Science.gov

Sample records for hardware reuseable gateware

  1. A Scalable Correlator Architecture Based on Modular FPGA Hardware, Reuseable Gateware, and Data Packetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Aaron; Backer, Donald; Siemion, Andrew; Chen, Henry; Werthimer, Dan; Droz, Pierre; Filiba, Terry; Manley, Jason; McMahon, Peter; Parsa, Arash; MacMahon, David; Wright, Melvyn

    2008-11-01

    A new generation of radio telescopes is achieving unprecedented levels of sensitivity and resolution, as well as increased agility and field of view, by employing high-performance digital signal-processing hardware to phase and correlate signals from large numbers of antennas. The computational demands of these imaging systems scale in proportion to BMN2, where BB is the signal bandwidth, MM is the number of independent beams, and NN is the number of antennas. The specifications of many new arrays lead to demands in excess of tens of PetaOps per second. To meet this challenge, we have developed a general-purpose correlator architecture using standard 10-Gbit Ethernet switches to pass data between flexible hardware modules containing Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips. These chips are programmed using open-source signal-processing libraries that we have developed to be flexible, scalable, and chip-independent. This work reduces the time and cost of implementing a wide range of signal-processing systems, with correlators foremost among them, and facilitates upgrading to new generations of processing technology. We present several correlator deployments, including a 16-antenna, 200-MHz bandwidth, 4-bit, full-Stokes parameter application deployed on the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization.

  2. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  3. Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The full complement of EDOMP investigations called for a broad spectrum of flight hardware ranging from commercial items, modified for spaceflight, to custom designed hardware made to meet the unique requirements of testing in the space environment. In addition, baseline data collection before and after spaceflight required numerous items of ground-based hardware. Two basic categories of ground-based hardware were used in EDOMP testing before and after flight: (1) hardware used for medical baseline testing and analysis, and (2) flight-like hardware used both for astronaut training and medical testing. To ensure post-landing data collection, hardware was required at both the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) landing sites. Items that were very large or sensitive to the rigors of shipping were housed permanently at the landing site test facilities. Therefore, multiple sets of hardware were required to adequately support the prime and backup landing sites plus the Johnson Space Center (JSC) laboratories. Development of flight hardware was a major element of the EDOMP. The challenges included obtaining or developing equipment that met the following criteria: (1) compact (small size and light weight), (2) battery-operated or requiring minimal spacecraft power, (3) sturdy enough to survive the rigors of spaceflight, (4) quiet enough to pass acoustics limitations, (5) shielded and filtered adequately to assure electromagnetic compatibility with spacecraft systems, (6) user-friendly in a microgravity environment, and (7) accurate and efficient operation to meet medical investigative requirements.

  4. Controls concepts for next generation reuseable rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.; Musgrave, Jefferey L.; Ray, Asok

    1995-01-01

    Three primary issues will drive the design and control used in next generation reuseable rocket engines. In addition to steady-state and dynamic performance, the requirements for increased durability, reliability and operability (with faults) will dictate which new controls and design technologies and features will be brought to bear. An array of concepts which have been brought forward will be tested against the measures of cost and benefit as reflected in the above 'ilities'. This paper examines some of the new concepts and looks for metrics to judge their value.

  5. Hardly Hardware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2007-01-01

    In a never-ending search for new and inspirational still-life objects, the author discovered that home improvement retailers make great resources for art teachers. Hardware and building materials are inexpensive and have interesting and variable shapes. She especially liked the dryer-vent coils and the electrical conduit. These items can be…

  6. Hardware removal - extremity

    MedlinePlus

    Surgeons use hardware such as pins, plates, or screws to help fix a broken bone or to correct an abnormality in ... of pain or other problems related to the hardware, you may have surgery to remove the hardware. ...

  7. Hardware removal - extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007644.htm Hardware removal - extremity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Surgeons use hardware such as pins, plates, or screws to help ...

  8. Hardware Controller DNA Synthesizer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-27

    The program controls the operation of various hardware components of an automatic 12-channel parrallel oligosynthesizer. This involves accepting information regarding the DNA sequence to be generated and converting this into a series of instructions to I/O ports to actuate the appropriate hardware components. The design and function of the software is specific to a particular hardware platform and has no utility for controlling other configurations.

  9. Initial Hardware Development Schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William X.

    1991-01-01

    The hardware development schedule for the Common Lunar Lander's (CLLs) tracking system is presented. Among the topics covered are the following: historical perspective, solution options, industry contacts, and the rationale for selection.

  10. Hardware description languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  11. Bion 11 mission hardware.

    PubMed

    Golov, V K; Magedov, V S; Skidmore, M G; Hines, J W; Kozlovskaya, I B; Korolkov, V I

    2000-01-01

    The mission hardware provided for Bion 11 shared primate experiments included the launch vehicle, biosatellite, spaceflight operational systems, spacecraft recovery systems, life support systems, bioinstrumentation, and data collection systems. Under the unique Russia/US bilateral contract, the sides worked together to ensure the reliability and quality of hardware supporting the primate experiments. Parameters recorded inflight covered biophysical, biochemical, biopotential, environmental, and system operational status. PMID:11543453

  12. NASA HUNCH Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Nancy R.; Wagner, James; Phelps, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    What is NASA HUNCH? High School Students United with NASA to Create Hardware-HUNCH is an instructional partnership between NASA and educational institutions. This partnership benefits both NASA and students. NASA receives cost-effective hardware and soft goods, while students receive real-world hands-on experiences. The 2014-2015 was the 12th year of the HUNCH Program. NASA Glenn Research Center joined the program that already included the NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Langley Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center. The program included 76 schools in 24 states and NASA Glenn worked with the following five schools in the HUNCH Build to Print Hardware Program: Medina Career Center, Medina, OH; Cattaraugus Allegheny-BOCES, Olean, NY; Orleans Niagara-BOCES, Medina, NY; Apollo Career Center, Lima, OH; Romeo Engineering and Tech Center, Washington, MI. The schools built various parts of an International Space Station (ISS) middeck stowage locker and learned about manufacturing process and how best to build these components to NASA specifications. For the 2015-2016 school year the schools will be part of a larger group of schools building flight hardware consisting of 20 ISS middeck stowage lockers for the ISS Program. The HUNCH Program consists of: Build to Print Hardware; Build to Print Soft Goods; Design and Prototyping; Culinary Challenge; Implementation: Web Page and Video Production.

  13. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  14. Removal of broken hardware.

    PubMed

    Hak, David J; McElvany, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    Despite advances in metallurgy, fatigue failure of hardware is common when a fracture fails to heal. Revision procedures can be difficult, usually requiring removal of intact or broken hardware. Several different methods may need to be attempted to successfully remove intact or broken hardware. Broken intramedullary nail cross-locking screws may be advanced out by impacting with a Steinmann pin. Broken open-section (Küntscher type) intramedullary nails may be removed using a hook. Closed-section cannulated intramedullary nails require additional techniques, such as the use of guidewires or commercially available extraction tools. Removal of broken solid nails requires use of a commercial ratchet grip extractor or a bone window to directly impact the broken segment. Screw extractors, trephines, and extraction bolts are useful for removing stripped or broken screws. Cold-welded screws and plates can complicate removal of locked implants and require the use of carbide drills or high-speed metal cutting tools. Hardware removal can be a time-consuming process, and no single technique is uniformly successful. PMID:18252842

  15. Standard gas hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Stan

    1995-01-01

    The Sierra College Space Technology Program is currently building their third GAS payload in addition to a small satellite. The project is supported by an ARPA/TRP grant. One aspect of the grant is the design of standard hardware for Get Away Specials (GAS) payloads. A standard structure has been designed and work is progressing on a standard battery box and computer.

  16. The Hardware Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELECTRONIC Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Profiles 24 microcomputers used by educators in elementary and secondary schools, presenting information from manufacturers (price, memory, languages, keyboard, screen display, graphics, sound, color, networking, compatible machine) and teacher commentary. Four micro-guides dealing with understanding specifications, finding hardware reviews,…

  17. DCSP hardware maintenance system

    SciTech Connect

    Pazmino, M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper discusses the necessary changes to be implemented on the hardware side of the DCSP database. DCSP is currently tracking hardware maintenance costs in six separate databases. The goal is to develop a system that combines all data and works off a single database. Some of the tasks that will be discussed in this paper include adding the capability for report generation, creating a help package and preparing a users guide, testing the executable file, and populating the new database with data taken from the old database. A brief description of the basic process used in developing the system will also be discussed. Conclusions about the future of the database and the delivery of the final product are then addressed, based on research and the desired use of the system.

  18. Sterilization of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  19. Hardware Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-04-12

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32 bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain validated solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedra that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester. We show that the hardware accelerated solution is faster than the current technique used by scientists.

  20. RRFC hardware operation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Abhold, M.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Menlove, H.O.; Walton, G.

    1996-05-01

    The Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC) system was developed to assay the {sup 235}U content in spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) type fuel elements underwater in a spent fuel pool. RRFC assays the {sup 235}U content using active neutron coincidence counting and also incorporates an ion chamber for gross gamma-ray measurements. This manual describes RRFC hardware, including detectors, electronics, and performance characteristics.

  1. Hardware Counter Multiplexing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-10-13

    The Hardware Counter Multiplexer works with the built-in counter registers on computer processors. These counters record various low-level events as software runs, but they can not record all possible events at the same time. This software helps work around that limitation by counting a series of different events in sequence over a period of time. This in turn allows programmers to measure interesting combinations of events, rather than single events. The software is designed tomore » work with multithreaded or single-threaded programs.« less

  2. Mir hardware heritage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.

    1995-01-01

    The heritage of the major Mir complex hardware elements is described. These elements include Soyuz-TM and Progress-M; the Kvant, Kvant 2, and Kristall modules; and the Mir base block. Configuration changes and major mission events of the Salyut 6, Salyut 7, and Mir multiport space stations are described in detail for the period 1977-1994. A comparative chronology of U.S. and Soviet/Russian manned spaceflight is also given for that period. The 68 illustrations include comparative scale drawings of U.S. and Russian spacecraft as well as sequential drawings depicting missions and mission events.

  3. Robustness in Digital Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Roger; Lightbody, Gaye

    The growth in electronics has probably been the equivalent of the Industrial Revolution in the past century in terms of how much it has transformed our daily lives. There is a great dependency on technology whether it is in the devices that control travel (e.g., in aircraft or cars), our entertainment and communication systems, or our interaction with money, which has been empowered by the onset of Internet shopping and banking. Despite this reliance, there is still a danger that at some stage devices will fail within the equipment's lifetime. The purpose of this chapter is to look at the factors causing failure and address possible measures to improve robustness in digital hardware technology and specifically chip technology, giving a long-term forecast that will not reassure the reader!

  4. Hardware assisted hypervisor introspection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiangyong; Yang, Yuexiang; Tang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce hypervisor introspection, an out-of-box way to monitor the execution of hypervisors. Similar to virtual machine introspection which has been proposed to protect virtual machines in an out-of-box way over the past decade, hypervisor introspection can be used to protect hypervisors which are the basis of cloud security. Virtual machine introspection tools are usually deployed either in hypervisor or in privileged virtual machines, which might also be compromised. By utilizing hardware support including nested virtualization, EPT protection and #BP, we are able to monitor all hypercalls belongs to the virtual machines of one hypervisor, include that of privileged virtual machine and even when the hypervisor is compromised. What's more, hypercall injection method is used to simulate hypercall-based attacks and evaluate the performance of our method. Experiment results show that our method can effectively detect hypercall-based attacks with some performance cost. Lastly, we discuss our furture approaches of reducing the performance cost and preventing the compromised hypervisor from detecting the existence of our introspector, in addition with some new scenarios to apply our hypervisor introspection system. PMID:27330913

  5. Hardware multiplier processor

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    A hardware processor is disclosed which in the described embodiment is a memory mapped multiplier processor that can operate in parallel with a 16 bit microcomputer. The multiplier processor decodes the address bus to receive specific instructions so that in one access it can write and automatically perform single or double precision multiplication involving a number written to it with or without addition or subtraction with a previously stored number. It can also, on a single read command automatically round and scale a previously stored number. The multiplier processor includes two concatenated 16 bit multiplier registers, two 16 bit concatenated 16 bit multipliers, and four 16 bit product registers connected to an internal 16 bit data bus. A high level address decoder determines when the multiplier processor is being addressed and first and second low level address decoders generate control signals. In addition, certain low order address lines are used to carry uncoded control signals. First and second control circuits coupled to the decoders generate further control signals and generate a plurality of clocking pulse trains in response to the decoded and address control signals.

  6. Hardware multiplier processor

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, P.E.

    A hardware processor is disclosed which in the described embodiment is a memory mapped multiplier processor that can operate in parallel with a 16 bit microcomputer. The multiplier processor decodes the address bus to receive specific instructions so that in one access it can write and automatically perform single or double precision multiplication involving a number written to it with or without addition or subtraction with a previously stored number. It can also, on a single read command automatically round and scale a previously stored number. The multiplier processor includes two concatenated 16 bit multiplier registers, two 16 bit concatenated 16 bit multipliers, and four 16 bit product registers connected to an internal 16 bit data bus. A high level address decoder determines when the multiplier processor is being addressed and first and second low level address decoders generate control signals. In addition, certain low order address lines are used to carry uncoded control signals. First and second control circuits coupled to the decoders generate further control signals and generate a plurality of clocking pulse trains in response to the decoded and address control signals.

  7. Hardware Removal in Craniomaxillofacial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Thomas J.; Gandhi, Rikesh; Allori, Alexander C.; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Powers, David; Erdmann, Detlev; Hollenbeck, Scott T.; Levinson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background Craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures are typically treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Open reduction and internal fixation can be complicated by hardware exposure or infection. The literature often does not differentiate between these 2 entities; so for this study, we have considered all hardware exposures as hardware infections. Approximately 5% of adults with CMF trauma are thought to develop hardware infections. Management consists of either removing the hardware versus leaving it in situ. The optimal approach has not been investigated. Thus, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken and a resultant evidence-based approach to the treatment and management of CMF hardware infections was devised. Materials and Methods A comprehensive search of journal articles was performed in parallel using MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect electronic databases. Keywords and phrases used were maxillofacial injuries; facial bones; wounds and injuries; fracture fixation, internal; wound infection; and infection. Our search yielded 529 articles. To focus on CMF fractures with hardware infections, the full text of English-language articles was reviewed to identify articles focusing on the evaluation and management of infected hardware in CMF trauma. Each article’s reference list was manually reviewed and citation analysis performed to identify articles missed by the search strategy. There were 259 articles that met the full inclusion criteria and form the basis of this systematic review. The articles were rated based on the level of evidence. There were 81 grade II articles included in the meta-analysis. Result Our meta-analysis revealed that 7503 patients were treated with hardware for CMF fractures in the 81 grade II articles. Hardware infection occurred in 510 (6.8%) of these patients. Of those infections, hardware removal occurred in 264 (51.8%) patients; hardware was left in place in 166 (32.6%) patients; and in 80 (15.6%) cases

  8. Flight Avionics Hardware Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael; Goforth, Monte; Chen, Yuan; Powell, Wes; Paulick, Paul; Vitalpur, Sharada; Buscher, Deborah; Wade, Ray; West, John; Redifer, Matt; Partridge, Harry; Sherman, Aaron; McCabe, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Avionics Technology Roadmap takes an 80% approach to technology investment in spacecraft avionics. It delineates a suite of technologies covering foundational, component, and subsystem-levels, which directly support 80% of future NASA space mission needs. The roadmap eschews high cost, limited utility technologies in favor of lower cost, and broadly applicable technologies with high return on investment. The roadmap is also phased to support future NASA mission needs and desires, with a view towards creating an optimized investment portfolio that matures specific, high impact technologies on a schedule that matches optimum insertion points of these technologies into NASA missions. The roadmap looks out over 15+ years and covers some 114 technologies, 58 of which are targeted for TRL6 within 5 years, with 23 additional technologies to be at TRL6 by 2020. Of that number, only a few are recommended for near term investment: 1. Rad Hard High Performance Computing 2. Extreme temperature capable electronics and packaging 3. RFID/SAW-based spacecraft sensors and instruments 4. Lightweight, low power 2D displays suitable for crewed missions 5. Radiation tolerant Graphics Processing Unit to drive crew displays 6. Distributed/reconfigurable, extreme temperature and radiation tolerant, spacecraft sensor controller and sensor modules 7. Spacecraft to spacecraft, long link data communication protocols 8. High performance and extreme temperature capable C&DH subsystem In addition, the roadmap team recommends several other activities that it believes are necessary to advance avionics technology across NASA: center dot Engage the OCT roadmap teams to coordinate avionics technology advances and infusion into these roadmaps and their mission set center dot Charter a team to develop a set of use cases for future avionics capabilities in order to decouple this roadmap from specific missions center dot Partner with the Software Steering Committee to coordinate computing hardware

  9. CHeCS Commanding Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) commanding hardware. It includes information on the hardware status, commanding plan, and command training status with specific information the EV-CPDS 2 and 3, TEPC, MEC, and T2

  10. NDAS Hardware Translation Layer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazaretian, Ryan N.; Holladay, Wendy T.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) project is aimed to replace all DAS software for NASA s Rocket Testing Facilities. There must be a software-hardware translation layer so the software can properly talk to the hardware. Since the hardware from each test stand varies, drivers for each stand have to be made. These drivers will act more like plugins for the software. If the software is being used in E3, then the software should point to the E3 driver package. If the software is being used at B2, then the software should point to the B2 driver package. The driver packages should also be filled with hardware drivers that are universal to the DAS system. For example, since A1, A2, and B2 all use the Preston 8300AU signal conditioners, then the driver for those three stands should be the same and updated collectively.

  11. Hardware cleanliness methodology and certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Lash, Thomas J.; Rawls, J. Richard

    1995-01-01

    Inadequacy of mass loss cleanliness criteria for selection of materials for contamination sensitive uses, and processing of flight hardware for contamination sensitive instruments is discussed. Materials selection for flight hardware is usually based on mass loss (ASTM E-595). However, flight hardware cleanliness (MIL 1246A) is a surface cleanliness assessment. It is possible for materials (e.g. Sil-Pad 2000) to pass ASTM E-595 and fail MIL 1246A class A by orders of magnitude. Conversely, it is possible for small amounts of nonconforming material (Huma-Seal conformal coating) to not present significant cleanliness problems to an optical flight instrument. Effective cleaning (precleaning, precision cleaning, and ultra cleaning) and cleanliness verification are essential for contamination sensitive flight instruments. Polish cleaning of hardware, e.g. vacuum baking for vacuum applications, and storage of clean hardware, e.g. laser optics, is discussed. Silicone materials present special concerns for use in space because of the rapid conversion of the outgassed residues to glass by solar ultraviolet radiation and/or atomic oxygen. Non ozone depleting solvent cleaning and institutional support for cleaning and certification are also discussed.

  12. Hardware Selection: A Nontechnical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiteka, Sebastian F.

    Presented in nontechnical language, this guide suggests criteria for the selection of three computer hardware essentials--a microcomputer, a monitor, and a printer. Factors to be considered in selecting the microcomputer are identified and discussed, including what the computer is to be used for, dealer support, software availability, modem…

  13. Police Communications: Humans and Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zannes, Estelle

    This volume presents an overview of police communications and analyzes the relationships between the people and hardware in the police system. Chapters discuss the development and use of such communication devices as the telegraph, telephone, and computers; the role of mass media, feedback, and communicative settings in human communication;…

  14. Microcomputer Hardware. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Centre-Southwest, Waco, TX.

    This course in microcomputer hardware is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored…

  15. Modular hardware synthesis using an HDL. [Hardware Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covington, J. A.; Shiva, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    Although hardware description languages (HDL) are becoming more and more necessary to automated design systems, their application is complicated due to the difficulty in translating the HDL description into an implementable format, nonfamiliarity of hardware designers with high-level language programming, nonuniform design methodologies and the time and costs involved in transfering HDL design software. Digital design language (DDL) suffers from all of the above problems and in addition can only by synthesized on a complete system and not on its subparts, making it unsuitable for synthesis using standard modules or prefabricated chips such as those required in LSI or VLSI circuits. The present paper presents a method by which the DDL translator can be made to generate modular equations that will allow the system to be synthesized as an interconnection of lower-level modules. The method involves the introduction of a new language construct called a Module which provides for the separate translation of all equations bounded by it.

  16. Microbiologic assay of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favero, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Review of the procedures used in the microbiological examination of space hardware. The general procedure for enumerating aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms and spores is outlined. Culture media and temperature-time cycles used for incubation are reviewed, along with assay systems designed for the enumeration of aerobic and anaerobic spores. The special problems which are discussed are involved in the precise and accurate enumeration of microorganisms on surfaces and in the neutralization of viable organisms buried inside solid materials that could be released to a planet's surface if the solid should be fractured. Special attention is given to sampling procedures including also the indirect techniques of surface assays of space hardware such as those using detachable or fallout strips. Some data on comparative levels of microbial contamination on lunar and planetary spacecraft are presented.

  17. Hardware-Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-08-04

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32-bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. The hardware accelerated solutions are accurate enough to enable scientists to explore the experimental design space with greater efficiency than the methods currently in use. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedral meshes that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester.

  18. Decoding: Codes and hardware implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzer, M. P.; Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The MST radars vary considerably from one installation to the next in the type of hardware, operating schedule and associated personnel. Most such systems do not have the computing power to decode in software when the decoding must be performed for each received pulse, as is required for certain sets of phase codes. These sets provide the best signal to sidelobe ratio when operating at the minimum band length allowed by the bandwidth of the transmitter. The development of the hardware phase decoder, and the applicability of each to decoding MST radar signals are discussed. A new design for a decoder which is very inexpensive to build, easy to add to an existing system and is capable of decoding on each received pulse using codes with a band length as short as one microsecond is presented.

  19. Hardware Fault Simulator for Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, L. M.; Timoc, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Breadboarded circuit is faster and more thorough than software simulator. Elementary fault simulator for AND gate uses three gates and shaft register to simulate stuck-at-one or stuck-at-zero conditions at inputs and output. Experimental results showed hardware fault simulator for microprocessor gave faster results than software simulator, by two orders of magnitude, with one test being applied every 4 microseconds.

  20. Hunting for hardware changes in data centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho dos Santos, M.; Steers, I.; Szebenyi, I.; Xafi, A.; Barring, O.; Bonfillou, E.

    2012-12-01

    With many servers and server parts the environment of warehouse sized data centres is increasingly complex. Server life-cycle management and hardware failures are responsible for frequent changes that need to be managed. To manage these changes better a project codenamed “hardware hound” focusing on hardware failure trending and hardware inventory has been started at CERN. By creating and using a hardware oriented data set - the inventory - with detailed information on servers and their parts as well as tracking changes to this inventory, the project aims at, for example, being able to discover trends in hardware failure rates.

  1. A novel visual hardware behavioral language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xueqin; Cheng, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    Most hardware behavioral languages just use texts to describe the behavior of the desired hardware design. This is inconvenient for VLSI designers who enjoy using the schematic approach. The proposed visual hardware behavioral language has the ability to graphically express design information using visual parallel models (blocks), visual sequential models (processes) and visual data flow graphs (which consist of primitive operational icons, control icons, and Data and Synchro links). Thus, the proposed visual hardware behavioral language can not only specify hardware concurrent and sequential functionality, but can also visually expose parallelism, sequentiality, and disjointness (mutually exclusive operations) for the hardware designers. That would make the hardware designers capture the design ideas easily and explicitly using this visual hardware behavioral language.

  2. Hardware and software reliability estimation using simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swern, Frederic L.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation technique is used to explore the validation of both hardware and software. It was concluded that simulation is a viable means for validating both hardware and software and associating a reliability number with each. This is useful in determining the overall probability of system failure of an embedded processor unit, and improving both the code and the hardware where necessary to meet reliability requirements. The methodologies were proved using some simple programs, and simple hardware models.

  3. GENI: Grid Hardware and Software

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-09

    GENI Project: The 15 projects in ARPA-E’s GENI program, short for “Green Electricity Network Integration,” aim to modernize the way electricity is transmitted in the U.S. through advances in hardware and software for the electric grid. These advances will improve the efficiency and reliability of electricity transmission, increase the amount of renewable energy the grid can utilize, and provide energy suppliers and consumers with greater control over their power flows in order to better manage peak power demand and cost.

  4. Automated Hardware-Identification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr.; Roxby, Donald L.

    1995-01-01

    "Compressed symbology" emerging technology involving one- and two-dimensional arrays of surface depressions to form optically readable dots. Patterns more durable and denser than common bar codes. Convey identification data in binary form and read by optoelectric sensors. Computers and compressed-symbology engraving machines they control constitute subsystems of "paperless" hardware-tracking and -identification systems coordinating flows of both identifying information and identified parts themselves, along with ancillary information like work orders. Modifications of software expected to accelerate marking operations, eliminate need for trial or practice marking, and reduce incidence of errors.

  5. Fundamental Hardware Design in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leathrum, James F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The development of Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) has introduced programming as a primary tool in the development of digital circuits. This work attempts to create a generic verification environment in which designs can be specified and verified using the Prototype Verification System (PVS). This is accomplished by providing library support for general hardware constructs. The environment is intended for use with any PLD and any PLD programming language. The goal of the environment is to allow the easy translation of digital designs to PVS and provide sufficient support to make verification possible without a great deal of effort.

  6. Exascale Hardware Architectures Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, S; Ang, J; Chiang, P; Carnes, B; Doerfler, D; Leininger, M; Dosanjh, S; Fields, P; Koch, K; Laros, J; Noe, J; Quinn, T; Torrellas, J; Vetter, J; Wampler, C; White, A

    2011-03-15

    The ASC Exascale Hardware Architecture working group is challenged to provide input on the following areas impacting the future use and usability of potential exascale computer systems: processor, memory, and interconnect architectures, as well as the power and resilience of these systems. Going forward, there are many challenging issues that will need to be addressed. First, power constraints in processor technologies will lead to steady increases in parallelism within a socket. Additionally, all cores may not be fully independent nor fully general purpose. Second, there is a clear trend toward less balanced machines, in terms of compute capability compared to memory and interconnect performance. In order to mitigate the memory issues, memory technologies will introduce 3D stacking, eventually moving on-socket and likely on-die, providing greatly increased bandwidth but unfortunately also likely providing smaller memory capacity per core. Off-socket memory, possibly in the form of non-volatile memory, will create a complex memory hierarchy. Third, communication energy will dominate the energy required to compute, such that interconnect power and bandwidth will have a significant impact. All of the above changes are driven by the need for greatly increased energy efficiency, as current technology will prove unsuitable for exascale, due to unsustainable power requirements of such a system. These changes will have the most significant impact on programming models and algorithms, but they will be felt across all layers of the machine. There is clear need to engage all ASC working groups in planning for how to deal with technological changes of this magnitude. The primary function of the Hardware Architecture Working Group is to facilitate codesign with hardware vendors to ensure future exascale platforms are capable of efficiently supporting the ASC applications, which in turn need to meet the mission needs of the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship Program. This issue is

  7. X-15 Hardware Design Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Harrison A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Historical events in the development of the X-15 hardware design are presented. Some of the topics covered include: (1) drivers that led to the development of the X-15; (2) X-15 space research objectives; (3) original performance targets; (4) the X-15 typical mission; (5) X-15 dimensions and weight; (5) the propulsion system; (6) X-15 development milestones; (7) engineering and manufacturing challenges; (8) the X-15 structure; (9) ballistic flight control; (10) landing gear; (11) nose gear; and (12) an X-15 program recap.

  8. Door Hardware and Installations; Carpentry: 901894.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to provide instruction in the selection, preparation, and installation of hardware for door assemblies. The course is divided into five blocks of instruction (introduction to doors and hardware, door hardware, exterior doors and jambs, interior doors and jambs, and a quinmester post-test) totaling…

  9. 16 CFR 1509.7 - Hardware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hardware. 1509.7 Section 1509.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.7 Hardware. (a) The hardware in a non-full-size baby crib shall...

  10. 16 CFR 1508.6 - Hardware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hardware. 1508.6 Section 1508.6 Commercial... FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.6 Hardware. (a) A crib shall be designed and constructed in a manner that eliminates from any hardware accessible to a child within the crib the possibility of the...

  11. Evaluating Interactive Video: Software and Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorge, Dennis H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses selection criteria for evaluating software and hardware used in interactive video based on experiences from the Purdue Academic Learning Opportunity System Project at Purdue University. Highlights include checklists for evaluating software and selecting hardware, including peripheral equipment; videodisc players; hardware compatibility;…

  12. Cooling tower hardware corrosion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, S.C.

    1983-01-31

    The data presented in this report are interim results of a continuing investigation into the corrosion resistance of metals in the environment of a large cooling tower. Some of the significant observations are as follows: the corrosion of susceptible metals occurs most rapidly in the warm fog conditions between the deck and mist filters; the application of stainless steel must be made on the basis of alloy chemistry and processing history. Some corrosion resistant alloys may develop cracking problems after improper heat treating or welding; combinations of aluminum bronze, stainless steel, and silicon bronze hardware were not susceptible to galvanic corrosion; the service life of structural steel is extended by coal tar epoxy coatings; aluminum coatings appear to protect structural steel on the tower deck and below the distribution nozzles. The corrosion of cooling tower hardware can be easily controlled through the use of 316 stainless steel and silicon bronze. The use of other materials which exhibit general resistance should be specified only after they have been tested in the form of structural assemblies such as weldments and bolted joints in each of the different tower zones.

  13. Electronic processing and control system with programmable hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalaj, Leon (Inventor); Fang, Wai-Chi (Inventor); Newell, Michael A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A computer system with reprogrammable hardware allowing dynamically allocating hardware resources for different functions and adaptability for different processors and different operating platforms. All hardware resources are physically partitioned into system-user hardware and application-user hardware depending on the specific operation requirements. A reprogrammable interface preferably interconnects the system-user hardware and application-user hardware.

  14. Product Assurance for Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Mike

    1995-01-01

    This report contains information about the tasks I have completed and the valuable experience I have gained at NASA. The report is divided into two different sections followed by a program summary sheet. The first section describes the two reports I have completed for the Office of Mission Assurance (OMA). I describe the approach and the resources and facilities used to complete each report. The second section describes my experience working in the Receipt Inspection/Quality Assurance Lab (RI/QA). The first report described is a Product Assurance Plan for the Gas Permeable Polymer Materials (GPPM) mission. The purpose of the Product Assurance Plan is to define the various requirements which are to be met through completion of the GPPM mission. The GPPM experiment is a space payload which will be flown in the shuttle's SPACEHAB module. The experiment will use microgravity to enable production of complex polymeric gas permeable materials. The second report described in the first section is a Fracture Analysis for the Mir Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP). The Fracture Analysis report is a summary of the fracture control classifications for all structural elements of the MEEP. The MEEP hardware consists of four experiment carriers, each of which contains an experiment container holding a passive experiment. The MEEP hardware will be attached to the cargo bay of the space shuttle. It will be transferred by Extravehicular Activity and mounted on the Mir space station. The second section of this report describes my experiences in the RVQA lab. I listed the different equipment I used at the lab and their functions. I described the extensive inspection process that must be completed for spaceflight hardware. Included, at the end of this section, are pictures of most of the equipment used in the lab. There is a summary sheet located at the end of this report. It briefly describes the valuable experience I have gained at NASA this summer and what I will be able to take

  15. Computer and information technology: hardware.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D

    1998-02-01

    Computers open the door to an ever-expanding arena of knowledge and technology. Most nurses practicing in perianesthesia setting were educated before the computer era, and many fear computers and the associated technology. Frequently, the greatest difficulty is finding the resources and knowing what questions to ask. The following is the first in a series of articles on computers and information technology. This article discusses computer hardware to get the novice started or the experienced user upgraded to access new technologies and the Internet. Future articles will discuss start up and usual software applications, getting up to speed on the information superhighway, and other technologies that will broaden our knowledge and expand our personal and professional world. PMID:9543967

  16. Hardware Implementation of Singular Value Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Swanirbhar; Shaw, Anil Kumar; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD) is a useful decomposition technique which has important role in various engineering fields such as image compression, watermarking, signal processing, and numerous others. SVD does not involve convolution operation, which make it more suitable for hardware implementation, unlike the most popular transforms. This paper reviews the various methods of hardware implementation for SVD computation. This paper also studies the time complexity and hardware complexity in various methods of SVD computation.

  17. Electronic hardware implementations of neutral networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Moopenn, A.; Lambe, John; Khanna, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines some of the present work on the development of electronic neural network hardware. In particular, the investigations currently under way at JPL on neural network hardware implementations based on custom VLSI technology, novel thin film materials, and an analog-digital hybrid architecture are reviewed. The availability of such hardware will greatly benefit and enhance the present intense research effort on the potential computational capabilities of highly parallel systems based on neural network models.

  18. Constructing Hardware in a Scale Embedded Language

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-08-21

    Chisel is a new open-source hardware construction language developed at UC Berkeley that supports advanced hardware design using highly parameterized generators and layered domain-specific hardware languages. Chisel is embedded in the Scala programming language, which raises the level of hardware design abstraction by providing concepts including object orientation, functional programming, parameterized types, and type inference. From the same source, Chisel can generate a high-speed C++-based cycle-accurate software simulator, or low-level Verilog designed to pass onmore » to standard ASIC or FPGA tools for synthesis and place and route.« less

  19. Open-source hardware for medical devices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Open-source hardware is hardware whose design is made publicly available so anyone can study, modify, distribute, make and sell the design or the hardware based on that design. Some open-source hardware projects can potentially be used as active medical devices. The open-source approach offers a unique combination of advantages, including reducing costs and faster innovation. This article compares 10 of open-source healthcare projects in terms of how easy it is to obtain the required components and build the device. PMID:27158528

  20. Constructing Hardware in a Scale Embedded Language

    SciTech Connect

    Bachan, John

    2014-08-21

    Chisel is a new open-source hardware construction language developed at UC Berkeley that supports advanced hardware design using highly parameterized generators and layered domain-specific hardware languages. Chisel is embedded in the Scala programming language, which raises the level of hardware design abstraction by providing concepts including object orientation, functional programming, parameterized types, and type inference. From the same source, Chisel can generate a high-speed C++-based cycle-accurate software simulator, or low-level Verilog designed to pass on to standard ASIC or FPGA tools for synthesis and place and route.

  1. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  2. Manipulation hardware for microgravity research

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. ); Rohn, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

  3. Life Sciences Division Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Ames Research Center (ARC) is responsible for the development, integration, and operation of non-human life sciences payloads in support of NASA's Gravitational Biology and Ecology (GB&E) program. To help stimulate discussion and interest in the development and application of novel technologies for incorporation within non-human life sciences experiment systems, three hardware system models will be displayed with associated graphics/text explanations. First, an Animal Enclosure Model (AEM) will be shown to communicate the nature and types of constraints physiological researchers must deal with during manned space flight experiments using rodent specimens. Second, a model of the Modular Cultivation System (MCS) under development by ESA will be presented to highlight technologies that may benefit cell-based research, including advanced imaging technologies. Finally, subsystems of the Cell Culture Unit (CCU) in development by ARC will also be shown. A discussion will be provided on candidate technology requirements in the areas of specimen environmental control, biotelemetry, telescience and telerobotics, and in situ analytical techniques and imaging. In addition, an overview of the Center for Gravitational Biology Research facilities will be provided.

  4. Lunar and Martian hardware commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hubert P.; Johnson, Robert E.; Phillips, Paul G.; Spear, Donald S.; Stump, William R.; Williams, Franklin U.

    1986-01-01

    A number of different hardware elements were examined for possible Moon/Mars program commonality. These include manned landers; cargo landers, a trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage, traverse vehicles, unmanned surface rovers, habitation modules, and power supplies. Preliminary analysis indicates that it is possible to build a common two-stage manned lander. A single-stage, reusable lander may be practical for the lunar cast, but much less so for the Martian case, and commonality may therefore exist only at the subsystem level. A modified orbit transfer vehicle was examined as a potential cargo lander. Potential cargoes to various destinations were calculated for a Shuttle external tank sized TMI stage. A nuclear powered, long range traverse vehicle was conceptually designed and commonality is considered feasible. Short range, unmanned rovers can be made common without great effort. A surface habitation module may be difficult to make common due to difficulties in landing certain shapes on the Martian surface with aerobraking landers. Common nuclear power sources appear feasible. High temperature radiators appear easy to make common. Low temperature radiators may be difficult to make common. In most of these cases, Martian requirements determine the design.

  5. Automated reuseable components system study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilroy, Kathy

    1989-01-01

    The Automated Reusable Components System (ARCS) was developed under a Phase 1 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract for the U.S. Army CECOM. The objectives of the ARCS program were: (1) to investigate issues associated with automated reuse of software components, identify alternative approaches, and select promising technologies, and (2) to develop tools that support component classification and retrieval. The approach followed was to research emerging techniques and experimental applications associated with reusable software libraries, to investigate the more mature information retrieval technologies for applicability, and to investigate the applicability of specialized technologies to improve the effectiveness of a reusable component library. Various classification schemes and retrieval techniques were identified and evaluated for potential application in an automated library system for reusable components. Strategies for library organization and management, component submittal and storage, and component search and retrieval were developed. A prototype ARCS was built to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the reuse process. The prototype was created using a subset of the classification and retrieval techniques that were investigated. The demonstration system was exercised and evaluated using reusable Ada components selected from the public domain. A requirements specification for a production-quality ARCS was also developed.

  6. Computer hardware description languages - A tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The paper introduces hardware description languages (HDL) as useful tools for hardware design and documentation. The capabilities and limitations of HDLs are discussed along with the guidelines needed in selecting an appropriate HDL. The directions for future work are provided and attention is given to the implementation of HDLs in microcomputers.

  7. Tinker's Toys: Lessons from Bank Street: Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Bank Street Laboratory (a set of hardware/software tools for measuring temperature, light, and sound) consists of a board that plugs into Apple microcomputers, cabling, software, and six probes. Discusses the laboratory's hardware, including the analog-to-digital converter, multiplier chip, and modular connectors. Circuit diagrams of components…

  8. Properly Matching Microcomputer Hardware, Software Minimizes "Glitches."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredenburg, Philip B.

    1986-01-01

    Microcomputer systems for school districts are best obtained by selecting the software, and matching it with hardware. Discusses criteria for software and hardware, monitors, input/output devices, backup devices, and printers. Components of two basic microcomputer systems for the business office are proposed. (MLF)

  9. Returned Solar Max hardware degradation study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triolo, Jack J.; Ousley, Gilbert W.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Repair Mission returned with the replaced hardware that had been in low Earth orbit for over four years. The materials of this returned hardware gave the aerospace community an opportunity to study the realtime effects of atomic oxygen, solar radiation, impact particles, charged particle radiation, and molecular contamination. The results of these studies are summarized.

  10. 16 CFR 1508.6 - Hardware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hardware. 1508.6 Section 1508.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.6 Hardware. (a) A crib shall be designed and constructed in a manner...

  11. 16 CFR 1509.7 - Hardware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.7 Hardware. (a) The hardware in a non-full-size baby crib shall be... abuse. (b) Non-full-size baby cribs shall incorporate locking or latching devices for dropsides or... non-full-size baby crib....

  12. Dynamic testing of docking system hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorland, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive dynamic testing was conducted to verify the flight readiness of the Apollo docking hardware. Testing was performed on a unique six degree-of-freedom motion simulator controlled by a computer that calculated the associated spacecraft motions. The test system and the results obtained by subjecting flight-type docking hardware to actual impact loads and resultant spacecraft dynamics are described.

  13. A Survey of Display Hardware and Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Jesse H., Jr.; And Others

    Reported are two papers which deal with the fundamentals of display hardware and software in computer systems. The first report presents the basic principles of display hardware in terms of image generation from buffers presumed to be loaded and controlled by a digital computer. The concepts surrounding the electrostatic tube, the electromagnetic…

  14. Hardware verification at Computational Logic, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, Bishop C.; Hunt, Warren A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) hardware verification; (2) Boyer-Moore logic; (3) core RISC; (4) the FM8502 fabrication, implementation specification, and pinout; (5) hardware description language; (6) arithmetic logic generator; (7) near term expected results; (8) present trends; (9) future directions; (10) collaborations and technology transfer; and (11) technology enablers.

  15. Comparative Modal Analysis of Sieve Hardware Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    The CMTB Thwacker hardware operates as a testbed analogue for the Flight Thwacker and Sieve components of CHIMRA, a device on the Curiosity Rover. The sieve separates particles with a diameter smaller than 150 microns for delivery to onboard science instruments. The sieving behavior of the testbed hardware should be similar to the Flight hardware for the results to be meaningful. The elastodynamic behavior of both sieves was studied analytically using the Rayleigh Ritz method in conjunction with classical plate theory. Finite element models were used to determine the mode shapes of both designs, and comparisons between the natural frequencies and mode shapes were made. The analysis predicts that the performance of the CMTB Thwacker will closely resemble the performance of the Flight Thwacker within the expected steady state operating regime. Excitations of the testbed hardware that will mimic the flight hardware were recommended, as were those that will improve the efficiency of the sieving process.

  16. Research on bottlenecks of RAID controller hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhihu; Chen, Jie; Hu, Huaixiang

    2008-12-01

    RAID systems provide both improved capacity and performance as compared to single disk by striping data to multiple disks, and improve reliability efficiently by redundancy techniques, now RAID becomes key storage device for massive storage system. There are two ways to implement the RAID system: the first is to implement as a software subsystem under PC platform, the second is to implement as a hardware controller. The second one is more common. We have designed and implemented a RAID hardware controller, which called DSDM-FC2000. This paper discusses three kinds of bottlenecks of the DSDM-FC2000 RAID hardware controller: PCI transmission bottleneck, memory access bottleneck and CPU computation bottleneck, and then presents an optimized hardware XOR algorithm which can improve the RAID performance efficiently. Finally this paper gives some advises on designing new generation RAID controller hardware.

  17. An evaluation of Skylab habitability hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, J.

    1974-01-01

    For effective mission performance, participants in space missions lasting 30-60 days or longer must be provided with hardware to accommodate their personal needs. Such habitability hardware was provided on Skylab. Equipment defined as habitability hardware was that equipment composing the food system, water system, sleep system, waste management system, personal hygiene system, trash management system, and entertainment equipment. Equipment not specifically defined as habitability hardware but which served that function were the Wardroom window, the exercise equipment, and the intercom system, which was occasionally used for private communications. All Skylab habitability hardware generally functioned as intended for the three missions, and most items could be considered as adequate concepts for future flights of similar duration. Specific components were criticized for their shortcomings.

  18. Optical Properties of Nanosatellite Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Coker, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, a number of very small satellites have been launched into space. These have been called nanosatellites (generally of a weight between 1 and 10 kg) or picosatellites (weight <1 kg). This also includes CubeSats, which are based on 10-cm cube units. With the addition of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Small Satellite Orbital Deployer (J-SSOD) to the International Space Station (ISS), CubeSats are easily cycled through the JEM airlock and deployed into space (fig. 1). The number of CubeSats launched since 2003 was approaching 100 at the time of publication, and the authors expect this trend in research to continue, particularly for high school and college flight experiments. Because these spacecraft are so small, there is usually no allowance for shielding or active heating or cooling of the avionics and other hardware. Parts that are usually ignored in the thermal analysis of larger spacecraft may contribute significantly to the heat load of a tiny satellite. In addition, many small satellites have commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. To reduce costs, many providers of COTS components do not include the optical and physical parameters necessary for accurate thermal analysis. Marshall Space Flight Center participated in the development and analysis of the Space Missile Defense Command-Operational Nanosatellite Effect (SMDC-ONE) and the Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks (EDSN) nanosatellites. These optical property measurements are documented here in hopes that they may benefit future nanosatellite and picosatellite programs and aid thermal analysis to ensure project goals are met, with the understanding that material properties may vary by vendor, batch, manufacturing process, and preflight handling. Where possible, complementary data are provided from ground simulations of the space environment and flight experiments, such as the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) series. NASA gives no recommendation

  19. Space shuttle main engine hardware simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. G.; Hampton, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Huntsville Simulation Laboratory (HSL) provides a simulation facility to test and verify the space shuttle main engine (SSME) avionics and software system using a maximum complement of flight type hardware. The HSL permits evaluations and analyses of the SSME avionics hardware, software, control system, and mathematical models. The laboratory has performed a wide spectrum of tests and verified operational procedures to ensure system component compatibility under all operating conditions. It is a test bed for integration of hardware/software/hydraulics. The HSL is and has been an invaluable tool in the design and development of the SSME.

  20. Applying a Genetic Algorithm to Reconfigurable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, B. Earl; Weir, John; Trevino, Luis; Patrick, Clint; Steincamp, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of applying genetic algorithms to solve optimization problems that are implemented entirely in reconfgurable hardware. The paper highlights the pe$ormance/design space trade-offs that must be understood to effectively implement a standard genetic algorithm within a modem Field Programmable Gate Array, FPGA, reconfgurable hardware environment and presents a case-study where this stochastic search technique is applied to standard test-case problems taken from the technical literature. In this research, the targeted FPGA-based platform and high-level design environment was the Starbridge Hypercomputing platform, which incorporates multiple Xilinx Virtex II FPGAs, and the Viva TM graphical hardware description language.

  1. Programmable hardware for reconfigurable computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen

    1996-10-01

    In 1945 the work of J. von Neumann and H. Goldstein created the principal architecture for electronic computation that has now lasted fifty years. Nevertheless alternative architectures have been created that have computational capability, for special tasks, far beyond that feasible with von Neumann machines. The emergence of high capacity programmable logic devices has made the realization of these architectures practical. The original ENIAC and EDVAC machines were conceived to solve special mathematical problems that were far from today's concept of 'killer applications.' In a similar vein programmable hardware computation is being used today to solve unique mathematical problems. Our programmable hardware activity is focused on the research and development of novel computational systems based upon the reconfigurability of our programmable logic devices. We explore our programmable logic architectures and their implications for programmable hardware. One programmable hardware board implementation is detailed.

