 mag. Only the most dense parts of the clouds have AV > 10 mag. Given these extinctions toward the Outer Galaxy, Gaia will provide accurate (5σ) astrometry for O stars in the Outer Galaxy up to distances of at least 4-6 kpc, which means that Gaia's O star astrometry will be able to transgress the Perseus arm and reach the less-known Outer Arm of the Milky Way (Rygl et al.https://gaia.ub.edu/Twiki/pub/GREATITNFC/ProgramFinalconference/Poster_Rygl%2cK.pdf).

  10. The detached dust and gas shells around the carbon star U Antliae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maercker, M.; Olofsson, H.; Eriksson, K.; Gustafsson, B.; Schöier, F. L.

    2010-02-01

    Context. Geometrically thin, detached shells of gas have been found around a handful of carbon stars. The current knowledge on these shells is mostly based on CO radio line data. However, imaging in scattered stellar light adds important new information as well as allows studies of the dust shells. Aims: Previous observations of scattered stellar light in the circumstellar medium around the carbon star U Ant were taken through filters centred on the resonance lines of K and Na. These observations could not separate the scattering by dust and atoms. The aim of this paper is to remedy this situation. Methods: We have obtained polarization data on stellar light scattered in the circumstellar medium around U Ant through filters which contain no strong lines, making it possible to differentiate between the two scattering agents. Kinematic, as well as spatial, information on the gas shells were obtained through high-resolution echelle spectrograph observations of the KI and NaD lines. Results: We confirm the existence of two detached shells around U Ant. The inner shell (at a radius of ≈43´´ and a width of ≈2´´) consists mainly of gas, while the outer shell (at a radius of ≈50´´ and a width of ≈7´´) appears to consist exclusively of dust. Both shells appear to have an over-all spherical geometry. The gas shell mass is estimated to be 2 × 10-3~M⊙, while the mass of the dust shell is estimated to be 5 × 10-5~M⊙. The derived expansion velocity, from the KI and NaD lines, of the gas shell, 19.5 km s-1, agrees with that obtained from CO radio line data. The inferred shell age is 2700 years. There is structure, e.g. in the form of arcs, inside the gas shell, but it is not clear whether these are due to additional shells. Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that the observed geometrically thin, detached shells around carbon stars are the results of brief periods of intense mass loss, probably associated with thermal pulses, and subsequent wind

  11. Ion Composition in the Outer Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triskova, L.; Truhlik, V.; Smilauer, J.

    The recently developed global model of relative ion composition in the outer ionosphere has been used to construct a model of absolute ion densities. Data from the ACTIVE mission for maximum of the solar cycle 22 were completed by available data from the AE satellites from the minimum of solar cycle 21. The total ion concentration has been taken from the Retarding Potential Analyzers working onboard the mentioned satellites. The global model comprises submodels for three altitude levels at low solar activity and four altitude levels at high solar activity. Attention is paid to the manifestation of solar activity in behaviour of individual ion species. For medium solar activity conditions data measured onboard the OGO-6 were used (maximum of the low cycle 20). For interpolation between submodels, functions alternative to the Booker's ones are searched. Merging of the IRI bottom side data into the outer ionosphere model is shown.

  12. Cryovolcanism in the outer solar system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Cryovolcanism is defined as the extrusion of liquids and vapors of materials that would be frozen solid at the planetary surface temperatures of the icy bodies of the outer solar system. Active cryovolcanism is now known to occur on Saturn's moon Enceladus and on Neptune's moon Triton and is suspected on Jupiter's moon Europa, while evidence for past cryovolcanic activity is widespread throughout the outer solar system. This chapter examines the mechanisms and manifestations of cryovolcanism, beginning with a review of the materials that make up these unusual ‘‘magmas’’ and the means by which they might erupt and concluding with a volcanologist's tour of the farthest reaches of the solar system.

  13. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüster, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2006-03-01

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars.

  14. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ruester, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2006-03-15

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars.

  15. The DarkSide-50 outer detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdale, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D’Angelo, D.; D’Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Aldo, Ianni; Andrea, Ianni; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; DSkorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.; The DarkSide Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    DarkSide-50 is a dark matter detection experiment searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), in Gran Sasso National Laboratory. For experiments like DarkSide-50, neutrons are one of the primary backgrounds that can mimic WIMP signals. The experiment consists of three nested detectors: a liquid argon time projection chamber surrounded by two outer detectors. The outermost detector is a 10 m by 11 m cylindrical water Cherenkov detector with 80 PMTs, designed to provide shielding and muon vetoing. Inside the water Cherenkov detector is the 4 m diameter spherical boron-loaded liquid scintillator veto, with a cocktail of pseudocumene, trimethyl borate, and PPO wavelength shifter, designed to provide shielding, neutron vetoing, and in situ measurements of the TPC backgrounds. We present design and performance details of the DarkSide-50 outer detectors.

  16. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.

  17. Wave observations in outer planet magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    The first measurements of plasma waves and wave-particle interactions in the magnetospheres of the outer planets were provided by instruments on Voyager 1 and 2. At Jupiter, the observations yielded new information on upstream electrons and ions, bow shock dissipation processes, trapped radio waves in the magnetospheres and extended Jovian magnetotail, pitch angle diffusion mechanisms and whistlers from atmospheric lightning. Many of these same emissions were detected at Saturn. In addition, the Voyager plasma wave instruments detected dust particles associated with the tenuous outer rings of Saturn as they impacted the spacecraft. Most of the plasma wave activity at Jupiter and Saturn is in the audio range, and recordings of the wave observations have been useful for analysis.

  18. Irradiation chemistry in the outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael E.

    2014-11-01

    The dark, reddish tinged surfaces of icy bodies in the outer solar are usually attributed to the long term irradiation of simple hydrocarbons such as methane leading to the loss of hydrogen and the production of long carbon chains. While methane is stable and detected on the most massive bodies in the Kuiper belt, evidence of active irradiation chemistry is scant except for the presence of ethane on methane-rich Makemake and possible detections of ethane on more methane-poor Pluto and Quaoar. We have obtained deep high signal-to-noise spectra of Makemake from 1.5 to 2.5 microns in an attempt to trace the radiation chemistry in the outer solar system beyond the initial ethane formation. We present the first astrophysical detections of solid ethylene, acetylene, and possibly propane -- all expected products of the continued irradiation of methane, and use these species to map the chemical pathway from methane to long-chain hydrocarbons.

  19. Outer magnetospheric fluctuations and pulsar timing noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    The Cheng, Ho, and Ruderman (1986) outer-magnetosphere gap model was used to investigate the stability of Crab-type outer magnetosphere gaps for pulsars having the parameter (Omega-square B) similar to that of the Crab pulsar. The Lamb, Pines, and Shaham (1978) fluctuating magnetosphere noise model was applied to the Crab pulsar to examine the type of the equation of state that best describes the structure of the neutron star. The noise model was also applied to other pulsars, and the theoretical results were compared with observational data. The results of the comparison are consistent with the stiff equation of state, as suggested by the vortex creep model of the neutron star interior. The timing-noise observations also contribute to the evidence for the existence of superfluid in the core of the neutron star.

  20. Automated shell theory for rotating structures (ASTROS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. J.; Thomas, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    A computer program for analyzing axisymmetric shells with inertial forces caused by rotation about the shell axis is developed by revising the STARS II shell program. The basic capabilities of the STARS II shell program, such as the treatment of the branched shells, stiffened wall construction, and thermal gradients, are retained.

  1. Planetary magnetism in the outer solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.

    1973-01-01

    A brief review of the salient considerations which apply to the existence of magnetic fields in connection with planetary and subplanetary objects in the outer solar system is given. Consideration is given to internal dynamo fields, fields which might originate from interaction with the solar wind or magnetospheres (externally driven dynamos) and lastly fossil magnetic fields such as have been discovered on the moon. Where possible, connection is made between magnetism, means of detection, and internal body properties.

  2. Fluxgate magnetometers for outer planets exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The exploration of the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the outer planets requires the implementation of magnetic field measuring instrumentation with wide dynamic range, high stability, and reliability. The fluxgate magnetometers developed for the Pioneer 11 and Mariner-Jupiter-Saturn missions are presented. These instruments cover the range of .01 nT to 2 million nT with optimum performance characteristics and low power consumption.

  3. Cosmic ray gradients in the outer heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, W.; Wake, B.; Ip, W.-H.; Axford, I.

    1983-01-01

    Launched in 1972 and 1973 respectively, the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft are now probing the outer heliosphere on their final escape from the sun. The data in this paper extend for almost an entire solar cycle from launch to early 1983, when Pioneer 10 was at a heliocentric distance of 29 AU and Pioneer 11, 13 AU. The UCSD instruments on board were used to study the gradient, and to look at the time and spatial variations of the cosmic ray intensities.

  4. Photopolarimetry team outer planets mission definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The work is reported of the Photopolarimetry Team in identifying scientific objectives for photometer/polarimeter experiments for outer planet flyby missions. A discussion of the scientific objectives which can be attained with a photometer/polarimeter experiment, and summaries of the special studies which were performed for the Photopolarimetry Team are presented along with a description of the photometer/polarimeter design which was developed for the Meteoroid Detection Team.

  5. A model environment for outer zone electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singley, G. W.; Vette, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A brief morphology of outer zone electrons is given to illustrate the nature of the phenomena that we are attempting to model. This is followed by a discussion of the data processing that was done with the various data received from the experimenters before incorporating it into the data base from which this model was ultimately derived. The details of the derivation are given, and several comparisons of the final model with the various experimental measurements are presented.

  6. Differential Rotation within the Earth's Outer Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hide, R.; Boggs, D. H.; Dickey, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    Non-steady differential rotation drive by bouyancy forces within the Earth's liquid outer core (OC) plays a key role not only in the generation of the main geomagnetic field by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo process but also in the excitation of irregular fluctuations in the angular speed of rotation of the overlying solid mantle, as evidenced by changes in the length of the day (LOD) on decadal and longer timescales (1-8).

  7. Studies on Shell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Watabe, Norimitsu; Sharp, D. Gordon; Wilbur, Karl M.

    1958-01-01

    Electron microscope observations have been made by means of the replica method on growth processes of calcite crystals of the nacreous layer of the shell of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Layer formation is initiated by the secretion of a conchiolin matrix and the deposition of rounded crystal seeds on or in this material. In some areas crystal seeds are elongate and within a given area show a similar orientation, probably due to slower deposition. The seeds appear to increase in size by dendritic growth, and smaller seeds become incorporated into larger ones which come into contact to form a single layer. With further growth, crystals overlap, forming a step-like arrangement. The direction of growth is frequently different in neighboring regions. Crystal seeds deposited on crystal surfaces are usually elongate and oriented. Well developed crystals have a tabular idiomorphic form and are parallel in their growth. Rounded and irregular crystals were also observed. The crystals show reticular structure with units of the order of 100 A and striations corresponding with the rhombohedral axes of the crystals. The role of the mantle is discussed in relation to the growth patterns of crystals and shell structure. PMID:13549499

  8. THE YOUNG OUTER DISK OF M83

    SciTech Connect

    Davidge, T. J.

    2010-08-01

    Deep near-infrared images recorded with NICI on Gemini South are used to investigate the evolved stellar content in the outer southeast quadrant of the spiral galaxy M83. A diffuse population of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is detected, indicating that there are stars outside of the previously identified young and intermediate age star clusters in the outer disk. The brightest AGB stars have M {sub K} {>=} -8, and the AGB luminosity function (LF) is well matched by model LFs that assume ages {<=}1 Gyr. The specific star formation rate (SFR) during the past few Gyr estimated from AGB star counts is consistent with that computed from mid-infrared observations of star clusters at similar radii, and it is concluded that the disruption timescale for star clusters in the outer disk is <<1 Gyr. The LF and specific frequency of AGB stars vary with galactocentric radius, in a manner that is indicative of lower luminosity-weighted ages at larger radii. Modest numbers of red supergiants are also found, indicating that there has been star formation during the past 100 Myr, while the ratio of C stars to M giants is consistent with that expected for a solar metallicity system that has experienced a constant SFR for the past few Gyr. The results drawn from the properties of resolved AGB stars are broadly consistent with those deduced from integrated light observations in the UV.

  9. Causes and consequences of outer core stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helffrich, George; Kaneshima, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    The Earth’s outer core appears to be compositionally layered. Exotic mechanisms such as an original chemically layered core preserved from the Earth’s accretionary period, or compositionally different core material delivered by a Moon-creating impactor are conceivable, but require a core whose outermost part has been stratified throughout core history, relying on unknowable processes to achieve. Barodiffusion and core-mantle reaction lead to layers significantly thinner than observed. We show that a balance of mass transferred from the inner core to the top of the outer core is possible, and that the stratification could arise as a byproduct of light element accumulation. However, if a subadiabatic thermal gradient at the top of the outer core exists that quells radial flow, it could serve as a witness of light element accumulation by preventing mixing with the convecting part of the core. The temperature difference through a subadiabatic layer could be 80-300 K and carry heat fluxes through the core-mantle boundary of 0.5-23 TW, given uncertainty in core properties.

  10. CLOSURE WELD DEVELOPMENT FOR 3013 OUTER CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Howard, S.; Peterson, K.; Stokes, M.

    2009-11-10

    Excess plutonium materials in the DOE complex are packaged and stored in accordance with DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies requirements for the stabilization of such materials and subsequent packaging in dual nested seal-welded containers. Austenitic stainless steels have been selected for container fabrication. The inner 3013 container provides contamination control while the outer 3013 container is the primary containment vessel and is the focus of this paper. Each packaging site chose a process for seal welding the outer 3013 containers in accordance with its needs and expertise. The two processes chosen for weld closure were laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Following development efforts, each system was qualified in accordance with DOE-STD-3013 prior to production use. The 3013 outer container closure weld joint was designed to accommodate the characteristics of a laser weld. This aspect of the joint design necessitated some innovative process and equipment considerations in the application of the GTAW process. Details of the weld requirements and the development processes are presented and several potential enhancements for the GTAW system are described.

  11. Outer membrane proteins of pathogenic spirochetes

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul A.; Haake, David A.; Adler, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes are the causative agents of several important diseases including syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, periodontal disease and some forms of relapsing fever. Spirochetal bacteria possess two membranes and the proteins present in the outer membrane are at the site of interaction with host tissue and the immune system. This review describes the current knowledge in the field of spirochetal outer membrane protein (OMP) biology. What is known concerning biogenesis and structure of OMPs, with particular regard to the atypical signal peptide cleavage sites observed amongst the spirochetes, is discussed. We examine the functions that have been determined for several spirochetal OMPs including those that have been demonstrated to function as adhesins, porins or to have roles in complement resistance. A detailed description of the role of spirochetal OMPs in immunity, including those that stimulate protective immunity or that are involved in antigenic variation, is given. A final section is included which covers experimental considerations in spirochetal outer membrane biology. This section covers contentious issues concerning cellular localization of putative OMPs, including determination of surface exposure. A more detailed knowledge of spirochetal OMP biology will hopefully lead to the design of new vaccines and a better understanding of spirochetal pathogenesis. PMID:15449605

  12. Radio wave scattering in the outer heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    Current models for the 2-3 kHz emissions observed by the Voyager spacecraft in the outer heliosphere involve 2f(p) radiation generated near the termination shock or the heliopause. Radio wave scattering by solar wind density irregularities strongly affects observed sources of f(p) and 2f(p) emission in the inner heliosphere and the characteristics of astrophysical sources. In particular, the angular size, brightness temperature, and time variability of the source are strongly affected by scattering, thereby having major implications for the inferred size, energy budget, time variability, location, and nature of the source if scattering is ignored. This paper addresses whether scattering is important for interpreting the Voyager 2-3 kHz emissions. Quantitative calculations (with and without diffraction) are performed for the angular broadening of an outer heliospheric source as a function of path length, radiation frequency relative to f(p) and the spectrum of density irregularities. The effects of scattering in both the solar wind and the heliosheath are considered. Predictions for radial gradients in the source's apparent angular size and in the source's modulation index are presented. The calculations are compared with observations and the results discussed. First estimates suggest that scattering plausibly dominates the observed source size. The observed trend in modulation index with heliocentric distance is consistent with scattering being important and the source being in the outer heliosphere. Additional arguments for scattering being important are summarized.

  13. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    SciTech Connect

    Heiles, C.

    1984-08-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10/sup 0/. We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo.

  14. Biomechanics of turtle shells: how whole shells fail in compression.

    PubMed

    Magwene, Paul M; Socha, John J

    2013-02-01

    Turtle shells are a form of armor that provides varying degrees of protection against predation. Although this function of the shell as armor is widely appreciated, the mechanical limits of protection and the modes of failure when subjected to breaking stresses have not been well explored. We studied the mechanical properties of whole shells and of isolated bony tissues and sutures in four species of turtles (Trachemys scripta, Malaclemys terrapin, Chrysemys picta, and Terrapene carolina) using a combination of structural and mechanical tests. Structural properties were evaluated by subjecting whole shells to compressive and point loads in order to quantify maximum load, work to failure, and relative shell deformations. The mechanical properties of bone and sutures from the plastral region of the shell were evaluated using three-point bending experiments. Analysis of whole shell structural properties suggests that small shells undergo relatively greater deformations before failure than do large shells and similar amounts of energy are required to induce failure under both point and compressive loads. Location of failures occurred far more often at sulci than at sutures (representing the margins of the epidermal scutes and the underlying bones, respectively), suggesting that the small grooves in the bone created by the sulci introduce zones of weakness in the shell. Values for bending strength, ultimate bending strain, Young's modulus, and energy absorption, calculated from the three-point bending data, indicate that sutures are relatively weaker than the surrounding bone, but are able to absorb similar amounts of energy due to higher ultimate strain values. PMID:23203474

  15. Hard Work and Hard Data: Getting Our Message Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glau, Gregory R.

    Unless questions about student performance and student retention can be answered and unless educators are proactive in finding and publicizing such information, basic writing programs cannot determine if what they are doing is working. Hard data, especially from underrepresented groups, is needed to support these programs. At Arizona State…

  16. Impact of high pCO2 on shell structure of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule.

    PubMed

    Milano, Stefania; Schöne, Bernd R; Wang, Schunfeng; Müller, Werner E

    2016-08-01

    Raised atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) result in an increased ocean pCO2 level and decreased carbonate saturation state. Ocean acidification potentially represents a major threat to calcifying organisms, specifically mollusks. The present study focuses on the impact of elevated pCO2 on shell microstructural and mechanical properties of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule. The mollusks were collected from the Baltic Sea and kept in flow-through systems at six different pCO2 levels from 900 μatm (control) to 24,400 μatm. Extreme pCO2 levels were used to determine the effects of potential leaks from the carbon capture and sequestration sites where CO2 is stored in sub-seabed geological formations. Two approaches were combined to determine the effects of the acidified conditions: (1) Shell microstructures and dissolution damage were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (2) shell hardness was tested using nanoindentation. Microstructures of specimens reared at different pCO2 levels do not show significant changes in their size and shape. Likewise, the increase of pCO2 does not affect shell hardness. However, dissolution of ontogenetically younger portions of the shell becomes more severe with the increase of pCO2. Irrespective of pCO2, strong negative correlations exist between microstructure size and shell mechanics. An additional sample from the North Sea revealed the same microstructural-mechanical interdependency as the shells from the Baltic Sea. Our findings suggest that the skeletal structure of C. edule is not intensely influenced by pCO2 variations. Furthermore, our study indicates that naturally occurring shell mechanical property depends on the shell architecture at μm-scale. PMID:27285613

  17. Future hard disk drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Roger

    2009-03-01

    This paper briefly reviews the evolution of today's hard disk drive with the additional intention of orienting the reader to the overall mechanical and electrical architecture. The modern hard disk drive is a miracle of storage capacity and function together with remarkable economy of design. This paper presents a personal view of future customer requirements and the anticipated design evolution of the components. There are critical decisions and great challenges ahead for the key technologies of heads, media, head-disk interface, mechanics, and electronics.

