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Sample records for hariliku mnni pinus

  1. Microwave synthesis and electrochemical characterization of Mn/Ni mixed oxide for supercapacitor application

    SciTech Connect

    Prasankumar, T.; Jose, Sujin P.; Ilangovan, R.; Venkatesh, K. S.

    2015-06-24

    Nanostructured Mn/Ni mixed metal oxide was synthesized at ambient temperature by facile microwave irradiation technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of Mn/Ni mixed oxide in rhombohedral phase and the grain size calculated was found to be 87 nm. The irregular spherical morphology of the prepared sample was exhibited by the SEM images. The characteristic peaks of FTIR at about 630 cm{sup −1} and 749 cm{sup −1} were attributed to the Mn-O and Ni-O stretching vibrations respectively. The presence of both Mn and Ni in the prepared sample was validated by the EDS spectra which in turn confirmed the formation of mixed oxide. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic chargedischarge measurements were employed to investigate the electrochemical performance of the mixed oxide. The cyclic voltammetry curves demonstrated good capacitive performance of the sample in the potential window −0.2V to 0.9V. The charge discharge study revealed the suitability of the prepared mixed oxide for the fabrication of supercapacitor electrode.

  2. Structure of the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(001) surface alloy by quantitative photoelectron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Denlinger, J.; Chen, X.

    1997-04-01

    Surface alloys are two-dimensional metallic systems that can have structures that are unique to the surface, and have no counterpart in the bulk binary phase diagram. A very unusual structure was reported for the Mn-Ni system, based on a quantitative LEED structure determination, which showed that the Mn atoms were displaced out of the surface by a substantial amount. This displacement was attributed to a large magnetic moment on the Mn atoms. The structure of the Mn-Ni surface alloy was proposed to be based on a bulk termination model. Magnetic measurements on the Mn-Ni surface alloys, however, showed conclusively that the magnetic structure of these surface alloys is completely different from the bulk alloy analogs. For example, bulk MnNi is an antiferromagnet, whereas the surface alloy is ferromagnetic. This suggests that the proposed structure based on bulk termination, may not be correct. X-ray Photoelectron Diffraction (XPD) techniques were used to investigate this structure, using both a comparison to multiple scattering calculations and photoelectron holography. In this article the authors present some of the results from the quantitative analysis of individual diffraction patterns by comparison to theory.

  3. Photoelectron diffraction k-space volumes of the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) structure

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Denlinger, J.; Chen, X.

    1997-04-01

    Traditionally, x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) studies have either been done by scanning the diffraction angle for fixed kinetic energy (ADPD), or scanning the kinetic energy at fixed exit angle (EDPD). Both of these methods collect subsets of the full diffraction pattern, or volume, which is the intensity of photoemission as a function of momentum direction and magnitude. With the high density available at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (BL 7.0) {open_quotes}ultraESCA{close_quotes} station, the authors are able to completely characterize the photoelectron diffraction patterns of surface structures, up to several hundred electron volts kinetic energy. This large diffraction `volume` can then be analyzed in many ways. The k-space volume contains as a subset the energy dependent photoelectron diffraction spectra along all emission angles. It also contains individual, hemispherical, diffraction patterns at specific kinetic energies. Other `cuts` through the data set are also possible, revealing new ways of viewing photoelectron diffraction data, and potentially new information about the surface structure being studied. In this article the authors report a brief summary of a structural study being done on the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy. This system is interesting for both structural and magnetic reasons. Magnetically, the Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy exhibits parallel coupling of the Mn and Ni moments, which is opposite to the reported coupling for the bulk, disordered, alloy. Structurally, the Mn atoms are believed to lie well above the surface plane.

  4. Coordination polymer template synthesis of hierarchical MnCo2O4.5 and MnNi6O8 nanoparticles for electrochemical capacitors electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuaibing; Xu, Jiangyan; Lu, Aimin; Shi, Ying; Lin, Zixia

    2016-08-01

    Two types of ternary metal oxides, MnCo2O4.5 and MnNi6O8 nanoparticles have been separately synthesized through chemical transformation from the corresponding bimetallic coordination polymer particles precursor under high-heating conditions. Series of electrochemical measurements are performed to examine the MnCo2O4.5 and MnNi6O8 electrodes, and the result shows that MnCo2O4.5 structure, especially for Mn/Co-600, has much higher capacitance than that of MnNi6O8 nanoparticles, indicating MnCo2O4.5 electrode is more suitable for applying in neutral electrolyte system. The Mn/Co-600 electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 158 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1, good rate capability of 53.8% with a 20 times current density increase, good cycle performance (92.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles) and high power density (a specific power of 5760 W kg-1 at 4.0 A g-1) with low charge transfer resistance value of 1.8 Ω.

  5. First-order magnetic and magnetostructural transitions in the magnetocaloric compound MnNi0.73Fe0.27Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Aili; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Liu, Enke; Wu, Guangheng

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic and magnetostructural transitions of MnNi0.73Fe0.27Ge have been studied by calorimetry and by magnetic measurements. The first-order MST from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic martensite shows a giant magnetic entropy change of -27 J/kg K for a magnetic-field change of 50 kOe around 233 K. A weak first-order magnetic transition is observed in the martensite phase over a large low-temperature range, with clear thermal hysteresis and increased saturation field. The origin is discussed on the basis of the competitiom between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling with magneto-elastic coupling.

  6. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxyge...

  7. Microstructures and Mechanical Performance of Plasma-Nitrided Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei-Yeh; Chuang, Ming-Hao; Lin, Su-Jien; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of plasma nitriding at 798 K (525 °C) on microstructures and the mechanical performance of Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 high-entropy alloys (HEAs) obtained using different cast and wrought processing. All the alloys can be well nitride, with a thickness of around 80 μm, and attain a peak hardness level around Hv 1300 near the surface. The main nitride phases are CrN, AlN, and (Mn, Fe)4N. Those of the substrates are bcc, fcc, Al-, and Ni-rich B2 precipitates, and ρ phase. Their relative amounts depend on the prior processing and also change under the heat treatment during nitriding. The formation of ρ phase during nitriding could in-situ harden the substrate to attain the suitable level required for wear applications. This gives the advantage in simplifying the processing for making a wear-resistance component or a mold since austenitizing, quench hardening, and tempering required for steels such as SACM and SKD steels are no longer required and final finishing can be accomplished before nitriding. Nitrided Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 samples have much better wear resistance than un-nitrided ones by 49 to 80 times and also exhibit superior adhesive wear resistance to conventional nitrided alloys: nitriding steel SACM-645 (AISI 7140), 316 stainless steel, and hot-mold steel SKD-61 (AISI H13) by 22 to 55 times depending on prior processing. The superiority is due to the fact that the present nitrided alloys possess a much thicker highly hardened layer than the conventional alloys.

  8. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  9. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  10. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species. PMID:23760570

  11. 90SR UPTAKE BY PINUS PONDEROSA AND PINUS RADIATA SEEDLINGS INOCULATED WITH ECOTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. rior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. n th...

  12. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M.; Naugolnykh, Serge V.; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene. PMID:26548658

  13. Transcriptome characterisation of Pinus tabuliformis and evolution of genes in the Pinus phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) is an indigenous conifer species in northern China but is relatively underdeveloped as a genomic resource; thus, limiting gene discovery and breeding. Large-scale transcriptome data were obtained using a next-generation sequencing platform to compensate for the lack of P. tabuliformis genomic information. Results The increasing amount of transcriptome data on Pinus provides an excellent resource for multi-gene phylogenetic analysis and studies on how conserved genes and functions are maintained in the face of species divergence. The first P. tabuliformis transcriptome from a normalised cDNA library of multiple tissues and individuals was sequenced in a full 454 GS-FLX run, producing 911,302 sequencing reads. The high quality overlapping expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were assembled into 46,584 putative transcripts, and more than 700 SSRs and 92,000 SNPs/InDels were characterised. Comparative analysis of the transcriptome of six conifer species yielded 191 orthologues, from which we inferred a phylogenetic tree, evolutionary patterns and calculated rates of gene diversion. We also identified 938 fast evolving sequences that may be useful for identifying genes that perhaps evolved in response to positive selection and might be responsible for speciation in the Pinus lineage. Conclusions A large collection of high-quality ESTs was obtained, de novo assembled and characterised, which represents a dramatic expansion of the current transcript catalogues of P. tabuliformis and which will gradually be applied in breeding programs of P. tabuliformis. Furthermore, these data will facilitate future studies of the comparative genomics of P. tabuliformis and other related species. PMID:23597112

  14. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  15. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)convicilin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by a combination of anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography. The protein is less abundant than vicilin in low-salt extracts of matur...

  16. Ageing of resin from Pinus species assessed by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Victòria; Salvadó, Nati; Butí, Salvador; Pradell, Trinitat

    2016-06-01

    Resins obtained from Pinus genus species have been widely used in very different fields throughout history. As soon as the resins are secreted, molecular changes start altering their chemical, mechanical and optical properties. The ageing processes are complex, and the chemical and structural changes associated with resin degradation are not yet fully known. Many questions still remain open, for instance changes happening in pimaranes, one of the two diterpenoid constituents of the resin. A systematic study of the ageing process of Pinus resins is done through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) using chemical standards and complementing the obtained results with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis when necessary. Moreover, long-term degradation processes are also investigated through the analysis of a selection of dated historical resins. This study overcomes the limitations of GC/MS and brings new information about the reactions and interactions between molecules during Pinus resin ageing processes. It also provides information about which bonds are affected and unaffected, and these can be used as specific markers of the degradation and of the resins themselves. Graphical Abstract Changes in the IR spectral features due to the Pinus resin ageing processes. PMID:27052772

  17. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Dhirender; Kumar, Ajay; Kaushik, Pawan; Rana, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae) is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models. PMID:22761611

  18. Rainfall interception and partitioning by pinus monophylla and juniperus osteosperma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated canopy interception of simulated rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) in central Nevada. Research has shown that although piñon and juniper occurred historically throughout the western United States, the infilling of woodlan...

  19. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geron, Chris D.; Arnts, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine ( Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. P. taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxygenated monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions in all seasons. α-pinene and β-pinene were the most abundant emissions, while β-caryophyllene had the highest sesquiterpene emission rate from this species. β-phellandrene was the dominant compound emitted from P. virginiana, followed by the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. Sesquiterpene emissions from P. virginiana have not been reported in the literature previously. Summer sesquiterpene emissions from P. virginiana were nearly as high as monoterpene emissions, but were 4-12 times lower than monoterpene emissions in the other seasons. Oxygenated monoterpenes and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol were emitted at higher rates from P. taeda than from P. virginiana. Temperature response of the pinenes from P. taeda is similar to previously reported values used in emission models, while that for other compounds falls at the lower end of the previously reported range. Temperature response of all compounds from P. virginiana is in reasonable agreement with previously reported values from other pine species. There is evidence of light dependence of sesquiterpene emission after accounting for temperature response from both species. This effect is somewhat stronger in P. taeda. Bud break, needle expansion, and needle fall (and therefore wind events) seemed to increase monoterpene emission during non-summer seasons. In some instances springtime monoterpene emissions were higher than summertime emissions despite cooler temperatures. Emissions of individual compounds within monoterpene, oxygenated monoterpene, and sesquiterpene classes were highly correlated with each other. Compounds from different classes were much less correlated within each species. This is due

  20. Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fangqian; Mao, Jian-Feng; Meng, Jingxiang; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Hao; Xing, Zhen; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2014-05-01

    Genetic analyses indicate that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Needle morphological and anatomical features show relative species stability and can be used to identify coniferous species. Comparative analyses of these needle characteristics and phenotypic differences between the artificial hybrids, P. densata, and parental species can be used to determine the genetic and phenotypic evolutionary consequences of natural hybridization. Twelve artificial hybrid families, the two parental species, and P. densata were seeded in a high-altitude habitat in Linzhi, Tibet. The needles of artificial hybrids and the three pine species were collected, and 24 needle morphological and anatomical traits were analyzed. Based on these results, variations in 10 needle traits among artificial hybrid families and 22 traits among species and artificial hybrids were predicted and found to be under moderate genetic control. Nineteen needle traits in artificial hybrids were similar to those in P. densata and between the two parental species, P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. The ratio of plants with three needle clusters in artificial hybrids was 22.92%, which was very similar to P. densata. The eight needle traits (needle length, the mean number of stomata in sections 2 mm in length of the convex and flat sides of the needle, mean stomatal density, mesophyll/vascular bundle area ratio, mesophyll/resin canal area ratio, mesophyll/(resin canals and vascular bundles) area ratio, vascular bundle/resin canal area ratio) relative to physiological adaptability were similar to the artificial hybrids and P. densata. The similar needle features between the artificial hybrids and P. densata could be used to verify the homoploid hybrid origin of P. densata and helps to better understand of the hybridization roles in adaptation and speciation in plants. PMID:24963383

  1. Genetic transformation and gene expression in white pine (pinus strobus)

    SciTech Connect

    Minocha, R.

    1987-10-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop protocols for transformation of white pine (Pinus strobus) embryonic tissue; and (2) to analyze the regulation of foreign gene expression in Pinus strobus. A number of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing chimeric genes for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII for kanamycin resistance) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of either a constitutive promoter (NOS-nopaline synthase) or light-inducible promoters (RuBisCO small subunit and chlorophyll a/b binding protein) were used. A variety of tissues from white pine seedlings and mature trees was used. The techniques for transformation were modified from those used for tobacco transformation. The results show that white pine tissue from young seedlings is high suitable for transformation by A. tumefaciens. Whereas the normal tissues are very sensitive to kanamycin, transformed callus was quite resistant to this antibiotic.

  2. Uptake of trifluoroacetate by Pinus ponderosa via atmospheric pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesch, J. A.; Gustin, M. S.

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF 3COO -), a break down product of hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs), has been suggested to contribute to forest decline syndrome. To investigate the possible effects, Pinus ponderosa was exposed to TFA applied as mist (150 and 10,000 ng l -1) to foliar surfaces. Needles accumulated TFA as a function of concentration and time. However, no adverse physiological responses, as plant morphology, photosynthetic and conductance rates, were observed at the TFA concentrations used in this study.

  3. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  4. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species. PMID:24783775

  5. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Chhatre, Vikram E; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C Dana; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M; Echt, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  6. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Jared W.; Chhatre, Vikram E.; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Neale, David B.; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C. Dana; Peter, Gary F.; Echt, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r2, between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r2 did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  7. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  8. [Feasibility to introduce rare tree species Pinus sibirica into China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guifeng; Yang, Chuanping; Zhao, Guangyi

    2002-11-01

    Pinus sibirica growing mainly in Siberia of Russia is distributed over the Euro-Asia Taiga forest belt. There are many high-quality populations due to a great deal of variations. This kind of tree has an advantage of standing up to frigid environment, and can spread out in such places that have cold weather and high altitude. In China, boreal forest is a wide-spreaded type of forest that has the largest area and high volume. For this reason, it is feasible to introduce Pinus sibirica into the region that the condition is suitable. Introducing this kind of tree is a strategic project that can improve the structure and quality of our boreal forest. Introducing it can not only meet the demands of improved variety in short time, but also do the experiment of producing edible seeds and build up the developing center of nut, which can be a way of getting rid of poverty of forest region in heavy frigid area where is regarded as infertile area for farming formerly. PMID:12625013

  9. The complete plastid genome of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhu, Juan; Yang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. chloroplast genome (cp DNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117 861 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), which were separated by large and small single copy regions (LSC and SSC) of 65 373 and 51 538 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contained 111 genes, including 71 protein-coding genes (71 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (4 rRNA species) and 36 tRNA genes (32 tRNA species). In these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 1 (ycf3) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of Bunge's pine cpDNA is 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 61.9%, 60.2% and 62.5%, respectively. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the maximum parsimony analysis suggested that all the sampled Pinus species clustered a monophyletic clade and have a high bootstrap support, and the cpDNA of P. bungeana is closely related to that of congeneric P. gerardiana. PMID:26122332

  10. [Community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest on Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexiang; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Dengwu; Lei, Ruide; Lan, Guoyu

    2004-03-01

    The community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest distributed on the mid-west zone of Qinling Mountains' south slope were investigated. The results showed that there were 166 seed plants belonging to 51 families, 111 generas. Among them, 65 genera, 66.7% of the total, belonged to temperate biome. There was a closely relationship between Pinus armandi forest and the temperate biome. As regards to the physiognomy of the community, phanerophyte made up 75.9% of the total, dominating the community. In the community, 96 species with middle-sized leaves made up 57.8%, and there were 139 single leaf species, accounted for 83.7% of the total. There was a complicated vertical structure in the community, which could be divided into three layers:arbor layer, shrub layer and herb layer. In addition, there were also a lot of inter-stratum plants in the community. It is also found that the lack of seedlings, saplings and small trees was due to both the self-thinning caused by intra-specific competition and the alien-thinning by inter-specific competition for the light resource in the stand. The population of P. armandi was characterized with the patch size about 100 m2. The dynamics of the community showed that the community was stable and in a process of development. PMID:15227979

  11. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  12. [Vertical distribution of fuels in Pinus yunnanensis forest and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinus yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age. PMID:23705375

  13. Levels and sources of PAHs in selected sites from Portugal: biomonitoring with Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster needles.

    PubMed

    Ratola, Nuno; Amigo, José Manuel; Alves, Arminda

    2010-04-01

    Pine needle samples from two pine species (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) were collected at 29 sites scattered throughout Portugal, in order to biomonitor the levels and trends of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The values obtained for the sum of all PAHs ranged from 76 to 1944 ng/g [dry weight (dw)]. Despite the apparent matrix similarities between both pine species, P. pinaster needles revealed higher mean entrapment levels than P. pinea (748 and 399 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively). The urban and industrial sites have the highest average of PAH incidence [for P. pinea, 465 and 433 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively, and for P. pinaster, 1147 and 915 ng/g (dw)], followed by the rural sites [233 ng/g and 711 ng/g (dw) per site, for P. pinea and P. pinaster, respectively]. The remote sites, both from P. pinaster needles, show the least contamination, with 77 ng/g (dw) per site. A predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs was observed in most samples, with phenanthrene having 30.1% of the total. Naphthalene prevailed in remote sites. Rainfall had no influence on the PAHs levels, but there was a relationship between higher wind speeds and lower concentrations. PAH molecular ratios revealed the influence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. PMID:20107982

  14. Comparative mapping among subsection Australes (genus Pinus, family Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Mervyn; Williams, Claire G

    2008-05-01

    Comparative mapping in conifers has not yet been used to test for small-scale genomic disruptions such as inversions, duplications, and deletions occurring between closely related taxa. Using comparative mapping to probe this smaller scale of inquiry may provide clues about speciation in a phylogenetically problematic taxon, the diploxylon pine subsection Australes (genus Pinus, family Pinaceae). Genetic maps were constructed for two allopatric species of Australes, P. elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis, using microsatellites and an F1 hybrid. A third map was generated directly from the meiotic products of an adult F1 hybrid, eliminating the need for an F2 generation. Numerous small-scale disruptions were detected in addition to synteny and collinearity, and these included (1) map shrinkage, (2) a paracentric inversion, (3) transmission ratio distortion, and (4) mild selection against a parental haplotype. Such cryptic signatures of genomic divergence between closely related interfertile species are useful in elucidating this problematic evolutionary history. PMID:18438435

  15. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) convicilin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Albillos, Silvia M; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Tankersley, Boyce; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-07-01

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that Korean pine convicilin was post-translationally processed. The N-terminal peptide sequences of its components were determined. These peptides could be mapped to a protein translated from an embryo abundant transcript isolated in this study. Similar to vicilin, native convicilin appeared to be homotrimeric. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that this protein is less resistant to thermal treatment than Korean pine vicilin. Its transition temperature was 75.57 °C compared with 84.13 °C for vicilin. The urea induced folding-unfolding equilibrium of pine convicilin monitored by intrinsic fluorescence could be interpreted in terms of a two-state model, with a Cm of 4.41 ± 0.15 M. PMID:24735553

  16. Endobacteria in some ectomycorrhiza of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-04-01

    The diversity of cultivable endobacteria associated with four different ectomycorrhizal morphotypes (Suillus flavidus, Suillus variegatus, Russula paludosa and Russula sp.) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling of PCR-amplified rDNA intergenic spacer regions and by sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes. Ectomycorrhizal root tip surface-sterilization methods were developed and assessed for their efficiencies. Bacterial communities from surface-sterilized ectomycorrhizal root tips were different from those of ectomycorrhizal root tips without surface-sterilization for all the morphotypes studied. Endobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Bacillus were isolated from more than one ectomycorrhizal morphotype, whereas species of Rahnella, Janthinobacterium and Rhodococcus were only isolated from the single morphotypes of S. variegatus, R. paludosa and Russula sp., respectively. Some of the isolated endobacteria utilized fungal sugars more readily than typical plant sugars in carbon utilization assays. PMID:16542403

  17. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, Siavash; Zolfaghari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm) were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods. PMID:24083233

  18. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito. PMID:25399814

  19. Family 34 glycosyltransferase (GT34) genes and proteins in Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine).

    PubMed

    Ade, Carsten P; Bemm, Felix; Dickson, James M J; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2014-04-01

    Using a functional genomics approach, four candidate genes (PtGT34A, PtGT34B, PtGT34C and PtGT34D) were identified in Pinus taeda. These genes encode CAZy family GT34 glycosyltransferases that are involved in the synthesis of cell-wall xyloglucans and heteromannans. The full-length coding sequences of three orthologs (PrGT34A, B and C) were isolated from a xylem-specific cDNA library from the closely related Pinus radiata. PrGT34B is the ortholog of XXT1 and XXT2, the two main xyloglucan (1→6)-α-xylosyltransferases in Arabidopsis thaliana. PrGT34C is the ortholog of XXT5 in A. thaliana, which is also involved in the xylosylation of xyloglucans. PrGT34A is an ortholog of a galactosyltransferase from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) that is involved in galactomannan synthesis. Truncated coding sequences of the genes were cloned into plasmid vectors and expressed in a Sf9 insect cell-culture system. The heterologous proteins were purified, and in vitro assays showed that, when incubated with UDP-xylose and cellotetraose, cellopentaose or cellohexaose, PrGT34B showed xylosyltransferase activity, and, when incubated with UDP-galactose and the same cello-oligosaccharides, PrGT34B showed some galactosyltransferase activity. The ratio of xylosyltransferase to galactosyltransferase activity was 434:1. Hydrolysis of the galactosyltransferase reaction products using galactosidases showed the linkages formed were α-linkages. Analysis of the products of PrGT34B by MALDI-TOF MS showed that up to three xylosyl residues were transferred from UDP-xylose to cellohexaose. The heterologous proteins PrGT34A and PrGT34C showed no detectable enzymatic activity. PMID:24517843

  20. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, Ian A.; St John, Mark G.; Yeates, Gregor W.; Morse, Chris W.; Bonner, Karen I.; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  1. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Ian A; St John, Mark G; Yeates, Gregor W; Morse, Chris W; Bonner, Karen I; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  2. Masting in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) depletes stored nutrients.