  2. Orbiter CIU/IUS communications hardware evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) and DoD Communication Interface Unit (CIU) communication system design, hardware specifications, and interfaces were evaluated to determine their compatibility with the Orbiter payload communication and data handling equipment and the Orbiter network communication equipment.

  3. Rapid Production of Composite Prototype Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, T. K.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research was to provide a mechanism to cost-effectively produce composite hardware prototypes. The task was to take a hands-on approach to developing new technologies that could benefit multiple future programs.

  4. Evolvable, reconfigurable hardware for future space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R. S.; Keymeulen, D.; Ferguson, M. I.; Thakoor, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper overviews Evolvable Hardware (EHW) technology, examining its potential for enhancing survivability and flexibility of future space systems. EHW refers to selfconfiguration of electronic hardware by evolutionary/genetic search mechanisms. Evolvable Hardware can maintain existing functionality in the presence of faults and degradations due to aging, temperature and radiation. It can also configure itself for new functionality when required for mission changes or encountered opportunities. The paper illustrates hardware evolution in silicon using a JPL-designed programmable device reconfigurable at transistor level as the platform and a genetic algorithm running on a DSP as the reconfiguration mechanism. Rapid reconfiguration allows convergence to circuit solutions in the order of seconds. The experiments demonstrate functional recovery from faults as well as from degradation at extreme temperatures indicating the possibility of expanding the operational range of extreme electronics through evolved circuit solutions.

  5. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  6. IDD Archival Hardware Architecture and Workflow

    SciTech Connect

    Mendonsa, D; Nekoogar, F; Martz, H

    2008-10-09

    This document describes the functionality of every component in the DHS/IDD archival and storage hardware system shown in Fig. 1. The document describes steps by step process of image data being received at LLNL then being processed and made available to authorized personnel and collaborators. Throughout this document references will be made to one of two figures, Fig. 1 describing the elements of the architecture and the Fig. 2 describing the workflow and how the project utilizes the available hardware.

  7. Development of robotics facility docking test hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T. E.; Winkler, R. V.

    1984-01-01

    Design and fabricate test hardware for NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are reported. A docking device conceptually developed was fabricated, and two docking targets which provide high and low mass docking loads were required and were represented by an aft 61.0 cm section of a Hubble space telescope (ST) mockup and an upgrading of an existing multimission modular spacecraft (MSS) mockup respectively. A test plan is developed for testing the hardware.

  8. Towards composition of verified hardware devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    Computers are being used where no affordable level of testing is adequate. Safety and life critical systems must find a replacement for exhaustive testing to guarantee their correctness. Through a mathematical proof, hardware verification research has focused on device verification and has largely ignored system composition verification. To address these deficiencies, we examine how the current hardware verification methodology can be extended to verify complete systems.

  9. A comprehensive comparison of spectral scatterometry hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensing, Kevin; Stirton, Broc; Starnes, Brian; Synoradzki, Joseph; Swain, Bryan; Lane, Lawrence

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, three different types of spectral scatterometry hardware are compared using Timbre Technologies' Optical Digital Profiler (ODP) as a common software platform. The hardware under consideration includes a spectroscopic reflectometer (R), polarizing spectroscopic reflectometer (RP) and a spectroscopic ellipsometer (SE). Four advanced lithographic applications are evaluated-two from Spansion's 110-nm Flash memory technology line, and two from AMD's 90-nm logic process. ODP models are developed and optimized for each application and each type of hardware. Results include static and dynamic repeatability, throughput, correlation to incumbent metrology and correlation to cross-section. For each application, the authors also attempt to determine the level of model complexity supported by each hardware type, with special attention paid to the relative sensitivity of each system to changes in critical dimension (CD) and resist profile. The results generally indicate that the SE is the most sensitive hardware type while the R is the most stable. The RP occupies some form of middle ground on both counts. These generalizations are largely application dependent and clear differentiations do not always exist. Selecting the right spectral scatterometry hardware, therefore, is a function of one"s application complexity and control objectives.

  10. Software for Managing Inventory of Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John; Savage, Scott; Thomas, Shirman

    2003-01-01

    The Flight Hardware Support Request System (FHSRS) is a computer program that relieves engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of most of the non-engineering administrative burden of managing an inventory of flight hardware. The FHSRS can also be adapted to perform similar functions for other organizations. The FHSRS affords a combination of capabilities, including those formerly provided by three separate programs in purchasing, inventorying, and inspecting hardware. The FHSRS provides a Web-based interface with a server computer that supports a relational database of inventory; electronic routing of requests and approvals; and electronic documentation from initial request through implementation of quality criteria, acquisition, receipt, inspection, storage, and final issue of flight materials and components. The database lists both hardware acquired for current projects and residual hardware from previous projects. The increased visibility of residual flight components provided by the FHSRS has dramatically improved the re-utilization of materials in lieu of new procurements, resulting in a cost savings of over $1.7 million. The FHSRS includes subprograms for manipulating the data in the database, informing of the status of a request or an item of hardware, and searching the database on any physical or other technical characteristic of a component or material. The software structure forces normalization of the data to facilitate inquiries and searches for which users have entered mixed or inconsistent values.

  11. Hardware Testing and System Evaluation: Procedures to Evaluate Commodity Hardware for Production Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, J

    2004-02-27

    Without stable hardware any program will fail. The frustration and expense of supporting bad hardware can drain an organization, delay progress, and frustrate everyone involved. At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), we have created a testing method that helps our group, SLAC Computer Services (SCS), weed out potentially bad hardware and purchase the best hardware at the best possible cost. Commodity hardware changes often, so new evaluations happen periodically each time we purchase systems and minor re-evaluations happen for revised systems for our clusters, about twice a year. This general framework helps SCS perform correct, efficient evaluations. This article outlines SCS's computer testing methods and our system acceptance criteria. We expanded the basic ideas to other evaluations such as storage, and we think the methods outlined in this article has helped us choose hardware that is much more stable and supportable than our previous purchases. We have found that commodity hardware ranges in quality, so systematic method and tools for hardware evaluation were necessary. This article is based on one instance of a hardware purchase, but the guidelines apply to the general problem of purchasing commodity computer systems for production computational work.

  12. VEG-01: Veggie Hardware Verification Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gary; Hummerick, Mary; Morrow, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    The Veggie plant/vegetable production system is scheduled to fly on ISS at the end of2013. Since much of the technology associated with Veggie has not been previously tested in microgravity, a hardware validation flight was initiated. This test will allow data to be collected about Veggie hardware functionality on ISS, allow crew interactions to be vetted for future improvements, validate the ability of the hardware to grow and sustain plants, and collect data that will be helpful to future Veggie investigators as they develop their payloads. Additionally, food safety data on the lettuce plants grown will be collected to help support the development of a pathway for the crew to safely consume produce grown on orbit. Significant background research has been performed on the Veggie plant growth system, with early tests focusing on the development of the rooting pillow concept, and the selection of fertilizer, rooting medium and plant species. More recent testing has been conducted to integrate the pillow concept into the Veggie hardware and to ensure that adequate water is provided throughout the growth cycle. Seed sanitation protocols have been established for flight, and hardware sanitation between experiments has been studied. Methods for shipping and storage of rooting pillows and the development of crew procedures and crew training videos for plant activities on-orbit have been established. Science verification testing was conducted and lettuce plants were successfully grown in prototype Veggie hardware, microbial samples were taken, plant were harvested, frozen, stored and later analyzed for microbial growth, nutrients, and A TP levels. An additional verification test, prior to the final payload verification testing, is desired to demonstrate similar growth in the flight hardware and also to test a second set of pillows containing zinnia seeds. Issues with root mat water supply are being resolved, with final testing and flight scheduled for later in 2013.

  13. Symptomatic Hardware Removal After First Tarsometatarsal Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kyle S; McAlister, Jeffrey E; Hyer, Christopher F; Thompson, John

    2016-01-01

    Severe hallux valgus deformity with proximal instability creates pain and deformity in the forefoot. First tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis is performed to reduce the intermetatarsal angle and stabilize the joint. Dorsomedial locking plate fixation with adjunctive lag screw fixation is used because of its superior construct strength and healing rate. Despite this, questions remain regarding whether this hardware is more prominent and more likely to need removal. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of symptomatic hardware at the first tarsometatarsal joint and to determine the incidence of hardware removal resulting from prominence and/or discomfort. A review of 165 medical records of consecutive patients who had undergone first tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis with plate fixation was conducted. The outcome of interest was the incidence of symptomatic hardware removal in patients with clinical union. The mean age was 55 (range 18.4 to 78.8) years. The mean follow-up duration was 65.9 ± 34.0 (range 7.0 to 369.0) weeks. In our cohort, 25 patients (15.2%) had undergone hardware removed because of pain and irritation. Of these patients, 18 (72.0%) had a locking plate and lag screw removed, and 7 (28.0%) had crossing lag screws removed. The fixation of a first tarsometatarsal joint fusion poses a difficult situation owing to minimal soft tissue coverage and the inherent need for robust fixation to promote fusion. Hardware can become prominent postoperatively and can become painful and/or induce cutaneous compromise. The results of the present observational investigation imply that surgeons can reasonably inform patients that the incidence of symptomatic hardware removal after first tarsometatarsal arthrodesis is approximately 15% within a median duration of 9.0 months after surgery. PMID:26215552

  14. Access flight hardware design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, John F.; Tutterow, Robin D.

    1987-01-01

    Several items were found to be of immense value in the design and development of the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) hardware. The early availability of mock-up and engineering test hardware helped to develop the concept and prove the feasibility of the experiment. The extensive neutral buoyancy testing was invaluable in developing the procedures and timelines, proving that the hardware functioned as intended, and effectively trained the astronauts. The early involvement of the crew systems/astronaut personnel was extremely beneficial in shaping the design to meet the EVA compatibility requirements. Also, the early definition of coupled loads and on-orbit dynamic responses can not be overemphasized due to the relative uncertainty in the magnitude of these loads and their impact on the design.

  15. Regolith simulant preparation methods for hardware testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouache, Thibault P.; Brunskill, Christopher; Scott, Gregory P.; Gao, Yang; Coste, Pierre; Gourinat, Yves

    2010-12-01

    To qualify hardware for space flight, great care is taken to replicate the environment encountered in space. Emphasis is focused on presenting the hardware with the most extreme conditions it might encounter during its mission lifetime. The same care should be taken when regolith simulants are prepared to test space system performance. Indeed, the manner a granular material is prepared can have a very high influence on its mechanical properties and on the performance of the system interacting with it. Three regolith simulant preparation methods have been tested and are presented here (rain, pour, vibrate). They should enable researchers and hardware developers to test their prototypes in controlled and repeatable conditions. The pour and vibrate techniques are robust but only allow reaching a given relative density. The rain technique allows reaching a variety of relative densities but can be less robust if manually controlled.

  16. Economic impact of syndesmosis hardware removal.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Trapper A J; Matthews, Leslie J; Hanselman, Andrew E; Hubbard, David F; Bramer, Michelle A; Santrock, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    Ankle syndesmosis injuries are commonly seen with 5-10% of sprains and 10% of ankle fractures involving injury to the ankle syndesmosis. Anatomic reduction has been shown to be the most important predictor of clinical outcomes. Optimal surgical management has been a subject of debate in the literature. The method of fixation, number of screws, screw size, and number of cortices are all controversial. Postoperative hardware removal has also been widely debated in the literature. Some surgeons advocate for elective hardware removal prior to resuming full weightbearing. Returning to the operating room for elective hardware removal results in increased cost to the patient, potential for infection or complication(s), and missed work days for the patient. Suture button devices and bioabsorbable screw fixation present other options, but cortical screw fixation remains the gold standard. This retrospective review was designed to evaluate the economic impact of a second operative procedure for elective removal of 3.5mm cortical syndesmosis screws. Two hundred and two patients with ICD-9 code for "open treatment of distal tibiofibular joint (syndesmosis) disruption" were identified. The medical records were reviewed for those who underwent elective syndesmosis hardware removal. The primary outcome measurements included total hospital billing charges and total hospital billing collection. Secondary outcome measurements included average individual patient operative costs and average operating room time. Fifty-six patients were included in the study. Our institution billed a total of $188,271 (USD) and collected $106,284 (55%). The average individual patient operating room cost was $3579. The average operating room time was 67.9 min. To the best of our knowledge, no study has previously provided cost associated with syndesmosis hardware removal. Our study shows elective syndesmosis hardware removal places substantial economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system

  17. Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) Hardware Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Reed, Dave; Wang, Chung; Stuckey, Bob; Cox, Dave

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Provide insight into water delivery in microgravity and determine optimal germination paper wetting for subsequent seed germination in microgravity; (2) Observe the behavior of water exposed to a strong localized magnetic field in microgravity; and (3) Simulate the flow of fixative (using water) through the hardware. The Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) is a new piece of hardware slated to fly on the Space Shuttle in early 2001. MFA is designed to expose plant tissue to magnets in a microgravity environment, deliver water to the plant tissue, record photographic images of plant tissue, and deliver fixative to the plant tissue.

  18. Circulation control lift generation experiment: Hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panontin, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A circulation control airfoil and its accompanying hardware were developed to allow the investigation of lift generation that is independent of airfoil angle of attack and relative flow velocity. The test equipment, designed for use in a water tunnel, includes the blown airfoil, the support systems for both flow visualization and airfoil load measurement, and the fluid control system, which utilizes hydraulic technology. The primary design tasks, the selected solutions, and the unforseen problems involved in the development of these individual components of hardware are described.

  19. Human Centered Hardware Modeling and Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian Damon; Lawrence, Brad; Stelges, Katrine; Henderson, Gena

    2013-01-01

    In order to collaborate engineering designs among NASA Centers and customers, to in clude hardware and human activities from multiple remote locations, live human-centered modeling and collaboration across several sites has been successfully facilitated by Kennedy Space Center. The focus of this paper includes innovative a pproaches to engineering design analyses and training, along with research being conducted to apply new technologies for tracking, immersing, and evaluating humans as well as rocket, vehic le, component, or faci lity hardware utilizing high resolution cameras, motion tracking, ergonomic analysis, biomedical monitoring, wor k instruction integration, head-mounted displays, and other innovative human-system integration modeling, simulation, and collaboration applications.

  20. Pressure Sensor Calibration using VIPA Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, Reynold; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Forrester, Joel B.; Hayes, James C.; Lidey, Lance S.

    2008-10-08

    The VIPA hardware uses a series of modules to control the system. One of the modules that the VIPA hardware uses is a 16-bit analog input module. The main purpose of this module is to read in a voltage. The inputs of these modules are connected directly to the voltage outputs of all the pressure sensors in the system. Because the sensors have different pressure and voltage output ranges, it is necessary to calibrate and scale the sensors so that the values make sense to the operator of the system.

  1. Correctness properties for iterated hardware structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, Phillip J.

    1993-01-01

    Iterated structures occur frequently in hardware. This paper describes properties required of mathematical relations that can be implemented iteratively and demonstrates the use of these properties on a generalized class of adders. This work provides a theoretical basis for the correct synthesis of iterated arithmetic structures.

  2. Transistor Level Circuit Experiments using Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R. S.; Keymeulen, D.; Ferguson, M. I.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) performs research in fault tolerant, long life, and space survivable electronics for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). With that focus, JPL has been involved in Evolvable Hardware (EHW) technology research for the past several years. We have advanced the technology not only by simulation and evolution experiments, but also by designing, fabricating, and evolving a variety of transistor-based analog and digital circuits at the chip level. EHW refers to self-configuration of electronic hardware by evolutionary/genetic search mechanisms, thereby maintaining existing functionality in the presence of degradations due to aging, temperature, and radiation. In addition, EHW has the capability to reconfigure itself for new functionality when required for mission changes or encountered opportunities. Evolution experiments are performed using a genetic algorithm running on a DSP as the reconfiguration mechanism and controlling the evolvable hardware mounted on a self-contained circuit board. Rapid reconfiguration allows convergence to circuit solutions in the order of seconds. The paper illustrates hardware evolution results of electronic circuits and their ability to perform under 230 C temperature as well as radiations of up to 250 kRad.

  3. Management of SSME hardware life utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauschke, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Statistical and probabilistic reliability methodologies were developed for the determination of hardware life limits for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Both methodologies require that a mathematical reliability model of the engine (system) performance be developed as a function of the reliabilities of the components and parts. The system reliability model should be developed from the Failute Modes and Effects Analysis/Critical Items List. The statistical reliability methodology establishes hardware life limits directly from the failure distributions of the components and parts obtained from statistically-designed testing. The probabilistic reliability methodology establishes hardware life limits from a decision analysis methodology which incorporates the component/part reliabilities obtained from a probabilistic structural analysis, a calibrated maintenance program, inspection techniques, and fabrication procedures. Probilistic structural analysis is recommended as a tool to prioritize upgrading of the components and parts. The Weibull probability distribution is presently being investigated by NASA/MSFC to characterize the failure distribution of the SSME hardware from a limited data base of failures.

  4. Use of heat pipes in electronic hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    A modular, multiple output power converter was developed in order to reduce costs of space hardware in future missions. The converter is of reduced size and weight, and utilizes advanced heat removal techniques, in the form of heat pipes which remove internally generated heat more effectively than conventional methods.

  5. Microprocessor Design Using Hardware Description Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mita, Rosario; Palumbo, Gaetano

    2008-01-01

    The following paper has been conceived to deal with the contents of some lectures aimed at enhancing courses on digital electronic, microelectronic or VLSI systems. Those lectures show how to use a hardware description language (HDL), such as the VHDL, to specify, design and verify a custom microprocessor. The general goal of this work is to teach…

  6. Super Heavy-Duty Door Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the new generation of durable school-door hardware and innovations that can resist everyday abuse. Concluding comments address cross-corridor door innovations that can help doorways more easily accommodate the passage of oversized items, and classroom door locking systems. (GR)

  7. Image Interpolation With Dedicated Digital Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstein, R.; Wagner, G.; Simons, D.; Coulson, J.

    1986-01-01

    Algorithm for interpolating two-dimensional image data to change picture-element spacing implemented in dedicated digital hardware for high-speed execution. System interpolates 100 times as fast as generalpurpose computer. Image resampling occurs first along one image axis and then along other, using two interpolation devices implemented in series.

  8. Digital Hardware Design Teaching: An Alternative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benkrid, Khaled; Clayton, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware design teaching in the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven teaching, deep learning, affordability, and flexibility. This has identified…

  9. Postflight hardware evaluation (RSRM-29, STS-54)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the RSRM-29 flight set. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A, B, and C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64221), represents a summary of the RSRM-29 hardware evaluation. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1990. The RSRM-29 flight set disassembly evaluations described in this document were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on September 9, 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  10. Postflight hardware evaluation (RSRM-29, STS-54)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-09-01

    This document is the final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the RSRM-29 flight set. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A, B, and C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64221), represents a summary of the RSRM-29 hardware evaluation. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1990. The RSRM-29 flight set disassembly evaluations described in this document were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on September 9, 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  11. Support for Diagnosis of Custom Computer Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molock, Dwaine S.

    2008-01-01

    The Coldfire SDN Diagnostics software is a flexible means of exercising, testing, and debugging custom computer hardware. The software is a set of routines that, collectively, serve as a common software interface through which one can gain access to various parts of the hardware under test and/or cause the hardware to perform various functions. The routines can be used to construct tests to exercise, and verify the operation of, various processors and hardware interfaces. More specifically, the software can be used to gain access to memory, to execute timer delays, to configure interrupts, and configure processor cache, floating-point, and direct-memory-access units. The software is designed to be used on diverse NASA projects, and can be customized for use with different processors and interfaces. The routines are supported, regardless of the architecture of a processor that one seeks to diagnose. The present version of the software is configured for Coldfire processors on the Subsystem Data Node processor boards of the Solar Dynamics Observatory. There is also support for the software with respect to Mongoose V, RAD750, and PPC405 processors or their equivalents.

  12. Design considerations for space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The environmental and design constraints are reviewed along with some insight into the established design and quality assurance practices that apply to low earth orbit (LEO) space flight hardware. It is intended as an introduction for people unfamiliar with space flight considerations. Some basic data and a bibliography are included.

  13. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Indrajit, IK; Alam, A

    2010-01-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology practice. They are used in different radiology modalities to acquire, process, and postprocess imaging data. They have had a dramatic influence on contemporary radiology practice. Their impact has extended further with the emergence of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiology information system (RIS) technology, and Teleradiology. A basic overview of computer hardware relevant to radiology practice is presented here. The key hardware components in a computer are the motherboard, central processor unit (CPU), the chipset, the random access memory (RAM), the memory modules, bus, storage drives, and ports. The personnel computer (PC) has a rectangular case that contains important components called hardware, many of which are integrated circuits (ICs). The fiberglass motherboard is the main printed circuit board and has a variety of important hardware mounted on it, which are connected by electrical pathways called “buses”. The CPU is the largest IC on the motherboard and contains millions of transistors. Its principal function is to execute “programs”. A Pentium® 4 CPU has transistors that execute a billion instructions per second. The chipset is completely different from the CPU in design and function; it controls data and interaction of buses between the motherboard and the CPU. Memory (RAM) is fundamentally semiconductor chips storing data and instructions for access by a CPU. RAM is classified by storage capacity, access speed, data rate, and configuration. PMID:21042437

  14. Formal hardware verification of digital circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, J.; Seger, C.-J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of formal methods to verify the correctness of digital circuits is less constrained by the growing complexity of digital circuits than conventional methods based on exhaustive simulation. This paper briefly outlines three main approaches to formal hardware verification: symbolic simulation, state machine analysis, and theorem-proving.

  15. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part I.

    PubMed

    Indrajit, Ik; Alam, A

    2010-08-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology practice. They are used in different radiology modalities to acquire, process, and postprocess imaging data. They have had a dramatic influence on contemporary radiology practice. Their impact has extended further with the emergence of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiology information system (RIS) technology, and Teleradiology. A basic overview of computer hardware relevant to radiology practice is presented here. The key hardware components in a computer are the motherboard, central processor unit (CPU), the chipset, the random access memory (RAM), the memory modules, bus, storage drives, and ports. The personnel computer (PC) has a rectangular case that contains important components called hardware, many of which are integrated circuits (ICs). The fiberglass motherboard is the main printed circuit board and has a variety of important hardware mounted on it, which are connected by electrical pathways called "buses". The CPU is the largest IC on the motherboard and contains millions of transistors. Its principal function is to execute "programs". A Pentium(®) 4 CPU has transistors that execute a billion instructions per second. The chipset is completely different from the CPU in design and function; it controls data and interaction of buses between the motherboard and the CPU. Memory (RAM) is fundamentally semiconductor chips storing data and instructions for access by a CPU. RAM is classified by storage capacity, access speed, data rate, and configuration. PMID:21042437

  16. Shuttle mission simulator hardware conceptual design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The detailed shuttle mission simulator hardware requirements are discussed. The conceptual design methods, or existing technology, whereby those requirements will be fulfilled are described. Information of a general nature on the total design problem plus specific details on how these requirements are to be satisfied are reported. The configuration of the simulator is described and the capabilities for various types of training are identified.

  17. Electrical Safety for Human Space Flight Payload Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnells, James A.

    2010-09-01

    Human Space Flight payload hardware designs must address both mission success and safety requirements for flight on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station(ISS), or International Partner(IP) Launch Vehicles. Flight hardware generally can be considered either Government Furnished Equipment(GFE) or Payload hardware, although some Commercial-off-the-shelf(COTS) hardware is also flown. In this case we will use the payload flight hardware system safety perspective, which closely resembles the GFE system safety process with a few exceptions. Why is Human space flight hardware treated differently than ground hardware? The key reason flight hardware is treated more conservatively than ground hardware is the relative impact to crew and vehicle, and the relative inability to provide immediate recovery of a disabled space vehicle or crewmember on-orbit. One aspect of safe payload flight hardware design is Electrical Power Systems(EPS), including the safe design and operations of electrical power systems for payloads.

  18. Codem: software/hardware codesign for embedded multicore systems supporting hardware services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai; Nedjah, Nadia; Wang, Aili

    2015-01-01

    Efficient software/hardware codesign is posing significant challenges to embedded systems. This paper proposes Codem, a software/hardware codesign flow for embedded systems, which models both processors and Intellectual Property (IP) cores as services. Tasks are regarded as abstract instructions which can be scheduled to IP cores for parallel execution automatically. In order to guide the hardware implementations of the hot spot functions, this paper incorporates a novel hot spot-based profiling technique to observe the hot spot functions while the application is being simulated. Furthermore, based on the hot spot of various applications, an adaptive mapping algorithm is presented to partition the application into multiple software/hardware tasks. We test the profiling-based design flow with classic Sort applications. Experimental results demonstrate that Codem can efficiently help researchers to identify the hot spots, and also outline a new direction to combine profiling techniques with state-of-the-art reconfigurable computing platforms for specific task acceleration.

  19. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE STATUS OF QCDOC.

    SciTech Connect

    BOYLE,P.A.; CHEN,D.; CHRIST,N.H.; PETROV.K.; ET AL.

    2003-07-15

    QCDOC is a massively parallel supercomputer whose processing nodes are based on an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). This ASIC was custom-designed so that crucial lattice QCD kernels achieve an overall sustained performance of 50% on machines with several 10,000 nodes. This strong scalability, together with low power consumption and a price/performance ratio of $1 per sustained MFlops, enable QCDOC to attack the most demanding lattice QCD problems. The first ASICs became available in June of 2003, and the testing performed so far has shown all systems functioning according to specification. We review the hardware and software status of QCDOC and present performance figures obtained in real hardware as well as in simulation.

  20. Reconfigurable hardware for an augmented reality application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Moreo, F. Javier; Martinez Alvarez, J. Javier; Garrigos Guerrero, F. Javier; Ferrandez Vicente, J. Manuel

    2005-06-01

    An FPGA-based approach is proposed to build an augmented reality system in order to aid people affected by a visual disorder known as tunnel vision. The aim is to increase the user's knowledge of his environment by superimposing on his own view useful information obtained with image processing. Two different alternatives have been explored to perform the required image processing: a specific purpose algorithm to extract edge detection information, and a cellular neural network with the suitable template. Their implementations in reconfigurable hardware pursue to take advantage of the performance and flexibility that show modern FPGAs. This paper describes the hardware implementation of both the Canny algorithm and the cellular neural network, and the overall system architecture. Results of the implementations and examples of the system functionality are presented.

  1. Design guidelines for robotically serviceable hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    Research being conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center into the development of guidelines for the design of robotically serviceable spaceflight hardware is described. A mock-up was built based on an existing spaceflight system demonstrating how these guidelines can be applied to actual hardware. The report examines the basic servicing philosophy being studied and how this philosophy is reflected in the formulation of design guidelines for robotic servicing. A description of the mock-up is presented with emphasis on the design features that make it robot friendly. Three robotic servicing schemes fulfilling the design guidelines were developed for the mock-up. These servicing schemes are examined as to how their implementation was affected by the constraints of the spacecraft system on which the mock-up is based.

  2. Hardware-Independent Proofs of Numerical Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldo, Sylvie; Nguyen, Thi Minh Tuyen

    2010-01-01

    On recent architectures, a numerical program may give different answers depending on the execution hardware and the compilation. Our goal is to formally prove properties about numerical programs that are true for multiple architectures and compilers. We propose an approach that states the rounding error of each floating-point computation whatever the environment. This approach is implemented in the Frama-C platform for static analysis of C code. Small case studies using this approach are entirely and automatically proved

  3. Verifying Dissolution Of Wax From Hardware Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Benjamina G.

    1995-01-01

    Wax removed by cleaning solvent revealed by cooling solution with liquid nitrogen. Such improved procedure and test needed in case of hardware that must be protected by wax during machining or plating but required to be free of wax during subsequent use. Improved cleaning procedure and test take less than 5 minutes. Does not require special skill or equipment and performs at cleaning site. In addition, enables recovery of all cleaning solvent.

  4. Rethinking image registration on customizable hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, David; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew

    2010-08-01

    Image registration is one of the most important tasks in image processing and is frequently one of the most computationally intensive. In cases where there is a high likelihood of finding the exact template in the search image, correlation-based methods predominate. Presumably this is because the computational complexity of a correlation operation can be reduced substantially by transforming the task into the frequency domain. Alternative methods such as minimum Sum of Squared Differences (minSSD) are not so tractable and are normally disfavored. This bias is justified when dealing with conventional computer processors since the operations must be conducted in an essentially sequential manner however we demonstrate it is normally unjustified when the processing is undertaken on customizable hardware such as FPGAs where tasks can be temporally and/or spatially parallelized. This is because the gate-based logic of an FPGA is better suited to the tasks of minSSD i.e. signed-addition hardware can be very cheaply implemented in FPGA fabric, and square operations are easily implemented via a look-up table. In contrast, correlationbased methods require extensive use of multiplier hardware which cannot be so cheaply implemented in the device. Even with modern DSP-oriented FPGAs which contain many "hard" multipliers we experience at least an order of magnitude increase in the number of minSSD hardware modules we can implement compared to cross-correlation modules. We demonstrate successful use and comparison of techniques within an FPGA for registration and correction of turbulence degraded images.

  5. Hardware demonstration of flexible beam control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, D. B.

    1980-01-01

    An experiment employing a pinned-free flexible beam has been constructed to demonstrate and verify several facets of the control of flexible structures. The desired features of the experiment are to demonstrate active shape control, active dynamic control, adaptive control, various control law design approaches, and associated hardware requirements and mechanization difficulties. This paper contains the analytical work performed in support of the facility development, the final design specifications, control law synthesis, and some preliminary results.

  6. Testing Microshutter Arrays Using Commercial FPGA Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapchun, David

    2008-01-01

    NASA is developing micro-shutter arrays for the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). These micro-shutter arrays allow NIRspec to do Multi Object Spectroscopy, a key part of the mission. Each array consists of 62414 individual 100 x 200 micron shutters. These shutters are magnetically opened and held electrostatically. Individual shutters are then programmatically closed using a simple row/column addressing technique. A common approach to provide these data/clock patterns is to use a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Such devices require complex VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) programming and custom electronic hardware. Due to JWST's rapid schedule on the development of the micro-shutters, rapid changes were required to the FPGA code to facilitate new approaches being discovered to optimize the array performance. Such rapid changes simply could not be made using conventional VHDL programming. Subsequently, National Instruments introduced an FPGA product that could be programmed through a Labview interface. Because Labview programming is considerably easier than VHDL programming, this method was adopted and brought success. The software/hardware allowed the rapid change the FPGA code and timely results of new micro-shutter array performance data. As a result, numerous labor hours and money to the project were conserved.

  7. Trends in computer hardware and software.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, F M

    1993-04-01

    Previously identified and current trends in the development of computer systems and in the use of computers for health care applications are reviewed. Trends identified in a 1982 article were increasing miniaturization and archival ability, increasing software costs, increasing software independence, user empowerment through new software technologies, shorter computer-system life cycles, and more rapid development and support of pharmaceutical services. Most of these trends continue today. Current trends in hardware and software include the increasing use of reduced instruction-set computing, migration to the UNIX operating system, the development of large software libraries, microprocessor-based smart terminals that allow remote validation of data, speech synthesis and recognition, application generators, fourth-generation languages, computer-aided software engineering, object-oriented technologies, and artificial intelligence. Current trends specific to pharmacy and hospitals are the withdrawal of vendors of hospital information systems from the pharmacy market, improved linkage of information systems within hospitals, and increased regulation by government. The computer industry and its products continue to undergo dynamic change. Software development continues to lag behind hardware, and its high cost is offsetting the savings provided by hardware. PMID:8470690

  8. Reconfigurable Hardware Adapts to Changing Mission Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A new class of computing architectures and processing systems, which use reconfigurable hardware, is creating a revolutionary approach to implementing future spacecraft systems. With the increasing complexity of electronic components, engineers must design next-generation spacecraft systems with new technologies in both hardware and software. Derivation Systems, Inc., of Carlsbad, California, has been working through NASA s Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program to develop key technologies in reconfigurable computing and Intellectual Property (IP) soft cores. Founded in 1993, Derivation Systems has received several SBIR contracts from NASA s Langley Research Center and the U.S. Department of Defense Air Force Research Laboratories in support of its mission to develop hardware and software for high-assurance systems. Through these contracts, Derivation Systems began developing leading-edge technology in formal verification, embedded Java, and reconfigurable computing for its PF3100, Derivational Reasoning System (DRS ), FormalCORE IP, FormalCORE PCI/32, FormalCORE DES, and LavaCORE Configurable Java Processor, which are designed for greater flexibility and security on all space missions.

  9. "Greenbook Algorithms and Hardware Needs Analysis"

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, Wibe A.; Oehmen, Chris S.; Baxter, Douglas J.

    2007-01-09

    "This document describes the algorithms, and hardware balance requirements needed to enable the solution of real scientific problems in the DOE core mission areas of environmental and subsurface chemistry, computational and systems biology, and climate science. The MSCF scientific drivers have been outlined in the Greenbook, which is available online at http://mscf.emsl.pnl.gov/docs/greenbook_for_web.pdf . Historically, the primary science driver has been the chemical and the molecular dynamics of the biological science area, whereas the remaining applications in the biological and environmental systems science areas have been occupying a smaller segment of the available hardware resources. To go from science drivers to hardware balance requirements, the major applications were identified. Major applications on the MSCF resources are low- to high-accuracy electronic structure methods, molecular dynamics, regional climate modeling, subsurface transport, and computational biology. The algorithms of these applications were analyzed to identify the computational kernels in both sequential and parallel execution. This analysis shows that a balanced architecture is needed with respect to processor speed, peak flop rate, peak integer operation rate, and memory hierarchy, interprocessor communication, and disk access and storage. A single architecture can satisfy the needs of all of the science areas, although some areas may take greater advantage of certain aspects of the architecture. "

  10. Pre-Hardware Optimization of Spacecraft Image Processing Software Algorithms and Hardware Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Flatley, Thomas P.; Hestnes, Phyllis; Jentoft-Nilsen, Marit; Petrick, David J.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft telemetry rates have steadily increased over the last decade presenting a problem for real-time processing by ground facilities. This paper proposes a solution to a related problem for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Spacecraft (GOES-8) image processing application. Although large super-computer facilities are the obvious heritage solution, they are very costly, making it imperative to seek a feasible alternative engineering solution at a fraction of the cost. The solution is based on a Personal Computer (PC) platform and synergy of optimized software algorithms and re-configurable computing hardware technologies, such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processing (DSP). It has been shown in [1] and [2] that this configuration can provide superior inexpensive performance for a chosen application on the ground station or on-board a spacecraft. However, since this technology is still maturing, intensive pre-hardware steps are necessary to achieve the benefits of hardware implementation. This paper describes these steps for the GOES-8 application, a software project developed using Interactive Data Language (IDL) (Trademark of Research Systems, Inc.) on a Workstation/UNIX platform. The solution involves converting the application to a PC/Windows/RC platform, selected mainly by the availability of low cost, adaptable high-speed RC hardware. In order for the hybrid system to run, the IDL software was modified to account for platform differences. It was interesting to examine the gains and losses in performance on the new platform, as well as unexpected observations before implementing hardware. After substantial pre-hardware optimization steps, the necessity of hardware implementation for bottleneck code in the PC environment became evident and solvable beginning with the methodology described in [1], [2], and implementing a novel methodology for this specific application [6]. The PC-RC interface bandwidth problem for the

  11. VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM SOUTHEAST FACING NORTHWEST - Poppell's Hardware, Furniture, Feed & Seed Store, U.S. Highway 341 at Carter Avenue, Odum, Wayne County, GA

  12. VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM NORTHEAST FACING SOUTHWEST - Poppell's Hardware, Furniture, Feed & Seed Store, U.S. Highway 341 at Carter Avenue, Odum, Wayne County, GA

  13. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Indrajit, IK; Alam, A

    2010-01-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology equipment. In the first half of this two-part article, we dwelt upon some fundamental concepts regarding computer hardware, covering components like motherboard, central processing unit (CPU), chipset, random access memory (RAM), and memory modules. In this article, we describe the remaining computer hardware components that are of relevance to radiology. “Storage drive” is a term describing a “memory” hardware used to store data for later retrieval. Commonly used storage drives are hard drives, floppy drives, optical drives, flash drives, and network drives. The capacity of a hard drive is dependent on many factors, including the number of disk sides, number of tracks per side, number of sectors on each track, and the amount of data that can be stored in each sector. “Drive interfaces” connect hard drives and optical drives to a computer. The connections of such drives require both a power cable and a data cable. The four most popular “input/output devices” used commonly with computers are the printer, monitor, mouse, and keyboard. The “bus” is a built-in electronic signal pathway in the motherboard to permit efficient and uninterrupted data transfer. A motherboard can have several buses, including the system bus, the PCI express bus, the PCI bus, the AGP bus, and the (outdated) ISA bus. “Ports” are the location at which external devices are connected to a computer motherboard. All commonly used peripheral devices, such as printers, scanners, and portable drives, need ports. A working knowledge of computers is necessary for the radiologist if the workflow is to realize its full potential and, besides, this knowledge will prepare the radiologist for the coming innovations in the ‘ever increasing’ digital future. PMID:21423895

  14. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Indrajit, Ik; Alam, A

    2010-11-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology equipment. In the first half of this two-part article, we dwelt upon some fundamental concepts regarding computer hardware, covering components like motherboard, central processing unit (CPU), chipset, random access memory (RAM), and memory modules. In this article, we describe the remaining computer hardware components that are of relevance to radiology. "Storage drive" is a term describing a "memory" hardware used to store data for later retrieval. Commonly used storage drives are hard drives, floppy drives, optical drives, flash drives, and network drives. The capacity of a hard drive is dependent on many factors, including the number of disk sides, number of tracks per side, number of sectors on each track, and the amount of data that can be stored in each sector. "Drive interfaces" connect hard drives and optical drives to a computer. The connections of such drives require both a power cable and a data cable. The four most popular "input/output devices" used commonly with computers are the printer, monitor, mouse, and keyboard. The "bus" is a built-in electronic signal pathway in the motherboard to permit efficient and uninterrupted data transfer. A motherboard can have several buses, including the system bus, the PCI express bus, the PCI bus, the AGP bus, and the (outdated) ISA bus. "Ports" are the location at which external devices are connected to a computer motherboard. All commonly used peripheral devices, such as printers, scanners, and portable drives, need ports. A working knowledge of computers is necessary for the radiologist if the workflow is to realize its full potential and, besides, this knowledge will prepare the radiologist for the coming innovations in the 'ever increasing' digital future. PMID:21423895

  15. Open Source Hardware for DIY Environmental Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hicks, S. D.; Damiano, S. G.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Arduino open source electronics platform has been very popular within the DIY (Do It Yourself) community for several years, and it is now providing environmental science researchers with an inexpensive alternative to commercial data logging and transmission hardware. Here we present the designs for our latest series of custom Arduino-based dataloggers, which include wireless communication options like self-meshing radio networks and cellular phone modules. The main Arduino board uses a custom interface board to connect to various research-grade sensors to take readings of turbidity, dissolved oxygen, water depth and conductivity, soil moisture, solar radiation, and other parameters. Sensors with SDI-12 communications can be directly interfaced to the logger using our open Arduino-SDI-12 software library (https://github.com/StroudCenter/Arduino-SDI-12). Different deployment options are shown, like rugged enclosures to house the loggers and rigs for mounting the sensors in both fresh water and marine environments. After the data has been collected and transmitted by the logger, the data is received by a mySQL-PHP stack running on a web server that can be accessed from anywhere in the world. Once there, the data can be visualized on web pages or served though REST requests and Water One Flow (WOF) services. Since one of the main benefits of using open source hardware is the easy collaboration between users, we are introducing a new web platform for discussion and sharing of ideas and plans for hardware and software designs used with DIY environmental sensors and data loggers.

  16. Summary of materials and hardware performance on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry; Pippin, Gary; Teichman, Lou

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of materials and experiment support hardware were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Postflight testing has determined the effects of the almost 6 years of low-earth orbit (LEO) exposure on this hardware. An overview of the results are presented. Hardware discussed includes adhesives, fasteners, lubricants, data storage systems, solar cells, seals, and the LDEF structure. Lessons learned from the testing and analysis of LDEF hardware is also presented.

  17. The Impact of Flight Hardware Scavenging on Space Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    For a given fixed launch vehicle capacity the logistics payload delivered to the moon may be only roughly 20 percent of the payload delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This is compounded by the much lower flight frequency to the moon and thus low availability of spares for maintenance. This implies that lunar hardware is much more scarce and more costly per kilogram than ISS and thus there is much more incentive to preserve hardware. The Constellation Lunar Surface System (LSS) program is considering ways of utilizing hardware scavenged from vehicles including the Altair lunar lander. In general, the hardware will have only had a matter of hours of operation yet there may be years of operational life remaining. By scavenging this hardware the program, in effect, is treating vehicle hardware as part of the payload. Flight hardware may provide logistics spares for system maintenance and reduce the overall logistics footprint. This hardware has a wide array of potential applications including expanding the power infrastructure, and exploiting in-situ resources. Scavenging can also be seen as a way of recovering the value of, literally, billions of dollars worth of hardware that would normally be discarded. Scavenging flight hardware adds operational complexity and steps must be taken to augment the crew s capability with robotics, capabilities embedded in flight hardware itself, and external processes. New embedded technologies are needed to make hardware more serviceable and scavengable. Process technologies are needed to extract hardware, evaluate hardware, reconfigure or repair hardware, and reintegrate it into new applications. This paper also illustrates how scavenging can be used to drive down the cost of the overall program by exploiting the intrinsic value of otherwise discarded flight hardware.

  18. Evaluation of RSRM case hardware fretting concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swauger, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    Fretting corrosion was first noted on Shuttle flight STS-26. This flight was the first usage of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The occurrence of fretting has since been observed on both the field and factory joints of the RSRM. Fretting is a form of corrosion that occurs at the interface between contacting, highly loaded, metal surfaces when exposed to slight relative vibratory motions. The engineering effort performed to evaluate the effect of fretting on the RSRM case hardware is summarized. Based on the results of this evaluation, several conclusions were made concerning flight safety. Also, recommendations were made concerning trending the effects of multiple generations of fretting damage.

  19. Configuration management for hardware-software codesign

    SciTech Connect

    Kobialka, H.U.; Gnedina, A.; Wilberg, J.

    1996-12-31

    Configuration Management (CM) has a long tradition in the area of software development. In other areas CM is still more a promise than a product to be used. During HW/SW codesign a large design space has to be explored in order to find the optimal combination of software and hardware. This is an optimization process where many variants (> 1000) and associated analysis results have to be maintained for later exploration. Each variant consists of hundreds of files. This paper describes the CM requirements we encountered when introducing CM in a HW/SW codesign project. CM support for HW/SW codesign has been implemented in the ADDD development environment.

  20. Workmanship Challenges for NASA Mission Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several challenges in workmanship for NASA mission hardware development. Several standards for NASA workmanship exist, that are required for all programs, projects, contracts and subcontracts. These Standards contain our best known methods for avoiding past assembly problems and defects. These best practices may not be available if suppliers are used who are not compliant with them. Compliance includes having certified operators and inspectors. Some examples of problems that have occured from the lack of requirements flow-down to contractors are reviewed. The presentation contains a detailed example of the challenge in regards to The Packaging "Design" Dilemma.

  1. FORTE hardware-in-loop simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruud, K.K.; Murray, H.S.; Moore, T.K.

    1997-12-01

    Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is a small, low Earth orbit satellite scheduled for launch in August 1997. FORTE is a momentum-biased, gravity-gradient stabilized spacecraft. This paper describes the use of a hardware-in-loop simulator, developed by Ithaco Inc. and Los Alamos National Laboratory, in performing FORTE mission simulations. Scenarios studied include separation, acquisition on orbit, control system parameter sensitivity studies, sensor noise simulations, antenna deployment and momentum desaturation. Use of the simulator to refine control algorithms and sequences is also described.

  2. Hardware Counter Multiplexing V1.2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-10-13

    The Hardware Counter Multiplexer works with the built-in counter registers on computer processors. These counters record varius low-level events as software runs, but they can cannot record all possible events at the same time. This software helps work around that limitation by counting a series of different events in sequence over a period of time. This in turn allows programmers to measure interesting combinations of events, rather than single events. The software is designed tomore » work with multithreaded or single-threaded programs.« less

  3. SuperCDMS Cold Hardware Design

    SciTech Connect

    Al Kenany, S.; Rolla, Julie A.; Godfrey, Gary; Brink, Paul L.; Seitz, Dennis N.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Huber, Martin E.; Hines, Bruce A.; Irwin, Kent D.; /NIST, Boulder

    2012-06-13

    We discuss the current design of the cold hardware and cold electronics to be used in the upcoming SuperCDMS Soudan deployment. Engineering challenges associated with such concerns as thermal isolation, microphonics, radiopurity, and power dissipation are discussed, along with identifying the design changes necessary for SuperCDMS SNOLAB. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) employs ultrapure 1-inch thick, 3-inch diameter germanium crystals operating below 50 mK in a dilution cryostat. These detectors give an ionization and phonon signal, which gives us rejection capabilities regarding background events versus dark matter signals.