  18. Hard diffraction in Pythia 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overgaard Rasmussen, Christine

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of the options for diffraction implemented in the general-purpose event generator Pythia 8 [1]. We review the existing model for soft diffraction and present a new model for hard diffraction. Both models use the Pomeron approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, factorising the diffractive cross section into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF, with several choices for both implemented in Pythia 8. The model of hard diffraction is implemented as a part of the multiparton interactions (MPI) framework, thus introducing a dynamical gap survival probability that explicitly breaks factorisation.

  19. Magnetic levitation for hard superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kordyuk, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    An approach for calculating the interaction between a hard superconductor and a permanent magnet in the field-cooled case is proposed. The exact solutions were obtained for the point magnetic dipole over a flat ideally hard superconductor. We have shown that such an approach is adaptable to a wide practical range of melt-textured high-temperature superconductors{close_quote} systems with magnetic levitation. In this case, the energy losses can be calculated from the alternating magnetic field distribution on the superconducting sample surface. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Biomineralisation in Mollusc shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Salomé, M.; Williams, C. T.

    2009-04-01

    The main components of Mollusc shells are carbonate minerals: calcite and aragonite. ACC is present in larval stages. Calcite and aragonite can be secreted simultaneously by the mantle. Despite the small number of varieties, the arrangement of the mineral components is diverse, and dependant upon the taxonomy. They are also associated with organic components much more diverse, the diversity of which reflects the large taxonomic diversity. From TGA analyses, the organic content (water included) is high (>5% in some layers). The biomineralisation process is not a passive precipitation process, but is strongly controlled by the organism. The biological-genetic control is shown by the constancy of the arrangement of the layers, the mineralogy and the microstructure in a given species. Microstructural units (i.e. tablets, prisms etc.) have shapes that do not occur in non-biogenic counterparts. Nacreous tablets, for example, are flattened on their crystallographic c axis, which is normally the axis of maximum growth rate for non-biogenic aragonite. Morever, their inner structure is species-specific: the arrangements of nacreous tablets in Gastropoda - Cephalopoda, and in Bivalvia differ, and the inner arrangement of the nacreous tablets is different in ectocochlear and endocochlear Cephalopoda. The organic-mineral ratios also differ in the various layers of a shell. Differences in chemical composition also demonstrates the biological-genetic control: for example, aragonite has a low Sr content unknown in non-biogenic samples; two aragonitic layers in a shell have different Sr and Mg contents, S is higher in calcitic layers. Decalcification releases soluble (SOM) and insoluble (IOM) organic components. Insoluble components form the main part of the intercrystalline membranes, and contain proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. Soluble phases are present within the crystals and the intercrystalline membranes. These phases are composed of more or less glycosylated proteins

  1. detached_shells_carbon_stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hony, Sacha; Bouwman, Jeroen; Waters, Laurens

    2004-09-01

    We propose to obtain 19-37 micrometer IRS spectra of the detached shells around nearby carbon-stars. We have selected a small (11) sample of bright, well studied, carbon-stars with known detached shells. The sample covers a range of angular diameters of the detached shells from 8-200" and stellar effective temperatures between 800-2600 K. With the spectra of the dust in the detached shell we aim to establish: i) The location of the shell. ii) The chemistry of the shell in order to constrain it's origin. iii) Test the MgS identification for the ``30'' micrometer emission feature. iv) Determine observationally the relationship between the ``30'' micrometer feature peak-position and the distance to the star. These observations will contribute greatly to the understanding AGB-star mass loss, in general, and the phenomenon of detached shells around carbon-stars, in particular. They will also be used to develop a diagnostic tool that allows to study detached shell properties of distant carbon-stars, that cannot be spatially resolved, based on their IR spectrum alone. The total requested time is 2.5h.

  2. Foam shell cryogenic ICF target

    DOEpatents

    Darling, Dale H.

    1987-01-01

    A uniform cryogenic layer of DT fuel is maintained in a fusion target having a low density, small pore size, low Z rigid foam shell saturated with liquid DT fuel. Capillary action prevents gravitational slumping of the fuel layer. The saturated shell may be cooled to produce a solid fuel layer.

  3. Manufacturing Complicated Shells And Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobol, Paul J.; Faucher, Joseph E.

    1993-01-01

    Explosive forming, wax filling, and any one of welding, diffusion bonding, or brazing used in method of manufacturing large, complicated shell-and-liner vessels or structures. Method conceived for manufacture of film-cooled rocket nozzles but applicable to joining large coaxial shells and liners in general.

  4. Improved Connector Shell for Cable Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, A. L.; Rotta, J. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Cable connector shell improves electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by electrically connecting cable braid around entire circumference. Connector cable braid is slipped over ferrule and sleeve is slipped over braid, clamping it tightly to shell. Connector shell completely shields cable conductors.

  5. Shell forming system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for forming gas-filled spheres of metal, glass or other material, which produces spheres (12) of uniform size and wall thickness in a relatively simple system. The system includes concentric nozzles, including an inner nozzle (18) through which gas flows and and an outer nozzle (20), which jointly define an annular passageway (50) through which a liquid flows. The flow rates are adjusted so that the gas flows at greater velocity than does the liquid, out of their respective nozzles, e.g. three times as great, in order to produce an extrusion (30) which undergoes axisymmetric oscillations resulting in the pinch off into hollow spheres with very uniform spacing. The system is useful not only where gas-filled spheres are required, but also is useful to accurately control the dispensing of solid, liquid, or gaseous materials.

  6. The jump-off velocity of an impulsively loaded spherical shell

    SciTech Connect

    Chabaud, Brandon M.; Brock, Jerry S.

    2012-04-13

    We consider a constant temperature spherical shell of isotropic, homogeneous, linearly elastic material with density {rho} and Lame coefficients {lambda} and {mu}. The inner and outer radii of the shell are r{sub i} and r{sub o}, respectively. We assume that the inside of the shell is a void. On the outside of the shell, we apply a uniform, time-varying pressure p(t). We also assume that the shell is initially at rest. We want to compute the jump-off time and velocity of the pressure wave, which are the first time after t = 0 at which the pressure wave from the outer surface reaches the inner surface. This analysis computes the jump-off velocity and time for both compressible and incompressible materials. This differs substantially from [3], where only incompressible materials are considered. We will consider the behavior of an impulsively loaded, exponentially decaying pressure wave p(t) = P{sub 0{sup e}}{sup -{alpha}t}, where {alpha} {ge} 0. We notice that a constant pressure wave P(t) = P{sub 0} is a special case ({alpha} = 0) of a decaying pressure wave. Both of these boundary conditions are considered in [3].

  7. Development of a prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X hard x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaine, Suzanne E.; Basso, Stefano; Bruni, Ricardo J.; Citterio, Oberto; Engelhaupt, Darell; Ghigo, Mauro; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Mazzoleni, Francesco; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Pareschi, Giovanni; Parodi, Giancarlo; Ramsey, Brian D.; Speegle, Chet O.

    2004-02-01

    The Constellation-X mission, planned for launch in 2013, will feature an array of hard-x-ray telescopes (HXT) with a total collecting area of greater than 1500 cm2 at 40 keV. Two technologies are currently being investigated for the optics of these telescopes including multilayer-coated Eletroformed-Nickel-Replicated (ENR) shells. The attraction of the ENR process is that the resulting full-shell optics are inherently stable and offer the prospect of better angular resolution which results in lower background and higher instrument sensitivity. The challenge for this process is to meet a relatively tight weight budget with a relatively dense material (ρnickel = 9 g/cm3.) To demonstrate the viability of the ENR process we are fabricating a prototype HXT mirror module to be tested against a competing segmented-glass-shell optic. The ENR prototype will consist of 5 shells of diameters from 150 mm to 280 mm with a length of 426 mm. To meet the stringent weight budget for Con-X, the shells will range in thickness from 100 microns to 150 microns. The innermost of these will be coated with Iridium, while the remainder will be coated with graded-dspaced W/Si multilayers. Mandrels for these shells are in the fabrication stage, the first test shells have been produced and are currently undergoing tests for figure and microroughness. A tentative date of June '04 has been set for the prototype X-ray testing at MSFC. Issues currently being addressed are the control of stresses in the multiplayer coating and ways of mitigating their effects on the figure of the necessarily thin shells. The fabrication, handling and mounting of these shells must be accomplished without inducing permanent figure distortions. A full status report on the prototype optic will be presented along with test results as available.

  8. Development of a Prototype Nickel Optic for the Constellation-X Hard-X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basso, S.; Bruni, R. J.; Citerio, O.; Engelhaupt, D.; Ghigo, M.; Gorenstien, P.; Mazzoleni, F.; ODell, S. L.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Constellation-X mission, planned for launch in 2011, will feature an array of hard-x ray telescopes with a total collecting area goal of 1500 square centimeters at 40 keV. Various technologies are currently being investigated for the optics of these telescopes including multilayer-coated Eletroformed-Nickel-Replicated (ENR) shells. The attraction of the ENR process is that the resulting full-shell optics are inherently stable and offer the promise of good angular resolution and enhanced instrument sensitivity. The challenge for this process is to meet a relatively tight weight budget with a relatively dense material (rho nickel = 9 grams per cubic centimeters.) To demonstrate the viability of the ENR process we are fabricating a prototype HXT mirror module to be tested against a competing segmented-glass-shell optic. The ENR prototype will consist of 5 shells of diameters from 150 mm to 280 mm and of 426 mm total length. To meet the stringent weight budget for Con-X, the shells will be only 150 micron thick. The innermost of these will be coated with Iridium, while the remainder will be coated with graded-density multilayers. Mandrels for these shells are currently under fabrication (Jan 03), with the first shells scheduled for production in February 03. A tentative date of late Summer has been set for prototype testing. Issues currently being addressed are the control of stresses in the multiplayer coating and ways of mitigating their effects on the figure of the necessarily thin shells. Also, the fabrication, handling and mounting of these shells without inducing permanent figure distortions. A full status report on the prototype optic will be presented along with test results as available.

  9. Discovery of Molecular Gas Shells around the Unusual Galaxy Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    photometric and spectrographic studies of their light, it has been known since the early 1980's that such shells are made up of stars. It appears that they are quite common - about half of the nearby large elliptical galaxies have been found to be surrounded by stellar shells. More recently, in 1994, atomic hydrogen gas was discovered to be associated with some of the stellar shells. This discovery was a bit of a surprise, because the current theory predicts that when two galaxies merge, their gas and stars will behave very differently. While the individual stars hardly ever hit each other, the interstellar gas clouds collide violently. They will lose all their energy and the gas will fall towards the common centre where it is soon consumed in vigorous bursts of star formation. Why would there then be hydrogen gas in the outer shells of some elliptical galaxies? A possible origin of gaseous shells The astronomer team, headed by Vassilis Charmandaris [1] decided to look into this serious discrepancy between theory and observations. They believed that a possible explanation might be that this diffuse atomic gas is located, not in vast, very dilute clouds, but rather in smaller, much denser molecular clouds , such as these are known in our own galaxy, the Milky Way. Due to their relative compactness (more than 1000 molecules/cm 3 , i.e,. at least 100 times more than that of larger diffuse clouds), molecular clouds would behave more like the stars during the galaxy collision event. Indeed, realistic calculations showed that the dynamical behavior of such dense clouds would be intermediate between the stars and the diffuse hydrogen gas. Thus, while most of the gas would still end up in the centre of the remaining galaxy after a merger, a larger fraction of it would be able to survive at large distances from the nucleus. This would then be the origin of the observed hydrogen shells. During the merger, gas that originates from regions in the outskirts of the "cannibalized" galaxy

  10. Composite shell spacecraft seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barackman, Victor J. (Inventor); Pulley, John K. (Inventor); Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); McKee, Sandra D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A two-part seat (10) providing full body support that is specific for each crew member (30) on an individual basis. The two-part construction for the seat (10) can accommodate many sizes and shapes for crewmembers (30) because it is reconfigurable and therefore reusable for subsequent flights. The first component of the two-part seat construction is a composite shell (12) that surrounds the crewmember's entire body and is generically fitted to their general size in height and weight. The second component of the two-part seat (10) is a cushion (20) that conforms exactly to the specific crewmember's entire body and gives total body support in more complex environment.

  11. Spectral sensitization with dyes of core-silver halide shell microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurin, A. V.; Zhukov, S. A.; Churashov, V. P.

    2015-09-01

    We have studied spectral sensitization with anionic dyes of core-silver halide shell microsystems cores of which can be either nonsilver or silver halide compounds. Conditions under which dye sensitizers, being adsorbed on cores, remain under silver halide shells after their growing are considered. Comparison of results of sensitometric and low-temperature ( T = 77 K) luminescent measurements have shown that these conditions are determined by the charge state of cations of microsystem cores. If the shell contains the same univalent component in its composition as the core does, as in the case in which the core is a silver halide compound, the anionic dye is displaced to the outer surface of the shell. If the core contains a divalent cationic component, as in the case in which the core is a nonsilver compound, the dye remains under the silver halide shell; i.e., it is overgrown by the shell. We have shown that the charge state of core cations affects the character of the core interaction with anionic dyes, which ensures differences in the spectral sensitization of core-silver halide shell microsystems, as well as differences in the dye photoexcitation relaxation in them.

  12. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN THE OUTER HALO OF THE MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL M49

    SciTech Connect

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul; Rudick, Craig S.; Feldmeier, John J. E-mail: paul.harding@case.edu E-mail: jjfeldmeier@ysu.edu

    2013-02-20

    We use deep surface photometry of the giant elliptical M49 (NGC 4472), obtained as part of our survey for diffuse light in the Virgo Cluster, to study the stellar populations in its outer halo. Our data trace M49's stellar halo out to {approx}100 kpc (7r{sub e}), where we find that the shallow color gradient seen in the inner regions becomes dramatically steeper. The outer regions of the galaxy are quite blue (B - V {approx} 0.7); if this is purely a metallicity effect, it argues for extremely metal-poor stellar populations with [Fe/H] < -1. We also find that the extended accretion shells around M49 are distinctly redder than the galaxy's surrounding halo, suggesting that we are likely witnessing the buildup of both the stellar mass and metallicity in M49's outer halo due to late time accretion. While such growth of galaxy halos is predicted by models of hierarchical accretion, this growth is thought to be driven by more massive accretion events which have correspondingly higher mean metallicity than inferred for M49's halo. Thus the extremely metal-poor nature of M49's extended halo provides some tension against current models for elliptical galaxy formation.

  13. FATIGUE OF BIOMATERIALS: HARD TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Arola, D.; Bajaj, D.; Ivancik, J.; Majd, H.; Zhang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The fatigue and fracture behavior of hard tissues are topics of considerable interest today. This special group of organic materials comprises the highly mineralized and load-bearing tissues of the human body, and includes bone, cementum, dentin and enamel. An understanding of their fatigue behavior and the influence of loading conditions and physiological factors (e.g. aging and disease) on the mechanisms of degradation are essential for achieving lifelong health. But there is much more to this topic than the immediate medical issues. There are many challenges to characterizing the fatigue behavior of hard tissues, much of which is attributed to size constraints and the complexity of their microstructure. The relative importance of the constituents on the type and distribution of defects, rate of coalescence, and their contributions to the initiation and growth of cracks, are formidable topics that have not reached maturity. Hard tissues also provide a medium for learning and a source of inspiration in the design of new microstructures for engineering materials. This article briefly reviews fatigue of hard tissues with shared emphasis on current understanding, the challenges and the unanswered questions. PMID:20563239

  14. Metrics for Hard Goods Merchandising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in hard goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  15. A model for high frequency guided wave inspection of curved shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R.; Pardini, A.; Diaz, A.

    2002-05-01

    Modeling work is reported in support of the development of an ultrasonic measurement to detect stress corrosion cracking in the shell of a nuclear waste storage tank, where transducer access is restricted to distances of several feet from the suspected flaw location. The measurement uses a 3.5 MHz 70 degree shear wave that propagates from the transducer to flaw site through a series of multiple reflections between the outer and inner walls of the shell. Results are shown which explain experimentally observed complexities in the received signals.

  16. Effects of long-range interactions on curvature energies of viral shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaei, Hamid R.; Božič, Anže Lošdorfer; Muthukumar, Murugappan; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2016-05-01

    We formulate a theory of the effects of long-range interactions on the surface tension and spontaneous curvature of proteinaceous shells based on the general Deryaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek mesoscale approach to colloid stability. We derive the full renormalization formulas for the elastic properties of the shell and consider in detail the renormalization of the spontaneous curvature as a function of the corresponding Hamaker coefficient, inner and outer capsid charges, and bathing solution properties. The renormalized spontaneous curvature is found to be a nonmonotonic function of several parameters describing the system.

  17. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  18. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  19. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties AGENCY: Minerals Management Service.... SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to review the maximum daily civil penalty assessment for violations of regulations governing oil and gas operations in the Outer Continental Shelf...

  20. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  1. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  2. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  3. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  4. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  5. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  6. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  7. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  8. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay. 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay. The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  9. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  10. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay. 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay. The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  11. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  12. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  13. Energy-dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reiner H. W.; Larsen, Brian A.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Turner, Drew L.; Denton, Mick H.; Spence, Harlan E.; et al

    2016-01-28

    Here, we present observations of the radiation belts from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron and Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy dependence and L shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on 1 March in more detail. The observations show the following: (a) at all L shells, lower energy electrons are enhanced more often than higher energies; (b) events that fill the slot region are more common at lower energies; (c) enhancements of electrons in the inner zone are moremore » common at lower energies; and (d) even when events do not fully fill the slot region, enhancements at lower energies tend to extend to lower L shells than higher energies. During enhancement events the outer zone extends to lower L shells at lower energies while being confined to higher L shells at higher energies. The inner zone shows the opposite with an outer boundary at higher L shells for lower energies. Both boundaries are nearly straight in log(energy) versus L shell space. At energies below a few 100 keV, radiation belt electron penetration through the slot region into the inner zone is commonplace, but the number and frequency of “slot filling” events decreases with increasing energy. The inner zone is enhanced only at energies that penetrate through the slot. Energy- and L shell-dependent losses (that are consistent with whistler hiss interactions) return the belts to more quiescent conditions.« less

  14. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session 'Outer Solar System" inlcuded:Monte Carlo Modeling of [O I] 630 nm Auroral Emission on Io; The Detection of Iron Sulfide on Io; Io and Loki in 2003 as Seen from the Infrared Telescope Facility Using Mutual Satellite and Jupiter Occultations; Mapping of the Zamama-Thor Region of Io; First Solar System Results of the Spitzer Space Telescope; Mapping the Surface of Pluto with the Hubble Space Telescope; Experimental Study on Fischer-Tropsch Catalysis in the Circum-Saturnian Subnebula; New High-Pressure Phases of Ammonia Dihydrate; Gas Hydrate Stability at Low Temperatures and High Pressures with Applications to Mars and Europa; Laboratory UV Photolysis of Planetary Ice Analogs Containing H2O + CO2 (1:1); The OH Stretch Infrared Band of Water Ice and Its Temperature and Radiation Dependence; Band Position Variations in Reflectance Spectra of the Jovian Satellite Ganymede; Comparison of Porosity and Radar Models for Europa s Near Surface; Combined Effects of Diurnal and Nonsynchronous Surface Stresses on Europa; Europa s Northern Trailing Hemisphere: Lineament Stratigraphic Framework; Europa at the Highest Resolution: Implications for Surface Processes and Landing Sites; Comparison of Methods to Determine Furrow System Centers on Ganymede and Callisto; Resurfacing of Ganymede by Liquid-Water Volcanism; Layered Ejecta Craters on Ganymede: Comparisons with Martian Analogs; Evaluation of the Possible Presence of CO2-Clathrates in Europa s Icy Shell or Seafloor; Geosciences at Jupiter s Icy Moons: The Midas Touch; Planetary Remote Sensing Science Enabled by MIDAS (Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor); and In Situ Surveying of Saturn s Rings.