    PubMed

    Sala, Anna; Hopping, Kelly; McIntire, Eliot J B; Delzon, Sylvain; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2012-10-01

    • In masting trees, synchronized, heavy reproductive events are thought to deplete stored resources and to impose a replenishment period before subsequent masting. However, direct evidence of resource depletion in wild, masting trees is very rare. Here, we examined the timing and magnitude (local vs individual-level) of stored nutrient depletion after a heavy mast event in Pinus albicaulis. • In 2005, the mast year, we compared seasonal changes in leaf and sapwood nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and leaf photosynthetic rates in cone-bearing branches, branches that never produced cones, and branches with experimentally removed cones. We also compared nutrient concentrations in cone branches and branches that had never had cones between 2005 and 2006, and measured tree ring width and new shoot growth during 2005. • During the mast year, N or P depletion occurred only in tissue fractions of reproductive branches, where photosynthetic rates were reduced. However, by the end of the following year, nutrients were depleted in all branches, indicating individual-level resource depletion. New shoot and radial growth were not affected by masting. • We provide direct evidence that mast events in wild trees deplete stored nutrients. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating reproductive costs over time and at the individual level. PMID:22889129

  3. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity. PMID:27112001

  4. Water use by Pinus radiata trees in a plantation.

    PubMed

    Teskey, R. O.; Sheriff, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    We used the heat-pulse velocity technique to estimate transpirational water use of trees in an experimental 16-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in South Australia during a 4-month period from November 1993 to March 1994 (spring-summer). Fertilization and other silvicultural treatments during the first 8 years of the plantation produced trees ranging in diameter at a height of 1.3 m from 0.251 to 0.436 m, with leaf areas ranging from 83 to 337 m(2). Daily water use was greater for large trees than for small trees, but transpiration per unit leaf area was nearly identical. Daily transpiration was highly correlated with available soil water in the upper 1 m of soil and weakly correlated with irradiance and air temperature. For the stand (0.4 ha), estimated rates of transpiration ranged from 6.8 to 1.4 mm day(-1) in wet and dry soil conditions, respectively. Total water use by the plantation during the 4-month study period was 346 mm. Water transpired by the trees was about three times that extracted from the upper 1 m of soil. Large trees extracted water from the same soil volume as small trees and did not exhibit a greater potential to extract water from deeper soil when the upper horizons become dry. PMID:14871772

  5. Modeling productivity and transpiration of Pinus radiata: climatic effects.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D. W.; Mattay, J. P.; McMurtrie, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Climatic effects on annual net carbon gain, stem biomass and annual transpiration were simulated for Pinus radiata D. Don at Canberra and Mt. Gambier. Simulations were conducted with an existing process-based forest growth model (BIOMASS, Model 1) and with a modified version of the BIOMASS model (Model 2) in which response functions for carbon assimilation and leaf conductance were replaced with those derived from field gas exchange data collected at Mt. Gambier. Simulated carbon gain was compared with a published report stating that mean annual stem volume increment (MAI) at Mt. Gambier was 1.8 times greater than at Canberra and that the difference could be the result solely of differences in climate. Regional differences in climate resulted in a 20% greater simulated annual transpiration at Canberra than at Mt. Gambier but only small differences in simulated productivity, indicating that climatic differences did not account for the reported differences in productivity. With Model 1, simulated annual net carbon gain and annual increase in stem biomass were greater at Canberra than at Mt. Gambier, whereas Model 2 indicated a similar annual net carbon gain and annual stem biomass increase in both regions. PMID:14871762

  6. [Relationship between selection of Pinus massoniana families and Folium Pini].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Man-xi; Yan, Cui-qi; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jian-ming; Zhong, Yong-kun; Ke, Zun-hong; Hao, Xiao-feng; Ke, Xiao; Ye, Liang; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-05-01

    Based on variation of Pinus massoniana families, heritablility and correlation analysis, the contents of shikimic acid and procyanidine (heritability 0.90, 0.70), dry weight of single branch (heritability 0.60) and and leaf length (heritability 0.46) were screened out as quality, yield and harvest cost traits of Folium Pini, respectively. For the different medicinal application of Folium Pini, varied methods were chosen to estimate weight and construct index equation. Weight adjustment based.on equal emphasis were used as economic weight determining method to select the best families, and the index (accuracy 0. 936 4 and heritability 0. 881 6) obtained was a little better than that obtained by equal emphasis, and much better than that by restricted index. The superior families selected with adjustment weight and equal emphasis were No. 46, 43 and 28. Partial regression were used as economic weight determining method to select the best families,and the index obtained had the highest accuracy (0.941 5) , index heritability (0. 889 9) and the genetic gain of shikimic acid content. The superior families selected with this method were No. 46, 27 and 47. No. 46 was the best families with maximal economic benefit. Our study indicated that suitable method for estimate weight and construct index equation can be applied for better accuracy of superior families selection of P. massoniana. PMID:26323132

  7. Effects of "short" photoperiods on seedling growth of Pinus brutia.

    PubMed

    Iakovoglou, V; Radoglou, K; Kostopoulou, P; Dini-Papanastasi, O

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated how nurseries could benefit by inducing "short" photoperiods as low as 4 hr to produce "better" seedlings characterized by more vigorous roots; a substantial feature to overcome transplanting stress. The carryover effect of the photoperiod was also investigated on seedlings that grew for 30 days more underthe consistent 14 hr photoperiod. Seedlings of Pinus brutia were subjected to 4, 6, 8 and 14 hr photoperiod for 3 week. Fifteen seedlings were used to evaluate the leaf area, the root and shoot dry weight and their ratio. Six and sixteen seedlings were used to evaluate the shoot electrolyte leakage and the root growth potential, respectively. Based on the results, the 6 and 8 hr photoperiod indicated greater root allocation (4.8 and 4.9 mg, respectively) and chlorophyll content (3.7 and 4.4, respectively). They also indicated greater leaf area values (3.3 and 3.5 cm2, respectively) along with the 14 hr (3.4 cm2). The photoperiod effect continued even after seedlings were subjected at consistent photoperiod. Overall, "short" photoperiods could provide "better" P. brutia seedlings to accommodate immediate massive reforestation and afforestation needs. PMID:23033672

  8. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract.

    PubMed

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol(®) (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  9. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05 for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  10. Association genetics of the loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, Pinaceae) metabolome.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Andrew J; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Cumbie, W Patrick; Goldfarb, Barry; Huber, Dudley A; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Fiehn, Oliver; Neale, David B

    2012-03-01

    The metabolome of a plant comprises all small molecule metabolites, which are produced during cellular processes. The genetic basis for metabolites in nonmodel plants is unknown, despite frequently observed correlations between metabolite concentrations and stress responses. A quantitative genetic analysis of metabolites in a nonmodel plant species is thus warranted. Here, we use standard association genetic methods to correlate 3563 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to concentrations of 292 metabolites measured in a single loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) association population. A total of 28 single locus associations were detected, representing 24 and 20 unique SNPs and metabolites, respectively. Multilocus Bayesian mixed linear models identified 2998 additional associations for a total of 1617 unique SNPs associated to 255 metabolites. These SNPs explained sizeable fractions of metabolite heritabilities when considered jointly (56.6% on average) and had lower minor allele frequencies and magnitudes of population structure as compared with random SNPs. Modest sets of SNPs (n = 1-23) explained sizeable portions of genetic effects for many metabolites, thus highlighting the importance of multi-SNP models to association mapping, and exhibited patterns of polymorphism consistent with being linked to targets of natural selection. The implications for association mapping in forest trees are discussed. PMID:22129444

  11. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  12. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0–10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0–10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05; for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10–20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0–10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  13. Nitrogen metabolism in Lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Heerden, P. S.; Towers, G. H.; Lewis, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The primary metabolic fate of phyenylalanine, following its deamination in plants, is conscription of its carbon skeleton for lignin, suberin, flavonoid, and related metabolite formation. Since this accounts for approximately 30-40% of all organic carbon, an effective means of recycling the liberated ammonium ion must be operative. In order to establish how this occurs, the uptake and metabolism of various 15N-labeled precursors (15N-Phe, 15NH4Cl, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Glu) in lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures was investigated, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, 15N NMR, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses. It was found that the ammonium ion released during active phenylpropanoid metabolism was not made available for general amino acid/protein synthesis. Rather it was rapidly recycled back to regenerate phenylalanine, thereby providing an effective means of maintaining active phenylpropanoid metabolism with no additional nitrogen requirement. These results strongly suggest that, in lignifying cells, ammonium ion reassimilation is tightly compartmentalized.

  14. Hydraulic adjustments underlying drought resistance of Pinus halepensis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tamir; Cohen, Shabtai; Yakir, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality has increased over the last decades in forests around the globe. Our objective was to investigate under controlled conditions the hydraulic adjustments underlying the observed ability of Pinus halepensis to survive seasonal drought under semi-arid conditions. One hundred 18-month saplings were exposed in the greenhouse to 10 different drought treatments, simulating combinations of intensities (fraction of water supply relative to control) and durations (period with no water supply) for 30 weeks. Stomata closed at a leaf water potential (Ψ(l)) of -2.8 MPa, suggesting isohydric stomatal regulation. In trees under extreme drought treatments, stomatal closure reduced CO(2) uptake to -1 µmol m(-2) s(-1), indicating the development of carbon starvation. A narrow hydraulic safety margin of 0.3 MPa (from stomatal closure to 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) was observed, indicating a strategy of maximization of CO2 uptake in trees otherwise adapted to water stress. A differential effect of drought intensity and duration was observed, and was explained by a strong dependence of the water stress effect on the ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration T/ET and the larger partitioning to transpiration associated with larger irrigation doses. Under intense or prolonged drought, the root system became the main target for biomass accumulation, taking up to 100% of the added biomass, while the stem tissue biomass decreased, associated with up to 60% reduction in xylem volume. PMID:21712236

  15. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during

  16. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  17. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  18. [Comparative sequence analysis of the LEA gene fragment in Pinus sibirica du tour and Pinus pumila (Pallas) regel].

    PubMed

    Mglinets, A V; Sokolov, V A; Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N

    2014-02-01

    A comparative sequence analysis of the LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA)-like gene) intron fragment was performed in Pinus sibirica and P. pumila differing in geographic origin. It was demonstrated that in P. sibirica this fragment was represented by two types of PCR products, 224 and 202 bp in size. Similarly, in accessions of P. pumila, two PCR products of 224 and 159 bp in size were identified. Comparison of 224 bp fragments in P. sibirica and P. pumila showed that they differed in single nucleotide substitutions. Analysis of the intron fragment in a plant, which was characterized as an interspecific hybrid based on morphological characters, showed that it had fragments of 224 and 159 bp in size. The sequence of 224 bp fragment was similar to that of the corresponding fragment in P. sibirica. The structure of the short fragment was the same as the structure of the corresponding fragment in P. pumila. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the use of the sequences examined for species taxonomic classification and of an analysis of species hybridization. PMID:25711024

  19. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-01-01

    Background: So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Objective: Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. Results: This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). Conclusion: The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment. PMID:26664017

  20. Chronic effects of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus kraft mill effluents and phytosterols on Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    López, D; Chamorro, S; Silva, J; Bay-Schmith, E; Vidal, G

    2011-12-01

    Two kraft pulp mill effluents were compared in terms of their chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna. One resulted from pulping Pinus radiata and the other came from a parallel processing of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus (mixed kraft pulp mill effluent). The concentration of phytosterols found in the mixed kraft pulp mill effluent was higher than in the effluent from Pinus radiata, with values of 0.1082 and 0.02 μg/L, respectively. The phytosterols per se are responsible for 12.9% and 8.1% of the deviation from the natural shape, while the kraft pulp mill effluents account for 25.6%-27.8% of shape deviation. The role of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol is discussed in relation to endocrine disruption. PMID:21979137

  1. CCoAOMT suppression modifies lignin composition in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Torr, Kirk; Donaldson, Lloyd; Pears, Lana; Ralph, John

    2011-07-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the lignin-related enzyme caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) was isolated from a Pinus radiata cDNA library derived from differentiating xylem. Suppression of PrCCoAOMT expression in P. radiata tracheary element cultures affected lignin content and composition, resulting in a lignin polymer containing p-hydroxyphenyl (H), catechyl (C) and guaiacyl (G) units. Acetyl bromide-soluble lignin assays revealed reductions in lignin content of up to 20% in PrCCoAOMT-deficient transgenic lines. Pyrolysis-GC/MS and 2D-NMR studies demonstrated that these reductions were due to depletion of G-type lignin. Correspondingly, the proportion of H-type lignin in PrCCoAOMT-deficient transgenic lines increased, resulting in up to a 10-fold increase in the H/G ratio relative to untransformed controls. 2D-NMR spectra revealed that PrCCoAOMT suppression resulted in formation of benzodioxanes in the lignin polymer. This suggested that phenylpropanoids with an ortho-diphenyl structure such as caffeyl alcohol are involved in lignin polymerization. To test this hypothesis, synthetic lignins containing methyl caffeate or caffeyl alcohol were generated and analyzed by 2D-NMR. Comparison of the 2D-NMR spectra from PrCCoAOMT-RNAi lines and synthetic lignins identified caffeyl alcohol as the new lignin constituent in PrCCoAOMT-deficient lines. The incorporation of caffeyl alcohol into lignin created a polymer containing catechyl units, a lignin type that has not been previously identified in recombinant lignin studies. This finding is consistent with the theory that lignin polymerization is based on a radical coupling process that is determined solely by chemical processes. PMID:21426426

  2. Modeling the water balance of a small Pinus radiata catchment.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, D.; Kelliher, F. M.

    1991-01-01

    An hourly biophysical model was used to calculate the water balance over a period of one year for an 8.7-ha catchment with a closed-canopy, 13-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Components of the model are transpiration from the dry tree canopy, evaporation from the partially wet tree canopy and stems, evaporation from the understory and soil, and drainage from a single-layer root zone. The model requires input of hourly weather data (net radiation, air and wet bulb temperatures, windspeed, and rainfall), tree stand characteristics (average height, tree number, leaf area index), physical characteristics of the site (root zone depth, relationship between root zone matric potential and volumetric water content, the relationship between the rate of drainage from the root zone and volumetric water content, and the area of open-stream channels). A submodel of the response of stomatal conductance to air saturation deficit and root zone matric potential is also required. Tree transpiration (704 mm year(-1) or 50% of annual rainfall) was a dominant component of the catchment water balance. Estimated evaporation from the wet tree canopy was 203 mm year(-1) (15%). Evaporation from the understory was much less, amounting to 94 mm year(-1) (7%) and an increase in water storage for the 3.5 m root zone depth was estimated to be 53 mm year(-1) (4%). Estimated daily rates of drainage generally agreed well with measurements of streamflow, although estimated annual drainage (349 mm year(-1), 24%) exceeded measured streamflow (234 mm year(-1)). The significance of the results is discussed in relation to closure of the hydrologic balance. PMID:14972854

  3. [Stem respiration of Pinus koraiensis in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Ji, Lanzhu; Li, Qiurong; Xiao, Dongmei; Liu, Hailiang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, soil respiration chamber, a simple and precise method, was used to measure the stem respiration of trees. LI-6400-09 respiration chamber serving as a system is usually used in soil respiration, but we made polyvinyl chloride (PVC) collar and fixed it on the stem surface to measure the stem respiration. From May to October 2003, the stem respiration of Pinus koraiensis, the dominant tree species in Changbai Mountain, was measured in different time and different places using this technique. Meanwhile, the temperatures in the stems and in the forests were measured. The results showed that the stem respiration rate had a remarkably seasonal tendency with a single peak, the maximum was in August and the minimum was in February. The stem respiration rate had an exponential relationship with stem temperature, and the curve exponential regressions for stem respiration rate and temperature factor of trees with big DBH were better than those with small DBH. The stem respiration in different DBH trees was higher in the south stem face than that in the north stem face, and the variance of respiration rate between south and north decreased with a decrease of DBH trees. During the growing season from May to October, the average maintenance respiration accounted for 63.63% in different DBH trees, and the maintenance respiration contribution to total respiratory consumption increased with increasing DBH, which was 66.76, 73.29% and 50.84%, respectively. The stem respiration Q10 values ranged from 2.56-3.32 in different DBH of trees, and the seasonal tendency for stem R, and Rm in different DBH of trees was obtained by using respiration Q10. Therefore, the differences between different parts of stem and different DBH of trees should be considered in estimating the respiration model in ecosystem. PMID:15852948

  4. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  5. EFFECTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON GROWTH AND BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The future productivity of forests will be affected by combinations of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3. Because productivity of forests will, in part, be determined by growth of young trees, we evaluated shoot growth and biomass responses of Pinus ponderosa seedlings exposed to ...

  6. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations and is threatened by multiple stresses, including rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and pop...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA capture and divergence in Pinus provide new insights into the evolution of the genus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baosheng; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of the mitochondrial (mt) genome is far from being fully understood. Systematic investigations into the modes of inheritance, rates and patterns of recombination, nucleotide substitution, and structural changes in the mt genome are still lacking in many groups of plants. In this study, we sequenced >11kbp mtDNA segments from multiple accessions of 36 pine species to characterize the evolutionary patterns of mtDNA in the genus Pinus. We found extremely low substitution rates and complex repetitive sequences scattered across different genome regions, as well as chimeric structures that were probably generated by multiple intergenomic recombinations. The mtDNA-based phylogeny of the genus differed from that based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA in the placement of several groups of species. Such discordances suggest a series of mtDNA capture events during past range shifts of the pine species and that both vertical and horizontal inheritance are implicated in the evolution of mtDNA in Pinus. MtDNA dating revealed that most extant lineages of the genus originated during Oligocene-Miocene radiation and subgenus Strobus diversified earlier than subgenus Pinus. Our findings illustrate a reticular evolutionary pathway for the mt genome through capture and recombination in the genus Pinus, and provide new insights into the evolution of the genus. PMID:25106134

  8. ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY IN A LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) GENETICS PLANTATION: INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Has co-evolved a high dependency on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations most likely because its natural range includes soils of varying moisture that are P- and/or N-deficient. Because of its wide geographic distrubition, we would expect its roots t...

  9. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  10. Stand variation in Pinus radiata and its relationship with allometric scaling and critical buckling height

    PubMed Central

    Waghorn, Matthew J.; Watt, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Allometric relationships and the determination of critical buckling heights have been examined for Pinus radiata in the past. However, how they relate to more mature Pinus radiata exhibiting a wide range of stem diameters, slenderness and modulus of elasticity (E) at operationally used stand densities is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Pinus radiata stand structure variables and allometric scaling and critical buckling height. Methods Utilizing a Pinus radiata Nelder trial with stand density and genetic breed as variables, critical buckling height was calculated whilst reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between critical height (Hcrit), actual height (H), ground line diameter (D), slenderness (S), density-specific stiffness (E/ρ) and modulus of elasticity (E). Key Results Critical buckling height was highly responsive to decreasing diameter and increasing slenderness. Safety factors in this study were typically considerably lower than previously reported margins in other species. As density-specific stiffness scaled negatively with diameter, the exponent of 0·55 between critical height and diameter did not meet the assumed value of 0·67 under constant density-specific stiffness. E scaled positively with stem slenderness to the power of 0·78. Conclusions The findings suggest that within species density-specific stiffness variation may influence critical height and the scaling exponent between critical height and diameter, which is considered so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships. PMID:23388878

  11. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Temulose” is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in southeastern Texas. Because...

  12. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  13. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  14. CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF OLD PINUS PONDEROSA TREES TO STAND DENSITY REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stand density reductions have been proposed as a method by which old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of North America can be converted back to pre-1900 conditions, thereby reducing the danger of catastrophic forest fires and insect attacks while increasing product...

  15. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS ON LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA) FOLLOWING COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite-derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in Virginia and North Carolina. In order to separate NDVI contributions of the dominantc...

  16. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in south-eastern Texas. Becaus...

  17. MODIFYING LIGNIN IN CONIFERS: THE ROLE OF HCT DURING TRACHEARY ELEMENT FORMATION IN PINUS RADIATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) is involved in the production of methoxylated monolignols that are precursors to guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in angiosperm species. We identified and cloned a putative HCT gene from Pinus radiata, a coniferous gymnosperm, ...

  18. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp. PMID:26626827

  19. Photosynthetic acclimation to enriched CO{sub 2} concentrations in Pinus Ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    By the middle of the 21st century earth`s ambient CO{sub 2} level is expected to increase two-fold ({approximately}350 umol/L). Higher levels of CO{sub 2} are expected to cause major changes in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits of the world`s vegetation. Therefore, we constructed an experiment designed to measure the long-term acclimation processes of Pinus Ponderosa. As a prominent forest conifer, Pinus Ponderosa is useful when assessing a large scale global carbon budget. Eighteen genetically variable families were exposed to 3 different levels of CO{sub 2} (350 umol/L, 525 umol/L, 700 umol/L), for three years. Acclimation responses were quantified by assays of photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll pigment concentrations.

  20. Volatiles as Chemosystematic Markers for Distinguishing Closely Related Species within the Pinus mugo Complex.

    PubMed

    Celiński, Konrad; Bonikowski, Radosław; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Chudzińska, Ewa; Maliński, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS analysis was used to identify the constituents of pine-needle volatiles differentiating three closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex, i.e., P. uncinata Ramond ex DC., P. uliginosa G.E.Neumann ex Wimm., and P. mugo Turra. Moreover, chemosystematic markers were proposed for the three analyzed pine species. The major constituents of the pine-needle volatiles were α-pinene (28.4%) and bornyl acetate (10.8%) for P. uncinata, δ-car-3-ene (21.5%) and α-pinene (16.1%) for P. uliginosa, and α-pinene (20%) and δ-car-3-ene (18.1%) for P. mugo. This study is the first report on the application of the composition of pine-needle volatiles for the reliable identification of closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex. PMID:26265572

  1. Voltammetric analysis of Pinus needles with physiological, phylogenetic, and forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Miranda, Annette S; König, Peter; Kahlert, Heike; Scholz, Fritz; Osete-Cortina, Laura; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenolic compounds are electrochemically active components of vegetal matter which were targeted under simple experimental conditions to produce voltammetric profiles characterizing the metabolite composition. Application to bivariate and multivariate chemometric techniques permits to discriminate the species and age of plant leaves, illustrated here for the case of six Pinus species from two different subgenera. Such responses, associated with the electrochemical oxidation of polyphenolic compounds (quercetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, among others), define a voltammetric profile which varies systematically with the age of the leaves for the different species. The application of this methodology for phylogenetic studies, plant physiology, forensic science, and chemoecology is discussed. Graphical Abstract Image of Pinus in a typical Mediterranean forest; Courtesy of the Botanic Garden of the University of Valencia. PMID:27173392

  2. Occurrence of cyclic AMP and related enzymes during germination of Pinus pinea seeds.

    PubMed

    Martelli, P; Lusini, P; Bovalini, L; Bartali, R; Franchi, G G; Cinci, G

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of cAMP, adenylate cyclase and cAMP phosphodiesterase has been tested in Pinus pinea seed during germination. The study has been carried out on dormant and imbibed seeds, seedlings, endospermic residues, roots and cotyledons. cAMP has been detected by the protein binding method and its occurrence has been verified by HPLC detections. cAMP phosphodiesterase shows a very high activity at acidic pH, while being completely inactive at pH 7.4. At this pH value, well detectable levels of adenylate cyclase have been observed. Therefore, the classical pathway of synthesis and breakdown of cAMP, already accepted for animal and bacterial cells, seems to be operating in Pinus pinea plant too. PMID:3038780

  3. Effect of Pinus massoniana Lamb. bark extract on lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuxia; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Xuedong; Gao, Yaqian; Qin, Xing; Wu, Kun

    2012-10-01

    Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) at a concentration of 60 microg/mL or more inhibits the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic proteins, such as Rta, Zta, and EA-D. EBV lytic cycle was blocked by inhibiting the transcription of immediate-early genes. The results suggest that the PMBE has anti-EBV activity. Thus, the extract is potentially useful in preventing the lytic development of EBV in vitro. PMID:23214264

  4. Dissipation of excess excitation energy of the needle leaves in Pinus trees during cold winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, AO; Cui, Zhen-Hai; Yu, Jia-Lin; Hu, Zi-Ling; Ding, Rui; Ren, Da-Ming; Zhang, Li-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Photooxidative damage to the needle leaves of evergreen trees results from the absorption of excess excitation energy. Efficient dissipation of this energy is essential to prevent photodamage. In this study, we determined the fluorescence transients, absorption spectra, chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll a/b ratios, and relative membrane permeabilities of needle leaves of Pinus koraiensis, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Pinus armandi in both cold winter and summer. We observed a dramatic decrease in the maximum fluorescence (F m) and substantial absorption of light energy in winter leaves of all three species. The F m decline was not correlated with a decrease in light absorption or with changes in chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio. The results suggested that the winter leaves dissipated a large amount of excess energy as heat. Because the cold winter leaves had lost normal physiological function, the heat dissipation depended solely on changes in the photosystem II supercomplex rather than the xanthophyll cycle. These findings imply that more attention should be paid to heat dissipation via changes in the photosystem complex structure during the growing season.