  4. Efficient Multiplication of Polynomials on Graphics Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeliyanenko, Pavel

    We present the algorithm to multiply univariate polynomials with integer coefficients efficiently using the Number Theoretic transform (NTT) on Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The same approach can be used to multiply large integers encoded as polynomials. Our algorithm exploits fused multiply-add capabilities of the graphics hardware. NTT multiplications are executed in parallel for a set of distinct primes followed by reconstruction using the Chinese Remainder theorem (CRT) on the GPU. Our benchmarking experiences show the NTT multiplication performance up to 77 GMul/s. We compared our approach with CPU-based implementations of polynomial and large integer multiplication provided by NTL and GMP libraries.

  5. A building block for hardware belief networks.

    PubMed

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-01-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models. PMID:27443521

  6. Reconfigurable Hardware for Compressing Hyperspectral Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh; Namkung, Jeffrey; Villapando, Carlos; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, Matthew; Xie, Hua

    2010-01-01

    High-speed, low-power, reconfigurable electronic hardware has been developed to implement ICER-3D, an algorithm for compressing hyperspectral-image data. The algorithm and parts thereof have been the topics of several NASA Tech Briefs articles, including Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images (NPO-43239) and ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software (NPO-43238), which appear elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As described in more detail in those articles, the algorithm includes three main subalgorithms: one for computing wavelet transforms, one for context modeling, and one for entropy encoding. For the purpose of designing the hardware, these subalgorithms are treated as modules to be implemented efficiently in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The design takes advantage of industry- standard, commercially available FPGAs. The implementation targets the Xilinx Virtex II pro architecture, which has embedded PowerPC processor cores with flexible on-chip bus architecture. It incorporates an efficient parallel and pipelined architecture to compress the three-dimensional image data. The design provides for internal buffering to minimize intensive input/output operations while making efficient use of offchip memory. The design is scalable in that the subalgorithms are implemented as independent hardware modules that can be combined in parallel to increase throughput. The on-chip processor manages the overall operation of the compression system, including execution of the top-level control functions as well as scheduling, initiating, and monitoring processes. The design prototype has been demonstrated to be capable of compressing hyperspectral data at a rate of 4.5 megasamples per second at a conservative clock frequency of 50 MHz, with a potential for substantially greater throughput at a higher clock frequency. The power consumption of the prototype is less than 6.5 W. The reconfigurability (by means of reprogramming) of

  7. A building block for hardware belief networks

    PubMed Central

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-01-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models. PMID:27443521

  8. Orbiter CIU/IUS communications hardware evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    The DOD and NASA inertial upper stage communication system design, hardware specifications and interfaces were analyzed to determine their compatibility with the Orbiter payload communications equipment (Payload Interrogator, Payload Signal Processors, Communications Interface Unit, and the Orbiter operational communications equipment (the S-Band and Ku-band systems). Topics covered include (1) IUS/shuttle Orbiter communications interface definition; (2) Orbiter avionics equipment serving the IUS; (3) IUS communication equipment; (4) IUS/shuttle Orbiter RF links; (5) STDN/TDRS S-band related activities; and (6) communication interface unit/Orbiter interface issues. A test requirement plan overview is included.

  9. INTEGRATED MONITORING HARDWARE DEVELOPMENTS AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    R. PARKER; J. HALBIG; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    The hardware of the integrated monitoring system supports a family of instruments having a common internal architecture and firmware. Instruments can be easily configured from application-specific personality boards combined with common master-processor and high- and low-voltage power supply boards, and basic operating firmware. The instruments are designed to function autonomously to survive power and communication outages and to adapt to changing conditions. The personality boards allow measurement of gross gammas and neutrons, neutron coincidence and multiplicity, and gamma spectra. In addition, the Intelligent Local Node (ILON) provides a moderate-bandwidth network to tie together instruments, sensors, and computers.

  10. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Gengfu; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2011-04-05

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of Perovskite AMeO.sub.3, wherein A is at least one of lanthanum and a combination of lanthanum and strontium and Me is one or more of transition metals, lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1) and X-doped LiMeO.sub.2, wherein X is one of Mg, Ca, and Co.

  11. Open Hardware for CERN's accelerator control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bij, E.; Serrano, J.; Wlostowski, T.; Cattin, M.; Gousiou, E.; Alvarez Sanchez, P.; Boccardi, A.; Voumard, N.; Penacoba, G.

    2012-01-01

    The accelerator control systems at CERN will be upgraded and many electronics modules such as analog and digital I/O, level converters and repeaters, serial links and timing modules are being redesigned. The new developments are based on the FPGA Mezzanine Card, PCI Express and VME64x standards while the Wishbone specification is used as a system on a chip bus. To attract partners, the projects are developed in an `Open' fashion. Within this Open Hardware project new ways of working with industry are being evaluated and it has been proven that industry can be involved at all stages, from design to production and support.

  12. Space Telecommunications Radio Systems (STRS) Hardware Architecture Standard: Release 1.0 Hardware Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John; Hill, Gary; Mortensen, Dale J.; Andro, Monty; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Farrington, Allen

    2008-01-01

    This report defines a hardware architecture approach for software-defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general-purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays, and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radiofrequency front ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that compose a typical communication radio. This report describes the architecture details, the module definitions, the typical functions on each module, and the module interfaces. Tradeoffs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify a physical implementation internally on each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

  13. Analysis of systems hardware flown on LDEF: New findings and comparison to other retrieved spacecraft hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry; Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail; Blue, Donald; Hansen, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was retrieved in 1990 after spending 69 months in low-earth-orbit (LEO). A wide variety of mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical systems, subsystems, and components were flown on LDEF. The Systems Special Investigation Group (Systems SIG) was formed by NASA to investigate the effects of the 69 month exposure on systems related hardware and to coordinate and collate all systems analysis of LDEF hardware. This report is the Systems SIG final report which updates earlier findings and compares LDEF systems findings to results from other retrieved spacecraft hardware such as Hubble Space Telescope. Also included are sections titled (1) Effects of Long Duration Space Exposure on Optical Scatter, (2) Contamination Survey of LDEF, and (3) Degradation of Optical Materials in Space.

  14. Analysis of systems hardware flown on LDEF: New findings and comparison to other retrieved spacecraft hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dursch, Harry; Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail; Blue, Donald; Hansen, Patricia

    1995-09-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was retrieved in 1990 after spending 69 months in low-earth-orbit (LEO). A wide variety of mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical systems, subsystems, and components were flown on LDEF. The Systems Special Investigation Group (Systems SIG) was formed by NASA to investigate the effects of the 69 month exposure on systems related hardware and to coordinate and collate all systems analysis of LDEF hardware. This report is the Systems SIG final report which updates earlier findings and compares LDEF systems findings to results from other retrieved spacecraft hardware such as Hubble Space Telescope. Also included are sections titled (1) Effects of Long Duration Space Exposure on Optical Scatter, (2) Contamination Survey of LDEF, and (3) Degradation of Optical Materials in Space.

  15. Safe to Fly: Certifying COTS Hardware for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichuk, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Providing hardware for the astronauts to use on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station (ISS) involves a certification process that entails evaluating hardware safety, weighing risks, providing mitigation, and verifying requirements. Upon completion of this certification process, the hardware is deemed safe to fly. This process from start to finish can be completed as quickly as 1 week or can take several years in length depending on the complexity of the hardware and whether the item is a unique custom design. One area of cost and schedule savings that NASA implements is buying Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) hardware and certifying it for human spaceflight as safe to fly. By utilizing commercial hardware, NASA saves time not having to develop, design and build the hardware from scratch, as well as a timesaving in the certification process. By utilizing COTS hardware, the current detailed certification process can be simplified which results in schedule savings. Cost savings is another important benefit of flying COTS hardware. Procuring COTS hardware for space use can be more economical than custom building the hardware. This paper will investigate the cost savings associated with certifying COTS hardware to NASA s standards rather than performing a custom build.

  16. CHeCS: International Space Station Medical Hardware Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this catalog is to provide a detailed description of each piece of hardware in the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS), including subpacks associated with the hardware, and to briefly describe the interfaces between the hardware and the ISS. The primary user of this document is the Space Medicine/Medical Operations ISS Biomedical Flight Controllers (ISS BMEs).

  17. CASIS Fact Sheet: Hardware and Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Michael R.; Romero, Vergel

    2016-01-01

    Vencore is a proven information solutions, engineering, and analytics company that helps our customers solve their most complex challenges. For more than 40 years, we have designed, developed and delivered mission-critical solutions as our customers' trusted partner. The Engineering Services Contract, or ESC, provides engineering and design services to the NASA organizations engaged in development of new technologies at the Kennedy Space Center. Vencore is the ESC prime contractor, with teammates that include Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies, Sierra Lobo, Nelson Engineering, EASi, and Craig Technologies. The Vencore team designs and develops systems and equipment to be used for the processing of space launch vehicles, spacecraft, and payloads. We perform flight systems engineering for spaceflight hardware and software; develop technologies that serve NASA's mission requirements and operations needs for the future. Our Flight Payload Support (FPS) team at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides engineering, development, and certification services as well as payload integration and management services to NASA and commercial customers. Our main objective is to assist principal investigators (PIs) integrate their science experiments into payload hardware for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), commercial spacecraft, suborbital vehicles, parabolic flight aircrafts, and ground-based studies. Vencore's FPS team is AS9100 certified and a recognized implementation partner for the Center for Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS

  18. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  19. Advanced flight hardware for organic separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Weber, John T.

    1997-01-01

    Aqueous Two-Phase Partitioning (ATPP) is a unique separation technique which allows purification and classification of biological materials. SHOT has employed the ATPP process in separation equipment developed for both space and ground applications. Initial equipment development and research focused on the ORganic SEParation (ORSEP) space flight experiments that were performed on suborbital rockets and the shuttle. ADvanced SEParations (ADSEP) technology was developed as the next generation of ORSEP equipment through a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Under the SBIR contract, a marketing study was conducted, indicating a growing commercial market exists among biotechnology firms for ADSEP equipment and associated flight research and development services. SHOT is preparing to begin manufacturing and marketing laboratory versions of the ADSEP hardware for the ground-based market. In addition, through a self-financed SBIR Phase III effort, SHOT fabricated and integrated the ADSEP flight hardware for a commercially-driven flight experiment as the initial step in marketing space processing services. The ADSEP ground-based and microgravity research is expected to play a vital role in developing important new biomedical and pharmaceutical products.

  20. Hardware development process for Human Research facility applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. .

  1. Innovative Contamination Certification of Multi-Mission Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.; Montt, Kristina M.; Triolo, Jack J.

    1998-01-01

    Maintaining contamination certification of multi-mission flight hardware is an innovative approach to controlling mission costs. Methods for assessing ground induced degradation between missions have been employed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Project for the multi-mission (servicing) hardware. By maintaining the cleanliness of the hardware between missions, and by controlling the materials added to the hardware during modification and refurbishment both project funding for contamination recertification and schedule have been significantly reduced. These methods will be discussed and HST hardware data will be presented.

  2. Innovative Contamination Certification of Multi-Mission Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.; Montt, Kristina M.; Triolo, Jack J.

    1999-01-01

    Maintaining contamination certification of multi-mission flight hardware is an innovative approach to controlling mission costs. Methods for assessing ground induced degradation between missions have been employed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Project for the multi-mission (servicing) hardware. By maintaining the cleanliness of the hardware between missions, and by controlling the materials added to the hardware during modification and refurbishment both project funding for contamination recertification and schedule have been significantly reduced. These methods will be discussed and HST hardware data will be presented.

  3. Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Leary, John

    2009-01-01

    For the past decade, a framework combining model checking (symbolic trajectory evaluation) and higher-order logic theorem proving has been in production use at Intel. Our tools and methodology have been used to formally verify execution cluster functionality (including floating-point operations) for a number of Intel products, including the Pentium(Registered TradeMark)4 and Core(TradeMark)i7 processors. Hardware verification in 2009 is much more challenging than it was in 1999 - today s CPU chip designs contain many processor cores and significant firmware content. This talk will attempt to distill the lessons learned over the past ten years, discuss how they apply to today s problems, outline some future directions.

  4. Extensible Hardware Architecture for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Eric; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a new mobile robot hardware architecture designed for extensibility and reconfigurability. Currently implemented on the k9 rover. and won to be integrated onto the K10 series of human-robot collaboration research robots, this architecture allows for rapid changes in instrumentation configuration and provides a high degree of modularity through a synergistic mix of off-the-shelf and custom designed components, allowing eased transplantation into a wide vane6 of mobile robot platforms. A component level overview of this architecture is presented along with a description of the changes required for implementation on K10 , followed by plans for future work.

  5. Hardware development for Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardas, D.; Cheung, W. S.; Gill, D.; Hacker, R.; Keiser, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B), also known as the Stanford Relativity Gyroscope Experiment, will test two fundamental predictions of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by precise measurement of the precessions of nearly perfect gyroscopes in earth orbit. This endeavor embodies state-of-the-art technologies in many fields, including gyroscope fabrication and readout, cryogenics, superconductivity, magnetic shielding, precision optics and alignment methods, and satellite control systems. These technologies are necessary to enable measurement of the predicted precession rates to the milliarcsecond/year level, and to reduce to 'near zero' all non-General Relativistic torques on the gyroscopes. This paper provides a brief overview of the experiment followed by descriptions of several specific hardware items with highlights on progress to date and plans for future development and tests.

  6. Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-04-13

    Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer, including defining within a tree network of the parallel computer two or more sets of non-overlapping test levels of compute nodes of the network that together include all the data communications links of the network, each non-overlapping test level comprising two or more adjacent tiers of the tree; defining test cells within each non-overlapping test level, each test cell comprising a subtree of the tree including a subtree root compute node and all descendant compute nodes of the subtree root compute node within a non-overlapping test level; performing, separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, an uplink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels; and performing, separately from the uplink tests and separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, a downlink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels.

  7. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware & Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra; Marmolejo, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: Define Extravehicular Activity (EVA), identify the reasons for conducting an EVA, and review the role that EVA has played in the space program; Identify the types of EVAs that may be performed; Describe some of the U.S. Space Station equipment and tools that are used during an EVA, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock and Russian Docking Compartment 1 (DC-1), and EVA Tools & Equipment; Outline the methods and procedures of EVA Preparation, EVA, and Post-EVA operations; Describe the Russian spacesuit used to perform an EVA; Provide a comparison between U.S. and Russian spacesuit hardware and EVA support; and Define the roles that different training facilities play in EVA training.

  8. Compressive sensing image sensors-hardware implementation.

    PubMed

    Dadkhah, Mohammadreza; Deen, M Jamal; Shirani, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    The compressive sensing (CS) paradigm uses simultaneous sensing and compression to provide an efficient image acquisition technique. The main advantages of the CS method include high resolution imaging using low resolution sensor arrays and faster image acquisition. Since the imaging philosophy in CS imagers is different from conventional imaging systems, new physical structures have been developed for cameras that use the CS technique. In this paper, a review of different hardware implementations of CS encoding in optical and electrical domains is presented. Considering the recent advances in CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technologies and the feasibility of performing on-chip signal processing, important practical issues in the implementation of CS in CMOS sensors are emphasized. In addition, the CS coding for video capture is discussed. PMID:23584123

  9. VST hydrostatic bearing system control hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molfese, C.; Schipani, P.; Mancini, D.; D'Orsi, S.

    2008-07-01

    The Hydrostatic Bearing System (HBS) control hardware of the VST (VLT Survey Telescope), a 2.6 m. class Alt-Az telescope in installation phase at Cerro Paranal in Northern Chile, at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) site, is aimed at controlling all the devices present in the HBS pumping station and at monitoring the pressure values in the different points of the plant. The HBS control system is based mainly on a Local Control Unit (LCU) mounted in the HBS control cabinet and connected to the plant by means of proper I/Fs. A distributed pressure and temperature acquisition system, based on General Purpose (GP) acquisition boards, is also present. A local interlock chain and related enabling signal for the Azimuth Axis interlock chain have been implemented to avoid fault propagation in case of lack of delivery pressure. In the present paper all technical details concerning the control and monitoring of the HBS subsystem are given.

  10. EPICS: Allen-Bradley hardware reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, G.

    1993-04-05

    This manual covers the following hardware: Allen-Bradley 6008 -- SV VMEbus I/O scanner; Allen-Bradley universal I/O chassis 1771-A1B, -A2B, -A3B, and -A4B; Allen-Bradley power supply module 1771-P4S; Allen-Bradley 1771-ASB remote I/O adapter module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IFE analog input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OFE analog output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IG(D) TTL input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OG(d) TTL output; Allen-Bradley 1771-IQ DC selectable input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OW contact output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IBD DC (10--30V) input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OBD DC (10--60V) output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IXE thermocouple/millivolt input module; and the Allen-Bradley 2705 RediPANEL push button module.

  11. Hardware description languages for systolic architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.

    1984-10-01

    Systolic principles can be used to construct special purpose computer systems that achieve high throughput by exploiting algorithmic properties. These principles of regularity, localized communications, and parallel/pipelined execution nicely match the capabilities of integrated circuit technology. Hence, systolic arrays are an attractive method for building high-speed special-purpose hardware to rapidly solve sophisticated problems. However, the use of special-purpose hardware limits the applications base, making fixed costs such as those associated with system design much more critical. Although design costs are in part reduced by the very nature of systolic systems, further reduction can result from the use of automated design and descriptive tools. The design process stretches from the conception of the algorithm and its mapping onto an architecture down to the electronic implementation. In general, a good set of design tools allows the designer to describe, test, and trade off only those factors that are important at that particular point in the design process. A principle requirement in automating the design process is a formal notational mechanism that is capable of providing complete and unambiguous descriptions of the concepts being explored. This notational mechanism then provides a common basis for comparisons between alternate methods and an input mechanism to automated design tools. This thesis identifies the notational features that are necessary for the description of highly parallel, regular architectures such as systolic arrays. A set of language criteria is developed. A number of the more popular HDLs are evaluated using these criteria and their shortcomings noted. 65 references.

  12. Design Space Issues for Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Gwaltney, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of increased programming time for intrinsic evolvable hardware (EM) as the complexity of the circuit grows. As the circuit becomes more complex, then more components will be required and a longer programming string, L, is required. We develop equations for the size of the population, n, and the number of generations required for the population to converge, based on L. Our analytical results show that even though the design search space grows as 2L (assuming a binary programming string), the number of circuit evaluations, n*ngen, only grows as O(Lg3), or slightly less than O(L). This makes evolvable techniques a good tool for exploring large design spaces. The major hurdle for intrinsic EHW is evaluation time for each possible circuit. The evaluation time involves downloading the bit string to the device, updating the device configuration, measuring the output and then transferring the output data to the control processor. Each of these steps must be done for each member of the population. The processing time of the computer becomes negligible since the selection/crossover/mutation steps are only done once per generation. Evaluation time presently limits intrinsic evolvable hardware techniques to designing only small or medium-sized circuits. To evolve large or complicated circuits, several researchers have proposed using hierarchical design or reuse techniques where submodules are combined together to form complex circuits. However, these practical approaches limit the search space of available designs and preclude utilizing parasitic coupling or other effects within the programmable device. The practical approaches also raise the issue of why intrinsic EHW techniques do not easily apply to large design spaces, since the analytical results show only an O(L) complexity growth.

  13. Environmental testing for new SOFIA flight hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachenmann, Michael; Wolf, Jürgen; Strecker, Rainer; Weckenmann, Benedikt; Trimpe, Fritz; Hall, Helen J.

    2014-07-01

    New flight hardware for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has to be tested to prove its safety and functionality and to measure its performance under flight conditions. Although it is not expected to experience critical issues inside the pressurized cabin with close-to-normal conditions, all equipment has to be tested for safety margins in case of a decompression event and/or for unusual high temperatures, e.g. inside an electronic unit caused by a malfunction as well as unusual high ambient temperatures inside the cabin, when the aircraft is parked in a desert. For equipment mounted on the cavity side of the telescope, stratospheric conditions apply, i.e., temperatures from -40 °C to -60°C and an air pressure of about 0.1 bar. Besides safety aspects as not to endanger personnel or equipment, new hardware inside the cavity has to function and to perform to specifications under such conditions. To perform these tests, an environmental test laboratory was set up at the SOFIA Science Center at the NASA Ames Research Center, including a thermal vacuum chamber, temperature measurement equipment, and a control and data logging workstation. This paper gives an overview of the test and measurement equipment, shows results from the commissioning and characterization of the thermal vacuum chamber, and presents examples of the component tests that were performed so far. To test the focus position stability of optics when cooling them to stratospheric temperatures, an auto-collimation device has been developed. We will present its design and results from measurements on commercial off-the-shelf optics as candidates for the new Wide Field Imager for SOFIA as an example.

  14. Toward Evolvable Hardware Chips: Experiments with a Programmable Transistor Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Evolvable Hardware is reconfigurable hardware that self-configures under the control of an evolutionary algorithm. We search for a hardware configuration can be performed using software models or, faster and more accurate, directly in reconfigurable hardware. Several experiments have demonstrated the possibility to automatically synthesize both digital and analog circuits. The paper introduces an approach to automated synthesis of CMOS circuits, based on evolution on a Programmable Transistor Array (PTA). The approach is illustrated with a software experiment showing evolutionary synthesis of a circuit with a desired DC characteristic. A hardware implementation of a test PTA chip is then described, and the same evolutionary experiment is performed on the chip demonstrating circuit synthesis/self-configuration directly in hardware.

  15. Expert System analysis of non-fuel assembly hardware and spent fuel disassembly hardware: Its generation and recommended disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    Almost all of the effort being expended on radioactive waste disposal in the United States is being focused on the disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, with little consideration for other areas that will have to be disposed of in the same facilities. one area of radioactive waste that has not been addressed adequately because it is considered a secondary part of the waste issue is the disposal of the various Non-Fuel Bearing Components of the reactor core. These hardware components fall somewhat arbitrarily into two categories: Non-Fuel Assembly (NFA) hardware and Spent Fuel Disassembly (SFD) hardware. This work provides a detailed examination of the generation and disposal of NFA hardware and SFD hardware by the nuclear utilities of the United States as it relates to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. All available sources of data on NFA and SFD hardware are analyzed with particular emphasis given to the Characteristics Data Base developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the characterization work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories and Rochester Gas & Electric. An Expert System developed as a portion of this work is used to assist in the prediction of quantities of NFA hardware and SFD hardware that will be generated by the United States` utilities. Finally, the hardware waste management practices of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, and Japan are studied for possible application to the disposal of domestic hardware wastes. As a result of this work, a general classification scheme for NFA and SFD hardware was developed. Only NFA and SFD hardware constructed of zircaloy and experiencing a burnup of less than 70,000 MWD/MTIHM and PWR control rods constructed of stainless steel are considered Low-Level Waste. All other hardware is classified as Greater-ThanClass-C waste.

  16. GSTAMIDS ground-penetrating radar: hardware description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sower, Gary D.; Eberly, John; Christy, Ed

    2001-10-01

    The Ground Standoff Mine Detection System (GSTAMIDS) is now in the Engineering, Manufacturing and Development (EMD) Block 0 phase for USA CECOM. The Mine Detection Subsystem (MDS) presently utilizes three different sensor technologies to detect buried anti-tank (AT) land mines; Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Pulsed Magnetic Induction (PMI), and passive infrared (IR). The GSTAMIDS hardware and software architectures are designed so that other technologies can readily be incorporated when and if they prove viable. Each sensor suite is designed to detect the buried mines and to discriminate against various clutter and background objects. Sensor data fusion of the outputs of the individual sensor suites then enhances the detection probability while reducing the false alarm rate from clutter objects. The metal detector is an essential tool for buried mine detection, as metal land mines still account for a large percentage of land mines. Technologies such as nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR or QR) are presently being developed to detect or confirm the presence of explosive material in buried land mines, particularly the so-called plastic mines; unfortunately, the radio frequency signals required cannot penetrate into a metal land mine. The limitation of the metal detector is not in detection of the metal mines, but in the additional detection of metal clutter. A metal detector has been developed using singular value decomposition (SVD) extraction techniques to discriminate the mines from the clutter, thereby greatly reducing false alarm rates. This mine detector is designed to characterize the impulse response function of the metal objects, based on a parametric three-pole model of the response, and to use pattern recognition to determine the match of the responses to known mines. In addition to discrimination against clutter, the system can also generally tell one mine type from another. This paper describes the PMI sensor suite hardware and its physical incorporation

  17. Exercise Countermeasure Hardware Evolution on ISS: The First Decade.

    PubMed

    Korth, Deborah W

    2015-12-01

    The hardware systems necessary to support exercise countermeasures to the deconditioning associated with microgravity exposure have evolved and improved significantly during the first decade of the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in both new types of hardware and enhanced performance capabilities for initial hardware items. The original suite of countermeasure hardware supported the first crews to arrive on the ISS and the improved countermeasure system delivered in later missions continues to serve the astronauts today with increased efficacy. Due to aggressive hardware development schedules and constrained budgets, the initial approach was to identify existing spaceflight-certified exercise countermeasure equipment, when available, and modify it for use on the ISS. Program management encouraged the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, or hardware previously developed (heritage hardware) for the Space Shuttle Program. However, in many cases the resultant hardware did not meet the additional requirements necessary to support crew health maintenance during long-duration missions (3 to 12 mo) and anticipated future utilization activities in support of biomedical research. Hardware development was further complicated by performance requirements that were not fully defined at the outset and tended to evolve over the course of design and fabrication. Modifications, ranging from simple to extensive, were necessary to meet these evolving requirements in each case where heritage hardware was proposed. Heritage hardware was anticipated to be inherently reliable without the need for extensive ground testing, due to its prior positive history during operational spaceflight utilization. As a result, developmental budgets were typically insufficient and schedules were too constrained to permit long-term evaluation of dedicated ground-test units ("fleet leader" type testing) to identify reliability issues when applied to long-duration use. In most cases

  18. 18. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL INTERIOR DOOR AND HARDWARE A. C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL INTERIOR DOOR AND HARDWARE A. C. Eschete, photographer, September 24, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  19. Environmental Friendly Coatings and Corrosion Prevention For Flight Hardware Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Identify, test and develop qualification criteria for environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and corrosion preventative compounds (CPC's) for flight hardware an ground support equipment.

  20. Nanorobot Hardware Architecture for Medical Defense

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Adriano; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Zhang, Mingjun; Kretly, Luiz C.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a new approach with details on the integrated platform and hardware architecture for nanorobots application in epidemic control, which should enable real time in vivo prognosis of biohazard infection. The recent developments in the field of nanoelectronics, with transducers progressively shrinking down to smaller sizes through nanotechnology and carbon nanotubes, are expected to result in innovative biomedical instrumentation possibilities, with new therapies and efficient diagnosis methodologies. The use of integrated systems, smart biosensors, and programmable nanodevices are advancing nanoelectronics, enabling the progressive research and development of molecular machines. It should provide high precision pervasive biomedical monitoring with real time data transmission. The use of nanobioelectronics as embedded systems is the natural pathway towards manufacturing methodology to achieve nanorobot applications out of laboratories sooner as possible. To demonstrate the practical application of medical nanorobotics, a 3D simulation based on clinical data addresses how to integrate communication with nanorobots using RFID, mobile phones, and satellites, applied to long distance ubiquitous surveillance and health monitoring for troops in conflict zones. Therefore, the current model can also be used to prevent and save a population against the case of some targeted epidemic disease.

  1. Employing ISRU Models to Improve Hardware Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    An analytical model for hydrogen reduction of regolith was used to investigate the effects of several key variables on the energy and mass performance of reactors for a lunar in-situ resource utilization oxygen production plant. Reactor geometry, reaction time, number of reactors, heat recuperation, heat loss, and operating pressure were all studied to guide hardware designers who are developing future prototype reactors. The effects of heat recuperation where the incoming regolith is pre-heated by the hot spent regolith before transfer was also investigated for the first time. In general, longer reaction times per batch provide a lower overall energy, but also result in larger and heavier reactors. Three reactors with long heat-up times results in similar energy requirements as a two-reactor system with all other parameters the same. Three reactors with heat recuperation results in energy reductions of 20 to 40 percent compared to a three-reactor system with no heat recuperation. Increasing operating pressure can provide similar energy reductions as heat recuperation for the same reaction times.

  2. Live HDR video streaming on commodity hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, Joshua; Hatchett, Jonathan; Debattista, Kurt; Chalmers, Alan

    2015-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) video provides a step change in viewing experience, for example the ability to clearly see the soccer ball when it is kicked from the shadow of the stadium into sunshine. To achieve the full potential of HDR video, so-called true HDR, it is crucial that all the dynamic range that was captured is delivered to the display device and tone mapping is confined only to the display. Furthermore, to ensure widespread uptake of HDR imaging, it should be low cost and available on commodity hardware. This paper describes an end-to-end HDR pipeline for capturing, encoding and streaming high-definition HDR video in real-time using off-the-shelf components. All the lighting that is captured by HDR-enabled consumer cameras is delivered via the pipeline to any display, including HDR displays and even mobile devices with minimum latency. The system thus provides an integrated HDR video pipeline that includes everything from capture to post-production, archival and storage, compression, transmission, and display.

  3. Survey of software and hardware VLC architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, Chad E.

    1994-05-01

    In implementation of hybrid compression algorithms, the Huffman or Modified Huffman codec can consume a significant portion of silicon real-estate or CPU cycles. To reduce this cost, several schemes have been published that take advantage of one or more inherent properties of the variable length code tables. This paper examines some of these properties and their corresponding architectural components which can be pieced together to form custom hybrids suited to specific applications. Hardware architectural classifications include: serial and parallel Trees, Content Addressable Memory, Programmable Logic Arrays, and parallel comparators schemes that resemble flash A/D architectures. Assessment criteria include: bit rate vs. symbolic rate performance, clock cycle ratios, latencies, pre-buffering and post- buffering, codebook and source channel statistical dependencies, encoder and decoder circuitry sharing, pre-processing of codebooks, critical path, register use in software, breakdown between memory and logical operators, custom vs. standard cells, and code word order. Finally, the performance and size of current industrial implementations for specific application (JPEG, MPEG) are summarized.

  4. Hubble (HST) hardware is inspected in PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, part of the servicing equipment for the third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (SM-3A), STS-103, is given a black light inspection. The hardware is undergoing final testing and integration of payload elements. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the Hubble's pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  5. Hubble (HST) hardware is inspected in PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, a worker gives a black light inspection to part of the servicing equipment for the third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (SM-3A), STS-103. The hardware is undergoing final testing and integration of payload elements. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the Hubble's pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  6. Hardware platform for multiple mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parzhuber, Otto; Dolinsky, D.

    2004-12-01

    This work is concerned with software and communications architectures that might facilitate the operation of several mobile robots. The vehicles should be remotely piloted or tele-operated via a wireless link between the operator and the vehicles. The wireless link will carry control commands from the operator to the vehicle, telemetry data from the vehicle back to the operator and frequently also a real-time video stream from an on board camera. For autonomous driving the link will carry commands and data between the vehicles. For this purpose we have developed a hardware platform which consists of a powerful microprocessor, different sensors, stereo- camera and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) for communication. The adoption of IEEE802.11 standard for the physical and access layer protocols allow a straightforward integration with the internet protocols TCP/IP. For the inspection of the environment the robots are equipped with a wide variety of sensors like ultrasonic, infrared proximity sensors and a small inertial measurement unit. Stereo cameras give the feasibility of the detection of obstacles, measurement of distance and creation of a map of the room.

  7. Mechanics of Granular Materials labeled hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) flight hardware takes two twin double locker assemblies in the Space Shuttle middeck or the Spacehab module. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: NASA/MSFC).

  8. Evolving hardware as model of enzyme evolution.

    PubMed

    Lahoz-Beltra, R

    2001-06-01

    Organism growth and survival is based on thousands of enzymes organized in networks. The motivation to understand how a large number of enzymes evolved so fast inside cells may be relevant to explaining the origin and maintenance of life on Earth. This paper presents electronic circuits called 'electronic enzymes' that model the catalytic function performed by biological enzymes. Electronic enzymes are the hardware realization of enzymes defined as molecular automata with a finite number of internal conformational states and a set of Boolean operators modelling the active groups of the active site. One of the main features of electronic enzymes is the possibility of evolution finding the proper active site by means of a genetic algorithm yielding a metabolic ring or k-cycle that bears a resemblance to Krebs (k=7) or Calvin (k=4) cycles present in organisms. The simulations are consistent with those results obtained in vitro evolving enzymes based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as with the general view that suggests the main role of recombination during enzyme evolution. The proposed methodology shows how molecular automata with evolvable features that model enzymes or other processing molecules provide an experimental framework for simulation of the principles governing metabolic pathways evolution and self-organization. PMID:11448522

  9. Advances in SPECT and PET Hardware.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Piotr J; Pan, Tinsu; Berman, Daniel S; Germano, Guido

    2015-01-01

    There have been significant recent advances in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) hardware. Novel collimator designs, such as multi-pinhole and locally focusing collimators arranged in geometries that are optimized for cardiac imaging have been implemented to reduce imaging time and radiation dose. These new collimators have been coupled with solid state photon detectors to further improve image quality and reduce scanner size. The new SPECT scanners demonstrate up to a 7-fold increase in photon sensitivity and up to 2 times improvement in image resolution. Although PET scanners are used primarily for oncological imaging, cardiac imaging can benefit from the improved PET sensitivity of 3D systems without inter-plane septa and implementation of the time-of-flight reconstruction. Additionally, resolution recovery techniques are now implemented by all major PET vendors. These new methods improve image contrast, image resolution, and reduce image noise. Simultaneous PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid systems have been developed. Solid state detectors with avalanche photodiodes or digital silicon photomultipliers have also been utilized in PET. These new detectors allow improved image resolution, higher count rate, as well as a reduced sensitivity to electromagnetic MR fields. PMID:25721706

  10. Ultrasound and clinical evaluation of soft-tissue versus hardware biceps tenodesis: is hardware tenodesis worth the cost?

    PubMed

    Elkousy, Hussein; Romero, Jose A; Edwards, T Bradley; Gartsman, Gary M; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the failure rate of soft-tissue versus hardware fixation of biceps tenodesis by ultrasound to determine if the expense of a hardware tenodesis technique is warranted. Seventy-two patients that underwent arthroscopic biceps tenodesis over a 3-year period were evaluated using postoperative ultrasonography and clinical examination. The tenodesis technique employed was either a soft-tissue technique with sutures or an interference screw technique using hardware based on surgeon preference. Patient age was 57.9 years on average with ultrasound and clinical examination done at an average of 9.3 months postoperatively. Thirty-one patients had a hardware technique and 41 a soft-tissue technique. Overall, 67.7% of biceps tenodesis done with hardware were intact, compared with 75.6% for the soft-tissue technique by ultrasound (P = .46). Clinical evaluation indicated that 80.7% of hardware techniques and 78% of soft-tissue techniques were intact. Average material cost to the hospital for the hardware technique was $514.32, compared with $32.05 for the soft-tissue technique. Biceps tenodesis success, as determined by clinical deformity and ultrasound, was not improved using hardware as compared to soft-tissue techniques. Soft-tissue techniques are equally efficacious and more cost effective than hardware techniques. PMID:24551861

  11. Developing a Decision Support System: The Software and Hardware Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Phillip M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes some of the available software and hardware tools that can be used to develop a decision support system implemented on microcomputers. Activities that should be supported by software are discussed, including data entry, data coding, finding and combining data, and data compatibility. Hardware considerations include speed, storage…

  12. Teaching Robotics Software with the Open Hardware Mobile Manipulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vona, M.; Shekar, N. H.

    2013-01-01

    The "open hardware mobile manipulator" (OHMM) is a new open platform with a unique combination of features for teaching robotics software and algorithms. On-board low- and high-level processors support real-time embedded programming and motor control, as well as higher-level coding with contemporary libraries. Full hardware designs and…

  13. The hardware and software support for the MRSP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, D.

    The Muenster Redshift Project (MRSP) described by Horstmann (1988) and Schuecker (1988) relies on an arrangement of hardware and software which is referred to as the Astronomical Data Analysis System. In this paper the hardware is briefly introduced and the support software GAME is discussed.

  14. Decisions, Decisions, Decisions: Help in Choosing Microcomputer Software and Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, W. Jean; Fredenburg, Anne M.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography, prepared with the information specialist, end-user, and administrator in mind, presents citations to 167 journal articles that provide concrete comparisons of commercially-available microcomputer software packages and hardware equipment. An index divided into software and hardware sections with references to type of comparison…

  15. Hardware packet pacing using a DMA in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Phillip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-08-13

    Method and system for hardware packet pacing using a direct memory access controller in a parallel computer which, in one aspect, keeps track of a total number of bytes put on the network as a result of a remote get operation, using a hardware token counter.

  16. Hardware-Efficient Monitoring of I/O Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, Kevin R.; Hall, Brendan; Paulitsch, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this invention, command and monitor functionality is moved between the two independent pieces of hardware, in which one had been dedicated to command and the other had been dedicated to monitor, such that some command and some monitor functionality appears in each. The only constraint is that the monitor for signal cannot be in the same hardware as the command I/O it is monitoring. The splitting of the command outputs between independent pieces of hardware may require some communication between them, i.e. an intra-switch trunk line. This innovation reduces the amount of wasted hardware and allows the two independent pieces of hardware to be designed identically in order to save development costs.

  17. Hardware efficient monitoring of input/output signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, Kevin R. (Inventor); Hall, Brendan (Inventor); Paulitsch, Michael (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A communication device comprises first and second circuits to implement a plurality of ports via which the communicative device is operable to communicate over a plurality of communication channels. For each of the plurality of ports, the communication device comprises: command hardware that includes a first transmitter to transmit data over a respective one of the plurality of channels and a first receiver to receive data from the respective one of the plurality of channels; and monitor hardware that includes a second receiver coupled to the first transmitter and a third receiver coupled to the respective one of the plurality of channels. The first circuit comprises the command hardware for a first subset of the plurality of ports. The second circuit comprises the monitor hardware for the first subset of the plurality of ports and the command hardware for a second subset of the plurality of ports.

  18. VME rollback hardware for time warp multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robb, Michael J.; Buzzell, Calvin A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the research effort is to develop and demonstrate innovative hardware to implement specific rollback and timing functions required for efficient queue management and precision timekeeping in multiprocessor discrete event simulations. The previously completed phase 1 effort demonstrated the technical feasibility of building hardware modules which eliminate the state saving overhead of the Time Warp paradigm used in distributed simulations on multiprocessor systems. The current phase 2 effort will build multiple pre-production rollback hardware modules integrated with a network of Sun workstations, and the integrated system will be tested by executing a Time Warp simulation. The rollback hardware will be designed to interface with the greatest number of multiprocessor systems possible. The authors believe that the rollback hardware will provide for significant speedup of large scale discrete event simulation problems and allow multiprocessors using Time Warp to dramatically increase performance.

  19. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  20. The Art of Space Flight Exercise Hardware: Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyene, Nahom M.

    2004-01-01

    The design of space flight exercise hardware depends on experience with crew health maintenance in a microgravity environment, history in development of flight-quality exercise hardware, and a foundation for certifying proper project management and design methodology. Developed over the past 40 years, the expertise in designing exercise countermeasures hardware at the Johnson Space Center stems from these three aspects of design. The medical community has steadily pursued an understanding of physiological changes in humans in a weightless environment and methods of counteracting negative effects on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system. The effects of weightlessness extend to the pulmonary and neurovestibular system as well with conditions ranging from motion sickness to loss of bone density. Results have shown losses in water weight and muscle mass in antigravity muscle groups. With the support of university-based research groups and partner space agencies, NASA has identified exercise to be the primary countermeasure for long-duration space flight. The history of exercise hardware began during the Apollo Era and leads directly to the present hardware on the International Space Station. Under the classifications of aerobic and resistive exercise, there is a clear line of development from the early devices to the countermeasures hardware used today. In support of all engineering projects, the engineering directorate has created a structured framework for project management. Engineers have identified standards and "best practices" to promote efficient and elegant design of space exercise hardware. The quality of space exercise hardware depends on how well hardware requirements are justified by exercise performance guidelines and crew health indicators. When considering the microgravity environment of the device, designers must consider performance of hardware separately from the combined human-in-hardware system. Astronauts are the caretakers of the hardware

  1. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  2. Issues Related to Large Flight Hardware Acoustic Qualification Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Perry, Douglas C.; Kern, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of acoustical testing volumes generated by reverberant chambers or a circle of loudspeakers with and without large flight hardware within the testing volume are significantly different. The parameters attributing to these differences are normally not accounted for through analysis or acoustic tests prior to the qualification testing without the test hardware present. In most cases the control microphones are kept at least 2-ft away from hardware surfaces, chamber walls, and speaker surfaces to minimize the impact of the hardware in controlling the sound field. However, the acoustic absorption and radiation of sound by hardware surfaces may significantly alter the sound pressure field controlled within the chamber/speaker volume to a given specification. These parameters often result in an acoustic field that may provide under/over testing scenarios for flight hardware. In this paper the acoustic absorption by hardware surfaces will be discussed in some detail. A simple model is provided to account for some of the observations made from Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft that recently underwent acoustic qualification tests in a reverberant chamber.

  3. Hardware Implementation of a Bilateral Subtraction Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huertas, Andres; Watson, Robert; Villalpando, Carlos; Goldberg, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral subtraction filter has been implemented as a hardware module in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In general, a bilateral subtraction filter is a key subsystem of a high-quality stereoscopic machine vision system that utilizes images that are large and/or dense. Bilateral subtraction filters have been implemented in software on general-purpose computers, but the processing speeds attainable in this way even on computers containing the fastest processors are insufficient for real-time applications. The present FPGA bilateral subtraction filter is intended to accelerate processing to real-time speed and to be a prototype of a link in a stereoscopic-machine- vision processing chain, now under development, that would process large and/or dense images in real time and would be implemented in an FPGA. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified for the sake of brevity, a bilateral subtraction filter is a smoothing, edge-preserving filter for suppressing low-frequency noise. The filter operation amounts to replacing the value for each pixel with a weighted average of the values of that pixel and the neighboring pixels in a predefined neighborhood or window (e.g., a 9 9 window). The filter weights depend partly on pixel values and partly on the window size. The present FPGA implementation of a bilateral subtraction filter utilizes a 9 9 window. This implementation was designed to take advantage of the ability to do many of the component computations in parallel pipelines to enable processing of image data at the rate at which they are generated. The filter can be considered to be divided into the following parts (see figure): a) An image pixel pipeline with a 9 9- pixel window generator, b) An array of processing elements; c) An adder tree; d) A smoothing-and-delaying unit; and e) A subtraction unit. After each 9 9 window is created, the affected pixel data are fed to the processing elements. Each processing element is fed the pixel value for

  4. Hardware Implementation of Serially Concatenated PPM Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Barsoum, Maged; Cheng, Michael; Nakashima, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A prototype decoder for a serially concatenated pulse position modulation (SCPPM) code has been implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). At the time of this reporting, this is the first known hardware SCPPM decoder. The SCPPM coding scheme, conceived for free-space optical communications with both deep-space and terrestrial applications in mind, is an improvement of several dB over the conventional Reed-Solomon PPM scheme. The design of the FPGA SCPPM decoder is based on a turbo decoding algorithm that requires relatively low computational complexity while delivering error-rate performance within approximately 1 dB of channel capacity. The SCPPM encoder consists of an outer convolutional encoder, an interleaver, an accumulator, and an inner modulation encoder (more precisely, a mapping of bits to PPM symbols). Each code is describable by a trellis (a finite directed graph). The SCPPM decoder consists of an inner soft-in-soft-out (SISO) module, a de-interleaver, an outer SISO module, and an interleaver connected in a loop (see figure). Each SISO module applies the Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm to compute a-posteriori bit log-likelihood ratios (LLRs) from apriori LLRs by traversing the code trellis in forward and backward directions. The SISO modules iteratively refine the LLRs by passing the estimates between one another much like the working of a turbine engine. Extrinsic information (the difference between the a-posteriori and a-priori LLRs) is exchanged rather than the a-posteriori LLRs to minimize undesired feedback. All computations are performed in the logarithmic domain, wherein multiplications are translated into additions, thereby reducing complexity and sensitivity to fixed-point implementation roundoff errors. To lower the required memory for storing channel likelihood data and the amounts of data transfer between the decoder and the receiver, one can discard the majority of channel likelihoods, using only the remainder in

  5. Comparison of leading parallel NAS file systems on commodity hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, R; Fitzgerald, K; Gary, M; Stearman, D M

    2010-11-08

    High performance computing has experienced tremendous gains in system performance over the past 20 years. Unfortunately other system capabilities, such as file I/O, have not grown commensurately. In this activity, we present the results of our tests of two leading file systems (GPFS and Lustre) on the same physical hardware. This hardware is the standard commodity storage solution in use at LLNL and, while much smaller in size, is intended to enable us to learn about differences between the two systems in terms of performance, ease of use and resilience. This work represents the first hardware consistent study of the two leading file systems that the authors are aware of.

  6. Hardware-based JPEG 2000 video coding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchter, Arthur R.; Uhl, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss a hardware based low complexity JPEG 2000 video coding system. The hardware system is based on a software simulation system, where temporal redundancy is exploited by coding of differential frames which are arranged in an adaptive GOP structure whereby the GOP structure itself is determined by statistical analysis of differential frames. We present a hardware video coding architecture which applies this inter-frame coding system to a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The system consists mainly of a microprocessor (ADSP-BF533 Blackfin Processor) and a JPEG 2000 chip (ADV202).