  15. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Satz, H. |; Wang, X.N.

    1995-07-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks` duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley.

  16. Site-specific carbon deposition for hierarchically ordered core/shell-structured graphitic carbon with remarkable electrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yingying; Wu, Zhangxiong; Qian, Xufang; Fang, Yin; Feng, Dan; Xia, Yongyao; Tu, Bo; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2013-10-01

    A fascinating core-shell-structured graphitic carbon material composed of ordered microporous core and uniform mesoporous shell is fabricated for the first time through a site-specific chemical vapor deposition process by using a nanozeolite@mesostructured silica composite molecular sieve as the template. The mesostructure-directing agent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the shell of the template can be either burned off or carbonized so that it is successfully utilized as a pore switch to turn the shell of the template "on" or "off" to allow selective carbon deposition. The preferred carbon deposition process can be performed only in the inner microporous zeolite cores or just within the outer mesoporous shells, resulting in a zeolite-like ordered microporous carbon or a hollow mesoporous carbon. Full carbon deposition in the template leads to the new core-shell-structured microporous@mesoporous carbon with a nanographene-constructed framework for fast electron transport, a microporous nanocore with large surface area for high-capacity storage of lithium ions, a mesoporous shell with highly opened mesopores as a transport layer for lithium ions and electron channels to access inner cores. The ordered micropores are protected by the mesoporous shell, avoiding pore blockage as the formation of solid electrolyte interphase layers. Such a unique core-shell-structured microporous@mesoporous carbon material represents a newly established lithium ion storage model, demonstrating high reversible energy storage, excellent rate capability, and long cyclic stability. PMID:24039038

  17. Gas hydrates of outer continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances in which a rigid framework of water molecules traps molecules of gas, mainly methane. Gas-hydrate deposits are common in continental margin sediment in all major oceans at water depths greater than about 300 m. Thirty-three localities with evidence for gas-hydrate occurrence have been described worldwide. The presence of these gas hydrates has been inferred mainly from anomalous lacoustic reflectors seen on marine seismic records. Naturally occurring marine gas hydrates have been sampled and analyzed at about tensites in several regions including continental slope and rise sediment of the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Except for some Gulf of Mexico gas hydrate occurrences, the analyzed gas hydrates are composed almost exclusively of microbial methane. Evidence for the microbial origin of methane in gas hydrates includes (1) the inverse relation between methane occurence and sulfate concentration in the sediment, (2) the subparallel depth trends in carbon isotopic compositions of methane and bicarbonate in the interstitial water, and (3) the general range of {sup 13}C depletion ({delta}{sub PDB}{sup 13}C = {minus}90 to {minus}60 {per thousand}) in the methane. Analyses of gas hydrates from the Peruvian outer continental margin in particular illustrate this evidence for microbially generated methane. The total amount of methane in gas hydrates of continental margins is not known, but estimates of about 10{sup 16} m{sup 3} seem reasonable. Although this amount of methane is large, it is not yet clear whether methane hydrates of outer continental margins will ever be a significant energy resource; however, these gas hydrates will probably constitute a drilling hazard when outer continental margins are explored in the future.

  18. The Young Outer Disk of M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2010-08-01

    Deep near-infrared images recorded with NICI on Gemini South are used to investigate the evolved stellar content in the outer southeast quadrant of the spiral galaxy M83. A diffuse population of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is detected, indicating that there are stars outside of the previously identified young and intermediate age star clusters in the outer disk. The brightest AGB stars have M K >= -8, and the AGB luminosity function (LF) is well matched by model LFs that assume ages <=1 Gyr. The specific star formation rate (SFR) during the past few Gyr estimated from AGB star counts is consistent with that computed from mid-infrared observations of star clusters at similar radii, and it is concluded that the disruption timescale for star clusters in the outer disk is Lt1 Gyr. The LF and specific frequency of AGB stars vary with galactocentric radius, in a manner that is indicative of lower luminosity-weighted ages at larger radii. Modest numbers of red supergiants are also found, indicating that there has been star formation during the past 100 Myr, while the ratio of C stars to M giants is consistent with that expected for a solar metallicity system that has experienced a constant SFR for the past few Gyr. The results drawn from the properties of resolved AGB stars are broadly consistent with those deduced from integrated light observations in the UV. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a co-operative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council of Canada (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), the Ministerio da Ciencia e Technologia (Brazil), and the Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion Productiva (Argentina).

  19. Surface ices in the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary volatile inventories are products of several factors: (1) condensation-accretion of pre-planetary material which determines the bulk volatile inventory; (2) energy history of a planet, including timing, causes, and mechanisms of degassing; (3) the volatile sinks, including temporary, long term, and permanent; and (4) external processes operating on the volatile inventory. Information regarding the current surface compositions provide insight into both internal and surface-atmosphere evolutionary history. Our discussion focuses upon the surface composition of outer solar system planets and satellites as determined by spacecraft and telescopic spectral observations. We provide a review and an update of the recent work by Cruikshank and Brown that includes more recent observations and interpretations. In the context of formation and evolution of solar system bodies, the interesting ices typically considered are simple molecules formed from elements having high cosmic abundances. These mainly include ices of H2O, NH3, SO2, H2S, CH4, CO, CO2, and N2. In the solid state, these ices have vibrational spectral features, analogous to their gaseous counterparts but rotational transitions are quenched, that lie in the near- and mid-infrared. The overtone and combination modes, occurring in the visible and near-IR region, are of particular importance as standard observational techniques used to identify these ices rely upon reflected solar energy. Table I summarizes the ices found on various bodies in the outer solar system. H2O is most abundant surface material in the inner and middle regions while more volatile species appear to dominate surfaces in the outermost edge of the outer solar system.

  20. Methane Group Ions in Saturn's Outer Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.; Smith, H. T.; Shappirio, M. D.; Simpson, D. J.

    2008-09-01

    In Hartle et al. [2006a,b] they reported evidence of keV methane group ions within Saturn's outer magnetosphere during Cassini's TA Titan flyby. They presented evidence of CH4+ pickup ions within the mass loading region of the magnetospheric interaction with Titan. They also reported that keV water group ions W+ (i.e., O+) were present and dominated the magnetospheric heavy ion composition. These water group ions probably result from the emission of fast neutrals from the Enceladus torus via charge exchange reactions but still gravitationally bound to Saturn [see Johnson et al., 2005 and Sittler et al. 2006] and then become ionized in the outer magnetosphere where the pickup energies are keV. Since O+ and CH4+ have similar mass the primary discriminator is the O- fragment which appears at a different time-of-flight (TOF) than that for mass 16. One way to separate the methane from the O+ is to measure the relative abundance of the mass 16 peak with the O- peak. If there is a methane torus as a consequence of the hydrodynamic model of Strobel [2008], then one expects the presence of CH3+ ions and not CH4+ ions, since the methane dissociates to CH3 before they get ionized. Here we will be reporting on a further search for evidence of methane group ions within Saturn's outer magnetosphere. References: Hartle, R. E., et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08201, 2006a Hartle, R. E., et al., Planet. Space Sci., 54, 1211, 2006b Johnson. R.E., et. Astrophys. J. Letts, 644, L137-L139, 2005 Sittler, E. C., Jr., et al., JGR, 111, A09223, 2006 Strobel, D. F., Icarus, 193, 588, [2008

  1. Magnetization processes in core/shell exchange-spring structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J. S.

    2015-05-01

    The magnetization reversal processes in cylindrical and spherical soft core/hard shell exchange-spring structures are investigated via the analytical nucleation theory and are verified with numerical micromagnetic simulations. At small core sizes, the nucleation of magnetic reversal proceeds via the modified bulging mode, where the transverse component of the magnetization is only semi-coherent in direction and the nucleation field contains a contribution from self-demagnetization. For large core sizes, the modified curling mode, where the magnetization configuration is vortex-like, is favored at nucleation. The preference for the modified curling mode is beneficial in that the flux-closure allows cylindrical and spherical core/shell exchange-spring elements to be densely packed into bulk permanent magnets without affecting the nucleation field, thereby offering the potential for high energy product.

  2. Eccentric features in Saturn's outer C ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porco, Carolyn C.; Nicholson, Philip D.

    1987-01-01

    The present search for possible eccentric and inclined features in the outer C ring of Saturn measured all sharp-edged feature radii in Voyager C ring data. The Maxwell ringlet and two other narrow ringlets, 1.470R(s) and 1.495R(s) are found to be eccentric; the latter is best fitted by a model describing a freely precessing Keplerian ellipse, while the former is not conclusively fitted by either a resonant forcing or a free precession model. These two eccentric ringlets are compared with the Titan and Maxwell ringlets.

  3. Eccentric features in Saturn's outer C ring

    SciTech Connect

    Porco, C.C.; Nicholson, P.D.

    1987-11-01

    The present search for possible eccentric and inclined features in the outer C ring of Saturn measured all sharp-edged feature radii in Voyager C ring data. The Maxwell ringlet and two other narrow ringlets, 1.470R(s) and 1.495R(s) are found to be eccentric; the latter is best fitted by a model describing a freely precessing Keplerian ellipse, while the former is not conclusively fitted by either a resonant forcing or a free precession model. These two eccentric ringlets are compared with the Titan and Maxwell ringlets. 51 references.

  4. Outer planet spacecraft temperature testing and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Avila, A.

    2002-01-01

    Unmanned spacecraft flown on missions to the outer planets of the solar system have included flybys, planetary orbiters, and atmospheric probes during the last three decades. The thermal design, test, and analysis approach applied to these spacecraft evolved from the passive thermal designs applied to the earlier lunar and interplanetary spacecraft. The inflight temperature data from representative sets of engineering subsystems and science instruments from a subset of these spacecraft are compared to those obtained during the ground test programs and from the prelaunch predictions. Several lessons are presented with specific recommendations for considerations for new projects to aid in the planning of cost effective temperature design, test, and analysis programs.

  5. Dishwasher For Earth Or Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tromble, Jon D.

    1991-01-01

    Dishwashing machine cleans eating utensils in either Earth gravity or zero gravity of outer space. Cycle consists of three phases: filling, washing, and draining. Rotation of tub creates artificial gravity aiding recirculation of water during washing phase in absence of true gravity. Centrifugal air/water separator helps system function in zero gravity. Self-cleaning filter contains interdigitating blades catching solid debris when water flows between them. Later, blades moved back and forth in scissor-like manner to dislodge debris, removed by backflow of water.

  6. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  7. Mobile hard substrata - An additional biodiversity source in a high latitude shallow subtidal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazy, Piotr; Kuklinski, Piotr

    2013-03-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of a hard mobile substratum (hermit crab shells) for Arctic biodiversity. Based on previous observations from other geographic regions we hypothesized that this niche at high latitudes would support a higher biodiversity of epifauna than might be predicted from similar substrata. We test whether the hermit crab epifauna is specific to that substratum providing unique biodiversity components to the local community. From four study sites in Isfjorden (78°N), West Spitsbergen and two study sites in Northern Norway (69°N) we collected approximately 50 each of hermit crabs, gastropods and pebbles, of visually similar surface area using SCUBA diving. Hermit crab shells were colonized by a larger number of epifaunal species than either gastropods or pebbles, even when they were of a larger size. Among 87 taxa found on all the three substrata, 22 occurred only on hermit crab shells. Except for two study sites hermit crab shells also supported more individuals. This study shows that the contribution of shells carried by hermit crabs to high-latitude, shallow-subtidal diversity is higher than might be predicted by their surface area alone and that hermit crabs modify, maintain and create a unique habitat. This is the result of a number of factors interacting positively on the presence of epifauna including shell surface heterogeneity and the complex influence of the crab host.

  8. Velocity moments in the outer nightside magnetodisk of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Z.; Szego, K.; Foldy, L.; Kivelson, M. G.; Jia, X.; Ramer, K. M.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Provan, G.; Thomsen, M.

    2013-09-01

    found that the azimuthal velocities show oscillatory behavior in the outer magnetosphere. It was found that the dense plasma near the magnetic equator rotates around the planet at high speed, while the dilute plasma of higher latitudes of the north and south hemispheres is rotating significantly slower. This observed latitudinal gradient in the azimuthal speed as a function of the distance from the equatorial plane can be a direct consequence of the sub-corotation of the plasma in the outer magnetosphere; highest speeds occurring on field lines at lowest latitudes mapping the rapidly rotating inner regions of the plasmasheet, and the speed falling as one approaches the lobe, where the field lines are connected to far away strongly subcorotating plasma. This suggests a picture of the magnetodisk, in which each L-shell rotates more or less rigidly, but the rotation speed is decreasing with L increasing. The dayside magnetodisk structure differs in many respects from the properties observed nightside. We shall point out some of these differences.

  9. Atmospheric entry probes for outer planet exploration. Outer planet entry probe technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of unmanned space probes for investigating the conditions existing on and around the outer planets of the solar system is discussed. The subjects included in the report are: (1) the design of a common entry probe for outer planet missions, (2) the significant trades related to the development of a common probe design, (3) the impact of bus selection on probe design, (4) the impact of probe requirements on bus modifications, and (5) the key technology elements recommended for advanced development. Drawings and illustrations of typical probes are included to show the components and systems used in the space probes.

  10. Glass shell manufacturing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, R. L.; Ebner, M. A.; Nolen, R. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Highly-uniform, hollow glass spheres (shells), which are used for inertial confinement fusion targets, were formed from metal-organic gel powder feedstock in a vertical furnace. As a result of the rapid pyrolysis caused by the furnace, the gel is transformed to a shell in five distinct stages: (a) surface closure of the porous gel; (b) generation of a closed-cell foam structure in the gel; (c) spheridization of the gel and further expansion of the foam; (d) coalescence of the closed-cell foam to a single-void shell; and (e) fining of the glass shell. The heat transfer from the furnace to the falling gel particle was modeled to determine the effective heating rate of the gel. The model predicts the temperature history for a particle as a function of mass, dimensions, specific heat, and absorptance as well as furnace temperature profile and thermal conductivity of the furnace gas. A model was developed that predicts the gravity-induced degradation of shell concentricity in falling molten shells as a function of shell characteristics and time.

  11. Controlled nanostructuring of multiphase core-shell nanowires by a template-assisted electrodeposition approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dawei; Chen, Junyang; Riaz, Saira; Zhou, Wenping; Han, Xiufeng

    2012-08-01

    Multiphase core-shell nanowires have been fabricated by controlling the ion transport processes of the microfluids in the nanochannels of the template. Both forced convection and pulsed potential induced migration can be applied to tune the morphologies of the nanostructures obtained by manipulating the ion transport during electrodeposition. The morphology and content of the core-shell structure were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively. The magnetic properties were analyzed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. A magnetically hard core and soft shell constitutes the multiphase composite nanostructure. The unique magnetic hysteresis curve indicates the decoupled magnetic reversal processes of the two components. Our work provides deeper insights into the formation mechanisms of a new core-shell nanostructure, which may have potential applications in novel spintronics devices.

  12. Controlled nanostructuring of multiphase core-shell nanowires by a template-assisted electrodeposition approach.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dawei; Chen, Junyang; Riaz, Saira; Zhou, Wenping; Han, Xiufeng

    2012-08-01

    Multiphase core-shell nanowires have been fabricated by controlling the ion transport processes of the microfluids in the nanochannels of the template. Both forced convection and pulsed potential induced migration can be applied to tune the morphologies of the nanostructures obtained by manipulating the ion transport during electrodeposition. The morphology and content of the core-shell structure were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively. The magnetic properties were analyzed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. A magnetically hard core and soft shell constitutes the multiphase composite nanostructure. The unique magnetic hysteresis curve indicates the decoupled magnetic reversal processes of the two components. Our work provides deeper insights into the formation mechanisms of a new core-shell nanostructure, which may have potential applications in novel spintronics devices. PMID:22751156

  13. Magnetically self-assembled SrFe12O19/Fe-Co core/shell particles

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X; Park, J; Hong, YK; Lane, AM

    2015-02-15

    Epitaxial growth to synthesize core/shell-structured materials is limited because large lattice mismatches are common between materials. Magnetically hard/soft, core/shell-structured materials can be potentially used for rare-earth free permanent magnets, but their synthesis presents a challenge. We report a wet chemistry method to synthesize core/shell structured particles consisting of a magnetically hard SrFe12O19 core and a soft Fe-Co shell, with a lattice mismatch of similar to 100%, which cannot be achieved by conventional epitaxial growth or other alternative methods. When decreasing the size of the magnetically soft Fe-Co nanoclusters to below 5 nm, we show that they can be magnetically attracted by the hard SrFe12O19 to form core/shell structured particles. An AC demagnetization experiment demonstrates the formation mechanism of the core/shell particles, and their magnetic hysteresis loop shows potential for use as rare-earth free permanent magnets. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Crack problems in cylindrical and spherical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    Standard plate or shell theories were used as a starting point to study the fracture problems in thin-walled cylindrical and spherical shells, assuming that the plane of the crack is perpendicular to the surface of the sheet. Since recent studies have shown that local shell curvatures may have a rather considerable effect on the stress intensity factor, the crack problem was considered in conjunction with a shell rather than a plate theory. The material was assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous, so that approximate solutions may be obtained by approximating the local shell crack geometry with an ideal shell which has a solution, namely a spherical shell with a meridional crack, a cylindrical shell with a circumferential crack, or a cylindrical shell with an axial crack. A method of solution for the specially orthotropic shells containing a crack was described; symmetric and skew-symmetric problems are considered in cylindrical shells with an axial crack.