  5. Chloroplast evolution in the Pinus montezumae complex: a coalescent approach to hybridization.

    PubMed

    Matos, J A; Schaal, B A

    2000-08-01

    This study addresses the evolutionary history of the chloroplast genomes of two closely related pine species, Pinus hartwegii Lindl. and P. montezumae Lamb (subsect. Ponderosae) using coalescent theory and some of the statistical tools that have been developed from it during the past two decades. Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae are closely related species in the P. montezumae complex (subsect. Ponderosae) of Mexico and Central America. Pinus hartwegii is a high elevation species, whereas P. montezumae occurs at lower elevations. The two species occur on many of the same mountains throughout Mexico. A total of 350 individuals of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae were collected from Nevado de Colima (Jalisco), Cerro Potosí (Nuevo León), Iztaccihuatl/Popocatepetl (México), and Nevado de Toluca (México). The chloroplast genome of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae was mapped using eight restriction enzymes. Fifty-one different haplotypes were characterized; 38 of 160 restriction sites were polymorphic. Clades of most parsimoniously related chloroplast haplotypes are geographically localized and do not overlap in distribution, and the geographically localized clades of haplotypes include both P. hartwegii and P. montezumae. Some haplotypes in the clades occur in only one of the two species, whereas other haplotypes occur in both species. These data strongly suggest ancient and/or ongoing hybridization between P. hartwegii and P. montezumae and a shared chloroplast genome history within geographic regions of Mexico. PMID:11005290

  6. Ectomycorrhizae influences on CO/sub 2/ exchange and carbon allocation in Pinus

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    Although the importance of mycorrhizal fungi in nutrient ion absorption is relatively well documented, little is known concerning the energy cost required of the host plant for the maintenance of the nurient-absorbing area provided by the mycorrhizae. The objective of this research was to gain further knowledge on how the basic physiological processes of photosynthesis and respiration, as well as allocation of carbon compounds, may be stimulated in host Pinus seedlings through source-sink relationships resulting from mycorrhizae. Seedlings of four Pinus species with 50-75% short root infection by three mycorrhizae species had a rate of net photosynthesis 3X as great as that of noninfected plants. The increase in CO/sub 2/ fixation appeared linear with respect to fungal infection as percentage short root infection increased from zero to 75%. When other parameters of seedling growth and morphology, i.e. shoot and root dry weight, dark respiration rates, and foliar concentration of nitrogen, were correlated with net photosynthetic rate, only mycorrhizae infection demonstrated a statistically significant (P < 0.05) influence on increasing host CO/sub 2/ exchange. Partitioning of current photosynthate was examined by pulse-labeling Pinus taeda L. with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ at each of six time intervals. Although the stimulation of photosynthesis and allocation of current photosynthate to the root system by mycorrhizae formation was consistent with the source-sink concept of sink demand, foliar N and P concentrations were also greater in mycorrhizal plants.

  7. [Major features of decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation on sandy land].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangyun; Jiang, Fengqi; Li, Xiaodan; Xue, Yang; Qiu, Sufen

    2004-12-01

    In view of the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Zhanggutai sand land of Liaoning Province, this paper studied the major characteristics of the decline. The appearance of the declining man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was grey green, its needle leaf was very thin, the blooming and fruiting rate was low, the average quantity of cones per tree was only 10.4-16.5, with only 6.96 g to 7.39 g per thousand seeds, and there were many empty and astringent seeds. The seasonal dynamics of nutrients in 2-year-old pine needle leaf was similar, i.e., the N and P contents decreased, while K content increased, showing that the nutrient cycle was imbalance. The chlorophyll content in 2-year-old needle leaf of declined forest was high, while that in 1-year-old healthy forest was also high but with a wide increasing range. The infected harm of shoot blight was the clearest mark to the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. After the forest declined, the height and the DBH of the pine trees decreased evidently, and the structure of DBH distribution moved "left". The quantity of weak pine trees increased by 15.9%-27.2%, the roots decreased by 22.9%-28.9%, and the absorbing roots (diameter < 0.5 cm) decreased most seriously. PMID:15825430

  8. Assay and Electrophoresis of Superoxide Dismutase from Red Spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.), and Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Tandy, Norman E.; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Richardson, Curtis J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a method for extracting the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the needles of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with high efficiency and free from interfering compounds. The extraction employs phosphate buffer with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone and Triton X-100 followed by dialysis overnight. The isozymes of SOD in each species were separated electrophoretically and tested for their sensitivity to KCN and H2O2. An isozyme resistant to these inhibitors was found in the spruce but not the pine needles. The isozymes from the spruce needles were examined for individual responses to aging and H2O2 inhibition. Four of the five CuZn isozymes in spruce were found to have increased significantly but equally by October of their first year and two of those four isozymes were found to be more sensitive to H2O2. The response of the SOD isozymes in loblolly pine seedlings to O3 was also examined and the isozymes were found to be induced equally. Because the SOD activity in the young pine needles was too low to electrophorese, the SOD activity from the pines in the O3 experiment had to be partially purified using CHCl3 and ethanol, then concentrated. PMID:16666837

  9. Differences in defence responses of Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera are affected by water deficit.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; El Kayal, Walid; Copeland, Charles C J; Zaharia, L Irina; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypotheses that responses to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera will differ between the evolutionarily co-evolved host lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and the naïve host jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and that these responses will be influenced by water availability. G. clavigera inoculation resulted in more rapid stem lesion development in lodgepole than in jack pine; water deficit delayed lesion development in both species. Decreased hydraulic conductivity was observed in inoculated lodgepole pine seedlings, likely because of tracheid occlusion by fungal hyphae and/or metabolite accumulation. Drought but not inoculation significantly impacted bark abscisic acid levels. Jasmonic and salicylic acid were implicated in local and systemic responses of both species to G. clavigera, with salicylic acid appearing to play a greater role in jack pine response to G. clavigera than lodgepole pine. Water deficit increased constitutive levels and/or attenuated induced responses to G. clavigera for several monoterpenes in lodgepole but not jack pine. Instead, inoculation of well-watered but not water deficit jack pine resulted in a greater number of xylem resin ducts. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying differences in G. clavigera-induced responses between lodgepole and jack pine hosts, and how water availability modulates these responses. PMID:26205849

  10. Biomarker genes highlight intraspecific and interspecific variations in the responses of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don to Sirex noctilio F. acid gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Bordeaux, John Michael; Lorenz, W Walter; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2012-10-01

    Sirex noctilio F., a Eurasian horntail woodwasp recently introduced into North America, oviposits in pines and other conifers and in the process spreads a phytopathogenic fungus that serves as a food source for its larvae. During oviposition the woodwasp also deposits mucus produced in its acid (venom) gland that alters pine defense responses and facilitates infection by the fungus. A 26,496-feature loblolly pine cDNA microarray was used to survey gene expression of pine tissue responding to S. noctilio venom. Six genes were selected for further assessment by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), including one that encoded an apparent PR-4 protein and another that encoded a thaumatin-like protein. Expression of both was strongly induced in response to venom, while expression of an apparent actin gene (ACT1) was stable in response to the venom. The pattern of gene response was similar in Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don, but the magnitude of response in P. radiata was significantly stronger for each of the induced genes. The magnitude of the biomarker gene response to venom also varied according to genotype within these two species. The qRT-PCR assay was used to demonstrate that the primary bioactive component in S. noctilio venom is a polypeptide. PMID:23042767

  11. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  12. Cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra and Pinus sylvestris at their climatic limits in the Eastern Alps in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Summary It has been frequently stressed that at distributional boundaries, like at the Alpine timberline and within dry inner Alpine environments, tree growth will be affected first by changing climate conditions. Climate in 2007 was characterized by the occurrence of exceptionally mild temperatures in spring (3.4 and 2.7 °C above long-term mean (LTM) at timberline and the valley sites, respectively) with an almost continuous drought period recorded in April and slightly warmer than average temperatures throughout summer (1.3 °C above LTM at both sites). We compared temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra at the Alpine timberline (1950 m a.s.l.) and Pinus sylvestris at a xeric inner Alpine site (750 m a.s.l.) by repeated cellular analyses of micro-cores (n = 5 trees/site). While onset of wood formation in P. sylvestris and P. cembra differed by about two weeks (12 and 27 April, respectively), maximum daily growth rates peaked on 6 May at the valley site and on 23 June at timberline. At both sites maximum tracheid production was reached prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions during summer, i.e. an increase in precipitation and temperature. Xylem formation ended on 31 August and 28 October at the xeric site and at timberline, respectively. This study demonstrates the plasticity of tree-ring formation along an altitudinal transect in response to water availability and temperature. Whether early achievement of maximum growth rates is an adaptation to cope with extreme environmental conditions prevailing at limits of tree growth needs to be analysed more closely by taking belowground carbon allocation into account. PMID:24273354

  13. The Influence of Pinus brutia on the Water Balance of Fractured Mediterranean Mountain Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lubczynski, Maciek; Christou, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In dry Mediterranean environments, both rainfall and temperature vary throughout the year and frequent droughts occur. The mountainous topography is characterized by steep slopes, often leading to shallow soil layers with limited water storage capacity. While for most of the tree species, these conditions can be characterized as unfavourable, Pinus brutia trees manage to survive and thrive. The main objective of this study is to define and quantify the water balance components of a Pinus brutia forest at tree level. Our study was conducted from 30/12/2014 until 31/09/2015 in an 8966-m2 fenced area of Pinus brutia forest. The site is located on the northern foothills of Troodos mountain at 620 m elevation, in Cyprus. The slope of the site ranged between 0 and 82%. The average daily minimum temperature is 5 0C in January and the average daily maximum temperature is 35 oC in August. The mean annual rainfall is 425 mm. We measured the diameter at breast height (DBH) from a total of 122 trees. Based on the average DBH, four trees were selected for monitoring (two were above the average DBH and two were below). We measured soil depth in a 1-m grid around each of the four selected trees. We processed soil depths in ArcGIS software (ESRI) to create a soil depth map. We used a Total Station and a differential GPS for the creation of a high resolution DEM of the area covering the four selected trees. We installed soil moisture sensors at 15-cm depth at distances of 1 and 2 m from the selected trees and a second sensor at 30-cm depth when the soil was deeper than 20 cm.. We randomly installed four metric manual rain gauges under each trees' canopy to measure throughfall and for stemflow we installed a plastic tube around each tree trunk and connected it to a manual rain gauge. We used six sap flow heat ratio method instruments to determine sap flow rates of the Pinus brutia trees. Two trees had one sensor installed at 1.3 m height facing north. The remaining trees had two sap

  14. Molecular phylogenetics and evolutionary history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus): implications for Northern Hemisphere biogeography.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Yan; Nazaire, Mare; Wei, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-06-01

    Climatic changes and tectonic events in the Cenozoic have greatly influenced the evolution and geographic distribution of the temperate flora. Such consequences should be most evident in plant groups that are ancient, widespread, and diverse. As one of the most widespread genera of trees, Pinus provides a good model for investigating the history of species diversification and biogeographic disjunction in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny and investigated the evolutionary and biogeographic history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus), a species-rich lineage disjunctly distributed in Asia, Europe and North America, based on complete taxon sampling and by using nine DNA fragments from chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear genomes. The monophyly of the three subsections, Krempfianae, Gerardianae, and Strobus, is well-supported by cpDNA and nuclear gene phylogenies. However, neither subsect. Gerardianae nor subsect. Strobus forms a monophyletic group in the mtDNA phylogeny, in which sect. Quinquefoliae was divided into two major clades, one consisting of the North American and northeastern Asian species as well as the European P. peuce of subsect. Strobus, and the other comprising the remaining Eurasian species belonging to three subsections. The significant topological incongruence among the gene trees, in conjunction with divergence time estimation and ancestral area reconstruction, indicates that both ancient and relatively recent introgressive hybridization events occurred in the evolution of sect. Quinquefoliae, particularly in northeastern Asia and northwestern North America. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis suggests that the species of subsect. Strobus from subtropical eastern Asia and neighboring areas may have a single origin, although species non-monophyly is very widespread in the nuclear gene trees. Moreover, our study seems to support a Tethyan origin of sect. Quinquefoliae given the distributions and

  15. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ(13)C and δ(18)O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain. PMID:24742549

  16. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  17. Price sensitivity of bioethanol produced in New Zealand from Pinus radiata wood

    SciTech Connect

    Manderson, G.J.; Spencer, K.; Paterson, A.H.J. . Dept. of Biotechnology); Qureshi, N. ); Jansen, D.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis conducted of designs for industry-scale ethanol production facilities that use both hexoses and pentoses to produce 97 to 107 tonnes of anhydrous ethanol per day from 960 tonnes of Pinus radiata wood of 50% moisture content (480 oven-dried tonnes). Various process options and available technologies were considered for cost comparisons. The base case plant design was used to assess the probable importance of not fermenting thee wood pentose fraction. When pentose sugars were not fermented, the ethanol price increased from $0.71/L to $0.75/L. The influence of various economic factors on selling price is assessed.

  18. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of sterols from Pinus elliotti tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Evans, R.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A comparative study of the sterol components of slash pine (Pinus elliotti) callus tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings was carried out using GC-MS techniques. Cholesterol, desmosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cycloeucalenol were identified in all tissues while lophenol and 24-methylenelophenol were identified in only the seed and seedlings. 24-Ethylidenelophenol was detected in trace concentrations in only the seedlings. Sitosterol was the predominant sterol component, i.e., 80.8, 38.1 and 47.8% of the tissue culture, seed and seedling sterols, respectively.

  19. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  20. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2014-09-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

  1. Construction of an AFLP genetic map with nearly complete genome coverage in Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Remington, D L; Whetten, R W; Liu, B H; O'Malley, D M

    1999-06-01

    De novo construction of complete genetic linkage maps requires large mapping populations, large numbers of genetic markers, and efficient algorithms for ordering markers and evaluating order confidence. We constructed a complete genetic map of an individual loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers segregating in haploid megagametophytes and PGRI mapping software. We generated 521 polymorphic fragments from 21 AFLP primer pairs. A total of 508 fragments mapped to 12 linkage groups, which is equal to the Pinus haploid chromosome number. Bootstrap locus order matrices and recombination matrices generated by PGRI were used to select 184 framework markers that could be ordered confidently. Order support was also evaluated using log likelihood criteria in MAPMAKER. Optimal marker orders from PGRI and MAPMAKER were identical, but the implied reliability of orders differed greatly. The framework map provides nearly complete coverage of the genome, estimated at approximately 1700 cM in length using a modified estimator. This map should provide a useful framework for merging existing loblolly pine maps and adding multiallelic markers as they become available. Map coverage with dominant markers in both linkage phases will make the map useful for subsequent quantitative trait locus mapping in families derived by self-pollination. PMID:12238515

  2. Unique Features of the Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Megagenome Revealed Through Sequence Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyn, Jill L.; Liechty, John D.; Stevens, Kristian A.; Wu, Le-Shin; Loopstra, Carol A.; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A.; Dougherty, William M.; Lin, Brian Y.; Zieve, Jacob J.; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Holt, Carson; Yandell, Mark; Zimin, Aleksey V.; Yorke, James A.; Crepeau, Marc W.; Puiu, Daniela; Salzberg, Steven L.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Main, Doreen; Langley, Charles H.; Neale, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The largest genus in the conifer family Pinaceae is Pinus, with over 100 species. The size and complexity of their genomes (∼20–40 Gb, 2n = 24) have delayed the arrival of a well-annotated reference sequence. In this study, we present the annotation of the first whole-genome shotgun assembly of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), which comprises 20.1 Gb of sequence. The MAKER-P annotation pipeline combined evidence-based alignments and ab initio predictions to generate 50,172 gene models, of which 15,653 are classified as high confidence. Clustering these gene models with 13 other plant species resulted in 20,646 gene families, of which 1554 are predicted to be unique to conifers. Among the conifer gene families, 159 are composed exclusively of loblolly pine members. The gene models for loblolly pine have the highest median and mean intron lengths of 24 fully sequenced plant genomes. Conifer genomes are full of repetitive DNA, with the most significant contributions from long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons. In depth analysis of the tandem and interspersed repetitive content yielded a combined estimate of 82%. PMID:24653211

  3. Do stable oxygen isotope series from Pinus sylvestris growing in Scotland retain information on precipitation dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Ewan; Loader, Neil; McCarroll, Danny; Robertson, Iain; Heaton, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    In order to better constrain climate predictions it is essential to reduce error in climate reconstructions and understand how climate behaves at different temporal frequencies. Few high-resolution climate reconstructions exist for Britain, despite the strong influence of the North Atlantic on this temperate maritime zone. Annually-resolved stable oxygen isotope series from Pinus sylvestris L. growing at Southern Glens (western Highlands of Scotland) may provide information on precipitation dynamics in northern Britain. A significant correlation (r = 0.68; P< 0.01) exists between δ18O cellulose (Southern Glens) and mean June-July δ18O precipitation (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation GNIP) from Wallingford, Oxfordshire (AD 1982-2003). Whilst acknowledging the limited length of the GNIP dataset, the strength of the correlation suggests that between AD 1982 and 2003 both Southern Glens and Wallingford were subjected to the same June-July low pressure systems (depressions) as they passed over Britain from west to east. These data indicate that despite evaporative enrichment in the leaf, a significant proportion of variance in δ18O precipitation (R2 = 0.45) may be retained in the cellulose of Pinus sylvestris growing at Southern Glens. Such a relationship demonstrates the potential for reconstructing the δ18O of precipitation at this site, possibly providing information on past variability in air mass dominance and precipitation dynamics in the region.

  4. [Spectral features analysis of Pinus massoniana with pest of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and levels detection].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-Hua; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-Yong; Gong, Cong-Hong; Xie, Wan-Jun; Tang, Meng-Ya; Lai, Ri-Wen; Li, Zeng-Lu

    2013-02-01

    Taking 51 field measured hyperspectral data with different pest levels in Yanping, Fujian Province as objects, the spectral reflectance and first derivative features of 4 levels of healthy, mild, moderate and severe insect pest were analyzed. On the basis of 7 detecting parameters construction, the pest level detecting models were built. The results showed that (1) the spectral reflectance of Pinus massoniana with pests were significantly lower than that of healthy state, and the higher the pest level, the lower the reflectance; (2) with the increase in pest level, the spectral reflectance curves' "green peak" and "red valley" of Pinus massoniana gradually disappeared, and the red edge was leveleds (3) the pest led to spectral "green peak" red shift, red edge position blue shift, but the changes in "red valley" and near-infrared position were complicated; (4) CARI, RES, REA and REDVI were highly relevant to pest levels, and the correlations between REP, RERVI, RENDVI and pest level were weak; (5) the multiple linear regression model with the variables of the 7 detection parameters could effectively detect the pest levels of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, with both the estimation rate and accuracy above 0.85. PMID:23697126

  5. Catalytic Conversion of Pinus densiflora Over Mesoporous Catalysts Using Pyrolysis Process.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung Kyun; Lee, In-Gu; Lee, Hyung Won; Chea, Kwang-Seok; Jo, Tae Su; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Ko, Chang Hyun; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of obtaining valuable chemicals from Pinus densiflora, a native Korean tree species occupying 21.4% of the total area under forests in South Korea. Two representative mesoporous catalysts, Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F, as well as hierarchical mesoporous MFI (Meso-MFI) that has both mesopores and micropores, were used as catalysts. Compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis was shown to reduce the fractions of levoglucosan, phenolics, and acids in bio-oil, while increasing the fractions of aromatics, PAHs, and furans. Meso-MFI with strong acid sites showed a high selectivity toward aromatics and PAHs, whereas Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F with weak acid sites exhibited a high selectivity toward furanic compounds. The results of this study indicate that choosing a catalyst with an adequate quantity of acidic sites with the required strength is critical for enhancing the production of desired chemicals from Pinus densiflora. PMID:27433632

  6. Fire-adapted traits of Pinus arose in the fiery Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    He, Tianhua; Pausas, Juli G; Belcher, Claire M; Schwilk, Dylan W; Lamont, Byron B

    2012-05-01

    • The mapping of functional traits onto chronograms is an emerging approach for the identification of how agents of natural selection have shaped the evolution of organisms. Recent research has reported fire-dependent traits appearing among flowering plants from 60 million yr ago (Ma). Although there are many records of fossil charcoal in the Cretaceous (65-145 Ma), evidence of fire-dependent traits evolving in that period is lacking. • We link the evolutionary trajectories for five fire-adapted traits in Pinaceae with paleoatmospheric conditions over the last 250 million yr to determine the time at which fire originated as a selective force in trait evolution among seed plants. • Fire-protective thick bark originated in Pinus c. 126 Ma in association with low-intensity surface fires. More intense crown fires emerged c. 89 Ma coincident with thicker bark and branch shedding, or serotiny with branch retention as an alternative strategy. These innovations appeared at the same time as the Earth's paleoatmosphere experienced elevated oxygen levels that led to high burn probabilities during the mid-Cretaceous. • The fiery environments of the Cretaceous strongly influenced trait evolution in Pinus. Our evidence for a strong correlation between the evolution of fire-response strategies and changes in fire regime 90-125 Ma greatly backdates the key role that fire has played in the evolution of seed plants. PMID:22348443

  7. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on stem maintenance and construction respiration in Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, E.V.; Delucia, E.H.; Ball, J.T. |

    1995-06-01

    We measured woody tissue respiration on stems of 4-year-old Pinus ponderosa growing under ambient (350 ppm) and twice ambient (700 ppm) atmospheric CO{sub 2} in open top chambers located at the Institute of Forest Genetics in Placerville, CA. Mean daily respiration rate per unit volume of wood was greater in trees growing under the elevated (700 ppm) treatment (46.75 vs 40.45 mol m{sup -3} d{sup -1}). This difference was due to a higher Q{sub 10} of respiration in the elevated (Q{sub 10}=2.20) versus the ambient (Q{sub 10}=1.67) treatment. The higher Q{sub 10} and CO{sub 2} efflux rate were not due to differences in phenology but may reflect a difference in demand for metabolic energy. In contrast to results seen in leaves growing under elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} analysis of tissue construction costs suggests no difference in wood composition between treatments. Estimates of growth respiration calculated from construction costs also did not differ. Under future predicted atmospheric conditions, changes in the maintenance respiration of woody tissue may lead to an increase in the respiration component of whole plant carbon budgets of Pinus ponderosa.

  8. Simulation of Tsunami Resistance of a Pinus Thunbergii tree in Coastal Forest in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanko, K.; Suzuki, S.; Noguchi, H.; Hagino, H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests reduce fluid force of tsunami, whereas extreme tsunami sometimes breaks down the forest trees. It is difficult to estimate the interactive relationship between the fluid and the trees because fluid deform tree architecture and deformed tree changes flow field. Dynamic tree deformation and fluid behavior should be clarified by fluid-structure interaction analysis. For the initial step, we have developed dynamic simulation of tree sway and breakage caused by tsunami based on a vibrating system with multiple degrees of freedom. The target specie of the simulation was Japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii), which is major specie in the coastal forest to secure livelihood area from the damage by blown sand and salt in Japanese coastal area. For the simulation, a tree was segmented into 0.2 m long circular truncated cones. Turning moment induced by tsunami and self-weight was calculated at each segment bottom. Tree deformation was computed on multi-degree-of-freedom vibration equation. Tree sway was simulated by iterative calculation of the tree deformation with time step 0.05 second with temporally varied flow velocity of tsunami. From the calculation of bending stress and turning moment at tree base, we estimated resistance of a Pinus thunbergii tree from tsunami against tree breakage.

  9. The complete chloroplast genome of the Taiwan red pine Pinus taiwanensis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Fang, Min-Feng; Wang, Yu-Jin; Zu, Yu-Meng; Dong, Wan-Lin; Wang, Ruo-Nan; Deng, Tuan-Tuan; Li, Zhong-Hu

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the Taiwan red pine Pinus taiwanensis Hayata chloroplast genome (cpDNA) is determined in this study. The genome is composed of 119,741 bp in length, containing a pair of very short inverted repeat (IRa and IRb) regions of 495 bp, which was divided by a large single-copy (LSC) region of 65,670 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 53,080 bp in length. The cpDNA contained 115 genes, including 74 protein-coding genes (73 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (four rRNA species) and 37 tRNA genes (22 tRNA species). Out of these genes, 12 harbored a single intron, and one (rps12) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of the Taiwan red pine cpDNA is 61.5%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 62.2%, 60.6% and 63.6%, respectively. A maximum parsimony phylogenetic analysis suggested that the genus Pinus, Picea, Abies and Larix were strongly supported as monophyletic, and the cpDNA of P. taiwanensis is closely related to that of P. thunbergii. PMID:26057016

  10. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  11. Crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of a vicilin-type seed storage protein from Pinus koraiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method in hanging drops. The cupin superfamily of proteins includes the 7S and 11S seed storage proteins. Many members of this family of proteins are known allergens. In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method in hanging drops. The crystals belong to the primitive cubic space group P2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 148.174 Å. Two vicilin molecules were present in the asymmetric unit and the Matthews coefficient was determined to be 2.90 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with a corresponding solvent content of ∼58%. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained using the program Phaser. Refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  12. Unique features of the loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) megagenome revealed through sequence annotation.