  7. Translating network models to parallel hardware in NEURON

    PubMed Central

    Hines, M.L.; Carnevale, N.T.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing complexity of network models poses a growing computational burden. At the same time, computational neuroscientists are finding it easier to access parallel hardware, such as multiprocessor personal computers, workstation clusters, and massively parallel supercomputers. The practical question is how to move a working network model from a single processor to parallel hardware. Here we show how to make this transition for models implemented with NEURON, in such a way that the final result will run and produce numerically identical results on either serial or parallel hardware. This allows users to develop and debug models on readily available local resources, then run their code without modification on a parallel supercomputer. PMID:17997162

  8. A fast, programmable hardware architecture for spaceborne SAR processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, J. R.; Cumming, I. G.; Lim, J.; Wedding, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The launch of spaceborne SARs during the 1980's is discussed. The satellite SARs require high quality and high throughput ground processors. Compression ratios in range and azimuth of greater than 500 and 150 respectively lead to frequency domain processing and data computation rates in excess of 2000 million real operations per second for C-band SARs under consideration. Various hardware architectures are examined and two promising candidates and proceeds to recommend a fast, programmable hardware architecture for spaceborne SAR processing are selected. Modularity and programmability are introduced as desirable attributes for the purpose of HTSP hardware selection.

  9. Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.

  10. Acceleration of Meshfree Radial Point Interpolation Method on Graphics Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, Susumu

    2008-09-01

    This article describes a parallel computational technique to accelerate radial point interpolation method (RPIM)-based meshfree method using graphics hardware. RPIM is one of the meshfree partial differential equation solvers that do not require the mesh structure of the analysis targets. In this paper, a technique for accelerating RPIM using graphics hardware is presented. In the method, the computation process is divided into small processes suitable for processing on the parallel architecture of the graphics hardware in a single instruction multiple data manner.

  11. The JPL telerobot operator control station. Part 1: Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.; Tower, John T.; Hunka, George W.; Vansant, Glenn J.

    1989-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/NASA Telerobot Demonstrator System provides the man-machine interface between the operator and the system. It provides all the hardware and software for accepting human input for the direct and indirect (supervised) manipulation of the robot arms and tools for task execution. Hardware and software are also provided for the display and feedback of information and control data for the operator's consumption and interaction with the task being executed. The hardware design, system architecture, and its integration and interface with the rest of the Telerobot Demonstrator System are discussed.

  12. Concurrent logic programming as a hardware description tool

    SciTech Connect

    Dotan, Y.; Arazi, B. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of developing hardware description languages (HDL's) based on the principles of logic programming. The specific logic programming language used to demonstrate this possibility is Flat Concurrent Prolog (FCP). It is shown explicitly how FCP naturally satisfies the commonly accepted fundamental requirements of a hardware description language. It is then demonstrated how FCP overcomes known disadvantages of the highly acclaimed VHDL. Some other parallel logic programming languages beside FCP are also presented briefly and the possibility of using them for hardware description is discussed.

  13. Pre-Hardware Optimization of Spacecraft Image Processing Algorithms and Hardware Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Petrick, David J.; Flatley, Thomas P.; Hestnes, Phyllis; Jentoft-Nilsen, Marit; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft telemetry rates and telemetry product complexity have steadily increased over the last decade presenting a problem for real-time processing by ground facilities. This paper proposes a solution to a related problem for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Spacecraft (GOES-8) image data processing and color picture generation application. Although large super-computer facilities are the obvious heritage solution, they are very costly, making it imperative to seek a feasible alternative engineering solution at a fraction of the cost. The proposed solution is based on a Personal Computer (PC) platform and synergy of optimized software algorithms, and reconfigurable computing hardware (RC) technologies, such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processors (DSP). It has been shown that this approach can provide superior inexpensive performance for a chosen application on the ground station or on-board a spacecraft.

  14. 33. Detail, typical door hardware, door from front parlor to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Detail, typical door hardware, door from front parlor to entrance hall; view to south; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Warner Hutton House, 13495 Sousa Lane, Saratoga, Santa Clara County, CA

  15. OpenMM: A Hardware Independent Framework for Molecular Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Peter; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    The wide diversity of computer architectures today requires a new approach to software development. OpenMM is a framework for molecular mechanics simulations, allowing a single program to run efficiently on a variety of hardware platforms. PMID:26146490

  16. Hierarchical image-based rendering using texture mapping hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    1999-01-15

    Multi-layered depth images containing color and normal information for subobjects in a hierarchical scene model are precomputed with standard z-buffer hardware for six orthogonal views. These are adaptively selected according to the proximity of the viewpoint, and combined using hardware texture mapping to create ''reprojected'' output images for new viewpoints. (If a subobject is too close to the viewpoint, the polygons in the original model are rendered.) Specific z-ranges are selected from the textures with the hardware alpha test to give accurate 3D reprojection. The OpenGL color matrix is used to transform the precomputed normals into their orientations in the final view, for hardware shading.

  17. Hardware problems encountered in solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, M.

    1978-01-01

    Numerous problems in the design, production, installation, and operation of solar energy systems are discussed. Described are hardware problems, which range from simple to obscure and complex, and their resolution.

  18. View northeast of tooling for forging marine hardware in blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast of tooling for forging marine hardware in blacksmith shop, east side of building 57. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. A versatile hardware platform for brain computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Pablo A; Haberman, Marcelo; Spinelli, Enrique M

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the development of a versatile hardware platform for brain computer interfaces (BCI). The aim of this work is to produce a small, autonomous and configurable BCI platform adaptable to the user's needs. PMID:21096891

  20. Hardware acceleration of image recognition through a visual cortex model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Kenneth L.; Taha, Tarek M.; Vutsinas, Christopher N.

    2008-09-01

    Recent findings in neuroscience have led to the development of several new models describing the processes in the neocortex. These models excel at cognitive applications such as image analysis and movement control. This paper presents a hardware architecture to speed up image content recognition through a recently proposed model of the visual cortex. The system is based on a set of parallel computation nodes implemented in an FPGA. The design was optimized for hardware by reducing the data storage requirements, and removing the need for multiplies and divides. The reconfigurable logic hardware implementation running at 121 MHz provided a speedup of 148 times over a 2 GHz AMD Opteron processor. The results indicate the feasibility of specialized hardware to accelerate larger biological scale implementations of the model.

  1. Hardware device to physical structure binding and authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Stein, David J.; Bauer, Todd M.

    2013-08-20

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a binding of the hardware device and a physical structure. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generate an internal PUF value. Binding logic is coupled to receive the internal PUF value, as well as an external PUF value associated with the physical structure, and generates a binding PUF value, which represents the binding of the hardware device and the physical structure. The cryptographic fingerprint unit also includes a cryptographic unit that uses the binding PUF value to allow a challenger to authenticate the binding.

  2. Human-machine interface hardware: The next decade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Elizabeth A.

    1991-01-01

    In order to understand where human-machine interface hardware is headed, it is important to understand where we are today, how we got there, and what our goals for the future are. As computers become more capable, faster, and programs become more sophisticated, it becomes apparent that the interface hardware is the key to an exciting future in computing. How can a user interact and control a seemingly limitless array of parameters effectively? Today, the answer is most often a limitless array of controls. The link between these controls and human sensory motor capabilities does not utilize existing human capabilities to their full extent. Interface hardware for teleoperation and virtual environments is now facing a crossroad in design. Therefore, we as developers need to explore how the combination of interface hardware, human capabilities, and user experience can be blended to get the best performance today and in the future.

  3. Reliability techniques for combined hardware and software systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, M. A.; Tran, P. Y.; Goddard, P. L.

    1992-02-01

    Techniques were developed for reliability prediction, allocation, growth and demonstration testing of systems that contain both hardware and software. The techniques are compatible with existing hardware reliability concepts, standards and procedures. A draft DOD-HDBK containing the various reliability techniques was also prepared as a part of this study effort. It is intended that the study results and handbook will form the basis for an approved DOD Handbook on software reliability assessment.

  4. The aerospace energy systems laboratory: Hardware and software implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.; Oneil-Rood, Nora

    1989-01-01

    For many years NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility has employed automation in the servicing of flight critical aircraft batteries. Recently a major upgrade to Dryden's computerized Battery Systems Laboratory was initiated to incorporate distributed processing and a centralized database. The new facility, called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL), is being mechanized with iAPX86 and iAPX286 hardware running iRMX86. The hardware configuration and software structure for the AESL are described.

  5. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    Evolvable hardware provides the capability to evolve analog circuits to produce amplifier and filter functions. Conventional analog controller designs employ these same functions. Analog controllers for the control of the shaft speed of a DC motor are evolved on an evolvable hardware platform utilizing a Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA). The performance of these evolved controllers is compared to that of a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller.

  6. STS-118 Astronaut Dave Williams Trains Using Virtual Reality Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Dafydd R. 'Dave' Williams, representing the Canadian Space Agency, uses Virtual Reality Hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock Up Facility at the Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties for the upcoming mission. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear special gloves and other gear while looking at a computer that displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware which with they will be working.

  7. SNL/NM weapon hardware characterization process development report

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, E.W.; Chambers, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the process used by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico to characterize weapon hardware for disposition. The report describes the following basic steps: (1) the drawing search process and primary hazard identification; (2) the development of Disassembly Procedures (DPs), including demilitarization and sanitization requirements; (3) the generation of a ``disposal tree``; (4) generating RCRA waste disposal information; and (5) documenting the information. Additional data gathered during the characterization process supporting hardware grouping and recycle efforts is also discussed.

  8. Hardware Evolution of Closed-Loop Controller Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David; Ferguson, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Poster presentation will outline on-going efforts at NASA, MSFC to employ various Evolvable Hardware experimental platforms in the evolution of digital and analog circuitry for application to automatic control. Included will be information concerning the application of commercially available hardware and software along with the use of the JPL developed FPTA2 integrated circuit and supporting JPL developed software. Results to date will be presented.

  9. On the use of inexact, pruned hardware in atmospheric modelling

    PubMed Central

    Düben, Peter D.; Joven, Jaume; Lingamneni, Avinash; McNamara, Hugh; De Micheli, Giovanni; Palem, Krishna V.; Palmer, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    Inexact hardware design, which advocates trading the accuracy of computations in exchange for significant savings in area, power and/or performance of computing hardware, has received increasing prominence in several error-tolerant application domains, particularly those involving perceptual or statistical end-users. In this paper, we evaluate inexact hardware for its applicability in weather and climate modelling. We expand previous studies on inexact techniques, in particular probabilistic pruning, to floating point arithmetic units and derive several simulated set-ups of pruned hardware with reasonable levels of error for applications in atmospheric modelling. The set-up is tested on the Lorenz ‘96 model, a toy model for atmospheric dynamics, using software emulation for the proposed hardware. The results show that large parts of the computation tolerate the use of pruned hardware blocks without major changes in the quality of short- and long-time diagnostics, such as forecast errors and probability density functions. This could open the door to significant savings in computational cost and to higher resolution simulations with weather and climate models. PMID:24842031

  10. Evaluation of next generation hardware for lithography processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoaoki, T.; Enomoto, M.; Nafus, K.; Marumoto, H.; Kosugi, H.; Mallmann, J.; Maas, R.; Verspaget, C.; van der Heijden, E.; Wang, S.

    2010-04-01

    This work is the summary of improvements in processing capability implemented and tested on the LITHIUS ProTM -i / TWINSCANTM XT:1950Hi litho cluster installed at ASML's development clean room at Veldhoven, the Netherlands. Process performance with regards to CD uniformity (CDU) and defectivity are investigated to confirm adherence to ITRS roadmaps specifications. Specifically, imaging capabilities are tested for 40nm line 80nm pitch with the new bake plate hardware for below hp 3Xnm generation. For defectivity, the combination of Coater/Developer defect reduction hardware with the novel immersion hood design will be tested. For CDU improvements, the enhanced Post Exposure Bake (PEB) plate hardware was verified versus performance of the previous technology plate. Additionally, after the PEB improvement, a remaining across wafer signature was reduced with an optimized develop process. The total CDU budget was analyzed and compared to previous results. Finally the optimized process was applied to a non top coat resist process. For defectivity improvements, the effectiveness of ASML's new immersion hood and TEL's defect reduction hardware were evaluated. The new immersion hood performance was optimal on very hydrophobic materials, which requires optimization of the track hardware and process. The high contact angle materials could be shown to be successfully processed by using TEL's Advanced Defect Reduction (ADR) for residues related to the high contact angle and optimized bevel cut strategy with new bevel rinse hardware. Finally all the optimized processes were combined to obtain defect counts on a highly hydrophobic resist well within manufacturing specifications.

  11. Apollo Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) Hardware Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic guidance, navigation and control (GNC) concepts, examines the Command and Service Module (CSM) and Lunar Module (LM) GNC organization and discusses the primary GNC and the CSM Stabilization and Control System (SCS), as well as other CSM-specific hardware. The LM Abort Guidance System (AGS), Control Electronics System (CES) and other LM-specific hardware are also addressed. Three subsystems exist on each vehicle: the computer subsystem (CSS), the inertial subsystem (ISS) and the optical subsystem (OSS). The CSS and ISS are almost identical between CSM and LM and each is designed to operate independently. CSM SCS hardware are highlighted, including translation control, rotation controls, gyro assemblies, a gyro display coupler and flight director attitude indicators. The LM AGS hardware are also highlighted and include the abort electronics assembly and the abort sensor assembly; while the LM CES hardware includes the attitude controller assembly, thrust/translation controller assemblies and the ascent engine arming assemble. Other common hardware including the Orbital Rate Display - Earth and Lunar (ORDEAL) and the Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), a docking aid, are also highlighted.

  12. New Approaches in Reuseable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model and use genetic algorithms to explore results. A strong business case occurs when viable paths are identified for an affordable up-front investment, and these paths can credibly achieve affordable, responsive operations, characterized by smaller direct touch labor efforts at the wing level from flight to flight. The results supporting this approach, its potential, and its conclusions are presented here.

  13. Reuseable lightweight modular multi-layer insulation for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burr, K. F.

    1973-01-01

    The adaptation of the Self Evacuating Multilayer Insulation System to the space shuttle orbiter liquid hydrogen tanks was investigated. Small scale material screening tests and subscale panel tests demonstrated the potential of the insulation to withstand the anticipated 100 flight cycles. The composition of the material and the process for producing the finished insulation are described. Results of the various tests to determine the durability of the material are presented.

  14. Unlined Reuseable Filament Wound Composite Cryogenic Tank Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, A. W.; Lake, R. E.; Wilkerson, C.

    1999-01-01

    An unlined reusable filament wound composite cryogenic tank was tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center using LH2 cryogen and pressurization to 320 psig. The tank was fabricated by Phillips Laboratory and Wilson Composite Group, Inc., using an EnTec five-axis filament winder and sand mandrels. The material used was IM7/977-2 (graphite/epoxy).

  15. Review of Maxillofacial Hardware Complications and Indications for Salvage.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Rosa, Jonatan; Villanueva, Nathaniel L; Sanati-Mehrizy, Paymon; Factor, Stephanie H; Taub, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    From 2002 to 2006, more than 117,000 facial fractures were recorded in the U.S. National Trauma Database. These fractures are commonly treated with open reduction and internal fixation. While in place, the hardware facilitates successful bony union. However, when postoperative complications occur, the plates may require removal before bony union. Indications for salvage versus removal of the maxillofacial hardware are not well defined. A literature review was performed to identify instances when hardware may be salvaged. Articles considered for inclusion were found in the PubMed and Web of Science databases in August 2014 with the keywords maxillofacial trauma AND hardware complications OR indications for hardware removal. Included studies looked at human patients with only facial trauma and miniplate fixation, and presented data on complications and/or hardware removal. Fifteen articles were included. None were clinical trials. Complication data were presented by patient, fractures, and/or plate without consistency. The data described 1,075 fractures, 2,961 patients, and 2,592 plates, nonexclusive. Complication rates varied from 6 to 8% by fracture and 6 to 13% by patient. When their data were combined, 50% of complications were treated with plate removal; this was consistent across the mandible, midface, and upper face. All complications caused by loosening, nonunion, broken hardware, and severe/prolonged pain were treated with removal. Some complications caused by exposures, deformities, and infections were treated with salvage. Exposed plates were treated with flaps, plates with deformities were treated with secondary procedures including hardware revision, and hardware infections were treated with antibiotics alone or in conjunction with soft-tissue debridement and/or tooth extraction. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating hardware removal versus salvage are lacking. Some postoperative complications caused by exposure, deformity, and/or infection may be

  16. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 5: Modification of existing hardware (COTS) versus new hardware build cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Blacknall, Carolyn; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The JSC Life Sciences Project Division has been directly supporting NASA Headquarters, Life Sciences Division, in the preparation of data from JSC and ARC to assist in defining the Space Biology Initiative (SBI). GE Government Services and Horizon Aerospace have provided contract support for the development and integration of review data, reports, presentations, and detailed supporting data. An SBI Definition (Non-Advocate) Review at NASA Headquarters, Code B, has been scheduled for the June-July 1989 time period. In a previous NASA Headquarters review, NASA determined that additional supporting data would be beneficial to determine the potential advantages in modifying commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware for some SBI hardware items. In order to meet the demands of program implementation planning with the definition review in late spring of 1989, the definition trade study analysis must be adjusted in scope and schedule to be complete for the SBI Definition (Non-Advocate) Review. The relative costs of modifying existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware is compared to fabricating new hardware. An historical basis for new build versus modifying COTS to meet current NMI specifications for manned space flight hardware is surveyed and identified. Selected SBI hardware are identified as potential candidates for off-the-shelf modification and statistical estimates on the relative cost of modifying COTS versus new build are provided.

  17. Color science demonstration kit from open source hardware and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollers, Michael W.

    2014-09-01

    Color science is perhaps the most universally tangible discipline within the optical sciences for people of all ages. Excepting a small and relatively well-understood minority, we can see that the world around us consists of a multitude of colors; yet, describing the "what", "why", and "how" of these colors is not an easy task, especially without some sort of equally colorful visual aids. While static displays (e.g., poster boards, etc.) serve their purpose, there is a growing trend, aided by the recent permeation of small interactive devices into our society, for interactive and immersive learning. However, for the uninitiated, designing software and hardware for this purpose may not be within the purview of all optical scientists and engineers. Enter open source. Open source "anything" are those tools and designs -- hardware or software -- that are available and free to use, often without any restrictive licensing. Open source software may be familiar to some, but the open source hardware movement is relatively new. These are electronic circuit board designs that are provided for free and can be implemented in physical hardware by anyone. This movement has led to the availability of some relatively inexpensive, but quite capable, computing power for the creation of small devices. This paper will showcase the design and implementation of the software and hardware that was used to create an interactive demonstration kit for color. Its purpose is to introduce and demonstrate the concepts of color spectra, additive color, color rendering, and metamers.

  18. Postflight hardware evaluation 360T026 (RSRM-26, STS-47)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the 360T026 (STS-47) Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) flight set is provided. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A, B, and C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64203), represents a summary of the 360T026 hardware evaluation. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-60472. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1987. The 360T026 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on 12 April 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield Postflight Engineering Evaluation Plan (PEEP), TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  19. Fast DRR splat rendering using common consumer graphics hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerk, Jakob; Bergmann, Helmar; Wanschitz, Felix; Dong, Shuo; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2007-11-15

    Digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) are a vital part of various medical image processing applications such as 2D/3D registration for patient pose determination in image-guided radiotherapy procedures. This paper presents a technique to accelerate DRR creation by using conventional graphics hardware for the rendering process. DRR computation itself is done by an efficient volume rendering method named wobbled splatting. For programming the graphics hardware, NVIDIAs C for Graphics (Cg) is used. The description of an algorithm used for rendering DRRs on the graphics hardware is presented, together with a benchmark comparing this technique to a CPU-based wobbled splatting program. Results show a reduction of rendering time by about 70%-90% depending on the amount of data. For instance, rendering a volume of 2x10{sup 6} voxels is feasible at an update rate of 38 Hz compared to 6 Hz on a common Intel-based PC using the graphics processing unit (GPU) of a conventional graphics adapter. In addition, wobbled splatting using graphics hardware for DRR computation provides higher resolution DRRs with comparable image quality due to special processing characteristics of the GPU. We conclude that DRR generation on common graphics hardware using the freely available Cg environment is a major step toward 2D/3D registration in clinical routine.

  20. Postflight hardware evaluation 360T025 (RSRM-25, STS-46)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Ferral

    1993-01-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the 360T025 (STS-46) Redesign Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) flight set is presented. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A through C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. Along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-60687), a summary of the 360T025 hardware evaluation is provided. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-60470. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1986. The 360T025 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on 16 Mar. 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  1. Final postflight hardware evaluation report RSRM-28 (STS-53)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrett, William David, Jr.

    1993-11-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the RSRM-28 (STS-53) RSRM flight set is presented. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A through C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64215), represents a summary of the RSRM-28 hardware evaluation. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-63638. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1989. The RSRM-28 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on July 15, 1993. Additional time was required to perform the evaluation of the stiffener rings per special issue 4.1.5.2 because of the washout schedule. The release of this report was after completion of all special issues per program management direction. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable team and tracked through the PFAR system.

  2. Postflight hardware evaluation 360T025 (RSRM-25, STS-46)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Ferral

    1993-03-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the 360T025 (STS-46) Redesign Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) flight set is presented. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A through C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. Along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-60687), a summary of the 360T025 hardware evaluation is provided. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-60470. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1986. The 360T025 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on 16 Mar. 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  3. Postflight hardware evaluation 360T026 (RSRM-26, STS-47)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Greg

    1993-05-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the 360T026 (STS-47) Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) flight set is provided. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A, B, and C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64203), represents a summary of the 360T026 hardware evaluation. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-60472. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1987. The 360T026 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on 12 April 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield Postflight Engineering Evaluation Plan (PEEP), TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  4. OS friendly microprocessor architecture: Hardware level computer security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, Patrick; La Fratta, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    We present an introduction to the patented OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture (OSFA) and hardware level computer security. Conventional microprocessors have not tried to balance hardware performance and OS performance at the same time. Conventional microprocessors have depended on the Operating System for computer security and information assurance. The goal of the OS Friendly Architecture is to provide a high performance and secure microprocessor and OS system. We are interested in cyber security, information technology (IT), and SCADA control professionals reviewing the hardware level security features. The OS Friendly Architecture is a switched set of cache memory banks in a pipeline configuration. For light-weight threads, the memory pipeline configuration provides near instantaneous context switching times. The pipelining and parallelism provided by the cache memory pipeline provides for background cache read and write operations while the microprocessor's execution pipeline is running instructions. The cache bank selection controllers provide arbitration to prevent the memory pipeline and microprocessor's execution pipeline from accessing the same cache bank at the same time. This separation allows the cache memory pages to transfer to and from level 1 (L1) caching while the microprocessor pipeline is executing instructions. Computer security operations are implemented in hardware. By extending Unix file permissions bits to each cache memory bank and memory address, the OSFA provides hardware level computer security.

  5. Final postflight hardware evaluation report RSRM-28 (STS-53)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrett, William David, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the RSRM-28 (STS-53) RSRM flight set is presented. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A through C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64215), represents a summary of the RSRM-28 hardware evaluation. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-63638. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1989. The RSRM-28 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on July 15, 1993. Additional time was required to perform the evaluation of the stiffener rings per special issue 4.1.5.2 because of the washout schedule. The release of this report was after completion of all special issues per program management direction. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable team and tracked through the PFAR system.

  6. Mapping of topological quantum circuits to physical hardware.

    PubMed

    Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit. PMID:24722360

  7. Mapping of Topological Quantum Circuits to Physical Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J.; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia

    2014-04-01

    Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit.

  8. The Initial Blood Storage Experiment - The spaceflight hardware program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almgren, David W.; Csigi, Katinka I.; Glaser, Peter E.; Lucas, Robert M.; Spencer, Richard H.

    1989-01-01

    The Initial Blood Storage Experiment (IBSE) was conceived to investigate the effects of microgravity on the formed elements of human blood. The experiment flew on the January 1986, 61-C mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The experiment hardware was designed to provide a closely controlled temperature and air flow environment for all blood samples. During the mission, two IBSE modules were on board the orbiter and an identical set of hardware and blood samples were maintained on earth as a control. This paper describes the development and performance of the IBSE hardware which was converted from a conceptual design to an on-orbit, man-rated, mid-deck locker experiment in 17 months.

  9. Final postflight hardware evaluation report RSRM-32 (STS-57)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Greg

    1993-11-01

    This document is the final report for the postflight assessment of the RSRM-32 (STS-57) flight set. This report presents the disassembly evaluations performed at the Thiokol facilities in Utah and is a continuation of the evaluations performed at KSC (TWR-64239). The PEEP for this assessment is outlined in TWR-50051, Revision B. The PEEP defines the requirements for evaluating RSRM hardware. Special hardware issues pertaining to this flight set requiring additional or modified assessment are outlined in TWR-64237. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's which are included in Appendix A. Observations were compared against limits defined in the PEEP. Any observation that was categorized as reportable or had no defined limits was documented on a preliminary PFAR by the assessment engineers. Preliminary PFAR's were reviewed by the Thiokol SPAT Executive Board to determine if elevation to PFAR's was required.

  10. Hardware Architecture Study for NASA's Space Software Defined Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Mortensen, Dale J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Andro, Monty; Smith, Carl; Liebetreu, John

    2008-01-01

    This study defines a hardware architecture approach for software defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radio frequency (RF) front-ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that comprise a typical communication radio. This paper describes the architecture details, module definitions, and the typical functions on each module as well as the module interfaces. Trade-offs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify the internal physical implementation within each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

  11. DAQ hardware and software development for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has been extended by about 12 million pixels thanks to the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Data-taking and tuning procedures have been implemented along with newly designed readout hardware to support high bandwidth for data readout and calibration. The hardware is supported by an embedded software stack running on the readout boards. The same boards will be used to upgrade the readout bandwidth for the two outermost barrel layers of the ATLAS Pixel Detector. We present the IBL readout hardware and the supporting software architecture used to calibrate and operate the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel Detector. We discuss the technical implementations and status for data taking, validation of the DAQ system in recent cosmic ray data taking, in-situ calibrations, and results from additional tests in preparation for Run 2 at the LHC.

  12. Scalable digital hardware for a trapped ion quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount, Emily; Gaultney, Daniel; Vrijsen, Geert; Adams, Michael; Baek, So-Young; Hudek, Kai; Isabella, Louis; Crain, Stephen; van Rynbach, Andre; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2015-09-01

    Many of the challenges of scaling quantum computer hardware lie at the interface between the qubits and the classical control signals used to manipulate them. Modular ion trap quantum computer architectures address scalability by constructing individual quantum processors interconnected via a network of quantum communication channels. Successful operation of such quantum hardware requires a fully programmable classical control system capable of frequency stabilizing the continuous wave lasers necessary for loading, cooling, initialization, and detection of the ion qubits, stabilizing the optical frequency combs used to drive logic gate operations on the ion qubits, providing a large number of analog voltage sources to drive the trap electrodes, and a scheme for maintaining phase coherence among all the controllers that manipulate the qubits. In this work, we describe scalable solutions to these hardware development challenges.

  13. Development of Enhanced Avionics Flight Hardware Selection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K.; Watson, G. L.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to determine the processes and feasibility of using commercial off-the-shelf PC104 hardware for flight applications. This would lead to a faster, better, and cheaper approach to low-budget programs as opposed to the design, procurement. and fabrication of space flight hardware. This effort will provide experimental evaluation with results of flight environmental testing. Also, a method and/or suggestion used to bring test hardware up to flight standards will be given. Several microgravity programs, such as the Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment, Self-Diffusion in Liquid Elements, and various other programs, are interested in PC104 environmental testing to establish the limits of this technology.

  14. Final postflight hardware evaluation report RSRM-32 (STS-57)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    This document is the final report for the postflight assessment of the RSRM-32 (STS-57) flight set. This report presents the disassembly evaluations performed at the Thiokol facilities in Utah and is a continuation of the evaluations performed at KSC (TWR-64239). The PEEP for this assessment is outlined in TWR-50051, Revision B. The PEEP defines the requirements for evaluating RSRM hardware. Special hardware issues pertaining to this flight set requiring additional or modified assessment are outlined in TWR-64237. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's which are included in Appendix A. Observations were compared against limits defined in the PEEP. Any observation that was categorized as reportable or had no defined limits was documented on a preliminary PFAR by the assessment engineers. Preliminary PFAR's were reviewed by the Thiokol SPAT Executive Board to determine if elevation to PFAR's was required.

  15. Hardware Accelerated Compression of LIDAR Data Using FPGA Devices

    PubMed Central

    Biasizzo, Anton; Novak, Franc

    2013-01-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) has become a mainstream technology for terrain data acquisition and mapping. High sampling density of LIDAR enables the acquisition of high details of the terrain, but on the other hand, it results in a vast amount of gathered data, which requires huge storage space as well as substantial processing effort. The data are usually stored in the LAS format which has become the de facto standard for LIDAR data storage and exchange. In the paper, a hardware accelerated compression of LIDAR data is presented. The compression and decompression of LIDAR data is performed by a dedicated FPGA-based circuit and interfaced to the computer via a PCI-E general bus. The hardware compressor consists of three modules: LIDAR data predictor, variable length coder, and arithmetic coder. Hardware compression is considerably faster than software compression, while it also alleviates the processor load. PMID:23673680

  16. Mini-O, simple Omega receiver hardware for user education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A problem with the Omega system is a lack of suitable low cost hardware for the small user community. A collection of do it yourself circuit modules are under development intended for use by educational institutions, small boat owners, aviation enthusiasts, and others who have some skills in fabricating their own electronic equipment. Applications of the hardware to time frequency standards measurements, signal propagation monitoring, and navigation experiments are presented. A family of Mini-O systems have been constructed varying from the simplest RF preamplifiers and narrowband filters front-ends, to sophisticated microcomputer interface adapters.

  17. Hardware Evaluation of the Horizontal Exercise Fixture with Weight Stack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newby, Nate; Leach, Mark; Fincke, Renita; Sharp, Carwyn

    2009-01-01

    HEF with weight stack seems to be a very sturdy and reliable exercise device that should function well in a bed rest training setting. A few improvements should be made to both the hardware and software to improve usage efficiency, but largely, this evaluation has demonstrated HEF's robustness. The hardware offers loading to muscles, bones, and joints, potentially sufficient to mitigate the loss of muscle mass and bone mineral density during long-duration bed rest campaigns. With some minor modifications, the HEF with weight stack equipment provides the best currently available means of performing squat, heel raise, prone row, bench press, and hip flexion/extension exercise in a supine orientation.

  18. On Issues of Precision for Hardware-based Volume Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    LaMar, E C

    2003-04-11

    This paper discusses issues with the limited precision of hardware-based volume visualization. We will describe the compositing OVER operator and how fixed-point arithmetic affects it. We propose two techniques to improve the precision of fixed-point compositing and the accuracy of hardware-based volume visualization. The first technique is to perform dithering of color and alpha values. The second technique we call exponent-factoring, and captures significantly more numeric resolution than dithering, but can only produce monochromatic images.

  19. Stretched Lens Array (SLA) Photovoltaic Concentrator Hardware Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; O'Neill, Mark J.; Eskenazi, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, the Stretched Lens Array (SLA) photovoltaic concentrator has evolved, under a NASA contract, from a concept with small component demonstrators to operational array hardware that is ready for space validation testing. A fully-functional four panel SLA solar array has been designed, built and tested. This paper will summarize the focus of the hardware development effort, discuss the results of recent testing conducted under this program and present the expected performance of a full size 7kW array designed to meet the requirements of future space missions.

  20. Nios II hardware acceleration of the epsilon quadratic sieve algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Botella, Guillermo; Castillo, Encarnacion; García, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    The quadratic sieve (QS) algorithm is one of the most powerful algorithms to factor large composite primes used to break RSA cryptographic systems. The hardware structure of the QS algorithm seems to be a good fit for FPGA acceleration. Our new ɛ-QS algorithm further simplifies the hardware architecture making it an even better candidate for C2H acceleration. This paper shows our design results in FPGA resource and performance when implementing very long arithmetic on the Nios microprocessor platform with C2H acceleration for different libraries (GMP, LIP, FLINT, NRMP) and QS architecture choices for factoring 32-2048 bit RSA numbers.

  1. Carbonate fuel cell endurance: Hardware corrosion and electrolyte management status

    SciTech Connect

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.

    1993-05-01

    Endurance tests of carbonate fuel cell stacks (up to 10,000 hours) have shown that hardware corrosion and electrolyte losses can be reasonably controlled by proper material selection and cell design. Corrosion of stainless steel current collector hardware, nickel clad bipolar plate and aluminized wet seal show rates within acceptable limits. Electrolyte loss rate to current collector surface has been minimized by reducing exposed current collector surface area. Electrolyte evaporation loss appears tolerable. Electrolyte redistribution has been restrained by proper design of manifold seals.

  2. Carbonate fuel cell endurance: Hardware corrosion and electrolyte management status

    SciTech Connect

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.

    1993-01-01

    Endurance tests of carbonate fuel cell stacks (up to 10,000 hours) have shown that hardware corrosion and electrolyte losses can be reasonably controlled by proper material selection and cell design. Corrosion of stainless steel current collector hardware, nickel clad bipolar plate and aluminized wet seal show rates within acceptable limits. Electrolyte loss rate to current collector surface has been minimized by reducing exposed current collector surface area. Electrolyte evaporation loss appears tolerable. Electrolyte redistribution has been restrained by proper design of manifold seals.

  3. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  4. 49 CFR 238.105 - Train electronic hardware and software safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... all hardware and software components and their interfaces; and comprehensive hardware and software... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train electronic hardware and software safety. 238... and General Requirements § 238.105 Train electronic hardware and software safety. The requirements...

  5. Postflight hardware evaluation 360T021 (RSRM-21, STS-45), revision A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccauly, Linda E.

    1992-12-01

    The Final Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report 360T021 (RSRM-21, STS-45) is included. All observed hardware conditions were documented on Postflight Observation Reports (PFOR's) and included in Appendices A through E. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report represents a summary of the 360T021 hardware evaluation.

  6. Postflight hardware evaluation 360T021 (RSRM-21, STS-45), revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccauly, Linda E.

    1992-01-01

    The Final Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report 360T021 (RSRM-21, STS-45) is included. All observed hardware conditions were documented on Postflight Observation Reports (PFOR's) and included in Appendices A through E. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report represents a summary of the 360T021 hardware evaluation.

  7. Rapid space hardware development through computer-automated testing

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, D.S.; Ruud, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    FORTE, the Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events small satellite designed and built by Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories, is scheduled for launch in August, 1997. In the spirit of {open_quotes}better, cheaper, faster{close_quotes} satellites, the RF experiment hardware (receiver and trigger sub-systems) necessitated rapid prototype testing and characterization in the development of space-flight components. This was accomplished with the assembly of engineering model hardware prior to construction of flight hardware and the design of component-specific, PC-based software control libraries. Using the LabVIEW{reg_sign} graphical programming language, together with off-the-shelf PC digital I/O and GPIB interface cards, hardware control and complete automation of test equipment was possible from one PC. Because the receiver and trigger sub-systems employed complex functions for signal discrimination and transient detection, thorough validation of all functions and illumination of any faults were priorities. These methods were successful in accelerating the development and characterization of space-flight components prior to integration and allowed more complete data to be gathered than could have been accomplished without automation. Additionally, automated control of input signal sources was carried over from bench-level to system-level with the use of networked Linux workstation utilizing a GPIB interface.

  8. Generic Hardware Architectures for Sampling and Resampling in Particle Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athalye, Akshay; Bolić, Miodrag; Hong, Sangjin; Djurić, Petar M.

    2005-12-01

    Particle filtering is a statistical signal processing methodology that has recently gained popularity in solving several problems in signal processing and communications. Particle filters (PFs) have been shown to outperform traditional filters in important practical scenarios. However their computational complexity and lack of dedicated hardware for real-time processing have adversely affected their use in real-time applications. In this paper, we present generic architectures for the implementation of the most commonly used PF, namely, the sampling importance resampling filter (SIRF). These provide a generic framework for the hardware realization of the SIRF applied to any model. The proposed architectures significantly reduce the memory requirement of the filter in hardware as compared to a straightforward implementation based on the traditional algorithm. We propose two architectures each based on a different resampling mechanism. Further, modifications of these architectures for acceleration of resampling process are presented. We evaluate these schemes based on resource usage and latency. The platform used for the evaluations is the Xilinx Virtex II pro FPGA. The architectures presented here have led to the development of the first hardware (FPGA) prototype for the particle filter applied to the bearings-only tracking problem.

  9. Improved guidance hardware study for the scout launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Salis, M. L.; Mueller, R.; Best, L. E.; Bradt, A. J.; Harrison, R.; Burrell, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    A market survey and evaluation of inertial guidance systems (inertial measurement units and digital computers) were made. Comparisons were made to determine the candidate systems for use in the Scout launch vehicle. Error analyses were made using typical Scout trajectories. A reaction control system was sized for the fourth stage. The guidance hardware to Scout vehicle interface was listed.

  10. The 1986/87 Classroom Computer Learning Hardware Buyers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides information on selected computer peripherals which seem most appropriate for education in terms of availability, price, and application. Hardware includes modems, local area networks, printers, graphics tables (as well as touch tablets and alternate keyboards), and joysticks. Each item listed includes company, computer capability, price,…

  11. Lab at Home: Hardware Kits for a Digital Design Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, J. P.; Haim, F.

    2009-01-01

    An innovative laboratory methodology for an introductory digital design course is presented. Instead of having traditional lab experiences, where students have to come to school classrooms, a "lab at home" concept is proposed. Students perform real experiments in their own homes, using hardware kits specially developed for this purpose. They…

  12. Tomographic image reconstruction and rendering with texture-mapping hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.G.; Cabral, B.K.; Foran, J.

    1994-07-01

    The image reconstruction problem, also known as the inverse Radon transform, for x-ray computed tomography (CT) is found in numerous applications in medicine and industry. The most common algorithm used in these cases is filtered backprojection (FBP), which, while a simple procedure, is time-consuming for large images on any type of computational engine. Specially-designed, dedicated parallel processors are commonly used in medical CT scanners, whose results are then passed to graphics workstation for rendering and analysis. However, a fast direct FBP algorithm can be implemented on modern texture-mapping hardware in current high-end workstation platforms. This is done by casting the FBP algorithm as an image warping operation with summing. Texture-mapping hardware, such as that on the Silicon Graphics Reality Engine (TM), shows around 600 times speedup of backprojection over a CPU-based implementation (a 100 Mhz R4400 in this case). This technique has the further advantages of flexibility and rapid programming. In addition, the same hardware can be used for both image reconstruction and for volumetric rendering. The techniques can also be used to accelerate iterative reconstruction algorithms. The hardware architecture also allows more complex operations than straight-ray backprojection if they are required, including fan-beam, cone-beam, and curved ray paths, with little or no speed penalties.

  13. Fastener Retention Requirements and Practices in Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Rajib

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reviews the requirements for safety critical fasteners in spaceflight hardware. Included in the presentation are design guidelines and information for Locking Helicoils, key locked inserts and thinwalled inserts, self locking screws and bolts. locknuts, and a locking adhesives, Loctite and Vibratite.

  14. Differences Between VLBI2010 and S/X Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    While the overall architecture is similar for the station hardware in current S/X systems and in the VLBI2010 systems under development, various functions are implemented differently. Some of these differences, and the reasons behind them, are described here.

  15. Speech Technology II: Future Software and Hardware Predictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Keith

    1991-01-01

    This continuation of an earlier article that described computer-based speech recognition products focuses on future hardware and software predictions. Highlights include effects that speech input/output could have on teaching language arts in elementary and secondary schools; changes in thought processing factors; use by the physically…

  16. 12. The Miller Hardware building, located on the corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. The Miller Hardware building, located on the corner of 10th and State Streets, dates from ca. 1872, and was originally built as the office and canal store of Norton & Co. - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

  17. Parallel asynchronous hardware implementation of image processing algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, Darryl D.; Perera, A. G. U.

    1990-01-01

    Research is being carried out on hardware for a new approach to focal plane processing. The hardware involves silicon injection mode devices. These devices provide a natural basis for parallel asynchronous focal plane image preprocessing. The simplicity and novel properties of the devices would permit an independent analog processing channel to be dedicated to every pixel. A laminar architecture built from arrays of the devices would form a two-dimensional (2-D) array processor with a 2-D array of inputs located directly behind a focal plane detector array. A 2-D image data stream would propagate in neuron-like asynchronous pulse-coded form through the laminar processor. No multiplexing, digitization, or serial processing would occur in the preprocessing state. High performance is expected, based on pulse coding of input currents down to one picoampere with noise referred to input of about 10 femtoamperes. Linear pulse coding has been observed for input currents ranging up to seven orders of magnitude. Low power requirements suggest utility in space and in conjunction with very large arrays. Very low dark current and multispectral capability are possible because of hardware compatibility with the cryogenic environment of high performance detector arrays. The aforementioned hardware development effort is aimed at systems which would integrate image acquisition and image processing.

  18. 4. DETAIL OF STONE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION AND IRON HARDWARE (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF STONE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION AND IRON HARDWARE (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  19. Alternate Protocol for Detecting Biological Contamination on Sensitive Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlin, David; Lalime, Erin; Carosso, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a sterile water based rapid bioburden test. Contamination engineers use two tests to assess the level of biological contamination on hardware: the rapid five minute bioburden test, which is a molecular screening for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule found in all cells on the hardware, and a slower colony growth test, which is used to give a more accurate representation of the amount of microbes on the hardware. However, the rapid bioburden test has limited application because it leaves a residue that can be detrimental to sensitive hardware. This can cause project delays while waiting for the results from the three day colony growth test. We address this problem by adapting the commercial germicide based ATP system to a sterile water based system. The test works by reacting ATP with D-Luciferin and Luciferase protein to yield light. The light is then detected by a luminometer that outputs a Relative Light Unit (RLU) amount depending on how much ATP is present. To analyze the effectiveness of the new test, we developed a correlation between amounts of ATP and the RLU produced using the germicide based system. From these experiments, we've generated a consistent relationship between the two in the form of a power curve. From there, we developed a correlation curve between the amount of colonies and the RLU they produced. Initial tests of the new protocol have shown that the water based system isn't as sensitive as the germicide based test.

  20. Implementation of Stochastic Cooling Hardware at Fermilab's Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquinelli, Ralph J.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    The invention of Stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer made possible the increase in phase space density of charged particle beams. In particular, this feedback technique allowed the development of proton antiproton colliders at both CERN and Fermilab. This paper describes the development of hardware systems necessary to cool antiprotons at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider complex.

  1. Towards automated construction of dependable software/hardware systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakhnis, A.; Yakhnis, V.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the automated construction of dependable computer architecture systems. The outline of this report is: examples of software/hardware systems; dependable systems; partial delivery of dependability; proposed approach; removing obstacles; advantages of the approach; criteria for success; current progress of the approach; and references.

  2. Hardware-in-the-loop tow missile system simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, G.S.; Wootton, J.R.; Hobson, G.L.; Holder, D.L.

    1993-07-06

    A missile system simulator is described for use in training people for target acquisition, missile launch, and missile guidance under simulated battlefield conditions comprising: simulating means for producing a digital signal representing a simulated battlefield environment including at least one target movable therewithin, the simulating means generating an infrared map representing the field-of-view and the target; interface means for converting said digital signals to an infrared image; missile system hardware including the missile acquisition, tracking, and guidance portions thereof, said hardware sensing the infrared image to determine the location of the target in a field-of-view; and, image means for generating an infrared image of a missile launched at the target and guided thereto, the image means imposing the missile image onto the field-of-view for the missile hardware to acquire the image of the missile in addition to that of the target, and to generate guidance signals to guide the missile image to the target image, wherein the interfacing means is responsive to a guidance signal from the hardware to simulate, in real-time, the response of the missile to the guidance signal, the image means including a blackbody, laser means for irradiating the blackbody to heat it to a temperature at which it emits infrared radiation, and optic means for integrating the radiant image produced by heating the blackbody into the infrared map.

  3. Neural Networks Based Approach to Enhance Space Hardware Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Thakoor, Anilkumar; Lu, Thomas; Franco, Lauro; Lin, Tsung Han; McClure, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of Neural Networks as a device modeling tool to increase the reliability analysis accuracy of circuits targeted for space applications. The paper tackles a number of case studies of relevance to the design of Flight hardware. The results show that the proposed technique generates more accurate models than the ones regularly used to model circuits.

  4. Leveraging Information Technology. Track VI: Hardware/Software Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers from the 1987 CAUSE conference's Track VI, Hardware/Software Strategies, are presented. They include: "Integrated Systems--The Next Steps" (Morris A. Hicks); "Administrative Microcomputing--Roads Traveled, Lessons Learned" (David L. Smallen); "Murphy's First Law and Its Application to Administrative Computing" (Mary Lawarre Cox and…

  5. Implementation of stochastic cooling hardware at Fermilab's Tevatron collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquinelli, Ralph J.

    2011-08-01

    The invention of Stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer made possible the increase in phase space density of charged particle beams. In particular, this feedback technique allowed the development of proton antiproton colliders at both CERN and Fermilab. This paper describes the development of hardware systems necessary to cool antiprotons at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider complex.

  6. Combine Security and Safety with the Right Door Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Patrick R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how door design and construction can add safety and security to educational facilities. Exit device variations, and electromagnetic locks and access control are explored. Also discussed are inexpensive ways to improve the safety and security profiles of a building using door hardware. (GR)

  7. Tomographic image reconstruction and rendering with texture-mapping hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Stephen G.; Cabral, Brian K.; Foran, Jim

    1994-07-01

    The image reconstruction problem, also known as the inverse Radon transform, for x-ray computed tomography (CT) is found in numerous applications in medicine and industry. The most common algorithm used in these cases is filtered backprojection (FBP), which, while a simple procedure, is time-consuming for large images on any type of computational engine. Specially designed, dedicated parallel processors are commonly used in medical CT scanners, whose results are then passed to a graphics workstation for rendering and analysis. However, a fast direct FBP algorithm can be implemented on modern texture-mapping hardware in current high-end workstation platforms. This is done by casting the FBP algorithm as an image warping operation with summing. Texture- mapping hardware, such as that on the silicon Graphics Reality Engine, shows around 600 times speedup of backprojection over a CPU-based implementation (a 100 Mhz R4400 in our case). This technique has the further advantages of flexibility and rapid programming. In addition, the same hardware can be used for both image reconstruction and for volumetric rendering. Our technique can also be used to accelerate iterative reconstruction algorithms. The hardware architecture also allows more complex operations than straight-ray backprojection if they are required, including fan-beam, cone-beam, and curved ray paths, with little or no speed penalties.

  8. Solar array shuttle flight experiment - hardware development and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Elms, R.V.; Hill, H.C.; Young, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and ground testing of a large area, light-weight, flexible substrate developmental solar array wing that has been built for NASA-MSFC (Contract NAS8-31352) and of the supporting structure and data acquisition system (DAS) which, with the wing will be flown in the shuttle as an experiment in 1984. The experiment will verify the dynamics, thermodynamic, and electrical performance predictions of the array wing and will demonstrate the structural capability of the array wing for Orbiter launch and re-entry environments. The accomodation of the Shuttle payload requirements has resulted in several array wing and operation modifications since the ground demonstration of the array wing in the technology development program. The experiment hardware verification program was designed to minimize costs and risk of experiment performance degradation while maintaining shuttle and crew safety. The previous full-scale wing hardware tests included an extension mast water table test and wing testing for random vibration, thermal vacuum, and acoustic environments. The results of these tests were used to define wing design modifications and to scope the test program for the experiment hardware. The experiment hardware acceptance test program will be completed in October 1982.

  9. Use of Heritage Hardware on MPCV Exploration Flight Test One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rains, George Edward; Cross, Cynthia D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to an aggressive schedule for the first orbital test flight of an unmanned Orion capsule, known as Exploration Flight Test One (EFT1), combined with severe programmatic funding constraints, an effort was made to identify heritage hardware, i.e., already existing, flight-certified components from previous manned space programs, which might be available for use on EFT1. With the end of the Space Shuttle Program, no current means exists to launch Multi Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLMs) to the International Space Station (ISS), and so the inventory of many flight-certified Shuttle and MPLM components are available for other purposes. Two of these items are the Shuttle Ground Support Equipment Heat Exchanger (GSE Hx) and the MPLM cabin Positive Pressure Relief Assembly (PPRA). In preparation for the utilization of these components by the Orion Program, analyses and testing of the hardware were performed. The PPRA had to be analyzed to determine its susceptibility to pyrotechnic shock, and vibration testing had to be performed, since those environments are predicted to be significantly more severe during an Orion mission than those the hardware was originally designed to accommodate. The GSE Hx had to be tested for performance with the Orion thermal working fluids, which are different from those used by the Space Shuttle. This paper summarizes the certification of the use of heritage hardware for EFT1.

  10. Measuring Auroral and Arctic Ozone Using Student Made Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, M.

    2015-12-01

    This project is twofold to test the feasibility of student made hardware and teach students more about atmospheric instrumentation by providing students with education and materials, instructing them in design and building of hardware, and testing the hardware against commercial models in terms of weight, cost, and features. The Gaseous Compounds team of the University of Houston Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP) selected the parts and the students of the team are assembling the payload. The payload will launch on a latex balloon in Houston and Fairbanks, Alaska. The instrument will gather data on the concentration of certain gases in the atmosphere as well as a meteorological profile of the atmosphere. The students plan to have the instrument collect and transmit data on carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone, as well as temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. The data will also be stored on an SD card as a backup in case transmission fails. These payloads will fly at night and day to get an accurate vertical profile of the atmosphere and these results will be tested against the results of commercial hardware with the same capabilities.

  11. FHAST: FPGA-Based Acceleration of Bowtie in Hardware.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Edward B; Villarreal, Jason; Lonardi, Stefano; Najjar, Walid A

    2015-01-01

    While the sequencing capability of modern instruments continues to increase exponentially, the computational problem of mapping short sequenced reads to a reference genome still constitutes a bottleneck in the analysis pipeline. A variety of mapping tools (e.g., Bowtie, BWA) is available for general-purpose computer architectures. These tools can take many hours or even days to deliver mapping results, depending on the number of input reads, the size of the reference genome and the number of allowed mismatches or insertion/deletions, making the mapping problem an ideal candidate for hardware acceleration. In this paper, we present FHAST (FPGA hardware accelerated sequence-matching tool), a drop-in replacement for Bowtie that uses a hardware design based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Our architecture masks memory latency by executing multiple concurrent hardware threads accessing memory simultaneously. FHAST is composed by multiple parallel engines to exploit the parallelism available to us on an FPGA. We have implemented and tested FHAST on the Convey HC-1 and later ported on the Convey HC-2ex, taking advantage of the large memory bandwidth available to these systems and the shared memory image between hardware and software. A preliminary version of FHAST running on the Convey HC-1 achieved up to 70x speedup compared to Bowtie (single-threaded). An improved version of FHAST running on the Convey HC-2ex FPGAs achieved up to 12x fold speed gain compared to Bowtie running eight threads on an eight-core conventional architecture, while maintaining almost identical mapping accuracy. FHAST is a drop-in replacement for Bowtie, so it can be incorporated in any analysis pipeline that uses Bowtie (e.g., TopHat). PMID:26451812

  12. Real-time orthorectification by FPGA-based hardware acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, David; Gordon, Don

    2010-10-01

    Orthorectification that corrects the perspective distortion of remote sensing imagery, providing accurate geolocation and ease of correlation to other images is a valuable first-step in image processing for information extraction. However, the large amount of metadata and the floating-point matrix transformations required to operate on each pixel make this a computation and I/O (Input/Output) intensive process. As result much imagery is either left unprocessed or loses timesensitive value in the long processing cycle. However, the computation on each pixel can be reduced substantially by using computational results of the neighboring pixels and accelerated by special pipelined hardware architecture in one to two orders of magnitude. A specialized coprocessor that is implemented inside an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chip and surrounded by vendorsupported hardware IP (Intellectual Property) shares the computation workload with CPU through PCI-Express interface. The ultimate speed of one pixel per clock (125 MHz) is achieved by the pipelined systolic array architecture. The optimal partition between software and hardware, the timing profile among image I/O and computation, and the highly automated GUI (Graphical User Interface) that fully exploits this speed increase to maximize overall image production throughput will also be discussed. The software that runs on a workstation with the acceleration hardware orthorectifies 16 Megapixels per second, which is 16 times faster than without the hardware. It turns the production time from months to days. A real-life successful story of an imaging satellite company that adopted such workstations for their orthorectified imagery production will be presented. The potential candidacy of the image processing computation that can be accelerated more efficiently by the same approach will also be analyzed.

  13. High-Speed Isolation Board for Flight Hardware Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Clifford K.; Goodpasture, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to provide a portable and cost-effective galvanic isolation between ground support equipment and flight hardware such that any unforeseen voltage differential between ground and power supplies is eliminated. An interface board was designed for use between the ground support equipment and the flight hardware that electrically isolates all input and output signals and faithfully reproduces them on each side of the interface. It utilizes highly integrated multi-channel isolating devices to minimize size and reduce assembly time. This single-board solution provides appropriate connector hardware and breakout of required flight signals to individual connectors as needed for various ground support equipment. The board utilizes multi-channel integrated circuits that contain transformer coupling, thereby allowing input and output signals to be isolated from one another while still providing high-fidelity reproduction of the signal up to 90 MHz. The board also takes in a single-voltage power supply input from the ground support equipment and in turn provides a transformer-derived isolated voltage supply to power the portion of the circuitry that is electrically connected to the flight hardware. Prior designs used expensive opto-isolated couplers that were required for each signal to isolate and were time-consuming to assemble. In addition, these earlier designs were bulky and required a 2U rack-mount enclosure. The new design is smaller than a piece of 8.5 11-in. (.22 28-mm) paper and can be easily hand-carried where needed. The flight hardware in question is based on a lineage of existing software-defined radios (SDRs) that utilize a common interface connector with many similar input-output signals present. There are currently four to five variations of this SDR, and more upcoming versions are planned based on the more recent design.

  14. Integrated Hardware and Software for No-Loss Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    When an algorithm is distributed across multiple threads executing on many distinct processors, a loss of one of those threads or processors can potentially result in the total loss of all the incremental results up to that point. When implementation is massively hardware distributed, then the probability of a hardware failure during the course of a long execution is potentially high. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed by establishing checkpoints where the current state of some or part of the execution is saved. Then in the event of a failure, this state information can be used to recompute that point in the execution and resume the computation from that point. A serious problem arises when one distributes a problem across multiple threads and physical processors is that one increases the likelihood of the algorithm failing due to no fault of the scientist but as a result of hardware faults coupled with operating system problems. With good reason, scientists expect their computing tools to serve them and not the other way around. What is novel here is a unique combination of hardware and software that reformulates an application into monolithic structure that can be monitored in real-time and dynamically reconfigured in the event of a failure. This unique reformulation of hardware and software will provide advanced aeronautical technologies to meet the challenges of next-generation systems in aviation, for civilian and scientific purposes, in our atmosphere and in atmospheres of other worlds. In particular, with respect to NASA s manned flight to Mars, this technology addresses the critical requirements for improving safety and increasing reliability of manned spacecraft.

  15. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  16. Outline of a fast hardware implementation of Winograd's DFT algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.

    1980-01-01

    The main characteristics of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm considered by Winograd (1976) is a significant reduction in the number of multiplications. Its primary disadvantage is a higher structural complexity. It is, therefore, difficult to translate the reduced number of multiplications into faster execution of the DFT by means of a software implementation of the algorithm. For this reason, a hardware implementation is considered in the current study, taking into account a design based on the algorithm prescription discussed by Zohar (1979). The hardware implementation of a FORTRAN subroutine is proposed, giving attention to a pipelining scheme in which 5 consecutive data batches are being operated on simultaneously, each batch undergoing one of 5 processing phases.

  17. Hardware Design of the Energy Efficient Fall Detection Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorodumovs, A.; Avots, E.; Hofmanis, J.; Korāts, G.

    2016-04-01

    Health issues for elderly people may lead to different injuries obtained during simple activities of daily living. Potentially the most dangerous are unintentional falls that may be critical or even lethal to some patients due to the heavy injury risk. In the project "Wireless Sensor Systems in Telecare Application for Elderly People", we have developed a robust fall detection algorithm for a wearable wireless sensor. To optimise the algorithm for hardware performance and test it in field, we have designed an accelerometer based wireless fall detector. Our main considerations were: a) functionality - so that the algorithm can be applied to the chosen hardware, and b) power efficiency - so that it can run for a very long time. We have picked and tested the parts, built a prototype, optimised the firmware for lowest consumption, tested the performance and measured the consumption parameters. In this paper, we discuss our design choices and present the results of our work.

  18. Hardware and software fault tolerance - A unified architectural approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Alger, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    The loss of hardware fault tolerance which often arises when design diversity is used to improve the fault tolerance of computer software is considered analytically, and a unified design approach is proposed to avoid the problem. The fundamental theory of fault-tolerant (FT) architectures is reviewed; the current status of design-diversity software development is surveyed; and the FT-processor/attached-processor (FTP/AP) architecture developed by Lala et al. (1986) is described in detail and illustrated with diagrams. FTP/AP is shown to permit efficient implementation of N-version FT software while still tolerating random hardware failures with very high coverage; the reliability is found to be significantly higher than that of conventional majority-vote N-version software.

  19. Utilizing hardware culture in a case of atypical keratitis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sumayya; Jun, Albert S; Alkharashi, Majed

    2014-05-01

    This case report describes the diagnosis and management of a 22-year-old male soft contact lens wearer, who presented with an atypical corneal ulcer in the right eye. The patient presented with a one-day history of significant eye pain, photophobia, and multiple pseudodendritic lesions on the cornea with stromal infiltrate; the differential remained broad. The management was guided by the culture of hardware of the patient's contact lenses, which grew aspergillus only in the affected contact. In cases where corneal culture is negative, multiple organisms have been isolated from the corneal culture, or in cases where there is no response to medical treatment, culture of hardware may be a useful methodology for isolating the offending microbe in infectious corneal ulcers. PMID:24506413

  20. LADAR scene projector for hardware-in-the-loop testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, Michael C.; Naumann, Charles B.; Stockbridge, Robert G.; Snyder, Donald R.

    2002-07-01

    Future types of direct detection LADAR seekers will employ focal plane arrays in their receivers. Existing LADAR scene projection technology cannot meet the needs of testing these types of seekers in a Hardware-in-the-Loop environment. It is desired that the simulated LADAR return signals generated by the projection hardware be representative of the complex targets and background of a real LADAR image. A LADAR scene projector has been developed that is capable of meeting these demanding test needs. It can project scenes of simulated 2D LADAR return signals without scanning. In addition, each pixel in the projection can be represented by a 'complex' optical waveform, which can be delivered with sub-nanosecond precision. Finally, the modular nature of the projector allows it to be configured to operate at different wavelengths. This paper describes the LADAR Scene Projector and its full capabilities.

  1. Object oriented hardware-software test bench for OMTF diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabik, Pawel; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Bunkowski, Karol; Zawistowski, Krystian; Byszuk, Adrian; Bluj, Michał; Doroba, Krzysztof; Górski, Maciej; Kalinowski, Artur; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Królikowski, Jan; Oklinski, Wojciech; Olszewski, Michał; Skala, Aleksander; Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the object oriented hardware-software model and its sample implementation of diagnostics for the Overlap Muon Track Finder trigger for the CMS experiment in CERN is described. It presents realization of test-bench for control and diagnosis class of multichannel, distributed measurement systems based on FPGA chips. The test-bench fulfills requirements for system's rapid changes, configurability and efficiency. This ability is very significant and desirable by expanded electronic systems. The solution described is a software model based on a method of address space management called the Component Internal Interface (CII). Establishment of stable link between hardware and software, as a purpose of designed and realized programming environment, is presented. The test-bench implementation and example of OMTF algorithm test is presented.

  2. Web tools to monitor and debug DAQ hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Eugene Desavouret; Jerzy M. Nogiec

    2003-06-04

    A web-based toolkit to monitor and diagnose data acquisition hardware has been developed. It allows for remote testing, monitoring, and control of VxWorks data acquisition computers and associated instrumentation using the HTTP protocol and a web browser. This solution provides concurrent and platform independent access, supplementary to the standard single-user rlogin mechanism. The toolkit is based on a specialized web server, and allows remote access and execution of select system commands and tasks, execution of test procedures, and provides remote monitoring of computer system resources and connected hardware. Various DAQ components such as multiplexers, digital I/O boards, analog to digital converters, or current sources can be accessed and diagnosed remotely in a uniform and well-organized manner. Additionally, the toolkit application supports user authentication and is able to enforce specified access restrictions.

  3. Follow-the-Leader Control for the PIPS Prototype Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Robert L. II; Lippitt, Thimas

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the payload inspection and processing system (PIPS), an automated system programmed off-line for inspection of space shuttle payloads after integration and prior to launch. PIPS features a hyper-redundant 18-degree of freedom (DOF) serpentine truss manipulator capable of snake like motions to avoid obstacles. During the summer of 1995, the author worked on the same project, developing a follow-the-leader (FTL) algorithm in graphical simulation which ensures whole arm collision avoidance by forcing ensuing links to follow the same tip trajectory. The summer 1996 work was to control the prototype PIPS hardware in follow-the-leader mode. The project was successful in providing FTL control in hardware. The STS-82 payload mockup was used in the laboratory to demonstrate serpentine motions to avoid obstacles in a realistic environment.

  4. Hardware fault insertion and instrumentation system: Mechanization and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Automated test capability for extensive low-level hardware fault insertion testing is developed. The test capability is used to calibrate fault detection coverage and associated latency times as relevant to projecting overall system reliability. Described are modifications made to the NASA Ames Reconfigurable Flight Control System (RDFCS) Facility to fully automate the total test loop involving the Draper Laboratories' Fault Injector Unit. The automated capability provided included the application of sequences of simulated low-level hardware faults, the precise measurement of fault latency times, the identification of fault symptoms, and bulk storage of test case results. A PDP-11/60 served as a test coordinator, and a PDP-11/04 as an instrumentation device. The fault injector was controlled by applications test software in the PDP-11/60, rather than by manual commands from a terminal keyboard. The time base was especially developed for this application to use a variety of signal sources in the system simulator.

  5. Summary of multi-core hardware and programming model investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes our investigations into multi-core processors and programming models for parallel scientific applications. The motivation for this study was to better understand the landscape of multi-core hardware, future trends, and the implications on system software for capability supercomputers. The results of this study are being used as input into the design of a new open-source light-weight kernel operating system being targeted at future capability supercomputers made up of multi-core processors. A goal of this effort is to create an agile system that is able to adapt to and efficiently support whatever multi-core hardware and programming models gain acceptance by the community.

  6. Design Tools for Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Mathew; Graham, Paul; Wirthlin, Michael; Larchev, Gregory; Bellows, Peter; Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO) project is focused on creating a set of design tools that facilitate and automate design techniques for reconfigurable computing in space, using SRAM-based field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) technology. These tools leverage an established FPGA design environment and focus primarily on space effects mitigation and power optimization. The project is creating software to automatically test and evaluate the single-event-upsets (SEUs) sensitivities of an FPGA design and insert mitigation techniques. Extensions into the tool suite will also allow evolvable algorithm techniques to reconfigure around single-event-latchup (SEL) events. In the power domain, tools are being created for dynamic power visualiization and optimization. Thus, this technology seeks to enable the use of Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit, via an integrated design tool-suite aiming to reduce risk, cost, and design time of multimission reconfigurable space processors using SRAM-based FPGAs.

  7. Cumulative Measurement Errors for Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winnitoy, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Located at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, the Six-Degree-of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS) is a real-time, six degree-of-freedom, short range motion base simulator originally designed to simulate the relative dynamics of two bodies in space mating together (i.e., docking or berthing). The SDTS has the capability to test full scale docking and berthing systems utilizing a two body dynamic docking simulation for docking operations and a Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) simulation for berthing operations. The SDTS can also be used for nonmating applications such as sensors and instruments evaluations requiring proximity or short range motion operations. The motion base is a hydraulic powered Stewart platform, capable of supporting a 3,500 lb payload with a positional accuracy of 0.03 inches. The SDTS is currently being used for the NASA Docking System testing and has been also used by other government agencies. The SDTS is also under consideration for use by commercial companies. Examples of tests include the verification of on-orbit robotic inspection systems, space vehicle assembly procedures and docking/berthing systems. The facility integrates a dynamic simulation of on-orbit spacecraft mating or de-mating using flight-like mechanical interface hardware. A force moment sensor is used for input during the contact phase, thus simulating the contact dynamics. While the verification of flight hardware presents unique challenges, one particular area of interest involves the use of external measurement systems to ensure accurate feedback of dynamic contact. The measurement systems for the test facility have two separate functions. The first is to take static measurements of facility and test hardware to determine both the static and moving frames used in the simulation and control system. The test hardware must be measured after each configuration change to determine both sets of reference frames. The second function is to take dynamic

  8. Commercial Aircraft Maintenance Experience Relating to Engine External Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soditus, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Airlines are extremely sensitive to the amount of dollars spent on maintaining the external engine hardware in the field. Analysis reveals that many problems revolve around a central issue, reliability. Fuel and oil leakage due to seal failure and electrical fault messages due to wire harness failures play a major role in aircraft delays and cancellations (D&C's) and scheduled maintenance. Correcting these items on the line requires a large investment of engineering resources and manpower after the fact. The smartest and most cost effective philosophy is to build the best hardware the first time. The only way to do that is to completely understand and model the operating environment, study the field experience of similar designs and to perform extensive testing.

  9. Software and Hardware for Suborbital Telepresence: UAVs on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, C. E.; Freudinger, L. C.; Yarbrough, S. K.; Jennison, C. D.; Miller, M. J.; Friets, E. M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bateman, M. G.; Bailey, J. C.; Hall, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    A NASA Dryden project creating prototype sensor web tools has resulted in software and hardware for implementing network telemetry, telepresence, and other data system functions for platforms including UAVs. The Research Environment for Vehicle-Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) software is a self-configuring/verifying/documenting framework for realtime embedded and distributed data systems based on open standards XML. With interfaces for instruments, avionics, and networking, using small PC/104 hardware with one or more Iridium modems, REVEAL systems are well suited to long endurance UAVs. These systems serve as a telemetry and communications gateway for internet-based experimenters. REVEAL systems also provide traditional Earth Science platform data system services, configured by and for each experimenter in a secure manner. On the ground segment, buffering middleware enables efficient data distribution across the internet. The innovative REVEAL architecture and its use by experimenters on recent missions using NASA's ER-2 and General Atomics Altair aircraft is described.

  10. Fast image interpolation for motion estimation using graphics hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Francis; Kokaram, Anil

    2004-05-01

    Motion estimation and compensation is the key to high quality video coding. Block matching motion estimation is used in most video codecs, including MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.263 and H.26L. Motion estimation is also a key component in the digital restoration of archived video and for post-production and special effects in the movie industry. Sub-pixel accurate motion vectors can improve the quality of the vector field and lead to more efficient video coding. However sub-pixel accuracy requires interpolation of the image data. Image interpolation is a key requirement of many image processing algorithms. Often interpolation can be a bottleneck in these applications, especially in motion estimation due to the large number pixels involved. In this paper we propose using commodity computer graphics hardware for fast image interpolation. We use the full search block matching algorithm to illustrate the problems and limitations of using graphics hardware in this way.

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Water Transfer Hardware Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkedi, Brienne D.

    2006-01-01

    Water transferred from the Space Shuttle to the International Space Station (ISS) is generated as a by-product from the Shuttle fuel cells, and is generally preferred over the Progress which has to launch water from the ground. However, launch mass and volume are still required for the transfer and storage hardware. Some of these up-mass requirements have been reduced since ISS assembly began due to changes in the storage hardware (CWC). This paper analyzes the launch mass and volume required to transfer water from the Shuttle and analyzes the up-mass savings due to modifications in the CWC. Suggestions for improving the launch mass and volume are also provided.

  12. Packaging films for electronic and space-related hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, E. M.; Hamberg, O.

    1985-08-01

    Flexible packaging films are used to bag and/or wrap precision cleaned electronic or space hardware to protect them from environmental degradation during shipping and storage. Selection of packaging films depends on a knowledge of product requirements and packaging film characteristics. The literature presently available on protective packaging films has been updated to include new materials and to amplify space-related applications. Presently available packaging film materials are compared for their various characteristics: electrostatic discharge (ESD) control, flame retardancy, water vapor transmission rate, particulate shedding, molecular contamination, and transparency. The tradeoff between product requirements and the characteristics of the packaging films available are discussed. Selection considerations are given for the application of specific materials of space hardware-related applications. Applications for intimate, environmental, and electrostatic protective packaging are discussed.

  13. Corrosion Testing of Stainless Steel Fuel Cell Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1998-11-01

    Metal hardware is gaining increasing interest in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) development as a possible alternative to machined graphite hardware because of its potential for low-cost manufacturing combined with its intrinsic high conductivity, minimal permeability and advantageous mechanical properties. A major barrier to more widespread use of metal hardware has been the susceptibility of various metals to corrosion. Few pure metals can withstand the relatively aggressive environment of a fuel cell and thus the choices for hardware are quite limited. Precious metals such as platinum or gold are prohibitively expensive and so tend to be utilized as coatings on inexpensive substrates such as aluminum or stainless steel. The main challenge with coatings has been to achieve pin-hole free surfaces that will remain so after years of use. Titanium has been used to some extent and though it is very corrosion-resistant, it is also relatively expensive and often still requires some manner of surface coating to prevent the formation of a poorly conducting oxide layer. In contrast, metal alloys may hold promise as potentially low-cost, corrosion-resistant materials for bipolar plates. The dozens of commercially available stainless steel and nickel based alloys have been specifically formulated to offer a particular advantage depending upon their application. In the case of austenitic stainless steels, for example, 316 SS contains molybdenum and a higher chromium content than its more common counterpart, 304 SS, that makes it more noble and increases its corrosion resistance. Likewise, 316L SS contains less carbon than 316 SS to make it easier to weld. A number of promising corrosion-resistant, highly noble alloys such as Hastelloy{trademark} or Duplex{trademark} (a stainless steel developed for seawater service) are available commercially, but are expensive and difficult to obtain in various forms (i.e. wire screen, foil, etc.) or in small amounts for R and D

  14. Treatment alternatives for non-fuel-bearing hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Clark, L.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    This evaluation compared four alternatives for the treatment or processing of non-fuel bearing hardware (NFBH) to reduce its volume and prepare it for disposal. These treatment alternatives are: shredding; shredding and low pressure compaction; shredding and supercompaction; and melting. These alternatives are compared on the basis of system costs, waste form characteristics, and process considerations. The study recommends that melting and supercompaction alternatives be further considered and that additional testing be conducted for these two alternatives.

  15. TMS communications hardware. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.; Hopkins, G. T.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communication system used in the Trend Monitoring System to interconnect intelligent graphics terminals to a host minicomputer is described. The terminals and host are connected to the bus through a microprocessor-based RF modem termed a Bus Interface Unit (BIU). The BIU hardware and the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen-While-Talk protocol used on the network are described.

  16. Sorting and hardware assisted rendering for volume visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, C.; Becker, B.; Max, N.

    1994-03-01

    We present some techniques for volume rendering unstructured data. Interpolation between vertex colors and opacities is performed using hardware assisted texture mapping, and color is integrated for use with a volume rendering system. We also present an O(n{sup 2}) method for sorting n arbitrarily shaped convex polyhedra prior to visualization. It generalizes the Newell, Newell and Sancha sort for polygons to 3-D volume elements.

  17. IDEAS and App Development Internship in Hardware and Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alrayes, Rabab D.

    2016-01-01

    In this report, I will discuss the tasks and projects I have completed while working as an electrical engineering intern during the spring semester of 2016 at NASA Kennedy Space Center. In the field of software development, I completed tasks for the G-O Caching Mobile App and the Asbestos Management Information System (AMIS) Web App. The G-O Caching Mobile App was written in HTML, CSS, and JavaScript on the Cordova framework, while the AMIS Web App is written in HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and C# on the AngularJS framework. My goals and objectives on these two projects were to produce an app with an eye-catching and intuitive User Interface (UI), which will attract more employees to participate; to produce a fully-tested, fully functional app which supports workforce engagement and exploration; to produce a fully-tested, fully functional web app that assists technicians working in asbestos management. I also worked in hardware development on the Integrated Display and Environmental Awareness System (IDEAS) wearable technology project. My tasks on this project were focused in PCB design and camera integration. My goals and objectives for this project were to successfully integrate fully functioning custom hardware extenders on the wearable technology headset to minimize the size of hardware on the smart glasses headset for maximum user comfort; to successfully integrate fully functioning camera onto the headset. By the end of this semester, I was able to successfully develop four extender boards to minimize hardware on the headset, and assisted in integrating a fully-functioning camera into the system.

  18. Environmental Conditions for Space Flight Hardware: A Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette; Lee, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    Interest in generalization of the physical environment experienced by NASA hardware from the natural Earth environment (on the launch pad), man-made environment on Earth (storage acceptance an d qualification testing), the launch environment, and the space environment, is ed to find commonality among our hardware in an effort to reduce cost and complexity. NASA is entering a period of increase in its number of planetary missions and it is important to understand how our qualification requirements will evolve with and track these new environments. Environmental conditions are described for NASA projects in several ways for the different periods of the mission life cycle. At the beginning, the mission manager defines survivability requirements based on the mission length, orbit, launch date, launch vehicle, and other factors . such as the use of reactor engines. Margins are then applied to these values (temperature extremes, vibration extremes, radiation tolerances, etc,) and a new set of conditions is generalized for design requirements. Mission assurance documents will then assign an additional margin for reliability, and a third set of values is provided for during testing. A fourth set of environmental condition values may evolve intermittently from heritage hardware that has been tested to a level beyond the actual mission requirement. These various sets of environment figures can make it quite confusing and difficult to capture common hardware environmental requirements. Environmental requirement information can be found in a wide variety of places. The most obvious is with the individual projects. We can easily get answers to questions about temperature extremes being used and radiation tolerance goals, but it is more difficult to map the answers to the process that created these requirements: for design, for qualification, and for actual environment with no margin applied. Not everyone assigned to a NASA project may have that kind of insight, as many have

  19. Multi-frequency EIT hardware system based on DSP.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Xu, Guizhi; Wu, Huanli; Geng, Duyan; Yan, Weili

    2006-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a new functional imaging technique in the biomedical engineering. A multi-frequency hardware EIT system based on digital signal processor (DSP) has been developed, and the system also has been designed using modular structure. Some experiments in vitro tissue are done and their images are generated with the filtered back-projection algorithm using this system in real time. The results show that this system is feasible, stable, convenient and extended. PMID:17959484

  20. Low extractable wipers for cleaning space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tijerina, Veronica; Gross, Frederick C.

    1986-01-01

    There is a need for low extractable wipers for solvent cleaning of space flight hardware. Soxhlet extraction is the method utilized today by most NASA subcontractors, but there may be alternate methods to achieve the same results. The need for low non-volatile residue materials, the history of soxhlet extraction, and proposed alternate methods are discussed, as well as different types of wipers, test methods, and current standards.

  1. The technological future of 7 T MRI hardware.

    PubMed

    Webb, A G; Van de Moortele, P F

    2016-09-01

    In this article we present our projections of future hardware developments on 7 T human MRI systems. These include compact cryogen-light magnets, improved gradient performance, integrated RF-receive and direct current shimming coil arrays, new RF technology with adaptive impedance matching, patient-specific specific absorption rate estimation and monitoring, and increased integration of physiological monitoring systems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25974894

  2. Weight and the Future of Space Flight Hardware Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Frank A.

    2003-01-01

    Weight has been used as the primary input variable for cost estimating almost as long as there have been parametric cost models. While there are good reasons for using weight, serious limitations exist. These limitations have been addressed by multi-variable equations and trend analysis in models such as NAFCOM, PRICE, and SEER; however, these models have not be able to address the significant time lags that can occur between the development of similar space flight hardware systems. These time lags make the cost analyst's job difficult because insufficient data exists to perform trend analysis, and the current set of parametric models are not well suited to accommodating process improvements in space flight hardware design, development, build and test. As a result, people of good faith can have serious disagreement over the cost for new systems. To address these shortcomings, new cost modeling approaches are needed. The most promising approach is process based (sometimes called activity) costing. Developing process based models will require a detailed understanding of the functions required to produce space flight hardware combined with innovative approaches to estimating the necessary resources. Particularly challenging will be the lack of data at the process level. One method for developing a model is to combine notional algorithms with a discrete event simulation and model changes to the total cost as perturbations to the program are introduced. Despite these challenges, the potential benefits are such that efforts should be focused on developing process based cost models.

  3. 2D neural hardware versus 3D biological ones

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    This paper will present important limitations of hardware neural nets as opposed to biological neural nets (i.e. the real ones). The author starts by discussing neural structures and their biological inspirations, while mentioning the simplifications leading to artificial neural nets. Going further, the focus will be on hardware constraints. The author will present recent results for three different alternatives of implementing neural networks: digital, threshold gate, and analog, while the area and the delay will be related to neurons' fan-in and weights' precision. Based on all of these, it will be shown why hardware implementations cannot cope with their biological inspiration with respect to their power of computation: the mapping onto silicon lacking the third dimension of biological nets. This translates into reduced fan-in, and leads to reduced precision. The main conclusion is that one is faced with the following alternatives: (1) try to cope with the limitations imposed by silicon, by speeding up the computation of the elementary silicon neurons; (2) investigate solutions which would allow one to use the third dimension, e.g. using optical interconnections.

  4. Hardware simulator of Caliste-SO detectors for STIX instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgórski, P.; Ścisłowski, D.; Kowaliński, M.; Mrozek, T.; Steślicki, M.; Barylak, J.; Barylak, A.; Sylwester, J.; Krucker, S.; Hurford, G. J.; Arnold, N. G.; Orleański, P.; Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Gevin, O.; Grimm, O.; Etesi, L.; Hochmuth, N.; Battaglia, M.; Csillaghy, A.; Kienreich, I. W.; Veronig, A.; Bloomfield, D. Shaun; Byrne, M.; Massone, A. M.; Piana, M.; Giordano, S.; Skup, K. R.; Graczyk, R.; Michalska, M.; Nowosielski, W.; Cichocki, A.; Mosdorf, M.

    2013-10-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on-board Solar Orbiter mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) scheduled to be launched in 2017. STIX is aimed to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 keV to 150 keV using a Fourier-imaging technique. The instrument employs a set of tungsten grids in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors. These detectors are source of data collected and analyzed in real time by Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU). In order to support development and implementation of on-board algorithms a dedicated detector hardware simulator is designed and manufactured as a part of Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) for STIX instrument. Complementary to the hardware simulator is data analysis software which is used to generate input data and to analyze output data. The simulator will allow sending strictly defined data from all detectors' pixels at the input of the IDPU for further analysis of instrument response. Particular emphasis is given here to the simulator hardware design.

  5. Hardware Design Improvements to the Major Constituent Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combs, Scott; Schwietert, Daniel; Anaya, Marcial; DeWolf, Shannon; Merrill, Dave; Gardner, Ben D.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Belcher, Paul; Matty, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is designed to monitor the major constituents of the ISS's internal atmosphere. This mass spectrometer based system is an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and is a primary tool for the management of ISS atmosphere composition. As a part of NASA Change Request CR10773A, several alterations to the hardware have been made to accommodate improved MCA logistics. First, the ORU 08 verification gas assembly has been modified to allow the verification gas cylinder to be installed on orbit. The verification gas is an essential MCA consumable that requires periodic replenishment. Designing the cylinder for subassembly transport reduces the size and weight of the maintained item for launch. The redesign of the ORU 08 assembly includes a redesigned housing, cylinder mounting apparatus, and pneumatic connection. The second hardware change is a redesigned wiring harness for the ORU 02 analyzer. The ORU 02 electrical connector interface was damaged in a previous on-orbit installation, and this necessitated the development of a temporary fix while a more permanent solution was developed. The new wiring harness design includes flexible cable as well as indexing fasteners and guide-pins, and provides better accessibility during the on-orbit maintenance operation. This presentation will describe the hardware improvements being implemented for MCA as well as the expected improvement to logistics and maintenance.

  6. Hardware architecture for full analytical Fraunhofer computer-generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Zong-Xi; Xiong, Yi; Chen, Biao; Dai, Hui-Min; Jiang, Shao-Ji; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Hardware architecture of parallel computation is proposed for generating Fraunhofer computer-generated holograms (CGHs). A pipeline-based integrated circuit architecture is realized by employing the modified Fraunhofer analytical formulism, which is large scale and enables all components to be concurrently operated. The architecture of the CGH contains five modules to calculate initial parameters of amplitude, amplitude compensation, phases, and phase compensation, respectively. The precalculator of amplitude is fully adopted considering the "reusable design" concept. Each complex operation type (such as square arithmetic) is reused only once by means of a multichannel selector. The implemented hardware calculates an 800×600 pixels hologram in parallel using 39,319 logic elements, 21,074 registers, and 12,651 memory bits in an Altera field-programmable gate array environment with stable operation at 50 MHz. Experimental results demonstrate that the quality of the images reconstructed from the hardware-generated hologram can be comparable to that of a software implementation. Moreover, the calculation speed is approximately 100 times faster than that of a personal computer with an Intel i5-3230M 2.6 GHz CPU for a triangular object.

  7. Hardware demonstration of high-speed networks for satellite applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, Jonathon W.; Lee, David S.

    2008-09-01

    This report documents the implementation results of a hardware demonstration utilizing the Serial RapidIO{trademark} and SpaceWire protocols that was funded by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL's) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) office. This demonstration was one of the activities in the Modeling and Design of High-Speed Networks for Satellite Applications LDRD. This effort has demonstrated the transport of application layer packets across both RapidIO and SpaceWire networks to a common downlink destination using small topologies comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf and custom devices. The RapidFET and NEX-SRIO debug and verification tools were instrumental in the successful implementation of the RapidIO hardware demonstration. The SpaceWire hardware demonstration successfully demonstrated the transfer and routing of application data packets between multiple nodes and also was able reprogram remote nodes using configuration bitfiles transmitted over the network, a key feature proposed in node-based architectures (NBAs). Although a much larger network (at least 18 to 27 nodes) would be required to fully verify the design for use in a real-world application, this demonstration has shown that both RapidIO and SpaceWire are capable of routing application packets across a network to a common downlink node, illustrating their potential use in real-world NBAs.

  8. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  9. Efficient Execution of Recursive Programs on Commodity Vector Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Bin; Jo, Youngjoon; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Kulkarni, Milind

    2015-06-13

    The pursuit of computational efficiency has led to the proliferation of throughput-oriented hardware, from GPUs to increasingly-wide vector units on commodity processors and accelerators. This hardware is designed to efficiently execute data-parallel computations in a vectorized manner. However, many algorithms are more naturally expressed as divide-and-conquer, recursive, task-parallel computations; in the absence of data parallelism, it seems that such algorithms are not well-suited to throughput-oriented architectures. This paper presents a set of novel code transformations that expose the data-parallelism latent in recursive, task-parallel programs. These transformations facilitate straightforward vectorization of task-parallel programs on commodity hardware. We also present scheduling policies that maintain high utilization of vector resources while limiting space usage. Across several task-parallel benchmarks, we demonstrate both efficient vector resource utilization and substantial speedup on chips using Intel's SSE4.2 vector units as well as accelerators using Intel's AVX512 units.

  10. Efficient hardware implementation of the lightweight block encryption algorithm LEA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donggeon; Kim, Dong-Chan; Kwon, Daesung; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware. PMID:24406859

  11. High-performance reconfigurable hardware architecture for restricted Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Ly, Daniel Le; Chow, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Despite the popularity and success of neural networks in research, the number of resulting commercial or industrial applications has been limited. A primary cause for this lack of adoption is that neural networks are usually implemented as software running on general-purpose processors. Hence, a hardware implementation that can exploit the inherent parallelism in neural networks is desired. This paper investigates how the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), which is a popular type of neural network, can be mapped to a high-performance hardware architecture on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platforms. The proposed modular framework is designed to reduce the time complexity of the computations through heavily customized hardware engines. A method to partition large RBMs into smaller congruent components is also presented, allowing the distribution of one RBM across multiple FPGA resources. The framework is tested on a platform of four Xilinx Virtex II-Pro XC2VP70 FPGAs running at 100 MHz through a variety of different configurations. The maximum performance was obtained by instantiating an RBM of 256 × 256 nodes distributed across four FPGAs, which resulted in a computational speed of 3.13 billion connection-updates-per-second and a speedup of 145-fold over an optimized C program running on a 2.8-GHz Intel processor. PMID:20858578

  12. Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Lightweight Block Encryption Algorithm LEA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donggeon; Kim, Dong-Chan; Kwon, Daesung; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware. PMID:24406859

  13. Accelerating reconstruction of reference digital tomosynthesis using graphics hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Hui; Ren Lei; Godfrey, Devon J.; Yin Fangfang

    2007-10-15

    The successful implementation of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) for on-board image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) requires fast DTS image reconstruction. Both target and reference DTS image sets are required to support an image registration application for IGRT. Target images are usually DTS image sets reconstructed from on-board projections, which can be accomplished quickly using the conventional filtered backprojection algorithm. Reference images are DTS image sets reconstructed from digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) previously generated from conventional planning CT data. Generating a set of DRRs from planning CT is relatively slow using the conventional ray-casting algorithm. In order to facilitate DTS reconstruction within a clinically acceptable period of time, we implemented a high performance DRR reconstruction algorithm on a graphics processing unit of commercial PC graphics hardware. The performance of this new algorithm was evaluated and compared with that which is achieved using the conventional software-based ray-casting algorithm. DTS images were reconstructed from DRRs previously generated by both hardware and software algorithms. On average, the DRR reconstruction efficiency using the hardware method is improved by a factor of 67 over the software method. The image quality of the DRRs was comparable to those generated using the software-based ray-casting algorithm. Accelerated DRR reconstruction significantly reduces the overall time required to produce a set of reference DTS images from planning CT and makes this technique clinically practical for target localization for radiation therapy.

  14. NCERA-101 STATION REPORT - KENNEDY SPACE CENTER: Large Plant Growth Hardware for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.

    2013-01-01

    This is the station report for the national controlled environments meeting. Topics to be discussed will include the Veggie and Advanced Plant Habitat ISS hardware. The goal is to introduce this hardware to a potential user community.

  15. Defining Exercise Performance Metrics for Flight Hardware Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyene, Nahon M.

    2004-01-01

    The space industry has prevailed over numerous design challenges in the spirit of exploration. Manned space flight entails creating products for use by humans and the Johnson Space Center has pioneered this effort as NASA's center for manned space flight. NASA Astronauts use a suite of flight exercise hardware to maintain strength for extravehicular activities and to minimize losses in muscle mass and bone mineral density. With a cycle ergometer, treadmill, and the Resistive Exercise Device available on the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Medicine community aspires to reproduce physical loading schemes that match exercise performance in Earth s gravity. The resistive exercise device presents the greatest challenge with the duty of accommodating 20 different exercises and many variations on the core set of exercises. This paper presents a methodology for capturing engineering parameters that can quantify proper resistive exercise performance techniques. For each specified exercise, the method provides engineering parameters on hand spacing, foot spacing, and positions of the point of load application at the starting point, midpoint, and end point of the exercise. As humans vary in height and fitness levels, the methodology presents values as ranges. In addition, this method shows engineers the proper load application regions on the human body. The methodology applies to resistive exercise in general and is in use for the current development of a Resistive Exercise Device. Exercise hardware systems must remain available for use and conducive to proper exercise performance as a contributor to mission success. The astronauts depend on exercise hardware to support extended stays aboard the ISS. Future plans towards exploration of Mars and beyond acknowledge the necessity of exercise. Continuous improvement in technology and our understanding of human health maintenance in space will allow us to support the exploration of Mars and the future of space

  16. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, E. M.; Eddleman, D. E.; Reynolds, D. C.; Hardin, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As the United States enters into the next space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, rapid manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) upper stage engine, J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator (GG) discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using a workhorse gas generator (WHGG) test fixture at MSFC's East Test Area, the duct was subjected to extreme J-2X hot gas environments during 7 tests for a total of 537 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct underwent extensive post-test evaluation and showed no signs of degradation. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  17. Advances in metered dose inhaler technology: hardware development.

    PubMed

    Stein, Stephen W; Sheth, Poonam; Hodson, P David; Myrdal, Paul B

    2014-04-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were first introduced in the 1950s and they are currently widely prescribed as portable systems to treat pulmonary conditions. MDIs consist of a formulation containing dissolved or suspended drug and hardware needed to contain the formulation and enable efficient and consistent dose delivery to the patient. The device hardware includes a canister that is appropriately sized to contain sufficient formulation for the required number of doses, a metering valve capable of delivering a consistent amount of drug with each dose delivered, an actuator mouthpiece that atomizes the formulation and serves as a conduit to deliver the aerosol to the patient, and often an indicating mechanism that provides information to the patient on the number of doses remaining. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art of MDI hardware and includes discussion of enhancements made to the device's core subsystems. In addition, technologies that aid the correct use of MDIs will be discussed. These include spacers, valved holding chambers, and breath-actuated devices. Many of the improvements discussed in this article increase the ability of MDI systems to meet regulatory specifications. Innovations that enhance the functionality of MDIs continue to be balanced by the fact that a key advantage of MDI systems is their low cost per dose. The expansion of the health care market in developing countries and the increased focus on health care costs in many developed countries will ensure that MDIs remain a cost-effective crucial delivery system for treating pulmonary conditions for many years to come. PMID:24357110

  18. An update on SCARLET hardware development and flight programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, P. Alan; Murphy, David M.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Allen, Douglas M.

    1995-01-01

    Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) is one of the first practical photovoltaic concentrator array technologies that offers a number of benefits for space applications (i.e. high array efficiency, protection from space radiation effects, a relatively light weight system, minimized plasma interactions, etc.) The line-focus concentrator concept, however, also offers two very important advantages: (1) low-cost mass production potential of the lens material; and (2) relaxation of precise array tracking requirements to only a single axis. These benefits offer unique capabilities to both commercial and government spacecraft users, specifically those interested in high radiation missions, such as MEO orbits, and electric-powered propulsion LEO-to-GEO orbit raising applications. SCARLET is an aggressive hardware development and flight validation program sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and NASA Lewis Research Center. Its intent is to bring technology to the level of performance and validation necessary for use by various government and commercial programs. The first phase of the SCARLET program culminated with the design, development and fabrication of a small concentrator array for flight on the METEOR satellite. This hardware will be the first in-space demonstration of concentrator technology at the 'array level' and will provide valuable in-orbit performance measurements. The METEOR satellite is currently planned for a September/October 1995 launch. The next phase of the program is the development of large array for use by one of the NASA New Millenium Program missions. This hardware will incorporate a number of the significant improvements over the basic METEOR design. This presentation will address the basic SCARLET technology, examine its benefits to users, and describe the expected improvements for future missions.

  19. An update on SCARLET hardware development and flight programs

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.A.; Murphy, D.M.; Piszczor, M.F.; Allen, D.M. |

    1995-10-01

    Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) is one of the first practical photovoltaic concentrator array technologies that offers a number of benefits for space applications (i.e. high array efficiency, protection from space radiation effects, a relatively light weight system, minimized plasma interactions, etc.) The line-focus concentrator concept, however, also offers two very important advantages: (1) low-cost mass production potential of the lens material; and (2) relaxation of precise array tracking requirements to only a single axis. These benefits offer unique capabilities to both commercial and government spacecraft users, specifically those interested in high radiation missions, such as MEO orbits, and electric-powered propulsion LEO-to-GEO orbit raising applications. SCARLET is an aggressive hardware development and flight validation program sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and NASA Lewis Research Center. Its intent is to bring technology to the level of performance and validation necessary for use by various government and commercial programs. The first phase of the SCARLET program culminated with the design, development and fabrication of a small concentrator array for flight on the METEOR satellite. This hardware will be the first in-space demonstration of concentrator technology at the `array level` and will provide valuable in-orbit performance measurements. The METEOR satellite is currently planned for a September/October 1995 launch. The next phase of the program is the development of large array for use by one of the NASA New Millenium Program missions. This hardware will incorporate a number of the significant improvements over the basic METEOR design. This presentation will address the basic SCARLET technology, examine its benefits to users, and describe the expected improvements for future missions.

  20. An update on SCARLET hardware development and flight programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. Alan; Murphy, David M.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Allen, Douglas M.

    1995-10-01

    Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) is one of the first practical photovoltaic concentrator array technologies that offers a number of benefits for space applications (i.e. high array efficiency, protection from space radiation effects, a relatively light weight system, minimized plasma interactions, etc.) The line-focus concentrator concept, however, also offers two very important advantages: (1) low-cost mass production potential of the lens material; and (2) relaxation of precise array tracking requirements to only a single axis. These benefits offer unique capabilities to both commercial and government spacecraft users, specifically those interested in high radiation missions, such as MEO orbits, and electric-powered propulsion LEO-to-GEO orbit raising applications. SCARLET is an aggressive hardware development and flight validation program sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and NASA Lewis Research Center. Its intent is to bring technology to the level of performance and validation necessary for use by various government and commercial programs. The first phase of the SCARLET program culminated with the design, development and fabrication of a small concentrator array for flight on the METEOR satellite. This hardware will be the first in-space demonstration of concentrator technology at the 'array level' and will provide valuable in-orbit performance measurements. The METEOR satellite is currently planned for a September/October 1995 launch. The next phase of the program is the development of large array for use by one of the NASA New Millenium Program missions. This hardware will incorporate a number of the significant improvements over the basic METEOR design. This presentation will address the basic SCARLET technology, examine its benefits to users, and describe the expected improvements for future missions.

  1. Multi-User Hardware Solutions to Combustion Science ISS Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otero, Angel M.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the budget environment and to expand on the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), common hardware approach, the NASA Combustion Science Program shifted focus in 1999 from single investigator PI (Principal Investigator)-specific hardware to multi-user 'Minifacilities'. These mini-facilities would take the CIR common hardware philosophy to the next level. The approach that was developed re-arranged all the investigations in the program into sub-fields of research. Then common requirements within these subfields were used to develop a common system that would then be complemented by a few PI-specific components. The sub-fields of research selected were droplet combustion, solids and fire safety, and gaseous fuels. From these research areas three mini-facilities have sprung: the Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) for droplet research, Flow Enclosure for Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) for solids and fire safety, and the Multi-user Gaseous Fuels Apparatus (MGFA) for gaseous fuels. These mini-facilities will develop common Chamber Insert Assemblies (CIA) and diagnostics for the respective investigators complementing the capability provided by CIR. Presently there are four investigators for MDCA, six for FEANICS, and four for MGFA. The goal of these multi-user facilities is to drive the cost per PI down after the initial development investment is made. Each of these mini-facilities will become a fixture of future Combustion Science NASA Research Announcements (NRAs), enabling investigators to propose against an existing capability. Additionally, an investigation is provided the opportunity to enhance the existing capability to bridge the gap between the capability and their specific science requirements. This multi-user development approach will enable the Combustion Science Program to drive cost per investigation down while drastically reducing the time

  2. Using Innovative Techniques for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Reynolds, David C.; Eddleman, David E.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using the Workhorse Gas Generator (WHGG) test setup at MSFC?s East Test Area test stand 116, the duct was subject to extreme J-2X gas generator environments and endured a total of 538 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct survived the testing and was inspected after the test. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  3. [Consequences of uncritical indication assessment for hardware removal].

    PubMed

    Liska, F; Neu, J

    2014-07-01

    A 43-year-old woman sustained a severe ankle dislocation with distal fibular fracture in a domestic accident. This was initially treated with external fixation for 3 weeks. In addition to distal fibular fracture treatment using a fixed-angle locking plate system, a vacuum-assisted wound closure of the medial und lateral malleolus had to be performed due to a persisting difficult soft tissue situation with swelling and necrosis of the medial malleolus. Subsequently, after prolonged wound healing the soft tissue defect over the distal fibula could be covered with a split skin graft and the external fixation was removed. Implant removal was performed 2 years after primary treatment - following radiologically confirmed consolidation of the fracture. Intraoperatively, an iatrogenic oblique fracture of the fibula occurred due to a cold welded screw in the plate, which had to be treated with lag screws. In the further course, there was renewed extensive wound healing with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The patient filed a complaint for the iatrogenic fibular fracture during hardware removal and also criticized the insufficient wound closure which led to an impairment of wound healing. The expert opinion of the arbitration board ascertained a medical malpractice in terms of indications. Due to the already prolonged course after the primary osteosynthesis hardware removal was not recommended. In addition, the surgical technique that led to the iatrogenic fracture was criticized. The arbitration board furthermore concluded that with a pre-existing osteoarthritis of the ankle, hardware removal was not indicated. In a critical wound situation implant removal would only be indicated with simultaneous treatment of the osteoarthritis of the ankle. By means of a critical indication assessment the patient should have been advised to leave the plate in place and the complicated course with iatrogenic fracture and severely delayed wound healing could

  4. [Design of an FPGA-based image guided surgery hardware platform].

    PubMed

    Zou, Fa-Dong; Qin, Bin-Jie

    2008-07-01

    An FPGA-Based Image Guided Surgery Hardware Platform has been designed and implemented in this paper. The hardware platform can provide hardware acceleration for image guided surgery. It is completed with a video decoder interface, a DDR memory controller, a 12C bus controller, an interrupt controller and so on. It is able to perform real time video endoscopy image capturing in the surgery and to preserve the hardware interface for image guided surgery algorithm module. PMID:18973036

  5. Verification Challenges of Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winnitoy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Six Degree-of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS) is a test facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas for performing dynamic verification of space structures and hardware. Some examples of past and current tests include the verification of on-orbit robotic inspection systems, space vehicle assembly procedures and docking/berthing systems. The facility is able to integrate a dynamic simulation of on-orbit spacecraft mating or demating using flight-like mechanical interface hardware. A force moment sensor is utilized for input to the simulation during the contact phase, thus simulating the contact dynamics. While the verification of flight hardware presents many unique challenges, one particular area of interest is with respect to the use of external measurement systems to ensure accurate feedback of dynamic contact. There are many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) measurement systems available on the market, and the test facility measurement systems have evolved over time to include two separate COTS systems. The first system incorporates infra-red sensing cameras, while the second system employs a laser interferometer to determine position and orientation data. The specific technical challenges with the measurement systems in a large dynamic environment include changing thermal and humidity levels, operational area and measurement volume, dynamic tracking, and data synchronization. The facility is located in an expansive high-bay area that is occasionally exposed to outside temperature when large retractable doors at each end of the building are opened. The laser interferometer system, in particular, is vulnerable to the environmental changes in the building. The operational area of the test facility itself is sizeable, ranging from seven meters wide and five meters deep to as much as seven meters high. Both facility measurement systems have desirable measurement volumes and the accuracies vary

  6. Parallel Processing with Digital Signal Processing Hardware and Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Cory V.

    1995-01-01

    The assembling and testing of a parallel processing system is described which will allow a user to move a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) application from the design stage to the execution/analysis stage through the use of several software tools and hardware devices. The system will be used to demonstrate the feasibility of the Algorithm To Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) dataflow paradigm for static multiprocessor solutions of DSP applications. The individual components comprising the system are described followed by the installation procedure, research topics, and initial program development.

  7. Stand-Alone Hardware-Based Learning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, Trevor; Ng, Chi

    1995-02-01

    The probabilistic Random Access Memory (pRAM) is a biologically-inspired model of a neuron. The pRAM behaviour is described in this paper in relation to binary and real-valued input vectors. The pRAM is hardware-realisable, as is its reinforcement training algorithm. The pRAM model may be applied to a wide range of artificial neural network applications, many of which are classification tasks. The application presented here is a control problem where an inverted pendulum, mounted on a cart, is to be balanced. The solution to this problem using the pRAM-256, a VLSI pRAM controller, is shown.

  8. Evaluation of pressurized water cleaning systems for hardware refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, Terry W.; Deweese, Charles D.; Hoppe, David T.; Vickers, John H.; Swenson, Gary J.; Hutchens, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, refurbishment processes for RSRM motor cases and components have employed environmentally harmful materials. Specifically, vapor degreasing processes consume and emit large amounts of ozone depleting compounds. This program evaluates the use of pressurized water cleaning systems as a replacement for the vapor degreasing process. Tests have been conducted to determine if high pressure water washing, without any form of additive cleaner, is a viable candidate for replacing vapor degreasing processes. This paper discusses the findings thus far of Engineering Test Plan - 1168 (ETP-1168), 'Evaluation of Pressurized Water Cleaning Systems for Hardware Refurbishment.'

  9. Specification of photonic circuits using quantum hardware description language.

    PubMed

    Tezak, Nikolas; Niederberger, Armand; Pavlichin, Dmitri S; Sarma, Gopal; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2012-11-28

    Following the simple observation that the interconnection of a set of quantum optical input-output devices can be specified using structural mode VHSIC hardware description language, we demonstrate a computer-aided schematic capture workflow for modelling and simulating multi-component photonic circuits. We describe an algorithm for parsing circuit descriptions to derive quantum equations of motion, illustrate our approach using simple examples based on linear and cavity-nonlinear optical components, and demonstrate a computational approach to hierarchical model reduction. PMID:23091208

  10. Development of Hardware-in-the-loop Microgrid Testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Bailu; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Starke, Michael R; Liu, Guodong; Dowling, Kevin; Ollis, T Ben; Irminger, Philip; Xu, Yan; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D

    2015-01-01

    A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) microgrid testbed for the evaluation and assessment of microgrid operation and control system has been presented in this paper. The HIL testbed is composed of a real-time digital simulator (RTDS) for modeling of the microgrid, multiple NI CompactRIOs for device level control, a prototype microgrid energy management system (MicroEMS), and a relay protection system. The applied communication-assisted hybrid control system has been also discussed. Results of function testing of HIL controller, communication, and the relay protection system are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed HIL microgrid testbed.

  11. Hardware interface unit for control of shuttle RMS vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Thomas S.; Hansen, Joseph M.; Manouchehri, Davoud; Forouhar, Kamran

    1994-01-01

    Vibration of the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) increases the time for task completion and reduces task safety for manipulator-assisted operations. If the dynamics of the manipulator and the payload can be physically isolated, performance should improve. Rockwell has developed a self contained hardware unit which interfaces between a manipulator arm and payload. The End Point Control Unit (EPCU) is built and is being tested at Rockwell and at the Langley/Marshall Coupled, Multibody Spacecraft Control Research Facility in NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

  12. Various hardware in the SSPF undergoes or waits for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A rack of four gyroscopes is part of the hardware and equipment filling the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). Other elements of the International Space Station also housed in the SSPF are the U.S. Lab, Destiny; the Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules Raffaello and Leonardo; and the Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 (PMA-3). The PMA-3 is the first element scheduled to be launched to the space Station, on STS-92. Next is Destiny, on STS-98, followed by the MPLMs on STS-102 and STS-100. No dates have been determined yet for these missions.

  13. Various hardware in the SSPF undergoes or waits for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Lab Destiny dominates the center of the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), which is filled with other hardware and equipment for the International Space Station. Elsewhere in the SSPF are also the Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules Raffaello and Leonardo and the Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 (PMA-3). The PMA-3 is the first element scheduled to be launched to the Space Station, on STS-92. Next is Destiny, on STS-98, followed by the MPLMs on STS-102 and STS-100. No dates have been determined yet for these missions.

  14. Modern hardware architectures accelerate porous media flow computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulczewski, Michal; Kurowski, Krzysztof; Kierzynka, Michal; Dohnalik, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Borujeni, Ali Takbiri

    2012-05-01

    Investigation of rock properties, porosity and permeability particularly, which determines transport media characteristic, is crucial to reservoir engineering. Nowadays, micro-tomography (micro-CT) methods allow to obtain vast of petro-physical properties. The micro-CT method facilitates visualization of pores structures and acquisition of total porosity factor, determined by sticking together 2D slices of scanned rock and applying proper absorption cut-off point. Proper segmentation of pores representation in 3D is important to solve the permeability of porous media. This factor is recently determined by the means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), a popular method to analyze problems related to fluid flows, taking advantage of numerical methods and constantly growing computing powers. The recent advent of novel multi-, many-core and graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware architectures allows scientists to benefit even more from parallel processing and built-in new features. The high level of parallel scalability offers both, the time-to-solution decrease and greater accuracy - top factors in reservoir engineering. This paper aims to present research results related to fluid flow simulations, particularly solving the total porosity and permeability of porous media, taking advantage of modern hardware architectures. In our approach total porosity is calculated by the means of general-purpose computing on multiple GPUs. This application sticks together 2D slices of scanned rock and by the means of a marching tetrahedra algorithm, creates a 3D representation of pores and calculates the total porosity. Experimental results are compared with data obtained via other popular methods, including Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), helium porosity and nitrogen permeability tests. Then CFD simulations are performed on a large-scale high performance hardware architecture to solve the flow and permeability of porous media. In our experiments we used Lattice Boltzmann

  15. Hardware proofs using EHDM and the RSRE verification methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Sjogren, Jon A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined is a methodology for hardware verification developed by Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) in the context of the SRI International's Enhanced Hierarchical Design Methodology (EHDM) specification/verification system. The methodology utilizes a four-level specification hierarchy with the following levels: functional level, finite automata model, block model, and circuit level. The properties of a level are proved as theorems in the level below it. This methodology is applied to a 6-bit counter problem and is critically examined. The specifications are written in EHDM's specification language, Extended Special, and the proofs are improving both the RSRE methodology and the EHDM system.

  16. Data storage technology: Hardware and software, Appendix B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sable, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    This project involves the development of more economical ways of integrating and interfacing new storage devices and data processing programs into a computer system. It involves developing interface standards and a software/hardware architecture which will make it possible to develop machine independent devices and programs. These will interface with the machine dependent operating systems of particular computers. The development project will not be to develop the software which would ordinarily be the responsibility of the manufacturer to supply, but to develop the standards with which that software is expected to confirm in providing an interface with the user or storage system.

  17. J-2X Upper Stage Engine: Hardware and Testing 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzell, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Mission: Common upper stage engine for Ares I and Ares V. Challenge: Use proven technology from Saturn X-33, RS-68 to develop the highest Isp GG cycle engine in history for 2 missions in record time . Key Features: LOX/LH2 GG cycle, series turbines (2), HIP-bonded MCC, pneumatic ball-sector valves, on-board engine controller, tube-wall regen nozzle/large passively-cooled nozzle extension, TEG boost/cooling . Development Philosophy: proven hardware, aggressive schedule, early risk reduction, requirements-driven.

  18. Dynamic Stability Instrumentation System (DSIS). Volume 1: Hardware description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, T. L.; Daniels, T. S.; Hare, D. A.; Boyden, R. P.; Dress, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a hardware description manual for the Dynamic Stability Instrumentation System that is used in specific NASA Langley wind tunnels. The instrumentation system performs either a synchronous demodulation or a fast Fourier transform on dynamic balance strain gage signals, and ultimately computes aerodynamic coefficients. The DSIS consists of a double rack of instruments, a remote motor-generator set, two special stings each with motor driven shafts, and specially designed balances. The major components in the instrumentation rack include a personal computer, digital signal processor microcomputers, computer-controlled signal conditioners, function generator, digital multimeter, and an optional fast Fourier transform analyzer.

  19. Resolution-independent surface rendering using programmable graphics hardware

    DOEpatents

    Loop, Charles T.; Blinn, James Frederick

    2008-12-16

    Surfaces defined by a Bezier tetrahedron, and in particular quadric surfaces, are rendered on programmable graphics hardware. Pixels are rendered through triangular sides of the tetrahedra and locations on the shapes, as well as surface normals for lighting evaluations, are computed using pixel shader computations. Additionally, vertex shaders are used to aid interpolation over a small number of values as input to the pixel shaders. Through this, rendering of the surfaces is performed independently of viewing resolution, allowing for advanced level-of-detail management. By individually rendering tetrahedrally-defined surfaces which together form complex shapes, the complex shapes can be rendered in their entirety.

  20. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    DOEpatents

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-09-24

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  1. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    DOEpatents

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  2. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation for undersea vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelf, Michael A.

    2001-08-01

    Torpedoes and other Unmanned Undersea Vehicles (UUV) are employed by submarines and surface combatants, as well as aircraft, for undersea warfare. These vehicles are autonomous devices whose guidance systems rival the complexity of the most sophisticated air combat missiles. The tactical environment for undersea warfare is a difficult one in terms of target detection,k classification, and pursuit because of the physics of underwater sounds. Both hardware-in-the-loop and all-digital simulations have become vital tools in developing and evaluating undersea weapon and vehicle guidance performance in the undersea environment.

  3. Specification of photonic circuits using quantum hardware description language

    PubMed Central

    Tezak, Nikolas; Niederberger, Armand; Pavlichin, Dmitri S.; Sarma, Gopal; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Following the simple observation that the interconnection of a set of quantum optical input–output devices can be specified using structural mode VHSIC hardware description language, we demonstrate a computer-aided schematic capture workflow for modelling and simulating multi-component photonic circuits. We describe an algorithm for parsing circuit descriptions to derive quantum equations of motion, illustrate our approach using simple examples based on linear and cavity-nonlinear optical components, and demonstrate a computational approach to hierarchical model reduction. PMID:23091208

  4. System for processing an encrypted instruction stream in hardware

    DOEpatents

    Griswold, Richard L.; Nickless, William K.; Conrad, Ryan C.

    2016-04-12

    A system and method of processing an encrypted instruction stream in hardware is disclosed. Main memory stores the encrypted instruction stream and unencrypted data. A central processing unit (CPU) is operatively coupled to the main memory. A decryptor is operatively coupled to the main memory and located within the CPU. The decryptor decrypts the encrypted instruction stream upon receipt of an instruction fetch signal from a CPU core. Unencrypted data is passed through to the CPU core without decryption upon receipt of a data fetch signal.

  5. Hardware Prototyping of Neural Network based Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. A.; Reaz, M. B. I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to model the algorithm for Fetal ECG (FECG) extraction from composite abdominal ECG (AECG) using VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) for FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) implementation. Artificial Neural Network that provides efficient and effective ways of separating FECG signal from composite AECG signal has been designed. The proposed method gives an accuracy of 93.7% for R-peak detection in FHR monitoring. The designed VHDL model is synthesized and fitted into Altera's Stratix II EP2S15F484C3 using the Quartus II version 8.0 Web Edition for FPGA implementation.

  6. New identities and transformations for hardware power operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michard, Romain; Tisserand, Arnaud; Veyrat-Charvillon, Nicolas

    2006-08-01

    In this work we present some improvements on hardware operators dedicated to the computation of power operations with fixed integer exponent (x 3, x 4, . . .) in unsigned radix-2 fixed-point or integer representations. The proposed method reduces the number of partial products using simplifications based on new identities and transformations. These simplifications are performed both at the logical and the arithmetic levels. The proposed method has been implemented in a VHDL generator that produces synthesizable descriptions of optimized operators. The results of our method have been demonstrated on FPGA circuits.

  7. 34 CFR 464.42 - What limit applies to purchasing computer hardware and software?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What limit applies to purchasing computer hardware and... computer hardware and software? Not more than ten percent of funds received under any grant under this part may be used to purchase computer hardware or software. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1208aa(f))...

  8. 34 CFR 464.42 - What limit applies to purchasing computer hardware and software?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What limit applies to purchasing computer hardware and... computer hardware and software? Not more than ten percent of funds received under any grant under this part may be used to purchase computer hardware or software. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1208aa(f))...

  9. 34 CFR 464.42 - What limit applies to purchasing computer hardware and software?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What limit applies to purchasing computer hardware and... computer hardware and software? Not more than ten percent of funds received under any grant under this part may be used to purchase computer hardware or software. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1208aa(f))...

  10. 34 CFR 464.42 - What limit applies to purchasing computer hardware and software?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What limit applies to purchasing computer hardware and... computer hardware and software? Not more than ten percent of funds received under any grant under this part may be used to purchase computer hardware or software. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1208aa(f))...

  11. 34 CFR 464.42 - What limit applies to purchasing computer hardware and software?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What limit applies to purchasing computer hardware and... computer hardware and software? Not more than ten percent of funds received under any grant under this part may be used to purchase computer hardware or software. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1208aa(f))...

  12. Hubble (HST) hardware is unwrapped in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF), a part of payload flight hardware, intended for the third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (SM-3A), is revealed after its protective cover has been removed. The hardware will undergo final testing and integration of payload elements in the PHSF. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission which is being planned due to the need to replace portions of the Hubble's pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Launch of STS-103 is currently targeted for Oct. 14 but the date is under review.

  13. Software and hardware improvements for digital solar magnetograph system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shu

    Digital solar imaging systems have been widely used in solar observations. Their high resolution, high rate of image acquisition and convenience for off-line image processing have provided significant improvements to solar physics research. In this project, two digital magnetograph systems established at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) have been described. One is used to provide a high frame rate magnetogram system, and the other provides a real-time image alignment, i.e., a correlation tracker system. The developed correlation tracker system consists of a high-speed 64 x 64 CCD camera, an EDT image grabbing board, an agile mirror, a D/A board and a Sun Ultra-30 workstation. Based on the same hardware, digital magnetograph system has been built and tested. The novel correlation tracker system does not use traditional FFT hardware and is more integrated in a Sun Ultra-30. The system software has been developed by using C and Motif graphical user interface under Solaris 2.6. Both systems have been demonstrated to work very efficiently at BBSO. After tens of thousands of solar magnetograms have been grabbed with the digital magnetograph system, various image processing methods have been studied to improve resolution, eliminate image noise and stray light effect. The efficiencies of different processing methods have been discussed and their Fourier spectra have been analyzed. After noise deduction and stray light elimination, the processed magnetograms have been proved to be much better than the original images.

  14. Late Removal of Titanium Hardware from the Elbow Is Problematic

    PubMed Central

    Bachoura, Abdo; Yoshida, Ruriko; Lattermann, Christian; Kamineni, Srinath

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective review of 21 patients that underwent bone screw removal from the elbow was studied in relation to the type of metal, duration of implantation, and the location of the screws about the elbow. Screw failure during extraction was the dependent variable. Five of 21 patients experienced hardware failure during extraction. Fourteen patients had titanium alloy implants. In four cases, titanium screws broke during extraction. Compared to stainless steel, titanium screw failure during removal was not statistically significant (P = 0.61). Screw removal 12 months after surgery was more likely to result in broken, retained screws in general (P = 0.046) and specifically for titanium alloy (P = 0.003). Bone screws removed from the distal humerus or proximal ulna had an equal chance of fracturing (P = 0.28). There appears to be a time-related association of titanium alloy bone screw failure during hardware removal cases from the elbow. This may be explained by titanium's properties and osseointegration. PMID:24977074

  15. Hardware-accelerated autostereogram rendering for interactive 3D visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petz, Christoph; Goldluecke, Bastian; Magnor, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    Single Image Random Dot Stereograms (SIRDS) are an attractive way of depicting three-dimensional objects using conventional display technology. Once trained in decoupling the eyes' convergence and focusing, autostereograms of this kind are able to convey the three-dimensional impression of a scene. We present in this work an algorithm that generates SIRDS at interactive frame rates on a conventional PC. The presented system allows rotating a 3D geometry model and observing the object from arbitrary positions in real-time. Subjective tests show that the perception of a moving or rotating 3D scene presents no problem: The gaze remains focused onto the object. In contrast to conventional SIRDS algorithms, we render multiple pixels in a single step using a texture-based approach, exploiting the parallel-processing architecture of modern graphics hardware. A vertex program determines the parallax for each vertex of the geometry model, and the graphics hardware's texture unit is used to render the dot pattern. No data has to be transferred between main memory and the graphics card for generating the autostereograms, leaving CPU capacity available for other tasks. Frame rates of 25 fps are attained at a resolution of 1024x512 pixels on a standard PC using a consumer-grade nVidia GeForce4 graphics card, demonstrating the real-time capability of the system.

  16. Energy Efficient Engine combustor test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D. L.; Chahrour, C. A.; Foltz, H. L.; Sabla, P. E.; Seto, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Combustor Development effort was conducted as part of the overall NASA/GE E3 Program. This effort included the selection of an advanced double-annular combustion system design. The primary intent was to evolve a design which meets the stringent emissions and life goals of the E3 as well as all of the usual performance requirements of combustion systems for modern turbofan engines. Numerous detailed design studies were conducted to define the features of the combustion system design. Development test hardware was fabricated, and an extensive testing effort was undertaken to evaluate the combustion system subcomponents in order to verify and refine the design. Technology derived from this development effort will be incorporated into the engine combustion system hardware design. This advanced engine combustion system will then be evaluated in component testing to verify the design intent. What is evolving from this development effort is an advanced combustion system capable of satisfying all of the combustion system design objectives and requirements of the E3. Fuel nozzle, diffuser, starting, and emissions design studies are discussed.

  17. Integrating reconfigurable hardware-based grid for high performance computing.

    PubMed

    Dondo Gazzano, Julio; Sanchez Molina, Francisco; Rincon, Fernando; López, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    FPGAs have shown several characteristics that make them very attractive for high performance computing (HPC). The impressive speed-up factors that they are able to achieve, the reduced power consumption, and the easiness and flexibility of the design process with fast iterations between consecutive versions are examples of benefits obtained with their use. However, there are still some difficulties when using reconfigurable platforms as accelerator that need to be addressed: the need of an in-depth application study to identify potential acceleration, the lack of tools for the deployment of computational problems in distributed hardware platforms, and the low portability of components, among others. This work proposes a complete grid infrastructure for distributed high performance computing based on dynamically reconfigurable FPGAs. Besides, a set of services designed to facilitate the application deployment is described. An example application and a comparison with other hardware and software implementations are shown. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture offers encouraging advantages for deployment of high performance distributed applications simplifying development process. PMID:25874241

  18. The Unified Floating Point Vector Coprocessor for Reconfigurable Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiara, Jainik

    There has been an increased interest recently in using embedded cores on FPGAs. Many of the applications that make use of these cores have floating point operations. Due to the complexity and expense of floating point hardware, these algorithms are usually converted to fixed point operations or implemented using floating-point emulation in software. As the technology advances, more and more homogeneous computational resources and fixed function embedded blocks are added to FPGAs and hence implementation of floating point hardware becomes a feasible option. In this research we have implemented a high performance, autonomous floating point vector Coprocessor (FPVC) that works independently within an embedded processor system. We have presented a unified approach to vector and scalar computation, using a single register file for both scalar operands and vector elements. The Hybrid vector/SIMD computational model of FPVC results in greater overall performance for most applications along with improved peak performance compared to other approaches. By parameterizing vector length and the number of vector lanes, we can design an application specific FPVC and take optimal advantage of the FPGA fabric. For this research we have also initiated designing a software library for various computational kernels, each of which adapts FPVC's configuration and provide maximal performance. The kernels implemented are from the area of linear algebra and include matrix multiplication and QR and Cholesky decomposition. We have demonstrated the operation of FPVC on a Xilinx Virtex 5 using the embedded PowerPC.

  19. Integrating Reconfigurable Hardware-Based Grid for High Performance Computing

    PubMed Central

    Dondo Gazzano, Julio; Sanchez Molina, Francisco; Rincon, Fernando; López, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    FPGAs have shown several characteristics that make them very attractive for high performance computing (HPC). The impressive speed-up factors that they are able to achieve, the reduced power consumption, and the easiness and flexibility of the design process with fast iterations between consecutive versions are examples of benefits obtained with their use. However, there are still some difficulties when using reconfigurable platforms as accelerator that need to be addressed: the need of an in-depth application study to identify potential acceleration, the lack of tools for the deployment of computational problems in distributed hardware platforms, and the low portability of components, among others. This work proposes a complete grid infrastructure for distributed high performance computing based on dynamically reconfigurable FPGAs. Besides, a set of services designed to facilitate the application deployment is described. An example application and a comparison with other hardware and software implementations are shown. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture offers encouraging advantages for deployment of high performance distributed applications simplifying development process. PMID:25874241

  20. Parallel hardware architecture for CCD-mosaic digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Scott T.; Kim, Hyunkeun; Swarnakar, Vivek; Jeong, Myoungki; Wobschall, Darold C.

    1998-06-01

    The development of an efficient parallel hardware architecture suitable for CCD-mosaic digital mammography has been accomplished. This paper presents this architecture including both the analog and digital portions of the imaging hardware. A two dimensional array of CCD sensors are used to capture the mammographic image synchronously and simultaneously. Each CCD's analog signal is converted to a 12 bits/pixel digital value through an array of high speed analog-to-digital converters. A parallel array of mesh connected TMS320C40 DSP processors then takes in the digital image data simultaneously. The DSP's are used to precisely register the mosaic of individual images to form the final large format digital mammogram. Also, they are used to control CCD characteristics and parallel data transport to the viewing workstation. One master DSP is located on the workstation's PCI bus which controls the parallel DSP array and collects compressed image data through a 60MB/s port. Since all computations are performed in parallel using local memory on each DSP, the overall acquisition, image registration, and transmission to display of the final mammogram is performed in less than 30 seconds. This allows the physician to perform a preliminary observation of the patient's mammogram.

  1. Hubble (HST) hardware is uncrated in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF), a crane lifts equipment for mission STS-103 out of its shipping container to move it to a workstand. The equipment is the first part of payload flight hardware for the third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (SM-3A). The hardware will undergo final testing and integration of payload elements in the PHSF. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission which is being planned due to the need to replace portions of the Hubble's pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Launch of STS-103 is currently targeted for Oct. 14 but the date is under review.

  2. Investigation of cleanliness verification techniques for rocket engine hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, Marilyn L.; Skowronski, Raymund P.

    1995-01-01

    Oxidizer propellant systems for liquid-fueled rocket engines must meet stringent cleanliness requirements for particulate and nonvolatile residue. These requirements were established to limit residual contaminants which could block small orifices or ignite in the oxidizer system during engine operation. Limiting organic residues in high pressure oxygen systems is particularly important. The current method of cleanliness verification used by Rocketdyne requires an organic solvent flush of the critical hardware surfaces. The solvent is filtered and analyzed for particulate matter, followed by gravimetric determination of the nonvolatile residue (NVR) content of the filtered solvent. The organic solvents currently specified for use (1,1,1-trichloroethane and CFC-113) are ozone-depleting chemicals slated for elimination by December 1995. A test program is in progress to evaluate alternative methods for cleanliness verification that do not require the use of ozone-depleting chemicals and that minimize or eliminate the use of solvents regulated as hazardous air pollutants or smog precursors. Initial results from the laboratory test program to evaluate aqueous-based methods and organic solvent flush methods for NVR verification are provided and compared with results obtained using the current method. Evaluation of the alternative methods was conducted using a range of contaminants encountered in the manufacture of rocket engine hardware.

  3. First Light with the NRAO Transient Event Capture Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, Glen; Rumberg, B.; Brandt, P.

    2007-12-01

    The design, implementation and testing of the first NRAO Event Capture data acquisition system is presented. The NRAO in Green Bank is developing a set of new data acquisition systems based on the U.C. Berkeley CASPER IBOB/ADC/BEE2 hardware. We describe the hardware configuration and initial experiences with the development system. We present first astronomical tests of the Event Capture system, using the 43m telescope (140ft). These observations were carried out at 900 MHz. The observations were made on 2007 July 8 and 9 towards the Crab pulsar, the galactic center, the Moon and two test observations while the 43m was pointed at Zenith (straight up). The Event Capture is one of several on-going FPGA based data acquisition projects being implemented for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and for the 43m telescopes. The NRAO Configurable Instrument Collaboration for Agile Data Acquisition (CICADA) program is described at: http://wikio.nrao.edu/bin/view/CICADA

  4. FFT and cone-beam CT reconstruction on graphics hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Després, Philippe; Sun, Mingshan; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Prevrhal, Sven

    2007-03-01

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) are increasingly used for general purpose calculations. Their pipelined architecture can be exploited to accelerate various parallelizable algorithms. Medical imaging applications are inherently well suited to benefit from the development of GPU-based computational platforms. We evaluate in this work the potential of GPUs to improve the execution speed of two common medical imaging tasks, namely Fourier transforms and tomographic reconstructions. A two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm was GPU-implemented and compared, in terms of execution speed, to two popular CPU-based FFT routines. Similarly, the Feldkamp, David and Kress (FDK) algorithm for cone-beam tomographic reconstruction was implemented on the GPU and its performance compared to a CPU version. Different reconstruction strategies were employed to assess the performance of various GPU memory layouts. For the specific hardware used, GPU implementations of the FFT were up to 20 times faster than their CPU counterparts, but slower than highly optimized CPU versions of the algorithm. Tomographic reconstructions were faster on the GPU by a factor up to 30, allowing 256 3 voxel reconstructions of 256 projections in about 20 seconds. Overall, GPUs are an attractive alternative to other imaging-dedicated computing hardware like application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in terms of cost, simplicity and versatility. With the development of simpler language extensions and programming interfaces, GPUs are likely to become essential tools in medical imaging.

  5. Health Maintenance System (HMS) Hardware Research, Design, and Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Stefanie M.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences division (SLSD) concentrates on optimizing a crew member's health. Developments are translated into innovative engineering solutions, research growth, and community awareness. This internship incorporates all those areas by targeting various projects. The main project focuses on integrating clinical and biomedical engineering principles to design, develop, and test new medical kits scheduled for launch in the Spring of 2011. Additionally, items will be tagged with Radio Frequency Interference Devices (RFID) to keep track of the inventory. The tags will then be tested to optimize Radio Frequency feed and feed placement. Research growth will occur with ground based experiments designed to measure calcium encrusted deposits in the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will assess the urine calcium levels with Portable Clinical Blood Analyzer (PCBA) technology. If effective then a model for urine calcium will be developed and expanded to microgravity environments. To support collaboration amongst the subdivisions of SLSD the architecture of the Crew Healthcare Systems (CHeCS) SharePoint site has been redesigned for maximum efficiency. Community collaboration has also been established with the University of Southern California, Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hardware disbursements will transpire within these communities to support planetary surface exploration and to serve as an educational tool demonstrating how ground based medicine influenced the technological development of space hardware.

  6. Investigation of Cleanliness Verification Techniques for Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, Marilyn L.; Skowronski, Raymund P.

    1994-01-01

    Oxidizer propellant systems for liquid-fueled rocket engines must meet stringent cleanliness requirements for particulate and nonvolatile residue. These requirements were established to limit residual contaminants which could block small orifices or ignite in the oxidizer system during engine operation. Limiting organic residues in high pressure oxygen systems, such as in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), is particularly important. The current method of cleanliness verification for the SSME uses an organic solvent flush of the critical hardware surfaces. The solvent is filtered and analyzed for particulate matter followed by gravimetric determination of the nonvolatile residue (NVR) content of the filtered solvent. The organic solvents currently specified for use (1, 1, 1-trichloroethane and CFC-113) are ozone-depleting chemicals slated for elimination by December 1995. A test program is in progress to evaluate alternative methods for cleanliness verification that do not require the use of ozone-depleting chemicals and that minimize or eliminate the use of solvents regulated as hazardous air pollutants or smog precursors. Initial results from the laboratory test program to evaluate aqueous-based methods and organic solvent flush methods for NVR verification are provided and compared with results obtained using the current method. Evaluation of the alternative methods was conducted using a range of contaminants encountered in the manufacture of rocket engine hardware.

  7. Hubble (HST) hardware is unwrapped in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF), a worker begins to open the protective covering over a part of payload flight hardware for the third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (SM-3A). The hardware will undergo final testing and integration of payload elements in the PHSF. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission which is being planned due to the need to replace portions of the Hubble's pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Launch of STS-103 is currently targeted for Oct. 14 but the date is under review.

  8. Hubble (HST) hardware is unwrapped in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF), workers remove the protective covering from a part of payload flight hardware for the third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (SM-3A). The hardware will undergo final testing and integration of payload elements in the PHSF. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission which is being planned due to the need to replace portions of the Hubble's pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Launch of STS-103 is currently targeted for Oct. 14 but the date is under review.

  9. Process of videotape making: presentation design, software, and hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Robert R.; Brady, Dan R.; Bennison, Tim; Burns, Thomas; Pines, Sheldon

    1991-06-01

    The use of technical video tape presentations for communicating abstractions of complex data is now becoming commonplace. While the use of video tapes in the day-to-day work of scientists and engineers is still in its infancy, their use as applications oriented conferences is now growing rapidly. Despite these advancements, there is still very little that is written down about the process of making technical videotapes. For printed media, different presentation styles are well known for categories such as results reports, executive summary reports, and technical papers and articles. In this paper, the authors present ideas on the topic of technical videotape presentation design in a format that is worth referring to. They have started to document the ways in which the experience of media specialist, teaching professionals, and character animators can be applied to scientific animation. Software and hardware considerations are also discussed. For this portion, distinctions are drawn between the software and hardware required for computer animation (frame at a time) productions, and live recorded interaction with a computer graphics display.

  10. A hardware overview of the RHIC LLRF platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, T.; Smith, K.S.

    2011-03-28

    The RHIC Low Level RF (LLRF) platform is a flexible, modular system designed around a carrier board with six XMC daughter sites. The carrier board features a Xilinx FPGA with an embedded, hard core Power PC that is remotely reconfigurable. It serves as a front end computer (FEC) that interfaces with the RHIC control system. The carrier provides high speed serial data paths to each daughter site and between daughter sites as well as four generic external fiber optic links. It also distributes low noise clocks and serial data links to all daughter sites and monitors temperature, voltage and current. To date, two XMC cards have been designed: a four channel high speed ADC and a four channel high speed DAC. The new LLRF hardware was used to replace the old RHIC LLRF system for the 2009 run. For the 2010 run, the RHIC RF system operation was dramatically changed with the introduction of accelerating both beams in a new, common cavity instead of each ring having independent cavities. The flexibility of the new system was beneficial in allowing the low level system to be adapted to support this new configuration. This hardware was also used in 2009 to provide LLRF for the newly commissioned Electron Beam Ion Source.

  11. Spinal fusion-hardware construct: Basic concepts and imaging review

    PubMed Central

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of spinal images fixed with metallic hardware forms an increasing bulk of daily practice in a busy imaging department. Radiologists are required to be familiar with the instrumentation and operative options used in spinal fixation and fusion procedures, especially in his or her institute. This is critical in evaluating the position of implants and potential complications associated with the operative approaches and spinal fixation devices used. Thus, the radiologist can play an important role in patient care and outcome. This review outlines the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used imaging methods and reports on the best yield for each modality and how to overcome the problematic issues associated with the presence of metallic hardware during imaging. Baseline radiographs are essential as they are the baseline point for evaluation of future studies should patients develop symptoms suggesting possible complications. They may justify further imaging workup with computed tomography, magnetic resonance and/or nuclear medicine studies as the evaluation of a patient with a spinal implant involves a multi-modality approach. This review describes imaging features of potential complications associated with spinal fusion surgery as well as the instrumentation used. This basic knowledge aims to help radiologists approach everyday practice in clinical imaging. PMID:22761979

  12. A Novel Framework for Effective Preemptive Hardware Multitasking on FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozwik, Krzysztof; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Honda, Shinya; Takada, Hiroaki

    Modern FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays), such as Xilinx Virtex-4, have the capability of changing their contents dynamically and partially, allowing implementation of such concepts as a HW (hardware) task. Similarly to its software counterpart, the HW task shares time-multiplexed resources with other HW tasks. To support preemptive multitasking in such systems, additional context saving and restoring mechanisms must be built practically from scratch. This paper presents an efficient method for hardware task preemption which is suitable for tasks containing both Flip-Flops and memory elements. Our solution consists of an offline tool for analyzing and manipulating bitstreams, used at the design time, as well as an embedded system framework. The framework contains a DMA-based (Direct Memory Access), instruction-driven reconfiguration/readback controller and a developed lightweight bus facilitating management of HW tasks. The whole system has been implemented on top of the Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA and showed promising results for a variety of HW tasks.

  13. A modular suite of hardware enabling spaceflight cell culture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, Alexander; Klaus, David M.; Stodieck, Louis S.

    2004-01-01

    BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Research Partnership Center (RPC), has developed and operated various middeck payloads launched on 23 shuttle missions since 1991 in support of commercial space biotechnology projects. Modular cell culture systems are contained within the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) suite of flight-qualified hardware, compatible with Space Shuttle, SPACEHAB, Spacelab and International Space Station (ISS) EXPRESS Rack interfaces. As part of the CGBA family, the Isothermal Containment Module (ICM) incubator provides thermal control, data acquisition and experiment manipulation capabilities, including accelerometer launch detection for automated activation and thermal profiling for culture incubation and sample preservation. The ICM can accommodate up to 8 individually controlled temperature zones. Command and telemetry capabilities allow real-time downlink of data and video permitting remote payload operation and ground control synchronization. Individual cell culture experiments can be accommodated in a variety of devices ranging from 'microgravity test tubes' or standard 100 mm Petri dishes, to complex, fed-batch bioreactors with automated culture feeding, waste removal and multiple sample draws. Up to 3 levels of containment can be achieved for chemical fixative addition, and passive gas exchange can be provided through hydrophobic membranes. Many additional options exist for designing customized hardware depending on specific science requirements.

  14. Dense Depth Map Reconstruction Using Special Purpose Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distante, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Stella, E.; Attolico, G.

    1989-02-01

    The advancements in machine vision technology have been substantial in recent years with the introduction of faster processors and the improvements in sensor technology. A depth map can be obtained with both direct and indirect methods. The first ones recover depth directly from ranging devices. The second ones recover 3-D information by means of shape from xxx and stereopsis. Our idea consists of integration of information from two different source: local shading analysis and stereo vision. At present this alternate method has been tested with satisfactory results on conventional hardware but it's impracticable for computing time. The use of advanced parallel hardware is surely suitable to achieve the real time response, but it is not justified for some application fields (where response time is not very critical) because of its cost. An alternate choice can fall on low-cost and simple architectures that allow a configuration to achieve the required speed/cost ratio for a particular vision application by using a combination of standard modules. In this paper our method for depth recover is analyzed in order to enhance the critical steps for computing time. They are expressed in terms of computation suitable for standard and special purpose modules.

  15. Hubble (HST) hardware is uncrated in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF), a crane lifts equipment for mission STS-103 out of its shipping container. The equipment is the first part of payload flight hardware for the third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (SM-3A). The hardware will undergo final testing and integration of payload elements in the PHSF. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission which is being planned due to the need to replace portions of the Hubble's pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Launch of STS-103 is currently targeted for Oct. 14 but the date is under review.

  16. Automated hardware-software system for LED's verification and certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Peretyagin, Vladimir S.; Vakulenko, Anatolii D.

    2012-10-01

    Scientific and technological progress of recent years in the production of the light emitting diodes (LEDs) has led to the expansion of areas of their application from the simplest systems to high precision lighting devices used in various fields of human activity. However, for all technology development at the present time it is very difficult to choose one or another brand of LEDs for realization of concrete devices designed for the implementation of high precision spatial and color measurements of various objects. In the world there are many measurement instruments for determining the various parameters of LEDs, but none of them are not capable to estimate comprehensively the LEDs spatial, spectral, and color parameters with the necessary accuracy and speed. This problem can be solved by using an automated hardware-software system for LED's verification and certification, developed by specialists of the OEDS chair of National Research University ITMO in Russia. The paper presents the theoretical aspects of the analysis of LED's spatial, spectral and color parameters by using mentioned of automated hardware-software system. The article also presents the results of spatial, spectral, and color parameters measurements of some LEDs brands.

  17. HSCT Sector Combustor Hardware Modifications for Improved Combustor Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenfield, Stuart C.; Heberling, Paul V.; Moertle, George E.

    2005-01-01

    An alternative to the stepped-dome design for the lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) combustor has been developed. The new design uses the same premixer types as the stepped-dome design: integrated mixer flameholder (IMFH) tubes and a cyclone swirler pilot. The IMFH fuel system has been taken to a new level of development. Although the IMFH fuel system design developed in this Task is not intended to be engine-like hardware, it does have certain characteristics of engine hardware, including separate fuel circuits for each of the fuel stages. The four main stage fuel circuits are integrated into a single system which can be withdrawn from the combustor as a unit. Additionally, two new types of liner cooling have been designed. The resulting lean blowout data was found to correlate well with the Lefebvre parameter. As expected, CO and unburned hydrocarbons emissions were shown to have an approximately linear relationship, even though some scatter was present in the data, and the CO versus flame temperature data showed the typical cupped shape. Finally, the NOx emissions data was shown to agree well with a previously developed correlation based on emissions data from Configuration 3 tests performed at GEAE. The design variations of the cyclone swirler pilot that were investigated in this study did not significantly change the NOx emissions from the baseline design (GEAE Configuration 3) at supersonic cruise conditions.

  18. ESA hardware for plant research on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, E.

    The long awaited launch of the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) will provide a platform on which long-term and shorter experiments with plants will be performed on the International Space Station (ISS). EMCS is equipped with two centrifuge rotors (600 mm diameter), which can be used for in-flight 1 g controls and for studies with acceleration levels from 0.001 g to 2.0 g. Several experiments are in preparation investigating gravity relating to gene expression, gravisensing and phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana and lentil roots. The experiment-specific hardware provides growth chambers for seedlings and whole A. thaliana plants and is connected to the EMCS Life Support System. Besides in-flight video observation, the experiments will be evaluated post-flight by means of fixed or frozen material. EMCS will have for the first time the possibility to fix samples on the rotating centrifuge, allowing a detailed analysis of the process of gravisensing. About two years after the EMCS launch, ESA's Biolab will be launched in the European "Columbus" Module. In a similar way as in EMCS, Biolab will accommodate experiments with plant seedlings and automatic fixation processes on the centrifuge. The hardware concepts for these experiments are presented in this communication.

  19. New Developments in Spaceflight Hardware for Plant Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, E.

    The long awaited launch of the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) will provide a platform to perform long term and shorter experiments with plants on the International Space Station (ISS). EMCS is equipped with two centrifuge rotors (600 mm diameter), which can be used for flight 1xg controls and for studies with accelerations from 0.001xg to 2.0xg. Several experiments are in preparation, investigating gravity related gene expressions, gravisensing and phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana, fern spores and lentil rots. The experiment specific hardware provides growth chambers for seedlings and whole A. thaliana plants, connected to the EMCS Life Support System. Besides video observation, the experiments will be evaluated on ground by means of fixed or frozen material. EMCS will have for the first time the possibility to fix samples on the rotating centrifuge, allowing a detailed analysis of the process of gravisensing. Two years after EMCS, ESA's BIOLAB will be launched in the European "Columbus" Module. In a similar way as in EMCS, BIOLAB accommodates experiments with plant seedlings and automatic fixation processes on the centrifuge. The hardware concepts for these experiments will be presented in this communication.

  20. International Neutral Buoyancy Simulation of Space Station Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Lisa C.; Shields, Nicholas Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) Neutral Buoyancy Simulation was conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator facility during April and May 1992. The purpose of this simulation was to evaluate hardware design and operations for the ISPR and U.S. Lab system racks under simulated conditions of microgravity. The ISPR NBS was conducted by an international simulation team including representatives from Boeing, NASA, NASDA, and ESA. Hardware for the ISPR NBS was provided by Boeing, Alenia, ESA, and MSFC. NASDA and its contractors MEH and IHI provided experienced in-tank participants and technical observers who were present for the duration of the simulation. The ISPR NBS was the first Space Station simulation involving NASA, NASDA and ESA. In addition to bringing together technical representatives from around the world, the ISPR NBS included test subjects who are some of the most experienced U.S. and European astronauts. Eight general areas of investigation were addressed during the ISPR NBS, including: utility panel interfaces, rack tilt down, standoff access, wall access behind the rack, rack removal and installation, rack translation, multiple rack operations, and restraints and mobility aids. This paper focuses on aspects of simulation planning, conduct, and reporting that pertain to specifically to the international involvement of the activity.

  1. Optimized hardware and software for fast full-chip simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu; Lu, Yen-Wen; Chen, Luoqi; Ye, Jun

    2005-05-01

    Lithography simulation is an increasingly important part of semiconductor manufacturing due to the decreasing k1 value. It is not only required in lithography process development, but also in RET design, RET verification, and process latitude analysis, from library cells to full-chip. As the design complexity grows exponentially, pure software based simulation tools running on general-purpose computer clusters are facing increasing challenges in meeting today"s requirements for cycle time, coverage, and modeling accuracy. We have developed a new lithography simulation platform (TachyonTM) which achieves orders of magnitude speedup as compared to traditional pure software simulation tools. The platform combines innovations in all levels of the system: algorithm, software architecture, cluster-level architecture, and proprietary acceleration hardware using application specific integrated circuits. The algorithm approach is based on image processing, fundamentally different from conventional edge-based analysis. The system achieves superior model accuracy than conventional full-chip simulation methods, owing to its ability to handle hundreds of TCC kernels, using either vector or scalar optical model, without impacting throughput. Thus first-principle aerial image simulation at the full-chip level can be carried out within minutes. We will describe the hardware, algorithms and models used in the system and demonstrate its applications of the full chip verification purposes.

  2. Testing of hardware implementation of infrared image enhancing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Sosnowski, T.; PiÄ tkowski, T.; Trzaskawka, P.; Kastek, M.; Kucharz, J.

    2012-10-01

    The interpretation of IR images depends on radiative properties of observed objects and surrounding scenery. Skills and experience of an observer itself are also of great importance. The solution to improve the effectiveness of observation is utilization of algorithm of image enhancing capable to improve the image quality and the same effectiveness of object detection. The paper presents results of testing the hardware implementation of IR image enhancing algorithm based on histogram processing. Main issue in hardware implementation of complex procedures for image enhancing algorithms is high computational cost. As a result implementation of complex algorithms using general purpose processors and software usually does not bring satisfactory results. Because of high efficiency requirements and the need of parallel operation, the ALTERA's EP2C35F672 FPGA device was used. It provides sufficient processing speed combined with relatively low power consumption. A digital image processing and control module was designed and constructed around two main integrated circuits: a FPGA device and a microcontroller. Programmable FPGA device performs image data processing operations which requires considerable computing power. It also generates the control signals for array readout, performs NUC correction and bad pixel mapping, generates the control signals for display module and finally executes complex image processing algorithms. Implemented adaptive algorithm is based on plateau histogram equalization. Tests were performed on real IR images of different types of objects registered in different spectral bands. The simulations and laboratory experiments proved the correct operation of the designed system in executing the sophisticated image enhancement.

  3. Development and characteristics of the hardware for Skylab experiment S015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirolf, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    Details are given regarding the hardware for the Skylab S015 experiment, which was designed to detect the effects of zero gravity on cell growth rates. Experience gained in hardware-related considerations is presented for use of researchers concerned with future research of this type and further study of the S015 results. Brief descriptions are given of the experiment hardware, the hardware configuration for the critical design review, the major configuration changes, the final configuration, and the postflight review and analysis. An appendix describes pertinent documentation, film, and hardware that are available to qualified researchers; sources for additional or special information are given.

  4. Hybrid Modeling for Scenario-Based Evaluation of Failure Effects in Advanced Hardware-Software Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an incremental scenario-based simulation approach to evaluation of intelligent software for control and management of hardware systems. A hybrid continuous/discrete event simulation of the hardware dynamically interacts with the intelligent software in operations scenarios. Embedded anomalous conditions and failures in simulated hardware can lead to emergent software behavior and identification of missing or faulty software or hardware requirements. An approach is described for extending simulation-based automated incremental failure modes and effects analysis, to support concurrent evaluation of intelligent software and the hardware controlled by the software

  5. Ultra-low noise miniaturized neural amplifier with hardware averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dweiri, Yazan M.; Eggers, Thomas; McCallum, Grant; Durand, Dominique M.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Peripheral nerves carry neural signals that could be used to control hybrid bionic systems. Cuff electrodes provide a robust and stable interface but the recorded signal amplitude is small (<3 μVrms 700 Hz-7 kHz), thereby requiring a baseline noise of less than 1 μVrms for a useful signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) contacts alone generate thermal noise of at least 0.5 μVrms therefore the amplifier should add as little noise as possible. Since mainstream neural amplifiers have a baseline noise of 2 μVrms or higher, novel designs are required. Approach. Here we apply the concept of hardware averaging to nerve recordings obtained with cuff electrodes. An optimization procedure is developed to minimize noise and power simultaneously. The novel design was based on existing neural amplifiers (Intan Technologies, LLC) and is validated with signals obtained from the FINE in chronic dog experiments. Main results. We showed that hardware averaging leads to a reduction in the total recording noise by a factor of 1/√N or less depending on the source resistance. Chronic recording of physiological activity with FINE using the presented design showed significant improvement on the recorded baseline noise with at least two parallel operation transconductance amplifiers leading to a 46.1% reduction at N = 8. The functionality of these recordings was quantified by the SNR improvement and shown to be significant for N = 3 or more. The present design was shown to be capable of generating <1.5 μVrms total recording baseline noise when connected to a FINE placed on the sciatic nerve of an awake animal. An algorithm was introduced to find the value of N that can minimize both the power consumption and the noise in order to design a miniaturized ultralow-noise neural amplifier. Significance. These results demonstrate the efficacy of hardware averaging on noise improvement for neural recording with cuff electrodes, and can accommodate the

  6. Veggie Hardware Validation Test Preliminary Results and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Dufour, Nicole F.; Smith, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Veggie hardware validation test, VEG-01, was conducted on the International Space Station during Expeditions 39 and 40 from May through June of 2014. The Veggie hardware and the VEG-01 experiment payload were launched to station aboard the SpaceX-3 resupply mission in April, 2014. Veggie was installed in an Expedite-the-Processing-of-Experiments-to-Space-Station (ExPRESS) rack in the Columbus module, and the VEG-01 validation test was initiated. Veggie installation was successful, and power was supplied to the unit. The hardware was programmed and the root mat reservoir and plant pillows were installed without issue. As expected, a small amount of growth media was observed in the sealed bags which enclosed the plant pillows when they were destowed. Astronaut Steve Swanson used the wet/dry vacuum to clean up the escaped particles. Water insertion or priming the first plant pillow was unsuccessful as an issue prevented water movement through the quick disconnect. All subsequent pillows were successfully primed, and the initial pillow was replaced with a backup pillow and successfully primed. Six pillows were primed, but only five pillows had plants which germinated. After about a week and a half it was observed that plants were not growing well and that pillow wicks were dry. This indicated that the reservoir was not supplying sufficient water to the pillows via wicking, and so the team reverted to an operational fix which added water directly to the plant pillows. Direct watering of the pillows led to a recovery in several of the stressed plants; a couple of which did not recover. An important lesson learned involved Veggie's bellows. The bellows tended to float and interfere with operations when opened, so Steve secured them to the baseplate during plant tending operations. Due to the perceived intensity of the LED lights, the crew found it challenging to both work under the lights and read crew procedures on their computer. Although the lights are not a safety

  7. Design of digital hardware system for pulse signals.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kim, J; Lee, M

    2001-12-01

    In this study, we have developed the digital hardware system which performs signal processing necessary for the filtering to eliminate noises by inputting pulse wave signals from the sensor group. With a view to obtain clinically effective information, we analyzed structural elements of pulse waveform and, thus, conducted a systematic classification. What is more, we performed the modeling of the digital filter by using the Steiglitz-McBride iteration method in order to get the same results with output signals coming out of an galvanometer of analog type of existing Pulse diagnosis system with input signals entering into galvanometer and coming out of the amp group of the Pulse diagnosis system. PMID:11708398

  8. Simulation and analysis of support hardware for multiple instruction rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alewine, Neil J.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, a compiler-assisted approach to multiple instruction retry was developed. In this scheme, a read buffer of size 2N, where N represents the maximum instruction rollback distance, is used to resolve one type of data hazard. This hardware support helps to reduce code growth, compilation time, and some of the performance impacts associated with hazard resolution. The 2N read buffer size requirement of the compiler-assisted approach is worst case, assuring data redundancy for all data required but also providing some unnecessary redundancy. By adding extra bits in the operand field for source 1 and source 2 it becomes possible to design the read buffer to save only those values required, thus reducing the read buffer size requirement. This study measures the effect on performance of a DECstation 3100 running 10 application programs using 6 read buffer configurations at varying read buffer sizes.

  9. MR imaging in osteoarthritis: hardware, coils, and sequences.

    PubMed

    Link, Thomas M

    2009-07-01

    Whole-organ assessment of a joint with osteoarthritis (OA) requires tailored MR imaging hardware and imaging protocols to diagnose and monitor degenerative disease of the cartilage, menisci, bone marrow, ligaments, and tendons. Image quality benefits from increased field strength, and 3.0-T MR imaging is used increasingly for assessing joints with OA. Dedicated surface coils are required for best visualization of joints affected by OA, and the use of multichannel phased-array coils with parallel imaging improves image quality and/or shortens acquisition times. Sequences that best show morphologic abnormalities of the whole joint include intermediate-weighted fast-spin echo sequences. Also quantitative sequences have been developed to assess cartilage volume and thickness and to analyze cartilage biochemical composition. PMID:19631072

  10. MR imaging in osteoarthritis: hardware, coils, and sequences.

    PubMed

    Link, Thomas M

    2010-02-01

    Whole-organ assessment of a joint with osteoarthritis (OA) requires tailored MR imaging hardware and imaging protocols to diagnose and monitor degenerative disease of the cartilage, menisci, bone marrow, ligaments, and tendons. Image quality benefits from increased field strength, and 3.0-T MR imaging is used increasingly for assessing joints with OA. Dedicated surface coils are required for best visualization of joints affected by OA, and the use of multichannel phased-array coils with parallel imaging improves image quality and/or shortens acquisition times. Sequences that best show morphologic abnormalities of the whole joint include intermediate-weighted fast-spin echo sequences. Also quantitative sequences have been developed to assess cartilage volume and thickness and to analyze cartilage biochemical composition. PMID:19962095

  11. Magnetic Gimbal Proof-of-Concept Hardware performance results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Keith O.

    The Magnetic Gimbal Proof-of-Concept Hardware activities, accomplishments, and test results are discussed. The Magnetic Gimbal Fabrication and Test (MGFT) program addressed the feasibility of using a magnetic gimbal to isolate an Electro-Optical (EO) sensor from the severe angular vibrations induced during the firing of divert and attitude control system (ACS) thrusters during space flight. The MGFT effort was performed in parallel with the fabrication and testing of a mechanically gimballed, flex pivot based isolation system by the Hughes Aircraft Missile Systems Group. Both servo systems supported identical EO sensor assembly mockups to facilitate direct comparison of performance. The results obtained from the MGFT effort indicate that the magnetic gimbal exhibits the ability to provide significant performance advantages over alternative mechanically gimballed techniques.

  12. Method for run time hardware code profiling for algorithm acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matev, Vladimir; de la Torre, Eduardo; Riesgo, Teresa

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we propose a method for run time profiling of applications on instruction level by analysis of loops. Instead of looking for coarse grain blocks we concentrate on fine grain but still costly blocks in terms of execution times. Most code profiling is done in software by introducing code into the application under profile witch has time overhead, while in this work data for the position of a loop, loop body, size and number of executions is stored and analysed using a small non intrusive hardware block. The paper describes the system mapping to runtime reconfigurable systems. The fine grain code detector block synthesis results and its functionality verification are also presented in the paper. To demonstrate the concept MediaBench multimedia benchmark running on the chosen development platform is used.

  13. Hardware for a real-time multiprocessor simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, R. A.; Arpasi, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The hardware for a real time multiprocessor simulator (RTMPS) developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center is described. The RTMPS is a multiple microprocessor system used to investigate the application of parallel processing concepts to real time simulation. It is designed to provide flexible data exchange paths between processors by using off the shelf microcomputer boards and minimal customized interfacing. A dedicated operator interface allows easy setup of the simulator and quick interpreting of simulation data. Simulations for the RTMPS are coded in a NASA designed real time multiprocessor language (RTMPL). This language is high level and geared to the multiprocessor environment. A real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMPOS) has also been developed that provides a user friendly operator interface. The RTMPS and supporting software are currently operational and are being evaluated at Lewis. The results of this evaluation will be used to specify the design of an optimized parallel processing system for real time simulation of dynamic systems.

  14. Using EPICS enabled industrial hardware for upgrading control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorkland, Eric A; Veeramani, Arun; Debelle, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with National Instruments (NI) and Cosy lab to implement EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) software that runs directly on NI CompactRIO Real Time Controller (RTC) and communicates with NI LabVIEW through a shared memory interface. In this presentation, we will discuss our current progress in upgrading the control system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Centre (LANSCE) and what we have learned about integrating CompactRIO into large experimental physics facilities. We will also discuss the implications of using Channel Access Server for LabVIEW which will enable more commercial hardware platforms to be used in upgrading existing facilities or in commissioning new ones.

  15. Hardware authentication using transmission spectra modified optical fiber.

    SciTech Connect

    Grubbs, Robert K.; Romero, Juan A.

    2010-09-01

    The ability to authenticate the source and integrity of data is critical to the monitoring and inspection of special nuclear materials, including hardware related to weapons production. Current methods rely on electronic encryption/authentication codes housed in monitoring devices. This always invites the question of implementation and protection of authentication information in an electronic component necessitating EMI shielding, possibly an on board power source to maintain the information in memory. By using atomic layer deposition techniques (ALD) on photonic band gap (PBG) optical fibers we will explore the potential to randomly manipulate the output spectrum and intensity of an input light source. This randomization could produce unique signatures authenticating devices with the potential to authenticate data. An external light source projected through the fiber with a spectrometer at the exit would 'read' the unique signature. No internal power or computational resources would be required.

  16. Hardware Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maganga, Othman; Phillip, Navneesh; Burnham, Keith J.; Montecucco, Andrea; Siviter, Jonathan; Knox, Andrew; Simpson, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    This work describes the practical implementation of two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, namely those of perturb and observe, and extremum seeking control. The proprietary dSPACE system is used to perform hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation whereby the two control algorithms are implemented using the MATLAB/Simulink (Mathworks, Natick, MA) software environment in order to control a synchronous buck-boost converter connected to two commercial thermoelectric modules. The process of performing HIL simulation using dSPACE is discussed, and a comparison between experimental and simulated results is highlighted. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the two MPPT algorithms, and in conclusion the benefits and limitations of real-time implementation of MPPT controllers using dSPACE are discussed.

  17. Hardware-in-the-loop missile simulation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Hirofumi; Obana, Kazumitu; Kamiya, Masanori

    1998-07-01

    A Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation facility has been successfully contributing to the development and evaluation of missiles at the 3rd Research Center, Technical Research & Development Institute, Japan Defense Agency. This facility has two main characteristics. First, it has ability to generate both various RF target and background echoes in several frequency bands. Second, it can be used for the HWIL simulation tests of missiles which have RF/IR dual mode seekers. After the outline of this facility is presented, a technique to overcome the line-of-sight (LOS) angle limitation is proposed, because LOS angle limitation is inevitable in these HWIL simulation facilities. Moreover, a simulation method for the dual mode seeker missile is shown by using this proposed simulation technique.

  18. Design-to-fabricate: maker hardware requires maker software.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ryan; Ratto, Matt

    2013-01-01

    As a result of consumer-level 3D printers' increasing availability and affordability, the audience for 3D-design tools has grown considerably. However, current tools are ill-suited for these users. They have steep learning curves and don't take into account that the end goal is a physical object, not a digital model. A new class of "maker"-level design tools is needed to accompany this new commodity hardware. However, recent examples of such tools achieve accessibility primarily by constraining functionality. In contrast, the meshmixer project is building tools that provide accessibility and expressive power by leveraging recent computer graphics research in geometry processing. The project members have had positive experiences with several 3D-design-to-print workshops and are exploring several design-to-fabricate problems. This article is part of a special issue on 3D printing. PMID:24808128

  19. Fault Tolerant Characteristics of Artificial Neural Network Electronic Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zee, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The fault tolerant characteristics of analog-VLSI artificial neural network (with 32 neurons and 532 synapses) chips are studied by exposing them to high energy electrons, high energy protons, and gamma ionizing radiations under biased and unbiased conditions. The biased chips became nonfunctional after receiving a cumulative dose of less than 20 krads, while the unbiased chips only started to show degradation with a cumulative dose of over 100 krads. As the total radiation dose increased, all the components demonstrated graceful degradation. The analog sigmoidal function of the neuron became steeper (increase in gain), current leakage from the synapses progressively shifted the sigmoidal curve, and the digital memory of the synapses and the memory addressing circuits began to gradually fail. From these radiation experiments, we can learn how to modify certain designs of the neural network electronic hardware without using radiation-hardening techniques to increase its reliability and fault tolerance.

  20. Hardware Testing for the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slagle, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Hardware for several subsystems of the proposed Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS), including the gimbal and avionics, was tested. Microswitches installed on the gimbal were evaluated to verify that their point of actuation would remain within the acceptable range even if the switches themselves move slightly during launch. An inspection of the power board was conducted to ensure that all power and ground signals were isolated, that polarized components were correctly oriented, and that all components were intact and securely soldered. Initial testing on the power board revealed several minor problems, but once they were fixed the power board was shown to function correctly. All tests and inspections were documented for future use in verifying launch requirements.

  1. Various hardware in the SSPF undergoes or waits for testing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Station Processing Facility is filled with hardware, components for the International Space Station. Lined up (left to right) are the Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules Raffaello and Leonardo and the Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 (PMA-3). Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, Raffaello and Leonardo are reusable logistics carriers to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. They are slated as payloads on missions STS-102 and STS-100, respectively. Dates have not yet been determined for the two missions. The PMA-3, once launched, will be mated to Node 1, a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of the Space Station. The primary purpose of PMA-3 is to serve as a Shuttle docking port through which crew members and equipment will transfer to the Space Station during later assembly missions. PMA-3 is scheduled as payload on mission STS-92, whose date for launch is not yet determined.

  2. Hardware accelerator design for tracking in smart camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Dunga, Srinivasa Murali; Saini, Ravi; Mandal, A. S.; Shekhar, Chandra; Vohra, Anil

    2011-10-01

    Smart Cameras are important components in video analysis. For video analysis, smart cameras needs to detect interesting moving objects, track such objects from frame to frame, and perform analysis of object track in real time. Therefore, the use of real-time tracking is prominent in smart cameras. The software implementation of tracking algorithm on a general purpose processor (like PowerPC) could achieve low frame rate far from real-time requirements. This paper presents the SIMD approach based hardware accelerator designed for real-time tracking of objects in a scene. The system is designed and simulated using VHDL and implemented on Xilinx XUP Virtex-IIPro FPGA. Resulted frame rate is 30 frames per second for 250x200 resolution video in gray scale.

  3. Magnetic Gimbal Proof-of-Concept Hardware performance results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Keith O.

    1993-01-01

    The Magnetic Gimbal Proof-of-Concept Hardware activities, accomplishments, and test results are discussed. The Magnetic Gimbal Fabrication and Test (MGFT) program addressed the feasibility of using a magnetic gimbal to isolate an Electro-Optical (EO) sensor from the severe angular vibrations induced during the firing of divert and attitude control system (ACS) thrusters during space flight. The MGFT effort was performed in parallel with the fabrication and testing of a mechanically gimballed, flex pivot based isolation system by the Hughes Aircraft Missile Systems Group. Both servo systems supported identical EO sensor assembly mockups to facilitate direct comparison of performance. The results obtained from the MGFT effort indicate that the magnetic gimbal exhibits the ability to provide significant performance advantages over alternative mechanically gimballed techniques.

  4. [A hybrid volume rendering method using general hardware].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve the effect and efficiency of the reconstructed image after hybrid volume rendering of different kinds of volume data from medical sequential slices or polygonal models, we propose a hybrid volume rendering method based on Shear-Warp with economical hardware. First, the hybrid volume data are pre-processed by Z-Buffer method and RLE (Run-Length Encoded) data structure. Then, during the process of compositing intermediate image, a resampling method based on the dual-interpolation and the intermediate slice interpolation methods is used to improve the efficiency and the effect. Finally, the reconstructed image is rendered by the texture-mapping technology of OpenGL. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method. PMID:18693424

  5. Plasma arc welding repair of space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Repair and refurbishment of flight and test hardware can extend the useful life of very expensive components. A technique to weld repair the main combustion chamber of space shuttle main engines has been developed. The technique uses the plasma arc welding process and active cooling to seal cracks and pinholes in the hot-gas wall of the main combustion chamber liner. The liner hot-gas wall is made of NARloyZ, a copper alloy previously thought to be unweldable using conventional arc welding processes. The process must provide extensive heat input to melt the high conductivity NARloyZ while protecting the delicate structure of the surrounding material. The higher energy density of the plasma arc process provides the necessary heat input while active water cooling protects the surrounding structure. The welding process is precisely controlled using a computerized robotic welding system.

  6. Ground Based Microgravity Emissions Testing Of Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samorezov, Sergey; McNelis, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    To control microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA developed payloads have to meet the payload integration requirements of the Space Station Program, specifically a microgravity allocation plan. The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) was developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for verification of the payloads compliance with payload integration requirements. MEL is a 6 degree of freedom inertial measurement system capable of characterizing the microgravity emissions, generated by a disturber, down to a micro g. Microgravity Emissions tests provide a payload developer with a tool to assess payload's compliance with the requirements, i.e. forces and moments, generated by the payload at its center of gravity. Forces and moments are presented in time domain for both stationary and transient signals, and in frequency domain for the stationary signals. To date, MEL conducted over thirty tests of ISS hardware. The test results are being successfully used by the payload developers for design verification and improvement.

  7. Modular implementation of a digital hardware design automation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud, M.

    An automation system based on AHPL (A Hardware Programming Language) was developed. The project may be divided into three distinct phases: (1) Upgrading of AHPL to make it more universally applicable; (2) Implementation of a compiler for the language; and (3) illustration of how the compiler may be used to support several phases of design activities. Several new features were added to AHPL. These include: application-dependent parameters, mutliple clocks, asynchronous results, functional registers and primitive functions. The new language, called Universal AHPL, has been defined rigorously. The compiler design is modular. The parsing is done by an automatic parser generated from the SLR(1)BNF grammar of the language. The compiler produces two data bases from the AHPL description of a circuit. The first one is a tabular representation of the circuit, and the second one is a detailed interconnection linked list. The two data bases provide a means to interface the compiler to application-dependent CAD systems.

  8. Acquisition of reliable vacuum hardware for large accelerator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.M.

    1995-09-06

    Credible and effective communications prove to be the major challenge in the acquisition of reliable vacuum hardware. Technical competence is necessary but not sufficient. The authors must effectively communicate with management, sponsoring agencies, project organizations, service groups, staff and with vendors. Most of Deming`s 14 quality assurance tenants relate to creating an enlightened environment of good communications. All projects progress along six distinct, closely coupled, dynamic phases. All six phases are in a state of perpetual change. These phases and their elements are discussed, with emphasis given to the acquisition phase and its related vocabulary. Large projects require great clarity and rigor as poor communications can be costly. For rigor to be cost effective, it can`t be pedantic. Clarity thrives best in a low-risk, team environment.

  9. Design and test hardware for a solar array switching unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patil, A. R.; Cho, B. H.; Sable, D.; Lee, F. C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the control of a pulse width modulated (PWM) type sequential shunt switching unit (SSU) for spacecraft applications. It is found that the solar cell output capacitance has a significant impact on SSU design. Shorting of this cell capacitance by the PWM switch causes input current surges. These surges are minimized by the use of a series filter inductor. The system with a filter is analyzed for ripple and the control to output-voltage transfer function. Stable closed loop design considerations are discussed. The results are supported by modeling and measurements of loop gain and of closed-loop bus impedance on test hardware for NASA's 120 V Earth Observation System (EOS). The analysis and modeling are also applicable to NASA's 160 V Space Station power system.

  10. 4273π: Bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. Results We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012–2013. Conclusions 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost. PMID:23937194

  11. Multimode guidance project low frequency ECM simulator: Hardware description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, H. M.

    1982-10-01

    The Multimode Guidance(MMG) Project, part of the Army/Navy Area Defense SAM Technology Prototyping Program, was established to conduct a feasibility demonstration of multimode guidance concepts. Prototype guidance units for advanced, long range missiles are being built and tested under MMG Project sponsorship. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has been designated as Government Agent for countermeasures for this project. In support of this effort, a family of computer-controlled ECM simulators is being developed for validation of contractor's multimode guidance prototype designs. The design of the Low Frequency ECM Simulator is documented in two volumes. This report, Volume A, describes the hardware design of the simulator; Volume B describes the software design. This computer-controlled simulator can simulate up to six surveillance frequency jammers in B through F bands and will be used to evaluate the performance of home-on-jamming guidance modes in multiple jammer environments.

  12. Motion and force controlled vibration testing. [of aerospace hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, Terry D.; Boatman, David J.; Kern, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for controlling both the input acceleration and force in vibration tests is proposed to alleviate the overtesting risks and the problems associated with response limiting in conventional vibration tests of aerospace hardware. Previous research on impedance and force controlled vibration tests is reviewed and a simple equation governing the dual control of acceleration and force is derived. A practical method for implementing the dual control technique in random vibration tests has been demonstrated in JPL's environmental test facility using a conventional digital controller operating in the extremal mode. The dual control technique provides appropriate real-time notching of the input acceleration and a corresponding reduction of the test item response at resonances. Issues concerning the need for force and acceleration phase information, the adequacy of specifying the blocked force, and the derivation of the total force for multipoint supports are discussed.

  13. Volume rendering using parallel algebraic logic (PAL) hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongzheng; Shi, Hongchi; Coffield, Patrick C.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, we present the implementation of a volume graphics rendering algorithm using shift-restoration operations on parallel algebraic logic (PAL) image processor. The algorithm is a parallel ray casting algorithm. In order to eliminate shading artifacts caused by inaccurate estimation of surface normal vectors, we use gray level volume instead of binary volume, and apply a low pass filter to smooth the volume object surfaces. By transforming the volume to an intermediate coordinate system to which there is a simple mapping from the object coordinate system, we solve the data redistribution problem caused by nonregular data access patterns in volume rendering. It has been proved very effective in reducing the data communication cost of the rendering algorithm on the PAL hardware.

  14. Hardware/Software Expansion of Display Terminal and CPU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, B. R.

    1986-01-01

    IBM PC coupling used to expand capabilities of expensive specialpurpose system. IBM PC was interfaced to Tektronix CP1151 computer through teletype port of Tektronix 4010-1 computer display terminal. Electronic interface built to provide isolation, level shifting, and signal inversion between IBM PC RS-232 port and 4010-1 terminal teletype port. Modifications to 4010-1 terminal made to increase teletype rate from 110 to 9,600 baud. Software for both computers developed to give control of DPO system to IBM PC and provide data/program file exchange between two computers. Coupling demonstrates utilization of low-cost microcomputer hardware and software to expand capabilities of expensive special-purpose computer systems.

  15. Fuzzy Control Hardware for Segmented Mirror Phasing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a possible implementation of a control model developed to phase a system of segmented mirrors, with a PAMELA configuration, using analog fuzzy hardware. Presently, the model is designed for piston control only, but with the foresight that the parameters of tip and tilt will be integrated eventually. The proposed controller uses analog circuits to exhibit a voltage-mode singleton fuzzifier, a mixed-mode inference engine, and a current-mode defuzzifier. The inference engine exhibits multiplication circuits that perform the algebraic product composition through the use of operational transconductance amplifiers rather than the typical min-max circuits. Additionally, the knowledge base, containing exemplar data gained a priori through simulation, interacts via a digital interface.

  16. A CLIPS based personal computer hardware diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Often the person designated to repair personal computers has little or no knowledge of how to repair a computer. Described here is a simple expert system to aid these inexperienced repair people. The first component of the system leads the repair person through a number of simple system checks such as making sure that all cables are tight and that the dip switches are set correctly. The second component of the system assists the repair person in evaluating error codes generated by the computer. The final component of the system applies a large knowledge base to attempt to identify the component of the personal computer that is malfunctioning. We have implemented and tested our design with a full system to diagnose problems for an IBM compatible system based on the 8088 chip. In our tests, the inexperienced repair people found the system very useful in diagnosing hardware problems.

  17. Cognon Neural Model Software Verification and Hardware Implementation Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haro Negre, Pau

    Little is known yet about how the brain can recognize arbitrary sensory patterns within milliseconds using neural spikes to communicate information between neurons. In a typical brain there are several layers of neurons, with each neuron axon connecting to ˜104 synapses of neurons in an adjacent layer. The information necessary for cognition is contained in theses synapses, which strengthen during the learning phase in response to newly presented spike patterns. Continuing on the model proposed in "Models for Neural Spike Computation and Cognition" by David H. Staelin and Carl H. Staelin, this study seeks to understand cognition from an information theoretic perspective and develop potential models for artificial implementation of cognition based on neuronal models. To do so we focus on the mathematical properties and limitations of spike-based cognition consistent with existing neurological observations. We validate the cognon model through software simulation and develop concepts for an optical hardware implementation of a network of artificial neural cognons.

  18. Three realizations and comparison of hardware for piezoresistive tactile sensors.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Oballe-Peinado, Óscar; Sánchez-Durán, José A; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Navas-González, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Tactile sensors are basically arrays of force sensors that are intended to emulate the skin in applications such as assistive robotics. Local electronics are usually implemented to reduce errors and interference caused by long wires. Realizations based on standard microcontrollers, Programmable Systems on Chip (PSoCs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have been proposed by the authors for the case of piezoresistive tactile sensors. The solution employing FPGAs is especially relevant since their performance is closer to that of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) than that of the other devices. This paper presents an implementation of such an idea for a specific sensor. For the purpose of comparison, the circuitry based on the other devices is also made for the same sensor. This paper discusses the implementation issues, provides details regarding the design of the hardware based on the three devices and compares them. PMID:22163797

  19. Tuple spaces in hardware for accelerated implicit routing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Zachary Kent; Tripp, Justin

    2010-12-01

    Organizing and optimizing data objects on networks with support for data migration and failing nodes is a complicated problem to handle as systems grow. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that high levels of speedup can be achieved by moving responsibility for finding, fetching, and staging data into an FPGA-based network card. We present a system for implicit routing of data via FPGA-based network cards. In this system, data structures are requested by name, and the network of FPGAs finds the data within the network and relays the structure to the requester. This is acheived through successive examination of hardware hash tables implemented in the FPGA. By avoiding software stacks between nodes, the data is quickly fetched entirely through FPGA-FPGA interaction. The performance of this system is orders of magnitude faster than software implementations due to the improved speed of the hash tables and lowered latency between the network nodes.

  20. 2D to 3D conversion implemented in different hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Hernandez-Fragoso, Araceli

    2015-02-01

    Conversion of available 2D data for release in 3D content is a hot topic for providers and for success of the 3D applications, in general. It naturally completely relies on virtual view synthesis of a second view given by original 2D video. Disparity map (DM) estimation is a central task in 3D generation but still follows a very difficult problem for rendering novel images precisely. There exist different approaches in DM reconstruction, among them manually and semiautomatic methods that can produce high quality DMs but they demonstrate hard time consuming and are computationally expensive. In this paper, several hardware implementations of designed frameworks for an automatic 3D color video generation based on 2D real video sequence are proposed. The novel framework includes simultaneous processing of stereo pairs using the following blocks: CIE L*a*b* color space conversions, stereo matching via pyramidal scheme, color segmentation by k-means on an a*b* color plane, and adaptive post-filtering, DM estimation using stereo matching between left and right images (or neighboring frames in a video), adaptive post-filtering, and finally, the anaglyph 3D scene generation. Novel technique has been implemented on DSP TMS320DM648, Matlab's Simulink module over a PC with Windows 7, and using graphic card (NVIDIA Quadro K2000) demonstrating that the proposed approach can be applied in real-time processing mode. The time values needed, mean Similarity Structural Index Measure (SSIM) and Bad Matching Pixels (B) values for different hardware implementations (GPU, Single CPU, and DSP) are exposed in this paper.

  1. Loads and Structural Dynamics Requirements for Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Kenneth P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish requirements relating to the loads and structural dynamics technical discipline for NASA and commercial spaceflight launch vehicle and spacecraft hardware. Requirements are defined for the development of structural design loads and recommendations regarding methodologies and practices for the conduct of load analyses are provided. As such, this document represents an implementation of NASA STD-5002. Requirements are also defined for structural mathematical model development and verification to ensure sufficient accuracy of predicted responses. Finally, requirements for model/data delivery and exchange are specified to facilitate interactions between Launch Vehicle Providers (LVPs), Spacecraft Providers (SCPs), and the NASA Technical Authority (TA) providing insight/oversight and serving in the Independent Verification and Validation role. In addition to the analysis-related requirements described above, a set of requirements are established concerning coupling phenomena or other interaction between structural dynamics and aerodynamic environments or control or propulsion system elements. Such requirements may reasonably be considered structure or control system design criteria, since good engineering practice dictates consideration of and/or elimination of the identified conditions in the development of those subsystems. The requirements are included here, however, to ensure that such considerations are captured in the design space for launch vehicles (LV), spacecraft (SC) and the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV). The requirements in this document are focused on analyses to be performed to develop data needed to support structural verification. As described in JSC 65828, Structural Design Requirements and Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware, implementation of the structural verification requirements is expected to be described in a Structural Verification Plan (SVP), which should describe the verification of each

  2. Cascade Error Projection: A Learning Algorithm for Hardware Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Daud, Taher

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we workout a detailed mathematical analysis for a new learning algorithm termed Cascade Error Projection (CEP) and a general learning frame work. This frame work can be used to obtain the cascade correlation learning algorithm by choosing a particular set of parameters. Furthermore, CEP learning algorithm is operated only on one layer, whereas the other set of weights can be calculated deterministically. In association with the dynamical stepsize change concept to convert the weight update from infinite space into a finite space, the relation between the current stepsize and the previous energy level is also given and the estimation procedure for optimal stepsize is used for validation of our proposed technique. The weight values of zero are used for starting the learning for every layer, and a single hidden unit is applied instead of using a pool of candidate hidden units similar to cascade correlation scheme. Therefore, simplicity in hardware implementation is also obtained. Furthermore, this analysis allows us to select from other methods (such as the conjugate gradient descent or the Newton's second order) one of which will be a good candidate for the learning technique. The choice of learning technique depends on the constraints of the problem (e.g., speed, performance, and hardware implementation); one technique may be more suitable than others. Moreover, for a discrete weight space, the theoretical analysis presents the capability of learning with limited weight quantization. Finally, 5- to 8-bit parity and chaotic time series prediction problems are investigated; the simulation results demonstrate that 4-bit or more weight quantization is sufficient for learning neural network using CEP. In addition, it is demonstrated that this technique is able to compensate for less bit weight resolution by incorporating additional hidden units. However, generation result may suffer somewhat with lower bit weight quantization.

  3. Software and hardware infrastructure for research in electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Mouček, Roman; Ježek, Petr; Vařeka, Lukáš; Řondík, Tomáš; Brůha, Petr; Papež, Václav; Mautner, Pavel; Novotný, Jiří; Prokop, Tomáš; Štěbeták, Jan

    2014-01-01

    As in other areas of experimental science, operation of electrophysiological laboratory, design and performance of electrophysiological experiments, collection, storage and sharing of experimental data and metadata, analysis and interpretation of these data, and publication of results are time consuming activities. If these activities are well organized and supported by a suitable infrastructure, work efficiency of researchers increases significantly. This article deals with the main concepts, design, and development of software and hardware infrastructure for research in electrophysiology. The described infrastructure has been primarily developed for the needs of neuroinformatics laboratory at the University of West Bohemia, the Czech Republic. However, from the beginning it has been also designed and developed to be open and applicable in laboratories that do similar research. After introducing the laboratory and the whole architectural concept the individual parts of the infrastructure are described. The central element of the software infrastructure is a web-based portal that enables community researchers to store, share, download and search data and metadata from electrophysiological experiments. The data model, domain ontology and usage of semantic web languages and technologies are described. Current data publication policy used in the portal is briefly introduced. The registration of the portal within Neuroscience Information Framework is described. Then the methods used for processing of electrophysiological signals are presented. The specific modifications of these methods introduced by laboratory researches are summarized; the methods are organized into a laboratory workflow. Other parts of the software infrastructure include mobile and offline solutions for data/metadata storing and a hardware stimulator communicating with an EEG amplifier and recording software. PMID:24639646

  4. A novel hardware-friendly algorithm for hyperspectral linear unmixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Raúl; Santos, Lucana; López, Sebastián.; Sarmiento, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Linear unmixing of hyperspectral images has rapidly become one of the most widely utilized tools for analyzing the content of hyperspectral images captured by state-of-the-art remote hyperspectral sensors. The aforementioned unmixing process consists of the following three sequential steps: dimensionality estimation, endmember extraction and abundances computation. Within this procedure, the first two steps are by far the most demanding from a computational point of view, since they involve a large amount of matrix operations. Moreover, the complex nature of these operations seriously difficult the hardware implementation of these two unmixing steps, leading to non-optimized implementations which are not able to satisfy the strict delay requirements imposed by those applications under real-time or near real-time requirements. This paper uncovers a new algorithm which is capable of estimating the number of endmembers and extracting them from a given hyperspectral image with at least the same accuracy than state-of-the-art approaches while demanding a much lower computational effort, with independence of the characteristics of the image under analysis. In particular, the proposed algorithm is based on the concept of orthogonal projections and allows performing the estimation of the number of end- members and their extraction simultaneously, using simple operations, which can be also easily parallelized. In this sense, it is worth to mention that our algorithm does not perform complex matrix operations, such as the inverse of a matrix or the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, which makes easier its ulterior hardware. The experimental results obtained with synthetic and real hyperspectral images demonstrate that the accuracy obtained with the proposed algorithm when estimating the number of endmembers and extracting them is similar or better than the one provided by well-known state-of-the-art algorithms, while the complexity of the overall process is

  5. Hierarchical Simulation to Assess Hardware and Software Dependability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ries, Gregory Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for conducting hierarchical simulations to assess system hardware and software dependability. The method is intended to model embedded microprocessor systems. A key contribution of the thesis is the idea of using fault dictionaries to propagate fault effects upward from the level of abstraction where a fault model is assumed to the system level where the ultimate impact of the fault is observed. A second important contribution is the analysis of the software behavior under faults as well as the hardware behavior. The simulation method is demonstrated and validated in four case studies analyzing Myrinet, a commercial, high-speed networking system. One key result from the case studies shows that the simulation method predicts the same fault impact 87.5% of the time as is obtained by similar fault injections into a real Myrinet system. Reasons for the remaining discrepancy are examined in the thesis. A second key result shows the reduction in the number of simulations needed due to the fault dictionary method. In one case study, 500 faults were injected at the chip level, but only 255 propagated to the system level. Of these 255 faults, 110 shared identical fault dictionary entries at the system level and so did not need to be resimulated. The necessary number of system-level simulations was therefore reduced from 500 to 145. Finally, the case studies show how the simulation method can be used to improve the dependability of the target system. The simulation analysis was used to add recovery to the target software for the most common fault propagation mechanisms that would cause the software to hang. After the modification, the number of hangs was reduced by 60% for fault injections into the real system.

  6. Establishing a Novel Modeling Tool: A Python-Based Interface for a Neuromorphic Hardware System

    PubMed Central

    Brüderle, Daniel; Müller, Eric; Davison, Andrew; Muller, Eilif; Schemmel, Johannes; Meier, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware systems provide new possibilities for the neuroscience modeling community. Due to the intrinsic parallelism of the micro-electronic emulation of neural computation, such models are highly scalable without a loss of speed. However, the communities of software simulator users and neuromorphic engineering in neuroscience are rather disjoint. We present a software concept that provides the possibility to establish such hardware devices as valuable modeling tools. It is based on the integration of the hardware interface into a simulator-independent language which allows for unified experiment descriptions that can be run on various simulation platforms without modification, implying experiment portability and a huge simplification of the quantitative comparison of hardware and simulator results. We introduce an accelerated neuromorphic hardware device and describe the implementation of the proposed concept for this system. An example setup and results acquired by utilizing both the hardware system and a software simulator are demonstrated. PMID:19562085

  7. Generating clock signals for a cycle accurate, cycle reproducible FPGA based hardware accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Asaad, Sameth W.; Kapur, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for generating clock signals for a cycle accurate FPGA based hardware accelerator used to simulate operations of a device-under-test (DUT). In one embodiment, the DUT includes multiple device clocks generating multiple device clock signals at multiple frequencies and at a defined frequency ratio; and the FPG hardware accelerator includes multiple accelerator clocks generating multiple accelerator clock signals to operate the FPGA hardware accelerator to simulate the operations of the DUT. In one embodiment, operations of the DUT are mapped to the FPGA hardware accelerator, and the accelerator clock signals are generated at multiple frequencies and at the defined frequency ratio of the frequencies of the multiple device clocks, to maintain cycle accuracy between the DUT and the FPGA hardware accelerator. In an embodiment, the FPGA hardware accelerator may be used to control the frequencies of the multiple device clocks.

  8. Life sciences flight hardware development for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, V. D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bowman, R. N.; Donovan, F. M.; Elland, C.; Fahlen, T. F.; Girten, B.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Lagel, K.; Meeker, G. B.; Santos, O.

    During the construction phase of the International Space Station (ISS), early flight opportunities have been identified (including designated Utilization Flights, UF) on which early science experiments may be performed. The focus of NASA's and other agencies' biological studies on the early flight opportunities is cell and molecular biology; with UF-1 scheduled to fly in fall 2001, followed by flights 8A and UF-3. Specific hardware is being developed to verify design concepts, e.g., the Avian Development Facility for incubation of small eggs and the Biomass Production System for plant cultivation. Other hardware concepts will utilize those early research opportunities onboard the ISS, e.g., an Incubator for sample cultivation, the European Modular Cultivation System for research with small plant systems, an Insect Habitat for support of insect species. Following the first Utilization Flights, additional equipment will be transported to the ISS to expand research opportunities and capabilities, e.g., a Cell Culture Unit, the Advanced Animal Habitat for rodents, an Aquatic Facility to support small fish and aquatic specimens, a Plant Research Unit for plant cultivation, and a specialized Egg Incubator for developmental biology studies. Host systems (Figure 1A, B), e.g., a 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (g-levels from 0.01-g to 2-g) for direct comparisons between μg and selectable g levels, the Life Sciences Glove☐ for contained manipulations, and Habitat Holding Racks (Figure 1B) will provide electrical power, communication links, and cooling to the habitats. Habitats will provide food, water, light, air and waste management as well as humidity and temperature control for a variety of research organisms. Operators on Earth and the crew on the ISS will be able to send commands to the laboratory equipment to monitor and control the environmental and experimental parameters inside specific habitats. Common laboratory equipment such as microscopes, cryo freezers, radiation

  9. Hardware based redundant multi-threading inside a GPU for improved reliability

    DOEpatents

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-05-05

    A system and method for verifying computation output using computer hardware are provided. Instances of computation are generated and processed on hardware-based processors. As instances of computation are processed, each instance of computation receives a load accessible to other instances of computation. Instances of output are generated by processing the instances of computation. The instances of output are verified against each other in a hardware based processor to ensure accuracy of the output.

  10. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 3: Hardware miniaturization versus cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Herbert, Frank J.; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The optimum hardware miniaturization level with the lowest cost impact for space biology hardware was determined. Space biology hardware and/or components/subassemblies/assemblies which are the most likely candidates for application of miniaturization are to be defined and relative cost impacts of such miniaturization are to be analyzed. A mathematical or statistical analysis method with the capability to support development of parametric cost analysis impacts for levels of production design miniaturization are provided.

  11. Hardware and Software Integration to Support Real-Time Space Link Emulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murawski, Robert; Bhasin, Kul; Bittner, David; Sweet, Aaron; Coulter, Rachel; Schwab, Devin

    2012-01-01

    Prior to operational use, communications hardware and software must be thoroughly tested and verified. In space-link communications, field testing equipment can be prohibitively expensive and cannot test to non-ideal situations. In this paper, we show how software and hardware emulation tools can be used to accurately model the characteristics of a satellite communication channel in a lab environment. We describe some of the challenges associated with developing an emulation lab and present results to demonstrate the channel modeling. We then show how network emulation software can be used to extend a hardware emulation model without requiring additional network and channel simulation hardware.

  12. W-026 acceptance test report plant control system hardware (submittal {number_sign} 220.C)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, T.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    Acceptance Testing of the WRAP1 Plant Control System Hardware was conducted throughout the construction of WRAPI with the final testing on the Process Area hardware being completed in November 1996. The hardware tests were broken out by the following functional areas; Local Control Units, Operator Control Stations in the WRAP Control Room, DMS Server, PCS Server, Operator Interface Units, printers, DMS terminals, WRAP Local Area Network/Communications, and bar code equipment. This document contains a completed copy of each of the hardware tests along with the applicable test logs and completed test exception reports.

  13. Speed challenge: a case for hardware implementation in soft-computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Stoica, A.; Duong, T.; Keymeulen, D.; Zebulum, R.; Thomas, T.; Thakoor, A.

    2000-01-01

    For over a decade, JPL has been actively involved in soft computing research on theory, architecture, applications, and electronics hardware. The driving force in all our research activities, in addition to the potential enabling technology promise, has been creation of a niche that imparts orders of magnitude speed advantage by implementation in parallel processing hardware with algorithms made especially suitable for hardware implementation. We review our work on neural networks, fuzzy logic, and evolvable hardware with selected application examples requiring real time response capabilities.

  14. Hardware-software partitioning for the design of system on chip by neural network optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhongliang; Li, Wei; Shao, Qingyi; Chen, Ling

    2011-12-01

    In the design procedure of system on chip (SoC), it is needed to make use of hardware-software co-design technique owing to the great complexity of SoC. One of main steps in hardware-software co-design is how to carry out the partitioning of a system into hardware and software components. The efficient approaches for hardware-software partitioning can achieve good system performance, which is superior to the techniques that use software only or use hardware only. In this paper, a method based on neural networks is presented for the hardware-software partitioning of system on chip. The discrete Hopfield neural networks corresponding to the problem of hardware-software partitioning is built, the states of neural neurons are able to represent whether the required components or functionalities are to be implemented in hardware or software. An algorithm based on the principle of simulated annealing is designed, which can be used to compute the minimal energy states of neural networks, therefore the optimal partitioning schemes are obtained. The experimental results show that the hardware-software partitioning method proposed in this paper can obtain the near optimal partitioning for a lot of example circuits.

  15. Hardware and Software Integration to Support Real-Time Space-Link Emulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murawski, Robert; Bhasin, Kul; Bittner, David

    2012-01-01

    Prior to operational use, communications hardware and software must be thoroughly tested and verified. In space-link communications, field testing equipment can be prohibitively expensive and cannot test to non-ideal situations. In this paper, we show how software and hardware emulation tools can be used to accurately model the characteristics of a satellite communication channel in a lab environment. We describe some of the challenges associated with developing an emulation lab and present results to demonstrate the channel modeling. We then show how network emulation software can be used to extend a hardware emulation model without requiring additional network and channel simulation hardware.

  16. Extended Logic Intelligent Processing System for a Sensor Fusion Processor Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Thomas, Tyson; Li, Wei-Te; Daud, Taher; Fabunmi, James

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the hardware implementation and initial tests from a low-power, highspeed reconfigurable sensor fusion processor. The Extended Logic Intelligent Processing System (ELIPS) is described, which combines rule-based systems, fuzzy logic, and neural networks to achieve parallel fusion of sensor signals in compact low power VLSI. The development of the ELIPS concept is being done to demonstrate the interceptor functionality which particularly underlines the high speed and low power requirements. The hardware programmability allows the processor to reconfigure into different machines, taking the most efficient hardware implementation during each phase of information processing. Processing speeds of microseconds have been demonstrated using our test hardware.

  17. New Approaches in Force-Limited Vibration Testing of Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Kern, Dennis L.

    2012-01-01

    To qualify flight hardware for random vibration environments the following methods are used to limit the loads in the aerospace industry: (1) Response limiting and notching (2) Simple TDOF model (3) Semi-empirical force limits (4) Apparent mass, etc. and (5) Impedance method. In all these methods attempts are made to remove conservatism due to the mismatch in impedances between the test and the flight configurations of the hardware that are being qualified. Assumption is the hardware interfaces have correlated responses. A new method that takes into account the un-correlated hardware interface responses are described in this presentation.

  18. Communications, Navigation, and Network Reconfigurable Test-bed Flight Hardware Compatibility Test S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Communications, Navigation, and Network Reconfigurable Test-bed Flight Hardware Compatibility Test Sets and Networks Integration Management Office Testing for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System

  19. W-026 acceptance test plan plant control system hardware (submittal {number_sign} 216)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, T.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    Acceptance Testing of the WRAP 1 Plant Control System Hardware will be conducted throughout the construction of WRAP I with the final testing on the Process Area hardware being completed in November 1996. The hardware tests will be broken out by the following functional areas; Local Control Units, Operator Control Stations in the WRAP Control Room, DMS Server, PCS Server, Operator Interface Units, printers, DNS terminals, WRAP Local Area Network/Communications, and bar code equipment. This document will contain completed copies of each of the hardware tests along with the applicable test logs and completed test exception reports.

  20. Evolvable Hardware: From Applications to Implications for the Theory of Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekanina, Lukáš

    The paper surveys the fundamental principles of evolvable hardware, introduces main problems of the field and briefly describes the most successful applications. Although evolvable hardware is typically interpreted from the point of view of electrical engineering, the paper discusses the implications of evolvable hardware for the theory of computation. In particular, it is shown that it is not always possible to understand the evolved system as a computing mechanism if the evolution is conducted with real hardware in a loop. Moreover, it is impossible to describe a continuously evolving system using the computational scenario of a standard Turing machine.

  1. A hardware implementation of multiresolution filtering for broadband instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-12-01

    The authors have constructed a wavelet processing board that implements a 14-level wavelet transform. The board uses a high-speed, analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, a hardware queue, and five fixed-point digital signal processing (DSP) chips in a parallel pipeline architecture. All five processors are independently programmable. The board is designed as a general purpose engine for instrumentation applications requiring near real-time wavelet processing or multiscale filtering. The present application is the processing engine of a magnetic field monitor that covers 305 Hz through 5 MHz. The monitor is used for the detection of peak values of magnetic fields in nuclear power plants. This paper describes the design, development, simulation, and testing of the system. Specific issues include the conditioning of real-world signals for wavelet processing, practical trade-offs between queue length and filter length, selection of filter coefficients, simulation of a 14-octave filter bank, and limitations imposed by a fixed-point processor. Test results from the completed wavelet board are included.

  2. Space station common module network topology and hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P.; Braunagel, L.; Chwirka, S.; Fishman, M.; Freeman, K.; Eason, D.; Landis, D.; Lech, L.; Martin, J.; Mccorkle, J.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptual space station common module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) network layouts and detailed network evaluations were developed. Individual pieces of hardware to be developed for the SSM/PMAD test bed were identified. A technology assessment was developed to identify pieces of equipment requiring development effort. Equipment lists were developed from the previously selected network schematics. Additionally, functional requirements for the network equipment as well as other requirements which affected the suitability of specific items for use on the Space Station Program were identified. Assembly requirements were derived based on the SSM/PMAD developed requirements and on the selected SSM/PMAD network concepts. Basic requirements and simplified design block diagrams are included. DC remote power controllers were successfully integrated into the DC Marshall Space Flight Center breadboard. Two DC remote power controller (RPC) boards experienced mechanical failure of UES 706 stud-mounted diodes during mechanical installation of the boards into the system. These broken diodes caused input to output shorting of the RPC's. The UES 706 diodes were replaced on these RPC's which eliminated the problem. The DC RPC's as existing in the present breadboard configuration do not provide ground fault protection because the RPC was designed to only switch the hot side current. If ground fault protection were to be implemented, it would be necessary to design the system so the RPC switched both the hot and the return sides of power.

  3. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation for IR countermeasure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, Barry; Philip, John G.; Sedgbeer, Melvyn D.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes work performed by the DERA Farnborough UK to provide a laboratory based simulation capability for investigating airborne Infra Red Countermeasure performance against both current reticle threat seekers and future seekers incorporating focal plane array imaging technology. The object of the work was to provide a hardware in the loop facility based around a Five Axis Motion Simulator (FAMS) built by Carco, to allow tests and flyout simulations to be undertaken for performance evaluation. The principal area of research involved the design and construction of a number of source rigs for fitting to the target, or outer, arm of the FAMS to allow both aircraft and countermeasure sources to move realistically in relation to a seeker mounted on the inner FAMS axes. Rigs that have been built include, a multiple point source rig capable of allowing aircraft and multiple countermeasure point sources to move independent of each other, a wide band source rig incorporating a multiple wavelength refractive collimator for investigating spectral countermeasures and two color seeker technology and a rig based on a two port collimator which allows optical mixing of high temperature countermeasure sources.

  4. INO340 telescope control system: hardware design and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarzadeh, Asghar; Ravanmehr, Reza

    2014-07-01

    In order to meet high image quality requirements of the INO340 telescope, one of the significant issues is the design and development of the Telescope Control System (TCS) architecture. The architecture of TCS is designed based on distributed control system configuration, which consists of four major subsystems: Telescope Control System supervisor (TCSS), Dome Control System (DCS), Mount Control System (MCS), and Active Optic System (AOS). Another system which plays important role in the hardware architecture is Interlock System (ILS), which is responsible for safety of staff, telescope and data. ILS architecture is also designed, using distributed system method based on the fail-safe PLCs. All subsystems of TCS are designed with an adequate safety subsystem, which are responsible for the safety of the subsystem and communicates through reliable lines with the main controller, placed in control room. In this paper, we explain the innovative architecture of Telescope Control System together with Interlock System and in brief show the interface control issues between different subsystems.

  5. What Scientific Applications can Benefit from Hardware Transactional Memory?

    SciTech Connect

    Schindewolf, M; Bihari, B; Gyllenhaal, J; Schulz, M; Wang, A; Karl, W

    2012-06-04

    Achieving efficient and correct synchronization of multiple threads is a difficult and error-prone task at small scale and, as we march towards extreme scale computing, will be even more challenging when the resulting application is supposed to utilize millions of cores efficiently. Transactional Memory (TM) is a promising technique to ease the burden on the programmer, but only recently has become available on commercial hardware in the new Blue Gene/Q system and hence the real benefit for realistic applications has not been studied, yet. This paper presents the first performance results of TM embedded into OpenMP on a prototype system of BG/Q and characterizes code properties that will likely lead to benefits when augmented with TM primitives. We first, study the influence of thread count, environment variables and memory layout on TM performance and identify code properties that will yield performance gains with TM. Second, we evaluate the combination of OpenMP with multiple synchronization primitives on top of MPI to determine suitable task to thread ratios per node. Finally, we condense our findings into a set of best practices. These are applied to a Monte Carlo Benchmark and a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method. In both cases an optimized TM version, executed with 64 threads on one node, outperforms a simple TM implementation. MCB with optimized TM yields a speedup of 27.45 over baseline.

  6. Analysis and simulation of the MAST (COFS-1 flight hardware)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Walsh, Joanne L.; Horner, Garnett C.; Bailey, James P.

    1986-11-01

    In-house analysis work in support of the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) program is being performed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The work involves evaluation of the proposed design configuration, controller design as well as actuator dynamic modeling, and MAST/actuator dynamic simulation of excitation and damping. A complete finite element model of the MAST has been developed. This finite element model has been incorporated into an optimization procedure which minimizes total mass while maintaining modal coupling. Results show an increase in the total mass due to additional constraints (namely, the diagonal frequency constraint) imposed on the baseline design. A valid actuator dynamic model is presented and a complete test sequence of the proposed flight experiment is demonstrated. The actuator dynamic model is successfully used for damping and the stroke limitations for first mode excitation are demonstrated. Plans are to incorporate additional design variables and constraints into the optimization procedure (such as actuator location) and explore alternative formulations of the objective function. A different actuator dynamic model to include hardware limitations will be investigated.

  7. Towards Batched Linear Solvers on Accelerated Hardware Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Haidar, Azzam; Dong, Tingzing Tim; Tomov, Stanimire; Dongarra, Jack J

    2015-01-01

    As hardware evolves, an increasingly effective approach to develop energy efficient, high-performance solvers, is to design them to work on many small and independent problems. Indeed, many applications already need this functionality, especially for GPUs, which are known to be currently about four to five times more energy efficient than multicore CPUs for every floating-point operation. In this paper, we describe the development of the main one-sided factorizations: LU, QR, and Cholesky; that are needed for a set of small dense matrices to work in parallel. We refer to such algorithms as batched factorizations. Our approach is based on representing the algorithms as a sequence of batched BLAS routines for GPU-contained execution. Note that this is similar in functionality to the LAPACK and the hybrid MAGMA algorithms for large-matrix factorizations. But it is different from a straightforward approach, whereby each of GPU's symmetric multiprocessors factorizes a single problem at a time. We illustrate how our performance analysis together with the profiling and tracing tools guided the development of batched factorizations to achieve up to 2-fold speedup and 3-fold better energy efficiency compared to our highly optimized batched CPU implementations based on the MKL library on a two-sockets, Intel Sandy Bridge server. Compared to a batched LU factorization featured in the NVIDIA's CUBLAS library for GPUs, we achieves up to 2.5-fold speedup on the K40 GPU.

  8. Scalability, Timing, and System Design Issues for Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Gwaltney, David

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we address several issues pertinent to intrinsic evolvable hardware (EHW). The first issue is scalability; namely, how the design space scales as the programming string for the programmable device gets longer. We develop a model for population size and the number of generations as a function of the programming string length, L, and show that the number of circuit evaluations is an O(L2) process. We compare our model to several successful intrinsic EHW experiments and discuss the many implications of our model. The second issue that we address is the timing of intrinsic EHW experiments. We show that the processing time is a small part of the overall time to derive or evolve a circuit and that major improvements in processor speed alone will have only a minimal impact on improving the scalability of intrinsic EHW. The third issue we consider is the system-level design of intrinsic EHW experiments. We review what other researchers have done to break the scalability barrier and contend that the type of reconfigurable platform and the evolutionary algorithm are tied together and impose limits on each other.

  9. Various hardware in the SSPF undergoes or waits for testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The floor of the Space Station Processing Facility is filled with racks and hardware for testing the various components of the International Space Station (ISS). The large module in the center of the floor (top) is the U.S. Lab, Destiny. Expected to be a major feature in future research, Destiny will provide facilities for biotechnology, fluid physics, combustion, and life sciences research. It is scheduled to be launched on mission STS-98 (no date determined yet for launch). At top left are the Multi- Purpose Logistics Modules Raffaello and Leonardo and the Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 (PMA-3). Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, Raffaello and Leonardo are reusable logistics carriers to resupply and return Station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. They are slated as payloads on missions STS-102 and STS-100, respectively. Dates have not yet been determined for the two missions. The PMA-3, once launched, will be mated to Node 1, a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of the Space Station. The primary purpose of PMA-3 is to serve as a Shuttle docking port through which crew members and equipment will transfer to the Space Station during later assembly missions. PMA-3 is scheduled as payload on mission STS- 92, whose date for launch is not yet determined.

  10. Various hardware in the SSPF undergoes or waits for testing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The floor of the Space Station Processing Facility is filled with racks and hardware for testing the various components of the International Space Station (ISS). The large module in the center of the floor (top) is the U.S. Lab, Destiny. The U.S. Laboratory module continues a long tradition of microgravity materials research, first conducted by Skylab and later Shuttle and Spacelab missions. Destiny is expected to be a major feature in future research, providing facilities for biotechnology, fluid physics, combustion, and life sciences research. It is scheduled to be launched on mission STS-98 (no date determined yet for launch). At top left are the Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules Raffaello and Leonardo and the Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 (PMA- 3). Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, Raffaello and Leonardo are reusable logistics carriers to resupply and return Station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. They are slated as payloads on missions STS-102 and STS-100, respectively. Dates have not yet been determined for the two missions. The PMA- 3, once launched, will be mated to Node 1, a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of the Space Station. The primary purpose of PMA-3 is to serve as a Shuttle docking port through which crew members and equipment will transfer to the Space Station during later assembly missions. PMA-3 is scheduled as payload on mission STS-92, whose date for launch is not yet determined.

  11. Various hardware in the SSPF undergoes or waits for testing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The floor of the Space Station Processing Facility is filled with racks and hardware for testing the various components of the International Space Station (ISS). The large module in the center of the floor (top) is the U.S. Lab, Destiny. Expected to be a major feature in future research, Destiny will provide facilities for biotechnology, fluid physics, combustion, and life sciences research. It is scheduled to be launched on mission STS-98 (no date determined yet for launch). At top left are the Multi- Purpose Logistics Modules Raffaello and Leonardo and the Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 (PMA-3). Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, Raffaello and Leonardo are reusable logistics carriers to resupply and return Station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. They are slated as payloads on missions STS-102 and STS-100, respectively. Dates have not yet been determined for the two missions. The PMA-3, once launched, will be mated to Node 1, a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of the Space Station. The primary purpose of PMA-3 is to serve as a Shuttle docking port through which crew members and equipment will transfer to the Space Station during later assembly missions. PMA-3 is scheduled as payload on mission STS- 92, whose date for launch is not yet determined.

  12. Secure Management of Biomedical Data With Cryptographic Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Canim, Mustafa; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    The biomedical community is increasingly migrating toward research endeavors that are dependent on large quantities of genomic and clinical data. At the same time, various regulations require that such data be shared beyond the initial collecting organization (e.g., an academic medical center). It is of critical importance to ensure that when such data are shared, as well as managed, it is done so in a manner that upholds the privacy of the corresponding individuals and the overall security of the system. In general, organizations have attempted to achieve these goals through deidentification methods that remove explicitly, and potentially, identifying features (e.g., names, dates, and geocodes). However, a growing number of studies demonstrate that deidentified data can be reidentified to named individuals using simple automated methods. As an alternative, it was shown that biomedical data could be shared, managed, and analyzed through practical cryptographic protocols without revealing the contents of any particular record. Yet, such protocols required the inclusion of multiple third parties, which may not always be feasible in the context of trust or bandwidth constraints. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a framework that removes the need for multiple third parties by collocating services to store and to process sensitive biomedical data through the integration of cryptographic hardware. Within this framework, we define a secure protocol to process genomic data and perform a series of experiments to demonstrate that such an approach can be run in an efficient manner for typical biomedical investigations. PMID:22010157

  13. Structuring Formal Control Systems Specifications for Reuse: Surviving Hardware Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Erickson, Debra M.

    2000-01-01

    Formal capture and analysis of the required behavior of control systems have many advantages. For instance, it encourages rigorous requirements analysis, the required behavior is unambiguously defined, and we can assure that various safety properties are satisfied. Formal modeling is, however, a costly and time consuming process and if one could reuse the formal models over a family of products, significant cost savings would be realized. In an ongoing project we are investigating how to structure state-based models to achieve a high level of reusability within product families. In this paper we discuss a high-level structure of requirements models that achieves reusability of the desired control behavior across varying hardware platforms in a product family. The structuring approach is demonstrated through a case study in the mobile robotics domain where the desired robot behavior is reused on two diverse platforms-one commercial mobile platform and one build in-house. We use our language RSML (-e) to capture the control behavior for reuse and our tool NIMBUS to demonstrate how the formal specification can be validated and used as a prototype on the two platforms.

  14. Developing the military spaceplane-from concept to hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klevatt, Paul L.; Gaubatz, William A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the Boeing Company's approach to developing the USAF's Military Spaceplane (MSP) ``from Concept to Hardware.'' It focuses initially on the USAF Phase 1 MSP Integrated Technology Testbed (ITT) program and describes the testbed architecture, the role of operations simulations, and the ground test articles (GTA's), which are designed to mitigate key technical risk areas associated with developing a high operational tempo MSP. It next describes a sub-orbital demonstration vehicle system capable of delivering a military-useful payload to orbit via a ``pip-up'' payload deployment scheme. A development roadmap is presented, including definition of the sub-orbital demonstrator's enabling technologies. The described sub-orbital demonstration system includes a reusable, rapid-response launch vehicle derived from Boeing's flight-proven Delta Clipper Experimental (DC-X/DC-XA) programs, and a reusable space maneuver orbiter vehicle (SMV) derived from the USAF/Boeing North American's REFLY and mini-Spaceplane technology (mist) design and development programs. The paper concludes with an examination of the performance capability potential of a CONUS-based sub-orbital MSP demonstrator system.

  15. Hardware implementation of the ORNL fissile mass flow monitor

    SciTech Connect

    McEvers, J.; Sumner, J.; Jones, R.; Ferrell, R.; Martin, C.; Uckan, T.; March-Leuba, J.

    1998-11-01

    This paper provides an overall description of the implementation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fissile Mass Flow Monitor, which is part of a Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Fissile Mass Flow Monitor is designed to measure the mass flow of fissile material through a gaseous or liquid process stream. It consists of a source-modulator assembly, a detector assembly, and a cabinet that houses all control, data acquisition, and supporting electronics equipment. The development of this flow monitor was first funded by DOE/NE in September 95, and an initial demonstration by ORNL was described in previous INMM meetings. This methodology was chosen by DOE/NE for implementation in November 1996, and the hardware/software development is complete. Successful BDMS installation and operation of the complete BDMS has been demonstrated in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), which is operated by Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc. for the US Enrichment Corporation and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Equipment for two BDMS units has been shipped to the Russian Federation.

  16. Hardware design of a spherical mini-rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarlton, John

    1992-01-01

    In this hardware project the students designed the prototype of a novel mini-rover for the exploration of a planetary surface. In an actual application, a large number of such miniature roving devices would be released from a landing craft. Each rover would be equipped with a Cd 109 radio-isotope source (a gamma ray emitter) irradiating the planetary surface below the rover, and an x-ray fluorescence detector for a quantitative assay of high atomic weight elements in the planet's surface. (Similar, miniaturized, hand-held devices have recently been developed for use in gold mines). The device developed by the students was limited to demonstrating the mechanical and electrical drive. The geometric external shape is a sphere; hence there is no danger of the rover being turned on its back and stopped. Propulsion is by means of an interior mass, eccentric to the sphere and driven by an electric motor. In an inter-disciplinary effort in mechanical and electrical engineering, the students designed the mechanical parts, built the transistorized circuit board, and tested the device.

  17. Analysis and simulation of the MAST (COFS-1 flight hardware)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Walsh, Joanne L.; Horner, Garnett C.; Bailey, James P.

    1986-01-01

    In-house analysis work in support of the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) program is being performed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The work involves evaluation of the proposed design configuration, controller design as well as actuator dynamic modeling, and MAST/actuator dynamic simulation of excitation and damping. A complete finite element model of the MAST has been developed. This finite element model has been incorporated into an optimization procedure which minimizes total mass while maintaining modal coupling. Results show an increase in the total mass due to additional constraints (namely, the diagonal frequency constraint) imposed on the baseline design. A valid actuator dynamic model is presented and a complete test sequence of the proposed flight experiment is demonstrated. The actuator dynamic model is successfully used for damping and the stroke limitations for first mode excitation are demonstrated. Plans are to incorporate additional design variables and constraints into the optimization procedure (such as actuator location) and explore alternative formulations of the objective function. A different actuator dynamic model to include hardware limitations will be investigated.

  18. Solid-Liquid Interface Characterization Hardware: Advanced Technology Development (ATD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Sisk, R. C.; Sen, S.; Kaukler, W. F.; Curreri, Peter A.; Wang, F. C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This ATD has the goal of enabling the integration of three separate measurement techniques to characterize the solid-liquid interface of directionally solidified materials in real-time. Arrays of film-based metal thermocouple elements are under development along with compact Seebeck furnaces suitable for interfacing with separately developed X-ray Transmission Microscopes. Results of applying film arrays to furnace profiling are shown, demonstrating their ability to identify a previously undetected hardware flaw in the development of a second-generation compact furnace. Results of real-time furnace profiling also confirmed that the compact furnace design effectively isolates the temperature profiles in two halves of the furnace, a necessary feature. This isolation had only been inferred previously from the characteristics of Seebeck data reported. Results from a 24-thermocouple array successfully monitoring heating and isothermal cooling of a tin sample are shown. The importance of non-intrusion by the arrays, as well as furnace design, on the profiling of temperature gradients is illustrated with example measurements. Further developments underway for effectively combining all three measurements are assessed in terms of improved x-ray transmission, increased magnification, integral arrays with minimum intrusion, integral scales for velocity measurements and other features being incorporated into the third generation Seebeck furnace under construction.

  19. Electronic hardware design of electrical capacitance tomography systems.

    PubMed

    Saied, I; Meribout, M

    2016-06-28

    Electrical tomography techniques for process imaging are very prominent for industrial applications, such as the oil and gas industry and chemical refineries, owing to their ability to provide the flow regime of a flowing fluid within a relatively high throughput. Among the various techniques, electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is gaining popularity due to its non-invasive nature and its capability to differentiate between different phases based on their permittivity distribution. In recent years, several hardware designs have been provided for ECT systems that have improved its resolution of measurements to be around attofarads (aF, 10(-18) F), or the number of channels, that is required to be large for some applications that require a significant amount of data. In terms of image acquisition time, some recent systems could achieve a throughput of a few hundred frames per second, while data processing time could be achieved in only a few milliseconds per frame. This paper outlines the concept and main features of the most recent front-end and back-end electronic circuits dedicated for ECT systems. In this paper, multiple-excitation capacitance polling, a front-end electronic technique, shows promising results for ECT systems to acquire fast data acquisition speeds. A highly parallel field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based architecture for a fast reconstruction algorithm is also described. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185964

  20. Measuring FLOPS Using Hardware Performance Counter Technologies on LC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, D H

    2008-09-05

    FLOPS (FLoating-point Operations Per Second) is a commonly used performance metric for scientific programs that rely heavily on floating-point (FP) calculations. The metric is based on the number of FP operations rather than instructions, thereby facilitating a fair comparison between different machines. A well-known use of this metric is the LINPACK benchmark that is used to generate the Top500 list. It measures how fast a computer solves a dense N by N system of linear equations Ax=b, which requires a known number of FP operations, and reports the result in millions of FP operations per second (MFLOPS). While running a benchmark with known FP workloads can provide insightful information about the efficiency of a machine's FP pipelines in relation to other machines, measuring FLOPS of an arbitrary scientific application in a platform-independent manner is nontrivial. The goal of this paper is twofold. First, we explore the FP microarchitectures of key processors that are underpinning the LC machines. Second, we present the hardware performance monitoring counter-based measurement techniques that a user can use to get the native FLOPS of his or her program, which are practical solutions readily available on LC platforms. By nature, however, these native FLOPS metrics are not directly comparable across different machines mainly because FP operations are not consistent across microarchitectures. Thus, the first goal of this paper represents the base reference by which a user can interpret the measured FLOPS more judiciously.

  1. Facilitating Preemptive Hardware System Design Using Partial Reconfiguration Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Rincon, Fernando; Vaderrama, Carlos; Villanueva, Felix; Caba, Julian; Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In FPGA-based control system design, partial reconfiguration is especially well suited to implement preemptive systems. In real-time systems, the deadline for critical task can compel the preemption of noncritical one. Besides, an asynchronous event can demand immediate attention and, then, force launching a reconfiguration process for high-priority task implementation. If the asynchronous event is previously scheduled, an explicit activation of the reconfiguration process is performed. If the event cannot be previously programmed, such as in dynamically scheduled systems, an implicit activation to the reconfiguration process is demanded. This paper provides a hardware-based approach to explicit and implicit activation of the partial reconfiguration process in dynamically reconfigurable SoCs and includes all the necessary tasks to cope with this issue. Furthermore, the reconfiguration service introduced in this work allows remote invocation of the reconfiguration process and then the remote integration of off-chip components. A model that offers component location transparency is also presented to enhance and facilitate system integration. PMID:24672292

  2. Astronauts Prepare for Mission With Virtual Reality Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Astronauts John M. Grunsfeld (left), STS-109 payload commander, and Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist, use the virtual reality lab at Johnson Space Center to train for upcoming duties aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. This type of computer interface paired with virtual reality training hardware and software helps to prepare the entire team to perform its duties for the fourth Hubble Space Telescope Servicing mission. The most familiar form of virtual reality technology is some form of headpiece, which fits over your eyes and displays a three dimensional computerized image of another place. Turn your head left and right, and you see what would be to your sides; turn around, and you see what might be sneaking up on you. An important part of the technology is some type of data glove that you use to propel yourself through the virtual world. Currently, the medical community is using the new technologies in four major ways: To see parts of the body more accurately, for study, to make better diagnosis of disease and to plan surgery in more detail; to obtain a more accurate picture of a procedure during surgery; to perform more types of surgery with the most noninvasive, accurate methods possible; and to model interactions among molecules at a molecular level.

  3. Astronaut Prepares for Mission With Virtual Reality Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut John M. Grunsfeld, STS-109 payload commander, uses virtual reality hardware at Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties prior to the STS-109 mission. The most familiar form of virtual reality technology is some form of headpiece, which fits over your eyes and displays a three dimensional computerized image of another place. Turn your head left and right, and you see what would be to your sides; turn around, and you see what might be sneaking up on you. An important part of the technology is some type of data glove that you use to propel yourself through the virtual world. This technology allows NASA astronauts to practice International Space Station work missions in advance. Currently, the medical community is using the new technologies in four major ways: To see parts of the body more accurately, for study, to make better diagnosis of disease and to plan surgery in more detail; to obtain a more accurate picture of a procedure during surgery; to perform more types of surgery with the most noninvasive, accurate methods possible; and to model interactions among molecules at a molecular level.

  4. Physics of Colloids in Space: Flight Hardware Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Bailey, Arthur E.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Lorik, Tibor

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment was launched on Space Shuttle STS-100 in April 2001 and integrated into EXpedite the PRocess of Experiments to Space Station Rack 2 on the International Space Station (ISS). This microgravity fluid physics investigation is being conducted in the ISS U.S. Lab 'Destiny' Module over a period of approximately thirteen months during the ISS assembly period from flight 6A through flight 9A. PCS is gathering data on the basic physical properties of simple colloidal suspensions by studying the structures that form. A colloid is a micron or submicron particle, be it solid, liquid, or gas. A colloidal suspension consists of these fine particles suspended in another medium. Common colloidal suspensions include paints, milk, salad dressings, cosmetics, and aerosols. Though these products are routinely produced and used, we still have much to learn about their behavior as well as the underlying properties of colloids in general. The long-term goal of the PCS investigation is to learn how to steer the growth of colloidal structures to create new materials. This experiment is the first part of a two-stage investigation conceived by Professor David Weitz of Harvard University (the Principal Investigator) along with Professor Peter Pusey of the University of Edinburgh (the Co-Investigator). This paper describes the flight hardware, experiment operations, and initial science findings of the first fluid physics payload to be conducted on ISS: The Physics of Colloids in Space.

  5. Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) Flight Hardware Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koudelka, John M.

    2001-01-01

    investigation that will be located in an Expedite the Process of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack. The investigation will be conducted in the International Space Station U.S. laboratory, Destiny, over a period of approximately 10 months during the station assembly period from flight 6A through flight UF-2. This experiment will gather data on the basic physical properties of colloids by studying three different colloid systems with the objective of understanding how they grow and what structures they form. A colloidal suspension consists of fine particles (micrometer to submicrometer) suspended in a fluid for example, paints, milk, salad dressings, and aerosols. The long-term goal of this investigation is to learn how to steer the growth of colloidal suspensions to create new materials and new structures. This experiment is part of a two-stage investigation conceived by Professor David Weitz of Harvard University along with Professor Peter Pusey of the University of Edinburgh. The experiment hardware was developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center through contracts with Dynacs, Inc., and ZIN Technologies.

  6. In-situ corrosivity monitoring of military hardware environments

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwala, V.S.

    1996-10-01

    A method to monitor corrosive conditions (environments) for military equipment was developed. The concept is based on the electrochemical principles of galvanic corrosion. It consisted of a novel thin film device (interdigitized bimetallic strips on a kapton polymer) which was galvanically coupled or short circuited through a zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) and interfaced to a custom design data acquisition system called Corrosion Monitoring System (CMS). The sensor`s unique design allowed the use of any metal as the active element or anode to form the galvanic couple, which enhanced sensor`s versatility and usefulness in almost any application. In most applications Cd-Au sensor was used. For in-situ corrosivity monitoring sensors were installed in the interior of the aircraft, hidden structures, avionics bays, and embedded under coatings and sealants. The test sites included: military bases, aircraft carrier flight decks, marine atmosphere and operational aircraft and weapons storage areas. The results show a significant correlation between the output of the sensors and the corrosive conditions present, and may become a basis for condition based maintenance of military hardware in the future.

  7. Hardware and software for prototyping industrial vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Daley, Michael W.; Griffiths, Eric C.

    1994-10-01

    A simple, low-cost device is described, which the authors have developed for prototyping industrial machine vision systems. The unit provides facilities for controlling the following devices, via a single serial (RS232) port, connected to a host computer: (a) Twelve ON/OFF mains devices (lamps, laser stripe generator, pattern projector, etc) (b) Four ON/OFF pneumatic valves (These are mounted on board the hardware module.) (c) One 8-way video multiplexor (d) Six programmable-speed serial (RS232) communication ports (e) Six opto- isolated 8-way parallel I/O ports. Using this unit, it is possible for software, running on the host computer and which contains only the most rudimentary I/O facilities, to operate a range of electro- mechanical devices. For example, a HyperCard program can switch lamps and pneumatic air lines ON/OFF, control the movements of an (X,Y,(theta) )-table and select different video cameras. These electro-mechanical devices form part of a flexible inspection cell, which the authors have built recently. This cell is being used to study the inspection of low-volume batch products, without the need for detailed instructions. The interface module has also been used to connect an image processing package, based on the Prolog programming language, to a gantry robot. This system plays dominoes against a human opponent.

  8. Automated Eddy Current Inspection on Space Shuttle Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, John; Felker, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Over the life time of the Space Shuttle program, metal parts used for the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) have been nondestructively inspected for cracks and surface breaking discontinuities using magnetic particle (steel) and penetrant methods. Although these inspections adequately screened for critical sized cracks in most regions of the hardware, it became apparent after detection of several sub-critical flaws that the processes were very dependent on operator attentiveness and training. Throughout the 1990's, eddy current inspections were added to areas that had either limited visual access or were more fracture critical. In the late 1990's. a project was initiated to upgrade NDE inspections with the overall objective of improving inspection reliability and control. An automated eddy current inspection system was installed in 2001. A figure shows one of the inspection bays with the robotic axis of the system highlighted. The system was programmed to inspect the various case, nozzle, and igniter metal components that make up an RSRM. both steel and aluminum. For the past few years, the automated inspection system has been a part of the baseline inspection process for steel components. Although the majority of the RSRM metal part inventory ts free of detectable surface flaws, a few small, sub-critical manufacturing defects have been detected with the automated system. This paper will summarize the benefits that have been realized with the current automated eddy current system, as well as the flaws that have been detected.

  9. RF control hardware design for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tianjue; Li, Pengzhan; Wei, Junyi; Xing, Jiansheng; Wang, Chuan

    2015-11-01

    The Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility project is being constructed by BRIF division of China Institute of Atomic Energy. In this project, a 100 MeV high intensity compact proton cyclotron is built for multiple applications. The first successful beam extraction of CYCIAE-100 cyclotron was done in the middle of 2014. The extracted proton beam energy is 100 MeV and the beam current is more than 20 μA. The RF system of the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron includes two half-wavelength cavities, two 100 kW tetrode amplifiers and power transmission line systems (all above are independent from each other) and two sets of Low Level RF control crates. Each set of LLRF control includes an amplitude control unit, a tuning control unit, a phase control unit, a local Digital Signal Process control unit and an Advanced RISC Machines based EPICS IOC unit. These two identical LLRF control crates share one common reference clock and take advantages of modern digital technologies (e.g. DSP and Direct Digital Synthesizer) to achieve closed loop voltage and phase regulations of the dee-voltage. In the beam commission, the measured dee-voltage stability of RF system is better than 0.1% and phase stability is better than 0.03°. The hardware design of the LLRF system will be reviewed in this paper.

  10. SIMD Optimization of Linear Expressions for Programmable Graphics Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Ihm, Insung; Min, Jungki; Oh, Jinsang

    2009-01-01

    The increased programmability of graphics hardware allows efficient graphical processing unit (GPU) implementations of a wide range of general computations on commodity PCs. An important factor in such implementations is how to fully exploit the SIMD computing capacities offered by modern graphics processors. Linear expressions in the form of ȳ = Ax̄ + b̄, where A is a matrix, and x̄, ȳ and b̄ are vectors, constitute one of the most basic operations in many scientific computations. In this paper, we propose a SIMD code optimization technique that enables efficient shader codes to be generated for evaluating linear expressions. It is shown that performance can be improved considerably by efficiently packing arithmetic operations into four-wide SIMD instructions through reordering of the operations in linear expressions. We demonstrate that the presented technique can be used effectively for programming both vertex and pixel shaders for a variety of mathematical applications, including integrating differential equations and solving a sparse linear system of equations using iterative methods. PMID:19946569

  11. Alternative, Green Processes for the Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Phillip R.; Grandelli, Heather Eilenfield; Devor, Robert; Hintze, Paul E.; Loftin, Kathleen B.; Tomlin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning is necessary to ensure the proper functioning of aerospace hardware, particularly those systems that come in contact with liquid oxygen or hypergolic fuels. Components that have not been cleaned to the appropriate levels may experience problems ranging from impaired performance to catastrophic failure. Traditionally, this has been achieved using various halogenated solvents. However, as information on the toxicological and/or environmental impacts of each came to light, they were subsequently regulated out of use. The solvent currently used in Kennedy Space Center (KSC) precision cleaning operations is Vertrel MCA. Environmental sampling at KSC indicates that continued use of this or similar solvents may lead to high remediation costs that must be borne by the Program for years to come. In response to this problem, the Green Solvents Project seeks to develop state-of-the-art, green technologies designed to meet KSCs precision cleaning needs.Initially, 23 solvents were identified as potential replacements for the current Vertrel MCA-based process. Highly halogenated solvents were deliberately omitted since historical precedents indicate that as the long-term consequences of these solvents become known, they will eventually be regulated out of practical use, often with significant financial burdens for the user. Three solvent-less cleaning processes (plasma, supercritical carbon dioxide, and carbon dioxide snow) were also chosen since they produce essentially no waste stream. Next, experimental and analytical procedures were developed to compare the relative effectiveness of these solvents and technologies to the current KSC standard of Vertrel MCA. Individually numbered Swagelok fittings were used to represent the hardware in the cleaning process. First, the fittings were cleaned using Vertrel MCA in order to determine their true cleaned mass. Next, the fittings were dipped into stock solutions of five commonly encountered contaminants and were

  12. Hardware architecture design of a fast global motion estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chaobing; Sang, Hongshi; Shen, Xubang

    2015-12-01

    VLSI implementation of gradient-based global motion estimation (GME) faces two main challenges: irregular data access and high off-chip memory bandwidth requirement. We previously proposed a fast GME method that reduces computational complexity by choosing certain number of small patches containing corners and using them in a gradient-based framework. A hardware architecture is designed to implement this method and further reduce off-chip memory bandwidth requirement. On-chip memories are used to store coordinates of the corners and template patches, while the Gaussian pyramids of both the template and reference frame are stored in off-chip SDRAMs. By performing geometric transform only on the coordinates of the center pixel of a 3-by-3 patch in the template image, a 5-by-5 area containing the warped 3-by-3 patch in the reference image is extracted from the SDRAMs by burst read. Patched-based and burst mode data access helps to keep the off-chip memory bandwidth requirement at the minimum. Although patch size varies at different pyramid level, all patches are processed in term of 3x3 patches, so the utilization of the patch-processing circuit reaches 100%. FPGA implementation results show that the design utilizes 24,080 bits on-chip memory and for a sequence with resolution of 352x288 and frequency of 60Hz, the off-chip bandwidth requirement is only 3.96Mbyte/s, compared with 243.84Mbyte/s of the original gradient-based GME method. This design can be used in applications like video codec, video stabilization, and super-resolution, where real-time GME is a necessity and minimum memory bandwidth requirement is appreciated.

  13. RESEARCH PROGRESS AND HARDWARE SYSTEMS AT DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN,P.I; THE DIII-D TEAM

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 During the last two years significant progress has been made in the scientific understanding of DIII-D plasmas. Much of this progress has been enabled by the addition of new hardware systems. The electron cyclotron (EC) system has been upgraded from 3 MW to 6 MW, by adding three 1 MW gyrotrons with diamond windows and three steerable launchers (PPPL). The new gyrotrons have been tested to 1.0 MW for 5 s. The system has been used to control the 3/2 and 2/1 neoclassical tearing modes and to locally heat the plasma and thereby indirectly control the current density. Electron cyclotron current drive ECCD has been used to directly affect the current density. A Li-beam diagnostic has been brought on-line for measuring the edge current density using Zeeman splitting. A set of 12 coils (1-coils), consisting of six picture frame coils each above and below the midplane, with a capability of 7 kA for 10 s has been installed inside the DIII-D vessel. These coils, along with the existing six C-coils, are used to apply non-axisymmetric fields to the plasma for both exciting and controlling plasma instabilities. The DIII-D digital plasma control system is now used to not just control the shape and location of the plasma but also the electron temperature, density, the NTMs, RWMs, plasma beta and disruption mitigation. Plasma disruption experiments are extended to mitigation of real time detected disruptions on DIII-D.

  14. 49 CFR 238.105 - Train electronic hardware and software safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Train electronic hardware and software safety. 238... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General Requirements § 238.105 Train electronic hardware and software safety. The requirements...

  15. 49 CFR 238.105 - Train electronic hardware and software safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Train electronic hardware and software safety. 238... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General Requirements § 238.105 Train electronic hardware and software safety. The requirements...

  16. 49 CFR 238.105 - Train electronic hardware and software safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Train electronic hardware and software safety. 238... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General Requirements § 238.105 Train electronic hardware and software safety. The requirements...

  17. 49 CFR 238.105 - Train electronic hardware and software safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Train electronic hardware and software safety. 238... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General Requirements § 238.105 Train electronic hardware and software safety. The requirements...

  18. The Sociotechnical Boundaries of Hardware and Software: A Humpty Dumpty History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesiek, Brent K.

    2006-01-01

    This article traces the historical development of the boundaries around computer software and hardware. On one hand, the author documents ongoing discussions about the technical equivalence of hardware and software. On the other hand, he accounts for the stubborn persistence of these terms as markers for two distinct spheres of technology,…

  19. Functional design specification for Stowage List And Hardware Tracking System (SLAHTS). [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keltner, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    This functional design specification defines the total systems approach to meeting the requirements stated in the Detailed Requirements Document for Stowage List and Hardware Tracking System for the space shuttle program. The stowage list and hardware tracking system is identified at the system and subsystem level with each subsystem defined as a function of the total system.

  20. Use of CCSDS Packets Over SpaceWire to Control Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Omar; Blau, Michael; Haghani, Noosha; Yuknis, William; Albaijes, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    For the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Command and Data Handling subsystem consisted of several electronic hardware assemblies that were connected with SpaceWire serial links. Electronic hardware would be commanded/controlled and telemetry data was obtained using the SpaceWire links. Prior art focused on parallel data buses and other types of serial buses, which were not compatible with the SpaceWire and the core flight executive (CFE) software bus. This innovation applies to anything that utilizes both SpaceWire networks and the CFE software. The CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) packet contains predetermined values in its payload fields that electronic hardware attached at the terminus of the SpaceWire node would decode, interpret, and execute. The hardware s interpretation of the packet data would enable the hardware to change its state/configuration (command) or generate status (telemetry). The primary purpose is to provide an interface that is compatible with the hardware and the CFE software bus. By specifying the format of the CCSDS packet, it is possible to specify how the resulting hardware is to be built (in terms of digital logic) that results in a hardware design that can be controlled by the CFE software bus in the final application