  15. Oceans, Ice Shells, and Life on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The four large satellites of Jupiter are famous for their planet-like diversity and complexity, but none more so than ice-covered Europa. Since the provocative Voyager images of Europa in 1979, evidence has been mounting that a vast liquid water ocean may lurk beneath the moon's icy surface. Europa has since been the target of increasing and sometimes reckless speculation regarding the possibility that giant squid and other creatures may be swimming its purported cold, dark ocean. No wonder Europa tops everyone's list for future exploration in the outer solar system (after the very first reconnaissance of Pluto and the Kuiper belt, of course). Europa may be the smallest of the Galilean moons (so-called because they were discovered by Galileo Galilei in the early 17th century) but more than makes up for its diminutive size with a crazed, alien landscape. The surface is covered with ridges hundreds of meters high, domes tens of kilometers across, and large areas of broken and disrupted crust called chaos. Some of the geologic features seen on Europa resemble ice rafts floating in polar seas here on Earth-reinforcing the idea that an ice shell is floating over an ocean on this Moon-size satellite. However, such features do not prove that an ocean exists or ever did. Warm ice is unusually soft and will flow under its own weight. If the ice shell is thick enough, the warm bottom of the shell will flow, as do terrestrial glaciers. This could produce all the observed surface features on Europa through a variety of processes, the most important of which is convection. (Convection is the vertical overturn of a layer due to heating or density differences-think of porridge or sauce boiling on the stove.) Rising blobs from the base of the crust would then create the oval domes dotting Europa's surface. The strongest evidence for a hidden ocean beneath Europa's surface comes from the Galileo spacecraft's onboard magnetometer, which detected fluctuations in Jupiter's magnetic

  16. Stellar evolution in the outer Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczerba, Ryszard; Siódmiak, Natasza; Leśniewska, Aleksandra; Karska, Agata; Sewiło, Marta

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the distribution of different classes of spectroscopically identified sources and theoretical models in the color-color diagrams (CCDs) combining the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) data to develop a method to classify Outer Galaxy sources detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope (hereafter Spitzer) SMOG survey in the IRAC 3.68.0 µm and MIPS 24 µm bands. We supplement the Spitzer data with the data from other satellite and ground-based surveys. The main goal of our study is to discover and characterize the population of intermediate- and low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Outer Galaxy and use it to study star formation in a significantly different environment than the Galaxy inside the solar circle. Since the YSOs can be confused with evolved stars in the MIR, these classes of objects need to be carefully separated. Here we present the initial results of our analysis using the Ks-[8.0] vs. Ks-[24] CCD as an example. The evolved stars separated from YSOs in the YSO selection process will be investigated in detail in the follow-up study.

  17. Radio Emissions from the Outer Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.

    1996-01-01

    For nearly fifteen years the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft have been detecting an unusual radio emission in the outer heliosphere in the frequency range from about 2 to 3 kHz. Two major events have been observed, the first in 1983-84 and the second in 1992-93. In both cases the onset of the radio emission occurred about 400 days after a period of intense solar activity, the first in mid-July 1982, and the second in May-June 1991. These two periods of solar activity produced the two deepest cosmic ray Forbush decreases ever observed. Forbush decreases are indicative of a system of strong shocks and associated disturbances propagating outward through the heliosphere. The radio emission is believed to have been produced when this system of shocks and disturbances interacted with one of the outer boundaries of the heliosphere, most likely in the vicinity of the the heliopause. The emission is believed to be generated by the shock-driven Langmuir-wave mode conversion mechanism, which produces radiation at the plasma frequency (f(sub p)) and at twice the plasma frequency (2f(sub p)). From the 400-day travel time and the known speed of the shocks, the distance to the interaction region can be computed, and is estimated to be in the range from about 110 to 160 AU.

  18. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.

    2004-02-12

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container.

  19. Fabrication of Spherical Reflectors in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu; Dooley, Jennifer; Dragovan, Mark; Serivens, Wally

    2005-01-01

    A process is proposed for fabrication of lightweight spherical reflectors in outer space for telescopes, radio antennas, and light collectors that would be operated there. The process would obviate the relatively massive substrates and frames needed to support such reflectors in normal Earth gravitation. According to the proposal, fabrication of a reflector would begin with blowing of a bubble to the specified reflector radius. Taking advantage of the outer-space vacuum as a suitable environment for evaporative deposition of metal, a metal-evaporation source would be turned on and moved around the bubble to deposit a reflective metal film over the specified reflector area to a thickness of several microns. Then the source would be moved and aimed to deposit more metal around the edge of the reflector area, increasing the thickness there to approximately equal to 100 micron to form a frame. Then the bubble would be deflated and peeled off the metal, leaving a thin-film spherical mirror having an integral frame. The mirror would then be mounted for use. The feasibility of this technology has been proved by fabricating a prototype at JPL. As shown in the figure, a 2-in. (.5-cm) diameter hemispherical prototype reflector was made from a polymer bubble coated with silver, forming a very smooth surface.

  20. The Utility of Outer Planet Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Steven M.

    2015-05-01

    Amateur astronomers can now routinely record disk integrated spectra of the outer planets at moderate to high spectral and temporal resolution. Initial studies of the application of small telescope spectroscopy to the outer planets (including Titan) were published in the early 2000's. This paper seeks to revisit these capabilities in conjunction with advances in understanding the target atmospheres, available low-cost instrumentation, and current observational needs within the research community. First, observations and data reduction are presented. Second, the basic capability of small-scope planetary spectroscopy is re-validated and spectra of Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, Uranus and Neptune are compared to professional spectra at similar resolutions. Third, effective line-of-sight methane number density, etaN(CH4), is retrieved using best fits to integrated band strengths for both classical single reflecting layer models and classical homogeneous scattering models. The observations and methane number densities obtained lie within the scatter seen in published literature. Fourth, the challenges to making highly repeatable, well calibrated observations are examined. This is done in the context of monitoring for transient changes in band strengths, e.g., as result of longitudinal variations clouds, hazes and/or surface albedo. Jupiter provides an easy, high signal-to-noise test case where the detectability of Great Red Spot transits is evaluated. In conclusion, we summarize the results, make recommendations for extending this work and suggest a campaign that could be carried out immediately by appropriately equipped amateurs.

  1. SDC conceptual design: Scintillating fiber outer tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Baumbaugh, A.; Bird, F.; SDC Collaboration

    1992-01-22

    The authors propose an all-scintillating fiber detector for the purpose of outer tracking for the SDC. The objectives of this tracking system are to: (1) provide a first level trigger for {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} < 2.3 with sharp p{sub T} threshold with the ability to resolve individual beam crossings; (2) provide pattern recognition capability and momentum resolution which complements and extends the capabilities of the inner silicon tracking system; (3) provide three dimensional linkage with outer detection systems including the shower maximum detector, muon detectors, and calorimetry; (4) provide robust tracking and track-triggering at the highest luminosities expected at the SSC. The many attractive features of a fiber tracker include good position resolution, low occupancy, low mass in the active volume, and excellent resistance to radiation damage. An additional important feature, especially at the SSC, is the intrinsically prompt response time of a scintillating fiber. This property is exploited in the construction of a level 1 trigger sensitive to individual beam crossings.

  2. Outer membrane proteins of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Fjellbirkeland, A; Kleivdal, H; Joergensen, C; Thestrup, H; Jensen, H B

    1997-08-01

    Membranes obtained from whole-cell lysates of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were separated by Triton X-100 extraction. The resulting insoluble fraction was enriched in outer membranes as assessed by electron microscopy and by the content of beta-hydroxy palmitic acid and particulate methane monooxygenase. Major proteins with molecular masses of approximately 27, 40, 46, 59, and 66 kDa were detected by SDS-PAGE of the Triton-X-100-insoluble membranes. MopA, MopB, MopC, MopD, and MopE (Methylococcus outer membrane protein) are proposed to designate these proteins. Several of the Mop proteins exhibited heat-modifiable properties in SDS-PAGE and were influenced by the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol in the sample buffer. The 46- and 59-kDa bands migrated as a single high-molecular-mass 95-kDa oligomer under mild denaturing conditions. When reconstituted into black lipid membranes, this oligomer was shown to serve as a channel with an estimated single-channel conductance of 1.4 nS in 1 M KCl. PMID:9238104

  3. MicroShell Minimalist Shell for Xilinx Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werne, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroShell is a lightweight shell environment for engineers and software developers working with embedded microprocessors in Xilinx FPGAs. (MicroShell has also been successfully ported to run on ARM Cortex-M1 microprocessors in Actel ProASIC3 FPGAs, but without project-integration support.) Micro Shell decreases the time spent performing initial tests of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs, simplifies running customizable one-time-only experiments, and provides a familiar-feeling command-line interface. The program comes with a collection of useful functions and enables the designer to add an unlimited number of custom commands, which are callable from the command-line. The commands are parameterizable (using the C-based command-line parameter idiom), so the designer can use one function to exercise hardware with different values. Also, since many hardware peripherals instantiated in FPGAs have reasonably simple register-mapped I/O interfaces, the engineer can edit and view hardware parameter settings at any time without stopping the processor. MicroShell comes with a set of support scripts that interface seamlessly with Xilinx's EDK tool. Adding an instance of MicroShell to a project is as simple as marking a check box in a library configuration dialog box and specifying a software project directory. The support scripts then examine the hardware design, build design-specific functions, conditionally include processor-specific functions, and complete the compilation process. For code-size constrained designs, most of the stock functionality can be excluded from the compiled library. When all of the configurable options are removed from the binary, MicroShell has an unoptimized memory footprint of about 4.8 kB and a size-optimized footprint of about 2.3 kB. Since MicroShell allows unfettered access to all processor-accessible memory locations, it is possible to perform live patching on a running system. This can be useful, for instance, if a bug is

  4. Development of a prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X hard x-ray telescope: IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaine, S.; Basso, S.; Bruni, R. J.; Burkert, W.; Citterio, O.; Conti, G.; Engelhaupt, D.; Freyberg, M. J.; Ghigo, M.; Gorenstein, P.; Gubarev, M.; Hartner, G.; Mazzoleni, F.; O'Dell, S.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B. D.; Speegle, C.; Spiga, D.

    2006-06-01

    The Constellation-X mission planned for launch in 2015-2020 timeframe, will feature an array of Hard X-ray telescopes (HXT) with a total collecting area greater than 1500 cm2 at 40 keV. Two technologies are being investigated for the optics of these telescopes, one of which is multilayer-coated Electroformed-Nickel-Replicated (ENR) shells. The attraction of the ENR process is that the resulting full-shell optics are inherently stable and offer the prospect of better angular resolution which results in lower background and higher instrument sensitivity. We are building a prototype HXT mirror module using an ENR process to fabricate the individual shells. This prototype consists of 5 shells with diameters ranging from 15 cm to 28 cm with a length of 42.6 cm. The innermost of these will be coated with iridium, while the remainder will be coated with graded d-spaced W/Si multilayers. The assembly structure has been completed and last year we reported on full beam illumination results from the first test shell mounted in this structure. We have now fabricated and coated two (15 cm and 23 cm diameter) 100 micron thick shells which have been aligned and mounted. This paper presents the results of full beam illumination X-ray tests, taken at MPE-Panter. The HEW of the individual shells will be discussed, in addition to results from the full two shell optic test.

  5. Comparative study of shell swab and shell crush methods for the recovery of Salmonella from shell eggs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swabbing (SW) is the standard methodology for the recovery of resident microorganisms from shell eggs in Japan. A comparative study of shell swab (SW) and a shell crush (CR) technique was performed to recover the laboratory-inoculated Salmonella from shell eggs. It was found that the recovery of ...

  6. K-shell and L-shell plasma spectroscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Charatis, G. )

    1990-10-01

    Detailed atomic level populations in high temperature and dense plasmas have become increasingly important in laser generated plasmas. Certain spectral line intensity ratios are density-dependent while others are temperature-dependent. Both can be used to extract information concerning population kinetics and ion level populations. In order to be useful these dependencies must be characterized by independent means. In laser produced plasmas this can be done via holographic interferometry for electron density determinations and via the slope of the H-like free-bound continuum of K-shell lines for electron temperature determinations. The characterization of density- and temperature-dependent L-shell lines can be accomplished in ionization balance experiments in which laser irradiance is varied on targets which contain both K-shell and L-shell emitters. The K-shell free-bound continua provide the local temperature determination while holographic interferometry yields density profile information, from which the temperature and density dependent L-shell lines can be characterized. This paper discusses these concepts.

  7. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

  8. Hard Photodisintegration of 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados, Carlos

    2011-02-01

    Large angle photodisintegration of two nucleons from the 3He nucleus is studied within the framework of the hard rescattering model (HRM). In the HRM the incoming photon is absorbed by one nucleon's valence quark that then undergoes a hard rescattering reaction with a valence quark from the second nucleon producing two nucleons emerging at large transverse momentum . Parameter free cross sections for pp and pn break up channels are calculated through the input of experimental cross sections on pp and pn elastic scattering. The calculated cross section for pp breakup and its predicted energy dependency are in good agreement with recent experimental data. Predictions on spectator momentum distributions and helicity transfer are also presented.

  9. Weld cladding of hard surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habrekke, T.

    1993-02-01

    A literature study about clad welding of hard surfaces on steel is performed. The purpose was to see what kind of methods are mainly used, and particular attention is paid to clad welding of rolls. The main impression from this study is that several methods are in use. Some of these must be considered as 'too exotic' for the aim of the program, such as laser build-up welding. However, clad welding of hard surfaces to rolls is widely used around the world, and there is no need for particularly advanced welding methods to perform the work. The welding consumables and the way the welding is carried out is of more important character. The report will give some comments to this, and hopefully will give a short review of the current technology in this field.

  10. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, Morris S.; Schuster, George J.; Skorpik, James R.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  11. Schwannoma of the hard palate

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Pradyumna Kumar; Mandal, Palash Kumar; Ghosh, Saradindu

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign encapsulated perineural tumors. The head and neck region is the most common site. Intraoral origin is seen in only 1% of cases, tongue being the most common site; its location in the palate is rare. We report a case of hard-palate schwannoma with bony erosion which was immunohistochemically confirmed. The tumor was excised completely intraorally. After two months of follow-up, the defect was found to be completely covered with palatal mucosa. PMID:25298716

  12. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOEpatents

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  13. Development of Prototype Nickel Optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaine, S.; Gorenstein, P.; Bruni, R.; Pareschi, G.; Citterio, O.; Ghigo, M.; Mazzoleni, F.; Spiga, D.; Basso, S.; Conti, G.; Ramsey, B.; Gubarev, M.; O'Dell, S.; Speegle, C.; Engelhaupt, D.; Freyberg, M.; Burkert, W.; Hartner, G.

    2005-12-01

    The Constellation-X mission planned for launch in 2015, will feature an array of Hard X-ray telescopes (HXT) whose bandwidth extends to \\ 70 keV. Several technologies are being investigated for fabrication of these optics, including multilayer Coated Electroformed-Nickel-Replicated (ENR) shells. We are building a prototype HXT mirror module using an ENR process to fabricate the in dividual shells.This prototype consists of 5 shells with diameters ranging from 150 mm to 280 mm with a length of 426 mm. This paper presents a progress update and focuses on accomplishments during this past year. In particular, we will present results from high energy full illumination tests, taken at the MPE Panter Test Facility. This work was supported in part by NASA Grant NNG05WC27G and CONX/NASA grant 44A-1046805.

  14. Isolation of the outer membrane and characterization of the major outer membrane protein from Spirochaeta aurantia.

    PubMed Central

    Kropinski, A M; Parr, T R; Angus, B L; Hancock, R E; Ghiorse, W C; Greenberg, E P

    1987-01-01

    The outer membrane of Spirochaeta aurantia was isolated after cells were extracted with sodium lauryl sarcosinate and was subsequently purified by differential centrifugation and KBr isopycnic gradient centrifugation. The purified outer membrane was obtained in the form of carotenoid-containing vesicles. Four protein species with apparent molecular weights of 26,000 (26K), 36.5K, 41K, and 48.5K were readily observed as components of the vesicles. The 36.5K protein was the major polypeptide and constituted approximately 90% of the outer membrane protein observed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Under mild denaturing conditions the 36.5K major protein exhibited an apparent molecular weight of approximately 90,000. This, together with the results of protein cross-linking studies, indicates that the 36.5K polypeptide has an oligomeric conformation in the native state. Reconstitution of solubilized S. aurantia outer membrane into lipid bilayer membranes revealed the presence of a porin, presumably the 36.5K protein, with an estimated channel diameter of 2.3 nm based on the measured single channel conductance of 7.7 nS in 1 M KCl. Images PMID:3025168

  15. Insulative laser shell coupler

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, P.A.; Anderson, A.T.; Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-20

    A segmented coaxial laser shell assembly having at least two water jacket sections, two pairs of interconnection half rings, a dielectric break ring, and a pair of threaded ring sections is disclosed. Each water jacket section with an inner tubular section that defines an inner laser cavity with water paths adjacent to at least a portion of the exterior of the inner tubular section, and mating faces at the end of the water jacket section through which the inner laser cavity opens and which defines at least one water port therethrough in communication with the water jackets. The water paths also define in their external surface a circumferential notch set back from and in close proximity to the mating face. The dielectric break ring has selected thickness and is placed between, and in coaxial alignment with, the mating faces of two of the adjacent water jacket sections. The break ring also defines an inner laser cavity of the same size and shape as the inner laser cavity of the water jacket sections and at least one water passage through the break ring to communicate with at least one water port through the mating faces of the water jacket sections. 4 figs.

  16. Insulative laser shell coupler

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Phillip A.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A segmented coaxial laser shell assembly having at least two water jacket sections, two pairs of interconnection half rings, a dialectric break ring, and a pair of threaded ring sections. Each water jacket section with an inner tubular section that defines an inner laser cavity with water paths adjacent to at least a portion of the exterior of the inner tubular section, and mating faces at the end of the water jacket section through which the inner laser cavity opens and which defines at least one water port therethrough in communication with the water jackets. The water paths also define in their external surface a circumferential notch set back from and in close proximity to the mating face. The dielectric break ring has selected thickness and is placed between, and in coaxial alignment with, the mating faces of two of the adjacent water jacket sections. The break ring also defines an inner laser cavity of the same size and shape as the inner laser cavity of the water jacket sections and at least one water passage through the break ring to communicate with at least one water port through the mating faces of the water jacket sections.

  17. PLD of hard ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Yibran; Gottmann, Jens; Husmann, Andreas; Klotzbuecher, Thomas; Kreutz, Ernst-Wolfgang; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2001-06-01

    The deposition of different hard ceramics coatings as Al2O3, ZrO2, c-BN and DLC thin films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been of increasing interest as alternative process compared to the latest progress in CVD and PVD deposition. For instance, in pulsed laser deposition, the properties of the resulting thin films are influenced by the composition, ionization state, density, kinetic and excitation energies of the particles of the vapor/plasma. In order to deposit hard ceramics with different properties and applications, various substrates as Pt/Ti/Si multilayer, glass (fused silica), steel, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), Si(100) and Si(111) are used. These thin films are deposited either by excimer laser radiation ((lambda) equals 248 nm) or by CO2 laser radiation ((lambda) equals 10.6 micrometers ). To characterize the structural, optical and mechanical properties of the hard ceramics thin films, different techniques as Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, FTIR spectroscopy and nanoindentation are used.

  18. Molecular hardness and softness, local hardness and softness, hardness and softness kernels, and relations among these quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkowitz, Max; Parr, Robert G.

    1988-02-01

    Hardness and softness kernels η(r,r') and s(r,r') are defined for the ground state of an atomic or molecular electronic system, and the previously defined local hardness and softness η(r) and s(r) and global hardness and softness η and S are obtained from them. The physical meaning of s(r), as a charge capacitance, is discussed (following Huheey and Politzer), and two alternative ``hardness'' indices are identified and briefly discussed.