    PubMed

    Wegrzyn, Jill L; Liechty, John D; Stevens, Kristian A; Wu, Le-Shin; Loopstra, Carol A; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A; Dougherty, William M; Lin, Brian Y; Zieve, Jacob J; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Holt, Carson; Yandell, Mark; Zimin, Aleksey V; Yorke, James A; Crepeau, Marc W; Puiu, Daniela; Salzberg, Steven L; Dejong, Pieter J; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Main, Doreen; Langley, Charles H; Neale, David B

    2014-03-01

    The largest genus in the conifer family Pinaceae is Pinus, with over 100 species. The size and complexity of their genomes (∼20-40 Gb, 2n = 24) have delayed the arrival of a well-annotated reference sequence. In this study, we present the annotation of the first whole-genome shotgun assembly of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), which comprises 20.1 Gb of sequence. The MAKER-P annotation pipeline combined evidence-based alignments and ab initio predictions to generate 50,172 gene models, of which 15,653 are classified as high confidence. Clustering these gene models with 13 other plant species resulted in 20,646 gene families, of which 1554 are predicted to be unique to conifers. Among the conifer gene families, 159 are composed exclusively of loblolly pine members. The gene models for loblolly pine have the highest median and mean intron lengths of 24 fully sequenced plant genomes. Conifer genomes are full of repetitive DNA, with the most significant contributions from long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons. In depth analysis of the tandem and interspersed repetitive content yielded a combined estimate of 82%. PMID:24653211

  13. The complete chloroplast genome of Armand pine Pinus armandii, an endemic conifer tree species to China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Qian, Zeng-Qiang; Liu, Zhan-Lin; Deng, Tuan-Tuan; Zu, Yu-Meng; Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of an endemic conifer species, Armand pine Pinus armandii Franch., is determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117,265 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat (IR) regions those distinguished in large and small single copy (LSC and SSC) regions of 64,548 and 51,767 bp in length, respectively. The cpDNA contained 114 genes, including 74 protein-coding genes (74 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (four rRNA species) and 36 transfer RNA genes (33 tRNA species). Out of these genes, 12 harbor a single intron and most of the genes occurred in a single copy. The overall AT content of the Armand pine cpDNA was 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 62.0%, 60.2% and 62.7%, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. armandii chloroplast genome is closely related to that of the P. koraiensis within the genus Pinus. PMID:26024147

  14. Chitinase production in pine callus (Pinus sylvestris L.): a defense reaction against endophytes?

    PubMed

    Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Laukkanen, Hanna; Hohtola, Anja

    2002-04-01

    In shoot tip-derived tissue cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), browning and subsequent degeneration of the culture is accompanied by lipid peroxidation and lignification of cells, which are characteristic features of a plant defense reaction. Since chitinases are enzymes acting primarily in plant defense, their expression was studied in pine callus in order to elucidate the defense reaction. Chitinases were present diversely in tissue cultures originating from shoot tips and embryos of P. sylvestris, in contrast to Pinus nigra embryogenic callus, where production of chitinases or browning was not detected. Because endophytic microbes had earlier been detected in buds of Scots pine, their subsequent presence in the tissue cultures was considered a potential cause of the defense reaction. Therefore, the presence of endophytes in the tissue cultures was examined by in situ hybridization. Endophytes were found to colonize heavily in 45% of the tissue cultures of P. sylvestris and to form biofilms, while the P. nigra callus was not found to contain any microbes. The endophytes seemed to propagate uncontrollably once a tissue culture of P. sylvestris was initiated. Regardless of the high level of chitinase production in the callus, the control of the endophytes presumably becomes inadequate during the tissue culture of P. sylvestris. PMID:11941460

  15. [Canopy interception of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation on Longzhong Loess Plateau, Northwest China: characteristics and simulation].

    PubMed

    Fang, Shu-Min; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Jian, Sheng-Qi; Yu, Kai

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Pinus tabulaeformis plantation in the Anjiagou catchment on Longzhong Loess Plateau as test object, an observation was made on the characteristics of throughfall, stemflow, interception, and canopy structure of P. tabulaeformi during its growth season (from May to September) in 2011. Based on the observed data, the revised Gash analytical model was adopted to simulate the canopy interception, aimed to understand the ecological hydrological processes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation and related mechanisms. In the observation period, a total of 19 precipitation events were observed, with a total precipitation of 215.80 mm. The throughfall, stemflow, and canopy interception were 165.24 mm, 2.29 mm, and 48.27 mm, occupying 76.7%, 1.1%, and 22.4% of the total precipitation, respectively. The simulated canopy interception was 41.24 mm, being 7.13 mm lower than the observed value and with a relative error of 14.7%. There were 33.8% and 60.0% of interception were evaporated from the canopy during and after precipitation, respectively. The revised Gash analytical model was highly sensitive to the canopy storage capacity, forest coverage, rainfall intensity, and evaporation, but less sensitive to the stemflow rate and stem water holding capacity. PMID:24066533

  16. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism. We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (Pn) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall. In general, Pn was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean Pn values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement. Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime. PMID:21379394

  17. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime. PMID:21379394

  18. Enhanced drought-tolerance in the homoploid hybrid species Pinus densata: implication for its habitat divergence from two progenitors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Zhao, Changming; Milne, Richard; Ji, Mingfei; Chen, Litong; Liu, Jianquan

    2010-01-01

    The homoploid hybrid species Pinus densata is restricted to alpine habitats that exceed the altitude range of its two parental species, Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Alpine habitats usually generate cold-induced water stress in plants. To understand the ecological differentiation between these three species, we examined their physiological responses to drought stress. Potted seedlings of three species were subjected to low, mild, moderate and severe water stress in an automatic-controlled glasshouse. Fifteen indicators of fitness were measured for each species in each treatment, and most of these decreased as drought increased. Pinus densata exhibited higher fitness than both parental species in terms of total dry mass production (TDM) and long-term water use efficiency (WUE(L)) across all treatments; several other ecophysiological traits were also extreme but not across every treatment, and not always in the highest stress treatment. These results indicate that extreme characters that have become well fixed in P. densata, confer a faster seedling growth rate and more efficient water use, which in turn should confer increased drought tolerance. These traits of P. densata likely promoted its ecological separation from its parental species and facilitated its successful colonization and establishment in high-altitude habitats. PMID:19804499

  19. 76 FR 42631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Pinus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). On December 9, 2008, we received a petition dated December 8, 2008, from... published in the Federal Register on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 42033). In that finding we determined that the... Pinus albicaulis (75 FR 42033), and received 20 letters from the public. This 12-month finding is...

  20. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  1. Canopy Level Emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes from a Pinus taeda Experimental Plantation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) observed during 2007 from a Pinus taeda experimental plantation in Central North Carolina are compared with model estimates from MEGAN 2.1. Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) estimates of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) fluxes are ...

  2. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea. PMID:18758977

  3. 75 FR 42033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Pinus albicaulis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). Species Information Pinus albicaulis is... soil erosion by physically stabilizing soils, initiating succession as a hardy pioneer or as an early... listing actions (e.g., 75 FR 13910, March 23, 2010). The petitioner also cites several other models...

  4. CANOPY CONDUCTANCE OF PINUS TAEDA, LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA AND QUERCUS PHELLOS UNDER VARYING ATMOSPHERIC AND SOIL WATER CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sap flow, and atmospheric and soil water data were collected in closed-top chambers under conditions of high soil water potential for saplings of Liquidambar styraciflua L., Quercus phellos L., and Pinus taeda L., three co-occurring species in the southeastern USA. Responses of c...

  5. Do climate and outbreak frequency affect levels of foliar phytochemistry in different lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden) is a widely distributed tree in North American forests and is found in a variety of environments, each with different levels of disease activity. We quantified the levels of defense-associated metabolites (including soluble phenolics, lignin, and ter...

  6. Genetic effects on total phenolics, condensed tannins and non-structural carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and environmental effects on carbon allocation to soluble phenolics and non-structural carbohydrates in needles of widely-planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact productivity, sustainability and biogeochemical cycling in the southeastern U.S. The magnitude of genetic a...

  7. Correlation between infection by ophiostomatoid fungi and the presence of subterranean termites in Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observations of subterranean termites feeding in pine sapwood containing ophiostomatoid fungi prompted a study to investigate the effect of infection by Leptographium fungi on the probability of encountering subterranean termites in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots. Root samples were collected f...

  8. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION ON FINE ROOT DYNAMICS AND FUNGAL GROWTH IN SEEDLING PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO-2 and N fertilization on fine root growth of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. C. Laws., grown in native soil in open-top field-exposure chambers at Placerville, CA, were monitored for a 2-year period using minirhizotrons. The experimental design was a...

  9. Effect of drought and osmotic stress on gene expression in Jack Pine. [Pinus banksiana

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, M.; Mayne, M.; Coleman, J.R.; Blumwald, E. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought and osmotic stress was studied in Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings and cultured cell suspensions, respectively. The pattern of protein syntheses during stress was studied. Seedlings and cells were in vivo labeled with ({sup 35}S)methionine and membrane-bound proteins were isolated. proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by staining and autoradiography. Several changes in protein profiles were induced by stress. Messenger RNAs were isolated, translated in vitro, and complementary DNA libraries from control and stressed plants and cells were constructed in E. coli strain JM109. Antibodies, raised against electroeluted membrane-bound proteins that were significantly induced and/or enhanced during stress, were used to isolate stress-related genes from cDNA libraries.

  10. Nitrogen transport in the ectomycorrhiza association: the Hebeloma cylindrosporum-Pinus pinaster model.

    PubMed

    Müller, Tobias; Avolio, Meghan; Olivi, Martin; Benjdia, Mariam; Rikirsch, Enno; Kasaras, Alexis; Fitz, Michael; Chalot, Michel; Wipf, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The function of the ectomycorrhizal mutualism depends on the ability of the fungal symbionts to take up nutrients (particularly nitrogen) available in inorganic and/or organic form in the soil and to translocate them (or their metabolites) to the symbiotic roots. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying nutrient exchanges between fungus and plant at the symbiotic interface is necessary to fully understand the function of the mycorrhizal symbioses. The present review reports the characterization of several genes putatively involved in nitrogen uptake and transfer in the Hebeloma cylindrosporum-Pinus pinaster ectomycorrhizal association. Study of this model system will further clarify the symbiotic nutrient exchange which plays a major role in plant nutrition as well as in resistance of plants against pathogens, heavy metals, drought stress, etc. Ultimately, ecological balance is maintained and/or improved with the help of symbiotic associations, and therefore, warrant further understanding. PMID:17083951

  11. Effects of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Growth of Seedlings of Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Sim, Mi-Yeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the different effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal (ECMF) species on the growth of seedlings of Pinus densiflora, and the effects of ECMF diversity on plant productivity. A total of five species of ECMF were isolated from root tips of pine seedlings collected from Mt. Songni and used as inocula. Pots containing pine seedlings were inoculated with either a single ECMF species or a mixture of five ECMF species. All of the seedlings formed ECM on their roots except for the control plants. The pine seedlings' growth responses varied by the different ECMF species. Also, pine seedlings inoculated with a mixture of five ECMF species showed the highest growth response. The results of the study suggest that the colonization of diverse species of ECMF will increase plant productivity, and the selection of suitable ECMF species could be an important factor for plant growth. PMID:24039497

  12. Responses of carbon gain and growth of Pinus radiata stands to thinning and fertilizing.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D W

    1996-06-01

    Thinning of forest stands is widely carried out to minimize the slowing of growth of individual stems that follows from increasing competition among trees as they become bigger. After thinning, there is an increase in the growth rate of remaining trees because of an increase in the availability of resources per tree. Often, there is also an increase in foliar efficiency (biomass increase/foliage amount). On sites where mineral nutrient supply is limiting, fertilizers may be applied, often in association with thinning, to boost productivity. Growth responses to fertilizer application depend on an adequate supply of other resources, but also involve nonlinear interactions among mineral nutrients and between nutrients and other growth-limiting environmental factors. The effects of thinning and fertilizing on the carbon gain and growth responses of Pinus radiata D. Don to availability of resources (light, mineral nutrients and water) and to changes in the canopy are discussed. PMID:14871706

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil of six pinus taxa native to China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Zhouqi

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana) were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%-20.55%), bornyl acetale (3.32%-12.71%), β-caryophellene (18.26%-26.31%), α-guaiene (1.23%-8.19%), and germacrene D (1.26%-9.93%). Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential by three assays (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS) and tested for their total phenolic content. The results showed that all essential oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant activities and these strongly suggest that these pine needles may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food and medical purposes. PMID:26007189

  14. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree Pinus ponderosa: A defense mechanism against microbial invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Himejima, Masaki; Hobson, K.R.; Otsuka, Toshikazu; Wood, D.L.; Kubo, Isao )

    1992-10-01

    The oleoresin of the ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) exhibited broad antimicrobial activity. In order to identify the active compounds, the oleoresin was steam distilled to give a distillate and residue. The distillate contained mainly monoterpenes and some sesquiterpenes, while the residue consisted chiefly of four structurally related diterpene acids. An antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds indicated that the monoterpenes were active primarily against fungi, but there was also some activity against gram-positive bacteria. The diterpene acids, in contrast, only exhibited activity against gram-positive bacteria. Although not all of the identified sesquiterpenes could be tested, longifolene showed activity only against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it appears that the oleoresin of P. ponderosa functions as a biochemical defense against microbial invasion.

  15. Phytoalexins from Pinus strobus bark infected with pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, F; Yamada, T; Nakashima, T

    2001-05-01

    From the bark of Pinus strobus infected with pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a stilbenoid 3-O-methyldihydropinosylvin and a flavanone (2S)-pinocembrin were isolated as active principles of inducibly produced antifungal compounds. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Close investigations of spectroscopic analyses led to the complete assignment of 13C NMR and 1H NMR chemical shifts for the former compound and to the determination of the stereochemistry of the latter compound from P. strobus to be 2S. Furthermore, the distribution and time course accumulation of the identified compounds were investigated. The former compound was demonstrated to be nematocidal and the concentrations of the compound in the inoculated branches were sufficient enough to inactivate the pinewood nematode within one week after inoculation. PMID:11382237

  16. Quantification and characterization of Si in Pinus Insignis Dougl by TXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Henry; Bennun, Leonardo; Marcó, Lué M.

    2015-03-01

    A simple quantification of silicon is described, in woods such as Pinus Insigne Dougl obtained from the 8th region of Bío-Bío, 37°15″ South-73°19″ West, Chile. The samples were prepared through fractional calcination, and the ashes were directly analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique. The analysis of 16 samples that were calcined is presented. The samples were weighed on plastic reflectors in a microbalance with sensitivity of 0.1 µg. Later, the samples were irradiated in a TXRF PICOFOX spectrometer, for 350 and 700 s. To each sample, cobalt was added as an internal standard. Concentrations of silicon over the 1 % in each sample and the self-absorption effect on the quantification were observed, in masses higher than 100 μg.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal specificity patterns in a mixed Pinus contorta and Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, K. W.; Vogler, D. R.; Parker, V. T.; Finley, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    We used molecular genetic methods to test two hypotheses, (i) that host plant specificity among ectomycorrhizal fungi would be common in a closed-canopy, mixed Pinus contorta-Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park and (ii) that specificity would be more common in the early successional tree species, P. contorta, than in the invader, P. engelmannii. We identified 28 ectomycorrhizal fungal species collected from 27 soil cores. The proportion of P. engelmannii to P. contorta ectomycorrhizae was nearly equal (52 and 48%, respectively). Of the 28 fungal species, 18 composed greater than 95% of the fungal community. No species was associated exclusively with P. contorta, but four species, each found in only one core, and one species found in two cores were associated exclusively with P. engelmannii. These fungi composed less than 5% of the total ectomycorrhizae. Thus, neither hypothesis was supported, and hypothesized benefits of ectomycorrhizal specificity to both trees and fungi probably do not exist in this system.

  18. [Alternative Ways of Pinus sylvestris L. Migration from Southern Siberia to Europe and Asia Minor].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Egorov, E V

    2015-01-01

    Allozyme analysis of the parameters of the Nei genetic distances and gene flow between the populations of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. along two hypothetical alternative ways of their migrations in the Miocene-Pliocene from Southern Siberia to the Balkans, Central Europe, and Asia Minor was used; a lower probability of their settlement on the southern shores of the East Paratethys than on the northern ones was identified. It is suggested that the Middle Araks Strait of Paratethys in the Miocene and extreme aridity of the climate in the Pliocene headed the migration of the populations on the southern way, while on the northern way there were no essential water and mountain barriers for pine dispersal. PMID:26638233

  19. Characterization of the bacterial flora associated with root systems of Pinus contorta var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Dangerfield, J A; Westlake, D W; Cook, F D

    1978-12-01

    Root systems of young and mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Englem.) were removed from forest stands and the associated aerobic bacterial flora isolated. Characterization of rhizoplane and control soil isolates from these tree root systems demonstrated differences from that reported for agricultural crops. Ammonifying, proteolytic, and amylolytic organisms were proportionately reduced within the rhizoplane. The rhizoplane organisms grew more slowly than the control soil isolates, although they responded in greater numbers to the addition of an amino acid supplement to the growth media. The rhizoplane organisms also showed an increased ability to solubilize phosphate. The chitinolytic organisms were suppressed within the rhizoplane of the mature tree but were stimulated by the young trees. With this exception, the rhizoplane microflora of older and younger trees were similar. PMID:747813

  20. Ectomycorrhizae of Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum with Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shan-Ping; Yu, Fu-Qiang; Tang, Li; Wang, Ran; Wang, Yun; Liu, Pei-Gui; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zheng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum are common commercial white truffles in China that belong to the Rufum and Puberulum groups of the genus Tuber, respectively. Their mycorrhizae were successfully synthesized with two native trees--Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii--under greenhouse conditions. The identities of the mycorrhizae were confirmed through internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses, and their morphological characteristics were described. All of the obtained mycorrhizae have an interlocking pseudoparenchymatous mantle, which is a typical feature of truffle mycorrhizae. The mycorrhizae of T. huidongense on the two trees have hyaline branched emanating hyphae, similar to the documented mycorrhizae of the Rufum group. The unramified, spiky, and hyaline cystidia on the mycorrhizae of T. liyuanum with both C. mollissima and P. armandii further confirmed that this characteristic is constant for the mycorrhizae of the Puberulum group. The successful mycorrhizal syntheses on the two nut-producing trees will be of economic importance in the cultivation of the two truffles. PMID:26452572

  1. Antimicrobial dihydrobenzofurans and xanthenes from a foliar endophyte of Pinus strobus.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Susan N; Nsiama, Tienabe K; Walker, Allison K; McMullin, David R; Miller, J David

    2015-09-01

    Foliar fungal endophytes of Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) were collected from different sites across south-eastern New Brunswick, Canada and screened for the production of bioactive metabolites. From one site, two fungal isolates representing a formerly unknown genus and species within the family Massarinaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) were resolved by phylogenetic analysis. These isolates produced crude organic extracts that were active against Microbotryum violaceum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From these strains, DAOM 242779 and 242780, four dihydrobenzofurans (1-4) and two xanthenes (5-6) were characterized. Structures were elucidated by HRMS, interpretation of NMR spectra and other spectroscopic techniques. All isolated metabolites displayed antimicrobial activity against the biotrophic fungal pathogen M. violaceum and Bacillus subtilis. PMID:26189049

  2. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  3. Application of hydrothermal treatment to affect the fermentability of Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, John; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; McDonald, Ben; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid technique incorporating a wet oxidation stage and secondary fermentation step was used to process Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge. The effect of hydrothermal oxidation at high temperature and pressure on the hydrolysis of constituents of the waste stream was studied. Biochemical acidogenic potential assays were conducted to assess acid production resulting from anaerobic hydrolysis of the wet oxidised hydrolysate under acidogenic conditions. Significant degradation of the lignin, hemicellulose, suspended solids, carbohydrates and extractives were observed with wet oxidation. In contrast, cellulose showed resistance to degradation under the experimental conditions. Extensive degradation of biologically inhibitory compounds by wet oxidation did not show a beneficial impact on the acidogenic or methanogenic potential compared to untreated samples. PMID:25125197

  4. [Genetic structure of the populations of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) reforested in extreme conditions].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Krasnoshtan, O V

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on an intensive reforestation of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in post-fire sites in the native Mountainous Crimean populations and around the previously planted seed-producing trees in ore-mining dumps of the Krivoy Rog region. Self-sown progeny growing in the dump is characterized by a better growth and comes to the reproductive development phase earlier compared to that one growing in post-fire forest. Allele variability at 20 allozyme loci is less in self-sown progeny than in the native populations whereas its heterozygosity level is similar. Genetic distance (D(N)) among self-sown progenies in post-fire sites and ore-mining dump is comparable to that of the natural populations. PMID:20608157

  5. [Effects of elevated ozone on Pinus armandii growth: a simulation study with open-top chamber].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Chen; He, Xing-Yuan; Ruan, Ya-Nan; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Peng, Jun-Jie; Li, Teng

    2013-10-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC) and the techniques of dendrochronology, this paper studied the growth of Pinus armandii under elevated ozone, and explored the evolution dynamics and adaptation mechanisms of typical forest ecosystems to ozone enrichment. Elevated ozone inhibited the stem growth of P. armandii significantly, with the annual growth of the stem length and diameter reduced by 35.0% and 12.9%, respectively. The annual growth of tree-ring width and the annual ring cells number decreased by 11.5% and 54.1%, respectively, but no significant change was observed in the diameter of tracheid. At regional scale, the fluctuation of ozone concentration showed significant correlation with the variation of local vegetation growth (NDVI). PMID:24483064

  6. Chemical modification of coating of Pinus halepensis pollen by ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Naas, Oumsaad; Mendez, Maxence; Quijada, Melesio; Gosselin, Sylvie; Farah, Jinane; Choukri, Ali; Visez, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Pollen coating, located on the exine, includes an extractible lipid fraction. The modification of the pollen coating by air pollutants may have implications on the interactions of pollen with plant stigmas and human cells. Pinus halepensis pollen was exposed to ozone in vitro and the pollen coating was extracted with organic solvent and analyzed by GC-MS. Ozone has induced chemical changes in the coating as observed with an increase in dicarboxylic acids, short-chain fatty acids and aldehydes. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was identified as the main reaction product and its formation was shown to occur both on native pollen and on defatted pollen. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde is very likely formed via the ozonolysis of acid coumaric-like monomers constitutive of the sporopollenin. Modification of pollen coating by air pollutants should be accounted for in further studies on effect of pollution on germination and on allergenicity. PMID:27155099

  7. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310

  8. Regeneration complexities of Pinus gerardiana in dry temperate forests of Indian Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Shamet, G S; Mehta, Harsh; Alam, N M; Kaushal, Rajesh; Chaturvedi, O P; Sharma, Navneet; Khaki, B A; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Pinus gerardiana is considered an important species in dry temperate forests of North-Western Indian Himalaya because of its influence on ecological processes and economic dependence of local people in the region. But, large numbers of biotic and abiotic factors have affected P. gerardiana in these forests; hence, there is a crucial need to understand the regeneration dynamics of this tree species. The present investigation was conducted in P. gerardiana forests to understand vegetation pattern and regeneration processes on different sites in the region. Statistical analysis was performed to know variability in growing stock and regeneration on sample plots, while correlation coefficients and regression models were developed to find the relationship between regeneration and site factors. The vegetation study showed dominance of P. gerardiana, which is followed by Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana and Quercus ilex in the region. The growing stock of P. gerardiana showed steep increasing and then steadily declining trend from lower to higher diameter class. The distribution of seedling, sapling, pole and trees was not uniform at different sites and less number of plots in each site were observed to have effective conditions for continuous regeneration, but mostly showed extremely limited regeneration. Regeneration success ranging from 8.44 to 15.93 % was recorded in different sites of the region, which suggests that in different sites regeneration success is influenced by collection of cone for extracting seed, grazing/browsing and physico-chemical properties of soil. Regeneration success showed significant correlation and relationship with most of abiotic and biotic factors. The regeneration success is lower than the requirement of sustainable forest, but varies widely among sites in dry temperate forests of Himalaya. More forest surveys are required to understand the conditions necessary for greater success of P. gerardiana in the region. PMID:26748929

  9. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    PubMed

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact. PMID:26746823

  10. 6-benzyladenine metabolism during reinvigoration of mature Pinus radiata buds in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaibi; Horgan, Kathryn J; Reynolds, Paul H S; Jameson, Paula E

    2010-04-01

    Maturation or phase change is a serious challenge in the deployment of superior trees of Pinus radiata D. Don because of the difficulties associated with propagation of cuttings from mature trees. We used an in vitro system to study 6-benzyladenine (BA)-induced reinvigoration of the fascicle meristems of mature buds during in vitro culture. Anatomical examinations revealed that BA inhibited the development of secondary needle primordia and 'rejuvenated' the fascicle meristems of the mature bud to produce primary needles, which are characteristic of the juvenile phase in P. radiata. Without BA supplement in the culture media, fascicle primordia continued developing secondary needles and quiescent fascicle meristems. BA metabolite analysis showed that the novel cytokinin pathway reported previously in P. radiata (H. Zhang, K.J. Horgan, P.H.S. Reynolds, G.E. Norris and P.E. Jameson. 2001. Novel cytokinins: The predominant forms in mature buds of Pinus radiata. Physiol. Plant. 112: 127-134) was mirrored in vitro, with BA converted into a variety of metabolites including 6-benzylamino-9-glucopyranosylribosyl-purine and its novel phosphorylated form, 6-benzylamino-9-glucopyranosylribosyl-purine. The culture of mature buds in the presence of BA caused a reduction in the level of endogenous cytokinins, suggesting a direct action of BA itself. Similar correlations are noted between levels of certain metabolites and the maturation status of buds from field-grown trees and buds in culture, indicating that this in vitro system may be a good model for studying the processes of maturation and reinvigoration. PMID:20144924

  11. The gymnosperm Pinus pinea contains both AOX gene subfamilies, AOX1 and AOX2.

    PubMed

    Frederico, António Miguel; Zavattieri, Maria Amely; Campos, Maria Doroteia; Cardoso, Hélia Guerra; McDonald, Allison E; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2009-12-01

    The gymnosperm Pinus pinea L. (stone pine) is a typical Mediterranean pine used for nuts and timber production, and as an ornamental around the world. Pine genomes are large in comparison to other species. The hypothesis that retrotransposons, such as gymny, made a large contribution to this alteration in genome size was recently confirmed. However, P. pinea is unique in other various aspects. P. pinea demonstrates a different pattern of gymny organization than other Pinus subgenera. Additionally, P. pinea has a highly recalcitrant behaviour in relation to standard conifer protocols for the induction of somatic embryogenesis or rooting. Because such types of cell reprogramming can be explained as a reaction of plant cells to external stress, it is of special interest to study sequence peculiarities in stress-inducible genes, such as the alternative oxidase (AOX). This is the first report containing molecular evidence for the existence of AOX in gymnosperms at the genetic level. P. pinea AOXs were isolated by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach and three genes were identified. Two of the genes belong to the AOX1 subfamily and one belongs to the AOX2 subfamily. The existence of both AOX subfamilies in gymnosperms is reported here for the first time. This discovery supports the hypothesis that AOX1 and AOX2 subfamilies arose prior to the separation of gymnosperms and angiosperms, and indicates that the AOX2 is absent in monocots because of subsequent gene loss events. Polymorphic P. pinea AOX1 sequences from a selected genetic clone are presented indicating non-allelic, non-synonymous and synonymous translation products. PMID:19863755

  12. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains.

    PubMed

    Bílá, Karolína; Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities. PMID:27330857

  13. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities. PMID:27330857

  14. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products.

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed. PMID:26471643

  15. Three-dimensional surface topography of the needle stomatal complexes of Pinus rigida and its hybrid species by complementary microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Kim, Du-Hyun; Han, Sim-Hee; Lee, Jae-Cheon; Kim, Pan-Gi

    2010-08-01

    Three-dimensional surface topography of needle stomatal complexes was investigated in Pinus rigida, Pinus taeda, and their interspecific hybrid Pinus rigitaeda. The stomatal complexes of P. rigida appeared to be sunken and ca. 15 microm deep by white light scanning interferometry. Stomatal grooves were evident in P. taeda along the stomata and amounted to ca. 5 microm deep. The centers of stomata maintained the similar height to the stomatal apertures. Meanwhile, the stomatal complexes of P. rigitaeda (ca. 15 microm deep) were characterized by distinct stomatal grooves and sunken stomatal chambers. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the stomatal complexes of P. rigida partially filled with epicuticular waxes. It was common to observe distinct stomatal grooves and chamber-filled stomata on P. taeda needles. The stomatal complexes of P. rigitaeda had the distinct stomatal grooves and were partially filled with wax tubules and rodlets. Surface roughness measurements of stomatal complexes showed higher levels of roughness from P. rigida and P. rigitaeda than that from P. taeda. These results indicate that the hybrid species P. rigitaeda showed intermediacy in surface characteristics between the parent species, suggesting the genetic control of needle stomatal complexes in the hybrid species. PMID:20452778

  16. Impact of drought on the temporal dynamics of wood formation in Pinus sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    GRUBER, ANDREAS; STROBL, STEFAN; VEIT, BARBARA; OBERHUBER, WALTER

    2011-01-01

    Summary We determined the temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell differentiation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), where radial growth is strongly limited by drought in spring. Repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree ring of mature trees was carried out during 2 contrasting years at two study plots that differ in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). In 2007, when air temperature at the beginning of the growing season in April exceeded the long-term mean by 6.4 °C, cambial cell division started in early April at both study plots. A delayed onset of cambial activity of c. 2 wk was found in 2008, when average climate conditions prevailed in spring, indicating that resumption of cambial cell division after winter dormancy is temperature-controlled. Cambial cell division consistently ended about the end of June/early July in both study years. Radial enlargement of tracheids started almost 3 wk earlier in 2007 compared with 2008 at both study plots. At the xeric site, the maximum rate of tracheid production in 2007 and 2008 was reached in early and mid-May, respectively, and c. 2 wk later, at the dry-mesic site. Since in both study years, more favorable growing conditions (i.e., an increase in soil water content) were recorded during summer, we suggest a strong sink competition for carbohydrates to mycorrhizal root and shoot growth. Wood formation stopped c. 4 wk earlier at the xeric compared with the dry-mesic site in both years, indicating a strong influence of drought stress on cell differentiation. This is supported by radial widths of earlywood cells, which were found to be significantly narrower at the xeric than at the dry-mesic site (P < 0.05). Repeated cellular analyses during the two growing seasons revealed that, although spatial variability in the dynamics and duration of cell differentiation processes in Pinus sylvestris exposed to drought is strongly

  17. Essential oil composition variability among natural populations of Pinus mugo Turra in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Ahmeti, Gresa; Pulaj, Bledar; Lukas, Brigitte; Ibraliu, Alban; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Pinus mugo Turra, is a native pine species in central and southern Europe, growing in high mountains area (altitudes 1.800-2.300 m.a.s.l.). In Kosovo, it is one of the native pines too, distributed in high altitudes in the Sharri Mountains and Albanian Alps Mountains. Its populations represent an important wealth of essential oil resources available, which make this species very important in terms of economic values. The chemical composition and yields of the essential oils of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra) needles, twigs and cones from six wild populations in Kosovo were investigated with the aim to assess their natural variability. The identity of P. mugo was confirmed by morphology and DNA barcoding. Sixty-two compounds were identified representing 69-95 % of the total identified compounds. The yield ranged from 0.3-0.8 % v/w in needles, 1.0-2.4 % v/w in twigs and 0.1-0.5 % v/w in cones, depending on the origin of plant material and plant organs. α-Pinene (needles: 16.9-24.5 %; twigs: 4.5-8.8 %; cones: 3.1-5.6 %), β-pinene (needles: 1.5-5.4 %; twigs: 2.2-15.4 %; cones: 1.3-14.2 %), δ-3-carene (needles: 15.4-27.8 %; twigs: 24.0-51.6 %; cones: 10.5-31.5 %), limonene + β-phellandrene (needles: 1.9-5.9 %; twigs: 12.6-24.2 %; cones: 2.1-9.3 %), (E)-caryophyllene (needles: 4.4-8.9 %; twigs: 4.0-10.8 %; cones: 10.3-26.9 %) and germacrene D (needles: 4.0-8.3 %; twigs: 0.2-6.19 %; cones: 0.1-12.4 %) were the major components of the essential oil. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analyses (HCA) suggests that the population of P. mugo clustering is not related to their geographic location, but rather seemed to be linked to local selective forces acting on chemotype diversity. Low variability related to their geographic location has an economic importance since samples originating from different locations in Kosovo can treated with same standards. PMID:26753115

  18. Analysis of the relationships among O3 uptake, conductance, and photosynthesis in needles of pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.A.; Clark, C.S.; Hogsett, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of conductance and photosynthesis to ozone uptake is important for the prediction of the long-term response of trees to ozone exposure. The authors studied the effects of O3 uptake on conductance (gwv) and photosynthesis (A) in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings exposed for 70 days to one of three O3 regimes -- Low-O3, High-O3, and Low/High-O3. Seedlings exposed to charcoal-filtered air served as controls. Total O3 exposures, expressed as ppm-h (the sum of the average hourly concentration to ppm over the exposure period), were 77, 135, 105, and 4 for the Low-O3, High-O3, Low/High-O3, and control treatments, respectively. Conductance declined to about 60% of the value in control seedlings by Day 6 in seedlings in the High-O3 treatment and by Day 37 in seedlings in the Low/High-O3 treatment, but did not decline at all in seedlings in the Low-O3 treatment.

  19. Effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis in non-nutrient limited Pinus taeda plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.; Tissue, D.T.; Strain, B.R. )

    1994-06-01

    We examined the effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthetic capacity in non-nutrient limited Pinus taeda plants. Plants were grown in open-top chambers maintained at either ambient or ambient +30 Pa CO2. Leaf nitrogen levels indicated that no plants were N limited. Photosynthesis at the growth CO2 was significantly higher in plants grown at elevated CO2. However, elevated CO2 did not significantly affect rubisco activity and activation state, chlorophyll content, electron transport capacity or phosphate regeneration capacity. All parameters were significantly greater during the growing season than during the winter. Additionally, photosynthesis declined approximately 75% in elevated CO2-grown plants from May to January, but only 50% in ambient CO2-grown plants. These results indicate that elevated CO2 will not effect photosynthetic capacity grown plants. These results indicate that elevated CO2 will not affect photosynthetic capacity grown plants. These results indicate that elevated CO2 will not affect photosynthetic capacity in non-nutrient limited P. taeda, but will increase seasonal fluctuations in photosynthesis.

  20. Modeling the response of mature Pinus ponderosa Laws. to tropospheric ozone: Effects of genotypic variability

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. ); Weinstein, D.A.; Laurence, J.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Regionally distributed pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone and CO[sub 2]) can influence the growth of terrestrial plants. The mosaic of genotypes in natural populations makes it difficult to predict the ecological consequences of pollutants throughout a species' distribution. We simulated the response of Pinus ponderosa Laws to ambient, sub-ambient and above-ambient troposopheric O[sub 3] for 3 years using TREGRO, a physiologically based three growth model. Parameters controlling growth and carbon allocation were obtained from the literature and were varied to simulate intravarietal and intervarietal genotypes (western var. Ponderosa and eastern var. Scopulorum) of Ponderosa Pine. Parameter differences between the varieties include physiology, carbon allocation and phenoloy. Ozone altered 3 year biomass gain (+6% to 61%) and fine root to leaf mass ratio ([minus]8% to [minus]14%) in spite of a small effect on photosynthesis ([<=] 10%). Overall, O[sub 3] caused growth differences between varieties to be reduced. The reduction in growth differences between genotypes due to ozone has consequences for regional identification of populations sensitive to the effects of tropospheric ozone.

  1. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO{sub 2} responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO{sub 2} responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO{sub 2} responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO{sub 2} exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO{sub 2} scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  2. Development-specific responses to drought stress in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Alexou, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is a pioneer species, highly competitive due to exceptional resistance to drought. To investigate the stress resistance in the first and second year of development, a steady-state drought experiment was implemented. Photosynthesis (A(net)), stomatal conductance and transpiration (E) were measured on three different sampling dates together with phloem soluble sugars, amino acids and non-structural proteins. Needle ascorbic acid (AsA) and reactive oxygen species were measured to evaluate the seedlings' drought stress condition in the final sampling. Drought impaired A(net) and E by 35 and 31%, respectively, and increased AsA levels up to 10-fold, without significant impact on the phloem metabolites. Phloem sugars related to temperature fluctuations rather than soil moisture and did not relate closely to A(net) levels. Sugars and proteins decreased between the second and third sampling date by 56 and 61%, respectively, and the ratio of sugars to amino acids decreased between the first and third sampling by 81%, while A(net) and water-use efficiency (A(net)/E) decreased only in the older seedlings. Although gas exchange was higher in the older seedlings, ascorbic acid and phloem metabolites were higher in the younger seedlings. It was concluded that the drought stress responses depended significantly on developmental stage, and research on the physiology of Aleppo pine regeneration should focus more on temperature conditions and the duration of drought than its severity. PMID:24200584

  3. [Relationships between understory vegetation coverage and environmental factors in Pinus massoniana plantations from aerial seeding].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Ouyang, Xun-zhi

    2015-04-01

    The relationships between understory vegetation coverage and environmental factors in Pinus massoniana plantations from aerial seeding were studied by using principal component analysis, redundancy analysis and variation partitioning. The selected environmental factors in total explained 74.2% variation of the understory vegetation coverage. At low altitude, stand characteristics were the key factor to influence the understory vegetation coverage. Stand characteristics, soil property and topographic factor were respectively explained 55.0% (including 29.1% for separateness and 25.9% for interaction with other factors), 38. 9% (including 12.1% for separateness and 26.8% for interaction with other factors) and 9.0% (including 5.6% for separateness and 3.4% for interaction with other factors) of the total variation. Average diameter at breast height and canopy density affected mostly and positively correlated with the coverage of bryophyta, graminoid and shurb groups at significant level. Noncapillary porosity and soil water content showed a highly significant positive correlation to dicranopteris coverage, whereas average diameter at breast height, canopy density, soil nutrients and enzyme activity significantly negatively correlated with it. The coverage of graminoid, bryophyta and shurb groups showed the positive correlations, which indicated the three groups could promote each other, while the dicranopteris coverage had significant negative correlation with the three groups mentioned above. PMID:26259448

  4. Association between herbivore stress and glutathione S-transferase expression in Pinus brutia Ten.

    PubMed

    Semiz, A; Çelik-Turgut, G; Semiz, G; Özgün, Ö; Şen, A

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed mechanisms to defend themselves against many factors including biotic stress such as herbivores and pathogens. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzyme and plays critical roles in stress tolerance and detoxification metabolism in plants. Pinus brutia Ten. is a prominent native forest tree species in Turkey, due to both its economic and ecological assets. One of the problems faced by P. brutia afforestation sites is the attacks by pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams.). In this study, we investigated the changes in activity and mRNA expression of GST in pine samples taken from both resistant and susceptible clones against T. wilkinsoni over a nine month period in a clonal seed orchard. It was found that the average cytosolic GST activities of trees in March and July were significantly higher than the values obtained in November. November was considered to be the control since trees were not under stress yet. In addition, RT-PCR results clearly showed that levels of GST transcripts in March and July samples were significantly higher as compared to the level seen in November. These findings strongly suggest that GST activity from P. brutia would be a valuable marker for exposure to herbivory stress. PMID:27064879

  5. Phytochrome types in Picea and Pinus. Expression patterns of PHYA-Related types.

    PubMed

    Clapham, D H; Kolukisaoglu, H U; Larsson, C T; Qamaruddin, M; Ekberg, I; Wiegmann-Eirund, C; Schneider-Poetsch, H A; von Arnold, S

    1999-07-01

    Knowledge of the genes in gymnosperms encoding the apoproteins of the plant photoreceptor phytochrome is currently scanty as for gymnosperm nuclear protein coding sequences in general. Here we report two complete cDNA-derived sequences which code for two different types of gymnosperm phytochrome. One sequence stems from Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the other from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). More detailed studies have shown that both types of phytochrome gene are present in Norway spruce. From phylogenetic analyses, these types appear to branch off from progenitors that are also the common ancestors of the angiosperm PHYA/PHYC and PHYB/PHYD/PHYE lineages. Partial phytochrome sequences of other gymnosperms cluster with either the one type or the other of the gymnosperm phytochrome genes characterized here. Southern blot analysis of Picea DNA using probes derived from the full-length Picea gene indicated a family of at least five members. Whether they code for new types may be doubted since only two phylogenetic clusters were found. Studies using RNA-PCR of Picea RNA extracted from either light- or dark-grown seedlings indicated that the steady-state levels of the transcripts of two PHYA/C-related genes were hardly affected by light. PMID:10480390

  6. Distinct niche divergence characterizes the homoploid hybrid speciation of Pinus densata on the Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2011-04-01

    Ecological divergence and selection for novel adaptations to new habitats have been theoretically proposed to play important roles in promoting homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS). The successful establishment of Pinus densata on the Tibetan Plateau is one of the few known examples of HHS. In this study, we carried out extensive field expeditions to obtain representative coverage of occurrence sites of P. densata and its two putative parents. We then applied a series of geographic information system-based analyses to define the patterns of environmental variation within and among the three pine species, to remove potentially confounding effects of spatial autocorrelation in the environmental data due to allopatric ranges, and to build species distribution models. All results consistently indicated that the ecological preferences of P. densata and its parental species have diverged, and they identified candidate ecological factors associated with habitat-specific adaptation. Projections from niche modeling indicated that P. densata could extend across a vast range along the parallel valley systems of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Our findings provide evidence of a distinct niche shift in P. densata and support the hypothesis that local adaptation and geographic isolation help maintain and reinforce between-species differences and reproductive isolation in the species complex. PMID:21460565

  7. An elusive ectomycorrhizal fungus reveals itself: a new species of Geopora (Pyronemataceae) associated with Pinus edulis.

    PubMed

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Lau, Matthew K; Lamit, Louis J; Gehring, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Geopora are important ectomycorrhizal associates that can dominate the communities of some plant taxa, such as pinyon pine (Pinus edulis), a widespread tree of the western United States. Several members of the genus Geopora are known only from ectomycorrhizal root tips and thus have not been described formally. The sporocarps of some Geopora species occur infrequently because they depend on wet years for sporulation. In addition, Geopora sporocarps can be small and may be hypogeous at some developmental stage, limiting the opportunities for describing their morphology. Using molecular and morphological data, we have described a new species of fungus, Geopora pinyonensis, which produced ascocarps after unusually high precipitation at a northern Arizona site in summer 2012. Based on analysis of the ITS and nuLSU regions of the rDNA, G pinyonensis is a new species of Geopora. It has small sporocarps and ascospores relative to other members of the genus; however, these morphological features overlap with other species. Using rDNA data from sporocarps and ectomycorrhizal root tips, we show that the sporocarps correspond to an abundant species of ectomycorrhizal fungus associated with pinyon pines that is increasing in abundance in drought-affected landscapes and may promote drought tolerance. PMID:24871594

  8. Dichotomization of mycorrhizal and NPA-treated short roots in Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salo, Vanamo

    2008-02-01

    Conifers like Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) have a complicated root system consisting of morphologically and anatomically different root types, of which the short roots have a very limited ability to elongate. Short roots have an important role in nature since they are able to establish ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, in which the growth of fungal mycelium between the epidermal cells and in the intercellular space between cortical cells leads to formation of dichotomous short roots, which may, through further splitting of the meristem, form coralloid root structures. Dichotomous short roots have been suggested to result from changes in either auxin or ethylene concentrations due to the fungal growth inside the root. NPA, the inhibitor of polar auxin transport, enhances the dichotomization of P. sylvestris short root tips similarly to the fungal growth in the root, thus confirming that auxin plays a role in short root morphogenesis. Ethylene is also known to have an important role in the regulation of root morphogenesis. In future the research dealing with the root system and ectomycorrhiza development in P. sylvestris must take into account that both auxin and ethylene are involved and that there is no contradiction in obtaining the same phenotype with both hormones. The expression analysis of PIN proteins, auxin efflux carriers, could give valuable information about the role of auxin transport in regulating the root growth and morphogenesis of coniferous root system and mycorrhiza. PMID:19704726

  9. Microsatellite analysis reveals genetically distinct populations of red pine (Pinus resinosa, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Boys, Jacquelyn; Cherry, Marilyn; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2005-05-01

    Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) is an ecologically and economically important forest tree species of northeastern North America and is considered one of the most genetically depauperate conifer species in the region. We have isolated and characterized 13 nuclear microsatellite loci by screening a partial genomic library with di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeat oligonucleotide probes. In an analysis of over 500 individuals representing 17 red pine populations from Manitoba through Newfoundland, five polymorphic microsatellite loci with an average of nine alleles per locus were identified. The mean expected and observed heterozygosity values were 0.508 and 0.185, respectively. Significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with excess homozygosity indicating high levels of inbreeding were evident in all populations studied. The population differentiation was high with 28-35% of genetic variation partitioned among populations. The genetic distance analysis showed that three northeastern (two Newfoundland and one New Brunswick) populations are genetically distinct from the remaining populations. The coalescence-based analysis suggests that "northeastern" and "main" populations likely became isolated during the most recent Pleistocene glacial period, and severe population bottlenecks may have led to the evolution of a highly selfing mating system in red pine. PMID:21652464

  10. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Novak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:27579344

  11. [Effects of thinning intensity on Pinus tabulaeformis plantation in Huanglong Mountain, Northwest China: a comprehensive evaluation].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun-Chang; Zhang, Wen-Hui; He, Jing-Feng; Wang, Jin-Tang

    2013-05-01

    A sampling plot investigation was conducted on the seedling regeneration, stand growth, species diversity, and soil characteristics in a Pinus tabulaeformis plantation in Huanglong Mountain on the Loess Plateau of Northwest China after 7 years of close-to-natural management thinning 15% (light thinning), 30% (medium thinning), and 45% (heavy thinning), with the effect of different thinning intensities evaluated. With the increase of thinning intensity, the amount and growth indices of 1-7 years old P. tabulaeformis seedlings increased, but the mean annual increments of the growth indices decreased after an initial increase, with the maximum under medium thinning. As compared with the control (un-thinned plantation), the individual volume under light, medium, and heavy thinning was increased by 20.9%, 32.1% and 52.6%, the volume per hm2 decreased by 4.4%, 15.1%, and 25.3%, and the mean annual growth rate of volume increased by 28.6%, 46.2% and 82.0%, respectively. The species diversity and soil characteristics were improved under thinning, with the order of heavy thinning > medium thinning > light thinning > un-thinning. In this study, 45% thinning was most suitable to the management of P. tabulaeformis plantation in Huanglong Mountain. PMID:24015549

  12. Biomass expansion factor and root-to-shoot ratio for Pinus in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Biomass Expansion Factor (BEF) and the Root-to-Shoot Ratio (R) are variables used to quantify carbon stock in forests. They are often considered as constant or species/area specific values in most studies. This study aimed at showing tree size and age dependence upon BEF and R and proposed equations to improve forest biomass and carbon stock. Data from 70 sample Pinus spp. grown in southern Brazil trees in different diameter classes and ages were used to demonstrate the correlation between BEF and R, and forest inventory data, such as DBH, tree height and age. Total dry biomass, carbon stock and CO2 equivalent were simulated using the IPCC default values of BEF and R, corresponding average calculated from data used in this study, as well as the values estimated by regression equations. The mean values of BEF and R calculated in this study were 1.47 and 0.17, respectively. The relationship between BEF and R and the tree measurement variables were inversely related with negative exponential behavior. Simulations indicated that use of fixed values of BEF and R, either IPCC default or current average data, may lead to unreliable estimates of carbon stock inventories and CDM projects. It was concluded that accounting for the variations in BEF and R and using regression equations to relate them to DBH, tree height and age, is fundamental in obtaining reliable estimates of forest tree biomass, carbon sink and CO2 equivalent. PMID:21943243

  13. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories. PMID:26997421

  14. Post-Fire Salvage Logging for Fire-Killed Brutian Pine (Pinus brutia) Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emin Akay, Abdullah; Kanat, Orhan Erdas Mehmet; Tutus, Ahmet

    The volume and economic value of the fire-killed and fire-damaged timber can dramatically decrease due to the impacts of deterioration agents after fire. Insect and stain fungi damages cause significant reductions in economic value of timber especially in the first year after fire. The fire-killed and fire-damaged trees should be quickly extracted to recover their economic values. The logging cost is the main factor that affects the net value of the trees after fire. Therefore, logging system should be carefully planned to maximize the net value recovered from the fire-killed and fire-damaged trees. In this study, the cost efficiency of ground-based logging systems in extracting fire-killed and fire-damaged trees was analyzed in a partially burned Brutian Pine (Pinus brutia) forest, located in Kahramanmaras. Besides, to select the optimum skidding distance with minimum logging costs, the logging systems were examined with respect to various skidding distances and associated forest road lengths.

  15. Relationships between nutrient status, carbon assimilation and water use efficiency in Pinus radiata (D. Don) needles.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D. W.; Nambiar, E. K. S.; Fife, D. N.