  19. Analysis of toughening mechanisms in the Strombus gigas shell.

    PubMed

    DiPette, Scott; Ural, Ani; Santhanam, Sridhar

    2015-08-01

    A finite element analysis of the fracture mechanisms in the Strombus gigas conch shell is presented in this work. The S. gigas shell has a complex microarchitecture that consists of three main macroscopic layers of calcium carbonate: the inner, middle, and outer layers. Each layer is composed of lamellae of calcium carbonate, held together by a cohesive organic protein. As a result of this elaborate architecture, the S. gigas shell exhibits a much greater damage tolerance than the calcium carbonate by itself, with a work of fracture reported to be three magnitudes of order greater. The two main energy dissipating factors that contribute to this are multiple, parallel cracking along first-order interfaces in the inner and outer layers and crack bridging through the second-order interfaces of the middle layer. Finite element analysis was conducted to simulate and replicate flexural strength and work-of-fracture results obtained in the literature for both dry and wet physical bend test specimens. Several parameters were varied including protein strength and fracture toughness, initial protein damage, and the relative heights of macroscopic layers in order to create a model that predicted published, experimental results. The simulations indicate that having some initially weakened protein interfaces is key to matching the parallel cracking in the inner layer of the physical specimens. The wet models exhibit significantly higher work of fracture compared to the dry specimens in large part due to a crack growth resistance behavior in the middle layer, which was successfully modeled. The parametric studies that have been performed on the finite element models provide guidelines for manufacturing the ideal S. gigas-inspired, biomimetic composite. PMID:25955562

  20. Recovery of Salmonella from commercial shell eggs by shell rinse and shell crush methodologies.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Northcutt, J K; Harrison, M A; Cox, N A; Ingram, K D; Hinton, A J

    2005-12-01

    Salmonella is the most important human pathogen associated with shell eggs. Salmonella Enteritidis is the serotype most often implicated in outbreaks, although other serotypes have been recovered from eggs and from the commercial shell egg washing environment. Many sample methods are used to recover microorganisms from eggshells and membranes. A shell rinse and modified shell-and-membrane crush method for recovery of Salmonella were compared. Eggs were collected from 3 commercial shell-washing facilities (X, Y, and Z) during 3 visits. Twelve eggs were collected from each of 10 to 12 locations along the egg processing chain. After being transported back to the laboratory, each egg was sampled first by a shell rinse method and then by a shell crush method. For each technique (rinse or crush), 2 pools of 5 eggs per location sampled were selectively enriched for the recovery of Salmonella. Presumptive samples positive for Salmonella were confirmed serologically. Overall, there were 10.1% (40/396) Salmonella-positive pooled samples. Salmonella were recovered by the shell rinse and shell crush techniques (4.8 vs. 5.3%, respectively). Plant X yielded 21.5% Salmonella positives, whereas less than 5% of samples from plants Y and Z were found to be contaminated with the organism (4.2 and 4.5%, respectively). Salmonella was recovered more often from unwashed eggs (15.8%) than from washed eggs (8.3%). For some eggs, Salmonella was only recovered by one of the methods. Use of both approaches in the same experiment increased sampling sensitivity, although in most cases, crushing provided more sensitive Salmonella recovery. PMID:16479955

  1. Collapsing thin shells with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsate, Térence; Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael

    2014-06-01

    We construct exact solutions describing the motion of rotating thin shells in a fully backreacted five-dimensional rotating black hole spacetime. The radial equation of motion follows from the Darmois-Israel junction conditions, where both interior and exterior geometries are taken to be equal angular momenta Myers-Perry solutions. We show that rotation generates anisotropic pressures and momentum along the shell. Gravitational collapse scenarios including rotation are analyzed and a new class of stationary solutions is introduced. Energy conditions for the anisotropic matter shell are briefly discussed. We find that the weak energy condition is not violated for the collapse scenario where the shell starts at rest from infinity, nor for the new class of stationary solutions in anti-de Sitter. We further prove that the cosmic censorship conjecture is always satisfied in our setup.

  2. Shell Scores with Interactive Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemke, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Documents Shell Oil's success with interactive video training (IVT) and identifies the costs involved in this long-term investment. Provides guidelines for judging the effectiveness of IVT programs. (SK)

  3. Intergalactic shells at large redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. M.; Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    The intergalactic shells produced by galactic explosions at large redshift, whose interiors cool by inverse Compton scattering off the cosmic background radiation, have a characteristic angular size of about 1 arcmin at peak brightness. At z values lower than 2, the shells typically have a radius of 0.5 Mpc, a velocity of about 50 km/sec, a metal abundance of about 0.0001 of cosmic values, and strong radiation in H I(Lyman-alpha), He II 304 A, and the IR fine-structure lines of C II and Si II. The predicted extragalactic background emission from many shells, strongly peaked toward the UV, sets an upper limit to the number of exploding sources at z values of about 10. Shell absorption lines of H I, C II, Si II, and Fe II, which may be seen at more recent epochs in quasar spectra, may probe otherwise invisible explosions in the early universe.

  4. Hypersonic vibrations of Ag@SiO2 (cubic core)-shell nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing Ya; Wang, Zhi Kui; Lim, Hock Siah; Ng, Ser Choon; Kuok, Meng Hau; Tran, Toan Trong; Lu, Xianmao

    2010-12-28

    The intriguing optical and catalytic properties of metal-silica core-shell nanoparticles, inherited from their plasmonic metallic cores together with the rich surface chemistry and increased stability offered by their silica shells, have enabled a wide variety of applications. In this work, we investigate the confined vibrational modes of a series of monodisperse Ag@SiO(2) (cubic core)-shell nanospheres synthesized using a modified Stöber sol-gel method. The particle-size dependence of their mode frequencies has been mapped by Brillouin light scattering, a powerful tool for probing hypersonic vibrations. Unlike the larger particles, the observed spheroidal-like mode frequencies of the smaller ones do not scale with inverse diameter. Interestingly, the onset of the deviation from this linearity occurs at a smaller particle size for higher-energy modes than for lower-energy ones. Finite element simulations show that the mode displacement profiles of the Ag@SiO(2) core-shells closely resemble those of a homogeneous SiO(2) sphere. Simulations have also been performed to ascertain the effects that the core shape and the relative hardness of the core and shell materials have on the vibrations of the core-shell as a whole. As the vibrational modes of a particle have a bearing on its thermal and mechanical properties, the findings would be of value in designing core-shell nanostructures with customized thermal and mechanical characteristics. PMID:21087022

  5. Radio seismology of the outer solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Melnik, Valentin; Brazhenko, Anatoliy; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Konovalenko, Alexander; Dorovskyy, Vladimir; Rucker, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Observed oscillations of coronal loops in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines have been successfully used to estimate plasma parameters in the inner corona (< 0.2R0, where R0 is the solar radius). However, coronal seismology in EUV lines fails for higher altitudes because of rapid decrease in line intensity. We aim to use radio observations to estimate the plasma parameters of the outer solar corona (> 0.2R0). We used the large Ukrainian radio telescope URAN-2 to observe type IV radio bursts at the frequency range of 8-32 MHz during the time interval of 09:50-12:30 UT on April 14, 2011. The burst was connected to C2.3 flare, which occurred in AR 11190 during 09:38-09:49 UT. The dynamic spectrum of radio emission shows clear quasi-periodic variations in the emission intensity at almost all frequencies. Wavelet analysis at four different frequencies (29 MHz, 25 MHz, 22 MHz, and 14 MHz) shows the quasi-periodic variation of emission intensity with periods of ~ 34 min and ~ 23 min. The periodic variations can be explained by the first and second harmonics of vertical kink oscillation of transequatorial coronal loops, which were excited by the same flare. The apex of transequatorial loops may reach up to 1.2 R0 altitude. We derive and solve the dispersion relation of trapped magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations in a longitudinally inhomogeneous magnetic slab. The analysis shows that a thin (with width to length ratio of 0.1), dense (with the ratio of internal and external densities of ≥ 20) magnetic slab with weak longitudinal inhomogeneity may trap the observed oscillations. Seismologically estimated Alfvén speed inside the loop at the height of ~ 1 R0 is ~ 1000 km s-1. The magnetic field strength at this height is estimated as ~ 0.9 G. Extrapolation of magnetic field strength to the inner corona gives ~ 10 G at the height of 0.1 R0. Radio observations can be successfully used for the sounding of the outer solar corona, where EUV observations of coronal loops fail

  6. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  7. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  8. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  9. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  10. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  11. Nematic textures in spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelli, V.; Nelson, D. R.

    2006-08-01

    The equilibrium texture of nematic shells is studied as a function of their thickness. For ultrathin shells the ground state has four short (1)/(2) disclination lines but, as the thickness of the film increases, a three-dimensional escaped configuration composed of two pairs of half-hedgehogs becomes energetically favorable. We derive an exact solution for the nematic ground state in the one Frank constant approximation and study the stability of the corresponding texture against thermal fluctuations.

  12. Core-shell-shell nanorods for controlled release of silver that can serve as a nanoheater for photothermal treatment on bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Wang, Ning; Han, Lu; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    A novel bactericidal material comprising rod-shaped core-shell-shell Au-Ag-Au nanorods is constructed as a nanoheater in the near-infrared (NIR) region. The outer Au shell melts under laser irradiation and results in exposure of the inner Ag shell, facilitating the controlled release of the antibacterial Ag shell/layer or Ag(+). This results in the Au-Ag-Au nanorods having a favorable bactericidal ability as it combines the features of physical photothermal ablation sterilization of the outer Au shell and the antibacterial effect of the inner Ag shell or Ag(+) to the surrounding bacteria. The sterilizing ability of Au-Ag-Au nanorods is investigated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model bacterial strain. Under low-power NIR laser irradiation (785 nm, 50 mW cm(-2)), the Au-Ag-Au nanoheater exhibits a higher photothermal conversion efficiency (with a solution temperature of 44°C) with respect to that for the Au-Ag nanorods (39°C). Meanwhile, a much improved stability with respect to Au-Ag nanorods is observed, i.e., 16 successive days of monitoring reveal virtually no change in the ultraviolet-visible spectrum of Au-Ag-Au nanorods, while a significant drop in absorption along with a 92 nm red shift of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance is recorded for the Au-Ag nanorods. This brings an increasing bactericidal efficiency and long-term stability for the Au-Ag-Au nanorods. At a dosage of 10 μg ml(-1), a killing rate of 100% is reached for the E. coli O157:H7 cells under 20 min of irradiation. The use of Au-Ag-Au nanorods avoids the abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics and reduces the damage of tissues by alleviating the toxicity of silver under controlled release and by the use of low-power laser irradiation. These features could make the bimetallic core-shell-shell nanorods a favorable nanoheater for in vivo biomedical applications. PMID:25219350

  13. HR Del REMNANT ANATOMY USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL SPECTRAL DATA AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOIONIZATION SHELL MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes, Manoel; Diaz, Marcos E-mail: marcos@astro.iag.usp.br

    2009-12-15

    The HR Del nova remnant was observed with the IFU-GMOS at Gemini North. The spatially resolved spectral data cube was used in the kinematic, morphological, and abundance analysis of the ejecta. The line maps show a very clumpy shell with two main symmetric structures. The first one is the outer part of the shell seen in H{alpha}, which forms two rings projected in the sky plane. These ring structures correspond to a closed hourglass shape, first proposed by Harman and O'Brien. The equatorial emission enhancement is caused by the superimposed hourglass structures in the line of sight. The second structure seen only in the [O III] and [N II] maps is located along the polar directions inside the hourglass structure. Abundance gradients between the polar caps and equatorial region were not found. However, the outer part of the shell seems to be less abundant in oxygen and nitrogen than the inner regions. Detailed 2.5-dimensional photoionization modeling of the three-dimensional shell was performed using the mass distribution inferred from the observations and the presence of mass clumps. The resulting model grids are used to constrain the physical properties of the shell as well as the central ionizing source. A sequence of three-dimensional clumpy models including a disk-shaped ionization source is able to reproduce the ionization gradients between polar and equatorial regions of the shell. Differences between shell axial ratios in different lines can also be explained by aspherical illumination. A total shell mass of 9 x 10{sup -4} M {sub sun} is derived from these models. We estimate that 50%-70% of the shell mass is contained in neutral clumps with density contrast up to a factor of 30.

  14. Tri-soft shell technique.

    PubMed

    Arshinoff, Steve A; Norman, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Soft-shell techniques exist for lower viscosity dispersive with higher viscosity cohesive ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs) (soft-shell technique [SST]), viscoadaptive OVDs with balanced salt solution (ultimate soft-shell technique), intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome (soft-shell bridge), and many specific modifications for disinserted zonular fibers, frayed iris strands, Fuchs endothelial dystrophy, small holes in the posterior capsule with protruding vitreous, capsular dye use, and others. Soft-shell techniques exist because it is rheologically impossible to control the surgical environment with a single OVD as well as with an ordered combination of rheologically different OVDs. Surgeons frequently confuse these techniques because of their multitude. This paper unifies all SSTs into a single improved tri-soft shell technique (TSST), from which basic specific applications to unusual circumstances are simple and intuitive. As shown with previous SSTs, the TSST allows surgeons to perform complex tasks with greater surgical facility and to protect endothelial cells better than with single OVDs. PMID:23889867

  15. XPRT: An expert system shell

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrell, G.D.

    1988-09-01

    XPRT is a rule-based expert system shell written in the C programming language. This report contains a detailed description of the commands available in XPRT and also describes the syntax rules needed to construct a knowledge base. The shell's source code uses standard ANSI C, which allows it to run on any computer that can compile a C program. The executable code occupies 70K of PC memory. XPRT's inference engine can be commanded to backward chain or forward chain. Heuristics may be employed to reduce the search space of knowledge base rules. XPRT can read and write external files and spawn processes. The shell is mainly a symbolic processor but can handle numerical data as well. A mechanism of weighted facts and rules is used as an approach for handling uncertainty. XPRT is a no-frills shell with some very practical commands. The shell was used to write an expert system that is currently scheduling over a dozen software programs to maintain and manage a large departmental database. XPRT continues to evolve, and our organization is finding the shell to be a valuable programming tool. 6 refs.

  16. The fate of the outer plasmasphere

    SciTech Connect

    Elphic, R.C.; Thomsen, M.F.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-02-01

    Both the solar wind and the ionosphere contribute to Earth{close_quote}s magnetospheric plasma environment. However, it is not widely appreciated that the plasmasphere is a large reservoir of ionospheric ions that can be tapped to populate the plasma sheet. We employ empirical models of high-latitude ionospheric convection and the geomagnetic field to describe the transport of outer plasmasphere flux tubes from the dayside, over the polar cap and into the magnetotail during the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. We calculate that this process can give rise to high densities of cold plasma in the magnetotail lobes and in the near-Earth plasma sheet during times of enhanced geomagnetic activity, and especially during storms. This model can help explain both polar cap ionization patches and the presence of cold flowing ions downtail.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  17. Organic Matter in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruiskshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many solid bodies in the outer Solar System are covered with ices of various compositions, including water, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, and other molecules that are solid at the low temperatures that prevail there. These ices have all been detected by remote sensing observations made with telescopes on Earth, or more recently, spacecraft in orbit (notably Galileo at Jupiter). The data also reveal other solid materials that could be minerals or complex carbon-bearing organic molecules. A study in progress using large ground-based telescopes to acquire infrared spectroscopic data, and laboratory results on the optical properties of complex organic matter, seeks to identify the non-icy materials on several satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The work on the satellites of Saturn is in part preparatory to the Cassini spacecraft investigation of the Saturn system, which will begin in 2004 and extend for four years.

  18. Formation of the outer planets and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of the outer planets is proposed, the basis of which is the idea that the giant planets contain an excess of chemically condensable materials over solar composition. Planetary cores were formed by the clumping together of chemically condensed bodies forming a thin disk in the solar nebula. Gas surrounding a core becomes unstable against collapse onto the core. In the case of Jupiter and Saturn, much of the collapsing gas goes into orbit about the formed planet, forming a relatively thin circumplanetary disks with differential rotation in the prograde sense. For Uranus and Neptune, the dynamical collapse mechanism is unlikely. A disk of gas around Uranus may have been formed during a collision of the protoplanet with a large body. The circumplanetary disks then form the basis for formation of satellite systems, in which the Goldreich-Ward instability mechanism plays a role.

  19. Outer Hair Cell Electromotility in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2011-11-01

    The effectiveness of outer hair cell (OHC) electro-motility in vivo has been challenged by the expected low-pass filtering of the transmembrane potential due to the cell's own capacitance. The OHC electromotility is characterized here by an electromechanical ratio defined as the ratio of the OHC contraction to the transmembrane potential. This ratio has been measured in isolated cells to be approximately 26 nm/mV. We estimate the OHC electromechanical ratio in vivo from the recently measured displacements of the reticular lamina and the basilar membrane near the 19 kHz characteristic frequency in the basal region of guinea pig cochlea. Our analysis strongly suggests OHC electromotility process is effective for cochlear amplification in vivo at least around the characteristic frequency of the basal location in spite of the low-pass filtering.

  20. Impact and hardness optimisation of composite materials inspired by the babassu nut (Orbignya speciosa).

    PubMed

    Staufenberg, Gerrit; Graupner, Nina; Müssig, Jörg

    2015-10-01

    The babassu nut is the fruit of the babassu palm Orbignya speciosa. The combination of hardness and impact strength is difficult to acquire for artificial materials, making the babassu nut a promising source for biomimetic inspiration. Unnotched Charpy impact tests, Shore D hardness tests and scanning electron microscopy were used for mechanical and microscopical analysis of the pericarp. Four major principles were found for a biomimetic approach: a hard core ((1); endocarp) is embedded in a soft outer layer of high impact strength ((2); epicarp) and is reinforced with fibres of variable fineness (3), some of which are oriented radial to the core (4). Biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites were produced using abstracted mechanisms of the babassu nut based on regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell, L) with two different fineness values as reinforcement embedded in a polylactide (PLA) core matrix and polypropylene (PP) based outer layers. The biomimetic fibre composite reaches a significantly higher impact strength that is 1.6 times higher than the reference sample produced from a PLA/PP/L-blend. At the same time the hardness is slightly increased compared to PP/L. PMID:26291183

  1. Lateral interactions in the outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

  2. FBL Outer Can Welder Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Susan L.

    2004-01-16

    The Outer Can Welder Data Acquisition Software (OCWDAS) was originally developed by SRTC for use at Hanford to assist in the storage of their excess plutonium in the DOE standard 3013 containers until it can be properly dispositioned using one of the approved DOE methods. After Hanford OCWDAS software was the starting point for the new version developed for FB-Line. New graphical display formats and features were added to this software to make it more robust and operator friendly. Several hardware changes were also made at this time and the software was modified to accommodate these as well. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TIG welding process, such as the bagless transfer system in FB-Line, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. The OCWDAS improves this technology by digitizing the weld data which allows for automation of the analysis process. The OCWDAS performs the necessary functions to perform the data acquisition functions during the 3013 Outer Can Welding Process. It is important to monitor the critical weld parameters, current and voltage, during a weld as they can be used to set acceptance criteria for weld acceptance. The software monitors and records the weld current, voltage, and RPM data. It also records the absolute position of the weld head during the weld process from a quadrature encoder. Digital handshaking between the AMI Welding unit and the OCWDAS ensure that both systems are operational and ready prior to the weld initiation taking place.

  3. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  4. The Outer Planetary Mission Design Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benfield, Michael; Turner, M. W.

    2010-10-01

    With the recent focus from the planetary science community on the outer planets of the solar system, The University of Alabama in Huntsville Integrated Product Team program is embarking on a new challenge to develop an outer planetary mission for the academic year 2010-2011. Currently four bodies are of interest for this mission: Titan, Europa, Triton, and Enceledus, with one body being chosen by the instructors by the beginning of the fall semester. This project will use the 2010 Discovery Announcement of Opportunity as its Request for Proposal (RFP). All of the teams competing in this project will use the AO to respond with a proposal to the instructors for their proposed mission and spacecraft concept. The project employs the two-semester design sequence of the IPT program to provide a framework for the development of this mission. This sequence is divided into four phases. Phase 1 - Requirements Development - focuses on the development of both the scientific and engineering requirements of the mission. During this phase the teams work very closely with the PI organization, represented by the College of Charleston. Phase 2 - Team Formation and Architecture Development - concentrates on the assessment of the overall mission architecture from the launch vehicle to the ground operations of the proposed spacecraft. Phase 3 - System Definition - provides for spacecraft subsystem trade studies and further refinement of the specific spacecraft to meet the scientific requirements and objectives developed in Phase 1. Phase 4 - Design - is the phase where the engineers provide the spacecraft design that is required for the mission of interest. At the conclusion of Phases 2 and 4, an external review board evaluates the proposed designs and chooses one winner of the competition.

  5. Outer Planet Mission Studies Neptune Aerocapture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Langhoff, Steven R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current and previous studies of orbiter missions to the outer planets have clearly identified high-energy aerocapture as a critical and enabling technology. Aerocapture involves the use of aerodynamic lift to fly a trajectory through a planet's atmosphere to sufficiently decelerate an entry vehicle to capture into planetary orbit. In the past, numerous studies of different configurations of lifting entry vehicles were studied for various planetary orbiter missions which identified aerocapture as a feasible concept yet complex and technically challenging. In order to determine the feasibility of high-speed aerocapture at the outer planets, an accurate trajectory simulation of the flight vehicle is the critical first step in the proposed research. Vehicle response to aerodynamic loading must be predicted accurately in the trajectory simulations. For several Neptune orbiter missions currently under study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), entry velocities relative to the rotating atmosphere ranging from 25 to 30 km/sec, are to be expected. Preliminary trajectory analysis has identified the various flow regimes the entry vehicle is expected to fly in the 8 1% H2 and 19% He atmosphere of Neptune. The size and mass of the vehicle are also determined by the launch vehicle constraints and orbiter spacecraft requirements. For a given baseline arrival conditions of an inertial entry velocity of 28 km/sec and an entry mass of 400 kg, a medium lift (L/D = 1), axisymmetric biconic shaped vehicle was selected in order to satisfy entry corridor width requirements expected for Neptune aerocapture. The analysis summarized in this study indicates that a biconic entry vehicle is a feasible concept for a Neptune aerocapture orbiter mission. The preliminary entry trajectory simulations has demonstrated adequate entry corridor control authority. Furthermore, estimates of the stagnation point heating environment has enabled the preliminary selection of candidate lightweight ceramic

  6. FBL Outer Can Welder Acquisition Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-01-16

    The Outer Can Welder Data Acquisition Software (OCWDAS) was originally developed by SRTC for use at Hanford to assist in the storage of their excess plutonium in the DOE standard 3013 containers until it can be properly dispositioned using one of the approved DOE methods. After Hanford OCWDAS software was the starting point for the new version developed for FB-Line. New graphical display formats and features were added to this software to make it moremore » robust and operator friendly. Several hardware changes were also made at this time and the software was modified to accommodate these as well. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TIG welding process, such as the bagless transfer system in FB-Line, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. The OCWDAS improves this technology by digitizing the weld data which allows for automation of the analysis process. The OCWDAS performs the necessary functions to perform the data acquisition functions during the 3013 Outer Can Welding Process. It is important to monitor the critical weld parameters, current and voltage, during a weld as they can be used to set acceptance criteria for weld acceptance. The software monitors and records the weld current, voltage, and RPM data. It also records the absolute position of the weld head during the weld process from a quadrature encoder. Digital handshaking between the AMI Welding unit and the OCWDAS ensure that both systems are operational and ready prior to the weld initiation taking place.« less

  7. Resonant scattering of outer zone relativistic electrons by multiband EMIC waves and resultant electron loss time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Binbin; Cao, Xing; Zou, Zhengyang; Zhou, Chen; Gu, Xudong; Bortnik, Jacob; Zhang, Jichun; Fu, Song; Zhao, Zhengyu; Shi, Run; Xie, Lun

    2015-09-01

    To improve our understanding of the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in radiation belt electron dynamics, we perform a comprehensive analysis of EMIC wave-induced resonant scattering of outer zone relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons and resultant electron loss time scales with respect to EMIC wave band, L shell, and wave normal angle model. The results demonstrate that while H+-band EMIC waves dominate the scattering losses of ~1-4 MeV outer zone relativistic electrons, it is He+-band and O+-band waves that prevail over the pitch angle diffusion of ultrarelativistic electrons at higher energies. Given the wave amplitude, EMIC waves at higher L shells tend to resonantly interact with a larger population of outer zone relativistic electrons and drive their pitch angle scattering more efficiently. Obliquity of EMIC waves can reduce the efficiency of wave-induced relativistic electron pitch angle scattering. Compared to the frequently adopted parallel or quasi-parallel model, use of the latitudinally varying wave normal angle model produces the largest decrease in H+-band EMIC wave scattering rates at pitch angles < ~40° for electrons > ~5 MeV. At a representative nominal amplitude of 1 nT, EMIC wave scattering produces the equilibrium state (i.e., the lowest normal mode under which electrons at the same energy but different pitch angles decay exponentially on the same time scale) of outer belt relativistic electrons within several to tens of minutes and the following exponential decay extending to higher pitch angles on time scales from <1 min to ~1 h. The electron loss cone can be either empty as a result of the weak diffusion or heavily/fully filled due to approaching the strong diffusion limit, while the trapped electron population at high pitch angles close to 90° remains intact because of no resonant scattering. In this manner, EMIC wave scattering has the potential to deepen the anisotropic distribution of outer zone relativistic electrons by

  8. Postmidnight chorus - A substorm phenomenon. [outer magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The ELF emissions were detected in the midnight sector of the magnetosphere in conjunction with magnetospheric substorms. The emissions were observed at local midnight and early morning hours and are accordingly called 'post-midnight chorus.' The characteristics of these emissions such as their frequency time structure, emission frequency with respect to the local equatorial electron gyrofrequency, intensity-time variation, and the average intensity were investigated. The occurrence of the chorus in the nightside magnetosphere was investigated as a function of local time, L shell, magnetic latitude, and substorm activity, and the results of this analysis are presented. Specific features of postmidnight chorus are discussed in the context of possible wave-particle interactions occurring during magnetospheric substorms.

  9. Characterization of core-shell calcium-alginate macrocapsules fabricated by electro-coextrusion.

    PubMed

    Phawaphuthanon, Natthiya; Behnam, Shabnam; Koo, Song Yi; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Chung, Donghwa

    2014-04-01

    Spherical macrocapsules, where calcium-alginate shell enclosed olive oil as a model core medium, were fabricated by electro-coextrusion. The effects of three key process factors, including alginate concentration in shell fluid (0.5-4.0%), shell-to-core flow rate ratio (4-12 at a fixed core flow rate of 0.05 mL/min), and applied voltage (0-10 kV), on the morphological and textural characteristics of the macrocapsules were analyzed using response surface methodology. The analysis showed that the diameter, shell thickness, hardness, and breaking energy of the macrocapsules were in the ranges of 0.89-1.61 mm, 17.4-66.4 μm, 1.37-11.01 N, and 0.34-6.90 mJ, respectively, and strongly influenced by all the three factors, except that the surface appearance was only significantly affected by the shell-to-core flow rate ratio. The process factors were also optimized for the practically useful macrocapsules, having non-oily surface and hardness larger than 3 N, using a graphical optimization technique. PMID:24463268

  10. Suzaku Detection of Diffuse Hard X-Ray Emission Outside Vela X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Mori, Koji; Petre, Robert; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Bocchino, Fabrizio; Bamba, Aya; Miceli, Marco; Hewitt, John W.; Temim, Tea; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yoshii, Rie

    2011-01-01

    Vela X is a large, 3 deg x 2 deg, radio-emitting pulsar wind nebula (PWN) powered by the Vela pulsar in the Vela supernova remnant. Using four Suzaku/XIS observations pointed just outside Vela X, we find hard X-ray emission extending throughout the fields of view. The hard X-ray spectra are well represented by a power-law. The photon index is measured to be constant at Gamma approximates 2.4, similar to that of the southern outer part of Vela X. The power-law flux decreases with increasing distance from the pulsar. These properties lead us to propose that the hard X-ray emission is associated with the Vela PWN. The larger X-ray extension found in this work strongly suggests that distinct populations relativistic electrons form the X-ray PWN and Vela X, as was recently inferred from multiwavelength spectral modeling of Vela X.

  11. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Nian; Wu, Hui; McDowell, Matthew T.; Yao, Yan; Wang, Chongmin; Cui, Yi

    2012-05-02

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For use in practical applications, a Si electrode must have high capacity, long cycle life, high efficiency, and the fabrication must be industrially scalable. Here, we design and fabricate a yolk-shell structure to meet all these needs. The fabrication is carried out without special equipment and mostly at room temperature. Commercially available Si nanoparticles are completely sealed inside conformal, thin, self-supporting carbon shells, with rationally designed void space in between the particles and the shell. Finally, the well-defined void space allows the Si particles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell, therefore stabilizing the solid-electrolyte interphase on the shell surface. High capacity (~2800 mAh/g at C/10), long cycle life (1000 cycles with 74% capacity retention), and high Coulombic efficiency (99.84%) have been realized in this yolk-shell structured Si electrode.

  12. Shells in the C2 coma of Comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Rita; A'Hearn, Michael F.

    1995-01-01

    We reanalyzed the CN images of Comet P/Halley, in which jets have been discovered for the first time, in search of shell structures. Shells were actually detected at the outer edges of the frames on those dates for which shells with radii small enough to be covered by the limited field of view of the CCD were predicted. The C2 images of the same data set were subjected to an analogous investigation which led to the discovery of shell structures in C2 as well. The morphology of the CN and the C2 shells is essentially equal on the same observational date. They have the same radii and show almost identical asymmetries which suggests that CN and C2 in the shells originate from the same general source. The comparison of the jets in both species before and after a two-dimensional continuum subtraction supports this supposition. The similar morphology of the jets indicates that both species are produced from the same bulk of precursor material which has been ejected in the form of jets from the same active area. However, similarly located and oriented jets in CN and C2 do not show similar relative intensities in most cases. These differences in the intensity distribution imply that the production rates of CN and C2 follow different laws.

  13. Controlled Synthesis of Au@AgAu Yolk-Shell Cuboctahedra with Well-Defined Facets.

    PubMed

    Londono-Calderon, Alejandra; Bahena, Daniel; Yacaman, Miguel J

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of Au@AgAu yolk-shell cuboctahedra nanoparticles formed by galvanic replacement in a seed-mediated method is described. Initially, single-crystal Au seeds are used for the formation of Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes, which serve as the template material for the deposition of an external Au layer. The well-controlled synthesis yields the formation of cuboctahedra nanoparticles with smooth inner and outer Au/Ag surfaces. The deposition/oxidation process is described to understand the formation of cuboctahedra and octahedra nanoparticles. The Au core maintains the initial morphology of the seed and remains static at the center of the yolk-shell because of residual Ag. Structural analysis of the shell indicates intrinsic stacking faults (SFs) near the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) compositional analysis show an Au-Ag nonordered alloy forming the shell. The three-dimensional structure of the nanoparticles presented open facets on the [111] as observed by electron tomography SIRT reconstruction over a stack of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. The geometrical model was validated by analyzing the direction of streaks in coherent nanobeam diffraction (NBD). The catalytic activity was evaluated using a model reaction based on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NTP) by NaBH4 in the presence of Au@AgAu yolk-shell nanoparticles. PMID:27385583

  14. A yolk-shell design for stabilized and scalable li-ion battery alloy anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nian; Wu, Hui; McDowell, Matthew T; Yao, Yan; Wang, Chongmin; Cui, Yi

    2012-06-13

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For use in practical applications, a Si electrode must have high capacity, long cycle life, high efficiency, and the fabrication must be industrially scalable. Here, we design and fabricate a yolk-shell structure to meet all these needs. The fabrication is carried out without special equipment and mostly at room temperature. Commercially available Si nanoparticles are completely sealed inside conformal, thin, self-supporting carbon shells, with rationally designed void space in between the particles and the shell. The well-defined void space allows the Si particles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell, therefore stabilizing the solid-electrolyte interphase on the shell surface. High capacity (∼2800 mAh/g at C/10), long cycle life (1000 cycles with 74% capacity retention), and high Coulombic efficiency (99.84%) have been realized in this yolk-shell structured Si electrode. PMID:22551164

  15. Anion-dye-induced spectral sensitization of holographic microsystems core-silver halide shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurin, A. V.; Zhukov, S. A.; Churashov, V. P.; Bekshaev, A. Y.

    2015-11-01

    We have studied spectral sensitization with anionic dyes of holographic microsystems "core - silver halide shell" (CSHS), cores of which can be either nonsilver or silver halide compounds. Conditions under which dye sensitizers, being adsorbed on cores, remain under silver halide shells after their growing are considered. Comparison of results of sensitometric and low-temperature (T = 77 K) luminescent measurements have shown that these conditions are determined by the charge state of cations of microsystem cores. If the shell contains the same univalent component in its composition as the core does, as in the case in which the core is a silver halide compound, the anionic dye is displaced to the outer surface of the shell. If the core contains a divalent cationic component, as in the case in which the core is a nonsilver compound, the dye remains under the silver halide shell; i.e., it is overgrown by the shell. We have shown that the charge state of core cations affects the character of the core interaction with anionic dyes, which ensures differences in the spectral sensitization of CSHS microsystems, as well as differences in the dye photoexcitation relaxation in them. We have found that supersensitization of AgBr microcrystals sensitized by infrachromatic dye affects the interaction between the dye aggregates and the surface silver ions, which induces modification of the holographic microsystems' spectral sensitivity range.

  16. Synthesis of triple-layered Ag@Co@Ni core-shell nanoparticles for the catalytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fangyuan; Liu, Guang; Li, Li; Wang, Ying; Xu, Changchang; An, Cuihua; Chen, Chengcheng; Xu, Yanan; Huang, Yanan; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-01-01

    Triple-layered Ag@Co@Ni core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) containing a silver core, a cobalt inner shell, and a nickel outer shell were formed by an in situ chemical reduction method. The thickness of the double shells varied with different cobalt and nickel contents. Ag0.04 @Co0.48 @Ni0.48 showed the most distinct core-shell structure. Compared with its bimetallic core-shell counterparts, this catalyst showed higher catalytic activity for the hydrolysis of NH3 BH3 (AB). The synergetic interaction between Co and Ni in Ag0.04 @Co0.48 @Ni0.48 NPs may play a critical role in the enhanced catalytic activity. Furthermore, cobalt-nickel double shells surrounding the silver core in the special triple-layered core-shell structure provided increasing amounts of active sites on the surface to facilitate the catalytic reaction. These promising catalysts may lead to applications for AB in the field of fuel cells. PMID:24302541

  17. The Hard Problem of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the “hard problem of cooperation” as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior. PMID:22792282

  18. The hard problem of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior. PMID:22792282

  19. Structural basis for the fracture toughness of the shell of the conch Strombus gigas.

    PubMed

    Kamat, S; Su, X; Ballarini, R; Heuer, A H

    2000-06-29

    Natural composite materials are renowned for their mechanical strength and toughness: despite being highly mineralized, with the organic component constituting not more than a few per cent of the composite material, the fracture toughness exceeds that of single crystals of the pure mineral by two to three orders of magnitude. The judicious placement of the organic matrix, relative to the mineral phase, and the hierarchical structural architecture extending over several distinct length scales both play crucial roles in the mechanical response of natural composites to external loads. Here we use transmission electron microscopy studies and beam bending experiments to show that the resistance of the shell of the conch Strombus gigas to catastrophic fracture can be understood quantitatively by invoking two energy-dissipating mechanisms: multiple microcracking in the outer layers at low mechanical loads, and crack bridging in the shell's tougher middle layers at higher loads. Both mechanisms are intimately associated with the so-called crossed lamellar microarchitecture of the shell, which provides for 'channel' cracking in the outer layers and uncracked structural features that bridge crack surfaces, thereby significantly increasing the work of fracture, and hence the toughness, of the material. Despite a high mineral content of about 99% (by volume) of aragonite, the shell of Strombus gigas can thus be considered a 'ceramic plywood' and can guide the biomimetic design of tough, lightweight structures. PMID:10890440

  20. Structural basis for the fracture toughness of the shell of the conch Strombus gigas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamat, S.; Su, X.; Ballarini, R.; Heuer, A. H.

    2000-06-01

    Natural composite materials are renowned for their mechanical strength and toughness: despite being highly mineralized, with the organic component constituting not more than a few per cent of the composite material, the fracture toughness exceeds that of single crystals of the pure mineral by two to three orders of magnitude. The judicious placement of the organic matrix, relative to the mineral phase, and the hierarchical structural architecture extending over several distinct length scales both play crucial roles in the mechanical response of natural composites to external loads. Here we use transmission electron microscopy studies and beam bending experiments to show that the resistance of the shell of the conch Strombus gigas to catastrophic fracture can be understood quantitatively by invoking two energy-dissipating mechanisms: multiple microcracking in the outer layers at low mechanical loads, and crack bridging in the shell's tougher middle layers at higher loads. Both mechanisms are intimately associated with the so-called crossed lamellar microarchitecture of the shell, which provides for `channel' cracking in the outer layers and uncracked structural features that bridge crack surfaces, thereby significantly increasing the work of fracture, and hence the toughness, of the material. Despite a high mineral content of about 99% (by volume) of aragonite, the shell of Strombus gigas can thus be considered a `ceramic plywood', and can guide the biomimetic design of tough, lightweight structures.

  1. Multilayered silica-biopolymer nanocapsules with a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic tunable shell thickness.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Raffaele; Luciani, Giuseppina; Calcagno, Vincenzo; Jakhmola, Anshuman; Silvestri, Brigida; Guarnieri, Daniela; Belli, Valentina; Costantini, Aniello; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-04-21

    Stable, biocompatible, multifunctional and multicompartment nanocarriers are much needed in the field of nanomedicine. Here, we report a simple, novel strategy to design an engineered nanocarrier system featuring an oil-core/hybrid polymer/silica-shell. Silica shells with a tunable thickness were grown in situ, directly around a highly mono-disperse and stable oil-in-water emulsion system, stabilized by a double bio-functional polyelectrolyte heparin/chitosan layer. Such silica showed a complete degradation in a physiological medium (SBF) in a time frame of three days. Moreover, the outer silica shell was coated with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) in order to confer antifouling properties to the final nanocapsule. The outer silica layer combined its properties (it is an optimal bio-interface for bio-conjugations and for the embedding of hydrophilic drugs in the porous structure) with the capability to stabilize the oil core for the confinement of high payloads of lipophilic tracers (e.g. CdSe quantum dots, Nile Red) and drugs. In addition, polymer layers - besides conferring stability to the emulsion while building the silica shell - can be independently exploited if suitably functionalized, as demonstrated by conjugating chitosan with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Such numerous features in a single nanocarrier system make it very intriguing as a multifunctional platform for smart diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27065306

  2. Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera near-infrared features in the outer parts of S4G galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Seppo; Knapen, Johan H.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Kim, Taehyun; Comerón, Sébastien; Martig, Marie; Holwerda, Benne W.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Johansson, Peter H.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Hinz, Joannah; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Mizusawa, Trisha; Regan, Michael W.; Salo, Heikki; Sheth, Kartik; Seibert, Mark; Buta, Ronald J.; Cisternas, Mauricio; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2014-11-01

    We present a catalogue and images of visually detected features, such as asymmetries, extensions, warps, shells, tidal tails, polar rings, and obvious signs of mergers or interactions, in the faint outer regions (at and outside of R25) of nearby galaxies. This catalogue can be used in future quantitative studies that examine galaxy evolution due to internal and external factors. We are able to reliably detect outer region features down to a brightness level of 0.03 MJy sr-1 pixel-1 at 3.6 μm in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G). We also tabulate companion galaxies. We find asymmetries in the outer isophotes in 22 ± 1 per cent of the sample. The asymmetry fraction does not correlate with galaxy classification as an interacting galaxy or merger remnant, or with the presence of companions. We also compare the detected features to similar features in galaxies taken from cosmological zoom re-simulations. The simulated images have a higher fraction (33 per cent) of outer disc asymmetries, which may be due to selection effects and an uncertain star formation threshold in the models. The asymmetries may have either an internal (e.g. lopsidedness due to dark halo asymmetry) or external origin.

  3. How quickly, how deeply, and how strongly can dynamical outer boundary conditions impact Van Allen radiation belt morphology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian R.; Ozeke, Louis G.

    2016-06-01

    Here we examine the speed, strength, and depth of the coupling between dynamical variations of ultrarelativistic electron flux at the outer boundary and that in the heart of the outer radiation belt. Using ULF wave radial diffusion as an exemplar, we show how changing boundary conditions can completely change belt morphology even under conditions of identical wave power. In the case of ULF wave radial diffusion, the temporal dynamics of a new source population or a sink of electron flux at the outer plasma sheet boundary can generate a completely opposite response which reaches deep into the belt under identical ULF wave conditions. Very significantly, here we show that such coupling can occur on timescales much faster than previously thought. We show that even on timescales ~1 h, changes in the outer boundary electron population can dramatically alter the radiation belt flux in the heart of the belt. Importantly, these flux changes can at times occur on timescales much faster than the L shell revisit time obtained from elliptically orbiting satellites such as the Van Allen Probes. We underline the importance of such boundary condition effects when seeking to identify the physical processes which explain the dominant behavior of the Van Allen belts. Overall, we argue in general that the importance of temporal changes in the boundary conditions is sometimes overlooked in comparison to the pursuit of (ever) increasingly accurate estimates of wave power and other wave properties used in empirical representations of wave transport and diffusion rates.

  4. CuGaS2 hollow spheres from Ga-CuS core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cha, Ji-Hyun; Jung, Duk-Young

    2014-05-01

    A liquid gallium emulsion was prepared as a starting material using ultrasound treatment in ethylene glycol. Core-shell particles of Ga@CuS were successfully synthesized by deposition of a CuS layer on gallium droplets through sonochemical deposition of copper ions and thiourea in an alcohol media. The core and shell of Ga@CuS products were composed of amorphous gallium metal and covellite phase CuS, which transformed into chalcopyrite CuGaS2 hollow spheres after sulfurization at 450°C, which was the lowest crystallization temperature. The formation of hollow nanostructures was ascribed to the Kirkendall mechanism, in which liquid gallium particles play an important role as reactive templates. In conclusion, we obtained CuGaS2 hollow spheres with a 430 nm outer diameter and 120 nm shell thickness that had the same crystal structure and electrical properties as bulk CuGaS2. PMID:24365224

  5. The Electron Shell and Alpha Decay in Super-Heavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil'Sky, Yu. M.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of the electron shell on the characteristics of the alpha decay of the 294118 isotope, as an example of a super-heavy atom, is studied theoretically. The calculation is based on direct solution of the Schrödinger equation. The rigorous quantum-mechanical approach being developed makes possible the outer boundary condition of the alpha-particle diverging wave to be taken into account properly. The effect under discussion depends on the behavior of the function of electron density both in the classically-forbidden and the classically-allowed areas of alpha-particle motion. A principally new effect - increasing of the decay rate originated by the part of electron shell located in the classically-allowed area - is revealed in the chosen example. The influence of relativistic properties of inner electrons, scenario of penetration of the alpha-particle through the atomic shell and finite size of nucleus are also studied.

  6. Enceladus's internal ocean and ice shell constrained from Cassini gravity, shape, and libration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čadek, Ondřej; Tobie, Gabriel; Van Hoolst, Tim; Massé, Marion; Choblet, Gaël.; Lefèvre, Axel; Mitri, Giuseppe; Baland, Rose-Marie; Běhounková, Marie; Bourgeois, Olivier; Trinh, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    The intense plume activity at the South Pole of Enceladus together with the recent detection of libration hints at an internal water ocean underneath the outer ice shell. However, the interpretation of gravity, shape, and libration data leads to contradicting results regarding the depth of ocean/ice interface and the total volume of the ocean. Here we develop an interior structure model consisting of a rocky core, an internal ocean, and an ice shell, which satisfies simultaneously the gravity, shape, and libration data. We show that the data can be reconciled by considering isostatic compensation including the effect of a few hundred meter thick elastic lithosphere. Our model predicts that the core radius is 180-185 km, the ocean density is at least 1030 kg/m3, and the ice shell is 18-22 km thick on average. The ice thicknesses are reduced at poles decreasing to less than 5 km in the south polar region.

  7. Making Nozzles From Hard Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Dennis L.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed method of electrical-discharge machining (EDM) cuts hard materials like silicon carbide into smoothly contoured parts. Concept developed for fabrication of interior and exterior surfaces and internal cooling channels of convergent/divergent nozzles. EDM wire at skew angle theta creates hyperboloidal cavity in tube. Wire offset from axis of tube and from axis of rotation by distance equal to throat radius. Maintaining same skew angle as that used to cut hyperboloidal inner surface but using larger offset, cooling channel cut in material near inner hyperboloidal surface.

  8. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) Guideline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) consists of all activities undertaken to ensure that the electronics and materials of a space system perform to their design specifications after exposure to the mission space environment. The subset of interests for NEPP and the REAG, are EEE parts. It is important to register that all of these undertakings are in a feedback loop and require constant iteration and updating throughout the mission life. More detail can be found in the reference materials on applicable test data for usage on parts.

  9. Thermodynamic stability in elastic systems: Hard spheres embedded in a finite spherical elastic solid.

    PubMed

    Solano-Altamirano, J M; Goldman, Saul

    2015-12-01

    We determined the total system elastic Helmholtz free energy, under the constraints of constant temperature and volume, for systems comprised of one or more perfectly bonded hard spherical inclusions (i.e. "hard spheres") embedded in a finite spherical elastic solid. Dirichlet boundary conditions were applied both at the surface(s) of the hard spheres, and at the outer surface of the elastic solid. The boundary conditions at the surface of the spheres were used to describe the rigid displacements of the spheres, relative to their initial location(s) in the unstressed initial state. These displacements, together with the initial positions, provided the final shape of the strained elastic solid. The boundary conditions at the outer surface of the elastic medium were used to ensure constancy of the system volume. We determined the strain and stress tensors numerically, using a method that combines the Neuber-Papkovich spherical harmonic decomposition, the Schwartz alternating method, and Least-squares for determining the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients. The total system elastic Helmholtz free energy was determined by numerically integrating the elastic Helmholtz free energy density over the volume of the elastic solid, either by a quadrature, or a Monte Carlo method, or both. Depending on the initial position of the hard sphere(s) (or equivalently, the shape of the un-deformed stress-free elastic solid), and the displacements, either stationary or non-stationary Helmholtz free energy minima were found. The non-stationary minima, which involved the hard spheres nearly in contact with one another, corresponded to lower Helmholtz free energies, than did the stationary minima, for which the hard spheres were further away from one another. PMID:26701708

  10. Corrugated outer sheath gas-insulated transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Kemeny, George A.; Cookson, Alan H.

    1981-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes two transmission line sections each of which are formed of a corrugated outer housing enclosing an inner high-voltage conductor disposed therein, with insulating support means supporting the inner conductor within the outer housing and an insulating gas providing electrical insulation therebetween. The outer housings in each section have smooth end sections at the longitudinal ends thereof which are joined together by joining means which provide for a sealing fixed joint.

  11. The curse of physiology—challenges and opportunities in the interpretation of geochemical data from mollusk shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    2008-10-01

    Physiology corrupts geochemical records of mollusk shells in many ways, e.g., by actively controlling the incorporation of trace elements in the skeleton. However, the effects of variable biomineralization rates and growth cessation have largely remained unconsidered. Mediated by endogenous timekeeping mechanisms, mollusks stop growing skeletal material on a regular basis ranging from ultradian to annual timescales. During growth cessation, the shells do not record environmental conditions. Shell growth also stops when environmental conditions are beyond the physiological tolerance of the organism, e.g., above and below genetically determined, species-specific thermal extremes where shell growth slows and eventually ceases. Such growth disruptions can occur at non-periodic time intervals. Due to growth retardations and halts, proxy records of mollusk shells are thus incomplete, and reconstructed environmental amplitudes prone to truncation. Furthermore, environmental records are biased toward the physiological optimum of the animal. Favorable environmental conditions increase shell growth, whereas adverse environmental conditions result in reduced shell production and lowered overall metabolism. Not least, the duration of the growing season and overall growth rate decrease as the mollusk grows older. Mathematical modeling approaches can significantly improve proxy records obtained from mollusk shells. For example, if the duration of growth cessation is known, it may be possible to model the missing environmental record. It is also fairly easy to account for age-related growth trends, or variable time-averaging in different portions of the shell. However, a major premise for a reliable interpretation of proxy records from a mollusk shell or other organisms secreting biogenic hard parts is a proper understanding of the physiology, and of course, a high-resolution record of the many different environmental factors that may influence physiology and shell growth. The

  12. Simulating the Outer Radiation Belt During the Rising Phase of Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Glocer, Alex; Zheng, Qiuhua; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Kanekal, Shri; Nagai, Tsungunobu; Albert, Jay

    2011-01-01

    After prolonged period of solar minimum, there has been an increase in solar activity and its terrestrial consequences. We are in the midst of the rising phase of solar cycle 24, which began in January 2008. During the initial portion of the cycle, moderate geomagnetic storms occurred follow the 27 day solar rotation. Most of the storms were accompanied by increases in electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt. These enhancements were often preceded with rapid dropout at high L shells. We seek to understand the similarities and differences in radiation belt behavior during the active times observed during the of this solar cycle. This study includes extensive data and simulations our Radiation Belt Environment Model. We identify the processes, transport and wave-particle interactions, that are responsible for the flux dropout and the enhancement and recovery.

  13. Tectonics of the Outer Planet Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinnon, W. B.; Collins, G. C.; Moore, J. M.; Nimmo, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Prockter, L. M.; Schenk, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Tectonic features on the satellites of the outer planets range from the familiar, such as clearly recognizable graben on many satellites, to the bizarre, such as the ubiquitous double ridges on Europa, the twisting sets of ridges on Triton, or the isolated giant mountains rising from Io's surface. All of the large and middle-sized outer planet satellites except Io are dominated by water ice near their surfaces. Though ice is a brittle material at the cold temperatures found in the outer solar system, the amount of energy it takes to bring it close to its melting point is lower than for a rocky body. Therefore, some unique features of icy satellite tectonics may be influenced by a near-surface ductile layer beneath the brittle surface material, and several of the icy satellites may possess subsurface oceans. Sources of stress to drive tectonism are commonly dominated by the tides that deform these satellites as they orbit their primary giant planets. On several satellites, the observed tectonic features may be the result of changes in their tidal figures, or motions of their solid surfaces with respect to their tidal figures. Other driving mechanisms for tectonics include volume changes due to ice or water phase changes in the interior, thermoelastic stress, deformation of the surface above rising diapirs of warm ice, and motion of subsurface material toward large impact basins as they fill in and relax. Most satellites exhibit evidence for extensional deformation, and some exhibit strike-slip faulting, whereas contractional tectonism appears to be rare. Io s surface is unique, exhibiting huge isolated mountains that may be blocks of crust tilting and foundering into the rapidly emptying interior as the surface is constantly buried by deposits from hyperactive volcanoes. Of the satellites, diminutive Enceladus is spectacularly active; its south polar terrain is a site of young tectonism, copious heat flow, and tall plumes venting into space. Europa's surface is

  14. Biogenesis of outer membranes in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Hajime

    2009-03-23

    The outer membrane, an essential organelle of Gram-negative bacteria, is composed of four major components: lipopolysaccharide, phospholipids, beta-barrel proteins, and lipoproteins. The mechanisms underlying the transport of these components to outer membranes are currently under extensive examination. Among them, the sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli has been clarified in detail. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes outer membrane sorting of lipoproteins. Various Lpt proteins have recently been identified as factors involved in the transport of lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane, although the mechanism remains largely unknown. Proteins with alpha-helical membrane spanning segments are found in the inner membrane, whereas amphipathic beta-barrel proteins span the outer membrane. These beta-barrel proteins are inserted into the outer membranes through a central core protein BamA (YaeT) with the help of four outer membrane lipoproteins. In contrast, little is known about how phospholipids are transported to the outer membrane. PMID:19270402

  15. Highly-resolved 2D HYDRA simulations of Double-Shell Ignition Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Milovich, J L; Amendt, P; Hamza, A; Marinak, M; Robey, H

    2006-06-30

    Double-shell (DS) targets (Amendt, P. A. et al., 2002) offer a complementary approach to the cryogenic baseline design (Lindl, J. et al., 2004) for achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Among the expected benefits are the ease of room temperature preparation and fielding, the potential for lower laser backscatter and the reduced need for careful shock timing. These benefits are offset, however, by demanding fabrication tolerances, e.g., shell concentricity and shell surface smoothness. In particular, the latter is of paramount importance since DS targets are susceptible to the growth of interface perturbations from impulsive and time-dependent accelerations. Previous work (Milovich, J. L. et al., 2004) has indicated that the growth of perturbations on the outer surface of the inner shell is potentially disruptive. To control this instability new designs have been proposed requiring bimetallic inner shells and material-matching mid-Z nanoporous foam. The challenges in manufacturing such exotic foams have led to a further evaluation of the densities and pore sizes needed to reduce the seeding of perturbations on the outer surface of the inner shell, thereby guiding the ongoing material science research efforts. Highly-resolved 2D simulations of porous foams have been performed to establish an upper limit on the allowable pore sizes for instability growth. Simulations indicate that foams with higher densities than previously thought are now possible. Moreover, while at the present time we are only able to simulate foams with average pore sizes larger than 1 micron (due to computational limitations), we can conclude that these pore sizes are potentially problematic. Furthermore, the effect of low-order hohlraum radiation asymmetries on the growth of intrinsic surface perturbations is also addressed. Highly-resolved 2D simulations indicate that the transverse flows that are set up by these low-order mode features (which can excite Kelvin

  16. The effects of laterally varying icy shell structure on the tidal response of Europa and Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahr, J. M.; A, G.; Zhong, S.

    2013-12-01

    One of the long-sought objectives of an icy moon orbiter or fly-by mission, has been to use tidal observations to help determine the existence of a liquid ocean and characteristics of the overlying icy shell. The radio science component of such a mission could be used to estimate the tidal potential Love number k2 for gravity. And if there is an on-board laser altimeter, it could be used to determine the radial displacement Love number h2. Knowledge of either of those Love numbers could provide information on the presence of an ocean beneath the icy outer shell, and the two Love numbers could be combined to place constraints on the thickness of the icy shell. Though if a subsurface ocean exists, complications could conceivably arise if the icy outer shell has significant lateral variations in elastic thickness or shear modulus, or if the ocean is not global in extent so that the icy shell is grounded in places but floating in others. In these cases, the tidal deformation pattern would not be represented as the sum of degree 2 harmonics, and so the results could not be characterized in terms of a single Love number. In this study, by solving a set of tidal loading problems with laterally variable icy shell structures (for which the existence of an ocean layer is assumed), we investigate how those structures might complicate the interpretation of the tide measurements, and we discuss how to extract information regarding the interior structure of Ganymede and Europa from measurements of their tidal response.

  17. Controlled synthesis and magnetic properties of bimagnetic spinel ferrite CoFe2O4 and MnFe2O4 nanocrystals with core-shell architecture.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing; Zhang, Z John

    2012-06-20

    A combination of hard phase CoFe(2)O(4) and soft phase MnFe(2)O(4) as the bimagnetic nanocrystals in a core-shell architecture has been synthesized, and their magnetic properties have been systematically studied. Both HRTEM and EDS results confirmed the formation of bimagnetic core-shell structured nanocrystals. On the basis of the systematic and comparative studies of the magnetic properties of a mechanical mixture of pure CoFe(2)O(4) and MnFe(2)O(4) nanocrystals, chemically mixed Co(1-x)Mn(x)Fe(2)O(4) nanocrystals, and bimagnetic core-shell CoFe(2)O(4)@MnFe(2)O(4) and MnFe(2)O(4)@CoFe(2)O(4) nanocrystals, the bimagnetic core-shell nanocrystals show very unique magnetic properties, such as the blocking temperature and coercivity. Our results show that the coercivity correlates with the volume fraction of the soft phase as the theoretical hard-soft phase model has suggested. Furthermore, switching the hard phase CoFe(2)O(4) from the core to the shell shows great changes in the coercivity of the nanocrystals. The bimagnetic core-shell nanocrystals evidently demonstrate the rational design capability to separately control the blocking temperature and the coercivity in magnetic nanocrystals by varying the materials, their combination, and the volume ratio between the core and the shell and by switching hard or soft phase materials between the core and shell. Such controls via a bimagnetic core-shell architecture are highly desirable for magnetic nanocrystals in various applications. PMID:22621435

  18. Hardness correlation for uranium and its alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D L; Romig, Jr, A D

    1983-03-01

    The hardness of 16 different uranium-titanium (U-Ti) alloys was measured on six (6) different hardness scales (R/sub A/, R/sub B/, R/sub C/, R/sub D/, Knoop, and Vickers). The alloys contained between 0.75 and 2.0 wt % Ti. All of the alloys were solutionized (850/sup 0/C, 1 h) and ice-water quenched to produce a supersaturated martensitic phase. A range of hardnesses was obtained by aging the samples for various times and temperatures. The correlation of various hardness scales was shown to be virtually identical to the hardness-scale correlation for steels. For more-accurate conversion from one hardness scale to another, least-squares-curve fits were determined for the various hardness-scale correlations. 34 figures, 5 tables.

  19. The Magnetic Field in the Outer Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    One of the great achievements of Parker was the prediction that the solar magnetic field would be drawn into Archimedian spirals as it is carried away from the Sun by the solar wind. This prediction has been amply confirmed by many in situ measurements in the intervening four decades. But, Parker made his prediction for a solar wind that expands into infinite space while we now know that the local interstellar medium (LISM) is far from empty and, in fact, confines the solar wind to a finite volume, known as the heliosphere, that extends to approximately 100 AU in the upstream direction (the solar system is moving through the LISM). Voyagers 1/2, presently at -80 AU, are approaching the upstream boundaries of the heliosphere and returning data on the properties of the magnetic field. This is important for understanding how galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) reach the Earth. Voyagers show that the IMF at 10-80 AU behaves much as Parker predicted - with two important exceptions. This is not surprising since the field is essentially passively advected by the solar wind out to 80 AU. But, new models say that nearer the heliosphere boundaries the field plays a major role in the solar wind-LISM interaction. However, of the many physical ingredients that constitute the outer heliosphere, the magnetic field poses some of the most interesting and difficult numerical modeling problems. Presently, only a few results have been published and much remains to be done. Here I will summarize the expected and measured behavior of the magnetic field at 80 AU. Then I will describe modeling predictions beyond 80 AU: magnetic "tornadoes", polarity envelopes, the Axford-Cranfill effect, inner and outer magnetic walls and more. I will also list what I believe to be important new modeling objectives. Finally, I will speculate on what is happening with the magnetic field near the nose of the heliosphere. My conclusion is that models of GCR modulation rarely incorporate even crudely realistic

  20. Cenosphere formation from heavy fuel oil: a numerical analysis accounting for the balance between porous shells and internal pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vanteru M.; Rahman, Mustafa M.; Gandi, Appala N.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Schrecengost, Robert A.; Roberts, William L.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) as a fuel in industrial and power generation plants ensures the availability of energy at economy. Coke and cenosphere emissions from HFO combustion need to be controlled by particulate control equipment such as electrostatic precipitators, and collection effectiveness is impacted by the properties of these particulates. The cenosphere formation is a function of HFO composition, which varies depending on the source of the HFO. Numerical modelling of the cenosphere formation mechanism presented in this paper is an economical method of characterising cenosphere formation potential for HFO in comparison to experimental analysis of individual HFO samples, leading to better control and collection. In the present work, a novel numerical model is developed for understanding the global cenosphere formation mechanism. The critical diameter of the cenosphere is modelled based on the balance between two pressures developed in an HFO droplet. First is the pressure (Prpf) developed at the interface of the liquid surface and the inner surface of the accumulated coke due to the flow restriction of volatile components from the interior of the droplet. Second is the pressure due to the outer shell strength (PrC) gained from van der Walls energy of the coke layers and surface energy. In this present study it is considered that when PrC ≥ Prpf the outer shell starts to harden. The internal motion in the shell layer ceases and the outer diameter (DSOut) of the shell is then fixed. The entire process of cenosphere formation in this study is analysed in three phases: regression, shell formation and hardening, and post shell hardening. Variations in pressures during shell formation are analysed. Shell (cenosphere) dimensions are evaluated at the completion of droplet evaporation. The rate of fuel evaporation, rate of coke formation and coke accumulation are analysed. The model predicts shell outer diameters of 650, 860 and 1040 µm, and inner diameters are 360, 410

  1. Hard and Soft Safety Verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Anderson, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between and the effects of hard and soft safety verifications. Initially, the terminology should be defined and clarified. A hard safety verification is datum which demonstrates how a safety control is enacted. An example of this is relief valve testing. A soft safety verification is something which is usually described as nice to have but it is not necessary to prove safe operation. An example of a soft verification is the loss of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) casings from Shuttle flight, STS-4. When the main parachutes failed, the casings impacted the water and sank. In the nose cap of the SRBs, video cameras recorded the release of the parachutes to determine safe operation and to provide information for potential anomaly resolution. Generally, examination of the casings and nozzles contributed to understanding of the newly developed boosters and their operation. Safety verification of SRB operation was demonstrated by examination for erosion or wear of the casings and nozzle. Loss of the SRBs and associated data did not delay the launch of the next Shuttle flight.

  2. Semiclassical environment of collapsing shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Kinjal; Paranjape, Aseem

    2009-12-01

    We explore in detail the semiclassical environment of collapsing shells of matter, and determine the semiclassical flux measured by a variety of observers. This study is a preliminary step in a broader investigation of thermodynamic properties of the geometry of collapsing objects. Specifically, in this paper we consider spherically symmetric null and timelike collapsing shells which form an event horizon, and calculate the flux measured by observers both inside and outside the shell, and both inside and outside the event horizon, and find nontrivial results in most of the cases. Additionally, we also investigate the environment of a shell which collapses but does not form a horizon, halting at some radius larger than the Schwarzschild radius, and find that such an object generically gives rise to a pulse of radiation which is sharply peaked as it travels inwards and is reflected at the origin, and eventually emerges from the shell in a thermalized form. Our results have potential consequences in addressing questions pertaining, e.g. to black hole entropy and backreaction.

  3. Foam shell project: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1994-03-25

    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 {mu}m thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D{sub 2} or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE.

  4. Vibration of perforated cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousseau, Peter L.

    For a credible design of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target chamber, the vibration characteristics of the chamber must be completely understood. Target chambers are usually cylindrical or spherical in shape and contain hundreds of perforations (called ports) to allow access to the inside of the chamber. The fusion reaction within the chamber creates a uniform impulsive loading, which the chamber walls must be designed to contain. Also prior to an implosion, a delicate alignment process of the drivers and diagnostics takes place. The vibration of the chamber from rotating machinery, e.g., vacuum pumps, and ambient sources must be completely understood and accounted for during these alignment procedures. This dissertation examines the vibration characteristics of perforated cylindrical shells. Because the target chambers' thickness-to-radius ratio is small, such chambers can be modeled as thin shells. Included in the text is a literature review of perforated plates and shells and examples of the use of perforated structures in constructed and proposed ICF target chambers. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of perforated and unperforated cylindrical shells are studied analytically, numerically (via finite elements) and experimentally. Conclusions and comparisons between the different solution methods are made for both the perforated and unperforated cases. In addition, the dynamic response of perforated cylindrical shells to an axisymmetric impulsive loading has been identified. A demonstration showing how the convolution integral can be used to determine the response of a cylinder to a non-impulsive loading is presented.

  5. Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species

    PubMed Central

    Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M.; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskát, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO3, in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos. PMID:21561966

  6. Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskát, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E

    2011-11-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO(3), in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos. PMID:21561966

  7. Statistical mechanics of thin spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmrlj, Andrej; Nelson, David R.

    We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells via renormalization group calculations. It is well known that for flat solid membranes thermal fluctuations effectively increase the bending rigidity and reduce the bulk and shear moduli. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes and the local out-of-plane undulations leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells thermal fluctuations effectively produce negative surface tension, which is equivalent to applying external pressure. We find that small spherical shells are stable, but for sufficiently large shells this thermally generated ``pressure'' becomes big enough to crush spherical shells. Such shells can be reinflated by increasing internal pressure, where the effective shell size grows non-linearly as a function of internal pressure with a power law exponent characteristic for thermally fluctuating flat membranes under uniform tension.

  8. Unusual Formation of CoSe@carbon Nanoboxes, which have an Inhomogeneous Shell, for Efficient Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Han; Zhang, Jintao; Guan, Buyuan; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid hollow nanostructures with tailored shell architectures are attractive for electrochemical energy storage applications. Starting with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we demonstrate a facile formation of hybrid nanoboxes with complex shell architecture where a CoSe-enriched inner shell is intimately confined within a carbon-enriched outer shell (denoted as CoSe@carbon nanoboxes). The synthesis is realized through manipulation of the template-engaged reaction between Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) nanocubes and Se powder at elevated temperatures. By virtue of the structural and compositional features, these unique CoSe@carbon nanoboxes manifest excellent lithium-storage performance in terms of high specific capacity, exceptional rate capability, excellent cycling stability, and high initial Coulombic efficiency. PMID:27240303

  9. Raman spectra calculations for Si-Ge core-shell nanocrystals using ab initio real-space methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbitt, N. Scott; Chelikowsky, James R.

    We use a real-space pseudopotential method within density functional theory to calculate Raman spectra for Si-Ge core-shell nanocrystals. We examine the lattice strain induced by the interface of the core and the shell. We calculate how this strain affects the vibrational modes and Raman spectra. We also find that the relative size of the Si and Ge peaks in the Raman spectrum is proportional to the size of the Si core and Ge shell regions, which suggests that Raman spectroscopy can be used to experimentally determine the relative size of the core and the outer shell in these nanocrystals. This work is supported by the DOE under Grant Number DE-FG02-06ER46286. Computations were performed on machines at TACC and NERSC.

  10. Finite element modeling of conducting shells for eddy current NDE problems using ``impedance-type`` interface conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Badics, Z.; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kojima, Sota; Usui, Yoshihiko; Aoki, Kazuhiko; Nakayasu, Fumio

    1997-03-01

    A 3D finite element scheme is developed to calculate eddy current probe responses (impedance or induced emf changes of coils) due to conducting shells in eddy current NDE (nondestructive evaluation) problems. These problems are related to the eddy current inspection of copper and magnetite deposit zones of steam generator tubing in PWR atomic power plants. The finite element scheme uses impedance interface conditions to model the deposit shells and calculates the probe responses by performing integrals over the shell surfaces, thereby ensuring high accuracy even if the probe signal is very small. Two benchmark arrangements are investigated. One, which has an analytical solution, is a conducting thin plate with an impedance probe. The other is a stainless steel tube with a copper shell attached to its outer surface and scanned by a transmitter-receiver probe. In both problems, the calculated probe responses show good agreement with the analytical and experimental data.

  11. Infrared observations of outer planet satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.

    1988-01-01

    This task supports IR observations of the outer planet satellites. These data provide vital information about the thermophysical properties of satellite surfaces, including internal heat sources for Io. Observations include both broad and narrow band measurementsin the 2 to 20 micrometer spectral range. The program in the last year has aimed at obtaining lonitude coverage on Io to establish stability of hot spot patterns previously reported. Several runs produced the most complete data set for an apparition since the start of the program. Unfortunately, bad weather limited coverage of key longitude ranges containing the largest known hot spot Loki. Among the preliminary results is the observation of an outburst in Io's thermal flux that was measured at 4.8, 8.7 and 20 micrometer. Analysis of the data has given the best evidence to date of silicate volcanism on Io; this is one of the most significant pieces of the puzzle as to the relative roles of silicate and sulfur volcanism on Io. Researchers are collaborating with J. Goguen (NRC RRA to finish reduction of mutual event data, which have already improved ephermeris information for the satellites. The data appear to place significant limits on the characteristics of any leading side hot spots.

  12. Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles and Vaccine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Fernández, Sonsire; Zayas, Caridad; Acosta, Armando; Sarmiento, Maria Elena; Ferro, Valerie A.; Rosenqvist, Einar; Campa, Concepcion; Cardoso, Daniel; Garcia, Luis; Perez, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV) were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D) and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB) using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA), serogroup W (dOMVW), and serogroup X (dOMVX) were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC), Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP), Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM), and BCG (dOMVBCG). The immunogenicity of the OMV has been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice has shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin, and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates. PMID:24715891

  13. Outer Space is not Empty Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Pratap, P.; Riegel, R.

    2004-12-01

    Outer Space Is Not Empty Space is a learning unit that focuses on increasing comprehension of Astronomy, Chemistry, Physics, Physical Science, and Earth & Space science. It was designed as a self paced study with some teacher oversight. The unit was a result of an NSF funded Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The educational vehicle used in the unit is the Web Quest which consists of several Power Point presentations within four main topics in Radio Astronomy: Introduction, Light, Matter, and the Atmosphere. These Web Quests are a self paced series of educational materials that encourages the student to learn on his or her own. They consist of informational web sites placed within a Power Point presentation. They are not designed to be teacher classroom presentations since the paths taken by the student in the Power Points are nonlinear. Each Power Point presentations comes with an assessment to evaluate the students' understanding of the material. One of the goals of this learning unit is to encourage teacher and student use of two unique learning opportunities: the Small Radio Telescope (SRT) and remote use of the Haystack 37m Radio Telescope. The SRT was designed by engineers and scientists at M.I.T.s Haystack Observatory specifically for student use at the University or Secondary School level. The 37-m telescope is available via remote operation for educational projects. Descriptions of both instruments can be found at the MIT Haystack Observatory web site:

  14. The Outer Heliosphere: The Next Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, B.; Zank, G. P.

    Only a few decades after the formulation of the concept of a continuous solar corpus- cular radiation by Ludwig Biermann and a solar wind by Eugene Parker, heliospheric physics has evolved into an important branch of astrophysical research. The solar wind forms a bubble, called the heliosphere, in the local interstellar medium, within which the solar system resides and whose size and properties are determined by the manner in which the solar wind and the partially ionized local interstellar medium are coupled. In the last decade, great progress has been made in our understanding of the physical processes thought to describe the outer heliosphere. Numerous spacecraft missions have increased our knowledge about the large-scale structure, the properties, and the character of the heliosphere tremendously. of these, the ageing spacecraft Voyager 1,2 might encounter the inner border of the heliospheric boundary region in the not too distant future. Now, at the beginning of a new millenium, it seems possible, by newly developed technologies to send an interstellar probe beyond the boundaries of the he- liosphere, in order to explore the local interstellar medium in situ. We shall review our basic understanding of global heliospheric structure, emphasizing the importance of the LISM-solar wind coupling, emphasizing the demands and constraints that this places on a mission to the edge of interstellar space.

  15. The Outer Heliosphere: The Next Frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, K.; Fichtner, Horst; Fahr, Hans Jörg; Marsch, Eckart

    The 11th COSPAR Colloquium "The Outer Heliosphere: The Next Frontiers" was held in Potsdam, Germany, from July 24 to 28, 2000, and is the second dedicated to this subject after the first one held in Warsaw, Poland in 1989. Roughly a century has passed after the first ideas by Oliver Lodge, George Francis Fitzgerald and Kristan Birkeland about particle clouds emanating from the Sun and interacting with the Earth environment. Only a few decades after the formulation of the concepts of a continuous solar corpuscular radiation by Ludwig Bierman and a solar wind by Eugene Parker, heliospheric physics has evolved into an important branch of astrophysical research. Numerous spacecraft missions have increased the knowledge about the heliosphere tremendously. Now, at the beginning of a new millenium it seems possible, by newly developed propulasion technologies to send a spacecraft beyond the boundaries of the heliosphere. Such an Interstellar Proce will start the in-situ exploration of interstellar space and, thus, can be considered as the first true astrophysical spacecraft. The year 2000 appeared to be a highly welcome occassion to review the achievements since the last COSPAR Colloquia 11 years ago, to summarize the present developments and to give new impulse for future activities in heliospheric research.

  16. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles and vaccine applications.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Fernández, Sonsire; Zayas, Caridad; Acosta, Armando; Sarmiento, Maria Elena; Ferro, Valerie A; Rosenqvist, Einar; Campa, Concepcion; Cardoso, Daniel; Garcia, Luis; Perez, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV) were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D) and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB) using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA), serogroup W (dOMVW), and serogroup X (dOMVX) were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC), Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP), Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM), and BCG (dOMVBCG). The immunogenicity of the OMV has been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice has shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin, and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates. PMID:24715891

  17. Outer membrane vesicles as platform vaccine technology

    PubMed Central

    Stork, Michiel; van der Ley, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are released spontaneously during growth by many Gram‐negative bacteria. They present a range of surface antigens in a native conformation and have natural properties like immunogenicity, self‐adjuvation and uptake by immune cells which make them attractive for application as vaccines against pathogenic bacteria. In particular with Neisseria meningitidis, they have been investigated extensively and an OMV‐containing meningococcal vaccine has recently been approved by regulatory agencies. Genetic engineering of the OMV‐producing bacteria can be used to improve and expand their usefulness as vaccines. Recent work on meningitis B vaccines shows that OMVs can be modified, such as for lipopolysaccharide reactogenicity, to yield an OMV product that is safe and effective. The overexpression of crucial antigens or simultaneous expression of multiple antigenic variants as well as the expression of heterologous antigens enable expansion of their range of applications. In addition, modifications may increase the yield of OMV production and can be combined with specific production processes to obtain high amounts of well‐defined, stable and uniform OMV particle vaccine products. Further improvement can facilitate the development of OMVs as platform vaccine product for multiple applications. PMID:26912077

  18. Statistics of the outer radiation belt

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1996-07-01

    The highly variable electron flux levels in the outer radiation belt come about by competition between time-dependent source and loss mechanisms. In order to identify some of the different mechanisms involved, we examine the statistics of the variability of fluxes at geostationary orbit. Data from the SEM-2 analyzer on Meteosat-3 and from GOES-7 are used. Correlation analysis is used to find time-delays between changes in flux at different energies. We see that low energy flux is added to this region during sub-storms and that higher energy fluxes appear after 2 or 3 days. Whilst the timescale for this process is brief compared to a complete cycle of the {open_quote}Recirculation{close_quote} energization process, it is consistent with the timescale of its final step{endash}outward radial diffusion. By isolating periods when no new injection of plasma occurs, we make an assessment of flux loss rates in a quiet magnetosphere. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. THE OUTER MAGNETIC FIELD OF L183

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Dan P.

    2012-03-20

    The L183 (= L134N) dark molecular cloud has been probed using deep near-infrared imaging polarimetry of stars to beyond 14 mag in H band (1.6 {mu}m), using the Mimir instrument on the 1.83 m Perkins Telescope. Nearly 400 arcmin{sup 2} were surveyed, including the dense core in L183, as seen in WISE Band 3 (12 {mu}m) extinction, and the near surroundings, revealing 35 stars with either detected polarizations or significant upper limits. Stars with detected polarizations are reddened if closer than 8 arcmin (0.25 pc at the 110 pc cloud distance) and unreddened beyond. The polarimetric sample probes as close to the core as 3 arcmin (0.1 pc), where A{sub V} {approx} 14 mag. Compared to the relatively unextincted surrounding stars, the reddened stars show no increase in polarization with extinction, suggesting that all of the polarization is induced in the outer layers of the cloud. This 0.25 pc radius envelope magnetic field does show a strong interaction with the L183 dark cloud. The envelope field is also virtually perpendicular, on the plane of the sky, to the field seen at 850 {mu}m, though more closely aligned with the rotation axis of the dense gas core. The physical size scale at which the envelope and the core magnetic fields either decouple from each other or strongly modify their directions must be inside the 0.1 pc region probed here.

  20. Shell corrections in stopping powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichsel, H.

    2002-05-01

    One of the theories of the electronic stopping power S for fast light ions was derived by Bethe. The algorithm currently used for the calculation of S includes terms known as the mean excitation energy I, the shell correction, the Barkas correction, and the Bloch correction. These terms are described here. For the calculation of the shell corrections an atomic model is used, which is more realistic than the hydrogenic approximation used so far. A comparison is made with similar calculations in which the local plasma approximation is utilized. Close agreement with the experimental data for protons with energies from 0.3 to 10 MeV traversing Al and Si is found without the need for adjustable parameters for the shell corrections.