    1986-12-01

    The productivity of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations can be increased on many soils by N and P fertilization. Foliar analyses are usually taken as a guide for nutrient management, but there is little information about the relationship of foliar nutrient status to foliar physiology. This paper provides such information from N and P fertilization experiments. The concentrations and contents of N and P in the needles of P. radiata change because of accumulation during needle growth, retranslocation during shoot growth, and replenishment from current uptake during periods of little shoot growth. Up to 60% P and 50% N may be retranslocated in a single growing season from needles less than one year old. Three years after fertilizer application to a 10-year-old thinned P. radiata stand, net carbon assimilation rate per unit leaf area was in the order NP>P>N. There were positive associations between foliar P and assimilation at full sunlight, diffusive conductance and quantum yield. Foliar N was negatively associated with these variables. Higher concentrations of P and N were both accompanied by higher instantaneous water use efficiency by the foliage. Estimated trends in whole tree assimilation were similar to those in aboveground biomass accumulation. The interplay between the dynamic nature of nutrients in the foliage and their influence on the physiology of needles is discussed. PMID:14975843

  16. Phylogenetic Relationships and Species Delimitation in Pinus Section Trifoliae Inferrred from Plastid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-León, Sergio; Gernandt, David S.; Pérez de la Rosa, Jorge A.; Jardón-Barbolla, Lev

    2013-01-01

    Recent diversification followed by secondary contact and hybridization may explain complex patterns of intra- and interspecific morphological and genetic variation in the North American hard pines (Pinus section Trifoliae), a group of approximately 49 tree species distributed in North and Central America and the Caribbean islands. We concatenated five plastid DNA markers for an average of 3.9 individuals per putative species and assessed the suitability of the five regions as DNA bar codes for species identification, species delimitation, and phylogenetic reconstruction. The ycf1 gene accounted for the greatest proportion of the alignment (46.9%), the greatest proportion of variable sites (74.9%), and the most unique sequences (75 haplotypes). Phylogenetic analysis recovered clades corresponding to subsections Australes, Contortae, and Ponderosae. Sequences for 23 of the 49 species were monophyletic and sequences for another 9 species were paraphyletic. Morphologically similar species within subsections usually grouped together, but there were exceptions consistent with incomplete lineage sorting or introgression. Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated that all three subsections diversified relatively recently during the Miocene. The general mixed Yule-coalescent method gave a mixed model estimate of only 22 or 23 evolutionary entities for the plastid sequences, which corresponds to less than half the 49 species recognized based on morphological species assignments. Including more unique haplotypes per species may result in higher estimates, but low mutation rates, recent diversification, and large effective population sizes may limit the effectiveness of this method to detect evolutionary entities. PMID:23936218

  17. Modeling the physiological and growth responses of mature Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. to climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Laurence, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Using the TREGRO model we simulated the effects of altered CO{sub 2} (+200 {mu}L/L), temperature (+4{degrees}C) and O{sub 3} (0.5x, 1x and 2x ambient) on the physiology and growth of Pinus ponderosa. Photosynthesis (Pn) increased at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature, enhancing total tree growth 29% and 13%, respectively. In both scenarios the greatest increase in dry matter was in fine root biomass. Ozone at all exposures reduced Pn, total tree growth was unaffected at 0.5x O{sub 3}, however, at higher O{sub 3} total growth was reduced 19% (1x) and 39% (2x). Reductions in fine root biomass and total non-structural carbohydrate dominated at all O{sub 3} exposures. Increased Pn at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature reduced, but did not eliminate, O{sub 3}-induced growth reductions. In the model changes in Pn and stomatal conductance largely determined the growth response to multiple climatic alterations, however, changes in fine root biomass may control growth response in the field.

  18. Endophytic fungi isolated from Pinus halepensis needles in M'sila (Algeria) region and their bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Ladjal, S; Harzallah, D; Dahamna, S; Bouamra, D; Bouharati, S; Khennouf, S

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes grow asymptomatically within the tissues of all vascular plants and some are known to provide their host plants with tolerance to different types of environmental stress. Endophytic fungi were detected, isolated and collected from healthy needles of Alep pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) from the canton of El-Haourane in M'sila, Algeria. For the author's knowledge, these fungi are reported from this conifer for the first time in this region. A survey has been conducted using randomly sampled needles of symptomless trees for two categories of needles (old and young). From 600 surface-sterilized needles collected from 15 trees (300 needles for each age), 29 fungal isolates were obtained and identified on the basis of the morphological characterization using microscopic observations. The fungal isolates were grouped in Deuteromycetes and Zygomycetes. Species of Moniliales were the most common fungi assaciated with P. halepensis. It appears from the results also that the colonization frequency (CF%) was dependant on the age of the needles; older needles were more densely colonized than the younger needles with a 68.5%. The results of this study indicate that P. halepensis serves as a host to numerous endophytic fungi. These fungi could have significance as a source of novel metabolites. And therefore the mycoendophytes genera of Penicillium, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Trichosporon, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Trichoderma. Expressed an antagonistic and antibiotic effect against pathogenic microorganisms to humans and plants. PMID:25151842

  19. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-03-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  20. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  1. Indirect Evidence for Genetic Differentiation in Vulnerability to Embolism in Pinus halepensis.

    PubMed

    David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paudel, Indira; Mizrachi, Maayan; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervé; Lukyanov, Victor; Badel, Eric; Capdeville, Gaelle; Shklar, Galina; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasing mean temperatures and in the eastern Mediterranean is expected to decrease annual precipitation. The resulting increase in aridity may be too rapid for adaptation of tree species unless their gene pool already possesses variation in drought resistance. Vulnerability to embolism, estimated by the pressure inducing 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (P 50), is strongly associated with drought stress resistance in trees. Yet, previous studies on various tree species reported low intraspecific genetic variation for this trait, and therefore limited adaptive capacities to increasing aridity. Here we quantified differences in hydraulic efficiency (xylem hydraulic conductance) and safety (resistance to embolism) in four contrasting provenances of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) in a provenance trial, which is indirect evidence for genetic differences. Results obtained with three techniques (bench dehydration, centrifugation and X-ray micro-CT) evidenced significant differentiation with similar ranking between provenances. Inter-provenance variation in P 50 correlated with pit anatomical properties (torus overlap and pit aperture size). These results suggest that adaptation of P. halepensis to xeric habitats has been accompanied by modifications of bordered pit function driven by variation in pit aperture. This study thus provides evidence that appropriate exploitation of provenance differences will allow continued forestry with P. halepensis in future climates of the Eastern Mediterranean. PMID:27313594

  2. Migration and Attacking Ability of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii Stem Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Son, Joung A; Jung, Chan Sik; Han, Hye Rim

    2016-08-01

    To understand how Bursaphelenchus xylophilus kills pine trees, the differences between the effects of B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus on pine trees are usually compared. In this study, the migration and attacking ability of a non-pathogenic B. mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii were investigated. The distribution of B. mucronatus and the number of dead epithelial cells resulting from inoculation were compared with those of the pathogenic B. xylophilus. Although B. mucronatus is non-pathogenic in pines, its distribution pattern in P. thunbergii was the same as that of B. xylophilus. We therefore concluded that the non-pathogenicity of B. mucronatus could not be attributed to its migration ability. The sparse and sporadic attacking pattern of B. mucronatus was also the same as that of B. xylophilus. However, the number and area of the dead epithelial cells in pine cuttings inoculated with B. mucronatus were smaller than in those cuttings inoculated with B. xylophilus, meaning that the attacking ability of B. mucronatus is weaker than that of B. xylophilus. Therefore, we concluded that the weaker attacking ability of B. mucronatus might be the factor responsible for the non-pathogenicity. PMID:27493609

  3. Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. ) tree-limit surveillance during recent decades, central Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Kullman, L. )

    1993-02-01

    The altitudinal tree-limit of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been surveyed at the population level since the early- and mid-1970s in the Swedish Scandes. Elevational tree-limit advance was recorded for the majority of sites, despite statistically stable, although highly fluctuating climate with clusters of exceptionally cold winters and many relatively cool summers. The new tree-limit derived from pines established in the late 1950s. Tree-limit rise was concurrent with net population decline for the period 1972 to 1991, mainly as a result of failing regeneration. The main factor of individual vitality depression and mortality was deduced to be winter desiccation. The progressive tree-limit has a tendency for slow upslope advance during periods of climatic stability, even if punctuated by shorter events of unfavorable climate. Pine tree-limit dynamics is suggested to be a complex of climate/age/disturbance interactions. The tree-limit may decline altitudinally mainly in response to secular climate cooling, which makes it best suited for surveying sustained climatic trends and analogous paleoclimatic reconstruction. 51 refs., 12 figs., 1 tabs.

  4. Characterization of the Pinus massoniana Transcriptional Response to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Kai; Lu, Quan; Liang, Jun; Zhang, Xing-Yao

    2013-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the most destructive diseases of pine and poses a threat of serious economic losses worldwide. Although several of the mechanisms involved in disease progression have been discovered, the molecular response of Pinus massoniana to PWN infection has not been explored. We constructed four subtractive suppression hybridization cDNA libraries by taking time-course samples from PWN-inoculated Masson pine trees. One-hundred forty-four significantly differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified, and 124 high-quality sequences with transcriptional features were selected for gene ontology (GO) and individual gene analyses. There were marked differences in the types of transcripts, as well as in the timing and levels of transcript expression in the pine trees following PWN inoculation. Genes involved in signal transduction, transcription and translation and secondary metabolism were highly expressed after 24 h and 72 h, while stress response genes were highly expressed only after 72 h. Certain transcripts responding to PWN infection were discriminative; pathogenesis and cell wall-related genes were more abundant, while detoxification or redox process-related genes were less abundant. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the biochemical and physiological responses of pine trees to PWN infection, particularly during the initial stage of infection. PMID:23759987

  5. Does simultaneous variable selection and dimension reduction improve the classification of Pinus forest species?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peerbhay, Kabir Yunus; Mutanga, Onisimo; Ismail, Riyad

    2014-01-01

    Tree species information is important for forest inventory management and supports decisions related to the composition and distribution of forest resources. However, traditional methods of obtaining such information involve time consuming and cost intensive ground-based methods. Hyperspectral data offer an alternative source for obtaining information related to forest inventory. Utilizing Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications Eagle hyperspectral data (393 to 994 nm), this study compares the utility of two partial least squares (PLS)-based methods for the classification of three commercial Pinus tree species. Results indicate that the sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis (SPLS-DA) method performed variable selection and dimension reduction successfully to produce an overall accuracy of 80.21%. In comparison, the PLS-DA method and variable importance in the projection (VIP) selected bands produced an overall accuracy of 71.88%. The most effective bands selected by PLS-DA and VIP coincided within the visible region of the spectrum (393 to 700 nm). However, SPLS-DA selected fewer wavebands within the blue (415 to 483 nm), green (515 to 565 nm), and red regions (674 to 694 nm) to confirm the importance of the visible in discriminating tree species. Overall, this study shows the potential of SPLS-DA to perform simultaneous variable selection and dimension reduction of hyperspectral remotely sensed data resulting in improved classification accuracies.

  6. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations. PMID:27051433

  7. Diversity of fungi in organic soils under a moorland--Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) gradient.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ian C; Campbell, Colin D; Prosser, James I

    2003-11-01

    The conservation and regeneration of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) woodlands is being actively encouraged by conservation agencies in the UK because of their high biodiversity value. In the present study, the consequences of regeneration on terrestrial fungal communities was determined in three parallel transects running from open moorland, through an intermediate zone showing seedling colonization, into a mature Scots pine forest at Abernethy Forest, Cairngorm, Scotland. Soil cores were taken at 18 m intervals along each 180 m transect, and the diversity of the soil fungal community was investigated by DGGE and sequence analysis of ITS fragments PCR-amplified from DNA extracted from soil. Analysis of DGGE profiles generated for two of the three transects indicates a clear shift in the community from the moorland region of the transects to the forest region. Whereas a few bands were present at all sampling points across the transects, the majority of bands were unique to either the moorland or forest samples. FASTA database searches of ITS sequence data generated from excised DGGE bands revealed the closest species match for each band. In some cases, the similarity of ITS sequences to database sequences was poor, but the remaining sequences were most closely related to ITS sequences of both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal fungi. The data are discussed in relation to the effect of native pine woodland expansion on the soil fungal community. PMID:14641592

  8. Production, composition and toxicology studies of Enzogenol® Pinus radiata bark extract.

    PubMed

    Frevel, Mathias A E; Pipingas, Andrew; Grigsby, Warren J; Frampton, Chris M; Gilchrist, Nigel L

    2012-12-01

    Enzogenol® pine bark extract is a dietary supplement and food ingredient produced by water extraction of Pinus radiata. We present production method, composition, and safety data from rat and dog toxicological and human clinical studies. The dry powder contains proanthocyanidins (>80%), taxifolin (1-2%), other flavonoids and phenolic acids (up to 8%), and carbohydrates (5-10%). Reverse mutation assays showed lack of mutagenic activity. Single and 14-day repeat dosing in rats and dogs had no influence on body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, and haematology at any dose level. There were no treatment related findings on gross and detailed necroscopy, organ weights, organ weight ratios and histology. The only adverse events were emesis and diarrhoea in dogs occurring mainly in un-fed condition and at the highest dose level in a total of 18% of applications. The MTD and NOAEL in the present rat and dog studies were 2500 and 750 mg/kg/day, respectively. Consumption of 480 mg/day for 6 months and 960 mg/day for 5 weeks in two human studies showed Enzogenol® had no adverse influence on liver and kidney function, haematology, and did not cause any adverse events. Our studies indicate lack of toxicity of Enzogenol® and support safe use as a food ingredient. PMID:22982471

  9. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium study of nitrogen species onto radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust.

    PubMed

    Harmayani, Kadek D; Faisal Anwar, A H M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen species (NH3-N, NO3-N, and NO2-N) are found as one of the major dissolved constituents in wastewater or stormwater runoff. In this research, laboratory experiments were conducted to remove these pollutants from the water environment using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust. A series of batch tests was conducted by varying initial concentration, dosage, particle size, pH, and contact time to check the removal performance. Test results confirmed the effectiveness of radiata pine sawdust for removing these contaminants from the aqueous phase (100% removal of NO3-N, and NO2-N; 55% removal of NH3-N). The adsorbent dosage and initial concentration showed a significantly greater effect on the removal process over pH or particle sizes. The optimum dosage for contaminant removal on a laboratory scale was found to be 12 g. Next, the adsorption kinetics were studied using intraparticle diffusion, liquid-film diffusion, and a pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model. The adsorption of all species followed a pseudo-second order model but NO2-N adsorption followed both models. In addition, the kinetics of NO2-N adsorption showed two-step adsorption following intraparticle diffusion and liquid-film diffusion. The isotherm study showed that NO3-N and NO2-N adsorption fitted slightly better with the Freundlich model but that NH3-N adsorption followed both Freundlich and Langmuir models. PMID:27438245

  10. Migration and Attacking Ability of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Son, Joung A; Jung, Chan Sik; Han, Hye Rim

    2016-01-01

    To understand how Bursaphelenchus xylophilus kills pine trees, the differences between the effects of B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus on pine trees are usually compared. In this study, the migration and attacking ability of a non-pathogenic B. mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii were investigated. The distribution of B. mucronatus and the number of dead epithelial cells resulting from inoculation were compared with those of the pathogenic B. xylophilus. Although B. mucronatus is non-pathogenic in pines, its distribution pattern in P. thunbergii was the same as that of B. xylophilus. We therefore concluded that the non-pathogenicity of B. mucronatus could not be attributed to its migration ability. The sparse and sporadic attacking pattern of B. mucronatus was also the same as that of B. xylophilus. However, the number and area of the dead epithelial cells in pine cuttings inoculated with B. mucronatus were smaller than in those cuttings inoculated with B. xylophilus, meaning that the attacking ability of B. mucronatus is weaker than that of B. xylophilus. Therefore, we concluded that the weaker attacking ability of B. mucronatus might be the factor responsible for the non-pathogenicity. PMID:27493609

  11. Selection of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in Pinus massoniana Post Nematode Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yongcheng; Liu, Qinghua; Dong, Hongyu; Zhou, Zhichun; Hao, Yanping; Chen, Xuelian; Xu, Liuyi

    2016-01-01

    Pinus massoniaia Lamb has gained more and more attention as the most important tree species for timber and forestation in South China. Gene expression studies are of great importance to identify new and elite cultivars. Real-time quantitative PCR, a highly sensitive and specific method, is commonly used in the analysis of gene expression. The appropriate reference genes must be employed to normalize the calculation program for ascertaining repeatable and significant results. Herein, eleven housekeeping genes were evaluated during different stages of P. massoniana post nematode inoculation in this study. Three statistical approaches such as geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were selected to analyze the stability of candidate genes. The results indicated that U2af and β-TUB were the most stable reference genes. These two genes could be used for the normalization in most of the experiments of P. massoniana, while Histone and AK were the least stable ones. In addition, EF expressed at the lowest average Ct value was the most abundant candidate gene. As an important gene associated with defense mechanisms, ABC transporter was analyzed by qRT-PCR, and the results were used to confirm the reliability of two genes. The selected reference genes in the present study will be conducive to future gene expression normalized by qRT-PCR in P. massoniana. PMID:26800152

  12. [Effects of urbanization on soil nitrogen supply in Pinus elliottii plantations].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-quan; Yuan, Ping-cheng; Chen, Fu-sheng; Hu, Xiao-fei; Du, Tian-zhen

    2009-03-01

    With the Pinus elliottii plantations along an urban-rural gradient in Nanchang City as test objectives, and by using ion-exchange resin (IER) bag, this paper studied the seasonal dynamics of soil available nitrogen in the plantations, and analyzed the effects of urbanization on soil nitrogen supply. The results showed that the soil nitrogen supply in the plantations had an obvious seasonal fluctuation. Soil NH4+ -N concentration was significantly higher in autumn and winter than in spring and summer, while soil NO3- -N concentration, mineral N concentration, and relative nitrification rate were in adverse (P < 0.05). The seasonal dynamics of soil available nitrogen was basically consistent with the growth rhythm of P. elliottii. The soil nitrogen availability and relative nitrification ratio along the gradient differed greatly, being significantly higher in urban than in rural area (P < 0.05). Urbanization accelerated soil N mineralization and nitrification, enhanced soil nitrogen supply capacity, and increased soil NO3- -N content. It was suggested that in the construction of urban forest, the plants with high N demand, especially with high NO3- -N absorption capacity, should be introduced to mitigate the soil available N loss and its induced environmental pollution. PMID:19637587

  13. Proteomic analyses provide new insights into the responses of Pinus massoniana seedlings to phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fuhua; Ding, Guijie; Wen, Xiaopeng

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Plants can respond defensively to phosphorus deficiency by modifying their morphology and metabolic pathways via the differential expression of low phosphate responsive genes. To better understand the mechanisms by which the Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) adapts to phosphorus deficiency, we conducted comparative proteomic analysis using an elite line exhibiting high tolerance to phosphorus deficiency. The selected seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM KH2 PO4 (control), 0.01 mM KH2 PO4 (P1), or 0.06 mM KH2 PO4 (P2) for 48 days. Total protein samples were separated via 2DE. A total of 98 differentially expressed proteins, which displayed at least 1.7-fold change expression compared to the control levels (p ≤ 0.05), were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These phosphate starvation responsive proteins were implicated in photosynthesis, defense, cellular organization, biosynthesis, energy metabolism, secondary metabolism, signal transduction etc. Therefore, these proteins might play important roles in facilitating internal phosphorus homeostasis. Additionally, the obtained data may be useful for the further characterization of gene function and may provide a foundation for a more comprehensive understanding of the adaptations of the Masson pine to phosphorus-deficient conditions. PMID:26603831

  14. Characterization of culturable bacterial populations associating with Pinus sylvestris--Suillus bovinus mycorrhizospheres.

    PubMed

    Timonen, Sari; Hurek, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Bacterial isolations were carried out on Pinus sylvestris--Suillus bovinus mycorrhizospheres obtained directly from boreal pine forest. When samples were taken during dry weather, the numbers of bacterial colony-forming units were significantly higher in uncolonized short roots and external mycelia than in mycorrhizal roots and soil outside the mycorrhizosphere. In contrast, the colony-forming unit counts were similar in all hypogeous samples after rainy weather. Culturable bacteria were absent from most Suillus bovinus sporocarps. The bacteria isolated from all types of mycorr hizo sphere samples, i.e. short roots, mycorrhizal roots, and external mycelia, consisted primarily of Burkholderia spp., whereas most isolates from soil outside the mycorrhizosphere were identified as Paenibacillus spp. This study shows that mycorrhizal external mycelia can expand the habitat favourable for common rhizosphere bacteria into the soil far from the immediate rhizosphere. Some of these bacteria may help the trees with nitrogen acquisition, since potentially diazotrophic bacteria harbouring nitrogenase reductase (nifH) genes were isolated from mycorrhizal root tips. PMID:16917536

  15. Intraspecific variation in the use of water sources by the circum-Mediterranean conifer Pinus halepensis.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Jordi; Lucabaugh, Devon; Chambel, Maria Regina; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2015-12-01

    The relevance of interspecific variation in the use of plant water sources has been recognized in drought-prone environments. By contrast, the characterization of intraspecific differences in water uptake patterns remains elusive, although preferential access to particular soil layers may be an important adaptive response for species along aridity gradients. Stable water isotopes were analysed in soil and xylem samples of 56 populations of the drought-avoidant conifer Pinus halepensis grown in a common garden test. We found that most populations reverted to deep soil layers as the main plant water source during seasonal summer droughts. More specifically, we detected a clear geographical differentiation among populations in water uptake patterns even under relatively mild drought conditions (early autumn), with populations originating from more arid regions taking up more water from deep soil layers. However, the preferential access to deep soil water was largely independent of aboveground growth. Our findings highlight the high plasticity and adaptive relevance of the differential access to soil water pools among Aleppo pine populations. The observed ecotypic patterns point to the adaptive relevance of resource investment in deep roots as a strategy towards securing a source of water in dry environments for P. halepensis. PMID:26193768

  16. Energy Balance and CO2 Exchange Behaviour in Sub-Tropical Young Pine (Pinus roxburghii) Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, B. K.; Singh, N.; Soni, P.; Parihar, J. S.

    2011-08-01

    A study was conducted to understand the seasonal and annual energy balance behaviour of young and growing sub-tropical chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) plantation of eight years age in the Doon valley, India and its coupling with CO2 exchange. The seasonal cycle of dekadal daytime latent heat fluxes mostly followed net radiation cycle with two minima and range between 50-200 Wm-2 but differed from the latter during the period when soil wetness and cloudiness were not coupled. Dekadal evaporative fraction closely followed the seasonal dryness-wetness cycle thus minimizing the effect of wind on energy partitioning as compared to diurnal variation. Daytime latent heat fluxes were found to have linear relationship with canopy net assimilation rate (Y = 0.023X + 0.171, R2 = 0.80) though nonlinearity exists between canopy latent heat flux and hourly net CO2 assimilation rate . Night-time plant respiration was found to have linear relationship (Y = 0.088 + 1.736, R2 = 0.72) with night-time average vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Daily average soil respiration was found to be non-linearly correlated to average soil temperatures (Y = -0.034X2 + 1.676X - 5.382, R2 = 0.63) The coupled use of empirical models, seasonal energy fluxes and associated parameters would be useful to annual water and carbon accounting in subtropical pine ecosystem of India in the absence high-response eddy covariance tower.

  17. Relationships Between Phenomenon of Growing Weakness and Leaf Elements Contents in Pinus tabulaeformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Jianzhi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In order to find the relationships between leaf elements contents and phenomenon of growing weakness of plant, the variation of thirteen mineral elements in pine needles were determined at the period from well growth to weak growth for six consecutive years. Twelve elements consisting toxic metals (Pb, Cr, and Cd) and essential mineral elements (P, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg and Na) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and the N content was analyzed using automatic azotometer (KDY-9820 type). The results showed that there were no significantly variatation in elements N, K, Ca, Mg and Fe between normal and abnormal growing trees. However, the sharply increase of Na and toxic heavy metal Cr, and the gradually decrease of trace elements such as Mn, Cu, Zn, and further the rising of P year by year in pine needles might had much more relationships with the weak growth of Pinus tabulaeformis. The correlations of each element could be used to improve the ratios of different element in order to make plant grow well.

  18. Genet Variation of Ectomycorrhizal Suillus granulatus Fruiting Bodies in Pinus strobus Stands

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The genets of Suillus granulatus in a Pinus strobus stand (13 m × 60 m) were identified using random amplified polymorphic DNA molecular markers and the DNA of mushrooms that fruited for two years, and variations in genet size and distribution were analyzed. From a total of 116 mushrooms, 73 genets were identified and were grouped into three locations. The genets of mushrooms in close proximity differed from each other. The genet sizes varied at any of the three locations. The lengths of the identified genets in the pine stand ranged from 0.09 to 2.90 m. The average number of mushrooms per genet was 1.2 to 2.3, and the percentage of genets that were represented by a single mushroom was 44% to 94%. This variation in the genets of mushrooms in close proximity suggests that the ectomycorrhizal mycelial bodies of S. granulatus propagated sexually by fusing haploid spores derived from the mushrooms gills with below-ground mycelia. Therefore, it is necessary further to investigate the formation of new genets through spores in ectomycorrhizal fungal colonies. PMID:27103849

  19. Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus halepensis growing in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Tomi, Félix; Gibernau, Marc; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2016-04-01

    The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno, and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS and (13)C-NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77 - 100% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene, myrcene, and (E)-β-caryophyllene were the major component followed by α-humulene and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. 47 Oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M = 28.1 g/100 g; SD = 10.6) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 19.0 g/100 g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 28.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.9), α-pinene (M = 12.3 g/100 g; SD = 3.6), and myrcene (M = 11.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule. PMID:27103339

  20. Effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide on the subunit vaccine of Proteus mirabilis in birds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guolin; Zhong, Shixun; Yang, Shifa; Zuo, Xuemei; Liang, Manfei; Sun, Jing; Liu, Jingjing; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2013-05-01

    Three adjuvants, namely, Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), white mineral oil (WO) and propolis (PP), were added to the outer membrane protein (OMP) of Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and their effects were compared. Three hundred 1-day-old chicks were randomly divided into five groups (I-V), with 60 chicks per group, and injected subcutaneously with WO-OMP vaccine (I), PP-OMP vaccine (II), TPPPS-OMP vaccine (III), OMP-only vaccine (IV) and physiological saline (V) at 3, 7 and 12 days old. On days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 after the first vaccination, the antibody titers, interleukin-2 levels (IL-2) and T-lymphocyte proliferation rates in the peripheral blood as well as the secreting-type IgA levels (SIgA) in the duodenum were measured. On day 7 after the third vaccination, the chicks were challenged with P. mirabilis strain Q1 and the protective effects of each group were observed. The highest protective rate was observed in group III. Moreover, the antibody titers as well as IL-2, SIgA and T-lymphocyte proliferation rates in this group significantly increased and were significantly higher than those in the other groups at most time points. The results indicate that TPPPS could significantly enhance the effects of the subunit vaccine of P. mirabilis; induced stronger humoral, cellular and mucosal immunity as compared with WO and PP; and should be developed as a vaccine adjuvant. PMID:23403027

  1. Genet Variation of Ectomycorrhizal Suillus granulatus Fruiting Bodies in Pinus strobus Stands.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2016-03-01

    The genets of Suillus granulatus in a Pinus strobus stand (13 m × 60 m) were identified using random amplified polymorphic DNA molecular markers and the DNA of mushrooms that fruited for two years, and variations in genet size and distribution were analyzed. From a total of 116 mushrooms, 73 genets were identified and were grouped into three locations. The genets of mushrooms in close proximity differed from each other. The genet sizes varied at any of the three locations. The lengths of the identified genets in the pine stand ranged from 0.09 to 2.90 m. The average number of mushrooms per genet was 1.2 to 2.3, and the percentage of genets that were represented by a single mushroom was 44% to 94%. This variation in the genets of mushrooms in close proximity suggests that the ectomycorrhizal mycelial bodies of S. granulatus propagated sexually by fusing haploid spores derived from the mushrooms gills with below-ground mycelia. Therefore, it is necessary further to investigate the formation of new genets through spores in ectomycorrhizal fungal colonies. PMID:27103849

  2. Slow pyrolysis of wood barks from Pinus brutia Ten. and product compositions.

    PubMed

    Sensöz, Sevgi

    2003-09-01

    Biomass in the form of pine bark (Pinus brutia Ten.) was pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effects of temperature and heating rate on the yields and compositions of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures between 300 and 500 degrees C with heating rates of 7 and 40 degrees Cmin(-1). The product yields were significantly influenced by the process conditions. The bio-oil obtained at 450 degrees C, at which the liquid product yield was maximum, was analysed. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the solid and liquid products were analysed to determine their elemental composition and calorific value. Chemical fractionation of bio-oil showed that only low quantities of hydrocarbons were present, while oxygenated and polar fractions dominated. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.03 MJkg(-1) was established as CH(1.43)O(0.332)N(0.0013). PMID:12798122

  3. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.; Helms, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment.

  4. The combined effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Tuber melanosporum on the quality of Pinus halepensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, J A; Martin, A; Anriquez, A; Albanesi, A

    2012-08-01

    The ecological, economic and social values of the ectomycorrhizal fungi of the black truffle found in the rural Mediterranean are well known. The inoculation of Pinus halepensis seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria can improve the morphology and physiology of the seedlings and benefit the regeneration of arid regions and the reintroduction of inocula of mycorrhizal fungi into these areas. Some rhizobacteria can improve the establishment and functioning of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. In this study, seedlings of P. halepensis were inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum and the rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 under non-limiting greenhouse conditions. Five months after inoculation, we analysed the growth, water parameters (osmotic potential at saturation, osmotic potential at turgor loss and modulus of elasticity), concentrations of mycorrhizal colonies, nutrient concentration and nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) in roots and aerial parts of the seedlings. Subsequently, tests were performed to estimate the root growth potentials. None of the treatments changed the water parameters or growth potentials of the roots. The inoculations improved the growth and nutrient uptake of the seedlings, although the combination of P. fluorescens CECT 844 and T. melanosporum did not generally lead to a significant improvement over the positive effects of a simple inoculation of T. melanosporum; however, the addition of P. fluorescens CECT 844 did double the rate of the mycorrhization of T. melanosporum. These results may be promising for enhancing the cultivation of truffles. PMID:22068563

  5. [Soil carbon cycle of Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Kang, Bowen; Liu, Jianjun; Dang, Kunliang; Chen, Haibin

    2006-05-01

    With soil carbon cycle compartment model,this paper studied the carbon storage and flux of each carbon compartment of soil under Pinus tabulaeformis, a main forest type in the Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountain. The results showed that the storage of soil organic carbon was 146.071 t x hm(-2), with 130.366 t x hm(-2) in mineral soil layer and 12.626 t x hm(-2) in litter layer. The storage was lower than the average value of forest soils in China and of oak Sharptooth forest soil in Huoditang, but higher than that of the soils under temperate coniferous forest and tropical forest. The annual carbon input into litter layer was 5.939 t x hm(-2), with 56.9% from above-ground litter and 43.1% from underground dead roots, while that into mineral soil layer via humic acid was 2. 034 t x hm(-2). The annual amount of carbon released from the respiration of P. zabulaeformis forest-soil system was 14. 012 t x hm(-2), with litter layer, mineral soil layer, dead root system, and live root system occupied 15.7%, 14.5%, 11.7% and 58.1%, respectively. PMID:16883796

  6. PAH detection in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles: A fast method for biomonitoring purpose.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Concha Graña, E; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J Á; López Mahía, P; Prada Rodríguez, D; Muniategui Lorenzo, S

    2016-06-01

    Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of plant matrices, new procedure should be standardized for each single biomonitor. Thus, here is described a matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction method, previously used for moss samples, improved and modified for the analyses of PAHs in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles, species widely used in biomonitoring studies across Europe. The improvements compared to the previous procedure are the use of Florisil added with further clean-up sorbents, 10% deactivated silica for pine needles and PSA for oak leaves, being these matrices rich in interfering compounds, as shown by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses acquired in full scan mode. Good trueness, with values in the range 90-120% for the most of compounds, high precision (intermediate precision between 2% and 12%) and good sensitivity using only 250mg of samples (limits of quantification lower than 3 and 1.5ngg(-1), respectively for pine and oak) were achieved by the selected procedures. These methods proved to be reliable for PAH analyses and, having advantage of fastness, can be used in biomonitoring studies of PAH air contamination. PMID:27130099

  7. Effect of pine mistletoe on radial growth of Crimean pine (Pinus nigra) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Catal, Yilmaz; Carus, Serdar

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the influence of infection by pine mistletoe (Viscum album L. subsp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Volmann) on the radial growth of crimean pine (Pinus nigra Amold) in Turkey was investigated. We built local residual tree-ring-width chronologies using dendrochronogical techniques. Tree ring chronologies of uninfected (control) crimean pine were used to estimate potential radial growth characteristics in the "infected" crimean pine (light, moderate and severe infection groups). In 2005, increment cores were collected from 26 infected and 19 control dominant or co-dominant trees and annual radial growth indices from 1930-2005 were calculated for each infection group in a 14 point sampling. We compared radial growth in the uninfected trees with mean regional chronology. We found a strong decrease in radial growth in during the 1998-2005 period. The periodic average radial growth reduction (in %) from 1998 to 2005, respectively, were 0 for control, 26 for light, 39 for moderate and 63 for severe infection groups. It can be especially concluded that a severe degree of pine mistletoe attack has a negative effect on radial growth of the infected crimean pine trees. PMID:22167935

  8. Spore Dispersion of Tricholoma matsutake at a Pinus densiflora Stand in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ka, Kang-Hyeon

    2010-01-01

    The spore of Tricholoma matsutake is considered to be the starting point of the mushroom growth cycle, but the mechanism of mycelial development from the spore stage is not yet clarified. In this study, we tried to measure how far the spores of T. matsutake disperse from a fruiting body located at a Pinus densiflora stand in Korea. We established 16 slide glasses coated with glycerin near a fruiting body in four directions separated by four different distance intervals within a mushroom productive stand after removing all other fruiting bodies from three plots. The number of dispersed spores increased with time from the first day (475 spores/cm2) to the fourth day (836 spores/cm2) after the pileus opened. The number of spores dispersed downward was about 1.5 times greater than that dispersed toward the ridge. The number of dispersed spores decreased exponentially as the distance from each fruiting body increased. More than 95% of the spores dropped within a meter from the fruiting body, with 75% dropping within 0.5 m. Even so, the number of spores dispersed over 5 m from the fruiting body was more than 50 million when considering the total number of spores produced by a fruiting body is about 5 billion. PMID:23956655

  9. Identification of genes differentially expressed in ectomycorrhizal roots during the Pinus pinaster-Laccaria bicolor interaction.

    PubMed

    Flores-Monterroso, Aranzazu; Canales, Javier; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal associations are of major ecological importance in temperate and boreal forests. The development of a functional ectomycorrhiza requires many genetic and biochemical changes. In this study, suppressive subtraction hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) inoculated with Laccaria bicolor, a mycorrhizal fungus. A total number of 200 unigenes were identified as being differentially regulated in maritime pine roots during the development of mycorrhiza. These unigenes were classified into 10 categories according to the function of their homologues in the GenBank database. Approximately, 40 % of the differentially expressed transcripts were genes that coded for unknown proteins in the databases or that had no homology to known genes. A group of these differentially expressed genes was selected to validate the results using quantitative real-time PCR. The transcript levels of the representative genes were compared between the non-inoculated and inoculated plants at 1, 5, 15 and 30 days after inoculation. The observed expression patterns indicate (1) changes in the composition of the wall cell, (2) tight regulation of defence genes during the development of mycorrhiza and (3) changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Ammonium excess or deficiency dramatically affected the stability of ectomycorrhiza and altered gene expression in maritime pine roots. PMID:23543110

  10. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions. PMID:23242587

  11. Multi-site modulation of flux during monolignol formation in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anterola, A. M.; van Rensburg, H.; van Heerden, P. S.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    1999-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) cell suspension cultures secrete monolignols when placed in 8% sucrose/20 mM KI solution, and these were used to identify phenylpropanoid pathway flux-modulating steps. When cells were provided with increasing amounts of either phenylalanine (Phe) or cinnamic acid, cellular concentrations of immediate downstream products (cinnamic and p-coumaric acids, respectively) increased, whereas caffeic and ferulic acid pool sizes were essentially unaffected. Increasing Phe concentrations resulted in increased amounts of p-coumaryl alcohol relative to coniferyl alcohol. However, exogenously supplied cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids resulted only in increases in their intercellular concentrations, but not that of downstream cinnamyl aldehydes and monolignols. Supplying p-coumaryl and coniferyl aldehydes up to 40, 000-320,000-fold above the detection limits resulted in rapid, quantitative conversion into the monolignols. Only at nonphysiological concentrations was transient accumulation of intracellular aldehydes observed. These results indicate that cinnamic and p-coumaric acid hydroxylations assume important regulatory positions in phenylpropanoid metabolism, whereas cinnamyl aldehyde reduction does not serve as a control point. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Effects of Pinus brutia bark extract and Pycnogenol in a rat model of carrageenan induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ince, I; Yesil-Celiktas, O; Karabay-Yavasoglu, N U; Elgin, G

    2009-12-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the anti-inflammatory activities of Pinus brutia bark extract and Pycnogenol in a rat model of carrageenan-induced inflammation. Firstly, the compositions of both samples were determined using HPLC. Then, carrageenan-induced paw edema was used to assess anti-inflammatory activity in mice. Paw volume was measured before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6h after the injection of carrageenan. Intraperitoneal administration of both the extract and Pycnogenol inhibited paw swelling dose-dependently at 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6h after carrageenan injection. Both samples exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities at doses of 75 and 100 mg/kg body wt. between 2 and 4 hours after administration (p<0.05), respectively. Additionally, P. brutia bark extract showed significantly better activity at doses of 75 and 100mg/kg body wt. than indomethacine at the dose of 10mg/kg body wt. (p<0.05). No acute toxicity was identified in intraplantar injection of the extract at a dose of 2000 mg/kg body wt.. Therefore, P. brutia bark extract possessing 3.3-fold more total catechins and 9.8-fold more taxifolin than Pycnogenol can be utilized as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:19577447

  13. Characterization of the Pinus massoniana transcriptional response to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus infection using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Kai; Lu, Quan; Liang, Jun; Zhang, Xing-Yao

    2013-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the most destructive diseases of pine and poses a threat of serious economic losses worldwide. Although several of the mechanisms involved in disease progression have been discovered, the molecular response of Pinus massoniana to PWN infection has not been explored. We constructed four subtractive suppression hybridization cDNA libraries by taking time-course samples from PWN-inoculated Masson pine trees. One-hundred forty-four significantly differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified, and 124 high-quality sequences with transcriptional features were selected for gene ontology (GO) and individual gene analyses. There were marked differences in the types of transcripts, as well as in the timing and levels of transcript expression in the pine trees following PWN inoculation. Genes involved in signal transduction, transcription and translation and secondary metabolism were highly expressed after 24 h and 72 h, while stress response genes were highly expressed only after 72 h. Certain transcripts responding to PWN infection were discriminative; pathogenesis and cell wall-related genes were more abundant, while detoxification or redox process-related genes were less abundant. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the biochemical and physiological responses of pine trees to PWN infection, particularly during the initial stage of infection. PMID:23759987

  14. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J. )

    1991-05-01

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution.

  15. An experimental test of dietary enzyme modulation in pine warblers Dendroica pinus.

    PubMed

    Levey, D J; Place, A R; Rey, P J; Martínez Del Rio, C

    1999-01-01

    Modulation of gut function is important in an ecological and evolutionary context because it likely determines what food items an animal can and cannot eat. We examined how diet affects activity of digestive enzymes in an omnivorous bird, the pine warbler (Dendroica pinus). Pine warblers were fed insect-based, fruit-based, and seed-based diets for approximately 54 d. We then measured activity of amylase, maltase, sucrase, aminopeptidase-N, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, carboxypeptidase B, pancreatic lipase, and carboxyl ester lipase. We predicted that carbohydrase activities would be highest in birds fed the diet highest in carbohydrates (fruit based), protease activities would be highest in those fed the diet highest in protein (insect based), and lipase activities would be highest in those fed the diets highest in lipid (insect based and seed based). Also, we predicted that pine warblers would exhibit greater dietary modulation of enzyme activity than reported for a less omnivorous congener, the yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata). All predictions were upheld, supporting the hypothesis that pine warblers modulate the activity of digestive enzymes in proportion to demand from substrates in the diet. PMID:10521325

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nanosilver with antibacterial properties using Pinus densiflora young cone extract.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Jang, Jum-Suk; Lee, Kui-Jae; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-06-01

    This study describes an eco-friendly, rapid method for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate using Pinus densiflora for. multicaulis Uyeki young cone extract in a single-pot process. Color changes, ultraviolet-visible spectra (444.5 nm), X-ray diffraction peaks (2θ=39.68, 46.92, 68.12, and 79.10), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the presence of Ag NPs and phytochemicals. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were mostly oval in shape, with a few triangular-shaped particles. Average particle size was 30-80 nm. Phytochemicals present in the young pine cone extract were likely responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) ions. The synthesized Ag NPs (40 μg) had a 7 mm larger zone of inhibition against the skin pathogen Brevibacterium linens than commercial Ag NPs, Propionibacterium acnes (14 mm), Bacillus cereus (9 mm) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (10mm). PMID:25846578

  17. Indirect Evidence for Genetic Differentiation in Vulnerability to Embolism in Pinus halepensis

    PubMed Central

    David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paudel, Indira; Mizrachi, Maayan; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervé; Lukyanov, Victor; Badel, Eric; Capdeville, Gaelle; Shklar, Galina; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasing mean temperatures and in the eastern Mediterranean is expected to decrease annual precipitation. The resulting increase in aridity may be too rapid for adaptation of tree species unless their gene pool already possesses variation in drought resistance. Vulnerability to embolism, estimated by the pressure inducing 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (P50), is strongly associated with drought stress resistance in trees. Yet, previous studies on various tree species reported low intraspecific genetic variation for this trait, and therefore limited adaptive capacities to increasing aridity. Here we quantified differences in hydraulic efficiency (xylem hydraulic conductance) and safety (resistance to embolism) in four contrasting provenances of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) in a provenance trial, which is indirect evidence for genetic differences. Results obtained with three techniques (bench dehydration, centrifugation and X-ray micro-CT) evidenced significant differentiation with similar ranking between provenances. Inter-provenance variation in P50 correlated with pit anatomical properties (torus overlap and pit aperture size). These results suggest that adaptation of P. halepensis to xeric habitats has been accompanied by modifications of bordered pit function driven by variation in pit aperture. This study thus provides evidence that appropriate exploitation of provenance differences will allow continued forestry with P. halepensis in future climates of the Eastern Mediterranean. PMID:27313594

  18. 8-year field comparison of naturally seeded to planted container `pinus taeda`, with and without release

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, M.D.; Barnett, J.P.

    1996-01-09

    A field study compared genetically improved, container loblolly pines (Pinus taedo L.) with naturally seeded loblolly pines through eight growing seasons on a cutover site in southern Arkansas, U.S.A. Measurement pines on 6 of 12 plots were released from woody and herbaceous competition within a 61-cm radius of each tree stem. On natural pine plots, only 1st-year pine seedlings were selected for measurement based on quality standards and their spacing. Woody competition was controlled by hand cutting for 5 consecutive years, and herbaceous competition was controlled with herbicides for 4 consecutive years. Release treatments increased 8-year survival by 50% for natural pines and by 35% for planted pines. Greater gains (343-391%) in individual tree volumes were achieved within regeneration techniques, as a result of release, than were achieved with the two regeneration techniques. In addition, stand volume gains of 647% and 910% were achieved by planted and natural pines, respectively, as a result of release. Eight years after field establishment, stand volume index averaged 46% higher on planted plots than on natural plots. Degree of overtopping was a better predictor of pine performance than live-crown ratio.

  19. Comparative behavior of root pathogens in stems and roots of southeastern Pinus species.

    PubMed

    Matusick, George; Nadel, Ryan L; Walker, David M; Hossain, Mohammad J; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2016-04-01

    Root diseases are expected to become a greater threat to trees in the future due to accidental pathogen introductions and predicted climate changes, thus there is a need for accurate and efficient pathogenicity tests. For many root pathogens, these tests have been conducted in stems instead of roots. It, however, remains unclear whether stem and root inoculations are comparable for most fungal species. In this study we compared the growth and damage caused by five root pathogens (Grosmannia huntii, Grosmannia alacris, Leptographium procerum, Leptographium terebrantis, and Heterobasidion irregulare) in root and stem tissue of two Pinus species by inoculating mature trees and tissue amended agar in the laboratory. Most fungal species tested caused greater damage in roots of both pine hosts following inoculation. The relationship between root and stem damage was, however, similar when most combinations of pathogens were compared. These results suggest that although stem inoculations are not suitable for determining the actual damage potential of a given species, they may be viewed as a useful surrogate for root inoculations when comparing the relative pathogenicity of multiple species. When grown on amended agar, fungal species generally had greater growth in stem tissue, contrasting with the findings from tree inoculations. PMID:27020149

  20. The evolutionary genetics of the genes underlying phenotypic associations for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Eckert, Andrew J; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Liechty, John D; Lee, Jennifer M; Cumbie, W Patrick; Davis, John M; Goldfarb, Barry; Loopstra, Carol A; Palle, Sreenath R; Quesada, Tania; Langley, Charles H; Neale, David B

    2013-12-01

    A primary goal of evolutionary genetics is to discover and explain the genetic basis of fitness-related traits and how this genetic basis evolves within natural populations. Unprecedented technological advances have fueled the discovery of genetic variants associated with ecologically relevant phenotypes in many different life forms, as well as the ability to scan genomes for deviations from selectively neutral models of evolution. Theoretically, the degree of overlap between lists of genomic regions identified using each approach is related to the genetic architecture of fitness-related traits and the strength and type of natural selection molding variation at these traits within natural populations. Here we address for the first time in a plant the degree of overlap between these lists, using patterns of nucleotide diversity and divergence for >7000 unique amplicons described from the extensive expressed sequence tag libraries generated for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in combination with the >1000 published genetic associations. We show that loci associated with phenotypic traits are distinct with regard to neutral expectations. Phenotypes measured at the whole plant level (e.g., disease resistance) exhibit an approximately twofold increase in the proportion of adaptive nonsynonymous substitutions over the genome-wide average. As expected for polygenic traits, these signals were apparent only when loci were considered at the level of functional sets. The ramifications of this result are discussed in light of the continued efforts to dissect the genetic basis of quantitative traits. PMID:24121773

  1. Cloning and characterization of a serotonin N-acetyltransferase from a gymnosperm, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Byeon, Yeong; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Kim, Young-Soon; Ahn, Taeho; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2014-10-01

    Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in both animals and plants. SNAT catalyzes serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, an immediate precursor for melatonin biosynthesis by N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT). We cloned the SNAT gene from a gymnosperm loblolly pine (Pinus teada). The loblolly pine SNAT (PtSNAT) gene encodes 255 amino acids harboring a transit sequence with 67 amino acids and shows 67% amino acid identity with rice SNAT when comparing the mature polypeptide regions. Purified recombinant PtSNAT showed peak activity at 55°C with the K(m) (428 μM) and Vmax (3.9 nmol/min/mg protein) values. As predicted, PtSNAT localized to chloroplasts. The SNAT mRNA was constitutively expressed in all tissues, including leaf, bud, flower, and pinecone, whereas the corresponding protein was detected only in leaf. In accordance with the exclusive SNAT protein expression in leaf, melatonin was detected only in leaf at 0.45 ng per gram fresh weight. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gymnosperm PtSNAT had high homology with SNATs from all plant phyla (even with cyanobacteria), and formed a clade separated from the angiosperm SNATs, suggestive of direct gene transfer from cyanobacteria via endosymbiosis. PMID:25208036

  2. Analysis of genetic stability at SSR loci during somatic embryogenesis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    PubMed

    Marum, Liliana; Rocheta, Margarida; Maroco, João; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-04-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a propagation tool of particular interest for accelerating the deployment of new high-performance planting stock in multivarietal forestry. However, genetic conformity in in vitro propagated plants should be assessed as early as possible, especially in long-living trees such as conifers. The main objective of this work was to study such conformity based on genetic stability at simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci during somatic embryogenesis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Embryogenic cell lines (ECLs) subjected to tissue proliferation during 6, 14 or 22 months, as well as emblings regenerated from several ECLs, were analyzed. Genetic variation at seven SSR loci was detected in ECLs under proliferation conditions for all time points, and in 5 out of 52 emblings recovered from somatic embryos. Three of these five emblings showed an abnormal phenotype consisting mainly of plagiotropism and loss of apical dominance. Despite the variation found in somatic embryogenesis-derived plant material, no correlation was established between genetic stability at the analyzed loci and abnormal embling phenotype, present in 64% of the emblings. The use of microsatellites in this work was efficient for monitoring mutation events during the somatic embryogenesis in P. pinaster. These molecular markers should be useful in the implementation of new breeding and deployment strategies for improved trees using SE. PMID:19153739

  3. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract formulation.

    PubMed

    Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard B; Vitetta, Luis; Rooy, Cindy Van; Harris, Elizabeth V; Young, Joanna M; Frampton, Christopher M; Sali, Avni; Nastasi, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Dietary interventions may have the potential to counter age-related cognitive decline. Studies have demonstrated an improvement in age-related cognitive impairment in animals after supplementation with plant extracts containing flavonoids but there are few human studies. This double-blind, controlled study examined the effects on cognitive performance of a 5 week supplementation with Enzogenol Pinus radiata bark extract containing flavonoids, in 42 males aged 50-65 years, with a body mass index >25. Participants were supplemented for 5 weeks either with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, or with vitamin C only. A battery of computerized cognitive tests was administered, and cardiovascular and haematological parameters were assessed prior to and following supplementation. The speed of response for the spatial working memory and immediate recognition tasks improved after supplementation with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, whereas vitamin C alone showed no improvements. A trend in a reduction of systolic blood pressure was observed with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, but not with vitamin C alone. The blood safety parameters were unchanged. The findings suggest a beneficial effect of supplementation with Enzogenol on cognition in older individuals. Larger studies are needed to ascertain its potential as a preventive treatment for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:18683195

  4. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Novak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6-34.9%; twigs: 11.0-24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1-27.7; twigs: 29.0-49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0-16.1; twigs: 6.9-20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:27579344

  5. Epigenetic variability in the genetically uniform forest tree species Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Guevara, María-Ángeles; Díaz, Luis-Manuel; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Collada, Carmen; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of epigenetic variability in forest species and how it may contribute to their rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this study we have conducted a genome-wide analysis of cytosine methylation pattern in Pinus pinea, a species characterized by very low levels of genetic variation and a remarkable degree of phenotypic plasticity. DNA methylation profiles of different vegetatively propagated trees from representative natural Spanish populations of P. pinea were analyzed with the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. A high degree of cytosine methylation was detected (64.36% of all scored DNA fragments). Furthermore, high levels of epigenetic variation were observed among the studied individuals. This high epigenetic variation found in P. pinea contrasted with the lack of genetic variation based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. In this manner, variable epigenetic markers clearly discriminate individuals and differentiates two well represented populations while the lack of genetic variation revealed with the AFLP markers fail to differentiate at both, individual or population levels. In addition, the use of different replicated trees allowed identifying common polymorphic methylation sensitive MSAP markers among replicates of a given propagated tree. This set of MSAPs allowed discrimination of the 70% of the analyzed trees. PMID:25084460

  6. Photosynthetic electron transport adjustments in overwintering Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A G; Sane, P V; Zeinalov, Y; Malmberg, G; Gardeström, P; Huner, N P; Oquist, G

    2001-08-01

    As shown before [C. Ottander et al. (1995) Planta 197:176-183], there is a severe inhibition of the photosystem (PS) II photochemical efficiency of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) during the winter. In contrast, the in vivo PSI photochemistry is less inhibited during winter as shown by in vivo measurements of deltaA820/A820 (P700+). There was also an enhanced cyclic electron transfer around PSI in winter-stressed needles as indicated by 4-fold faster reduction kinetics of P700+. The differential functional stability of PSII and PSI was accompanied by a 3.7-fold higher intersystem electron pool size, and a 5-fold increase in the stromal electron pool available for P700+ reduction. There was also a strong reduction of the QB band in the thermoluminescence glow curve and markedly slower Q-A re-oxidation in needles of winter pine, indicating an inhibition of electron transfer between QA and QB. The data presented indicate that the plastoquinone pool is largely reduced in winter pine, and that this reduced state is likely to be of metabolic rather than photochemical origin. The retention of PSI photochemistry, and the suggested metabolic reduction of the plastoquinone pool in winter stressed needles of Scots pine are discussed in terms of the need for enhanced photoprotection of the needles during the winter and the role of metabolically supplied energy for the recovery of photosynthesis from winter stress in evergreens. PMID:11556790

  7. [Effects of artificial tending on Pinus tabulaeformis forest growth and its structural characteristics].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yun; Yang, Yie; Song, Bingyu; Huang, Heping; Yang, Mingbo; Zheng, Min

    2005-03-01

    The investigation on the growth status, community composition, and structural characteristics of Pinus tabulaeformis forest artificially tended for six years showed that there were significant differences in the average DBH, height, and crown size of the forest among the treatments DA (trimming without intermediate cutting), FA (trimming and intermediate cutting) and CK (without trending). Treatment FA had the highest values of average DBH (7.8 +/- 0.29 cm), height (5.5 +/- 0.09 m) and crown size (249 +/- 7.24 cm), while the CK had the lowest ones. The average biomass of new leaf (1-year-old), old leaf (2 or more-year-old), and branch per tree increased significantly (P<0.01) with enhancing tending treatments. The aboveground biomass of treatment FA was the biggest (44.0 t x hm(-2)), and that of CK was the smallest (14.9 t x hm(-2)). The leaf length and SLA at the early and terminal stages of development (May, June and September) had significant difference among the treatments, and the amount of community composition and the cover degree of undergrowth plants increased evidently under artificial tending treatments. PMID:15943345

  8. Transpiration and canopy conductance in an inner alpine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Gerhard; Leo, Marco; Oberhuber, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Canopy transpiration (Ec) of a 150-year old Pinus sylvestris L. stand in an inner alpine dry valley, Tyrol, Austria was estimated throughout two growing seasons 2011 and 2012 by means of xylem sap flow measurements. Although there were prolonged periods of limited soil water availability Ec did not show a clear trend with respect to soil water availability and averaged 0.4 ± 0.19 mm day-1 under conditions of non-limiting soil water availability and 0.37 ± 0.17 mm day-1 when soil water availability was limited. This is because canopy conductance declined significantly with increasing evaporative demand and thus significantly reduced tree water loss. The growing season total of Ec was 74 mm and 88 mm in 2011 and 2012, respectively, which is significantly below the values estimated for other P. sylvestris forest ecosystems in Central Europe, and thus reflecting a strong adaptation to soil drought during periods of high evaporative. PMID:27468179

  9. Necrotic bark of common pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a bioindicator of environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chrzan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pH and the concentration of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in aqueous extracts of necrotic bark Pinus sylvestris L. and in adjacent soil, located in two types of forest habitat in different parts in the Niepołomice Forest in southern Poland. The Niepołomice Forest is located about 35 km east of an urban-industrial agglomeration Kraków. Despite the lack of significant differences in pine bark reaction studied, there was a clear difference in contamination of both bark and soil with heavy metals. There was a correlation between the distribution of pollutants in the forest, and the direction of the prevailing winds. More heavy metals were accumulated in the pine bark and soil from the west than the east. The high content of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in the soils most likely results from the inflow of gas and dust pollutants from the urban-industrial agglomeration of Kraków. PMID:25106515

  10. Essential-Oil Variability in Natural Populations of Pinus mugo Turra from the Julian Alps.

    PubMed

    Bojović, Srdjan; Jurc, Maja; Ristić, Mihailo; Popović, Zorica; Matić, Rada; Vidaković, Vera; Stefanović, Milena; Jurc, Dušan

    2016-02-01

    The composition and variability of the terpenes and their derivatives isolated from the needles of a representative pool of 114 adult trees originating from four natural populations of dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) from the Julian Alps were investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 54 of the 57 detected essential-oil components were identified. Among the different compound classes present in the essential oils, the chief constituents belonged to the monoterpenes, comprising an average content of 79.67% of the total oil composition (74.80% of monoterpene hydrocarbons and 4.87% of oxygenated monoterpenes). Sesquiterpenes were present in smaller amounts (average content of 19.02%), out of which 16.39% were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and 2.62% oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The most abundant components in the needle essential oils were the monoterpenes δ-car-3-ene, β-phellandrene, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and β-pinene and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. From the total data set of 57 detected compounds, 40 were selected for principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA), and cluster analysis (CA). The overlap tendency of the four populations suggested by PCA, was as well observed by DA. CA also demonstrated similarity among the populations, which was the highest between Populations I and II. PMID:26880430

  11. The Evolutionary Genetics of the Genes Underlying Phenotypic Associations for Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda, Pinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Andrew J.; Wegrzyn, Jill L.; Liechty, John D.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Cumbie, W. Patrick; Davis, John M.; Goldfarb, Barry; Loopstra, Carol A.; Palle, Sreenath R.; Quesada, Tania; Langley, Charles H.; Neale, David B.

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of evolutionary genetics is to discover and explain the genetic basis of fitness-related traits and how this genetic basis evolves within natural populations. Unprecedented technological advances have fueled the discovery of genetic variants associated with ecologically relevant phenotypes in many different life forms, as well as the ability to scan genomes for deviations from selectively neutral models of evolution. Theoretically, the degree of overlap between lists of genomic regions identified using each approach is related to the genetic architecture of fitness-related traits and the strength and type of natural selection molding variation at these traits within natural populations. Here we address for the first time in a plant the degree of overlap between these lists, using patterns of nucleotide diversity and divergence for >7000 unique amplicons described from the extensive expressed sequence tag libraries generated for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in combination with the >1000 published genetic associations. We show that loci associated with phenotypic traits are distinct with regard to neutral expectations. Phenotypes measured at the whole plant level (e.g., disease resistance) exhibit an approximately twofold increase in the proportion of adaptive nonsynonymous substitutions over the genome-wide average. As expected for polygenic traits, these signals were apparent only when loci were considered at the level of functional sets. The ramifications of this result are discussed in light of the continued efforts to dissect the genetic basis of quantitative traits. PMID:24121773

  12. Epigenetic Variability in the Genetically Uniform Forest Tree Species Pinus pinea L

    PubMed Central

    Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Guevara, María-Ángeles; Díaz, Luis-Manuel; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Collada, Carmen; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of epigenetic variability in forest species and how it may contribute to their rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this study we have conducted a genome-wide analysis of cytosine methylation pattern in Pinus pinea, a species characterized by very low levels of genetic variation and a remarkable degree of phenotypic plasticity. DNA methylation profiles of different vegetatively propagated trees from representative natural Spanish populations of P. pinea were analyzed with the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. A high degree of cytosine methylation was detected (64.36% of all scored DNA fragments). Furthermore, high levels of epigenetic variation were observed among the studied individuals. This high epigenetic variation found in P. pinea contrasted with the lack of genetic variation based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. In this manner, variable epigenetic markers clearly discriminate individuals and differentiates two well represented populations while the lack of genetic variation revealed with the AFLP markers fail to differentiate at both, individual or population levels. In addition, the use of different replicated trees allowed identifying common polymorphic methylation sensitive MSAP markers among replicates of a given propagated tree. This set of MSAPs allowed discrimination of the 70% of the analyzed trees. PMID:25084460

  13. Phosphorus and nitrogen limitations to photosynthesis in Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Richard L; Larson, Jennifer R; Sandford, Robert L

    2006-11-01

    We examined Pinus aristata Engelm. stands in four locations in Colorado: Almagre Mountain, Black Mountain, Goliath Peak and Quartzville. All stands are located at 3200-3700 m and face south-southeast. We measured maximum mass-based assimilation rates (A(max)) and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) foliar concentrations on six foliar age classes, from which instantaneous photosynthetic N- and P-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE, respectively) and P:N ratios were estimated. Leaf mass per area (LMA) was also determined for each foliar age class from each site. Foliar age, P and N concentrations, and the P:N ratio explained the most variation in A(max) when data from all sites were combined. Leaf mass per area did not vary with foliar age class. Both P and N limit A(max), although P appears to be more limiting. The critical P:N ratio is approximately 0.12. Results for Black Mountain differed from the other sites, as A(max) was not correlated with age and was negatively correlated with LMA and P. Current findings showed no evidence of N saturation at the Front Range sites (Almagre Mountain and Goliath Peak); however, because P is a limiting nutrient, increased anthropogenic N availability at sites in the Front Range may cause adverse effects on photosynthesis, and perhaps growth, in the future. PMID:16877332

  14. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  15. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C. H.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M. H.; Kim, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  16. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Okoro, Ovie Princewill; Awojide, Shola Hezekiah; Awoniyi, Ilias Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). Method The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. Results The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85% larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L; LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control. PMID:24144127

  17. Effective gene dispersal and female reproductive success in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, Santiago C; Burczyk, Jaroslaw; Nathan, Ran; Nanos, Nikos; Gil, Luis; Alía, Ricardo

    2006-12-01

    Understanding population-scale processes that affect allele frequency changes across generations is a long-standing interest in genetic, ecological and evolutionary research. In particular, individual differences in female reproductive success and the spatial scale of gene flow considerably affect evolutionary change and patterns of local selection. In this study, a recently developed maximum-likelihood (ML) method based on established offspring, the Seedling Neighbourhood Model, was applied and exponentially shaped dispersal kernels were fitted to both genetic and ecological data in a widespread Mediterranean pine, Pinus pinaster Aiton. The distribution of female reproductive success in P. pinaster was very skewed (about 10% of trees mothered 50% of offspring) and significant positive female selection gradients for diameter (gamma = 0.7293) and cone crop (gamma = 0.4524) were found. The selective advantage of offspring mothered by bigger trees could be due to better-quality seeds. These seeds may show more resilience to severe summer droughts and microsite variation related to water and nutrient availability. Both approaches, ecological and of parentage, consistently showed a long-distance dispersal component in saplings that was not found in dispersal kernels based on seed shadows, highlighting the importance of Janzen-Connell effects and microenvironmental variation for survival at early stages of establishment in this Mediterranean key forest tree. PMID:17107484

  18. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world's coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories. PMID:26997421

  19. [Fire and Pinus mugo Turra communities in the western Alps (Susa Valley, Italy) during the Lateglacial-Holocene transition: an evidence of refugia area].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adam A; Martinez, Marion; Fauvart, Nicolas; Roiron, Paul; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Guendon, Jean-Louis; Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Carcaillet, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    In western Italian Alps, small distinct populations of Pinus mugo Turra raise some questions concerning its ecological status and dynamics in the occidental Alps. This note present new palaeobotanical data based on cone imprints of Pinus mugo, identified in travertine systems located in the Val di Susa and dated back to the Late Dryas (11506+/-66 BP) and the Early Holocene (10145+/-225 et 9475+/-670 BP). Heliophilous species and charcoal fragments were also identified, testifying to the oldness of wildfires in this region. The data support the hypothesis that this zone was a refuge area of this pine during the last glaciation. Here we discuss about the postglacial dynamics of the Pinus mugo in the occidental Alps. PMID:16797455

  20. Linking carbon and water relations to drought-induced mortality in Pinus flexilis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-07-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below -5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations. PMID:26116925

  1. Regeneration of a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) forest 11 years after thinning, Niigata, Japan.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiaojun; Gonda, Yutaka; Yu, Lizhong; Li, Fengqin; Yan, Qiaoling; Sun, Yirong

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of thinning intensity on wind vulnerability and regeneration in a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii) forest, thinning with intensities of 20%, 30% and 50% was conducted in December 1997; there was an unthinned treatment as the control (total 8 stands). We re-measured the permanent sites to assess the regeneration characteristics 11 years after thinning. In the 50% thinned stand, seedlings aged from 2 to 10 years exhibited the highest pine seedling density and growth. The age composition ranged from 1-3 years with densities of 9.9 and 5.1 seedlings m(-2) in 30% and 20% thinned stands; only 1-year-old seedlings with a density of 6.1 seedlings m(-2) in the unthinned stand. Similar trends were found for the regeneration of broadleaved species such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus serrulata. We speculate that the canopy openness and moss coverage contributed to the regeneration success in the 50% thinned stand, while the higher litter depth and lack of soil moisture induced the regeneration failure in the unthinned stand. The stands thinned at 20% or 30% were less favourable for pine regeneration than the stands thinned at 50%. Therefore, thinning with less than 30% canopy openness (20% and 30% thinned stands) should be avoided, and thinning at higher than 30% canopy openness (50% thinned stand, approximately 1500 stems ha(-1) at ages 40-50 years) is suggested for increasing regeneration in the coastal pine forest. The implications of thinning-based silviculture in the coastal pine forest management are also discussed. The ongoing development of the broadleaved seedlings calls for further observations. PMID:23091632

  2. Effects of Open-field Warming and Precipitation Manipulation on the Growth of Pinus densiflora Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M. J.; Yoon, S. J.; Han, S. H.; Yun, H. M.; Chang, H.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of open-field artificial warming and precipitation manipulation on Pinus densiflora seedling growth. The temperature in warming plots have been set to be 3°C higher than control plots using infrared lamps since April, 2013. Precipitation manipulation consisted of precipitation decrease plots (-30%) with deployment of rain-capturing transparent panels, precipitation increase plots (+30%) with pump installation and drip-irrigation, and control plots. Two-year-old P. densiflora seedlings were planted in April, 2013. Seedling height and root collar diameter were measured in April and November, 2013 and April, 2014, and biomass were measured in April, 2013 and April, 2014. During the period of April to November, 2013, increments of seedling height and root collar diameter were not significantly different between control and warming plots. However, in April, 2014 seedling heights, new shoot lengths and weights were higher in warming plots than in control plots, with all precipitation manipulation treatments (p<0.05). Shoot to root ratio was lower in warming plots than in control plots with the precipitation decrease treatment (p<0.05). The seedling height growth observed in 2013 and 2014 might be explained by the previous year's fixed growth of P. densiflora. Lower shoot to root ratio in warming plots with precipitation decrease treatment might be resulted from water stress. In previous studies about artificial warming and/or precipitation manipulation, the effects were increase, decrease or no difference in growth. As these results suggest, responses of growth are species-specific and/or are dependent on the stage of growth and the treatment types of climate change experiments. Therefore, to examine the effects of climate changes on plant growth, multi-factor and long-term studies on diverse species are needed.

  3. Colonization of the Tibetan Plateau by the homoploid hybrid pine Pinus densata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baosheng; Mao, Jian-Feng; Gao, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2011-09-01

    Pinus densata is an intriguingly successful homoploid hybrid species that occupies vast areas of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in which neither of its parental species are present, but the colonization processes involved are poorly understood. To shed light on how this species colonized and became established on the plateau, we surveyed paternally inherited chloroplast (cp) and maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation within and among 54 populations of P. densata and its putative parental species throughout their respective ranges. Strong spatial genetic structure of both cp and mtDNA were detected in P. densata populations. Mitotypes specific to P. densata were likely generated by complex recombination events. A putative ancestral hybrid zone in the northeastern periphery of P. densata was identified, and we propose that the species then colonized the plateau by migrating westwards. Along the colonization route, consecutive bottlenecks and surfing of rare alleles caused a significant reduction in genetic diversity and strong population differentiation. The direction and intensity of introgression from parental species varied among geographic regions. In western parts of its range, the species seems to have been isolated from seed and pollen flow from its parent species for a long time. The observed spatial distribution of genetic diversity in P. densata also appears to reflect the persistence of this species on the plateau during the last glaciation. Our results indicate that both ancient and contemporary population dynamics have contributed to the spatial distribution of genetic diversity in P. densata, which accordingly reflects its evolutionary history. PMID:21689188

  4. Suppression of 4-coumarate-CoA ligase in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Donaldson, Lloyd; Kim, Hoon; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Koch, Gerald; Schmitt, Uwe; Ralph, John

    2009-01-01

    Severe suppression of 4-coumarate-coenzyme A ligase (4CL) in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata substantially affected plant phenotype and resulted in dwarfed plants with a "bonsai tree-like" appearance. Microscopic analyses of stem sections from 2-year-old plants revealed substantial morphological changes in both wood and bark tissues. This included the formation of weakly lignified tracheids that displayed signs of collapse and the development of circumferential bands of axial parenchyma. Acetyl bromide-soluble lignin assays and proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed lignin reductions of 36% to 50% in the most severely affected transgenic plants. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies indicated that lignin reductions were mainly due to depletion of guaiacyl but not p-hydroxyphenyl lignin. 4CL silencing also caused modifications in the lignin interunit linkage distribution, including elevated beta-aryl ether (beta-O-4 unit) and spirodienone (beta-1) levels, accompanied by lower phenylcoumaran (beta-5), resinol (beta-beta), and dibenzodioxocin (5-5/beta-O-4) levels. A sharp depletion in the level of saturated (dihydroconiferyl alcohol) end groups was also observed. Severe suppression of 4CL also affected carbohydrate metabolism. Most obvious was an up to approximately 2-fold increase in galactose content in wood from transgenic plants due to increased compression wood formation. The molecular, anatomical, and analytical data verified that the isolated 4CL clone is associated with lignin biosynthesis and illustrated that 4CL silencing leads to complex, often surprising, physiological and morphological changes in P. radiata. PMID:18971431

  5. Growth and Mycorrhizal Community Structure of Pinus sylvestris Seedlings following the Addition of Forest Litter▿

    PubMed Central

    Aučina, Algis; Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz; Skridaila, Audrius; Riepšas, Edvardas; Iwanski, Michal

    2007-01-01

    We report the effects of pine and oak litter on species composition and diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing 2-year-old Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings grown in a bare-root nursery in Lithuania. A layer of pine or oak litter was placed on the surface of the nursery bed soil to mimic natural litter cover. Oak litter amendment appeared to be most favorable for seedling survival, with a 73% survival rate, in contrast to the untreated mineral bed soil (44%). The concentrations of total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were higher in oak growth medium than in pine growth medium. Relative to the control (pH 6.1), the pH was lower in pine growth medium (5.8) and higher in oak growth medium (6.3). There were also twofold and threefold increases in the C content of growth medium with the addition of pine and oak litter, respectively. Among seven mycorrhizal morphotypes, eight different mycorrhizal taxa were identified: Suillus luteus, Suillus variegatus, Wilcoxina mikolae, a Tuber sp., a Tomentella sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Amphinema byssoides, and one unidentified ectomycorrhizal symbiont. Forest litter addition affected the relative abundance of mycorrhizal symbionts more than their overall representation. This was more pronounced for pine litter than for oak litter, with 40% and 25% increases in the abundance of suilloid mycorrhizae, respectively. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that changes in the supply of organic matter through litter manipulation may have far-reaching effects on the chemistry of soil, thus influencing the growth and survival of Scots pine seedlings and their mycorrhizal communities. PMID:17575001

  6. Climatic influences on intra-annual stem radial increment of Pinus sylvestris (L.) exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-06-25

    Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p < 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p < 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p < 0.05, and r = 0.306, p < 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate. PMID:22003269

  7. Climatic influences on intra-annual stem radial increment of Pinus sylvestris (L.) exposed to drought

    PubMed Central

    OBERHUBER, Walter; GRUBER, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p < 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p < 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p < 0.05, and r = 0.306, p < 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate. PMID:22003269

  8. Non-photoperiodic regulation of reproductive physiology in the flexibly breeding pine siskin (Spinus pinus).

    PubMed

    Watts, Heather E; Hahn, Thomas P

    2012-09-01

    In order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable conditions, animals use environmental cues to up- and down-regulate the reproductive axis appropriately. Although photoperiodic cues are one of the best studied of such environmental cues, animals also attend to others such as temperature, food availability, rainfall and social cues. Such non-photic cues are expected to be particularly important for tropical species and temperate-zone species that exhibit flexible or opportunistic breeding schedules. In this study, we investigate the use of non-photic cues, specifically food availability and social cues, to time the initiation of reproductive development in the pine siskin (Spinus pinus), a temperate-zone songbird with a flexible breeding schedule. Following winter solstice, males were housed on a 12L:12D photoperiod with either access to a preferred food, a potential mate (social cue), or both. Control birds received only maintenance diet and no mate. Access to a preferred food had a significant positive effect on testis size and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH). However, we found no effect of social treatment on reproductive development. The effect of the food treatment on reproductive development did not appear to result from effects on body mass or fat, as neither measure differed across treatments. The food treatment influenced not only reproductive physiology, but also reproductive behavior in this species, as access to seeds had a positive effect on affiliation of pairs. This study demonstrates that food is a potent stimulus for the initiation of reproductive development in pine siskins. PMID:22569115

  9. Non-photoperiodic regulation of reproductive physiology in the flexibly breeding pine siskin (Spinus pinus)

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Heather E.; Hahn, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    In order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable conditions, animals use environmental cues to up- and down-regulate the reproductive axis appropriately. Although photoperiodic cues are one of the best studied of such environmental cues, animals also attend to others such as temperature, food availability, rainfall and social cues. Such non-photic cues are expected to be particularly important for tropical species and temperate-zone species that exhibit flexible or opportunistic breeding schedules. In this study, we investigate the use of non-photic cues, specifically food availability and social cues, to time the initiation of reproductive development in the pine siskin (Spinus pinus), a temperate-zone songbird with a flexible breeding schedule. Following winter solstice, males were housed on a 12L:12D photoperiod with either access to a preferred food, a potential mate (social cue), or both. Control birds received only maintenance diet and no mate. Access to a preferred food had a significant positive effect on testis size and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH). However, we found no effect of social treatment on reproductive development. The effect of the food treatment on reproductive development did not appear to result from effects on body mass or fat, as neither measure differed across treatments. The food treatment influenced not only reproductive physiology, but also reproductive behavior in this species, as access to seeds had a positive effect on affiliation of pairs. This study demonstrates that food is a potent stimulus for the initiation of reproductive development in pine siskins. PMID:22569115

  10. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling