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Sample records for harmful traditional practices

  1. Sudanese women's struggle to eliminate harmful practices.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A

    1995-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is widely accepted in the Sudan regardless of educational level. Findings from the 1989-90 Sudan Demographic and Health Survey indicate that a large majority of both men and women approved of the procedure. 73% of men preferred the less harmful "Sunna" type, and 18% preferred infibulation. 4% preferred an intermediate type. Another study found that all the polygynous men with both types of wives preferred non-excised or "Sunna" circumcised women as more sexually responsive and participatory. FGM is part of a continuation of a patriarchal repression of female sexuality. The belief is held among African societies that excision of the clitoris protects a woman from her sexuality by keeping her from temptation, suspicion, and disgrace. FGM occurs mainly in societies that have an absolute and clear requisite of female chastity for marriage. The Islamic view is ambivalent and variable by geographic region. Some physicians defend FGM on "scientific" grounds. The general principle of Islamic education as stated by Shiekh Mahmoud Shaltout of Cairo is that neither "Sunna" nor excision of the clitoris is mandatory. FGM is celebrated as a rite of passage. The practice is disappearing due to education and eradication campaigns. Although unexcised women are considered unclean, the FGM procedure actually interferes with menstruation and escape of urine and results in discomfort and infection. An obstacle to stopping FGM is the fee paid to traditional birth attendants, nurses, and midwives, whose self-interest is to defend the practice. Groups working to eradicate the practice include the Inter-African Committee (since 1984) and the Sudan National Committee on Harmful Traditional Practices (since 1985). Campaigns involve education and promotion of alternative employment for birth attendants and midwives. An impact assessment in Sudan in 1994 found that FGM is now publicly discussed, the influence of elders is declining, and the practice is viewed among the most educated as anti-modern. There is a trend toward use of the less harmful "Sunna" method or else a new "false circumcision," where only plaster is placed around the clitoris. PMID:12346471

  2. [Research development of harmful substances and its harm of traditional Chinese medicine after sulfur fumigation].

    PubMed

    Mao, Chun-Qin; Ji, Lin; Lu, Tu-Lin; Shan, Xin; Li, Lin; Liu, Hui-Zhen; Ning, Zi-Wan; Song, Yan; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    Sulfur fumigation, which is traditional method for preservation, pest control, insecticide and sterilization, has long been widely used in processing and storage and played a positive role of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As some businesses sided pursuit of profit, abused and repeated use of sulfur fumigation, have resulted in a large number of harmful residues, such as sulf dioxide (SO2) and harmful heavy metals, which brings a significant impact and danger on human health. This article summarizes the sulfur species and the sulfur fumigation methods and analyzes the harmful substances in TCM after sulfur fumigation, to provide a reference of the choice of species for the sulfur, the optimization of sulfur fumigation process and the standardized processing of TCM after sulfur fumigation. PMID:25423812

  3. Some traditional umbilical cord care practices in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cheryl K

    2009-01-01

    Traditional umbilical cord care practices in developing countries are helpful in some cases and harmful in others. This paper discusses some of the current practices and why they are helpful or harmful. Babies born in developing countries around the world often do not have the benefit of sanitary methods for cutting the umbilical cord or keeping the cord clean. In addition, a variety of traditional practices have evolved in different countries, some of which are harmful and some that help to ensure that bacteria do not enter the cord stump. This article will discuss some of the traditional umbilical cord care practices in developing countries around the world. PMID:19824251

  4. Prevalence of Harmful/Traditional Medication Use in Traumatic Eye Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ajite, Kayode Olumide; Fadamiro, Olufunmilayo Christianah

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Ocular trauma of varying aetiologies do occur frequently, however when different traditional/harmful substances are applied before presentation in the hospital, prognosis in terms of visual outcome following treatment may be worse than expected. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of harmful/traditional eye medication practices among patients with traumatic eye injury in a tertiary institution. Study Design/Setting: It is a retrospective study of patients seen at the eye clinic of the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital (a state government owned hospital), Ado Ekiti, from January to December 2009. Method: A review of case notes (medical records) of patients with history of ocular trauma both open and closed globe injury and who presented to the eye clinic of the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti from January to December 2009 was carried out. Demographic data of the patients, nature of the ocular trauma, substances applied to the eyes, visual acuity at presentation and after treatment were extracted. Frequencies and percentages were used in analysing the data. Result: A total of 1420 new patients attended the eye clinic during the study period (January to December 2009). Forty eight (3.4%) applied various substances into their eyes after sustaining ocular injury. Substances applied include Kerosene 25%, cassava water 20.8%, breast milk 12.5%, personal urine 10.8%, and cow urine 8.3%. Nearly half of the patients 23 (47.9%) presented with low vision and after treatment there was no visual improvement in almost all of them, 22 (45.8%). The period before presentation ranges between 1hr -2weeks post injury. However, the number of monocular blindness reduced from 8 (16.7%) to 5 (10.4%) after treatment. Conclusion: Kerosene and Cassava water were the common substances applied to the injured eye. The use of these harmful and traditional eye medications on injured eyes can reduce further the visual prognosis despite ophthalmic intervention. PMID:23777721

  5. Abuja declaration calls for action against hazardous traditional practices.

    PubMed

    1990-05-01

    The UN Economic Commission for Africa organized a conference in Abuja, Nigeria, last November to review the "Role of Women in Africa in the 1990s" as a follow-up of the "Arusha Strategies" of 1984. Among topics examined were harmful traditional practices, such as early marriage and pregnancy, female circumcision, nutritional taboos, inadequate child spacing and unprotected delivery, which are still found to be current realities in many African countries. These practices often inflict permanent physical, psychological, and emotional damage, even death, and little progress has been achieved in the abolition, the Declaration states. The lives of women in Africa are dominated by traditions. Certain attitudes, structures, and traditional practices, such as female circumcision and nutritional taboos that have harmful effects on the health of women and children, have rarely been officially surveyed. They have not been fully acknowledged by policy makers and opinion leaders, nor have effective steps to stop them been given precedence in health development planning. There is need for action at national as well as subregional and regional levels. Action at the national levels means that: national research institutes should undertake in-depth research on various traditional practices and their effects on women; functional literacy campaigns should sensitize parents and disseminate information on the harmful effects of circumcision, childhood marriage and early pregnancy; guidance and counseling should be provided to adolescent girls as well as to parents to make them understand the harmful physical, social, and mental effects of some traditional practices; religious leaders, traditional rulers, women's organizational, professional bodies and others should act as pressure groups in promoting efforts against harmful practices through traditional and modern means of communication, dissemination of information, and other appropriate ways of communication; and legislative and administrative measures to eradicate harmful practices should be introduced and implemented urgently and expeditiously. At the subregional and regional levels: established subregional and regional structures should give priority attention in their development programs to the issues of female circumcision and other harmful traditional practices; action should be taken to ensure that women's issues are addressed within national programs; and policies on data development by gender specifications should be advocated so as to make data more relevant and useful. [Full Text Modified] PMID:12157982

  6. Practice Location Characteristics of Non-Traditional Dental Practices.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Eric S; Jones, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    Current and future dental school graduates are increasingly likely to choose a non-traditional dental practice-a group practice managed by a dental service organization or a corporate practice with employed dentists-for their initial practice experience. In addition, the growth of non-traditional practices, which are located primarily in major urban areas, could accelerate the movement of dentists to those areas and contribute to geographic disparities in the distribution of dental services. To help the profession understand the implications of these developments, the aim of this study was to compare the location characteristics of non-traditional practices and traditional dental practices. After identifying non-traditional practices across the United States, the authors located those practices and traditional dental practices geographically by zip code. Non-traditional dental practices were found to represent about 3.1% of all dental practices, but they had a greater impact on the marketplace with almost twice the average number of staff and annual revenue. Virtually all non-traditional dental practices were located in zip codes that also had a traditional dental practice. Zip codes with non-traditional practices had significant differences from zip codes with only a traditional dental practice: the populations in areas with non-traditional practices had higher income levels and higher education and were slightly younger and proportionally more Hispanic; those practices also had a much higher likelihood of being located in a major metropolitan area. Dental educators and leaders need to understand the impact of these trends in the practice environment in order to both prepare graduates for practice and make decisions about planning for the workforce of the future. PMID:27037447

  7. Perinatal Practices & Traditions Among Asian Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    As the population in the United States grows more diverse, nurses caring for childbearing women must be aware of the many cultural traditions and customs unique to their patients. This knowledge and insight supports women and their families with the appropriate care, information, and resources. A supportive relationship builds trust, offers guidance, and allows for the new family to integrate information from nurses and other healthcare providers with the practice of certain perinatal cultural traditions. The Asian Indian culture is rich in tradition, specifically during the perinatal period. To support the cultural beliefs and practices of Asian Indian women during this time, nurses need to be aware of and consider multiple factors. Many women are navigating the new role of motherhood while making sense of and incorporating important cultural rituals. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of perinatal cultural practices and traditions specific to the Asian Indian culture that perinatal nurses may observe in the clinical setting. Cultural traditions and practices specific to the pregnancy and postpartum period are described together with symbolism and implications for nursing practice. It is important to note that information regarding perinatal customs is provided in an effort to promote culturally sensitive nursing care and may not pertain to all Asian Indian women living in the United States. PMID:26909722

  8. Toxic red tides and harmful algal blooms: A practical challenge in coastal oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.

    1995-07-01

    The debate over the relative value of practical or applied versus fundamental research has heated up considerably in recent years, and oceanography has not been spared this re-evaluation of science funding policy. Some federal agencies with marine interests have always focused their resources on practical problems, but those with a traditional commitment to basic research such as the National Science Foundation have increasingly had to fight to maintain their freedom to fund quality science without regard to practical or commercial applications. Within this context, it is instructive to highlight the extent to which certain scientific programs can satisfy both sides of this policy dilemma—i.e. address important societal issues through advances in fundamental or basic research. One clear oceanographic example of such a program involves the phenomena called "red tides" or "harmful algal blooms". This paper describes the nature and extent of the problems caused by these outbreaks, emphasizing the alarming expansion in their incidence and their impacts in recent years, both in the U.S. and worldwide. The objective is to highlight fundamental physical, biological, and chemical oceanographic question that must be addressed if we are to achieve the practical goal of scientifically based management of fisheries resources, public health, and ecosystem health in regions threatened by toxic and harmful algae.

  9. Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change

    PubMed Central

    Kesterton, Amy J; Cleland, John

    2009-01-01

    Background Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is strong adherence to traditional practices. Successful implementation of the package therefore requires in-depth knowledge of the local context and tailored behaviour change communication. Methods This study was carried out in rural Karnataka, India. It uses quantitative data from a prospective survey following mothers through their experience of pregnancy and the postnatal period; and qualitative data from in depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted with mothers, grandmothers and birth attendants. It explores local newborn care practices and beliefs, analyses their harmful or beneficial characteristics and elucidates areas of potential resistance to behaviour change and implementation of the essential newborn care package. Results Findings show that many potentially harmful newborn care practices are being carried out in the study area, such as unhygienic cord cutting, delayed breastfeeding and early bathing. Some are more amenable to change than others, depending on the strength of the underlying beliefs, and acceptability of alternative care. However, movement away from traditional practices is already taking place, particularly amongst the more educated and better off, and there is a clear opportunity to broaden, direct and accelerate this process. Conclusion Community education should be a focus of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) program being implemented in Karnataka. The added capacity of the new Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) could enable more women to be reached. With careful tailoring of behaviour change messages to the local context, government outreach workers can become effective brokers of positive change and significant improvements in home newborn care and neonatal mortality are possible. PMID:19457266

  10. Harm reduction psychotherapy: extending the reach of traditional substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Tatarsky, Andrew

    2003-12-01

    Harm reduction is a paradigm-shifting idea that has the potential to significantly improve the treatment of problem substance users. The essence of harm reduction is the recognition that treatment must start from the client's needs and personal goals and that all change that reduces the harms associated with substance use can be regarded as valuable. The paper presents harm reduction's rationale, principles, treatment implications, and application to psychotherapy. The author describes his model of Integrative Harm Reduction Psychotherapy, an approach that integrates a strategic skills-building focus with an exploration of the multiple meanings of substance use and the importance of the therapeutic alliance. PMID:14693253

  11. [Childhood diarrhea in rural Nicaragua: beliefs and traditional health practices].

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Sánchez, G; Pauw, J; Pérez, R M; Sandiford, P; Smith, G D

    1995-11-01

    In Nicaragua, the principal cause of infant mortality is diarrhea, which is responsible for 40% of these deaths annually. This statistic reflects the low usage of health services and oral rehydration therapy (ORT). In an effort to improve the situation, several studies were carried out in Villa Carlos Fonseca municipio. This report describes two of those studies, one ethnographic and the other epidemiologic (conducted in 1989 and 1990, respectively), to find out beliefs and traditional health practices and their influence on the way in which mothers responded to their children's diarrheal illness. The ethnographic study involved interviewing 70 mothers with an average age of 28 years who had children under 2 years of age. The children represented two groups: one at high risk for diarrhea and the other at low risk. The objectives were to learn the traditional names for diarrhea, the perception of risk, and the treatments that were used. The epidemiologic study included 391 mothers over 14 years of age with one or more children under age 5 years, of whom 215 had had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. The objectives were to describe local beliefs and health practices and to determine the incidence of diarrheas according to the diagnosis made by the mothers. At least 12 types of diarrhea were identified, for which terms such as "empacho" and "sol de vista" were used. In most cases, the mothers had more confidence in folkloric treatments that they themselves or the traditional healers (curanderos) applied than in the services offered at health centers. This attitude limited their use of health services and ORT, although it was observed that in certain cases traditional treatments were used in combination with those of western medicine. There was a direct but nonsignificant correlation between the level of schooling of the mothers and the frequency with which they visited the health center. The authors suggest the effects of massages, herbal baths, and other traditional treatments should be studied to evaluate their effectiveness and adapt them, to the extent possible, to "modern" medicine. Health services providers should become familiar with traditional nomenclature and beliefs in order to be able to communicate better with mothers and steer them away from harmful practices toward improved results in infant diarrheal disease prevention programs. PMID:8540993

  12. Traditional Practices of Turkish infertile women: an example from a rural county.

    PubMed

    Nazik, Evsen; Apay, Serap; Özdemir, Funda; Nazik, Hakan

    2015-03-01

    Infertility is not only a health problem, but is also a central existential intrapersonal and relational conflict. Infertility treatments are invasive, expensive, time-consuming, emotionally draining. All over the world there are numerous traditional methods used in the treatment of infertility. This investigation was carried out to determine the traditional practices of infertile women in a rural county in Eastern Turkey. This is a descriptive study carried out in 105 primary infertile women. Data were collected between September 2007 and April 2008 by using a questionnaire. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. 55% of the women were in the 25-34 year age range. It was observed that only 17% of the women applied to a gynecologist without using any traditional applications while 83% of the women applied for traditional applications. The most prevalent traditional practices were consulting traditional healers, visiting mausoleums where religious leaders were buried, using traditional drugs, use of written fertility amulets. Various traditional practices against infertility are prevalent rural counties. Some of these practices may be potentially harmful for women. Health professionals should be aware that infertile women may sometimes follow questionable traditional practices and advices. PMID:26040063

  13. Harmful microinjecting practices among a cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver Canada

    PubMed Central

    Rachlis, Beth; Lloyd-Smith, Elisa; Small, Will; Tobin, Diane; Stone, Dave; Li, Kathy; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We sought to identify factors associated with harmful microinjecting practices in a longitudinal cohort of IDU. Methods Using data from the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS) between January 2004 and December 2005, generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was performed to examine sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with four harmful microinjecting practices (frequent rushed injecting, frequent syringe borrowing, frequently injecting with a used water capsule, frequently injecting alone). Results In total, 620 participants were included in the present analysis. Our study included 251 (40.5%) women and 203 (32.7%) self-identified Aboriginal participants. The median age was 31.9 (interquartile range: 23.439.3). GEE analyses found that each harmful microinjecting practice was associated with a unique profile of sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Discussion We observed high rates of harmful microinjecting practices among IDU. The present study describes the epidemiology of harmful microinjecting practices and points to the need for strategies that target higher risk individuals including the use of peer-driven programs and drug-specific approaches in an effort to promote safer injecting practices. PMID:20509739

  14. Developing a Taxonomy of Helpful and Harmful Practices for Clinical Work with Boys and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalik, James R.; Good, Glenn E.; Tager, David; Levant, Ronald F.; Mackowiak, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study drew upon the knowledge base of member practitioners of the American Psychological Association (APA) to develop a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for treatment with boys and men. Four hundred seventy-five APA-member practitioners solicited from practice-related divisions provided responses to 4 open-ended questions about…

  15. School Counselors' Professional Experience and Practices Working with Students Who Self-Harm: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ellen Adams

    2013-01-01

    The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school

  16. School Counselors' Professional Experience and Practices Working with Students Who Self-Harm: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ellen Adams

    2013-01-01

    The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…

  17. The Social Practice of Harm Reduction in Argentina: A “Latin” Kind of Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Harm reduction” is a public health model that places emphasis on reducing the negative effects of drug use rather than on eliminating drug use or ensuring abstinence. Based on sixteen months of ethnographic research, this article examines how harm reduction in Argentina is both envisioned and observed as a social practice by analyzing how local harm reductionists position their work in relation to “social context.” My informants consider this social emphasis to be characteristic of a “Latin” kind of intervention, which they differentiate from an “Anglo-Saxon” approach focused on individual behavior change. Differentiating between these “cultural” models of intervention helps Argentine harm reductionists guide their social orientation to drug use, risk, and harm by situating interventions in the contexts in which users live and operate. It also allows them to distinguish their social form of harm reduction from a neoliberal one that they associate with the global north. The construction of these distinct cultural models of intervention is a means of critiquing neoliberal approaches to health that advocate technical solutions to changing individual behavior. Ultimately, this construct acts as a political commentary on the limits of an individual-oriented harm reduction project when applied to the “Argentine context.” PMID:27182076

  18. Identifying harms.

    PubMed

    Harrosh, Shlomit

    2012-11-01

    Moral disagreements often revolve around the issue of harm to others. Identifying harms, however, is a contested enterprise. This paper provides a conceptual toolbox for identifying harms, and so possible wrongdoing, by drawing several distinctions. First, I distinguish between four modes of human vulnerability, forming four ways in which one can be in a harmed state. Second, I argue for the intrinsic disvalue of harm and so distinguish the presence of harm from the fact that it is instrumental to or constitutive of a valued act, practice or way of life. Finally, I distinguish between harm and wrongdoing, arguing that while harm is a normative concept requiring justification, not all harmed states are automatically unjustified. The advantage of this view is that it refocuses the moral debate on the normative issues involved while establishing a common basis to which both sides can agree: the presence of harm to others. PMID:21434956

  19. Validation of suicide and self-harm records in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kyla H; Davies, Neil; Metcalfe, Chris; Windmeijer, Frank; Martin, Richard M; Gunnell, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is increasingly being used to investigate suicide-related adverse drug reactions. No studies have comprehensively validated the recording of suicide and nonfatal self-harm in the CPRD. We validated general practitioners' recording of these outcomes using linked Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) admission data. Methods We identified cases of suicide and self-harm recorded using appropriate Read codes in the CPRD between 1998 and 2010 in patients aged ≥15 years. Suicides were defined as patients with Read codes for suicide recorded within 95 days of their death. International Classification of Diseases codes were used to identify suicides/hospital admissions for self-harm in the linked ONS and HES data sets. We compared CPRD-derived cases/incidence of suicide and self-harm with those identified from linked ONS mortality and HES data, national suicide incidence rates and published self-harm incidence data. Results Only 26.1% (n = 590) of the ‘true’ (ONS-confirmed) suicides were identified using Read codes. Furthermore, only 55.5% of Read code-identified suicides were confirmed as suicide by the ONS data. Of the HES-identified cases of self-harm, 68.4% were identified in the CPRD using Read codes. The CPRD self-harm rates based on Read codes had similar age and sex distributions to rates observed in self-harm hospital registers, although rates were underestimated in all age groups. Conclusions The CPRD recording of suicide using Read codes is unreliable, with significant inaccuracy (over- and under-reporting). Future CPRD suicide studies should use linked ONS mortality data. The under-reporting of self-harm appears to be less marked. PMID:23216533

  20. Traditional Chinese medicine in rehabilitation nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, D C

    1992-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) employs methods of treatment such as acupuncture, acupressure, and Qi Gong (treatment based on meditation). The nurse using TCM can affect rehabilitation patient outcomes positively. With TCM training, nurses have an opportunity to learn the nuances of the Oriental environment and integrate them into their skills to nurse the spirit, mind, and body of patients in a holistic manner. PMID:1448606

  1. Harm Reduction: A Social Work Practice Model and Social Justice Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocato, Jo; Wagner, Eric F.

    2003-01-01

    Examines how social workers may reduce ethical conflicts associated with efforts to address substance abuse by adopting a harm reduction approach to policy, practice, and research. Also examines current drug policies and their consequences and, in particular, how these policies affect social workers as practitioners, agents of social control, and

  2. Harm Reduction: A Social Work Practice Model and Social Justice Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocato, Jo; Wagner, Eric F.

    2003-01-01

    Examines how social workers may reduce ethical conflicts associated with efforts to address substance abuse by adopting a harm reduction approach to policy, practice, and research. Also examines current drug policies and their consequences and, in particular, how these policies affect social workers as practitioners, agents of social control, and…

  3. Harm reduction and women in the Canadian national prison system: policy or practice?

    PubMed

    Rehman, Laurene; Gahagan, Jacqueline; DiCenso, Anne Marie; Dias, Giselle

    2004-01-01

    Applying the principles of harm reduction within the context of incarcerated populations raises a number of challenges. Although some access to harm reduction strategies has been promoted in general society, a divide between what is available and what is advocated continues to exist within the prison system. This paper explores the perceptions and lived experiences of a sample of nationally incarcerated women in Canada regarding their perceptions and experiences in accessing HIV and Hepatitis C prevention, care, treatment and support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 156 women in Canadian national prisons. Q.S.R. Nudist was used to assist with data management. A constant comparison method was used to derive categories, patterns, and themes. Emergent themes highlighted a gap between access to harm reduction in policy and in practice. Despite the implementation of some harm reduction techniques, women in Canadian prisons reported variable access to both education and methods of reducing HIV/HCV transmission. Concerns were also raised about pre-and post-test counseling for HIV/HCV testing. Best practices are suggested for implementing harm reduction strategies within prisons for women in Canada. PMID:15911510

  4. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    PubMed Central

    Maghuyop-Butalid, Roselyn; Mayo, Norhanifa A; Polangi, Hania T

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC) Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. PMID:26604828

  5. Chemistry Practical Lessons: Altering Traditions for Students' Emancipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nhalevilo, Emilia Afonso

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to Maria Andree's paper. Andree tells in the paper how mistakes in practical lessons may be critical events to change students' attitudes in regard science. While traditionally mistakes in practical lessons could obligate students to repeat the experiment in order to get the "right result" in the paper we have a good…

  6. A review of burns related to traditions, social habits, religious activities, festivals and traditional medical practices.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Al-Zahrani, K

    2009-06-01

    This paper reviews burns that occur because of specific social habits and traditions; religious beliefs and activities; social events and festivals; and traditional medical practices. A literature review did not reveal any article that specifically reviews such burns. These injuries are not only interesting (being nation-specific) but are also important with regards to implementation of preventive measures in various countries around the world. PMID:19269104

  7. Chemistry practical lessons: altering traditions for students' emancipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhalevilo, Emilia Afonso

    2012-06-01

    This paper is a response to Maria Andree's paper. Andree tells in the paper how mistakes in practical lessons may be critical events to change students' attitudes in regard science. While traditionally mistakes in practical lessons could obligate students to repeat the experiment in order to get the `right result' in the paper we have a good example how we can use the incident to potentiate students' participation. In my response I illustrate how transferable is what Andree speaks about but I put forward further reflections about the traditions that may act as impediment for students' participation. I thus suggest that the critical paradigm should be a component in reflecting about science classroom practices in order to alter the traditions.

  8. Can we quantify harm in general practice records? An assessment of precision and power using computer simulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Estimating harm rates for specific patient populations and detecting significant changes in them over time are essential if patient safety in general practice is to be improved. Clinical record review (CRR) is arguably the most suitable method for these purposes, but the optimal values and combinations of its parameters (such as numbers of records and practices) remain unknown. Our aims were to: 1. Determine and quantify CRR parameters; 2. Assess the precision and power of feasible CRR scenarios; and 3. Quantify the minimum requirements for adequate precision and acceptable power. Method We explored precision and power of CRR scenarios using Monte Carlo simulation. A range of parameter values were combined in 864 different CRR scenarios, with 1000 random data sets generated for each, and harm rates were estimated and tested for change over time by fitting a generalised linear model with a Poisson response. Results CRR scenarios with ?100 detected harm incidents had harm rate estimates with acceptable precision. Harm reductions of 20% or ?50% were detected with adequate power by those CRR scenarios with at least 100 and 500 harm incidents respectively. The number of detected harm incidents was dependent on the baseline harm rate multiplied by: the period of time reviewed in each record; number of records reviewed per practice; number of practices who reviewed records; and the number of times each record was reviewed. Conclusion We developed a simple formula to calculate the minimum values of CRR parameters required to achieve adequate precision and acceptable power when monitoring harm rates. Our findings have practical implications for health care decision-makers, leaders and researchers aiming to measure and reduce harm at regional or national level. PMID:23497099

  9. AIDS and traditional health beliefs and practices of black women.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Rush, C E

    1989-01-01

    This study examines whether traditional health beliefs and practices of black Americans reported in the literature were consistent with those of a target population of low-income black women in Los Angeles County and describes how these traditional classifications of illness and healing practices were related to their understanding of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A qualitative approach was used to gather the data in unstructured interviews. Content analysis was used to classify data. Sources of illness and remedies identified by the women were divided into two categories: natural and supernatural. Natural sources included cold, impurities, diet, weakness, lack of moderation, and stress. Supernatural sources included illnesses allowed by God, witchcraft, and evil influences. Remedies included antidotes, food, medicines, prayer, and healing. Analysis of the relationship of AIDS to traditional beliefs revealed that AIDS had been integrated into the traditional conceptualization of illness, health practices, and healing, and was attributed to both natural and supernatural causes. Prevention, prayer, and spiritual healing were recommended as remedies. Implications were that AIDS education, prevention, and treatment programs be within the context of traditional belief system. PMID:2748354

  10. Shifting from Traditional to Nontraditional Teaching Practices Using Multiple Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Algebraic reasoning skills can be enhanced by building connections among symbolic, tabular, and graphical representations. But how do classroom teachers change traditional teaching practices to foster the use of different representational forms? This article explores how I learned to incorporate representational fluency in teaching and assessment.…

  11. Criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Soltani Arabshahi, SeyyedKamran; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Shams-Ardakani, MohammadReza; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

    2015-07-01

    The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application  of  evidence  and  documents.  In  this  study,  criteria  for  evidence-based  practice  in  Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts' views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM. PMID:26520629

  12. Some aspects of Yoruba traditional healers and their practice.

    PubMed

    Oyebola, D D

    1980-01-01

    156 traditional healers/midwives randomly selected from all over the Yoruba-speaking areas of Nigeria were studied. Sociological data (age, sex, religion, educational status) and other details of their personal and job histories were documented. The results showed, amongst other things, that 72.4% of the 156 herbalists interviewed were more than 40 years old. The study also revealed that all traditional healers/midwives are trained before they start to practise and that people from all walks of life, irrespective of their educational and socio-economic status, illiterates, literates, students, traders, top professionals, nurses, doctors and clergymen consult traditional healers for diverse reasons. Some herbalists specialize, others are general practitioners. More than 50% of the herbalists earn enough from their practice for their upkeep. Patients pay for their treatment in cash or in kind. 125 (80%) of the herbalists were willing to cooperate with western-trained doctors if this is suggested. The results of this study were compared and contrasted with the practice of traditional medicine in other parts of Nigeria and other countries of the world where similar practices are still in vogue. PMID:7434426

  13. No evidence that polygynous marriage is a harmful cultural practice in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lawson, David W; James, Susan; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2015-11-10

    Polygyny is cross-culturally common and a topic of considerable academic and policy interest, often deemed a harmful cultural practice serving the interests of men contrary to those of women and children. Supporting this view, large-scale studies of national African demographic surveys consistently demonstrate that poor child health outcomes are concentrated in polygynous households. Negative population-level associations between polygyny and well-being have also been reported, consistent with the hypothesis that modern transitions to socially imposed monogamy are driven by cultural group selection. We challenge the consensus view that polygyny is harmful, drawing on multilevel data from 56 ethnically diverse Tanzanian villages. We first demonstrate the vulnerability of aggregated data to confounding between ecological and individual determinants of health; while across villages polygyny is associated with poor child health and low food security, such relationships are absent or reversed within villages, particularly when children and fathers are coresident. We then provide data indicating that the costs of sharing a husband are offset by greater wealth (land and livestock) of polygynous households. These results are consistent with models of polygyny based on female choice. Finally, we show that village-level negative associations between polygyny prevalence, food security, and child health are fully accounted for by underlying differences in ecological vulnerability (rainfall) and socioeconomic marginalization (access to education). We highlight the need for improved, culturally sensitive measurement tools and appropriate scales of analysis in studies of polygyny and other purportedly harmful practices and discuss the relevance of our results to theoretical accounts of marriage and contemporary population policy. PMID:26504213

  14. No evidence that polygynous marriage is a harmful cultural practice in northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, David W.; James, Susan; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Polygyny is cross-culturally common and a topic of considerable academic and policy interest, often deemed a harmful cultural practice serving the interests of men contrary to those of women and children. Supporting this view, large-scale studies of national African demographic surveys consistently demonstrate that poor child health outcomes are concentrated in polygynous households. Negative population-level associations between polygyny and well-being have also been reported, consistent with the hypothesis that modern transitions to socially imposed monogamy are driven by cultural group selection. We challenge the consensus view that polygyny is harmful, drawing on multilevel data from 56 ethnically diverse Tanzanian villages. We first demonstrate the vulnerability of aggregated data to confounding between ecological and individual determinants of health; while across villages polygyny is associated with poor child health and low food security, such relationships are absent or reversed within villages, particularly when children and fathers are coresident. We then provide data indicating that the costs of sharing a husband are offset by greater wealth (land and livestock) of polygynous households. These results are consistent with models of polygyny based on female choice. Finally, we show that village-level negative associations between polygyny prevalence, food security, and child health are fully accounted for by underlying differences in ecological vulnerability (rainfall) and socioeconomic marginalization (access to education). We highlight the need for improved, culturally sensitive measurement tools and appropriate scales of analysis in studies of polygyny and other purportedly harmful practices and discuss the relevance of our results to theoretical accounts of marriage and contemporary population policy. PMID:26504213

  15. Maternal health practices, beliefs and traditions in southeast Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jessica L; Short, Samm; Robson, Laura; Andriatsihosena, Mamy Soafaly

    2014-09-01

    Contextualising maternal health in countries with high maternal mortality is vital for designing and implementing effective health interventions. A research project was therefore conducted to explore practices, beliefs and traditions around pregnancy, delivery and postpartum in southeast Madagascar. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 256 pregnant women, mothers of young children, community members and stakeholders; transcripts were analysed to identify and explore predetermined and emerging themes. A questionnaire was also conducted with 373 women of reproductive age from randomly selected households. Data was analysed using STATA. Results confirmed high local rates of maternal mortality and morbidity and revealed a range of traditional health care practices and beliefs impacting on women's health seeking behaviours. The following socio-cultural barriers to health were identified: 1) lack of knowledge, 2) risky practices, 3) delays seeking biomedical care, and 4) family and community expectations. Recommendations include educational outreach and behaviour change communications targeted for women, their partners and family, increased engagement with traditional midwives and healers, and capacity building of formal health service providers. PMID:25438515

  16. The practical implications of a critique of traditional science.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, M

    1995-11-01

    Patti Lather writes of the convincing critique of traditional science that has amassed in the past 2 decades. The displacement of the assumptions of traditional science makes space for some interesting and exciting developments in the human sciences. However this theoretical rearrangement is not matched in practical spheres. While Lather is referring to education research I would include nursing when she writes, '...positivism retains its hegemony over practice'. There is ample evidence of the effects of this domination in nursing. Nurses work closely with the medical profession, which is still predominantly influenced by 'scientific' research, and health administrators who are in organizations which are bureaucratic and preoccupied with rationally. Medical practitioners control research ethics committees and funding bodies, which have relatively few nursing representatives and continue to judge proposals for qualitative projects by applying standard 'scientific' criteria. The administrators control budgetary matters and impose standards in the organizations. The dominance of traditional science needs to be challenged if nurses wish to make a place for different ways of knowing in their practice. PMID:9264883

  17. Creating Minimum Harm Practice ( MiHaP): a concept for continuous improvement

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ranjit

    2013-01-01

    The author asks for the attention of leaders and all other stakeholders to calls of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and the UK National Health Service (NHS) to promote continuous learning to reduce harm to patients. This paper presents a concept for structured bottom-up methodology that enables and empowers all stakeholders to identify, prioritize, and address safety challenges. This methodology takes advantage of the memory of the experiences of all persons involved in providing care. It respects and responds to the uniqueness of each setting by empowering and motivating all team members to commit to harm reduction. It is based on previously published work on “Best Practices Research (BPR)” and on “Systematic Appraisal of Risk and Its Management for Error Reduction (SARAIMER)”. The latter approach, has been shown by the author (with Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) support), to reduce adverse events and their severity through empowerment, ownership and work satisfaction. The author puts forward a strategy for leaders to implement, in response to national and international calls for Better health, Better care, and Better value (the 3B’s of healthcare) in the US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.  This is designed to enable and implement “ A promise to learn- a commitment to act”.  AHRQ has recently published “A Toolkit for Rapid-Cycle Patient Safety and Quality Improvement” that includes an adapted version of SARAIMER. PMID:24715965

  18. Mongolian folk medicine--from traditional practice to scientific development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-hong; Zhao, Zhi-ying; Hasi, Ba-te-er; Li, Zhen-hua; Wu, Mao-mao; Zou, De-zhi; Li, Min-hui

    2015-07-01

    Mongolian folk medicine, the important part of Mongolian medicine, is the main means, method and weapon of disease prevention, treatment and health care. Mongolian materia medicas are the important literatures of guiding the healthy development of the modern Mongolian medicine with a long and dazzling history. Since the founding of new China, a new history chapter of Mongolian folk medicine was opened under the attention and support from all levels of party and government. This paper intends to provide comprehensive insight into the rapid development of Mongolian folk medicine. The resources, phytochemistry, quality standard, pharmacology, dosage forms reform and production were reviewed to expound the process that Mongolian folk medicine was developed from traditional practices to scientific development PMID:26697668

  19. Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Elizabeth

    Abstract words such as "tradition" are like ancient coins whose concrete images have worn away. Traditions can be of two forms--either alive, amendable, and expandable (such as those in a family's annual Christmas celebration), or dead, empty formalities. An example of an empty tradition is the strict rule in freshman composition classes that…

  20. The ethics of improving African traditional medical practice: scientific or African traditional research methods?

    PubMed

    Nyika, Aceme

    2009-11-01

    The disease burden in Africa, which is relatively very large compared with developed countries, has been attributed to various factors that include poverty, food shortages, inadequate access to health care and unaffordability of Western medicines to the majority of African populations. Although for 'old diseases' knowledge about the right African traditional medicines to treat or cure the diseases has been passed from generation to generation, knowledge about traditional medicines to treat newly emerging diseases has to be generated in one way or another. In addition, the existing traditional medicines have to be continuously improved, which is also the case with Western scientific medicines. Whereas one school of thought supports the idea of improving medicines, be they traditional or Western, through scientific research, an opposing school of thought argues that subjecting African traditional medicines to scientific research would be tantamount to some form of colonization and imperialism. This paper argues that continuing to use African traditional medicines for old and new diseases without making concerted efforts to improve their efficacy and safety is unethical since the disease burden affecting Africa may continue to rise in spite of the availability and accessibility of the traditional medicines. Most importantly, the paper commends efforts being made in some African countries to improve African traditional medicine through a combination of different mechanisms that include the controversial approach of scientific research on traditional medicines. PMID:19682966

  1. The real and imagined harmful effects of rewards: implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Reitman, D

    1998-06-01

    In recent years, a number of researchers and social critics have cautioned against the widespread application of behavioral interventions on the grounds that the philosophy of behaviorism is fundamentally manipulative and damaging to creative and intrinsically motivated behavior. Most central to their arguments are concerns about the harmful effects of "extrinsic" rewards. Though concerns about the allegedly harmful effects of "rewards" on intrinsically motivated actions may have been partially allayed by a recent meta-analysis, proponents of the view that intrinsic interest is eroded by the delivery of contingent rewards will likely continue to attest to the dangers of operant conditioning and its application to human behavior. The present manuscript addresses the content of claims about the harmful effects of extrinsic rewards. While consideration is given to the existing behavior therapy literature and its treatment of "natural" versus "arbitrary" rewards, some surprising convergences between the views of self-determination theorists and behavioral practitioners are noted. PMID:9762587

  2. Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender and Fairness in Traditional Practices in Benin, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This study examined reasoning about fairness in gender-related traditional practices in Benin, West Africa. Fifty adolescents (M = 15.7 years) and 46 adults (M = 33.4 years) were interviewed about traditional practices involving gender hierarchy. Results indicate that the majority attributed decision-making authority to a traditional authority for…

  3. Native Hawaiian Traditional Healing: Culturally Based Interventions for Social Work Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurdel, Donna E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of culturally-based interventions delivered by social workers with adequate professional skills to provide services to ethnic, racial, and cultural groups. Offers two examples of interventions based on traditional Hawaiian values and practices, which target direct practice and community practice. Explains how traditional

  4. Smoking cessation treatment and risk of depression, suicide, and self harm in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard M; Davies, Neil M; Metcalfe, Chris; Windmeijer, Frank; Gunnell, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the risk of suicide, self harm, and depression in patients prescribed varenicline or bupropion with those prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. Design Prospective cohort study within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Setting 349 general practices in England. Participants 119 546 men and women aged 18 years and over who used a smoking cessation product between 1 September 2006 and 31 October 2011. There were 81 545 users of nicotine replacement products (68.2% of all users of smoking cessation medicines), 6741 bupropion (5.6%), and 31 260 varenicline (26.2%) users. Main outcome measures Outcomes were treated depression and fatal and non-fatal self harm within three months of the first smoking cessation prescription, determined from linkage with mortality data from the Office for National Statistics (for suicide) and Hospital Episode Statistics data (for hospital admissions relating to non-fatal self harm). Hazard ratios or risk differences were estimated using Cox multivariable regression models, propensity score matching, and instrumental variable analysis using physicians’ prescribing preferences as an instrument. Sensitivity analyses were performed for outcomes at six and nine months. Results We detected 92 cases of fatal and non-fatal self harm (326.5 events per 100 000 person years) and 1094 primary care records of treated depression (6963.3 per 100 000 person years). Cox regression analyses showed no evidence that patients prescribed varenicline had higher risks of fatal or non-fatal self harm (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 1.49) or treated depression (0.75, 0.65 to 0.87) compared with those prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. There was no evidence that patients prescribed bupropion had a higher risk of fatal or non-fatal self harm (0.83, 0.30 to 2.31) or of treated depression (0.63, 0.46 to 0.87) compared with patients prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. Similar findings were obtained using propensity score methods and instrumental variable analyses. Conclusions There is no evidence of an increased risk of suicidal behaviour in patients prescribed varenicline or bupropion compared with those prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. These findings should be reassuring for users and prescribers of smoking cessation medicines. PMID:24124105

  5. Effectiveness of general practice interventions for patients with harmful alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P

    1993-01-01

    Harmful alcohol consumption can have severe consequences for both the individual and society. A review of the six published studies on the effectiveness of general practitioner interventions for individuals with harmful alcohol consumption suggests that between five and 10 minutes of advice leads to reductions of alcohol consumption of around 25-35% at follow up six months or one year later. Two of the three studies which failed to demonstrate an intervention effect had inadequate sample sizes and in two of the studies the control group was a comparison group which received minimal advice to reduce alcohol consumption. There was greater evidence for an intervention effect among men than women. The methodological problems of the studies are discussed. PMID:8251237

  6. Game-Based Practice versus Traditional Practice in Computer-Based Writing Strategy Training: Effects on Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving sustained student engagement with practice in computer-based writing strategy training can be a challenge. One potential solution is to foster engagement by embedding practice in educational games; yet there is currently little research comparing the effectiveness of game-based practice versus more traditional forms of practice. In this

  7. Game-Based Practice versus Traditional Practice in Computer-Based Writing Strategy Training: Effects on Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving sustained student engagement with practice in computer-based writing strategy training can be a challenge. One potential solution is to foster engagement by embedding practice in educational games; yet there is currently little research comparing the effectiveness of game-based practice versus more traditional forms of practice. In this…

  8. Beyond Traditional Tenure. A Guide to Sound Policies and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chait, Richard P.; Ford, Andrew T.

    Based on information gathered in a survey of senior academic administrators and from in-depth, on-site interviews with faculty, staff, and trustees on campuses across the United States, the successes and failures of principal academic personnel--traditional tenure, tenure with modifications, and nontenure term-contract systems--are described.…

  9. Bapedi traditional healers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Their socio-cultural profile and traditional healing practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bapedi traditional healers play a vital role in the primary health care of rural inhabitants in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. However, literature profiling their social and demographic variables, as well as their traditional healing practices is lacking. Methods Convenience sampling were used to identify and select two traditional healers from 17 municipalities (resulting in 34 healers being used in this pilot survey) of the Limpopo Province in South Africa. Information on the social and demographic variables, and traditional healing practices of these healers was gathered from January 2013 to July 2013, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented by field surveys for plant identification and collection used in the preparation of remedies. Results Males constituted nearly two-thirds of the participants. Forty eight percent of them became healers through the mentoring of another healer, while 38% acquired their traditional healing knowledge from parents and 14% from grandparents. In contrast to this, 62% of the females obtained theirs from their parents, 30% from fellow traditional healers, and 8% from grandparents. A total of 154 plant species were indicated as used by healers in the treatment of 52 health-related problems. A vast majority (89%) of these practitioners reported that prepared herbal remedies do expire, which is a temperature-dependent process. Determinations of the efficacy of remedies by most healers (67%) were via consultation with ancestors (90%). This study also found that none of the interviewees had any knowledge of provincial or national environmental legislation. Conclusions The current study has shown that Bapedi traditional healers could play a leading role in both the preservation of indigenous knowledge and the primary health care sector. However, of concern is the traditional methods (via consulting ancestors) employed by most of these healers in determining efficacy of remedies, thus indicating a need for a scientific investigations to establish their safety and effectiveness. Equally, there is a need to educate traditional practitioners’ regarding the significance of various conservation legislations in their traditional healing. By addressing these, the national and provincial legislators, medical fraternity as well as environmental agencies will be able to better integrate them in primary health care systems and environmental management. PMID:24410790

  10. Traditional birth attendant training and local birthing practices in India.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla

    2011-08-01

    Training birth attendants (TBAs) provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training programmes redirected funds to providing skilled attendants during delivery. This study aimed to assess the ways in which a TBA training programme in India has been successful in disseminating evidence-based knowledge on birthing practices. TBAs practicing within 16 villages targeted by training programme initiatives were administered with structured questionnaires. The post training birthing practices of trained (24) and untrained (14) TBAs was compared and birthing practices adopted by women assisted by trained (16) and untrained (9) TBAs was analysed. Positive post training practices were hand washing, use of a clean blade for cutting the cord, immediate breastfeeding and weighing of babies. Nevertheless, the training could be further improved with up to date and evidence-based information and more comprehensive instructions. The findings suggest an integration of local and evidence-based knowledge is needed to improve the training. Raising community awareness of public health measures related to maternal and child health is also recommended. PMID:21555049

  11. Beyond Tradition: Culture, Symbolism, and Practicality in American Indian Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous people have always created what colonial language labels art. Yet there is no Native word for "art" as defined in a Euro-American sense. Art, as the dominant culture envisions, is mostly ornamental. This is in sharp juxtaposition to a Native perspective, which sees art as integrative, inclusive, practical, and constantly…

  12. Leadership Practices of Non-Traditional Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, George Milton, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-Self) scores between masters-level seminary students based on the independent variables of student age, class load, gender, marital status, and parental status. The 1,254 masters-level seminary students enrolled on the main campus of Dallas Theological…

  13. Benchmarking clinical practice in surgery: looking beyond traditional mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ricardo A S; Oliveira, Pedro N; Silva Portela, Conceição; Camanho, Ana S; Queiroz e Melo, João

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes two new measures to assess performance of surgical practice based on observed mortality: reliability, measured as the area under the ROC curve and a living score, the sum of individual risk among surviving patients, divided by the total number of patients. A Monte Carlo simulation of surgeons' practice was used for conceptual validation and an analysis of a real-world hospital department was used for managerial validation. We modelled surgical practice as a bivariate distribution function of risk and final state. We sampled 250 distributions, varying the maximum risk each surgeon faced, the distribution of risk among dead patients, the mortality rate and the number of surgeries performed yearly. We applied the measures developed to a Portuguese cardiothoracic department. We found that the joint use of the reliability and living score measures overcomes the limitations of risk adjusted mortality rates, as it enables a different valuation of deaths, according to their risk levels. Reliability favours surgeons with casualties, predominantly, in high values of risk and penalizes surgeons with deaths in relatively low levels of risk. The living score is positively influenced by the maximum risk for which a surgeon yields surviving patients. These measures enable a deeper understanding of surgical practice and, as risk adjusted mortality rates, they rely only on mortality and risk scores data. The case study revealed that the performance of the department analysed could be improved with enhanced policies of risk management, involving the assignment of surgeries based on surgeon's reliability and living score. PMID:24633958

  14. Sustaining Educational Innovation: engaging traditional faculty in transformed practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Steven; Finkelstein, Noah

    2007-03-01

    Over the past five years CU Physics has engaged in an experimental study of what it means to transform our introductory physics sequence to employ the tools and practices shown to be productive by physics education research. We have previously reported on the successful transformation of the courses to make them student centered, interactive and post high learning gains on conceptual surveys. [1] In an effort to understand the long-term potential of these course transformations, we now examine what happens when the course is transferred to new faculty. We demonstrate that it is possible to maintain high learning gains with new faculty and find two critical factors that contribute to the sustained success of these course transformations: 1) faculty background and beliefs and 2) particular curricular materials and practices selected to use. We also present a model (the Learning Assistant program) designed for sustaining these reforms and for increasing student interest and retention in teaching. [2] [1] N.D. Finkelstein and S.J. Pollock, ``Replicating and Understanding Successful Innovations: Implementing Tutorials in Introductory Physics'' Physical Review, Spec Top: Physics Education Research, 1, 010101 (2005). [2] V.Otero, N.D. Finkelstein, R. McCray, and S. Pollock, ``Who is Responsible for Preparing Science Teachers?'' Science. 313(5786), 445-446 (2006).

  15. Traditional beliefs and disease practices of Ethiopian Jews.

    PubMed

    Hodes, R M; Teferedegne, B

    1996-07-01

    In an attempt to assess concepts of disease, we questioned 33 Ethiopian Jews (Falashas) in Ethiopia about 13 diseases: 8 western and 5 cultural syndromes (in the Amharic language): birrd (cold), wugat (stabbing chest pain), moygnbagegn (neurologic disorder), mitch (sunstroke), and attent hono kere (retained fetus becoming bone). Disease causation was often attributed to spirits and the sun. None of the interviewees understood the cause of: a) epilepsy, most attributing it to spirits and recommending smelling match smoke as treatment, b) prolonged labor, attributed by most to the evil kole spirit and is managed by traditional birth attendants; and c) abortion, believed to be caused by exposure to sun or cold. Less than 20% linked malaria to mosquitoes. Most correlated splenomegaly with malaria. Hepatitis was believed to be caused by a bird or bat flying around the affected person. Multiple factors were linked to diarrhea, including a journey in the sun. Moygnbagegn is the only condition treated by venisection from brachial veins; wugat is treated by "cupping". Modern medicine was recommended by < 30% of those questioned for epilepsy, splenomegaly, hepatitis, and Ethiopian cultural diseases. It was recommended most for malaria (52%), sexually transmitted diseases (55%), and diarrhea (69%). PMID:8756985

  16. Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices Among Lower Class Black Americans

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Loudell F.

    1983-01-01

    The medical belief system of lower class black Americans reflects their social, political and economic marginality in the larger society. A moderate life-style is regarded as the basis for good health with special emphasis on protecting one's body from cold, keeping it clean inside and out and maintaining a proper diet. Illnesses and other life events are classified as “natural” or “unnatural.” Natural illnesses result from the effects of cold, dirt and improper diet on the body causing changes in the blood. A number of beliefs about blood and its functions have important clinical implications for the treatment of hypertension and venereal disease and for family planning. Natural illnesses also result from divine punishment and serve as an instrument of social control. Unnatural illnesses are the result of witchcraft and reflect conflict in the social network. It is believed that physicians do not understand and cannot effectively treat such illnesses, but a variety of traditional healers offer help to the victims. Physicians must elicit such beliefs if they are to interact effectively and sensitively with black patients. Social change is required, however, to eliminate the feelings of powerlessness at the root of many of the health problems of poor black Americans. PMID:6364570

  17. Anatomy practical examinations: how does student performance on computerized evaluation compare with the traditional format?

    PubMed

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Taranikanti, Varna; Al-Rawahy, Maimouna; Habbal, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Practical examinations in anatomy are usually conducted on specimens in the anatomy laboratory (referred to here as the "traditional" method). Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle™. In this study, we compare student scores between two assessment environments viz. online and traditional environments. We hypothesized that regardless of the examination medium (traditional or online) overall student performance would not be significantly different. For the online medium, radiological images, prosected specimens, and short video clips demonstrating muscle action were first acquired from resources used for teaching during anatomy practical classes. These were optimized for online viewing and then uploaded onto Moodle learning management software. With regards to the traditional format, actual specimens were usually laid out in a circular stream. Identification tags were then attached to specific spots on the specimens and questions asked regarding those identified spots. A cohort of students taking practical examinations in six courses was studied. The courses were divided into three pairs with each pair credit-weight matched. Each pair consisted of a course where the practical examination was conducted online and the other in the traditional format. There was no significant difference in the mean scores within each course pair. In addition, a significant positive correlation between score in traditional and online formats was found. We conclude that mean grades in anatomy practical examination conducted either online or in the traditional format were comparable. These findings should reassure teachers intending to use either format for their practical examinations. PMID:21916021

  18. Medical students’ attitudes and perspectives regarding novel computer-based practical spot tests compared to traditional practical spot tests

    PubMed Central

    Wijerathne, Buddhika; Rathnayake, Geetha

    2013-01-01

    Background Most universities currently practice traditional practical spot tests to evaluate students. However, traditional methods have several disadvantages. Computer-based examination techniques are becoming more popular among medical educators worldwide. Therefore incorporating the computer interface in practical spot testing is a novel concept that may minimize the shortcomings of traditional methods. Assessing students’ attitudes and perspectives is vital in understanding how students perceive the novel method. Methods One hundred and sixty medical students were randomly allocated to either a computer-based spot test (n=80) or a traditional spot test (n=80). The students rated their attitudes and perspectives regarding the spot test method soon after the test. The results were described comparatively. Results Students had higher positive attitudes towards the computer-based practical spot test compared to the traditional spot test. Their recommendations to introduce the novel practical spot test method for future exams and to other universities were statistically significantly higher. Conclusions The computer-based practical spot test is viewed as more acceptable to students than the traditional spot test. PMID:26451213

  19. Modern and Traditional Medical Practices of Vietnam. Vietnamese Concepts of Illness and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieu, Le Tai

    This paper discusses superstitious, folk, traditional, and modern medical practices of Vietnam. Concepts of illness, somatization, behavior labeling, diagnostic attempts, and attitudes toward treatment among Vietnamese are also reviewed. (APM)

  20. Codes of medical ethics: traditional foundations and contemporary practice.

    PubMed

    Sohl, P; Bassford, H A

    1986-01-01

    The Hippocratic Coprus recognized the interaction of 'business' and patient-health moral considerations, and urged that the former be subordinated to the latter. During the 1800s with the growth of complexity in both scientific knowledge and the organization of health services, the medical ethical codes addressed themselves to elaborate rules of conduct to be followed by the members of the newly emerging national medical associations. After World War II the World Medical Association was established as an international forum where national medical associations could debate the ethical problems presented by modern medicine. The International Code of Medical ethics and the Declaration of Geneva were written as 20th century restatements of the medical profession's commitment to the sovereignty of the patient-care norm. Many ethical statements have been issued by the World Medical Association in the past 35 years; they show the variety and difficulties of contemporary medical practice. The newest revisions were approved by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association in Venice, Italy October 1983. Their content is examined and concern is voiced about the danger of falling into cultural relativism when questions about the methods of financing medical services are the subject of an ethical declaration which is arrived at by consensus in the W.M.A. PMID:3529416

  1. Perspectives and Practices of Xhosa-Speaking African Traditional Healers when Managing Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mzimkulu, Kanyiswa G.; Simbayi, Leickness C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives and practices of Xhosa-speaking African traditional healers, known as "amagqirha", in managing psychosis. Four traditional healers, 3 male and one female, were chosen to take part in the study through their association with psychosis patients undergoing treatment at a South African psychiatric…

  2. Perspectives and Practices of Xhosa-Speaking African Traditional Healers when Managing Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mzimkulu, Kanyiswa G.; Simbayi, Leickness C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives and practices of Xhosa-speaking African traditional healers, known as "amagqirha", in managing psychosis. Four traditional healers, 3 male and one female, were chosen to take part in the study through their association with psychosis patients undergoing treatment at a South African psychiatric

  3. Traditional Healing Practices Sought by Muslim Psychiatric Patients in Lahore, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooqi, Yasmin Nilofer

    2006-01-01

    This research explored the type of traditional healing practices sought by Muslim psychiatric patients treated at public hospitals of Lahore city, Pakistan. The sample comprised 87 adult psychiatric patients (38% male and 62% female). The patients self-reported on the Case History Interview Schedule that they had sought diverse traditional healing

  4. Traditional Healing Practices Sought by Muslim Psychiatric Patients in Lahore, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooqi, Yasmin Nilofer

    2006-01-01

    This research explored the type of traditional healing practices sought by Muslim psychiatric patients treated at public hospitals of Lahore city, Pakistan. The sample comprised 87 adult psychiatric patients (38% male and 62% female). The patients self-reported on the Case History Interview Schedule that they had sought diverse traditional healing…

  5. Use of traditional health practices by Southeast Asian refugees in a primary care clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, D.; Panwala, S.; Hooton, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of use of traditional health practices among different ethnic groups of Southeast Asian refugees after their arrival in the United States, we conducted a convenience sample of 80 Cambodian, Lao, Mien, and ethnic Chinese patients (20 each) attending the University of Washington Refugee Clinic for a new or follow-up visit. Interpreters administered a questionnaire that dealt with demographics, medical complaints, traditional health practices, health beliefs, and attitudes toward Western practitioners. In all, 46 (58%) patients had used one or more traditional health practices, but the prevalence varied by ethnic group. Coining and massage were used by all groups except the Mien, whereas moxibustion and healing ceremonies were performed almost exclusively by the Mien. Traditional health practices were used for a variety of symptoms and, in 78% of reported uses, patients reported alleviation of symptoms. The use of traditional health practices is common among Southeast Asian refugees. Clinicians who care for this population should be aware of these practices because they may supersede treatments prescribed by physicians or leave cutaneous stigmata that may be confused with disease or physical abuse. Good patient care may necessitate the use or tolerance of both Western and traditional modalities in many Southeast Asian refugees. Images PMID:1595275

  6. Best clinical practices for male adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: "do no harm".

    PubMed

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in communication, locus of control, and consent/permission before and during physical examinations and procedures. The intent of this article is to act as a catalyst for improved patient care and more research focused on the identification and optimal responses to the needs of men with adverse childhood experiences in the health care setting. PMID:25106042

  7. Traditional and emerging forms of dental practice. Cost, accessibility, and quality factors.

    PubMed Central

    Rovin, S; Nash, J

    1982-01-01

    The traditional and predominant manner of delivering dental care is through a fee-for-service, private practice system. A number of alternative dental care delivery systems have emerged and are being tested, and others are just emerging. These systems include department store practices, hospital dental services, health maintenance organizations, the independent practice of dental hygiene, and denturism. Although it is too soon to draw final conclusions about the efficacy and effectiveness of these systems, we examine them for their potential to compete with and change the way dental care is currently delivered. Using the parameters of cost, accessibility, and quality, we compare these systems to traditional dental practice. Some of these emerging forms clearly have the potential to complete favorably with traditional practice. Other seem less likely to alter the existing system substantially. The system which can best control costs, increase accessibility, and enhance quality will gain the competitive edge. PMID:7091453

  8. Female genital mutilation/cutting--towards abandonment of a harmful cultural practice.

    PubMed

    Varol, Nesrin; Fraser, Ian S; Ng, Cecilia H M; Jaldesa, Guyo; Hall, John

    2014-10-01

    Globally, the prevalence of, and support for, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is declining. However, the entrenched sense of social obligation that propagates the continuation of this practice and the lack of open communication between men and women on this sensitive issue are two important barriers to abandonment. There is limited evidence on the role of men and their experiences in FGM/C. Marriageability of girls is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the continuation of this practice. In some countries, more men than women are advocating to end FGM/C. Moreover, men, as partners to women with FGM/C, also report physical and psychosexual problems. The abandonment process involves expanding a range of successful programs, addressing the human rights priorities of communities and providing power over their own development processes. Anecdotal evidence exists that FGM/C is practised amongst African migrant populations in Australia. The Australian Government supports a taskforce to improve community awareness and education, workforce training and evidence building. Internationally, an African Coordinating Centre for abandonment of FGM/C has been established in Kenya with a major global support group to share research, promote solidarity, advocacy and implement a coordinated and integrated response to abandon FGM/C. PMID:24801568

  9. Exposure To Harmful Workplace Practices Could Account For Inequality In Life Spans Across Different Demographic Groups.

    PubMed

    Goh, Joel; Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Zenios, Stefanos

    2015-10-01

    The existence of important socioeconomic disparities in health and mortality is a well-established fact. Many pathways have been adduced to explain inequality in life spans. In this article we examine one factor that has been somewhat neglected: People with different levels of education get sorted into jobs with different degrees of exposure to workplace attributes that contribute to poor health. We used General Social Survey data to estimate differential exposures to workplace conditions, results from a meta-analysis that estimated the effect of workplace conditions on mortality, and a model that permitted us to estimate the overall effects of workplace practices on health. We conclude that 10-38 percent of the difference in life expectancy across demographic groups can be explained by the different job conditions their members experience. PMID:26438754

  10. Traditional practices of women from India: pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn care.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, U K

    1997-01-01

    This article describes maternal and child care practices among women from India. As in all cultures, certain beliefs exist surrounding what facilitates a good pregnancy and its outcome, as well as negative sanctions. These practices continue to influence many immigrant women to whom western practices are either unknown or unacceptable. An understanding of the traditional belief system of such women can case their adaptation into the Canadian and U.S. health care systems. PMID:9313183

  11. Adverse events attributed to traditional Korean medical practices: 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate adverse events attributed to traditional medical treatments in the Republic of Korea. Methods Adverse events recorded in the Republic of Korea between 1999 and 2010 – by the Food and Drug Administration, the Consumer Agency or the Association of Traditional Korean Medicine – were reviewed. Records of adverse events attributed to the use of traditional medical practices, including reports of medicinal accidents and consumers’ complaints, were investigated. Findings Overall, 9624 records of adverse events attributed to traditional medical practices – including 522 linked to herbal treatments – were identified. Liver problems were the most frequently reported adverse events. Only eight of the adverse events were recorded by the pharmacovigilance system run by the Food and Drug Administration. Of the 9624 events, 1389 – mostly infections, cases of pneumothorax and burns – were linked to physical therapy (n = 285) or acupuncture/moxibustion (n = 1104). Conclusion In the Republic of Korea, traditional medical practices often appear to have adverse effects, yet almost all of the adverse events attributed to such practices between 1999 and 2010 were missed by the national pharmacovigilance system. The Consumer Agency and the Association of Traditional Korean Medicine should be included in the national pharmacovigilance system. PMID:23940404

  12. Why "do no harm"?

    PubMed

    Sharpe, V A

    1997-01-01

    Edmund Pellegrino has argued that the dramatic changes in American health care call for critical reflection on the traditional norms governing the therapeutic relationship. This paper offers such reflection on the obligation to "do no harm." Drawing on work by Beauchamp and Childress and Pellegrino and Thomasma, I argue that the libertarian model of medical ethics offered by Engelhardt cannot adequately sustain an obligation to "do no harm." Because the obligation to "do no harm" is not based simply on a negative duty of nonmaleficence but also on a positive duty of beneficence, I argue that it is best understood to derive from the fiduciary nature of the healing relationship. PMID:9129401

  13. Ethnozoology of the Karbis of Assam, India: Use of ichthyofauna in traditional health-care practices

    PubMed Central

    Teronpi, Valentina; Singh, H. T.; Tamuli, A. K.; Teron, Robindra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Traditional or folk medicine is still prevalent among the Karbis as means of primary health-care. Traditional medicine is not only a source of healing, but the practice is also an important part of their religion and culture. Aim: The aim of the present study is to discuss the use of ichthyofauna in traditional health-care practices among the Karbis and other ethnic tribes of Karbi Anglong district, Assam. Setting and Design: Field study was undertaken from March 2011 to June 2012. A total of 75 informants were selected from 27 villages and the selection was based on their recognition as having sound knowledge relating to health-care practices. Materials and Methods: Information was collected following both unstructured and structured interview methods, group discussions and personal observation. Fish used in health-care practices were collected with the help of local guides and identified using available literatures. Results: The present study has recorded use of 14 species belonging 7 families in the treatment of 25 disease conditions. Traditional health-care practices of the Karbis include both local and oral applications and rituals to cure diseases. Use of fish to cure mental depression like symptoms locally referred as nihu kachingtung is prevalent until today. Studies among the Dimasa and Thadou tribes also revealed the use of fish in traditional medicine as therapies against different ailments, but do not use fish in rituals. Conclusion: Study on fish-based zootherapy could be a viable option for discovery of new compounds with therapeutic potentials. However, the attitude of the present generation towards traditional medicine as being unscientific and acculturation are the main causes of decline of such practice in the Karbis. Destructive fishing practices by poisoning water bodies with synthetic chemicals pose serious threats to aquatic fauna in the hill streams. PMID:24167335

  14. [The Theory and Practice of Health Cultivation Qigong Exercise in Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Ying

    2015-12-01

    The health cultivation qigong exercise in traditional Chinese medicine refers to a traditional, integrated method of illness prevention and body strengthening, which promotes the functions of qi and the blood, smooths the meridians (energy channels), and balances the viscera and bowels through the regulation of the mind, the breathing, and the body. The concept of using qi to cultivate human life is part of the health cultivation practices of ancient Chinese codes and of Chinese medicine. This concept includes the principles, methods, essences, and clinical applications of the practice. In addition, traditional health cultivation references the concepts of yinyang, viscera and bowels, qi and blood, meridians, and essential energy spirit theory in order to explain the human biological phenomena, the theoretical and practical perspectives of qigong, and the basis of the treatment principle. The health cultivation qigong exercise of Chinese medicine utilizes the concept of the "unity of nature and human beings" in traditional Chinese thinking in its practice, which emphasizes the conformity to nature and seasons. In order to fully leverage the benefits from the purpose of health cultivation in qigong practice, the priority is to understand the health cultivation mechanism, the essentials/matters, and the precautions of qigong practices. Recently, the evidence regarding both the biological and the psychological benefits of qigong practices have been demonstrated in numbers of research articles. In particular, qigong is currently considered to be one of the best mild exercises that is suited to all age groups. Professional nurses are suggested to include the health cultivation qigong exercise as part of activities that target health improvement and illness prevention. Due to the diversity in qigong as practiced by different health cultivation qigong exercise sects, it is essential to accumulate more clinical evidence by conducting greater numbers of rigorous studies that may be referenced in evidence-based nursing practices. PMID:26645440

  15. Traditional healers in Nigeria: perception of cause, treatment and referral practices for severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Okeke, T A; Okafor, H U; Uzochukwu, B S C

    2006-07-01

    Malaria remains one of the main causes of mortality among young children in sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria traditional healers play an important role in health care delivery and the majority of the population depend on them for most of their ailments. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of traditional healers regarding causes, symptoms, treatment of uncomplicated malaria and referral practices for severe malaria with a view to developing appropriate intervention strategies aimed at improving referral practices for severe malaria. A qualitative study was carried out in Ugwogo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria, which included in-depth interviews with 23 traditional healers. The traditional healers believed that the treatment of severe malaria, especially convulsions, with herbal remedies was very effective. Some traditional healers were familiar with the signs and symptoms of malaria, but malaria was perceived as an environmentally related disease caused by heat from the scorching sun. The majority of traditional healers believed that convulsions are inherited from parents, while a minority attributed them to evil spirits. Most (16/23) will not refer cases to a health facility because they believe in the efficacy of their herbal remedies. The few that did refer did so after several stages of traditional treatment, which resulted in long delays of about two weeks before appropriate treatment was received. The fact that traditional healers are important providers of treatment for severe malaria, especially convulsions, underlines the need to enlist their support in efforts to improve referral practices for severe malaria. PMID:16762086

  16. Breaking Tradition: An Exploration of the Historical Relationship Between Theory and Practice in Second Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musumeci, Diane

    This book illustrates the history of language teaching and explores how theory has repeatedly been mistranslated into practice. First, it provides a tradition of language teaching that is communicatively oriented. The works of Guarino Guarini, a 15th century educator, and Ignatius of Loyola, a 16th century educational administrator, are examined

  17. The Meaning Structures of Muslim Bereavements in Israel: Religious Traditions, Mourning Practices, and Human Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasien-Esmael, Hend; Rubin, Simon Shimshon

    2005-01-01

    The grief and mourning of Muslim citizens in Israel are considered. First, a series of mourning customs spanning the period from notification of death until post-mourning are presented from 3 perspectives: (a) the requirements of the Islamic Sunni tradition; (b) the manner in which Islamic mourning rituals are practiced; and (c) the authors'…

  18. Navigating Two Worlds: Experiences of Counsellors Who Integrate Aboriginal Traditional Healing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oulanova, Olga; Moodley, Roy

    2010-01-01

    There is revival in the use of traditional healing among Canadian Aboriginal communities and the therapeutic benefits of these practices have received much research attention. An argument is repeatedly made for incorporating indigenous healing into clinical interventions, yet recommendations on how this may be accomplished are lacking. The present…

  19. Anatomy Practical Examinations: How Does Student Performance on Computerized Evaluation Compare with the Traditional Format?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Taranikanti, Varna; Al-Rawahy, Maimouna; Habbal, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Practical examinations in anatomy are usually conducted on specimens in the anatomy laboratory (referred to here as the "traditional" method). Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle[TM]. In this study, we compare student scores between two assessment environments viz. online and…

  20. Anatomy Practical Examinations: How Does Student Performance on Computerized Evaluation Compare with the Traditional Format?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Taranikanti, Varna; Al-Rawahy, Maimouna; Habbal, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Practical examinations in anatomy are usually conducted on specimens in the anatomy laboratory (referred to here as the "traditional" method). Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle[TM]. In this study, we compare student scores between two assessment environments viz. online and

  1. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

  2. A study of the beliefs and birthing practices of traditional midwives in rural Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Lang, J B; Elkin, E D

    1997-01-01

    This is a descriptive study of the beliefs and practices of the traditional midwives in a rural Guatemalan village. During pregnancy and birth, traditional midwives who have received minimal or no training attend more than 80% of the indigenous Mayan women. Data were obtained from interviews with the midwives and from direct observation of midwives attending births. The midwives had few skills with which to handle complications. They failed to use basic aseptic technique and were unfamiliar with lifesaving skills such as fundal massage and proper infant stimulation. Even though most of the midwives interviewed had attended a Ministry of Health training course, they lacked basic knowledge of safe obstetric practices. To reduce infant and maternal mortality rates, traditional midwives must be adequately trained. The teaching methods used by an indigenous Guatemalan group training elderly, illiterate midwives are described as an example of an effective training program. PMID:9037932

  3. A Study Comparing the Effect of Multiage Education Practices versus Traditional Education Practices on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrell, Janet L.

    This study compared the effects of multi-age classroom strategies to those of traditional classroom strategies on the academic achievement of fourth grade students in reading and math. Standardized test scores from 20 fourth-grade students in two multi-age third- and fourth-grade classrooms were compared to the scores of 20 students from 7…

  4. Future visions for traditional and herbal medicinal products--a global practice for evaluation and regulation?

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Jacqueline; Knöss, Werner

    2014-12-01

    Medicinal plants and traditional medicines have been used worldwide since ancient times. Currently, there is neither a globally consented terminology nor a harmonized regulatory approach. Nevertheless, it is common sense that quality, efficacy and safety should be assessed following scientific standards, addressing particulars and considering an adequate level of risk management. A global market for traditional medicines is emerging, if not already existing. Therefore, a constructive communication about regulatory systems for herbal and traditional medicinal products should be enforced. Best practice standards might be developed according to current scientific knowledge in order to improve mutual acceptance of data, sets of monographs and assessments. Overall, a convergence of the diverse regulatory systems might save resources and lead to an adequate availability of herbal and traditional medicinal products to the patients without neglecting public health. PMID:25152297

  5. Traditional Birth Attendants in Rural Northern Uganda: Policy, Practice, and Ethics.

    PubMed

    Rudrum, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    The current emphasis on skilled attendants as a means to reduce maternal mortality contributes to a discouraging policy environment for traditional birth attendants (TBAs). They continue to attend a significant number of births, however, such that their role and the policies and practices affecting their work remain important to understanding maternity health care and maternal health in the global South. In this article, I examine the policies and practices governing community elders practicing as TBAs in rural northern Uganda. This discussion is relevant to health workers in developing countries and to scholars in fields such as women's studies, sociology, and public health. PMID:25719535

  6. Puttur kattu (bandage) – A traditional bone setting practice in south India

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Rout, Suvendu

    2011-01-01

    Traditional bone setting practices are quite popular in India and nearly 6000 traditional bone setting Vaidyas (Practisioners) are practicing the same in our country. Puttur kattu is a traditional way of bone setting practice, invented accidentally by K. Kesava Raju in 1881. Now, the fourth generation of his family is practicing this bone setting practice in hospitals at Puttur, Andhra Pradesh, with 200-300 patients per day. A prospective study was undertaken to analyze the techniques in diagnosis, way of management, medicine preparation, plants used and way of applications by traditional bone setter (TBS) Vaidyas, with special reference to Puttur. We also tried to understand the reasons which make lots of people go to Puttur for getting treatment, means of contact for treatment, pathology of fracture and outcome of some treated cases through this study. 54% of the studied patients came to Puttur TBS on the advice of old patients. It is observed that more educated people are patronizing this therapy and 23% patients of the observed cases took discharge from modern hospital voluntarily to receive Puttur kattu treatment. 80% patients believed that this therapy with home remedy would fasten the healing process. 44% patients opted for this therapy due to fear of pain, heavy plaster of Paris bandage, prolonged period of immobilization, surgery and amputation. 71% patients of the followed cases were satisfied with the treatment of TBS of Puttur with minimum complications. The authors also attempted to put forth the legacy of the tradition, the way of management and the plant used for bone setting by the Puttur bone setting Vaidyas. PMID:22253506

  7. Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and processing between non-codified traditional system of medicine and Ayurveda require further methodical studies to establish the relationship between the two on a more objective basis. However, the practice appears to be at crossroads with threat of extinction, because of non-inheritance of the knowledge and non-availability of medicinal plants. Hence conservation strategies for both knowledge and resources at societal, scientific and legislative levels are urgently required to preserve the traditional wisdom. PMID:24934868

  8. A Gathering of Native American Healers: Exploring the Interface of Indigenous Tradition and Professional Practice.

    PubMed

    Moorehead, Virgil D; Gone, Joseph P; December, Damia

    2015-12-01

    This article reports insights from a 4-day Gathering of Native American Healers at the University of Michigan in October of 2010. This event convened 18 traditional healers, clinically trained service providers, and cross-cultural mental health researchers for a structured group dialogue to advance professional knowledge about the integration of Indigenous healing practices and conventional mental health treatments in community-based mental health services for Native Americans. Our thematic analysis of transcripts from five Roundtable sessions afforded several key insights and understandings pertaining to the integration of Indigenous healing and conventional mental health services. First, with reference to traditional healing, the importance of a rampant relationality, various personal qualities, Indigenous spirituality, and maintenance of traditional life and culture were accentuated by Roundtable participants. Second, for traditional healers to practice effectively, Roundtable participants posited that these individuals must maintain personal wellness, cultivate profound knowledge of healing practices, recognize the intrinsic healing potential within all human beings, and work for the community rather than themselves. In speaking to the possibilities and challenges of collaboration between Indigenous and conventional biomedical therapeutic approaches, Roundtable participants recommended the implementation of cultural programming, the observance of mutuality and respect, the importance of clear and honest communication, and the need for awareness of cultural differences as unique challenges that must be collaboratively overcome. PMID:26351006

  9. Postpartum traditions and nutrition practices among urban Lao women and their infants in Vientiane, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Barennes, H; Simmala, C; Odermatt, P; Thaybouavone, T; Vallee, J; Martinez-Ussel, B; Newton, P; Strobel, M

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objective To assess the traditional postpartum practices, mother and child nutritional status and associated factors. Subjects/Methods A cross-sectional study in 41 randomly selected villages on the outskirts of Vientiane capital city, Lao PDR (Laos). 300 pairs of infants (<6 months of age) and their mothers were enrolled. Information was collected about pregnancy, delivery and traditional practices through a standardized questionnaire. Dietary intake and food frequency were estimated using the 24 h recall method, calibrated bowls and FAO food composition tables. Mothers’ and infants’ anthropometry was assessed and multivariate analysis performed. Results Contrasting with a high antenatal care attendance (91%) and delivery under health professional supervision (72%), a high prevalence of traditional practices was found, including exposure to hot beds of embers (97%), use of traditional herb tea as the only beverage (95%) and restricted diets (90%). Twenty-five mothers (8.3%) were underweight. Mothers had insufficient intake of calories (55.6%), lipids (67.4%), iron (92.0%), vitamins A (99.3%) and C (45%), thiamin (96.6%) and calcium (96.6%). Chewed glutinous rice was given to infants as an early (mean 34.6, 95% CI:29.3–39.8 days) complementary food by 53.7% of mothers, and was associated with stunting in 10% children (OR = 1.35, 95% CI:1.04–1.75). Conclusion The high prevalence of traditional postpartum restricted diets and practices, and inadequate maternal nutritional intake in urban Laos, suggest that antenatal care may be an important opportunity to improve postpartum diets. PMID:18000519

  10. Principles of ethics review on traditional medicine and the practice of institute review board in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-yun; Liang, Zhao-hui; Huang, Hui-ling; Liang, Wei-xiong

    2011-08-01

    As one of the significant parts of medical science research in China, the research on Chinese medicine (CM) reflects the essence of healthcare tradition in the country both theoretically and clinically, and embodies the values of Chinese culture. Therefore, in the practice of ethics review on CM research protocols, besides abiding by the contemporary prevalent international principles and guidelines on bioethics, which emphasizes the scientific and bioethical value of the study, we should also stress the CM theoretical background and relevant clinical experience in the framework of Chinese culture and values. In this paper, we went over the traits of CM clinical research and the experience from the practice of ethics review by the institution review board for bioethics, and then attempted to summarize the key points for the bioethics review to CM researches in China, so as to serve as reference for the bioethics review to traditional and alternative medicine researches. PMID:21826599

  11. THE QUEST FOR TRUTH AS THE FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOANALYTIC PRACTICE: A TRADITIONAL FREUDIAN-KLEINIAN PERSPECTIVE.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2016-04-01

    In responding to the question of whether truth in psychoanalysis is relevant today, the author presents what she refers to as a traditional Freudian-Kleinian perspective. According to this perspective, truth is not only relevant, but rather the quest for it is the alpha and omega of psychoanalytic practice. The author reviews Freud's approach to truth and then discusses Klein's essential contribution to its understanding, grounding, and enrichment, highlighting Klein's thinking about phantasy and the life and death instincts. Finally, the author contends with the opposing view that the quest for truth is no longer relevant to contemporary analytic practice. PMID:27112741

  12. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  13. Current status of traditional mental health practice in Ilorin Emirate Council area, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makanjuola, A B; Adelekan, M L; Morakinyo, O

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven traditional mental health practitioners (TMHPs) and 16 patients' relatives (PR) were studied with a view to gaining an understanding of the current status of traditional mental health practice in five local government areas in Ilorin Emirate Council Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was collected using Practitioners' Questionnaire (PQ), Patients' Relatives' Questionnaire (PRQ), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and observation of TMHPs in their clinics. Factors which affect utilization of traditional mental health services were also reviewed. We found that TMHPs still enjoy considerable patronage from the populace, are more in numerical strength, and are more widely and evenly dispersed in the community than orthodox mental health practitioners (OMHPs). About 74% of TMHPs expressed interest in attending seminars aimed at improving their skills. Most of the patients' relatives expressed the belief that only traditional healers can understand the supernatural aetiological basis of mental disorders, and can therefore offer more effective care than OMHPs. Some of the negative practices observed were (i) infliction of corporal punishment and physical restraints on patients by some TMHPs resulting in wounds, which often become septic (ii) low level of hygiene at the clinics and (iii) lack of adequate follow-up care. In conclusion, since TMHPs still play a major role in the treatment of the mentally ill in this environment, OMHPs should assist them in improving on some of the negative practices identified. Thus, there is an urgent need to organize a training programme for TMHPs to expose them to the general rules of hygiene in medical care, basic principles of orthodox mental health practice, including human treatment of the mentally ill. PMID:10821086

  14. Safe male circumcision in Botswana: Tension between traditional practices and biomedical marketing

    PubMed Central

    Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Botswana has been running Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) since 2009 and has not yet met its target. Donors like the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (funded by the Gates Foundation) in collaboration with Botswana's Ministry of Health have invested much to encourage HIV-negative men to circumcise. Demand creation strategies make use of media and celebrities. The objective of this paper is to explore responses to SMC in relation to circumcision as part of traditional initiation practices. More specifically, we present the views of two communities in Botswana on SMC consultation processes, implementation procedures and campaign strategies. The methods used include participant observation, in-depth interviews with key stakeholders (donors, implementers and Ministry officials), community leaders and men in the community. We observe that consultation with traditional leaders was done in a seemingly superficial, non-participatory manner. While SMC implementers reported pressure to deliver numbers to the World Health Organization, traditional leaders promoted circumcision through their routine traditional initiation ceremonies at breaks of two-year intervals. There were conflicting views on public SMC demand creation campaigns in relation to the traditional secrecy of circumcision. In conclusion, initial cooperation of local chiefs and elders turned into resistance. PMID:25866013

  15. Safe male circumcision in Botswana: tension between traditional practices and biomedical marketing.

    PubMed

    Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Botswana has been running Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) since 2009 and has not yet met its target. Donors like the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (funded by the Gates Foundation) in collaboration with Botswana's Ministry of Health have invested much to encourage HIV-negative men to circumcise. Demand creation strategies make use of media and celebrities. The objective of this paper is to explore responses to SMC in relation to circumcision as part of traditional initiation practices. More specifically, we present the views of two communities in Botswana on SMC consultation processes, implementation procedures and campaign strategies. The methods used include participant observation, in-depth interviews with key stakeholders (donors, implementers and Ministry officials), community leaders and men in the community. We observe that consultation with traditional leaders was done in a seemingly superficial, non-participatory manner. While SMC implementers reported pressure to deliver numbers to the World Health Organization, traditional leaders promoted circumcision through their routine traditional initiation ceremonies at breaks of two-year intervals. There were conflicting views on public SMC demand creation campaigns in relation to the traditional secrecy of circumcision. In conclusion, initial cooperation of local chiefs and elders turned into resistance. PMID:25866013

  16. Traditional Massage of Newborns in Nepal: Implications for Trials of Improved Practice

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, Luke C.; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Tielsch, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Mustard oil massage of newborns is an integral component of traditional care practices in many communities. Recent evidence suggests that this practice may have detrimental effects, particularly for preterm infants or for those whose skin barrier function is otherwise sub-optimal. Other natural oils such as sunflower, sesame or safflower seed oil may have a beneficial impact on newborn health and survival. Little is known, however, about cultural and other factors related to the acceptance and uptake of alternative, more beneficial oils for massage of the newborn. A questionnaire concerning the usage and reasons for application of mustard and other oils to newborn skin was administered to the caretakers of 8580 newborns in Sarlahi district of rural Nepal. Four focus group discussions among representative groups were conducted to describe the perceived benefits of oil massage and the factors involved in the decision to apply oil. The potential for the introduction of alternative natural oils was explored. Approximately 99 per cent of newborns were massaged at least once with mustard oil in the 2 weeks after birth, and 80 per cent were massaged at least twice daily. Promotion of strength, maintenance of health, and provision of warmth were the most commonly cited reasons for application of mustard oil. Focus group discussion participants noted that smell, oiliness, mode of pre-massage preparation, and perceived absorptive potential on the skin are important contextual factors involved in the practice. Caretakers are willing to consider adaptation of established traditions for the promotion of positive health outcomes if essential contextual criteria are met. An understanding of cultural, social, and economic factors that shape the context of traditional healthcare practices is essential to the design and implementation of intervention trials examining the relative efficacy of application of oils in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity. PMID:15677372

  17. Traditional massage of newborns in Nepal: implications for trials of improved practice.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Luke C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Khatry, Subarna K; Tielsch, James M

    2005-04-01

    Mustard oil massage of newborns is an integral component of traditional care practices in many communities. Recent evidence suggests that this practice may have detrimental effects, particularly for preterm infants or for those whose skin barrier function is otherwise sub-optimal. Other natural oils such as sunflower, sesame or safflower seed oil may have a beneficial impact on newborn health and survival. Little is known, however, about cultural and other factors related to the acceptance and uptake of alternative, more beneficial oils for massage of the newborn. A questionnaire concerning the usage and reasons for application of mustard and other oils to newborn skin was administered to the caretakers of 8580 newborns in Sarlahi district of rural Nepal. Four focus group discussions among representative groups were conducted to describe the perceived benefits of oil massage and the factors involved in the decision to apply oil. The potential for the introduction of alternative natural oils was explored. Approximately 99 per cent of newborns were massaged at least once with mustard oil in the 2 weeks after birth, and 80 per cent were massaged at least twice daily. Promotion of strength, maintenance of health, and provision of warmth were the most commonly cited reasons for application of mustard oil. Focus group discussion participants noted that smell, oiliness, mode of pre-massage preparation, and perceived absorptive potential on the skin are important contextual factors involved in the practice. Caretakers are willing to consider adaptation of established traditions for the promotion of positive health outcomes if essential contextual criteria are met. An understanding of cultural, social, and economic factors that shape the context of traditional healthcare practices is essential to the design and implementation of intervention trials examining the relative efficacy of application of oils in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity. PMID:15677372

  18. Traditional healing practice and folk medicines used by Mishing community of North East India

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Lavekar, G. S.; Deb, S.; Sharma, B. K.

    2012-01-01

    Assam and Arunachal Pradesh have very rich tradition of herbal medicines used in the treatment of various ailments. Tribal communities practice different types of traditional healing practices. Enough documentation is available on the healing practices in other tribal communities except Mishing community of Assam and foot hill of East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh hence the attempt was made for the same. A survey on folk medicinal plants and folk healers of Mishing tribe was conducted in few places of Lakhimpur and Dhemaji district of Assam and East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, where this ethnic group is living since time immemorial. All information was collected based on interview and field studies with local healers within the community. The identification of medicinal plants collected with help of indigenous healers was done. Such medicines have been shown to have significant healing power, either in their natural state or as the source of new products processed by them. This study is mainly concentrated with plants used to cure diseases and to enquire about different healing systems. Detail note on the method of preparation of precise dose, the part/parts of plants used and method of application is given. PMID:23125508

  19. Female circumcision: Limiting the harm

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the strength of evidence that links many health hazards to female genital cutting. Material and methods: Literature search in Medline/Pubmed and Google scholar. Results: Female genital cutting is still practiced secretly in both underdeveloped and developed countries due to prevailing strong traditional beliefs. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that genital cutting is a harmful procedure if performed by experienced personnel in a suitable theatre with facilities for pain control and anesthesia. Cutting, however, is advised not to go beyond type I. Conclusion: Law makers around the globe are invited to review the legal situation in relation to female genital cutting. Proper counseling of parents about possible risks is a must in order to make informed decision about circumcising their daughters. The procedure should be offered to parents who insist on it; otherwise, they will do it illegally, exposing their daughters to possible complications. PMID:24627762

  20. Is prostitution harmful?

    PubMed

    Moen, Ole Martin

    2014-02-01

    A common argument against prostitution states that selling sex is harmful because it involves selling something deeply personal and emotional. More and more of us, however, believe that sexual encounters need not be deeply personal and emotional in order to be acceptable--we believe in the acceptability of casual sex. In this paper I argue that if casual sex is acceptable, then we have few or no reasons to reject prostitution. I do so by first examining nine influential arguments to the contrary. These arguments purport to pin down the alleged additional harm brought about by prostitution (compared to just casual sex) by appealing to various aspects of its practice, such as its psychology, physiology, economics and social meaning. For each argument I explain why it is unconvincing. I then weight the costs against the benefits of prostitution, and argue that, in sum, prostitution is no more harmful than a long line of occupations that we commonly accept without hesitation. PMID:22930676

  1. Traditional and western healing practices for alcoholism in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P J

    1998-11-01

    The American Indian and Alaska Native population is a culturally diverse population with a current census of 1,959,000. Prior to White contact, there was historically little use of alcoholic beverages except for American Indians in the Southwest. After White contact, use and misuse of alcohol escalated rapidly; however, the prevalence, patterns, and problems of drinking alcoholic beverages vary enormously even in tribes closely linked geographically. American Indians and Alaska Natives have preserved and revitalized a number of traditional healing practices and applied these to the treatment of alcohol-related problems. These healing practices include the following: nativistic movements, sacred dances, sweat lodges, talking circle, four circles, and cultural enhancement programs. Additionally, Western treatment approaches have been applied in the treatment of problems related to alcohol, such as medication for detoxification, disulfiram (Antabuse), Alcoholics Anonymous, and behavioral interventions. Several investigators have completed a small number of naturalistic follow-up studies, but no one has undertaken a randomized controlled trial looking at specific methods of alcohol treatment in American Indians or Alaska Natives. American Indian and Alaska Native communities have adapted and integrated both Traditional and Western approaches to fit their own unique sociocultural needs. PMID:9818991

  2. Practices of US health insurance companies concerning MS therapies interfere with shared decision-making and harm patients

    PubMed Central

    Bourdette, Dennis N.; Hartung, Daniel M.; Whitham, Ruth H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The US Food and Drug Administration has registered 13 multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The medications are not interchangeable as they vary in route of administration, efficacy, and safety profile. Selecting the appropriate MS DMT for individual patients requires shared decision-making between patients and neurologists. To reduce costs, insurance companies acting through pharmacy benefit companies restrict access to MS DMTs through tiered coverage and other regulations. We discuss how policies established by insurance companies that limit access to MS DMTs interfere with the process of shared decision-making and harm patients. We present potential actions that neurologists can take to change how insurance companies manage MS DMTs. PMID:27104069

  3. Knowledge and practice of traditional healers in oral health in the Bui Division, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of Cameroonians depend on traditional medicines for their health care needs and about seven per cent of the average household health budget is spent on traditional medicines irrespective of their incomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral care knowledge and practices of Traditional Healers (TH) on oral health delivery in the urban and rural areas of Bui Division of Cameroon and the objectives to determine the cost of treatment and reasons why people visit TH. Methods The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data. Results The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years). Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5) is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50). Conclusions Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care seeking attitudes in this community and barriers affecting the oral health seeking behaviours should be removed. Mutual cooperation, collaboration and by integrating TH into primary oral health care services needs to be increased. PMID:21235814

  4. Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Results Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Conclusions Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT and maternal child health programs in India. PMID:20860835

  5. Relationships among spirituality, religious practices, personality factors, and health for five different faith traditions.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Brick; Yoon, Dong Pil; Cohen, Daniel; Schopp, Laura H; McCormack, Guy; Campbell, James; Smith, Marian

    2012-12-01

    To determine: (1) differences in spirituality, religiosity, personality, and health for different faith traditions; and (2) the relative degree to which demographic, spiritual, religious, and personality variables simultaneously predict health outcomes for different faith traditions. Cross-sectional analysis of 160 individuals from five different faith traditions including Buddhists (40), Catholics (41), Jews (22), Muslims (26), and Protestants (31). Brief multidimensional measure of religiousness/spirituality (BMMRS; Fetzer in Multidimensional measurement of religiousness/spirituality for use in health research, Fetzer Institute, Kalamazoo, 1999); NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI; in Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and the NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Costa and McCrae 1992); Medical outcomes scale-short form (SF-36; in SF-36 physical and mental health summary scores: A user's manual, The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, Boston, Ware et al. 1994). (1) ANOVAs indicated that there were no significant group differences in health status, but that there were group differences in spirituality and religiosity. (2) Pearson's correlations for the entire sample indicated that better mental health is significantly related to increased spirituality, increased positive personality traits (i.e., extraversion) and decreased personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness). In addition, spirituality is positively correlated with positive personality traits (i.e., extraversion) and negatively with negative personality traits (i.e., neuroticism). (3) Hierarchical regressions indicated that personality predicted a greater proportion of unique variance in health outcomes than spiritual variables. Different faith traditions have similar health status, but differ in terms of spiritual, religious, and personality factors. For all faith traditions, the presence of positive and absence of negative personality traits are primary predictors of positive health (and primarily mental health). Spiritual variables, other than forgiveness, add little to the prediction of unique variance in physical or mental health after considering personality. Spirituality can be conceptualized as a characterological aspect of personality or a distinct construct, but spiritual interventions should continue to be used in clinical practice and investigated in health research. PMID:22618413

  6. Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Eliana; Hadzich, Antonella; Kofer, Waltraud; Mithöfer, Axel; Cosio, Eric G

    2015-08-01

    Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae), is an annual herbaceous plant native to the high plateaus of the Peruvian central Andes. Its underground storage hypocotyls have been a traditional medicinal agent and dietary staple since pre-Columbian times. Reported properties include energizing and fertility-enhancing effects. Published reports have focused on the benzylalkamides (macamides) present in dry hypocotyls as one of the main bioactive components. Macamides are secondary amides formed by benzylamine and a fatty acid moiety, with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and degree of unsaturation. Although it has been assumed that they are usually present in fresh undamaged tissues, analyses show them to be essentially absent from them. However, hypocotyls dried by traditional Andean postharvest practices or industrial oven drying contain up to 800μgg(-1) dry wt (2.3μmolg(-1) dry wt) of macamides. In this study, the generation of macamides and their putative precursors were studied during nine-week traditional drying trials at 4200m altitude and in ovens under laboratory conditions. Freeze-thaw cycles in the open field during drying result in tissue maceration and release of free fatty acids from storage and membrane lipids up to levels of 1200μgg(-1) dry wt (4.3μmolg(-1) dry wt). Endogenous metabolism of the isothiocyanates generated from glucosinolate hydrolysis during drying results in maximal benzylamine values of 4300μgg(-1) dry wt (40.2μmolg(-1) dry wt). Pearson correlation coefficients of the accumulation profiles of benzylamine and free fatty acid to that of macamides showed good values of 0.898 and 0.934, respectively, suggesting that both provide sufficient substrate for amide synthesis during the drying process. PMID:25817836

  7. Factors Influencing Choices of Contextualized versus Traditional Practices with Children and Adolescents Who Have Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koole, Heather; Nelson, Nickola W.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') use of contextualized practices (i.e., functional, personally relevant, nonhierarchical, and collaborative) compared with traditional practices (i.e., clinical, generic, hierarchical, and expert driven) with school-age children and adolescents with traumatic…

  8. Optimal water allocation in small hydropower plants between traditional and non-traditional water users: merging theory and existing practices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Crouzy, Benoît; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Water demand for hydropower production is increasing together with the consciousness of the importance of riparian ecosystems and biodiversity. Some Cantons in Switzerland and other alpine regions in Austria and in Süd Tiröl (Italy) started replacing the inadequate concept of Minimum Flow Requirement (MFR) with a dynamic one, by releasing a fix percentage of the total inflow (e.g. 25 %) to the environment. Starting from a model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) and the need of including the environment as an actual water user, we arrived to similar qualitative results, and better quantitative performances. In this paper we explore the space of non-proportional water repartition rules analysed by Gorla and Perona (2013), and we propose new ecological indicators which are directly derived from current ecologic evaluation practices (fish habitat modelling and hydrological alteration). We demonstrate that both MFR water redistribution policy and also proportional repartition rules can be improved using nothing but available information. Furthermore, all water redistribution policies can be described by the model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) in terms of the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU) and a suitable class of nonlinear functions. This is particularly useful to highlights implicit assumptions and choosing best-compromise solutions, providing analytical reasons explaining why efficiency cannot be attained by classic repartition rules. Each water repartition policy underlies an ecosystem monetization and a political choice always has to be taken. We explicit the value of the ecosystem health underlying each policy by means of the PEMU under a few assumptions, and discuss how the theoretic efficient redistribution law obtained by our approach is feasible and doesn't imply high costs or advanced management tools. For small run-of-river power plants, this methodology answers the question "how much water should be left to the river?" and is therefore a simple but effective step towards eco-sustainability. References - Perona, P., Characklis, G., Dürrenmatt, D.J., 2013. Inverse parameters estimation of simple riparian benefit economical models. Journal of Environmental Management . - Gorla, L. and Perona, P., 2013. On quantifying ecologically sustainable flow releases in a diverted river reach. Journal of Hydrology.

  9. Knowledge, attitude, practice, and management of traditional medicine among people of Burka Jato Kebele, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gari, Akawak; Yarlagadda, Raghavendra; Wolde-Mariam, Messay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditional medicine (TM) has maintained its popularity in all regions of the developing world. Even though, the wide acceptance of TM is a well-established fact, its status in a population with access to modern health is not well clear in the whole country. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practice and management of TM among the community of Burka Jato Kebele, West Ethiopia. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 282 sampled individuals’ selected using systematic random sampling from January 28, 2013 to February 8, 2013 in Burka Jato Kebele, Nekemte town, East Wollega Zone, West of Ethiopia. Results: The majority (94.22%) of people in the study area relied on TM. Most of them were aware of medicinal herbs (55.7%). About half (40.79%) of the respondents were aware of the major side-effects of TM such as diarrhea (36.64%). About 31.85% of them prefer traditional medical practices (TMP) because they are cheap. Most (50%) of the species were harvested for their leaves to prepare remedies, followed by seed (21.15%) and root (13.46%) and the methods of preparation were pounding (27.54%), crushing (18.84%), a concoction (15.95%) and squeezing (13.04%). About 53.84% of them were used as fresh preparations. Remedies were reported to be administered through oral (53.85%), dermal or topical (36.54%), buccal (3.85%) and anal (5.77%). Conclusion: The study revealed that the use of TMs were quite popular among the population and a large proportion of the respondents not only preferred, but also used TMs notwithstanding that they lived in the urban communities with better access to modern medical care and medical practitioners. To use TM as a valuable alternative to conventional western medicine, further investigation must be undertaken to determine the validity, efficacy of the plants to make it available as an alternative medicine to human beings. PMID:25883518

  10. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  11. Traditional oral health practices among Kanuri women of Borno State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bukar, A; Danfillo, I S; Adeleke, O A; Ogunbodede, E O

    2004-09-01

    A structured questionnaire was administered on 495 women (urban 339, rural 156) from two LGAs of Borno State, Nigeria, using the interviewer method. The age range of the subjects was 12 to 80 years with a mean age (+/- SD) of 35.7 +/- 13.44 years. Majority (83.5%) did not have any formal education. Oral hygiene tools used by the respondents included toothbrush/paste 36 (7.9%), chewing stick 250 (54.9%), charcoal 159 (34.9%) and ordinary water 10 (2.2%). Of those using chewing sticks; 168 (67.2%) use Salvadora persica, 36 (14.4%) use Azadirachta indica and 46 (18.4%) use Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Forty (8.1%) of the respondents do not clean their teeth at all. Strong association was found between choice of teeth cleaning material and educational level (P=0.000). Three hundred and one (60.8%) of the respondents stain their teeth with flowers of Solanum incanum or Nicotania tabacum while, 218 (44.0%) perform tattooing of lip or gingivae and of this number 213 (97.7%) performed tattooing before marriage. Tattooing is usually performed without local anaesthesia with thorns of Balanites aegyptiaca and a mixture of charcoal & seeds of Acacia nilotica var. tomentosa as pigments. It is concluded that traditional oral health practices still constitute important part of the lifestyle in the study population. PMID:15900821

  12. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  13. Parasite management extension - challenging traditional practice through adoption of a systems approach.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L; Rhodes, A P; Dodunski, G

    2015-11-01

    The drivers for anthelmintic use today are substantial and anthelmintic use has become an embedded normalised behaviour. The cheapness and easy availability of anthelmintic products has meant that New Zealand farmers have had access to easy "solutions" for dealing with parasites and minimal forward planning or system redesign has been required. Despite 30 years of messaging about the emerging issue of anthelmintic resistance, management to reduce parasitism and the need to change behaviour, farmer practice has largely remained unchanged. Traditional approaches to extension, particularly around parasite management, appear to have been quite ineffective, apart from encouraging change in anthelmintic products and a switch to use of anthelmintics in combination. More effective approaches are required. The evolving nature of anthelmintic resistance and sustainable management of parasitism require attitudes, knowledge and behaviour to change. This is a challenge for all players in the industry; researchers, manufacturers and sellers, advisors and farmers. Looking beyond agriculture to the health sector provides some insight into models of decision making and behaviour change that can inform future strategies. Features in the health belief model including concepts of self-efficacy and cues to action appear to align with the issues, challenges and culture prevailing in farming, and parasite management in particular. Programmes through which farmers have made substantial beneficial behaviour change and the lessons learnt are discussed. Effecting consistent behaviour change around parasite management will involve new approaches by all participants in the process. And the process itself also needs to change. It requires an understanding of whole-farm systems, and the consideration of all the sources of influence on the farmer and the other participants in the process. The process of knowledge sharing involving the farmer should be based on equality; each person in the process brings their own expertise and knowledge and that needs to be valued and integrated into new practices. In effect, a multi-disciplinary team approach is required through which knowledge is shared and developed, confidence and understanding is developed, practice and behaviour is reflected on and positive behaviours are given affirmation. PMID:26148852

  14. HIV/AIDS-Related Attitudes and Practices Among Traditional Healers in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Meridith; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Pires, Paulo; Vergara, Alfredo; Vermund, Sten H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To document HIV knowledge, treatment practices, and the willingness of traditional healers to engage with the health system in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Settings/location Traditional healers offer culturally acceptable services and are more numerous in Mozambique than are allopathic providers. Late presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported among persons who have first sought care from traditional healers. Design One hundred and thirty-nine (139) traditional healers were interviewed in their native languages (Chuabo or Lomwe) in Zambézia Province. Furthermore, 24 traditional healers were observed during patient encounters. Healers answered a semistructured questionnaire regarding their knowledge of HIV/AIDS, general treatment practices, attitudes toward the allopathic health system, and their beliefs in their abilities to cure AIDS. Results Traditional healers were older and had less formal education than the general population. Razor cutting in order to rub herbs into bloodied skin was observed, and healers reported razor cutting as a routine practice. Healers stated that they did not refer HIV patients to clinics for two principal reasons: (1) patient symptoms/signs of HIV were unrecognized, and (2) practitioners believed they could treat the illness effectively themselves. Traditional healers were far more likely to believe in a spiritual than an infectious origin of HIV disease. Prior HIV/AIDS training was not associated with better knowledge or referral practices, though 81% of healers were interested in engaging allopathic providers. Conclusions It was found that the HIV-related practices of traditional healers probably increase risk for both HIV-infected and uninfected persons through delayed care and reuse of razors. Mozambican traditional healers attribute HIV pathogenesis to spiritual, not infectious, etiologies. Healers who had received prior HIV training were no more knowledgeable, nor did they have better practices. The willingness expressed by 4 in 5 healers to engage local formal health providers in HIV/AIDS care suggests a productive way forward, though educational efforts must be effective and income concerns considered. PMID:23171035

  15. Harm reduction: Australia as a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Wodak, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explicates the term, "harm reduction"; demonstrates that harm reduction has a long tradition; and uses one country, Australia, as a case study. Harm reduction can be understood as "policies and programs which are designed to reduce the adverse consequences of mood altering substances without necessarily reducing their consumption"; it is consistent with the best traditions of both medicine and public health. Although it is difficult to interpret trends in mortality from alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs to determine whether harm reduction in Australia "worked", the effectiveness of harm-reduction policies and programs in controlling HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) seems extremely strong and suggests that benefits of harm-reduction programs for other drugs will become apparent in time. PMID:10101374

  16. Self-harm

    MedlinePlus

    Self-harm refers to a person's harming their own body on purpose. About 1 in 100 people hurts ... females hurt themselves than males. A person who self-harms usually does not mean to kill himself or ...

  17. Is traditional Chinese medicine recommended in Western medicine clinical practice guidelines in China? A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Li, Xun; Sun, Jin; Han, Mei; Yang, Guo-Yan; Li, Wen-Yuan; Robinson, Nicola; Lewith, George; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine promotes and relies on the use of evidence in developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The Chinese healthcare system includes both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine, which are expected to be equally reflected in Chinese CPGs. Objective To evaluate the inclusion of TCM-related information in Western medicine CPGs developed in China and the adoption of high level evidence. Methods All CPGs were identified from the China Guideline Clearinghouse (CGC), which is the main Chinese organisation maintaining the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health of China, the Chinese Medical Association and the Chinese Medical Doctors’ Association. TCM-related contents were extracted from all the CPGs identified. Extracted information comprised the institution issuing the guideline, date of issue, disease, recommendations relating to TCM, evidence level of the recommended content and references supporting the recommendations. Results A total of 604 CPGs were identified, only a small number of which (74/604; 12%) recommended TCM therapy and only five guidelines (7%) had applied evidence grading. The 74 CPGs involved 13 disease systems according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition. TCM was mainly recommended in the treatment part of the guidelines (73/74, 99%), and more than half of the recommendations (43/74, 58%) were related to Chinese herbal medicine (single herbs or herbal treatment based on syndrome differentiation). Conclusions Few Chinese Western medicine CPGs recommend TCM therapies and very few provide evidence grading for the TCM recommendation. We suggest that future guideline development should be based on systematic searches for evidence to support CPG recommendations and involve a multidisciplinary approach including TCM expertise. PMID:26041487

  18. Knowledge and practices of traditional birth attendants in prenatal services in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, O A; Odunukwe, N N; Akinwale, O P; Raheem, T Y; Efienemokwu, C E; Ogedengbe, O; Salako, L A

    2005-03-01

    A questionnaire-based study was conducted on 189 Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) on their knowledge and practices in prenatal services. Only 86 (45.5%) of them associated cessation of menstrual period with pregnancy while others use mystic power 46 (24.3%), early morning sickness, pallor of conjunctiva and reaction to herbs 56 (29.6%) to detect pregnancy. Fundal height n=76 (40.2%), palpation n=82 (43.4%), special soaps and soups n=52 (27.5%) and special devices n=8 (4.2%) are used to determine stages of pregnancy. Foetal health status is determined by regular foetal movements n=95 (50.3%), mystic power n=15 (8%), soap n=2 (1.1%), special concoction 9 (4.8%), health status of mother n=67 (35.4%) and foetal heart beat n=24 (12.7%). Ninety seven (51.3%) of them used herbal treatment, 77 (40.7%) used incantations, 189 (100%) used special soaps as their main methods of delivery, while only 18 (9.5%) of respondents refer difficult cases to hospitals. Instruments used for separating cord were blade 123 (65.1%) and scissors 40 (21.1%). Symptoms recognized by the TBAs as signs of complications in pregnancy were dizziness, swollen feet, pallor, tiredness, absent foetal movement, loss of appetite, heaviness, pain in back/stomach/side, weight loss, vomiting, bleeding, fever/malaria, head ache, bad dream, premature or delayed labour. Although some of them recognized some danger signs in pregnancy and labour, only very few would refer difficult cases for emergency obstetric interventions. Clear protocols for management and referral, which are necessary for improved maternal survival, should be provided through regular training of the TBAs. PMID:15971555

  19. Analysis of Thrombophilia Test Ordering Practices at an Academic Center: A Proposal for Appropriate Testing to Reduce Harm and Cost

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yu-Min; Yates, Sean G.; Patel, Vivek; Frenkel, Eugene; Sarode, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Ideally, thrombophilia testing should be tailored to the type of thrombotic event without the influence of anticoagulation therapy or acute phase effects which can give false positive results that may result in long term anticoagulation. However, thrombophilia testing is often performed routinely in unselected patients. We analyzed all consecutive thrombophilia testing orders during the months of October and November 2009 at an academic teaching institution. Information was extracted from electronic medical records for the following: indication, timing, comprehensiveness of tests, anticoagulation therapy at the time of testing, and confirmatory repeat testing, if any. Based on the findings of this analysis, we established local guidelines in May 2013 for appropriate thrombophilia testing, primarily to prevent testing during the acute thrombotic event or while the patient is on anticoagulation. We then evaluated ordering practices 22 months after guideline implementation. One hundred seventy-three patients were included in the study. Only 34% (58/173) had appropriate indications (unprovoked venous or arterial thrombosis or pregnancy losses). 51% (61/119) with an index clinical event were tested within one week of the event. Although 46% (79/173) were found to have abnormal results, only 46% of these had the abnormal tests repeated for confirmation with 54% potentially carrying a wrong diagnosis with long term anticoagulation. Twenty-two months after guideline implementation, there was an 84% reduction in ordered tests. Thus, this study revealed that a significant proportion of thrombophilia testing was inappropriately performed. We implemented local guidelines for thrombophilia testing for clinicians, resulting in a reduction in healthcare costs and improved patient care. PMID:27176603

  20. After Eric Garner: Invoking the Black Radical Tradition in Practice and in Theory #BlackLivesMatter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I document a series of pedagogical responses in my high school instrumental music classroom following the events of Eric Garner's murder in New York City. Foregrounding traditions of black radical politics and aesthetics originating with the Black Power Movement in the 1960s, I explore their implications for classroom practice in…

  1. When the New Application Smell Is Gone: Traditional Intranet Best Practices and Existing Web 2.0 Intranet Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoose, Becky

    2010-01-01

    With the growth of Web 2.0 library intranets in recent years, many libraries are leaving behind legacy, first-generation intranets. As Web 2.0 intranets multiply and mature, how will traditional intranet best practices--especially in the areas of planning, implementation, and evaluation--translate into an existing Web 2.0 intranet infrastructure?…

  2. When the New Application Smell Is Gone: Traditional Intranet Best Practices and Existing Web 2.0 Intranet Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoose, Becky

    2010-01-01

    With the growth of Web 2.0 library intranets in recent years, many libraries are leaving behind legacy, first-generation intranets. As Web 2.0 intranets multiply and mature, how will traditional intranet best practices--especially in the areas of planning, implementation, and evaluation--translate into an existing Web 2.0 intranet infrastructure?

  3. Comparison of a Computer Simulation Program and a Traditional Laboratory Practical Class for Teaching the Principles of Intestinal Absorption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of an interactive computer-assisted learning program for undergraduate students that simulates experiments performed using isolated, everted sacs of rat small intestine. The program is designed to offer an alternative student-centered approach to traditional laboratory-based practical classes. Knowledge gain of students…

  4. Non-Western Educational Traditions: Alternative Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Timothy

    The history of education, as taught in the United States and in the West generally, has focused primarily on how Western educational tradition emerged. This book provides a brief overview of several non-Western approaches to educational thought and practice. An understanding of how other peoples have educated their children, as well as what…

  5. The Validity of Multiple Choice Practical Examinations as an Alternative to Traditional Free Response Examination Formats in Gross Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaibah, Hassan Sami; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, an anatomy practical examination is conducted using a free response format (FRF). However, this format is resource-intensive, as it requires a relatively large time investment from anatomy course faculty in preparation and grading. Thus, several interventions have been reported where the response format was changed to a selected

  6. HIV/AIDS/STI/TB knowledge, beliefs and practices of traditional healers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, K; Mngqundaniso, N; Petros, G

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was investigate the HIV/AIDS/STI and TB knowledge, beliefs and practices of traditional healers in South Africa. In a cross-sectional study 233 traditional healers were interviewed in three selected communities in KwaZulu-Natal. Results indicate that the most common conditions seen were STIs, a variety of chronic conditions, HIV/AIDS (20%) and tuberculosis (29%). Although most healers had a correct knowledge of the major HIV transmission routes, prevention methods and ARV treatment, their knowledge was poorer on other HIV transmission routes, and 21% believed that there is a cure for AIDS. A minority reported unsafe practices in terms of reuse of razor blades on more than one patients and the reuse of enema equipment without sterilization, and two-thirds used gloves when carrying out scarifications. Randomized control trials are called for to test the effectiveness of traditional healing for HIV/AIDS, STI and TB prevention and care. PMID:16831789

  7. Improving communication and practical skills in working with inpatients who self-harm: a pre-test/post-test study of the effects of a training programme

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Differing perspectives of self-harm may result in a struggle between patients and treatment staff. As a consequence, both sides have difficulty communicating effectively about the underlying problems and feelings surrounding self-harm. Between 2009 and 2011, a programme was developed and implemented to train mental health care staff (nurses, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, and occupational therapists) in how to communicate effectively with and care for patients who self-harm. An art exhibition focusing on self-harm supported the programme. Lay experts in self-harm, i.e. people who currently harm themselves, or who have harmed themselves in the past and have the skills to disseminate their knowledge and experience, played an important role throughout the programme. Methods Paired sample t-tests were conducted to measure the effects of the training programme using the Attitude Towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire, the Self-Perceived Efficacy in Dealing with Self-Harm Questionnaire, and the Patient Contact Questionnaire. Effect sizes were calculated using r. Participants evaluated the training programme with the help of a survey. The questionnaires used in the survey were analysed descriptively. Results Of the 281 persons who followed the training programme, 178 completed the questionnaires. The results show a significant increase in the total scores of the three questionnaires, with large to moderate effect sizes. Respondents were positive about the training, especially about the role of the lay expert. Conclusion A specialised training programme in how to care for patients who self-harm can result in a more positive attitude towards self-harm patients, an improved self-efficacy in caring for patients who self-harm, and a greater closeness with the patients. The deployment of lay experts is essential here. PMID:24592861

  8. The Clinical Practice of Traditional and Nontraditional Dental Hygienists. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, E. Marcia

    Information is presented on a study designed to gather details about the services provided by clinical dental hygienists in traditional and nontraditional settings. The 10 research topics addressed include: services provided by the clinical RDH in the traditional and nontraditional setting; time allocated for such services; how patients are…

  9. Teaching as a Reflective Practice: The German Didaktik Tradition. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbury, Ian, Ed.; Hopmann, Stefan, Ed.; Riquarts, Kurt, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents essays by German scholars and practitioners writing from within the German Didaktik tradition and interpretive essays by U.S. scholars. After an introduction, "Starting a Dialogue: A Beginning Conversation between Didaktik and the Curriculum Traditions" (Stefan Hopmann and Kurt Riquarts), there are 18 chapters in…

  10. From Mexico to Here: An Observational Study of Traditional Dietary Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As Mexican-Americans acculturate to the American diet and lifestyle they have increased risk of developing many chronic diseases. An understanding of traditional environment and behavior is needed to address this phenomenon. Transnational qualitative research (participant observation, photography, a...

  11. Traditional medicine in Nigeria and modern obstetric practice: need for cooperation.

    PubMed

    Opaneye, A A

    1998-10-01

    The association between the use of traditional medicine and obstetric outcomes was determined using a cross-sectional structured interview and case notes at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ogun State University Teaching Hospital in Sagamu, Nigeria. The subjects were 300 parturient mothers, who were divided into two groups. The 160 patients who used traditional medicine constituted the users or study group while the 140 nonusers were the control group. Both groups were similar with respect to maternal age, parity, and level of formal education. The perinatal mortality rates were 91/1000 for the study group and 61.2/1000 for the control group. Three maternal deaths occurred in the study group. A woman who used traditional medicine had a relative risk of 1.64 of morbidity, while a non-user had a relative risk of 1.43 of being delivered by caesarian section. Some patients used more than one traditional medicine. Use of traditional medication was suggested by in-laws in 49 cases (30%), by parents in 44 cases (27.5%), by the husband in 33 cases (20.6%), and by others in the 10 remaining cases (6.3%). In this survey, there are medical differences in the obstetric outcomes between the two groups. These differences are not statistically significant enough to justify the wholesale condemnation of traditional medicine in modern obstetrics. Delay in seeking hospital care was the major factor in the poorer outcome for the users' group. Considering the prevalence of the use of traditional medicine in pregnancy and labor among the population, efforts should be made by traditional and Western physicians to share knowledge and cooperate. PMID:10101436

  12. An evaluation of the knowledge and practices of trained traditional birth attendants in Bodinga, Sokoto State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpala, C O

    1994-02-01

    To improve Maternal and Child Health services especially in the rural areas, a programme to train traditional birth attendants (Ungo Zoma) was established by the Sokoto State government of Nigeria in 1975. The impact of the training programme on the knowledge and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in a rural community in the state was studied. Seventy-four TBAs, consisting of 43 trained and 31 untrained attendants, were interviewed. Statistically significant differences were observed in the proportion of both groups of TBAs able to recognize high risk pregnancies and deliveries for referral to health institutions. In contrast to the trained attendants, none of the untrained TBAs offered any of the following Maternal and Child Health services: antenatal care, advice on immunization of children or their mothers during pregnancy, and family planning. Suggestions for improving the knowledge and practices of the TBAs in Sokoto as well as in other communities wishing to embark on similar programmes are offered. PMID:8107173

  13. Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors Influencing Middle Level Students' Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…

  14. Effective Educational Practice: A Crucial First Step in Addressing the Needs of Traditionally Overlooked Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeo, Jennifer Kumpost

    2013-01-01

    Students who are traditionally overlooked in academic settings (e.g. poor, Black, Hispanic American, Latino/Latina) are not likely to have educational experiences that reflect equity in access to excellence in education. These students regularly encounter challenges that reflect a poor educational fit and their key needs are often overlooked in…

  15. Practical Skills Training in Agricultural Education--A Comparison between Traditional and Blended Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deegan, Donna; Wims, Padraig; Pettit, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article the use of blended learning multimedia materials as an education tool was compared with the traditional approach for skills training. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was conducted in Ireland using a pre-test, post-test experimental design. All students were instructed on how to complete two skills using either a…

  16. Evaluating Emotional Well-Being after a Short-Term Traditional Yoga Practice Approach in Yoga Practitioners with an Existing Western-Type Yoga Practice

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of a traditional yoga practice approach (morning daily practice, TY) compared to that of a Western yoga practice approach (once-twice weekly, evening practice, WY) on determinants of emotional well-being. To that end, in a pre/posttest between-subject design, measures of positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), mindfulness, perceived stress, and arousal states were taken in 24 healthy participants (20 women; mean age: 30.5, SD = 8.1 years) with an already existing WY practice, who either maintained WY or underwent a 2-week, five-times-per-week morning practice (TY). While WY participants maintained baseline values for all measures taken, TY participants showed significant beneficial changes for PA, NA, and mindfulness and a trend for improved ability to cope with stress at the completion of the intervention. Furthermore, TY participants displayed decreased subjective energy and energetic arousal. Altogether, findings indicate that the 2-week TY is beneficial over WY for improving perceived emotional well-being. The present findings (1) undermine and inspire a careful consideration and utilization of yoga practice approach to elicit the best benefits for emotional well-being and (2) support yoga as an evidence-based practice among healthy yoga practitioners. PMID:27123033

  17. Evaluating Emotional Well-Being after a Short-Term Traditional Yoga Practice Approach in Yoga Practitioners with an Existing Western-Type Yoga Practice.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Maxi; Cantell, Marja H; Steiner, Ronald; Sanchez, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of a traditional yoga practice approach (morning daily practice, TY) compared to that of a Western yoga practice approach (once-twice weekly, evening practice, WY) on determinants of emotional well-being. To that end, in a pre/posttest between-subject design, measures of positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), mindfulness, perceived stress, and arousal states were taken in 24 healthy participants (20 women; mean age: 30.5, SD = 8.1 years) with an already existing WY practice, who either maintained WY or underwent a 2-week, five-times-per-week morning practice (TY). While WY participants maintained baseline values for all measures taken, TY participants showed significant beneficial changes for PA, NA, and mindfulness and a trend for improved ability to cope with stress at the completion of the intervention. Furthermore, TY participants displayed decreased subjective energy and energetic arousal. Altogether, findings indicate that the 2-week TY is beneficial over WY for improving perceived emotional well-being. The present findings (1) undermine and inspire a careful consideration and utilization of yoga practice approach to elicit the best benefits for emotional well-being and (2) support yoga as an evidence-based practice among healthy yoga practitioners. PMID:27123033

  18. Best Practices Case Study: New Tradition Homes - Landover Commons, Vancouver, WA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    Case study of New Tradition Homes who saved 26% over Washington state’s energy code by moving ducts inside conditioned space, upgrading the furnace, increasing attic insulation to R-49, and improving air sealing. This added $3,600 to the initial cost or $290 in increased annual mortgage costs but saved $991 per year for an annual net cash back to the homeowner of $700.

  19. Harmful Algal Blooms

    You may notice a green, red or brown film on your favorite boating or swimming area in the summer. This coloring could mean that the water is affected by harmful algal blooms. Harmful algal blooms are an accumulation of tiny organisms known as algae and can release harmful toxins into the environmen...

  20. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF... harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to... practicable, notify the customer that temporary discontinuance of service may be required; however,...

  1. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF... harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to... practicable, notify the customer that temporary discontinuance of service may be required; however,...

  2. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF... harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to... practicable, notify the customer that temporary discontinuance of service may be required; however,...

  3. Harm minimization or abstinence: an evaluation of current policies and practices in the treatment and control of intravenous drug using groups in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lennings, C J

    The past decade has seen Australia cited as a significant leader in the development of harm-minimization policies towards illicit drug use. Such policies have been developed on the premise that harm minimization would lead to substantial long-term gains to society in the areas of: (1) decreased health costs for intravenous drug users (IDU); (2) decreased mortality rates for IDU groups; (3) increases in social productivity of IDU (through such things as gaining and retaining employment); and (4) decreased criminal activity leading to substantial gains in law enforcement budgets, and reduced community crime costs (theft and burglaries, etc. Evaluation of the success of harm minimization is notoriously difficult. By its nature success often means there are no ways of comparing potential losses against potential gains. An alternative to harm minimization, abstinence models, exist. In Australia the harm minimization policy has come under review in some States, and has never been fully implemented in the Northern Territory. This paper reviews the merits and demerits of both approaches, and initiates discussion regarding the development of future services for IDU groups in Australian society. PMID:10661758

  4. Challenging Exclusionary Paradigms in the Traditional Musical Canon: Implications for Music Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindall-Smith, Marsha; McKoy, Constance L.; Mills, Susan W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose that best practices in music education require a conceptual understanding of music teaching and learning based on a perspective of social justice and equitable access for all students. Examinations of the relationship between the tenets of culturally-responsive teaching and three dimensions of music teaching and learning…

  5. Is This the End of the English Tradition of Practical A-Level Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ian

    2014-01-01

    From September 2015, schools in England will be teaching new A-level science specifications that have been developed by examination boards to encompass new higher levels of demand developed by the Department for Education. Integral to these new specifications is a radical change to the contribution of practical science to the A-level grade of the…

  6. Tradition and Innovation in the Practical Culture of Schools in Franco's Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Carmen Benso

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews school practice in Spain through the long historic period of the dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco between the 1936 Civil War and Franco's death in 1975. For this purpose, an analysis is made of the most relevant documents (school materials, reports, direct testimonies by practising teachers, scientific papers on education

  7. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  8. Tradition and Innovation in the Practical Culture of Schools in Franco's Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Carmen Benso

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews school practice in Spain through the long historic period of the dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco between the 1936 Civil War and Franco's death in 1975. For this purpose, an analysis is made of the most relevant documents (school materials, reports, direct testimonies by practising teachers, scientific papers on education…

  9. Construction of Life-Practice Moral Education Based on Traditional Chinese Morality with Life Connotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Lian-yun; Peng, Jing

    2006-01-01

    The actual effect is a big problem in current school moral education. By analyzing the problems in the theory and practice of the current school moral education, the author points out that the reason is that, for a long time, the meaning of morality has been dissimilated, and moral education is considered as a kind of knowledge input and…

  10. Profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in two districts of Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background The WHO estimates that more than 80% of African populations attend traditional healers for health reasons and that 40%–60% of these have some kind of mental illness. However, little is known about the profiles and outcome of this traditional approach to treatment. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in Jinja and Iganga districts in the Busoga region of Eastern Uganda. Methods Four studies were conducted. Study I used focus group discussions (FGDs) with case vignettes with local community members and traditional healers to explore the lay concepts of psychosis. Studies II and III concerned a cross-sectional survey of patients above 18 years at the traditional healer's shrines and study IV was made on a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with psychosis in study III. Manual content analysis was used in study I; quantitative data in studies II, III, and IV were analyzed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels to determine the association between psychological distress and socio-demographic factors; for study IV, factors associated with outcome were analyzed. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was the analysis used in Study IV. Results The community gave indigenous names to psychoses (mania, schizophrenia, and psychotic depression) and had multiple explanatory models for them. Thus multiple solutions for these problems were sought. Of the 387 respondents, the prevalence of psychological distress was 65.1%, where 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness, and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Over 80% of patients with psychosis used both biomedical and traditional healing systems. Those who combined these two systems seemed to have a better outcome. All the symptom scales showed a percentage reduction of more than 20% at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Conclusion Traditional healers shoulder a large burden of care of patients with mental health problems. This calls for all those who share the goal of improving the mental health of individuals to engage with traditional healers. PMID:21845144

  11. Harm, change, and time.

    PubMed

    Belshaw, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    What is harm? I offer an account that involves the victim's either suffering some adverse intrinsic change or being prevented from enjoying some beneficial intrinsic change. No one is harmed, I claim, in virtue of relational changes alone. Thus (excepting for contrived cases), there are neither posthumous harms nor, in life, harms of the undiscovered betrayal, slander, reputation-damaging variety. Further, two widespread moves in the philosophy of death are rejected. First, death and posthumous are not to be assimilated--death does bring about adverse internal change and harms us straightforwardly. Second, Pitcher-type accounts of posthumous harm are criticized--posthumous events can thwart the satisfaction of my interests, but I am not harmed either just when this occurs or, earlier, when I first acquire or invest in those interests. We have other ways of describing what is going on. PMID:23108172

  12. Impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on HIV prevention practices among traditional birth attendants in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2015-02-01

    Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p < 0.01), sterilization of delivery equipment (p < 0.01), participation in blood safety training (p < 0.01), and disposal of sharps (p < 0.01). As long as a high percent of births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health. PMID:25674783

  13. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Traditional Practices to Address Alcohol and Drug Use Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Brown, Ryan A; Johnson, Carrie L; Schweigman, Kurt; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) exhibit high levels of alcohol and drug (AOD) use and problems. Although approximately 70% of AI/ANs reside in urban areas, few culturally relevant AOD use programs targeting urban AI/AN youth exist. Furthermore, federally-funded studies focused on the integration of evidence-based treatments with AI/AN traditional practices are limited. The current study addresses a critical gap in the delivery of culturally appropriate AOD use programs for urban AI/AN youth, and outlines the development of a culturally tailored AOD program for urban AI/AN youth called Motivational Interviewing and Culture for Urban Native American Youth (MICUNAY). We conducted focus groups among urban AI/AN youth, providers, parents, and elders in two urban communities in northern and southern California aimed at 1) identifying challenges confronting urban AI/AN youth and 2) obtaining feedback on MICUNAY program content. Qualitative data were analyzed using Dedoose, a team-based qualitative and mixed methods analysis software platform. Findings highlight various challenges, including community stressors (e.g., gangs, violence), shortage of resources, cultural identity issues, and a high prevalence of AOD use within these urban communities. Regarding MICUNAY, urban AI/AN youth liked the collaborative nature of the motivational interviewing (MI) approach, especially with regard to eliciting their opinions and expressing their thoughts. Based on feedback from the youth, three AI/AN traditional practices (beading, AI/AN cooking, and prayer/sage ceremony) were chosen for the workshops. To our knowledge, MICUNAY is the first AOD use prevention intervention program for urban AI/AN youth that integrates evidence-based treatment with traditional practices. This program addresses an important gap in services for this underserved population. PMID:26306776

  14. [Drug prevention of pulmonary embolism in orthopedic practice: traditional and novel approaches].

    PubMed

    Preobrazhenski?, D V; Sidorenko, B A; Batyraliev, T A; Nekrasova, N I

    2011-01-01

    We consider in this review traditional and novel approaches to drug prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE) which in predominant number of cases is related to deep vein thrombosis of lower extremities. Risk of PE development is especially high in patients after orthopedic hip or knee surgery. Modern recommendations contemplate use of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin in the first place), fondaparinux. Oral direct anticoagulants related to selective inhibitors of blood coagulation factors IIa (thrombin) and Xa have appeared recently and proved their preventive efficacy and safety in randomized controlled studies. Preventive efficacy and safety of dabigatran among direct selective factor IIa (thrombin) inhibitors and of rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban among direct selective factor IIa inhibitors have been studied best. PMID:21649596

  15. Predictors of traditional medicines utilisation in the Ghanaian health care practice: interrogating the Ashanti situation.

    PubMed

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah

    2015-04-01

    Traditional medicine (TRM) use remains universal among individuals, families and communities the world over but the predictive variables of TRM use is still confounding. This population-based study analysed the predictors of TRM use in Ashanti Region, Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional quantitative survey involving systematic random sampled participants (N = 324) was conducted. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used as research instruments. Data were analysed with logit regression, Pearson's Chi square and Fisher's exact tests from the PASW for Windows application (V. 17.0). Overall, 86.1 % (n = 279) reported use of TRM with biologically-based and distant/prayer therapies as the major forms of TRM utilised in the previous 12 months. Among the general population, TRM use was predicted by having low-income levels [odds ratio (OR) 2.883, confidence interval (CI) 1.142-7.277], being a trader (OR 2.321, CI 1.037-5.194), perceiving TRM as effective (OR 4.430, CI 1.645-11.934) and safe (OR 2.730, CI 0.986-4.321), good affective behaviour of traditional medical practitioner (TMP) (OR 2.943, CI 0.875-9.896) and having chronic ill-health (OR 3.821, CI 1.213-11.311). The prevalence of TRM use is high. The study provides evidence that people's experience, personal attributes, health beliefs, attitude to TRM, attitude of TMP to clients and medical history are largely accountable for the upsurge use of TRM rather than socio-demographic factors. Understanding the health-seeking behaviour of individuals is exigent to ascribe appropriate medical care by health care providers. PMID:25173694

  16. Definitions of suicide and self-harm behavior in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-04-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way such behavior is defined in an Aboriginal context. A continuation of certain "traditional" cultural forms of self-harm behavior was evident in participant definitions, notably the practice of female hair cutting, also described as a mourning ritual, which appears to serve as a marker both to the individual and others. PMID:19527158

  17. Moving beyond traditional fire management practices to better minimize community vulnerability to wildfire in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syphard, A. D.; Keeley, J. E.; Brennan, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfires are an important natural process in southern California, but they also present a major hazard for human life and property. The region leads the nation in fire-related losses, and since 2001, wildfires have damaged or destroyed more than 10,000 homes. As human ignitions have increased along with urban development and population growth, fire frequency has also surged, and most home losses occur in large fires when ignitions coincide with Santa Ana windstorms. As the region accommodates more growth in the future, the wildfire threat promises to continue. We will thus explore how a broader, more comprehensive approach to fire management could improve upon traditional approaches for reducing community vulnerability. The traditional approach to mitigating fire risk, in addition to fire suppression, has been to reduce fuel through construction of fuel breaks. Despite increasing expenditure on these treatments, there has been little empirical study of their role in controlling large fires. We will present the results of a study in which we constructed and analyzed a spatial database of fuel breaks in southern California national forests. Our objective was to better understand characteristics of fuel breaks that affect the behavior of large fires and to map where fires and fuel breaks most commonly intersect. We found that fires stopped at fuel breaks 22-47% of the time, depending on the forest, and the reason fires stopped was invariably related to firefighter access and management activities. Fire weather and fuel break condition were also important. The study illustrates the importance of strategic location of fuel breaks because they have been most effective where they provided access for firefighting activities. While fuel breaks have played a role in controlling wildfires at the Wildland Urban Interface, we are evaluating alternative approaches for reducing community vulnerability, including land use planning. Recent research shows that the amount and spatial arrangement of human infrastructure, such as roads and housing developments, strongly influences wildfire patterns. Therefore, we hypothesize that the spatial arrangement and location of housing development is likely to affect the susceptibility of lives and property to fire. In other words, potential for urban loss may be greatest at specific housing densities, spatial patterns of development, and locations of development. If these risk factors can be identified, mapped, and modeled, it is possible that vulnerability to wildfire could be substantially minimized through careful planning for future development - especially because future development will likely increase the region’s fire risk. To address these possibilities, we are evaluating past housing loss in relation to land use planning, in conjunction with other variables that influence fire patterns. We are also exploring alternative future scenarios to identify optimum land use planning strategies for minimizing fire risk.

  18. Traditional healing with animals (zootherapy): medieval to present-day Levantine practice.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim

    2003-03-01

    Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. This article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (the Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) throughout history. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the Levant from early medieval to present-day traditional medicine yielded 99 substances of animal origin which were used medicinally during that long period. Fifty-two animal extracts and products were documented as being used from the early Muslim period (10th century) to the late Ottoman period (19th century). Seventy-seven were recorded as being used in the 20th century. Seven main animal sources have been exploited for medical uses throughout history: honey, wax, adder, beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, and ambergris. The first three are local and relatively easy to obtain; the last four are exotic, therefore, rare and expensive. The use of other materials of animal origin came to an end in the course of history because of change in the moral outlook of modern societies. Among the latter we note mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. PMID:12576209

  19. Characteristics of traditional birth attendants and their beliefs and practices in the Offot Clan, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Itina, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey of a group of 52 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in a clan in south-eastern Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to develop a database from which to design an effective programme for TBAs in the safe delivery and early referral of women with complications to hospital. The study showed that the majority of TBAs were illiterate and had no previous experience or training, even informal training, when they took on the TBA role. Ignorance about maternal complications during childbirth and the appropriate treatment was evident for most of the group. A small number of the group relied solely on divine revelation for guidance in the management of child-bearing women. The results of the survey clearly showed that educational programmes for TBAs and better integration into the health care system are essential for lowering maternal mortality and morbidity rates in areas where most mothers are not open to nor have access to professional care in childbirth. PMID:9509629

  20. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers.

    PubMed

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-08-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital. PMID:26526638

  1. (Re)placing health and health care: mapping the competing discourses and practices of 'traditional' and 'modern' Thai medicine.

    PubMed

    Del Casino, Vincent J

    2004-03-01

    In the wake of the AIDS crisis, 'traditional' Thai medicine has received new attention as a means by which people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) can receive some level of care. The revitalization of Thai medicine, however, is complicated by the competing organizational politics and social dynamics that regulate discourses and practices of health and health care in Thailand. This paper examines how Thai medicine is being (re)placed in the context of competing health-care systems and practices. Specifically, this analysis focuses on the complex interrelationships between 'traditional,' holistic medicine and 'modern,' allopathic medicine in a Thai context; and investigates the role of 'Thai medicine' (phaet phaen thai) and 'village medicine' (phaet pheun baan) as part of governmental and non-governmental efforts to provide health care to PLWHA in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The provision of such health care, however, takes place within the context of a struggle over 'local knowledge' and 'global change' and the ways in which places are organized in relation to the available treatment regimens for HIV/AIDS care. What this paper suggests is that the meanings of health and health care are inextricably linked to the complex, contested nature of social relations as they flow in, and are reworked through, particular places. PMID:14637287

  2. Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking Latina mothers influence the home food environment: implications for future interventions.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Jennings, Rose; Dave, Jayna; Scoblick, Kathryn; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Loyo, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four Latino parents (33 women; 27 born in Mexico; 21 food-insecure) of preschool-aged children participated in four focus group discussions conducted in Spanish by a trained moderator. The focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded by independent raters. Results suggest that in general, parents were very knowledgeable about healthful eating and cited both parents and school as significant factors influencing children's eating habits; at home, most families had more traditional Mexican foods available than American foods; cost and familiarity with foods were the most influential factors affecting food purchasing; many parents had rules regarding sugar intake; and parents cited role modeling, reinforcement, and creative food preparation as ways to encourage children's healthful eating habits. Finally, parents generated ideas on how to best assist Latino families through interventions. Parents indicated that future interventions should be community based and teach skills to purchase and prepare meals that include low-cost and traditional Mexican ingredients, using hands-on activities. In addition, interventions could encourage and reinforce healthy food-related practices that Latino families bring from their native countries. PMID:21703381

  3. Multivariate analysis of traditional pig management practices and their potential impact on the spread of infectious diseases in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Relun, A; Charrier, F; Trabucco, B; Maestrini, O; Molia, S; Chavernac, D; Grosbois, V; Casabianca, F; Etter, E; Jori, F

    2015-10-01

    Corsica is a French Mediterranean island with traditional extensive pig farming oriented towards the production of high quality cured meat products. The increasing success of these cured products in continental Europe has triggered the development and organisation of an extensive pig farming industry. However, these pig farming practices have seldom been described and analysed to understand the potential risk of introduction and spread of infectious diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Corsica in 2013 to characterise the main pig management practices and to identify groups of farms with similar practices and therefore homogeneous risk of introduction and spread of infectious diseases. We interviewed 68 pig farmers and investigated different farm management practices which could lead to contact between herds, such as trading animals, sharing pastures, feed and reproduction management (direct contacts), slaughtering and carcass waste management, and contacts with people and vehicles (indirect contacts). The practices were described and the farms grouped by multiple factor and hierarchical clustering analyses. Results revealed interesting patterns in the introduction and spread of infectious disease, such as the seasonality of pig production, the potential local spread of diseases in pastures due to the presence of free-ranging boars, carcasses, and animal waste. Multivariate analyses identified four groups of farms with different levels of risk of the spread of infectious disease, illustrating changes in farmers' customs from free-range uncontrolled farming systems to more controlled systems aimed at the production of high quality pork products. These results will be useful to more realistically simulate the spread of infectious diseases among Corsican pig farms and highlight the need for awareness raising campaigns among the stakeholders to reduce risky practices. PMID:26216476

  4. A confluence of traditions: Examining teacher practice in the merging of secondary science and environmental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrid, Steele

    Embedding environmental education within secondary science curriculum presents both philosophical and practical difficulties for teachers. This ethnographic/narrative study, with its methodology grounded in eco-feminism and realism/constructivism, examines the work of six secondary science teachers as they engage in an action research project focused on merging environmental education in their science lessons. Over the course of several months the teachers examine and discuss their views and their professional development related to the project. In the place of definitive conclusions, eight propositions relating the work of secondary science teachers to environmental education, form the basis for a discussion of the implications of the study. The implications are particularly relevant to secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, where the embedding of environmental education in science studies has been mandated.

  5. Water Management: Sacrificing Normative Practice Subverting the Traditions of Water Apportionment-'Whose Justice? Which Rationality?'.

    PubMed

    Harandi, Mehdi F; Nia, Mahdi G; de Vries, Marc J

    2015-10-01

    Since current water governance patterns mandate cooperation and partnership within and between the actors in the hydrosystems, supplementary models are necessary to distinguish the roles and the rules of indoor actions which is why we extend a theory in the frameworks of philosophy of technology. This analysis is empirically grounded on the problematic hydrosystems of a river in central Iran, Zayandehrud. Following a modernist-holistic-based analysis, it illustrates how values in the water apportionment mechanisms are being reshaped. The article by using the theory of normative practice has scrutinised the tasks and the rules of the old and new water-management systems, Mirab. Subsequently according to such philosophical theory, it has argued that the conflicts over the cases are due to interference of structural and directional norms within them. PMID:25300408

  6. Practical implications of procedures developed in IDEA project--comparison with traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Andrasi, A; Bouvier, C; Brandl, A; de Carlan, L; Fischer, H; Franck, D; Höllriegl, V; Li, W B; Oeh, U; Ritt, J; Roth, P; Schlagbauer, M; Schmitzer, Ch; Wahl, W; Zombori, P

    2007-01-01

    The idea of the IDEA project aimed to improve assessment of incorporated radionuclides through developments of more reliable and possibly faster in vivo and bioassay monitoring techniques and making use of such enhancements for improvements in routine monitoring. In direct in vivo monitoring technique the optimum choice of the detectors to be applied for different monitoring tasks has been investigated in terms of material, size and background in order to improve conditions namely to increase counting efficiency and reduce background. Detailed studies have been performed to investigate the manifold advantageous applications and capabilities of numerical simulation method for the calibration and optimisation of in vivo counting systems. This calibration method can be advantageously applied especially in the measurement of low-energy photon emitting radionuclides, where individual variability is a significant source of uncertainty. In bioassay measurements the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can improve considerably both the measurement speed and the lower limit of detection currently achievable with alpha spectrometry for long-lived radionuclides. The work carried out in this project provided detailed guidelines for optimum performance of the technique of ICP-MS applied mainly for the determination of uranium and thorium nuclides in the urine including sampling procedure, operational parameters of the instruments and interpretation of the measured data. The paper demonstrates the main advantages of investigated techniques in comparison with the performances of methods commonly applied in routine monitoring practice. PMID:17314089

  7. Denying Social Harm: Students' Resistance to Lessons about Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Sherryl; Copp, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Students share folk beliefs that make it difficult for them to understand inequality, especially the harmful consequences of social practices they routinely engage in, are attached to, and take for granted. Four of these beliefs include: (a) harm is direct, extreme, and the product of an individual's intentions; (2) harm is the product of the…

  8. Harm reduction in community mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Michael A; Linhorst, Donald M

    2010-01-01

    Harm reduction is a conceptual framework and set of practices that focus on the minimization of the physical, social, and legal harms substance users do to themselves and to society as a whole. Its application to community mental health settings is relatively new, and can create controversies and ethical dilemmas if not properly designed, implemented, and evaluated. Building on the harm reduction literature, the community mental health literature, and the authors' experiences with a community mental health program that uses a harm reduction approach, the authors offer five guidelines for its successful implementation. The authors conclude that when properly integrated with other recovery-based services, and when appropriately applied to the individual client's stage of change, harm reduction can effectively be used, and should be used, in community mental health settings with clients with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders. PMID:20730672

  9. Recognition of high risk pregnancies and referral practices among traditional birth attendants in Mkuranga District, Coast Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Asia K; Mpembeni, Rose

    2005-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Mkuranga District of Tanzania with the aim of comparing the ability of trained and untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in identifying women with danger signs for developing complications during pregnancy and childbirth as well as their referral practices. Study findings revealed that majority of the TBAs (86.5%) had not received any training. Trained TBAs were more knowledgeable on danger signs during pregnancy and childbirth and were more likely to refer women with complications to a health facility, compared to untrained TBAs. The authors recommend that in resource constrained countries like Tanzania and especially in remote rural areas, TBAs should be trained on early identification of mothers with obstetrical complications and on their prompt referral to health facilities that can provide emergency obstetric care. PMID:16104660

  10. Practices associated with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza spread in traditional poultry marketing chains: Social and economic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mathilde; Baritaux, Virginie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François; Bonnet, Pascal; Ducrot, Christian

    2013-04-01

    In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus. The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities. PMID:23337390

  11. Insect repellent plants traditional usage practices in the Ethiopian malaria epidemic-prone setting: an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The usage of insect repellent plants (IRPs) is one of the centuries-old practices in Africa. In Ethiopia, malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, subsequently the majority of people have a tendency to apply various plants as repellents to reduce or interrupt the biting activity of insects. Accordingly, this survey was undertaken to document and evaluate knowledge and usage practices of the local inhabitants on IRPs in the malaria epidemic-prone setting of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical survey was conducted between January and May 2013. Selected 309 household members were interviewed by administering pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge and usage practices of repellent plants, in Bechobore Kebele, Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Results Overall, 70.2% (217/309) and 91.8% (199/217) of the respondents have had ample awareness and usage practices of repellent plants, respectively. Informants cited about twenty-two plant species as repellents and also indicated that these plants are useful(85.5%), accessible(86.8%), and affordable(83.9%) too. Residents mainly applying dried leaves [93.9% (187/199)] by means of burning/smouldering [98.9% (197/199)] with the traditional charcoal stove to repel insects, primarily mosquitoes. About 52.8% (105/199) of the informants using aproximately15g of dried plant-materials every day. A Chi-square analysis shows statistically a significant link between the knowledge on repellent plants and gender as well as average monthly income although not with the age of the respondents. Nevertheless, the repellent plant usage custom was not significantly associated with gender, monthly income, and age of the informants. Conclusion Though most of the people have had an adequate awareness still a sizable faction of society suffers with deprivation of IRPs knowledge and usage practices. Therefore, this study calls for more surveys to conserve the existing indigenous knowledge and cultural practices. It could lay the first stone to develop the next generation cost-effective vector control tools in the near future. PMID:24521138

  12. A Comparative Study of Verbal Discourse Practices in Traditional and Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Biology Labs for Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayan, Ratna

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative interpretative study serves to identify and compare the verbal discourse practices exhibited by students in traditional and inquiry-based undergraduate labs for non-science majors and to identify factors in both lab contexts that would facilitate and / or inhibit student participation in the discourse practices of the labs.

  13. A Comparative Study of Verbal Discourse Practices in Traditional and Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Biology Labs for Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayan, Ratna

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative interpretative study serves to identify and compare the verbal discourse practices exhibited by students in traditional and inquiry-based undergraduate labs for non-science majors and to identify factors in both lab contexts that would facilitate and / or inhibit student participation in the discourse practices of the labs.…

  14. Harm Reduction: Front Line Public Health.

    PubMed

    Stancliff, Sharon; Phillips, Benjamin W; Maghsoudi, Nazlee; Joseph, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Drug use is a public health problem associated with high mortality and morbidity, and is often accompanied by suboptimal engagement in health care. Harm reduction is a pragmatic public health approach encompassing all goals of public health: improving health, social well-being, and quality of life. Harm reduction prioritizes improving the lives of people who use drugs in partnership with those served without a narrow focus on abstinence from drugs. Evidence has shown that harm reduction oriented practice can reduce transmission of blood-borne illnesses, and other injection related infections, as well as preventing fatal overdose. PMID:26080038

  15. Self-Harm

    MedlinePlus

    ... time someone deliberately hurts herself is classified as self-harm. Some people feel an impulse to burn themselves, pull out hair or pick at wounds to prevent healing. Extreme injuries can result in broken bones. Hurting ...

  16. [Self-harming behaviour].

    PubMed

    Kool, Nienke; Pollen, Wim; van Meijel, Berno

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of self-harm, a 28-year-old female patient and a 19-year-old female patient with self-harming behaviour are presented. The first patient refused treatment of cut wounds when the doctor enquired about the reason for self-harm. The second patient was referred for mental health care. These cases illustrate the complexity of this behaviour for the patient and the caregiver. Self-harm is often a symbol of underlying problems and serves multiple psychological functions. It is mostly used by patients to cope with unbearable emotions for which they have no other solution. The self-harm invokes different feelings in caregivers which tend to influence the attitude of the caregiver towards the patient. It is very important that caregivers are aware of their feelings and use them professionally. People who self-harm should not be judged, but treated respectfully and attention should be paid to their suffering. PMID:20456781

  17. No-Harm Contracts: A Review of What We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lisa McConnell

    2007-01-01

    Few events in the practice of a mental health clinician can be as devastating as the suicide of a client. Although suicide is a rare occurrence, clinicians face assessment of clients' risk for harming themselves on a regular basis. One well-accepted and widely practiced intervention for suicidal ideation is the use of no-harm contracts (NHC),…

  18. Developing Policy for Integrating Biomedicine and Traditional Chinese Medical Practice Using Focus Groups and the Delphi Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent C. H.; Ma, Polly H. X.; Lau, Chun Hong; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2012-01-01

    In Hong Kong, statutory regulation for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners has been implemented in the past decade. Increasing use of TCM on top of biomedicine (BM) services by the population has been followed; but corresponding policy development to integrate their practices has not yet been discussed. Using focus group methodology, we explore policy ideas for integration by collating views from frontline BM (n = 50) and TCM clinicians (n = 50). Qualitative data were analyzed under the guidance of structuration model of collaboration, a theoretical model for understanding interprofessional collaboration. From focus group findings we generated 28 possible approaches, and subsequently their acceptability was assessed by a two round Delphi survey amongst BM and TCM policy stakeholders (n = 12). Consensus was reached only on 13 statements. Stakeholders agreed that clinicians from both paradigms should share common goals of providing patient-centered care, promoting the development of protocols for shared care and information exchange, as well as strengthening interprofessional connectivity and leadership for integration. On the other hand, attitudes amongst policy stakeholders were split on the possibility of fostering trust and mutual learning, as well as on enhancing innovation and governmental support. Future policy initiatives should focus on these controversial areas. PMID:22649469

  19. Harming and benefiting the dead.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J

    2001-10-01

    The traditional view of grief resolution requires the bereaved person to disengage from the deceased. This is often expressed as a necessary "letting go" of the past for the survivor to be free to continue her or his life and form new relationships. Contemporary grief theory, in contrast, recognizes that healthy grieving involves maintaining bonds with the deceased. The relationship between the bereaved person and the person who has died, although transformed, is ongoing. This article takes as its focus one aspect of the continuing relationship between the living and the dead. It begins with the noncontroversial claim that some actions that involve the dead are wrong from an ethical perspective. What is controversial is the explanation of the wrongness of these actions. It is argued that the dead can be harmed by having their interests thwarted and, conversely, they can be benefited by having their interests promoted. Posthumous harm and benefit are possible because people who are now dead possessed interests prior to death that continue to exert a claim after death. PMID:11785539

  20. The Role of Local Knowledge and Traditional Extraction Practices in the Management of Giant Earthworms in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The giant earthworm, Rhinodrilus alatus (Righi 1971), has been captured in the southeastern Brazilian Cerrado biome for approximately 80 years and used as bait for amateur fishing throughout Brazil. Local knowledge and traditional extraction practices are crucial for the establishment of management strategies for the species because, although its extraction involves conflicts and social and environmental impacts, the species is one of the major sources of income for approximately 3,000 people, especially for members of an Afro-descendant community that has approximately 2,000 inhabitants. Participatory tools, such as seasonal calendar, transect walks and participatory maps, were individually or collectively used with extractors and traders (former extractors), and 129 semi-structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with the same individuals between 2005 and 2012. The capture of Rhinodrilus alatus was observed in different seasons and areas of occurrence of the species in 17 municipalities, where this giant earthworm is the only species extracted for trade. All information obtained was verified by community members in 17 meetings. The extractors have an extensive knowledge of the life history, behavior, distribution, and possible impacts of climate change on the species. Different capture techniques, which have different impacts, are used during the dry and rainy seasons and are passed by the extractors through the generations. Local knowledge contributed to the establishment of agreements for the use of capture techniques that have less impact, to the expansion of scientific knowledge and the reassessment of the conservation status of Rhinodrilus alatus. The present study may serve as an example for management projects for other giant earthworm species in other regions of Brazil and in other countries. PMID:25874618

  1. Changing Mindsets: A Case Study of a Community of Practice between Charter and Traditional Public School Leaders in the School Leaders Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Manuel N., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the essential elements of a community of practice intended to increase communication and collaboration between traditional public and charter school leaders. Members of the Los Angeles Cohort of the School Leaders Network participated in this study. This case study triangulated observation, interview, and…

  2. Identifying the training needs of traditional birth attendants.

    PubMed

    Salako, A A; Daniel, O J

    2007-01-01

    With the aid of pre-tested, structured, interview questionnaires, 51 traditional birth attendants (TBAs), identified by their certificate of traditional midwifery, were assessed for their knowledge about the care given in pregnancy, labour, and the postnatal period, beliefs and delivery practices including child care, and their attitude towards orthodox midwifery. A total of 22 (43.1%) so identified were found to be practicing traditional midwifery as a full-time job, while 29 (56.9%) were practising on a part-time basis, doing other jobs such as farming and trading. Twenty-two (51.2%) of the male TBAs practised traditional midwifery as a full-time job, while the remaining 21 (48.8%) practised traditional midwifery part-time, along with farming occupation. All the female TBAs practised traditional midwifery part-time with their main occupation such as trading. There was no significant difference between the mean age of male compared with female respondents (59.3+/-15.1 vs. 54.6+/-15.9 years; P = 0.43). Harmful traditional practices, practices that may need verification and areas where training is needed are highlighted. The importance of registration and active supervision of their practices were discussed. The skills that need to be stressed include identification of danger signs in pregnancy and prompt referral of maternal complications. The essence of registration for monitoring of their activities cannot be overemphasized. Findings also revealed that appropriate training could expand their roles in primary health care programmes. PMID:17326877

  3. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  4. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  5. Traditional systems of medicine.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Kamala; Liao, Lucy P

    2004-11-01

    Traditional ways of healing illnesses originating in ancient societies are called complementary medicine today. Many of the traditional medical systems are based on sound fundamental principles and centuries of practices by healers. This article reviews some of the most commonly practiced traditional medical systems. A common factor noted in several traditional systems is a holistic approach to the well-being of a person's body, mind, and spirit. PMID:15458749

  6. Are nonspecific practice guidelines potentially harmful? A randomized comparison of the effect of nonspecific versus specific guidelines on physician decision making.

    PubMed Central

    Shekelle, P. G.; Kravitz, R. L.; Beart, J.; Marger, M.; Wang, M.; Lee, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the ability of two different clinical practice guideline formats to influence physician ordering of electrodiagnostic tests in low back pain. DATA SOURCES/STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial of the effect of practice guidelines on self-reported physician test ordering behavior in response to a series of 12 clinical vignettes. Data came from a national random sample of 900 U.S. neurologists, physical medicine physicians, and general internists. INTERVENTION: Two different versions of a practice guideline for the use of electrodiagnostic tests (EDT) were developed by the U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Low Back Problems Panel. The two guidelines were similar in content but varied in the specificity of their recommendations. DATA COLLECTION: The proportion of clinical vignettes for which EDTs were ordered for appropriate and inappropriate clinical indications in each of three physician groups were randomly assigned to receive vignettes alone, vignettes plus the nonspecific version of the guideline, or vignettes plus the specific version of the guideline. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The response rate to the survey was 71 percent. The proportion of appropriate vignettes for which EDTs were ordered averaged 77 percent for the no guideline group, 71 percent for the nonspecific guideline group, and 79 percent for the specific guideline group (p = .002). The corresponding values for the number of EDTs ordered for inappropriate vignettes were 32 percent, 32 percent, and 26 percent, respectively (p = .08). Pairwise comparisons showed that physicians receiving the nonspecific guidelines ordered fewer EDTs for appropriate clinical vignettes than did physicians receiving no guidelines (p = .02). Furthermore, compared to physicians receiving nonspecific guidelines, physicians receiving specific guidelines ordered significantly more EDTs for appropriate vignettes (p = .0007) and significantly fewer EDTs for inappropriate vignettes (p = .04). CONCLUSIONS: The clarity and clinical applicability of a guideline may be important attributes that contribute to the effects of practice guidelines. PMID:10737446

  7. Branding in children: a barbaric practice still exists in India

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Branding is an inhuman traditional practice most commonly employed to treat various disorders in neonates and children in certain community in India. Though stringent law exists to prevent such harmful practices, cases of branding is not uncommon in current era. PMID:27217887

  8. Branding in children: a barbaric practice still exists in India.

    PubMed

    Patra, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Branding is an inhuman traditional practice most commonly employed to treat various disorders in neonates and children in certain community in India. Though stringent law exists to prevent such harmful practices, cases of branding is not uncommon in current era. PMID:27217887

  9. Traditional and alternative community food security interventions in Montréal, Québec: different practices, different people.

    PubMed

    Roncarolo, Federico; Adam, Caroline; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Food insecurity is steadily increasing in developed countries. Traditional interventions adopted to tackle food insecurity, like food banks, address the urgent need for food. By contrast, alternative interventions, such as community gardens and kitchens, are oriented towards social integration and the development of mutual aid networks. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the populations served by traditional and alternative interventions in food security differ according to measures of vulnerability. We studied newly registered participants to food security interventions. Participants were selected from a random sample of food security community organizations in a two-stage cluster sampling frame. The categorizing variable was participation in a community organization providing either traditional interventions or alternative interventions. Seven measures of vulnerability were used: food security; perceived health; civic participation; perceived social support of the primary network, social isolation, income and education. Regression multilevel models were used to assess associations. 711 participants in traditional interventions and 113 in alternative interventions were enrolled in the study. Between group differences were found with respect to food insecurity, health status perception, civic participation, education and income, but not with respect to social isolation or perceived social support from primary social network. Traditional and alternative food security interventions seem to reach different populations. Participants in traditional interventions were found to have less access to resources, compared to those in alternative interventions. Thus, new participants in traditional interventions may have higher levers of vulnerability than those in alternative interventions. PMID:25012098

  10. A reduced-rank prediction model of stream-channel size response to traditional agricultural land-use practices in southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odemerho, Francis O.

    1984-02-01

    Stream-channel morphologic responses are found to be related to different parameters measuring traditional agricultural land-use patterns and practices in 50 small headwater basins in southwest Nigeria. The problem of intercorrelations among these parameters made it initially difficult to establish their precise channel enlargement effects and to calibrate an impact prediction model. Through factor analysis of the 22 land-use and morphometric parameters, six factors identified as measures of traditional land-use practice, farm size, planting activities, shortened fallow, relief and overland flow, were found to account for 86% of the variance in the data. The factor-defining variables are length of cropping period, areas in short fallow, farm-plot size, length of farm preparation, relief ratio and overland flow. In a multiple regression analysis, only the first three variables were found to be statistically significant in explaining stream-channel morphologic responses. Thus, areas in short fallows, average farm size and length of cropping period adequately described those aspects of the traditional farming practices that affect basin hydrologic and channel responses. Since these variables were orthogonally derived, they formed the basis for the evaluation of the channel impact status of traditional land-use activities. The duplication of information and effects in the original 22-variable full-rank model were removed while utilizing the three-factor reduced model.

  11. Comparison of Patients' Expectations and Experiences at Traditional Pharmacies and Pharmacies Offering Enhanced Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Collins, John B.; Berkowitz, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. Methods A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. Results While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Conclusion Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction. PMID:20798795

  12. Harmful Algal Blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

  13. The creation of new traditions: Discussion of relationship between architectural rural practice and local features' inheriting from a heritage conservation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, M.; Sun, M.

    2015-08-01

    The traditional features of Chinese villages are facing a crisis of discontinuity. In the meantime, there exists a problem in architectural heritage conservation that while preservation and renovation is being done, local self-help construction still proceeds out of control. Nowadays, an increasing number of architects have noticed these phenomena and participate in the evolution of villages carrying various architectural practices in the countryside, which has certain influence at the place, whether during or after the construction. In many well-evaluated rural practice cases in the world, architects not only choose appropriate materials and crafts for natives, but also renew local traditions by offering skill training to craftsmen. However, in Chinese villages, similar practices do not seem to be that effective. Therefore, through field research and interviews, this article discusses the reasons that relatively successful architectural practices in Chinese villages fail to exert a positive influence to the inheriting and update of local traditions. These causes include the increase of information sources, the different aesthetic manner, the conception differences, the influence of constructors, and the instructor role that architects play.

  14. Self-Harmful Behaviors in a Population-Based Sample of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Skegg, Keren; Langley, John; Morrison, Dianne; Sowerby, Paula

    2004-01-01

    A birth cohort of 472 women and 494 men aged 26 years was interviewed about a range of self-harmful behaviors first and then asked about suicidal intent.- Lifetime prevalence of self-harm using traditional methods of suicide (ICD [International Classification of Diseases] self-harm) was 13%, with 9% of the sample describing at least one such

  15. Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Evelyn L.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID:25286166

  16. Traditional healing practices originating in Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao: A review of the literature on psychiatry and Brua.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Poulina, Igmar T; van Gellecum, Trevor L; Hoek, Hans W

    2015-12-01

    Brua is an Afro-Caribbean religion and healing tradition from the southern part of the former Netherlands Antilles. Like other Caribbean healing traditions, it plays a significant role in shaping how individuals experience and express disorders which Western health professionals consider to require psychiatric care. Because little has been published on Brua, and because patients from Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao are often reluctant to discuss their commitment to this tradition, they are often misdiagnosed and either over- or undertreated by biomedically trained health professionals. The present paper provides a review of the literature on Brua and its relation to psychiatry. A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, the Ovid database, Google Scholar, and the historical literature. Our search yielded 35 texts on Brua, including three peer-reviewed scientific papers and eight academic theses. From those texts Brua emerges as a holistic patchwork of creolized beliefs and practices which are considered to be both cause and remedy for a wide variety of ailments. Despite the fact that tension between the Brua discourse and Western-oriented psychiatric practice is significant, adherence to Brua does not seem to cause much patient delay in help-seeking. However, belief in Brua as a possible source of mental and physical complaints, as well as patients' frequent recourse to Brua practices, including the use of hallucinogens, may affect the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. PMID:26062555

  17. Risky traditional practices and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: the case of Chiota community in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyati-Jokomo, Zibusiso; January, James; Ruparanganda, Watch; Chitsike, Inam

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore cultural practices that could expose babies to HIV infection during the postnatal period in Chiota community in Zimbabwe. Purposively selected and gender disaggregated members of the community (n = 231) were informants to 23 focus group discussions and 8 semi-structured key-informant interviews. Data were analysed thematically. Emerging themes relating to risky practices were rituals surrounding open fontanelle, toning of child's sexual libido, initiation of sex after childbirth, treatment of eye and ear infections, tongue-tie and pre-mastication. These practices exposed babies to bodily fluids such as saliva, breast milk, vaginal fluids, pre-cum and semen which in turn put the babies at low to high risk of contracting HIV. This paper discusses implications for these risky practices in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. There is, therefore, need for studies to establish the prevalence of these practices. PMID:26272627

  18. The Superintendent Beliefs and Leadership Practices in a School District that Has Successfully Increased the Achievement of Traditionally Marginalized Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks-Schutz, Jo-Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Superintendent leadership can influence student achievement and with the alarming gap between the academic achievement of traditionally marginalized students and their peers, superintendents have an ethical duty to lead their districts in closing these achievement gaps. Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2001) suggested that to have a more complete…

  19. Perceptions and practices of U.S. dental schools regarding curriculum integrated format and traditional format licensure exams.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shamik; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Donoff, R Bruce; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2013-08-01

    The dental licensure exam in the United States has evolved over the past ten years, and two formats-the traditional format and curriculum integrated format-are now available for students to satisfy licensure requirements. The objective of this study was to examine the differences and relative merits of the two formats. A twenty-five-question survey was distributed to the fifty-seven U.S. dental schools at the time. The survey included both quantitative and discrete variables and followed a strategic sequential order. The first set of questions sought to determine what type of board preparatory/mock exam each dental school offered, and the next set of questions asked which licensure exam each school formally offered. The final questions were qualitative in nature and aimed to determine the school representatives' opinions about the curriculum integrated format versus traditional format. Of the fifty-seven schools contacted, thirty-seven agreed to participate (response rate=64.9 percent). Fourteen schools reported that they administer the traditional format only and twelve administer the curriculum integrated format only, while eleven offer both. Thirty-two schools offered mock board exams to their graduating students, and twenty-four of those said their mock exams were identical in format to the actual qualifying clinical exams offered at their institution. The respondents reported no significant advantage to preparing for the curriculum integrated format examination as compared to the traditional format examination with regards to number of clock hours taken from regular curriculum time. In reporting on this study, this article provides an overview of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two examination formats used for the dental licensure process in the United States. PMID:23929575

  20. [THE ART OF DOING MINIMAL HARM IN MENTAL HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Lobo, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    There are socio-cultural and political-economic conditions that favor interventionism in mental health and iatrogenesis. However, the professional, in relationship with the patient, has the ability to reduce harm in clinical practice. This article, briefly, reviews the damage of work in mental health and arises, from the recognition of professional intellectual and personal conflicts, the foundation for a practice that causes the least harm to patients PMID:26966753

  1. Ecology of Harmful Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelke, Daniel L.

    2007-07-01

    Edna Graneli and Jefferson T. Turner, Editors;Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 189; Springer; ISBN 3540322094; 413 pp.; 2006; $195 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) affect commercially and recreationally important species, human health, and ecosystem functioning. Hallmark events are the visually stunning blooms where waters are discolored and filled with ichthyotoxin-producing algae that lead to large fish kills. Of most concern, however, are HABs that pose a threat to human health. For example, some phycotoxins bioaccumulate in the guts and tissues of commercially and recreationally important species that when consumed by humans, may result in nausea, paralysis, memory loss, and even death. In addition to the deleterious impacts of phycotoxins, HABs can be problematic in other ways. For example, the decay of blooms often leads to low dissolved oxygen in subsurface waters. Blooms also reduce light penetration into the water column. Both processes disrupt ecosystems and in some cases have completely destroyed benthic communities.

  2. Investigating the Influence of Hand Dominance on Postural Sway During Traditional and Simulated Laparoscopic Surgical Skills Practice.

    PubMed

    White, Anthony; Huang, Chun-Kai; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how hand dominance could influence postural sway during laparoscopic skills practice. Ten inexperienced medical trainees performed a peg transfer task using the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) training box and the virtual reality (VR) trainer. Surface electromyographic recordings of upper and lower limb muscles were taken, while the postural sway was measured by a pressure mapping system. Skills performance using the non-dominant hand required more muscle effort and increased more postural sway. Compared with the FLS training box, training with VR decreased the use of muscle effort and could reduce the influence of hand dominance on the overall postural sway during laparoscopic surgical skills practice. PMID:27046621

  3. The Educational Approaches of Turkish Pre-Service Elementary Mathematics Teachers in Their First Teaching Practices: Traditional or Constructivist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the educational approaches that pre-service elementary mathematics teachers adopt for their first teaching practice (TP) and the reasons for their choices. It was carried out with thirteen pre-service teachers (PTs). These PTs were observed during their first TP in a real school setting, and interviews were…

  4. Understanding Faculty and Non-Traditional Student Perceptions of Self-Directed Learning in a Practical Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and investigate nursing faculty and student perspectives of self-directed learning in a practical nursing program. It also explored the degree to which student's perceptions of self-directed learning exhibited factors consistent with that of critical thinking. This study is important because self-directed…

  5. Preparation for practice by veterinary school: a comparison of the perceptions of alumni from a traditional and an innovative veterinary curriculum.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Van Beukelen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Alumni survey research can tap users' perspectives on an educational product and thereby provide valuable information for outcomes assessment aimed at improving the quality of educational programs. The study documented here compared the perceptions of two groups of alumni from two curricula offered by the same veterinary school, where the traditional lecture-based curriculum had been gradually replaced by a reformed, more student-centered curriculum. Year 1 of the new curriculum started in 1995, while the old curriculum continued to be delivered to the entering class of 1994. The aim of our study was to determine whether the new program received more positive evaluations from the alumni and whether it was perceived as offering better preparation for veterinary practice. A questionnaire was sent to all alumni who had graduated in the period 2001--2003. Compared to alumni of the traditional program, alumni of the new curriculum reported higher perceived competence levels for clinical knowledge and skills (specific competencies) and for communication skills and academic skills (generic competencies). Alumni of both programs attributed difficulties in the transition from university to work to lack of experience with practical or technical skills and with primary-care cases. They suggested that more attention be paid to these aspects of practice and to practice/business management and communication with clients. The concrete changes in the curriculum appear to have had a noticeable positive effect, without the feared detrimental effect on knowledge acquisition. The results point to further program improvements, particularly for practice-oriented specific and generic skills. PMID:19066361

  6. The meaning and value of traditional occupational practice: a Karen woman's story of weaving in the United States.

    PubMed

    Smith, Yda J; Stephenson, Stephanie; Gibson-Satterthwaite, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This case study sought to understand the meaning of restoring traditional weaving as an occupation among Karen women from Burma who now live in an urban city in the United States and to examine the impact of weaving on their daily lives in terms of identity, empowerment, social support, and opportunities for entrepreneurship. The story of one Karen woman, Paw Law Eh, is described. Her story exemplifies the negative consequences of restricted access to familiar and meaningful daily activities, or "occupations", the relationship between occupation and self-identity, how participation in valued occupations can enhance social networks, and the restorative effects that are possible when engagement in meaningful occupations are maintained or restored. Her story demonstrates that occupational therapists have the skills and opportunity to contribute significantly to the well-being of Karen women by supporting the restoration of the occupation of weaving. PMID:23531562

  7. Cultural behaviour and the invention of traditions: music and musical practices in the early concentration camps, 1933-6/7.

    PubMed

    Fackler, Guido

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates music in the concentration camps before the second world war. For the camp authorities, ordering prisoners to sing songs or play in orchestras was an instrument of domination. But for the prisoners, music could also be an expression of solidarity and survival: inmates could retain a degree of their own agency in the pre-war camps, despite the often unbearable living conditions and harsh treatment by guards. The present article emphasizes this ambiguity of music in the early camps. It illustrates the emergence of musical traditions in the pre-war camps which came to have a significant impact on everyday life in the camps. It helps to overcome the view that concentration camp prisoners were simply passive victims. PMID:20845575

  8. Pushing the boundaries: understanding self-harm in a non-clinical population.

    PubMed

    Straiton, Melanie; Roen, Katrina; Dieserud, Gudrun; Hjelmeland, Heidi

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates 122 people's descriptions of their self-harm experiences using thematic analysis. Analysis revealed four themes: What counts as self-harm, What leads to self-harm, Intentions and Managing stigma. Our participants challenged commonly accepted understandings in terms of method, outcome and intentions. Several difficulties associated with discriminating between suicidal and non-suicidal self-harm were highlighted, which may be important in clinical practice. Few participants mentioned diagnosed psychiatric disorders; they best understood self-harm through their social experiences. Focusing on social understandings of self-harm may help reduce associated stigma and barriers to help-seeking. PMID:23540517

  9. Self-harm: 2. Deliberate nonfatal self-harm.

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, J.

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of deliberate acts of self-harm, such as drug overdoses, has greatly increased in the past two decades. The term "suicide attempt" is really a misnomer. For most people who harm themselves the primary motivation is rarely to die. As well, there are many differences between self-harm patients and patients who have committed suicide. The former tend to be characterologically disturbed and socially disadvantaged. Intervention narrowly focused on suicide prevention will lead to lengthy hospital stays in high-risk cases and ineffective treatment for most self-harm patients, who tend not to comply with outpatient treatment. Crisis-oriented intervention with a brief hospital stay in all cases of self-harm may provide more effective assessment and management. PMID:6861054

  10. Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

  11. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Do I Know It Works? What is Health Marketing? Health Marketing Basics Health Communication Science Digest Research & ...

  12. [Research strategy and practice of "multi-dimensional structure and process dynamics quality control system" of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Hua; Gu, Jun-Fei; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-11-01

    The quality control is one of the key problems in the modernization and internationalization of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). As TCMs have the characteristics of integrity and systematicness, their effect in disease prevention and treatment is the result of multi-component synergistic effect. Currently, the quality control of TCMs is mostly measured with a single index, which can not reflect the integrity of TCMs. As TCM components could play the role in preventing and treating diseases through multiple targets and channels, only if we expound the specific composition and structural relations among inherent components, and determine the optimum composition and structure ratio of TCMs in preventing and treating diseases and revealing their optimal efficiency, safety and stability, can we get rid of the conventional quantitative model, and realize the scientific integral quality control in a real sense. On the basis of the component structure theory, we propose "multi-dimensional structure and process dynamics quality control system" in this article, and systematically expound the optimal efficiency of TCMs, in order to provide a theoretical basis for improving the efficacy of TCM preparation products. PMID:24494540

  13. Health, Healthcare Access, and Use of Traditional Versus Modern Medicine in Remote Peruvian Amazon Communities: A Descriptive Study of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. PMID:25688165

  14. Health, healthcare access, and use of traditional versus modern medicine in remote Peruvian Amazon communities: a descriptive study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. PMID:25688165

  15. Emotionally Harmful Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaniec, Dorota; Larkin, Emma; McSherry, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment tends to be overshadowed in research and in practice by other forms of maltreatment that present more obvious and explicit evidence and appear to require a more urgent response. This article aims to explore a growing body of research pointing to: (a) ways in which emotional maltreatment may adversely impact upon a child's…

  16. Impacts of traditional land use practices on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools of mountain ecosystems in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Anjana; Katzensteiner, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Crop production, animal husbandry and forestry are three closely interlinked components of land use systems in the mountains of Nepal. Forests are the major source of fuel wood, construction materials, fodder and litter. The latter is used as a bedding material for livestock and forms an important component of farmyard manure. In addition forest grazing by cattle is a common practice. Excessive extraction of biomass from the forest leads to a decline of soil organic matter and nutrient contents. On the landscape scale these negative effects will partly be compensated by positive effects on soil organic matter and nutrient stocks of arable soils. The experimental data base for a quantification of such effects at the scale of communities is however poor, in particular for Nepal. Understanding the impact of subsistence farming on ecosystems is imperative in order to recommend successful and sustainable land management practices. The aim of our study is to quantify effects of land use on carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes for mountain communities in Nepal. Results of a case study in the buffer zone area of the Sagarmatha National Park are presented. The potential vegetation comprises mixed forests of Quercus semicarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Tsuga dumosa. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil and vegetation were quantified for three different land use types, namely: forest with low human impact, forests with high human impact and agricultural land. The scale of disturbance of the forests has been classified by visual estimation considering the percentage of litter raked, number of lopped trees, and grazing intensity assessed by signs of trampling and the number of trails. After stratification of the community area, 20 plots of 10 m radius were established (17 forest plots, 3 plots for arable land) where biometric data of the vegetation were determined and sub-samples were taken for chemical analyses. Organic layers (litter remaining after litter raking) and soil samples were collected (volumetric sampling of geometric horizons down to 1 m depth). Fluxes of carbon and nitrogen from the forests were accounted by combining results of sub samples of biomass extracted by local people during the field survey and information on amounts and source areas provided by the farmers. Also the amount of carbon and nutrients applied with farmyard manure and the extraction by harvest was determined for the arable land. First estimates of carbon and nitrogen cycling at the community level and on impacts on soil status will be presented.

  17. Camel milk as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes: verification of a traditional ethnomedical practice.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Ragaa Hosny; Zekry, Zekry Khalid; Al-Mehdar, Hussain A; Salama, Omar; El-Shaieb, Siad Ebrahim; El-Basmy, Amany A; Al-said, Mohamad Gamil Abdel Monem; Sharawy, Sabry Mohamed

    2009-04-01

    There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that regular consumption of camel milk may aid in prevention and control of diabetes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of camel milk as an adjuvant therapy in young type 1 diabetics. This 16-week randomized study enrolled 54 type 1 diabetic patients (average age 20 years) selected from those attending the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Menofia University Hospital, affiliated with Egypt's National Cancer Institute. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 27 patients: one received usual management (diet, exercise, and insulin), whereas the other received 500 mL of camel milk daily in addition to standard management. A control group of 10 healthy subjects was also assessed. The following parameters were evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 16 weeks: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), human C-peptide, lipid profile, serum insulin, anti-insulin antibodies, creatinine clearance, albumin in 24-hour urine, body mass index, and Diabetes Quality of Life score. The following parameters were significantly different between the usual-management group versus the camel milk group after 16 weeks: fasting blood sugar (227.2 +/- 17.7 vs. 98.9 +/- 16.2 mg/dL), HbA1c (9.59 +/- 2.05[%] vs. 7.16 +/- 1.84[%]), serum anti-insulin antibodies (26.20 +/- 7.69 vs. 20.92 +/- 5.45 microU/mL), urinary albumin excretion (25.17 +/- 5.43 vs. 14.54 +/- 5.62 mg/dL/24 hours), daily insulin dose (48.1 +/- 6.95 vs. 23 +/- 4.05 units), and body mass index (18.43 +/- 3.59 vs. 24.3 +/- 2.95 kg/m(2)). Most notably, C-peptide levels were markedly higher in the camel milk group (0.28 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.30 +/- 0.51 pmol/mL). These results suggest that, as an adjunct to standard management, daily ingestion of camel milk can aid metabolic control in young type 1 diabetics, at least in part by boosting endogenous insulin secretion. PMID:19459752

  18. [Overmedicalization: When too much medicine harms].

    PubMed

    Hanslik, T; Flahault, A

    2016-03-01

    Overmedicalization refers to non-validated medical practices, with no clear benefits, potentially harmful and therefore unnecessarily costly. Awareness is growing with respect to this serious public health problem. Permanent expansion of diagnostic or therapeutic interventions, disease mongering, inadequate management of diagnostic uncertainty, conflict of interest or lack of commitment by physicians and patients in shared decision making. Overmedicalization is made possible by a lack of training of health professionals and users on medical decision process. Only a multidisciplinary research program, involving medical and non-medical worlds, will allow the implementation of corrective actions. PMID:26586148

  19. GDSII considered harmful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Alfred J.; Boone, Robert E.; Grobman, Warren D.; Browning, Clyde

    2002-03-01

    In recent years mask data preparation (MDP) has been complicated by a number of factors, including the introduction of resolution enhancement technologies such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase shift masks. These complications not only have led to significant increases in file sizes and computer runtimes, but they have also created an urgent need for data management tools -- MDP automation. Current practices rely on point solutions to specific problems, such as OPC; use outdated, proprietary, non-standard, informal or inefficient data formats; and just barely manage portions of the data flow via low-level scripting. Without automation, MDP requires human intervention, which leads to longer cycle times and more errors. Without adequate data interchange formats, automation cannot succeed. This paper examines MDP processes and data formats, and suggests opportunities for improvement. Within the context of existing data formats, we examine the effect of inadequate (e.g., proprietary) data formats on MDP flow. We also examine the closest thing to an open, formal, standard data format--GDSII--and suggest improvements and even a replacement based on the extensible markup language (XML).

  20. The right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health care

    PubMed Central

    Stuttaford, Maria; Al Makhamreh, Sahar; Coomans, Fons; Harrington, John; Himonga, Chuma; Hundt, Gillian Lewando

    2014-01-01

    Background State parties to human rights conventions and declarations are often faced with the seemingly contradictory problem of having an obligation to protect people from harmful practices while also having an obligation to enable access to culturally appropriate effective healing. As people increasingly migrate across the globe, previous distinctions between ‘traditional’ and ‘complementary and alternative medicine’ practices are being transcended. There are connections across transnational healing pathways that link local, national, and global movements of people and knowledge. Objective This paper contributes to the development of the concept and practice of the right to health in all its forms, exploring the right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health (R2TCAH) across different contexts. Design The paper draws on four settings – England, South Africa, Kenya, and Jordan – and is based on key informant interviews and a literature review undertaken in 2010, and updated in 2013. The paper begins by reviewing the international legal context for the right to health. It then considers legal and professional regulations from the global north and south. Results Additional research is needed to establish the legal basis, compare regulatory frameworks, and explore patient and provider perspectives of regulation. This leads to being able to make recommendations on how to balance protection from harm and the obligation to ensure culturally appropriate services. Such an exploration must also challenge Western theories of human rights. Key concepts, such as individual harm, consent, and respect of the autonomy of the individual already established and recognised in international health law, could be adopted in the development of a template for future comparative research. Conclusions Exploration of the normative content of the right to health in all its forms will contribute to supporting traditional, complementary, and alternative health service users and providers in terms of access to information, non-discrimination, clarification of state obligations, and accountability. PMID:24767601

  1. No-harm contracts: a review of what we know.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lisa McConnell

    2007-02-01

    Few events in the practice of a mental health clinician can be as devastating as the suicide of a client. Although suicide is a rare occurrence, clinicians face assessment of clients' risk for harming themselves on a regular basis. One well-accepted and widely practiced intervention for suicidal ideation is the use of no-harm contracts (NHC), although opinions about NHCs range from enthusiasm to apathy. The existing research does not support the use of such contracts as a method for preventing suicide, nor for protecting clinicians from malpractice litigation in the event of a client suicide. PMID:17397279

  2. To Cause Harm and to be Harmed by Others: New Perspectives on Alcohol’s Harms to Others

    PubMed Central

    Seid, Abdu K.; Grittner, Ulrike; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bloomfield, Kim

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine how sociodemographic factors and alcohol consumption are related to a four-way typology of causing harm to others and/or being harmed by others’ and one’s own drinking. DATA AND METHODS Data from the 2011 Danish national survey (n = 2,569) were analyzed with multi nomial logistic regression. RESULTS Younger age and heavy drinking were significant correlates of both causing harm and being harmed. Women and better educated respondents were more likely to report negative effects on relationship and family from another’s drinking. Better educated respondents had higher risks for work, financial, or injury harms from another’s drinking. Mean alcohol consumption and risky single occasion drinking were related to both causing harm and being harmed from one’s own drinking. CONCLUSIONS Drinking variables were the strongest correlates of causing harm and being harmed. Efforts to reduce risky drinking may also help reduce exposures to collateral harm. PMID:26512203

  3. Palliative Care and Traditional Practices of Death and Dying in Wa'ab (Yap Proper) and in the Outer Islands of Yap

    PubMed Central

    Yalmadau, Kelly; Maluchmai, Maryann R; Tun, Petra; Yinnifel, Cyril; Hancock, W Thane

    2011-01-01

    Background Death remains one of the most important and significant activities in Yap, an event that involves the entire island. A death of a Yapese not only unites the family, it initiates a complex series of reaffirmed kinship ties, rituals and exchanges that refocus the entire community and create new social identities for the participants. How these ties, exchanges, and identities are changing due to new economic challenges and new social pressures were the focus of this preliminary study, which sought to document the resiliency or fragility of traditional structures, measured in the efforts around death and dying in Yap and to identify ways that the health care system can intervene to improve palliative care. Methods 226 persons (49 on Wa'ab - Yap Proper - and 177 on the Outer Islands) participated in 16 focus groups, of which eight were on Wa'ab and eight on four Outer Islands: Fais, Falalop, Fetherai, and Mogmog. We additionally conducted 6 semi-structured open-ended key informant interviews, added to capture more of Yap's enormous sociocultural diversity. Results The islands of Yap, particularly the Outer Islands, continue to support one of the world's best traditional palliative care involving the immediate family, more distant relatives and in many cases the entire community. However, participants showed considerable concern for ways that this system is weakening and offered numerous suggestions for improving and strengthening palliative care in Yap. Discussion Although caution must be exercised not to undermine the existing system, six recommendations on how the health system can intervene can be identified. These involve identifying a key resource person on each island; supplying small, practical “comfort care” kits; making more pain medication available; conducting regular home visits; improving patient-physician and physician-family communication; designing a suicide intervention strategy; and documenting existing variations of how the dying are cared for on the other Outer Islands of Yap. PMID:22235155

  4. Veterinarians and public practice at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine: building on a tradition of expertise and partnership.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Katherine A; Walters, Bettye K

    2008-01-01

    The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM), a regional veterinary college for Maryland and Virginia, has a long and unique tradition of encouraging careers in public and corporate veterinary medicine. The VMRCVM is home to the Center for Public and Corporate Veterinary Medicine (CPCVM), and each year approximately 10% of the veterinary students choose the public/corporate veterinary medicine track. The faculty of the CPCVM, and their many partners from the veterinary public practice community, teach in the veterinary curriculum and provide opportunities for students locally, nationally, and internationally during summers and the final clinical year. Graduates of the program work for government organizations, including the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as in research, in industry, and for non-governmental organizations. Recent activities include securing opportunities for students, providing career counseling for graduate veterinarians interested in making a career transition, delivering continuing education, and offering a preparatory course for veterinarians sitting the board examination for the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. As the VMRCVM moves forward in recognition of the changing needs of the veterinary profession, it draws on its tradition of partnership and capitalizes on the excellence of its existing program. Future plans for the CPCVM include possible expansion in the fields of public health, public policy, international veterinary medicine, organizational leadership, and the One Health initiative. Quality assurance and evaluation of the program is ongoing, with recognition that novel evaluation approaches will be useful and informative. PMID:18723808

  5. Involving traditional birth attendants in emergency obstetric care in Tanzania: policy implications of a study of their knowledge and practices in Kigoma Rural District

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Access to quality maternal health services mainly depends on existing policies, regulations, skills, knowledge, perceptions, and economic power and motivation of service givers and target users. Critics question policy recommending involvement of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in emergency obstetric care (EmoC) services in developing countries. Objectives This paper reports about knowledge and practices of TBAs on EmoC in Kigoma Rural District, Tanzania and discusses policy implications on involving TBAs in maternal health services. Methods 157 TBAs were identified from several villages in 2005, interviewed and observed on their knowledge and practice in relation to EmoC. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection and analysis depending on the nature of the information required. Findings Among all 157 TBAs approached, 57.3% were aged 50+ years while 50% had no formal education. Assisting mothers to deliver without taking their full pregnancy history was confessed by 11% of all respondents. Having been attending pregnant women with complications was experienced by 71.2% of all respondents. Only 58% expressed adequate knowledge on symptoms and signs of pregnancy complications. Lack of knowledge on possible risk of HIV infections while assisting childbirth without taking protective gears was claimed by 5.7% of the respondents. Sharing the same pair of gloves between successful deliveries was reported to be a common practice by 21.1% of the respondents. Use of unsafe delivery materials including local herbs and pieces of cloth for protecting themselves against HIV infections was reported as being commonly practiced among 27.6% of the respondents. Vaginal examination before and during delivery was done by only a few respondents. Conclusion TBAs in Tanzania are still consulted by people living in underserved areas. Unfortunately, TBAs’ inadequate knowledge on EmOC issues seems to have contributed to the rising concerns about their competence to deliver the recommended maternal services. Thus, the authorities seeming to recognize and promote TBAs should provide support to TBAs in relation to necessary training and giving them essential working facilities, routine supportive supervision and rewarding those seeming to comply with the standard guidelines for delivering EmoC services. PMID:24124663

  6. Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000

  7. Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…

  8. [Study on incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xin-sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Hua, Hao-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Shang, Er-xin; Guo, Jian-ming

    2015-04-01

    The incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines is related to the clinical medication safety, so has attracted wide attentions from the public. With the deepening of studies on the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines represented by 18 incompatible herbs, the incompatibility of theory traditional Chinese medicines has raised to new heights. From the origin of incompatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicines, relationship of herbs, harms of incompatible herbs and principle of prevention to toxic effects of specific incompatible medicines, the innovation and development of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory was explored. Structurally, the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines refers to the opposition of two herbs based on seven emotions and clinical experience. The combination of incompatible herbs may lead to human harms, especially latent harm and inefficacy of intervention medicines. The avoidance of the combination of incompatible herbs and the consideration of both symptoms and drug efficacy are the basic method to prevent adverse reactions. The recent studies have revealed five characteristics of incompatible herbs. Toxicity potentiation, toxication, efficacy reduction and inefficacy are the four manifestations of the incompatible relations. The material changes can reflect the effects of toxicity potentiation and toxication of opposite herbs. The accumulation of toxicity and metabolic changes are the basis for latent harms. The antagonistic effect of main efficacies and the coexistence of positive and negative effects are the distinctive part of the incompatibility. The connotation of incompatible herbs plays an important role in the innovation of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory. PMID:26281612

  9. Traditional Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafner, Arthur W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four articles address traditional mediation in library services, including the librarian as mediator, the reference librarian as information intermediary, recommitment to patrons' information needs, and mediation in reference service to extend patron success. (87 references) (LRW)

  10. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, F.P.; Graff, H.; Mitchell, C.; Lock, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Methods Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Results Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives—for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions—can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. Conclusions By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. PMID:23933915

  11. Self-Harm and Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » Self-Harm and Trauma PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... bottom of the page. Share this page Search PTSD Site Choose Section Enter Term and Search Advanced ...

  12. Reducing Harm in Healthcare Systems.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Tim

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the importance of causation of medical errors is important for determining strategies to reduce the harm that they can cause to patients. This paper discusses how dentistry can learn from medicine as well as other industries when developing approaches designed to deal with the causes of errors, rather than their outcomes. PMID:26556517

  13. Women, harm reduction and HIV.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Sophie; Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2008-05-01

    Gender shapes the experience of drug use and its associated risks. In most parts of the world, however, harm reduction and drug treatment programmes that tailor their services to meet women's needs are rare or nonexistent. Many existing services inadvertently exclude women, and discriminatory policies and social stigma drive women drug users from care and expose them to human rights abuses. Women drug users often provide sex in exchange for housing, sustenance and protection, suffer violence from sexual partners and practise unsafe sex. This paper, drawing upon evidence from existing studies, examines ways in which gender-related factors can increase women drug users' vulnerability and decrease their access to harm reduction, drug treatment and sexual and reproductive health services. It recommends designing services with low-threshold access for women drug users that help them to become more independent, involving the women in designing services and policies, making programmes available for mothers, incorporating sexual and reproductive health into harm reduction services, providing gender-sensitive drug treatment and integrated harm reduction programmes for drug-using sex workers, connecting with domestic violence and rape prevention services and educating mainstream providers. Overall, investigating the circumstances women drug users face will help to formulate policies and programmes that better serve women who use drugs. PMID:18513618

  14. Hurt, Harm, and School Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozycki, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Nietzsche overlooks some possibilities. Something may not kill us, yet leave us sickly or crippled. But he is right, too. It may make us stronger. It is ancient wisdom that we grow through facing adversity: ad astra per aspera?to the stars through adversity. We know, too, that too much of something good may do us harm. One can overstudy, or

  15. Purposing and repurposing harms: the victim impact statement and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen-Lee

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of the victim impact statement (VIS) is to inform judges of victims' crime-related physical, psychological, and financial harms. Findings from interviews with Canadian sexual assault victims, advocates, victim services workers, and prosecutors (N = 37) demonstrated that harm descriptions were manipulated by victims and others in keeping with, and contrary to, VIS design. Victims and prosecutors purposed the VIS to inform court outcomes through harms claims and struggles over those claims. The repurposing of harms claims occurred through practices of strategic disclosure, intended to effect changes in others' behaviors, and harm peddling, the circulation of the VIS in nonsentencing arenas. Victims, adversaries, and criminal justice professionals engaged in harm peddling to obtain compensation, child custody, and parole delay. Implications of purposing and repurposing harms claims include novel opportunities and legal pitfalls for victims, varied responses by judges, and an expansion of social control over victims and offenders. PMID:24122518

  16. Characteristics of commercial and traditional village poultry farming in Mali with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of avian influenza and Newcastle disease.

    PubMed

    Molia, Sophie; Traoré, Idrissa; Kamissoko, Badian; Diakité, Adama; Sidibé, Maimouna Sanogo; Sissoko, Kadiatou Diarra; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2015-10-01

    We aimed at characterizing commercial and traditional village poultry farming in Mali, with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Surveys were conducted in 2009-2011 in a study area covering approximately 98% of the Malian poultry population. Among the 282 commercial farms investigated, of which 64 had not been known by the government authorities, 83% were located within a 50km radius from the capitals of the country and regions and 54% had low biosecurity standard. Among the 152 randomly selected village household flocks investigated, characteristics were overall similar to those in other African countries but some differences were notable including a large flock size (median 44 poultry), a low presence of ducks and geese (11% and 1.1% of flocks, respectively), vaccination against Newcastle disease being common (49% of flocks), a low proportion of households selling sick and dead birds (0.7% and 0%, respectively) and limited cohabitation between poultry and humans at night. Our recommendations to limit the risk of disease transmission include (1) for commercial farms, to introduce compulsory farm registration and accreditation, to increase technical proficiency and access to credit for farms with low biosecurity, and to support poultry producer associations; (2) for village poultry, to promote better quarantine and management of sick and dead birds. Such detailed knowledge of country-specific characteristics of poultry production systems is essential to be able to develop more efficient disease risk management policies. PMID:26113175

  17. Delusions as harmful malfunctioning beliefs.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Kengo

    2015-05-01

    Delusional beliefs are typically pathological. Being pathological is clearly distinguished from being false or being irrational. Anna might falsely believe that his husband is having an affair but it might just be a simple mistake. Again, Sam might irrationally believe, without good evidence, that he is smarter than his colleagues, but it might just be a healthy self-deceptive belief. On the other hand, when a patient with brain damage caused by a car accident believes that his father was replaced by an imposter or another patient with schizophrenia believes that "The Organization" painted the shops on a street in red and green to convey a message, these beliefs are not merely false or irrational. They are pathological. What makes delusions pathological? This paper explores the negative features because of which delusional beliefs are pathological. First, I critically examine the proposals according to which delusional beliefs are pathological because of (1) their strangeness, (2) their extreme irrationality, (3) their resistance to folk psychological explanations or (4) impaired responsibility-grounding capacities of people with them. I present some counterexamples as well as theoretical problems for these proposals. Then, I argue, following Wakefield's harmful dysfunction analysis of disorder, that delusional beliefs are pathological because they involve some sorts of harmful malfunctions. In other words, they have a significant negative impact on wellbeing (=harmful) and, in addition, some psychological mechanisms, directly or indirectly related to them, fail to perform the jobs for which they were selected in the past (=malfunctioning). An objection to the proposal is that delusional beliefs might not involve any malfunctions. For example, they might be playing psychological defence functions properly. Another objection is that a harmful malfunction is not sufficient for something to be pathological. For example, false beliefs might involve some malfunctions according to teleosemantics, a popular naturalist account of mental content, but harmful false beliefs do not have to be pathological. I examine those objections in detail and show that they should be rejected after all. PMID:25467777

  18. Defining minimum standards of practice for incorporating African traditional medicine into HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support: a regional initiative in eastern and southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Homsy, Jaco; King, Rachel; Tenywa, Joseph; Kyeyune, Primrose; Opio, Alex; Balaba, Dorothy

    2004-10-01

    In many resource-poor settings of Africa, a majority of people living with HIV/AIDS depend on and choose traditional healers for psychosocial counseling and health care. If the current pan-African prevention and care efforts spurred by the HIV pandemic do not actively engage African Traditional Medicine, they will effectively miss 80%, the vast majority of the African people who, according to the World Health Organization, rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. In 2001, the Ugandan nongovernmental organization, Traditional and Modern Health Practitioners Together Against AIDS and Other Diseases, in Kampala, identified the need for a concerted, systematic, and sustained effort at both local and regional levels to support and validate African Traditional Medicine on several fronts. The Eastern & Southern Africa Regional Initiative on Traditional Medicine and AIDS was borne out of this assessment. It convened a regional consultation in May 2003, which produced a series of proposed standards around six main themes related to traditional medicine and HIV/AIDS: the systematic evaluation of traditional remedies; spiritual aspects of healing; HIV prevention and care; processing and packaging of traditional remedies; protection of indigenous knowledge; and intellectual property rights related to traditional health systems. These standards, summarized in this paper, will be incorporated into programs on traditional medicine and HIV/AIDS by various implementers in the region. A number of strategies to test and implement these recommendations are also defined. PMID:15650481

  19. The Challenge of Deliberate Self-Harm by Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Peter; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes model of crisis intervention to families of adolescents who deliberately harm themselves and summarizes premises which guide practice. Views adolescent's "overdose" as attempt to resolve relationship conflicts and works to explore predicament for adolescent and family. Verbatim extracts from one session illustrate the process. (Author/NB)

  20. Will Large DSO-Managed Group Practices Be the Predominant Setting for Oral Health Care by 2025? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Large DSO-Managed Group Practices Will Be the Setting in Which the Majority of Oral Health Care Is Delivered by 2025 and Viewpoint 2: Increases in DSO-Managed Group Practices Will Be Offset by Models Allowing Dentists to Retain the Independence and Freedom of a Traditional Practice.

    PubMed

    Cole, James R; Dodge, William W; Findley, John S; Young, Stephen K; Horn, Bruce D; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L; Martin, Max M; Winder, Ronald L

    2015-05-01

    This Point/Counterpoint article discusses the transformation of dental practice from the traditional solo/small-group (partnership) model of the 1900s to large Dental Support Organizations (DSO) that support affiliated dental practices by providing nonclinical functions such as, but not limited to, accounting, human resources, marketing, and legal and practice management. Many feel that DSO-managed group practices (DMGPs) with employed providers will become the setting in which the majority of oral health care will be delivered in the future. Viewpoint 1 asserts that the traditional dental practice patterns of the past are shifting as many younger dentists gravitate toward employed positions in large group practices or the public sector. Although educational debt is relevant in predicting graduates' practice choices, other variables such as gender, race, and work-life balance play critical roles as well. Societal characteristics demonstrated by aging Gen Xers and those in the Millennial generation blend seamlessly with the opportunities DMGPs offer their employees. Viewpoint 2 contends the traditional model of dental care delivery-allowing entrepreneurial practitioners to make decisions in an autonomous setting-is changing but not to the degree nor as rapidly as Viewpoint 1 professes. Millennials entering the dental profession, with characteristics universally attributed to their generation, see value in the independence and flexibility that a traditional practice allows. Although DMGPs provide dentists one option for practice, several alternative delivery models offer current dentists and future dental school graduates many of the advantages of DMGPs while allowing them to maintain the independence and freedom a traditional practice provides. PMID:25941139

  1. Harm is all you need? Best interests and disputes about parental decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Birchley, Giles

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of bioethics papers endorse the harm threshold when judging whether to override parental decisions. Among other claims, these papers argue that the harm threshold is easily understood by lay and professional audiences and correctly conforms to societal expectations of parents in regard to their children. English law contains a harm threshold which mediates the use of the best interests test in cases where a child may be removed from her parents. Using Diekema's seminal paper as an example, this paper explores the proposed workings of the harm threshold. I use examples from the practical use of the harm threshold in English law to argue that the harm threshold is an inadequate answer to the indeterminacy of the best interests test. I detail two criticisms: First, the harm standard has evaluative overtones and judges are loath to employ it where parental behaviour is misguided but they wish to treat parents sympathetically. Thus, by focusing only on ‘substandard’ parenting, harm is problematic where the parental attempts to benefit their child are misguided or wrong, such as in disputes about withdrawal of medical treatment. Second, when harm is used in genuine dilemmas, court judgments offer different answers to similar cases. This level of indeterminacy suggests that, in practice, the operation of the harm threshold would be indistinguishable from best interests. Since indeterminacy appears to be the greatest problem in elucidating what is best, bioethicists should concentrate on discovering the values that inform best interests. PMID:26401048

  2. Harm is all you need? Best interests and disputes about parental decision-making.

    PubMed

    Birchley, Giles

    2016-02-01

    A growing number of bioethics papers endorse the harm threshold when judging whether to override parental decisions. Among other claims, these papers argue that the harm threshold is easily understood by lay and professional audiences and correctly conforms to societal expectations of parents in regard to their children. English law contains a harm threshold which mediates the use of the best interests test in cases where a child may be removed from her parents. Using Diekema's seminal paper as an example, this paper explores the proposed workings of the harm threshold. I use examples from the practical use of the harm threshold in English law to argue that the harm threshold is an inadequate answer to the indeterminacy of the best interests test. I detail two criticisms: First, the harm standard has evaluative overtones and judges are loath to employ it where parental behaviour is misguided but they wish to treat parents sympathetically. Thus, by focusing only on 'substandard' parenting, harm is problematic where the parental attempts to benefit their child are misguided or wrong, such as in disputes about withdrawal of medical treatment. Second, when harm is used in genuine dilemmas, court judgments offer different answers to similar cases. This level of indeterminacy suggests that, in practice, the operation of the harm threshold would be indistinguishable from best interests. Since indeterminacy appears to be the greatest problem in elucidating what is best, bioethicists should concentrate on discovering the values that inform best interests. PMID:26401048

  3. Self-harm and overcrowding among prisoners in Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Hans; Casillas, Alejandra; Perneger, Thomas; Heller, Patrick; Golay, Diane; Mouton, Elisabeth; Bodenmann, Patrick; Getaz, Laurent

    2016-03-14

    Purpose - Prison institutional conditions affect risk for self-harm among detainees. In particular, prison overcrowding may increase the likelihood of self-harm by creating competition for resources, space, and enhancing a "deprivation state." The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between overcrowding and prisoner acts of self-harm. Design/methodology/approach - This cross-sectional study took place at Geneva's pre-trial prison (capacity:376) between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes were acts of self-harm that required medical attention, and self-strangulation/hanging events (combined into one group, as these are difficult to differentiate). Dichotomous predictors were overcrowding index- annual mean daily population divided by capacity ( > 200 percent vs < 200 percent), and year group (2006-2009 vs 2011-2014). Findings - Self-harm and self-strangulations/hangings increased in 2011-2014 compared to 2006-2010 (p < 0.001). Overcrowding in excess of 200 percent was associated with self-strangulation/hangings (p < 0.001) but not with all self-harm events. In terms of pertinent demographics that would affect self-harm, there was no prison change in gender, area of origin, foreign residency, religion, or psychiatric treatment. Research limitations/implications - The present study is limited by the definition and identification of self-harm. The distinction between self-strangulation and self-hanging, and the precise classification of an intent to die is difficult to make in practice, especially with limited prison data records available. The relevant literature addresses the complexity of the association between non-suicidal and suicidal behavior. Despite this, the combined category self-strangulations/hangings gives some indication of severe self-harm events, especially since the methodology of categorization employed was consistent throughout the entire period of the study. Other limitations include the small sample size and the lack of individual patient data and prison data to help control for confounding factors. Despite these drawbacks, pertinent data (socio-demographics and number of prisoners treated for mental health and drug abuse) remained stable over the years. Thus, there are no apparent changes in the inmate population that could be linked to an increase in self-harm. High-security placements and mean prisoner stay have increased over time, with a decrease in staff to prisoner ratio - and these must be looked into further as contributors. Additionally, qualitative methods such as semi-structured interviews and focus groups could delineate the impact of overcrowding on prisoner well-being and self-harm potential. Practical implications - The authors observed a significant increase in self-harm and self-strangulation/hangings over time, and overcrowding was significantly associated with self-strangulation/hangings (but not with all self-harm events). Overcrowding can impose destructive effects on the psychological and behavioral well being of inmates in prison, influencing a myriad of emotional and livelihood factors that predispose to harmful behavior. Originality/value - This report should alert public health and prison authorities to this issue, and garner resources to address such an alarming rise. The findings from this short report demonstrate the need for a further examination of the mechanisms affecting self-harm among prisoners in this population, particularly the relationship between self-strangulations/hangings and overcrowding. PMID:26933991

  4. The Olympics and harm reduction?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent. The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping. PMID:22788912

  5. Traditional Practicing with Arsenic Rich Water in Fish Industries Leads to Health Hazards in West Bengal and North-Eastern States of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 μg/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.

  6. Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

    The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

  7. The Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Position paper on harm reduction and HIV care for drug users: integrating harm-reduction methods and HIV care.

    PubMed

    Fisk, S N

    1998-01-01

    As the epidemic of HIV disease continues to grow among drug users and their sexual partners, new ways must be adopted to do prevention work, outreach, and service delivery to this population. The Harm Reduction Model offers methods of working with drug users, which are in contrast to traditional methods based on confrontation and that require abstinence before change can occur. This position paper examines the Harm Reduction Model and outlines areas in which the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care can play a role in the expansion of harm-reduction-based intervention and policies. PMID:9589418

  8. Traditional African Dance Education as Curriculum Reimagination in Postcolonial Zimbabwe: A Rethink of Policy and Practice of Dance Education in the Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonye, Jairos; Moyo, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the teaching and learning of traditional dance at primary school level in Zimbabwe as a key aspect of postcolonial curriculum reimagination within the broader project of reclaiming a nation's heritage. The paper used the survey design to determine how a cohort of primary school teachers understood traditional dance and how they…

  9. Traditional African Dance Education as Curriculum Reimagination in Postcolonial Zimbabwe: A Rethink of Policy and Practice of Dance Education in the Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonye, Jairos; Moyo, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the teaching and learning of traditional dance at primary school level in Zimbabwe as a key aspect of postcolonial curriculum reimagination within the broader project of reclaiming a nation's heritage. The paper used the survey design to determine how a cohort of primary school teachers understood traditional dance and how they

  10. 'Elective' ventilation: an unethical and harmful misnomer?

    PubMed

    Stammers, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    The demand for organs prompted the first use of elective ventilation in the UK in the 1990s. Recently the shortfall in supply of organs has once again prompted calls for elective ventilation to be instituted even in patients who are not brain dead. This paper proposes that the term 'elective' ventilation is a misnomer and the term non-therapeutic ventilation (NTV) should be used instead. It is further argued that the practice of NTV in cases of severe stroke is unethical and has the potential of causing a variety of harms to the patient, their relatives, and the healthcare professionals working in transplant teams and this may result in a backlash of reductions in the number of organ donations. PMID:25109129

  11. How the harm reduction movement contrasts itself against punitive prohibition.

    PubMed

    Tammi, Tuukka; Hurme, Toivo

    2007-03-01

    On the basis of the harm reduction movement's founding texts from the beginning of the 1990s, this paper reflects the movement's self-understanding in contrasting itself with the system of punitive prohibition. Following this is a discussion of the implications for drug users of harm reduction claims-making. The paper concludes that the principles of the harm reduction movement resonate extremely well with the moral sensibilities of our contemporary societies, and but that the movement's claims for an amoral, rational, just, and emancipating approach to drug use are to be seen rather as a powerful rhetorical intervention in the highly moralised landscape of drug debate than something that would be achieved in practice. PMID:17689349

  12. [Dutch parliament legitimizes harmful quackery].

    PubMed

    van Dam, Frits S A M; Renckens, Cees N M

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch parliament has recently accepted a tax law in which certain groups of alternative therapists can be exempt from VAT. To be eligible for this VAT exemption, the disciplines to which the therapists belong have to meet certain training requirements. In this article it is contended, in agreement with the Royal College of Physicians in the UK, that statutory regulation is inappropriate for disciplines whose therapies are neither of proved benefit nor appropriately tested. It legitimizes harmful therapies. This is illustrated by two serious accidents, previously described in this journal, caused by a chiropractor and a craniosacral therapist. PMID:20298623

  13. Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires

  14. Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

  15. Simulating murder: the aversion to harmful action.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Fiery; Gray, Kurt; Gaffey, Allison; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-02-01

    Diverse lines of evidence point to a basic human aversion to physically harming others. First, we demonstrate that unwillingness to endorse harm in a moral dilemma is predicted by individual differences in aversive reactivity, as indexed by peripheral vasoconstriction. Next, we tested the specific factors that elicit the aversive response to harm. Participants performed actions such as discharging a fake gun into the face of the experimenter, fully informed that the actions were pretend and harmless. These simulated harmful actions increased peripheral vasoconstriction significantly more than did witnessing pretend harmful actions or to performing metabolically matched nonharmful actions. This suggests that the aversion to harmful actions extends beyond empathic concern for victim harm. Together, these studies demonstrate a link between the body and moral decision-making processes. PMID:21910540

  16. Are cultic environments psychologically harmful?

    PubMed

    Aronoff, J; Lynn, S J; Malinoski, P

    2000-01-01

    This article is the first critical review of research that addresses the question of whether cult membership is psychologically harmful. The available evidence warrants three conclusions: (a) persons entering cults do not necessarily exhibit psychopathology; (b) current cult members appear psychologically well-adjusted generally, and demonstrate few conspicuous symptoms of psychopathology. However, pathology may be masked by conformity pressures and demand characteristics associated with the cultic environment; (c) a small but growing body of research indicates that at least a substantial minority of former cult members experience significant adjustment difficulties. There also are indications that these difficulties cannot be ascribed to demand characteristics. Although the review highlights definitional and methodological issues and problems that temper conclusions that can be drawn from the literature, no evidence indicates that cults improve adjustment after members leave the cultic environment. PMID:10660830

  17. Virtual reality and the traditional method for phlebotomy training among college of nursing students in Kuwait: implications for nursing education and practice.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Victoria L; Ohaeri, Beatrice M; John, Pamela; Helen, Delles

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study, with a control group and experimental group, compares the effectiveness of virtual reality simulators on developing phlebotomy skills of nursing students with the effectiveness of traditional methods of teaching. Performance of actual phlebotomy on a live client was assessed after training, using a standardized form. Findings showed that students who were exposed to the virtual reality simulator performed better in the following performance metrics: pain factor, hematoma formation, and number of reinsertions. This study confirms that the use of the virtual reality-based system to supplement the traditional method may be the optimal program for training. PMID:24006114

  18. Environments, risk and health harms: a qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Kimergård, Andreas; McVeigh, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The illicit use of anabolic steroids among the gym population continues to rise, along with the number of steroid using clients attending harm reduction services in the UK. This presents serious challenges to public health. Study objectives were to account for the experiences of anabolic steroid users and investigate how ‘risk environments’ produce harm. Methods Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 24 users of anabolic steroids engaged with harm reduction services in the UK. Results Body satisfaction was an important factor when deciding to start the use of anabolic steroids. Many users were unaware of the potential dangers of using drugs from the illicit market, whereas some had adopted a range of strategies to negotiate the hazards relating to the use of adulterated products, including self-experimentation to gauge the perceived efficacy and unwanted effects of these drugs. Viewpoints, first-hand anecdotes, norms and practices among groups of steroid users created boundaries of ‘sensible’ drug use, but also promoted practices that may increase the chance of harms occurring. Established users encouraged young users to go to harm reduction services but, at the same time, promoted risky injecting practices in the belief that this would enhance the efficacy of anabolic steroids. Conclusions Current steroid-related viewpoints and practices contribute to the risk environment surrounding the use of these drugs and may undermine the goal of current public health strategies including harm reduction interventions. The level of harms among anabolic steroid users are determined by multiple and intertwining factors, in addition to the harms caused by the pharmacological action or injury and illness associated with incorrect injecting techniques. PMID:24898090

  19. Assembling the dominant accounts of youth drug use in Australian harm reduction drug education.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Adrian

    2014-07-01

    Education programs are a central element of Australian harm reduction drug policy. Considered less judgmental and more effective than the punitive policies of Australia's past, harm reduction drug education is premised on the goal of reducing 'risks' and harms associated with illicit drug use rather than an elimination of use per se. In this article I analyse two sets of key texts designed to reduce drug related harm in Australia: harm reduction teaching resources designed for classroom use and social marketing campaigns that are targeted to a more general audience. I identify two significant accounts of young people's drug use present in Australian harm reduction drug education: 'damaged mental health' and 'distress'. I then draw on some of Deleuze and Guattari's key concepts to consider the harm reducing potential these accounts may have for young people's drug using experiences. To demonstrate the potential limitations of current drug education, I refer to an established body of work examining young people's experiences of chroming. From here, I argue that the accounts of 'damaged mental health' and 'distress' may work to limit the capacity of young drug users to practice safer drug use. In sum, current Australian harm reduction drug education and social marketing may be producing rather than reducing drug related harm. PMID:24882707

  20. Anatomy--The Patient's or the Book's? Progress Report on a Teaching Experiment Which Reverses the Traditional Sequence of "Theoretical" and "Practical" Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecher, Stan R.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to replace a tradition of theoretical rote memorization by objective-oriented learning is described, based on an experiment involving teaching anatomy to dental students at the Royal Dental College in Copenhagen. Both students and teachers favored this independent learning system. (Author/LBH)

  1. Understanding Patient Values and the Manifestations in Clinical Research with Traditional Chinese MedicineWith Practical Suggestions for Trial Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hongcai

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To define patient values, identify their manifestations in a randomized clinical trial, and investigate the possible implications for clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine. Methods. We categorized patient values manifestations into patient choice, preference, compliance, and patient-reported outcomes and summarized the underlying personal values through purposeful electronic searches for relevant reports. By hypothesizing a set of positive versus negative circumstances occurring in the enrollment, intervention allocation, treatment, and the follow-up stage of a trial, it is possible to discuss the potential implications of patient values manifestation on a trial with traditional Chinese medicine. Results. Patient values and its manifestations are ubiquitous in the process of clinical research with traditional Chinese medicine. These values may provide motivation for participation or engender the internal and external validity of the study. Conclusions. Trialists should attach sufficient importance to the needs and concerns of individual participant. To incorporate patient values into the design and conduct of a clinical study with traditional Chinese medicine, researchers are recommended to adopt participant-friendly design and use patient-reported outcomes, take convenience-for-patients measures, and help foster rational beliefs and behaviors of trial participants. PMID:24363772

  2. A Comparison of Preservice Teachers' Responses to Cyber versus Traditional Bullying Scenarios: Similarities and Differences and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Michael J.; Hardcastle, Katryna; Down, James; Fowles, John; Simmonds, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies indicate that teachers differ in how they respond to different kinds of traditional bullying, and that their beliefs predict their intervention intentions. The current study provided the first extension of this work into the realm of cyber bullying. Preservice teachers in the United Kingdom ("N" = 222) were presented with…

  3. Traditional/Alternative Medicine: An Investigation into Identification, Knowledge and Consumption Practices of Herbal Medicine among Students with Hearing Impairment in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniyi, Samuel O.; Olufemi-Adeniyi, Olubukola A.; Erinoso, Sakiru M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of traditional medicine as alternative or complimentary therapy is gaining prominence in primary health care worldwide. This is because of the efficacy in the management of mild, chronic seemingly incurable ailments/diseases. Though the publicity is on the increase from country to country in the world, however, one cannot conclude that the…

  4. The Instructional Behaviors, Class Content, and Class Organization of Movement Educators: Relationship to Movement Education Theory and Comparison to Traditional Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Barbara L.

    A study investigated and compared the instructional behaviors, class content, and class organization of kindergarten and first grade movement educators and traditional physical education teachers. Literature on this topic suggests that movement educators focus on indirect teaching methods, nontraditional classroom settings, student involvement,…

  5. A Comparison of Preservice Teachers' Responses to Cyber versus Traditional Bullying Scenarios: Similarities and Differences and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Michael J.; Hardcastle, Katryna; Down, James; Fowles, John; Simmonds, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies indicate that teachers differ in how they respond to different kinds of traditional bullying, and that their beliefs predict their intervention intentions. The current study provided the first extension of this work into the realm of cyber bullying. Preservice teachers in the United Kingdom ("N" = 222) were presented with

  6. Monitoring Indicators of Harmful Cyanobacteria in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiesling, Richard L.; Gary, Robin H.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2008-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms can occur when certain types of microscopic algae grow quickly in water, forming visible patches that might harm the health of the environment, plants, or animals. In freshwater, species of Cyanobacteria (also known as bluegreen algae) are the dominant group of harmful, bloom-forming algae. When Cyanobacteria form a harmful algal bloom, potential impairments include restricted recreational activities because of algal scums or algal mats, potential loss of public water supply because of taste and odor compounds (for example, geosmin), and the production of toxins (for example, microcystin) in amounts capable of threatening human health and wildlife.

  7. Practice.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    Practice refers to a characteristic way professionals use common standards to customize solutions to a range of problems. Practice includes (a) standards for outcomes and processes that are shared with one's colleagues, (b) a rich repertoire of skills grounded in diagnostic acumen, (c) an ability to see the actual and the ideal and work back and forth between them, (d) functional artistry, and (e) learning by doing that transcends scientific rationality. Communities of practice, such as dental offices, are small groups that work together in interlocking roles to achieve these ends. PMID:19413050

  8. Practice of traditional Chinese medicine for psycho-behavioral intervention improves quality of life in cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dapeng; Wang, Chunli; Duan, Yangyang; Li, Xiaofen; Zhou, Shiyu; Zhao, Mingjie; Li, Yi; He, Yumin; Wang, Shaowu; Kelley, Keith W.; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer patients suffer from diverse symptoms, including depression, anxiety, pain, and fatigue and lower quality of life (QoL) during disease progression. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of Traditional Chinese Medicine psycho-behavioral interventions (TCM PBIs) on improving QoL by meta-analysis. Methods Electronic literature databases (PubMed, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang) were searched for randomized, controlled trials conducted in China. The primary intervention was TCM PBIs. The main outcome was health-related QoL (HR QoL) post-treatment. We applied standard meta analytic techniques to analyze data from papers that reached acceptable criteria. Results The six TCM PBIs analyzed were acupuncture, Chinese massage, Traditional Chinese Medicine five elements musical intervention (TCM FEMI), Traditional Chinese Medicine dietary supplement (TCM DS), Qigong and Tai Chi. Although both TCM PBIs and non-TCM PBIs reduced functional impairments in cancer patients and led to pain relief, depression remission, reduced time to flatulence following surgery and sleep improvement, TCM PBIs showed more beneficial effects as assessed by reducing both fatigue and gastrointestinal distress. In particular, acupuncture relieved fatigue, reduced diarrhea and decreased time to flatulence after surgery in cancer patients, while therapeutic Chinese massage reduced time to flatulence and time to peristaltic sound. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the efficacy of TCM PBIs in improving QoL in cancer patients and establish that TCM PBIs represent beneficial adjunctive therapies for cancer patients. PMID:26498685

  9. Protecting fetuses from certain harm.

    PubMed

    Abel, E L

    1998-09-01

    Deborah Mathieu's proposal for state intervention in the lives of pregnant substance abusers in order to prevent serious harm to their future children sparked a lively debate in this journal. The present discussion characterizes the three main arguments offered against her proposal as (a) the "uncertainty principle"--the inability to predict which fetuses will be affected, (b) the "father factor"--gender bias with respect to prenatal damage, and (c) "critical periods"--the vulnerability of the embryo/fetus at different times of pregnancy. Each of these arguments is examined in the specific context of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Since the birth of a child with FAS is a virtual certainty if a woman has previously given birth to a child with FAS, since no father has ever sired a child with FAS unless his spouse is an alcoholic, and since the most damaging effects are those associated with exposure throughout and especially late in pregnancy, none of the arguments offered against Mathieu's proposal are relevant in this particularly narrow set of circumstances. While Mathieu's proposal seems pertinent in this situation, her proposal would be even more effective if modified as suggested here. PMID:12408145

  10. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-21

    Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children.

  11. The Scientometric Bubble Considered Harmful.

    PubMed

    Génova, Gonzalo; Astudillo, Hernán; Fraga, Anabel

    2016-02-01

    This article deals with a modern disease of academic science that consists of an enormous increase in the number of scientific publications without a corresponding advance of knowledge. Findings are sliced as thin as salami and submitted to different journals to produce more papers. If we consider academic papers as a kind of scientific 'currency' that is backed by gold bullion in the central bank of 'true' science, then we are witnessing an article-inflation phenomenon, a scientometric bubble that is most harmful for science and promotes an unethical and antiscientific culture among researchers. The main problem behind the scenes is that the impact factor is used as a proxy for quality. Therefore, not only for convenience, but also based on ethical principles of scientific research, we adhere to the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment when it emphasizes "the need to eliminate the use of journal-based metrics in funding, appointment and promotion considerations; and the need to assess research on its own merits rather on the journal in which the research is published". Our message is mainly addressed to the funding agencies and universities that award tenures or grants and manage research programmes, especially in developing countries. The message is also addressed to well-established scientists who have the power to change things when they participate in committees for grants and jobs. PMID:25689931

  12. TEXAS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM COORDINATION MX964014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly � of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...

  13. TEXAS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM COORDINATION MX964014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly ? of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...

  14. Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,

  15. Practitioner Review: Self-Harm in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ougrin, Dennis; Tranah, Troy; Leigh, Eleanor; Taylor, Lucy; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum

    2012-01-01

    Background: Repeated self-harm in adolescents is common and associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm there have been few systematic reviews of the topic. Aims: The main aim of this article is to review randomised controlled

  16. Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

  17. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  18. Practitioner Review: Self-Harm in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ougrin, Dennis; Tranah, Troy; Leigh, Eleanor; Taylor, Lucy; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum

    2012-01-01

    Background: Repeated self-harm in adolescents is common and associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm there have been few systematic reviews of the topic. Aims: The main aim of this article is to review randomised controlled…

  19. Online drug user-led harm reduction in Hungary: a review of "Daath".

    PubMed

    Móró, Levente; Rácz, József

    2013-01-01

    Harm reduction has been increasingly finding its way into public drug policies and healthcare practices worldwide, with successful intervention measures justifiably focussing on the highest-risk groups, such as injecting drug users. However, there are also other types of drug users in need for harm reduction, even though they pose less, low, or no public health risk. Occasionally, drug users may autonomously organise themselves into groups to provide advocacy, harm reduction, and peer-help services, sometimes online. The http://www.daath.hu website has been operated since 2001 by the "Hungarian Psychedelic Community", an unorganised drug user group with a special interest in hallucinogenic and related substances. As of today, the website serves about 1200 visitors daily, and the online community comprises of more than 8000 registered members. The Daath community is driven by a strong commitment to the policy of harm reduction in the form of various peer-help activities that aim to expand harm reduction without promoting drug use. Our review comprehensively summarises Daath's user-led harm reduction services and activities from the last ten years, firstly outlining the history and growth phases of Daath, along with its self-set guidelines and policies. Online services (such as a discussion board, and an Ecstasy pill database) and offline activities (such as Ecstasy pill field testing, and a documentary film about psychedelics) are described. In order to extend its harm reduction services and activities in the future, Daath has several social, commercial, and legislative challenges to face. Starting with a need to realign its focus, outlooks for the upcoming operation of Daath are pondered. Future trends in harm reduction, such as separating harm-decreasing from benefit-increasing, are also discussed. We aim to share these innovative harm reduction measures and good practices in order to be critically assessed, and--if found useful--adapted and applied elsewhere. PMID:24088321

  20. Online drug user-led harm reduction in Hungary: a review of “Daath”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Harm reduction has been increasingly finding its way into public drug policies and healthcare practices worldwide, with successful intervention measures justifiably focussing on the highest-risk groups, such as injecting drug users. However, there are also other types of drug users in need for harm reduction, even though they pose less, low, or no public health risk. Occasionally, drug users may autonomously organise themselves into groups to provide advocacy, harm reduction, and peer-help services, sometimes online. The http://www.daath.hu website has been operated since 2001 by the “Hungarian Psychedelic Community”, an unorganised drug user group with a special interest in hallucinogenic and related substances. As of today, the website serves about 1200 visitors daily, and the online community comprises of more than 8000 registered members. The Daath community is driven by a strong commitment to the policy of harm reduction in the form of various peer-help activities that aim to expand harm reduction without promoting drug use. Our review comprehensively summarises Daath’s user-led harm reduction services and activities from the last ten years, firstly outlining the history and growth phases of Daath, along with its self-set guidelines and policies. Online services (such as a discussion board, and an Ecstasy pill database) and offline activities (such as Ecstasy pill field testing, and a documentary film about psychedelics) are described. In order to extend its harm reduction services and activities in the future, Daath has several social, commercial, and legislative challenges to face. Starting with a need to realign its focus, outlooks for the upcoming operation of Daath are pondered. Future trends in harm reduction, such as separating harm-decreasing from benefit-increasing, are also discussed. We aim to share these innovative harm reduction measures and good practices in order to be critically assessed, and – if found useful – adapted and applied elsewhere. PMID:24088321

  1. Traditional Chinese drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, John K

    2003-12-01

    More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. PMID:14747850

  2. The Search for Common Values at Winnetka: One District Challenges Its Traditions, Practices, and Philosophical Assumptions. New Directions for School Leadership. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaganis, Sandra, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    When the Winnetka public school system reexamined its philosophy, questions were raised about the alignment between theory and practice. This sourcebook represents the thinking of teachers about how the validity of their philosophy of education rests on their ability to analyze what they are, discover how they came to be what they are, and imagine…

  3. Learning a New Approach to Teach in a Traditional Context: A Case of Thai Primary School Teachers Making Fundamental Changes in Their Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namfa, Benjalug

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a unique professional development model and its contribution to teachers' practice. The study also sought to understand the process of teacher learning as teachers made fundamental changes in their teaching. The new model of professional development was implemented in the context of the Social Forestry, Education and…

  4. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods. PMID:26364776

  5. "Everyone deserves services no matter what": defining success in harm-reduction-based substance user treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heather Sophia; Zerai, Assata

    2010-12-01

    This article reports qualitative interview data from a study of participant-generated outcomes of two harm reduction programs in the United States. We address the question:"What does success in harm-reduction-based substance user treatment look like?" Providers in this study understood harm reduction to adhere to notions of "any positive change," client centeredness, and low-threshold services. Participants reported changes in demarginalization, engagement in the program, quality of life, social functioning, changes in substance use, and changes in future goals and plans. The nature of these changes is difficult to articulate within traditional notions of success (i.e., abstinence, program completion, etc.). We conclude that participants in harm reduction programs experience tangible positive changes but that legitimation of these changes calls for a reconceptualization of "outcomes" and "success" in the current context of substance user treatment and research. PMID:20397869

  6. Integrated traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicola

    2006-05-01

    To experience the integration of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China was 'the chance of a lifetime; thanks to the support of the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust. The scale and range of TCM available in terms of health care provision, education and research is unique in the world. This holistic integrative medicine is part of Chinese culture. Regulation and training of practitioners has similarities with current structures emerging in the UK in preparation for the statutory regulation for acupuncture and herbal medicine. China's research activity is a critical component of informing the debate on evidence-based practice and now real opportunities for collaboration and dissemination are beginning to emerge. PMID:16648091

  7. Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems. PMID:23740348

  8. [Self-harm in fiction literature].

    PubMed

    Skårderud, Finn

    2009-04-16

    European literature contains fictional descriptions of self-harm and self-punishment over a time span of almost 2 500 years. This article presents such descriptions, from Sofocles' tragedy about King Oedipus to contemporary literature. Particular interest is dedicated to the Austrian Nobel prize laureate Elfriede Jelinek and the Norwegian author Karl Ove Knausgård. In Jelinek's fictional universe, self-harm is particularly related to the topic of autonomy in a family context; while Knausgård describes the role of shame in triggering and sustaining self-harming behaviour. PMID:19373315

  9. Deliberate self-harm in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lauw, Michelle; How, Choon How; Loh, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm refers to an intentional act of causing physical injury to oneself without wanting to die. It is frequently encountered in adolescents who have mental health problems. Primary care physicians play an important role in the early detection and timely intervention of deliberate self-harm in adolescents. This article aims to outline the associated risk factors and possible aetiologies of deliberate self-harm in adolescents, as well as provide suggestions for clinical assessment and appropriate management within the primary care setting. PMID:26106236

  10. Comparison of an effect-model-law-based method versus traditional clinical practice guidelines for optimal treatment decision-making: application to statin treatment in the French population.

    PubMed

    Kahoul, Riad; Gueyffier, François; Amsallem, Emmanuel; Haugh, Margaret; Marchant, Ivanny; Boissel, François-Henri; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

    2014-11-01

    Healthcare authorities make difficult decisions about how to spend limited budgets for interventions that guarantee the best cost-efficacy ratio. We propose a novel approach for treatment decision-making, OMES-in French: Objectif thérapeutique Modèle Effet Seuil (in English: Therapeutic Objective-Threshold-Effect Model; TOTEM). This approach takes into consideration results from clinical trials, adjusted for the patients' characteristics in treatment decision-making. We compared OMES with the French clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the management of dyslipidemia with statin in a computer-generated realistic virtual population, representing the adult French population, in terms of the number of all-cause deaths avoided (number of avoided events: NAEs) under treatment and the individual absolute benefit. The total budget was fixed at the annual amount reimbursed by the French social security for statins. With the CPGs, the NAEs was 292 for an annual cost of 122.54 M€ compared with 443 with OMES. For a fixed NAEs, OMES reduced costs by 50% (60.53 M€ yr(-1)). The results demonstrate that OMES is at least as good as, and even better than, the standard CPGs when applied to the same population. Hence the OMES approach is a practical, useful alternative which will help to overcome the limitations of treatment decision-making based uniquely on CPGs. PMID:25209407

  11. Comparison of an effect-model-law-based method versus traditional clinical practice guidelines for optimal treatment decision-making: application to statin treatment in the French population

    PubMed Central

    Kahoul, Riad; Gueyffier, François; Amsallem, Emmanuel; Haugh, Margaret; Marchant, Ivanny; Boissel, François-Henri; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare authorities make difficult decisions about how to spend limited budgets for interventions that guarantee the best cost-efficacy ratio. We propose a novel approach for treatment decision-making, OMES—in French: Objectif thérapeutique Modèle Effet Seuil (in English: Therapeutic Objective–Threshold–Effect Model; TOTEM). This approach takes into consideration results from clinical trials, adjusted for the patients' characteristics in treatment decision-making. We compared OMES with the French clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the management of dyslipidemia with statin in a computer-generated realistic virtual population, representing the adult French population, in terms of the number of all-cause deaths avoided (number of avoided events: NAEs) under treatment and the individual absolute benefit. The total budget was fixed at the annual amount reimbursed by the French social security for statins. With the CPGs, the NAEs was 292 for an annual cost of 122.54 M€ compared with 443 with OMES. For a fixed NAEs, OMES reduced costs by 50% (60.53 M€ yr−1). The results demonstrate that OMES is at least as good as, and even better than, the standard CPGs when applied to the same population. Hence the OMES approach is a practical, useful alternative which will help to overcome the limitations of treatment decision-making based uniquely on CPGs. PMID:25209407

  12. Harm reduction-the cannabis paradox

    PubMed Central

    Melamede, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids) as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive). Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately. PMID:16179090

  13. High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

  14. Is harm reduction profitable? An analytical framework for corporate social responsibility based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption.

    PubMed

    Massin, Sophie

    2012-06-01

    This article aims to help resolve the apparent paradox of producers of addictive goods who claim to be socially responsible while marketing a product clearly identified as harmful. It advances that reputation effects are crucial in this issue and that determining whether harm reduction practices are costly or profitable for the producers can help to assess the sincerity of their discourse. An analytical framework based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption that includes a deterrent effect of heavy use on initiation is developed. This framework enables us to establish a clear distinction between a simple responsible discourse and genuine harm reduction practices and, among harm reduction practices, between use reduction practices and micro harm reduction practices. Using simulations based on tobacco sales in France from 1950 to 2008, we explore the impact of three corresponding types of actions: communication on damage, restraining selling practices and development of safer products on total sales and on the social cost. We notably find that restraining selling practices toward light users, that is, preventing light users from escalating to heavy use, can be profitable for the producer, especially at early stages of the epidemic, but that such practices also contribute to increase the social cost. These results suggest that the existence of a deterrent effect of heavy use on the initiation of the consumption of an addictive good can shed new light on important issues, such as the motivations for corporate social responsibility and the definition of responsible actions in the particular case of harm reduction. PMID:22475402

  15. Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate…

  16. Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate

  17. [Self-harm presentations in movies].

    PubMed

    Skårderud, Finn

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how movies can enhance our understanding of the phenomenology of self-destructive behaviour. Various aspects of self-harm, including psychological individual characteristics and cultural trends, have been elucidated through a strategic selection of movies. As movies represent a popular rather than a medical discourse, they can provide physicians and health professionals with different and non-medical perspectives of self-harm. PMID:19415103

  18. Self-harm in young offenders.

    PubMed

    Borschmann, Rohan; Coffey, Carolyn; Moran, Paul; Hearps, Stephen; Degenhardt, Louisa; Kinner, Stuart A; Patton, George

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence and correlates of self-harm and suicidal behavior in 515 young offenders (mean age 17.3 years, SD = 1.7) serving community-based orders (CBOs; n = 242) or custodial sentences (n = 273) in Victoria, Australia, are described. Results from structured interviews showed that 83 (16.1%) participants reported self-harming in the previous 6 months, and this was more common among those serving custodial sentences than those serving CBOs (19.4% vs. 12.4%; OR 3.10, 95% CI: 1.74-5.55). Multiple incidents were more common in females and 24% (95% CI: 19-39) of participants who had self-harmed reported having done so with suicidal intent. Self-harm was associated with recent bullying victimization, expulsion from school, past year violent victimization, cannabis dependence, and risk-taking behavior in the preceding year. The epidemiological profile of self-harm in this population appears to be distinct from that seen in the general population. Young offenders who self-harm are a vulnerable group with high rates of psychiatric morbidity, substance misuse problems, and social risk factors. They may benefit from targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, delivered both within-and during the transition from-the youth justice system. PMID:24773535

  19. Authority dependence and judgments of utilitarian harm.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Jared; Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin

    2013-09-01

    Three studies tested the conditions under which people judge utilitarian harm to be authority dependent (i.e., whether its right or wrongness depends on the ruling of an authority). In Study 1, participants judged the right or wrongness of physical abuse when used as an interrogation method anticipated to yield useful information for preventing future terrorist attacks. The ruling of the military authority towards the harm was manipulated (prohibited vs. prescribed) and found to significantly influence judgments of the right or wrongness of inflicting harm. Study 2 established a boundary condition with regards to the influence of authority, which was eliminated when the utility of the harm was definitely obtained rather than forecasted. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of Studies 1-2 in a completely different context-an expert committee's ruling about the harming of chimpanzees for biomedical research. These results are discussed as they inform ongoing debates regarding the role of authority in moderating judgments of complex and simple harm. PMID:23747648

  20. E-Cigarette Awareness and Perceived Harmfulness

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Andy S.L.; Bigman, Cabral A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are increasingly advertised as replacements for regular cigarettes or cessation aids for smokers. Purpose To describe the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness among U.S. adults and analyze whether these variables are associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts and intention to quit. Methods Data were obtained from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4 Cycle 2), conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Data analyses were performed from June to August 2013. Results Overall, 77% of respondents were aware of e-cigarettes. Of these, 51% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes. Younger, white (compared with Hispanic), more educated respondents, and current or former smokers (compared with non-smokers) were more likely to be aware of e-cigarettes. Among those who were aware of e-cigarettes, younger, more educated respondents and current smokers (compared with former and non-smokers) were more likely to believe that e-cigarettes were less harmful. Awareness and perceived harm were not associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts or intention to quit. Conclusions Overall e-cigarette awareness increased while smokers’ perceived harm of e-cigarettes declined compared with earlier surveys. However, awareness and perceived harm of e-cigarettes did not show evidence of promoting smoking cessation at the population level. PMID:24794422

  1. The impact of self-harm by young people on parents and families: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrey, Anne E; Hughes, Nicholas D; Simkin, Sue; Locock, Louise; Stewart, Anne; Kapur, Navneet; Gunnell, David; Hawton, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little research has explored the full extent of the impact of self-harm on the family. This study aimed to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person's self-harm on parents and family. Design and participants We used qualitative methods to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person's self-harm on their parents and family. We conducted a thematic analysis of thirty-seven semistructured narrative interviews with parents of young people who had self-harmed. Results After the discovery of self-harm, parents described initial feelings of shock, anger and disbelief. Later reactions included stress, anxiety, feelings of guilt and in some cases the onset or worsening of clinical depression. Social isolation was reported, as parents withdrew from social contact due to the perceived stigma associated with self-harm. Parents also described significant impacts on siblings, ranging from upset and stress to feelings of responsibility and worries about stigma at school. Siblings had mixed responses, but were often supportive. Practically speaking, parents found the necessity of being available to their child often conflicted with the demands of full-time work. This, along with costs of, for example, travel and private care, affected family finances. However, parents generally viewed the future as positive and hoped that with help, their child would develop better coping mechanisms. Conclusions Self-harm by young people has major impacts on parents and other family members. Clinicians and staff who work with young people who self-harm should be sensitive to these issues and offer appropriate support and guidance for families. PMID:26739734

  2. Smoking and Harm-Reduction Efforts Among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Muramoto, Myra

    2013-01-01

    The authors present findings from a qualitative study on postpartum smoking among low-income women (N = 44) who had been smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Interview data collected after delivery at Months 1, 3, and 6 postpartum are discussed to explore contextual factors contributing to smoking abstinence, relapse, and harm-reduction practices. By 6 months postpartum, 10 women (23%) had completely quit, 21 women (48%) had reduced their smoking by 50% of their prepregnancy levels, and 7 women (16%) had reduced their smoking by one third of their prepregnancy levels. Thus, the majority of the women were engaging in significant harm-reduction efforts despite being entrenched in high-risk smoking environments where they were provided with few messages to quit. Many mothers were concerned about their moral identity as a smoker and expressed concerns that their child might initiate smoking at an early age. Future programs targeting this population should acknowledge women’s harm-reduction efforts in environments where smoking is normative. PMID:18689532

  3. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside.

    PubMed

    Lomba, Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, Rob H G; McCracken, David I

    2015-03-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems' data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation. PMID:25798221

  4. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside

    PubMed Central

    Lomba, Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, Rob H G; McCracken, David I

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems' data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation. PMID:25798221

  5. Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres) which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included in harm reduction advocacy or training strategies to support or operationalise legalised harm reduction interventions. The practices of street police challenge harm reduction policies, entirely understandably given the competing pressures on them. For harm reduction to be effective in Vietnam, it is essential that the ambiguities and contradictions between laws to control HIV and to control drugs be resolved for the street-level police. PMID:22769590

  6. Bullying victimization and adolescent self-harm: testing hypotheses from general strain theory.

    PubMed

    Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

    2010-05-01

    Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation. The data come from a school-based survey of adolescents in a rural county of a southeastern state (n = 426); 50% of subjects are female, their mean age was 15 years, and non-Hispanic whites represent 66% of the sample. The analysis revealed that both types of bullying are positively related to self-harm and suicidal ideation, net of controls. Moreover, those relationships are partially mediated by the negative emotions experienced by those who are bullied and partially moderated by features of the adolescent's social environment and self. Regarding the latter, exposure to authoritative parenting and high self-control diminished the harmful effects of bullying victimization on self-harm and suicidal ideation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these conclusions for future research and for policy efforts designed to reduce self-harm. PMID:20072852

  7. Assessing the likely harms to kidney vendors in regulated organ markets.

    PubMed

    Koplin, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Advocates of paid living kidney donation frequently argue that kidney sellers would benefit from paid donation under a properly regulated kidney market. The poor outcomes experienced by participants in existing markets are often entirely attributed to harmful black-market practices. This article reviews the medical and anthropological literature on the physical, psychological, social, and financial harms experienced by vendors under Iran's regulated system of donor compensation and black markets throughout the world and argues that this body of research not only documents significant harms to vendors, but also provides reasons to believe that such harms would persist under a regulated system. This does not settle the question of whether or not a regulated market should be introduced, but it does strengthen the case against markets in kidneys while suggesting that those advocating such a system cannot appeal to the purported benefits to vendors to support their case. PMID:25229573

  8. Tobacco harm reduction: promise and perils.

    PubMed

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2002-01-01

    With the tobacco industry developing and test marketing a wide array of modified cigarettes and novel nicotine-delivery products, the era of tobacco harm reduction is upon us. Like today's new technologies, two previous generations of cigarette innovation-filtered cigarettes in the 1950s and low tar and nicotine cigarettes in the late 1960s and early 1970s were introduced to offer smokers an ostensibly less hazardous means of smoking, and therefore an alternative to quitting. Both innovations maintained cigarette sales and consequently may well have increased the morbidity and mortality toll of smoking. Will a new generation of harm reduction products improve the public's health, or will the experience of the past half-century be repeated? This paper examines the concept of tobacco harm reduction and describes the variety of methods employed in pursuit of it. Through an examination of the experience with filters and low tar and nicotine cigarettes, and an explicit consideration of today's issues and challenges, the paper focuses attention on the essential dimensions of the contemporary harm reduction debate: how science can establish whether novel products or methods will reduce risks to health for individual smokers, or at least exposures likely to influence risks; how a determination can be made as to the likely population impacts of the introduction and marketing of novel products; how health professionals and consumers can learn the potential and limits of harm reduction; and what role for governmental regulation is possible and desirable. PMID:12580158

  9. Is human existence worth its consequent harm?

    PubMed Central

    Doyal, Len

    2007-01-01

    Benatar argues that it is better never to have been born because of the harms always associated with human existence. Non‐existence entails no harm, along with no experience of the absence of any benefits that existence might offer. Therefore, he maintains that procreation is morally irresponsible, along with the use of reproductive technology to have children. Women should seek termination if they become pregnant and it would be better for potential future generations if humans become extinct as soon as humanely possible. These views are challenged by the argument that while decisions not to procreate may be rational on the grounds of the harm that might occur, it may equally rational to gamble under certain circumstances that future children would be better‐off experiencing the harms and benefits of life rather than never having the opportunity of experiencing anything. To the degree that Benatar's arguments preclude the potential rationality of any such gamble, their moral relevance to concrete issues concerning human reproduction is weakened. However, he is right to emphasise the importance of foreseen harm when decisions are made to attempt to have children. PMID:17906053

  10. Innovating Traditional Nursing Administration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra

    2016-03-01

    The evolving and complex practice environment calls for new mindsets among nurse leaders, academics, and nurse innovators to envision innovative ways to manage and optimize traditional tasks and processes in nursing administration. The purpose of this article is to present 3 case studies that used linear programming and simulation to innovate staffing enterprises, financial management of healthcare systems, and curricula development. PMID:26906516

  11. Traditional Teacher Education Still Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Fresh from teaching his first full school year the author reflects on his traditional teacher preparation path into the classroom and finds he was instilled with a common sense of ethics, compassion, a demand for reflective practice, and a robust guiding philosophy. As a college student, he learned theory and was able to augment that with…

  12. Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional…

  13. Understanding vulnerability to self-harm in times of economic hardship and austerity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, M C; Gunnell, D; Davies, R; Hawton, K; Kapur, N; Potokar, J; Donovan, J L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Self-harm and suicide increase in times of economic recession, but little is known about why people self-harm when in financial difficulty, and in what circumstances self-harm occurs. This study aimed to understand events and experiences leading to the episode of self-harm and to identify opportunities for prevention or mitigation of distress. Setting Participants’ homes or university rooms. Participants 19 people who had attended hospital following self-harm in two UK cities and who specifically cited job loss, economic hardship or the impact of austerity measures as a causal or contributory factor. Primary and secondary outcome measures Semistructured, in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed cross-sectionally and as case studies. Results Study participants described experiences of severe economic hardship; being unable to find employment or losing jobs, debt, housing problems and benefit sanctions. In many cases problems accumulated and felt unresolvable. For others an event, such as a call from a debt collector or benefit change triggered the self-harm. Participants also reported other current or past difficulties, including abuse, neglect, bullying, domestic violence, mental health problems, relationship difficulties, bereavements and low self-esteem. These contributed to their sense of despair and worthlessness and increased their vulnerability to self-harm. Participants struggled to gain the practical help they felt they needed for their economic difficulties or therapeutic support that might have helped with their other co-existing or historically damaging experiences. Conclusions Economic hardships resulting from the recession and austerity measures accumulated or acted as a ‘final straw’ to trigger self-harm, often in the context of co-existing or historically damaging life-experiences. Interventions to mitigate these effects should include providing practical advice about economic issues before difficulties become insurmountable and providing appropriate psychosocial support for vulnerable individuals. PMID:26888729

  14. Subjective Probability of Receiving Harm as a Function of Attraction and Harm Delivered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Barry R.; And Others

    It was hypothesized that subjects who liked a source of potential harm would estimate the probability of receiving harm mediated by him as lower than would subjects who disliked the source. To test the hypothesis, subjects were asked to estimate the probability that a liked or disliked confederate would deliver an electric shock on each of 10…

  15. Characteristics of Self-Harm Behaviour among Identified Self-Harming Youth in Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's…

  16. Characteristics of Self-Harm Behaviour among Identified Self-Harming Youth in Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's

  17. 30 CFR 7.508 - Harmful gas removal components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful gas removal components. 7.508 Section 7... Harmful gas removal components. (a) Each refuge alternative shall include means for removing harmful gases... hour per person. (3) Instructions shall be provided for deployment and operation of the harmful...

  18. 30 CFR 7.508 - Harmful gas removal components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harmful gas removal components. 7.508 Section 7... Harmful gas removal components. (a) Each refuge alternative shall include means for removing harmful gases... hour per person. (3) Instructions shall be provided for deployment and operation of the harmful...

  19. 30 CFR 7.508 - Harmful gas removal components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harmful gas removal components. 7.508 Section 7... Harmful gas removal components. (a) Each refuge alternative shall include means for removing harmful gases... hour per person. (3) Instructions shall be provided for deployment and operation of the harmful...

  20. 30 CFR 7.508 - Harmful gas removal components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harmful gas removal components. 7.508 Section 7... Harmful gas removal components. (a) Each refuge alternative shall include means for removing harmful gases... hour per person. (3) Instructions shall be provided for deployment and operation of the harmful...

  1. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incidence of harm. 68.108 Section 68.108... harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to... reasonably determine that such harm is imminent, the provider of wireline telecommunications shall,...

  2. Engaging staff to deliver compassionate care and reduce harm.

    PubMed

    Day, Helen

    The delivery of compassionate care leads to safer care but this will only occur with an engaged workforce under effective leadership. In addition, there is a need to understand the behaviours that drive nurses to make particular decisions about care. This article describes the pilot of a simple survey tool (ENGAGE) to ascertain levels of staff engagement to use as an enabler of effective change. It also describes a unique pilot initiative of focus group work, quality improvements and leadership coaching on two hospital wards. This work centred on the patient-nurse relationship and challenged the traditional teaching of preventing harm. Initial results were promising: while many staff did not feel nurtured or guided by their manager or acknowledged by the senior team, they did feel glad to come to work and empowered to improve patient care. Three months after the first ENGAGE survey, a repeat found significantly improved levels of engagement. Alongside this were improvements in avoidable harms and patient experience. Staff were motivated to improve care and admitted they did not really see their patients as individuals with identity and personality. Managers were motivated to improve engagement and take their wards forward. PMID:25302836

  3. Identifying the Signs of Self-Harm in Students.

    PubMed

    Russell, Kristine R; Hartung, Sheila Q

    2016-03-01

    Self-harm in adolescents is not a new phenomenon. However, the number of adolescents who participate in self-harming behaviors is growing. It can be difficult to detect those who self-harm due to the secrecy that surrounds the act of self-harm itself. This article focuses on providing assistance to school professionals in the identification of signs of self-harm in adolescents and how to deal with this growing epidemic. PMID:25816423

  4. Kaiy (traditional cautery) in Benghazi, Libya: complications versus effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Mona Kamal; El-Mansoury, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The practice of Kaiy (Cautery) as a traditional therapy is not science based though it is widely practiced worldwide. In Libya, in particular, it is commonly used with no any report or publication to emphasis on its positive or negative impact. This work was undertaken to highlight the complications and disadvantages of kaiy in the Libyan societies as it seems to cause more harm than benefit for the patient. Methods We conducted a questionnaire-based survey in the period from the first of March to the end of April (two months) of the year 2013, on fifty patients who were collected from different hospitals in Benghazi city, and who had experienced Kaiy therapy for different diseases. Results We found that kaiy application is more common among non educated patients (30 patients, 60%). Most of patients (45 cases, 90%) followed their relatives’ advice and that 32 cases (63.5%) did not improve and show undesirable manifestations and complications. Conclusion This study has shown that Kaiy therapy is associated with considerable health risks; therefore, we recommend discouraging and restricting its application. PMID:26848345

  5. Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

  6. First Do No Harm. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexander C.

    2007-01-01

    The author expresses concern that launching an accountability initiative without careful consideration may do more harm than good. A well-designed accountability system, writes McCormick, motivates substantive change and useful diagnostic tools must not be undermined in the name of accountability. Several new college-quality initiatives offer…

  7. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    PubMed

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. PMID:26308751

  8. Mayan Morality: An Exploration of Permissible Harms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abarbanell, Linda; Hauser, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropologists have provided rich field descriptions of the norms and conventions governing behavior and interactions in small-scale societies. Here, we add a further dimension to this work by presenting hypothetical moral dilemmas involving harm, to a small-scale, agrarian Mayan population, with the specific goal of exploring the hypothesis that…

  9. AL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) INFORMATION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project proposes to implement an integrated web site that will serve as an Alabama Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Information Exchange Network. This network will be a stand-alone site where HAB data from all agencies and research efforts in the State of Alabama will be integrate...

  10. The Content and Bioavailability of Mineral Nutrients of Selected Wild and Traditional Edible Plants as Affected by Household Preparation Methods Practiced by Local Community in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Andinet Abera; Addis, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Edible parts of some wild and traditional vegetables used by the Gumuz community, namely, Portulaca quadrifida, Dioscorea abyssinica, Abelmoschus esculentus, and Oxytenanthera abyssinica, were evaluated for their minerals composition and bioavailability. Mineral elements, namely, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu, were analyzed using Shimadzu atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Effects of household processing practices on the levels of mineral elements were evaluated and the bioavailability was predicted using antinutrient-mineral molar ratios. Fe, Zn, Ca, Cu, P, Na, and K level in raw edible portions ranged in (0.64 ± 0.02-27.0 ± 6.24), (0.46 ± 0.02-0.85 ± 0.02), (24.49 ± 1.2-131.7 ± 8.3), (0.11 ± 0.01-0.46 ± 0.04), (39.13 ± 0.34-57.27 ± 0.94), (7.34 ± 0.42-20.42 ± 1.31), and (184.4 ± 1.31-816.3 ± 11.731) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Although statistically significant losses in minerals as a result of household preparation practices were observed, the amount of nutrients retained could be valuable especially in communities that have limited alternative sources of these micronutrients. The predicted minerals' bioavailability shows adequacy in terms of calcium and zinc but not iron. PMID:26981523

  11. The Content and Bioavailability of Mineral Nutrients of Selected Wild and Traditional Edible Plants as Affected by Household Preparation Methods Practiced by Local Community in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Andinet Abera; Addis, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Edible parts of some wild and traditional vegetables used by the Gumuz community, namely, Portulaca quadrifida, Dioscorea abyssinica, Abelmoschus esculentus, and Oxytenanthera abyssinica, were evaluated for their minerals composition and bioavailability. Mineral elements, namely, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu, were analyzed using Shimadzu atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Effects of household processing practices on the levels of mineral elements were evaluated and the bioavailability was predicted using antinutrient-mineral molar ratios. Fe, Zn, Ca, Cu, P, Na, and K level in raw edible portions ranged in (0.64 ± 0.02–27.0 ± 6.24), (0.46 ± 0.02–0.85 ± 0.02), (24.49 ± 1.2–131.7 ± 8.3), (0.11 ± 0.01–0.46 ± 0.04), (39.13 ± 0.34–57.27 ± 0.94), (7.34 ± 0.42–20.42 ± 1.31), and (184.4 ± 1.31–816.3 ± 11.731) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Although statistically significant losses in minerals as a result of household preparation practices were observed, the amount of nutrients retained could be valuable especially in communities that have limited alternative sources of these micronutrients. The predicted minerals' bioavailability shows adequacy in terms of calcium and zinc but not iron. PMID:26981523

  12. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

  13. Harm reduction for injecting opiate users: an update and implications in China

    PubMed Central

    Meise, Maja; Wang, Xi; Sauter, Marie-Luise; Bao, Yan-ping; Shi, Jie; Liu, Zhi-min; Lu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    The harm associated with high-risk injected opiate use and the threat of the HIV epidemic among injecting drug users has become a worldwide problem. Twenty years ago, in the face of a rapid increase in mortality rates among injecting drug users and the upcoming threat of HIV, the first harm-reduction programs were implemented in the Western world. This paper is a literature review describing four forms of harm reduction currently in use in Europe, North America, and Australia. Each represents a reasonable counterapproach to the threat of increased prevalence of HIV among injecting drug users in transitional and developing countries. The paper attempts to explain the concepts behind the most commonly used types of harm reduction and provides a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of each and the reasons for their implementation. The main focus of the review is on the definition and the practical aspects of harm reduction; it includes a brief introduction of Chinese harm-reduction efforts and their implications. PMID:19349966

  14. Solitary Confinement and Risk of Self-Harm Among Jail Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Fatos; Lewis, Andrea; Glowa-Kollisch, Sarah; Hadler, James; Lee, David; Alper, Howard; Selling, Daniel; MacDonald, Ross; Solimo, Angela; Parsons, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to better understand acts of self-harm among inmates in correctional institutions. Methods. We analyzed data from medical records on 244 699 incarcerations in the New York City jail system from January 1, 2010, through January 31, 2013. Results. In 1303 (0.05%) of these incarcerations, 2182 acts of self-harm were committed, (103 potentially fatal and 7 fatal). Although only 7.3% of admissions included any solitary confinement, 53.3% of acts of self-harm and 45.0% of acts of potentially fatal self-harm occurred within this group. After we controlled for gender, age, race/ethnicity, serious mental illness, and length of stay, we found self-harm to be associated significantly with being in solitary confinement at least once, serious mental illness, being aged 18 years or younger, and being Latino or White, regardless of gender. Conclusions. These self-harm predictors are consistent with our clinical impressions as jail health service managers. Because of this concern, the New York City jail system has modified its practices to direct inmates with mental illness who violate jail rules to more clinical settings and eliminate solitary confinement for those with serious mental illness. PMID:24521238

  15. Navajo Pawn: A Misunderstood Traditional Trading Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiser, William S.

    2012-01-01

    Navajo trading has been a crucial component of that tribe's localized economy for generations and has been the subject of much scholarship over the years. The role of the Navajo trader in influencing the types and styles of crafts that Navajos created as well as providing tribal members with an outlet for those items remains important to their…

  16. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

    2010-01-01

    Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession. PMID:21547046

  17. Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: a step forward or a repeat of past mistakes?

    PubMed

    Cahn, Zachary; Siegel, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The issue of harm reduction has long been controversial in the public health practice of tobacco control. Health advocates have been reluctant to endorse a harm reduction approach out of fear that tobacco companies cannot be trusted to produce and market products that will reduce the risks associated with tobacco use. Recently, companies independent of the tobacco industry introduced electronic cigarettes, devices that deliver vaporized nicotine without combusting tobacco. We review the existing evidence on the safety and efficacy of electronic cigarettes. We then revisit the tobacco harm reduction debate, with a focus on these novel products. We conclude that electronic cigarettes show tremendous promise in the fight against tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. By dramatically expanding the potential for harm reduction strategies to achieve substantial health gains, they may fundamentally alter the tobacco harm reduction debate. PMID:21150942

  18. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on harm avoidance in obsessive compulsive disorder: considering the role of incompleteness.

    PubMed

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S; Coles, Meredith E

    2008-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have predominantly viewed compulsions as being motivated by harm avoidance. However, sensations of things being incomplete or not "just right" may also underlie compulsions in OCD. Preliminary research suggests that distinguishing between harm avoidance and incompleteness in OCD may have practical utility, but the research on this topic is very limited to date. The current study further addressed the role of incompleteness in OCD. A confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence for harm avoidance and incompleteness as separate constructs in a student sample. Supporting the benefits of considering incompleteness in addition to harm avoidance, self-reported levels of both constructs were significantly correlated with all domains of OCD symptoms and perfectionism assessed. Further, some evidence for unique relationships was found (e.g., incompleteness with ordering and personally prescribed perfectionism; harm avoidance with obsessing). The role of incompleteness in OCD warrants greater attention. PMID:18721636

  19. Evaluating Current Patterns of Assessment for Self-Harm in Emergency Departments, A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, Jeffrey M.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Betz, Marian E.; Espinola, Janice A.; Miller, Ivan; Camargo, Carlos A.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe self-harm assessment practices in U.S. emergency departments (EDs) and to identify predictors of being assessed. Methods This was a prospective observational cohort study of adults presenting to eight U.S. EDs. A convenience sample of adults presenting to the EDs during covered research shifts was entered into a study log. Self-harm assessment was defined as ED documentation of suicide attempt, suicidal ideation, or non-suicidal self-injury thoughts, behaviors, or both. Institution characteristics were compared relative to percentage assessed. To identify predictive patient characteristics, multivariable generalized linear models were created controlling for weekend presentation, time of presentation, age, sex, and race and ethnicity. Results Among 94,354 charts, self-harm assessment ranged from 3.5% to 31%, except for one outlying site at 95%. Overall, 26% were assessed (11% excluding the outlying site). Current self-harm was present in 2.7% of charts. Sites with specific self-harm assessment policies had higher assessment rates. In the complete model, adjusted risk ratios (aRR) for assessment included age ≥ 65 years (0.56, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.92) and male sex (1.17, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.26). There was an interaction between these variables in the smaller model (excluding outlying site), with males <65 years of age being more likely to be assessed (aRR 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.37). Conclusions Emergency department assessment of self-harm was highly variable among institutions. Presence of specific assessment policies was associated with higher assessment rates. Assessment varied based upon patient characteristics. The identification of self-harm in 2.7% of ED patients indicates that a substantial proportion of current risk of self-harm may go unidentified, particularly in certain patient groups. PMID:24033624

  20. Intentional Harms Are Worse, Even When They’re Not

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    People and societies seek to combat harmful events. However, because resources are limited, every wrong righted leaves another wrong left unchecked. Responses must therefore be calibrated to the magnitude of the harm. One underappreciated factor that affects this calibration may be people’s oversensitivity to intent. Across a series of studies, people saw intended harms as worse than unintended harms, even though the two harms were identical. This harm-magnification effect occurred for both subjective and monetary estimates of harm, and it remained when participants were given incentives to be accurate. The effect was fully mediated by blame motivation. People may therefore focus on intentional harms to the neglect of unintentional (but equally damaging) harms. PMID:23878021

  1. Children and Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: First Analysis of Data from a Scottish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Linda; Whyte, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing awareness and acknowledgement of the incidence of sexually harmful behaviour by children and young people, research on this group remains limited. A number of recent publications have reviewed UK systems and practice and suggest that the issue is better appreciated than a decade ago. To date, however, there is no published…

  2. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  3. The cost-effectiveness of harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David P; Donald, Braedon; Shattock, Andrew J; Wilson, David; Fraser-Hurt, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    HIV prevalence worldwide among people who inject drugs (PWID) is around 19%. Harm reduction for PWID includes needle-syringe programs (NSPs) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) but often coupled with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for people living with HIV. Numerous studies have examined the effectiveness of each harm reduction strategy. This commentary discusses the evidence of effectiveness of the packages of harm reduction services and their cost-effectiveness with respect to HIV-related outcomes as well as estimate resources required to meet global and regional coverage targets. NSPs have been shown to be safe and very effective in reducing HIV transmission in diverse settings; there are many historical and very recent examples in diverse settings where the absence of, or reduction in, NSPs have resulted in exploding HIV epidemics compared to controlled epidemics with NSP implementation. NSPs are relatively inexpensive to implement and highly cost-effective according to commonly used willingness-to-pay thresholds. There is strong evidence that substitution therapy is effective, reducing the risk of HIV acquisition by 54% on average among PWID. OST is relatively expensive to implement when only HIV outcomes are considered; other societal benefits substantially improve the cost-effectiveness ratios to be highly favourable. Many studies have shown that ART is cost-effective for keeping people alive but there is only weak supportive, but growing evidence, of the additional effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ART as prevention among PWID. Packages of combined harm reduction approaches are highly likely to be more effective and cost-effective than partial approaches. The coverage of harm reduction programs remains extremely low across the world. The total annual costs of scaling up each of the harm reduction strategies from current coverage levels, by region, to meet WHO guideline coverage targets are high with ART greatest, followed by OST and then NSPs. But scale-up of all three approaches is essential. These interventions can be cost-effective by most thresholds in the short-term and cost-saving in the long-term. PMID:25727260

  4. Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-04-01

    The rationale for breast cancer screening with mammography is deceptively simple: catch it early and reduce mortality from the disease and the need for mastectomies. But breast cancer is a complex problem, and complex problems rarely have simple solutions. Breast screening brings forward the time of diagnosis only slightly compared to the lifetime of a tumour, and screen-detected tumours have a size where metastases are possible. A key question is if screening can prevent metastases, and if the screen-detected tumours are small enough to allow breast conserving surgery rather than mastectomy. A mortality reduction can never justify a medical intervention in its own right, but must be weighed against the harms. Overdiagnosis is the most important harm of breast screening, but has gained wider recognition only in recent years. Screening leads to the detection and treatment of breast cancers that would otherwise never have been detected because they grow very slowly or not at all and would not have been detected in the woman's lifetime in the absence of screening. Screening therefore turns women into cancer patients unnecessarily, with life-long physical and psychological harms. The debate about the justification of breast screening is therefore not a simple question of whether screening reduces breast cancer mortality. This dissertation quantifies the primary benefits and harms of screening mammography. Denmark has an unscreened "control group" because only two geographical regions offered screening over a long time-period, which is unique in an international context. This was used to study breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, and the use of mastectomies. Also, a systematic review of overdiagnosis in five other countries allowed us to show that about half of the screen-detected breast cancers are overdiagnosed. An effect on breast cancer mortality is doubtful in today's setting, and overdiagnosis causes an increase in the use of mastectomies. These findings are discussed in the context of tumour biology and stage at diagnosis. The information provided to women in invitations and on the Internet exaggerates benefits, participation is directly recommended, and the harms are downplayed or left out, despite agreement that the objective is informed choice. This raises an ethical discussion concerning autonomy versus paternalism, and the difficulty in weighing benefits against harms. Finally, financial, political, and professional conflicts of interest are discussed, as well as health economics. PMID:23651722

  5. Characterization of biogenic amines and factors influencing their formation in traditional Chinese sausages.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shiling; Xu, Xinglian; Shu, Ruihua; Zhou, Guanghong; Meng, Yong; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Yanping; Wang, Peng

    2010-08-01

    Biogenic amines in 42 traditional Chinese sausage samples obtained from different regions were determined by HPLC. The result showed that cadaverine was the major amine, followed by tyramine and putrescine. A total of 4 groups of samples were identified on the basis of total amines by cluster analysis. Group A included samples showing low amine contents (76.5 to 220 mg/kg) and accounted for 28.5% of the sausages examined. Group B included samples with moderate amine contents (220 to 600 mg/kg) and accounted for 45.2%. Group C included 11.9% of the samples showing high total biogenic amines contents (600 to 1000 mg/kg) and group D contained 14.28% of the samples showing very high levels of biogenic amines (higher than 1000 mg/kg). High correlation coefficients were found between the total counts of Enterobacteria and concentrations of total biogenic amines (r = 0.73). Sanitary quality of raw materials and the specific flora are import factors influencing biogenic amines formation in traditional Chinese sausages. Practical Application: Biogenic amines are considered potentially harmful substances to human health worldwide and are usually found in fermented sausage.Traditional Chinese sausage is one form of spontaneously fermented sausage and manufactured in small-scale plants following spontaneous fermentation. Little information, however, exists on the traditional Chinese sausage. PMID:20722938

  6. Insulin degludec. Uncertainty over cardiovascular harms.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    Insulin isophane (NPH) is the standard long-acting human insulin for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Long-acting human insulin analogues are also available: insulin glargine and insulin detemir. Uncertainties remain concerning their long-term adverse effects. Insulin degludec (Tresiba, Novo Nordisk) is another long-acting human insulin analogue, also approved in the EU for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It was authorised at a concentration of 100 units per ml, like other insulins, and also at a concentration of 200 units per ml. There are no comparative data on insulin degludec 200 units per ml in patients using high doses of insulin. Insulin degludec has mainly been evaluated in ten randomised, unblinded, "non-inferiority" trials lasting 26 to 52 weeks, nine versus insulin glargine and one versus insulin detemir. Insulin degludec was administered at a fixed time each evening, or in either the morning or evening on alternate days, at varying intervals of 8 to 40 hours between doses. Efficacy in terms of HbA1c control was similar to that of the other insulin analogues administered once a day. The frequency of severe hypoglycaemia was similar in the groups treated with insulin degludec and those treated with the other insulins (10% to 12% among patients with type 1 diabetes and less than 5% in patients with type 2 diabetes). Deaths and other serious adverse events were similarly frequent in the different groups. A meta-analysis of clinical trials, carried out by the US Food and Drug Administration, suggested an increase of about 60% in the incidence of cardiovascular complications, based on a composite endpoint combining myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death. Other adverse effects observed in these trials were already known to occur with human insulin and its analogues, including weight gain, hypersensitivity reactions, reactions at the injection site, etc. The trials were too short in duration to assess long-term harms, particularly cancer. Clinical experience with insulin degludec in pregnant women is very limited. It is therefore best to avoid using this analogue during pregnancy. In France, the concentration of all other insulins injected with a syringe or prefilled pen is 100 units per ml. The new concentration of 200 units per ml contained in insulin degludec prefilled pens creates a risk of confusion and overdose. In practice, there is already a relatively wide range of options available for patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who require insulin therapy. As insulin degludec has no proven advantages, it is better to avoid using it, at least pending further data on the risk of cardiovascular events. Insulin isophane remains the first-choice long-acting insulin, while insulin glargine is most appropriate for some patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25121146

  7. Autism: Common, heritable, but not harmful

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Dawson, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    We assert that one of the examples used by Keller & Miller (K&M), namely, autism, is indeed common, and heritable, but we question whether it is harmful. We provide a brief review of cognitive science literature in which autistics perform superiorly to non-autistics in perceptual, reasoning, and comprehension tasks; however, these superiorities are often occluded and are instead described as dysfunctions. PMID:25506106

  8. Electrofishing and its harmful effects on fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Darrel E.

    2003-01-01

    Electrofishing, a valuable sampling technique in North America for over half a century, involves a very dynamic and complex mix of physics, physiology, and behavior that remains poorly understood. New hypotheses have been advanced regarding "power transfer" to fish and the epileptic nature of their responses to electric fields, but these too need to be more fully explored and validated. Fishery researchers and managers in the Colorado River Basin, and elsewhere, are particularly concerned about the harmful effects of electrofishing on fish, especially endangered species. Although often not externally obvious or fatal, spinal injuries and associated hemorrhages sometimes have been documented in over 50% of fish examined internally. Such injuries can occur anywhere in the electrofishing field at or above the intensity threshold for twitch. These injuries are believed to result from powerful convulsions of body musculature (possibly epileptic seizures) caused mostly by sudden changes in voltage as when electricity is pulsed or switched on or off. Significantly fewer spinal injuries are reported when direct current, low-frequency pulsed direct current (<30 Hz), or specially designed pulse trains are used. Salmoniae are especially susceptible. Endangered cyprinids of the Colorado River Basin are generally much less susceptible, enough so to allow cautious use of less harmful currents for most recovery monitoring and research. However, the endangered catostomid Xyrauchen texanus appears sufficiently susceptible to warrant a continued minimal-use policy. Other harmful effects, such as bleeding at gills or vent and excessive physiological stress, are also of concern. Mortality, usually by asphyxiation, is a common result of excessive exposure to tetanizing intensities near electrodes or poor handling of captured specimens. Reported effects on reproduction are contradictory, but electrofishing over spawning grounds can harm embryos. Electrofishing is often considered the most effective and benign technique for capturing moderate- to large-size fish, but when adverse effects are problematic and cannot be sufficiently reduced, its use should be severely restricted.

  9. Electronic cigarettes. Potential harms and benefits.

    PubMed

    Drummond, M Bradley; Upson, Dona

    2014-02-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine-containing vapor, has increased rapidly across the country and globally. Perceived and marketed as a "healthier alternative" to conventional cigarettes, few data exist regarding the safety of these devices and their efficacy in harm reduction and treatment of tobacco dependence; even less is known about their overall impact on population health. This review highlights the recent data regarding electronic cigarette toxicity, impact on lung function, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation. Studies show that the vapor generated from electronic cigarettes has variable amounts of nicotine and potential harmful toxins, albeit at levels lower than in conventional cigarettes. The long-term carcinogenic and lung function effects of electronic cigarettes are not known. Although some data demonstrate that electronic cigarettes may be effective in reducing conventional cigarette consumption, there are no data demonstrating the efficacy of electronic cigarettes as a tool to achieve cessation. Until robust longitudinal evaluations demonstrate the safety of electronic cigarettes and efficacy in treatment of tobacco dependence, their role as a harm reduction tool is unclear. PMID:24575993

  10. The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as “tailor-made medicine” and has properties similar to “mind and body” or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients’ lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans. There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms. PMID:24148283

  11. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. PMID:25518881

  12. Freshwater harmful algal blooms: toxins and children's health.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Chelsea A; Miller, Todd R

    2014-01-01

    Massive accumulations of cyanobacteria (a.k.a. "blue-green algae"), known as freshwater harmful algal blooms (FHABs), are a common global occurrence in water bodies used for recreational purposes and drinking water purification. Bloom prevalence is increased due to anthropogenic changes in land use, agricultural activity, and climate change. These photosynthetic bacteria produce a range of toxic secondary metabolites that affect animals and humans at both chronic and acute dosages. Children are especially at risk because of their lower body weight, behavior, and toxic effects on development. Here we review common FHAB toxins, related clinical symptoms, acceptable concentrations in drinking water, case studies of children's and young adults' exposures to FHAB toxins through drinking water and food, methods of environmental and clinical detection in potential cases of intoxication, and best practices for FHAB prevention. PMID:24439026

  13. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. PMID:25518881

  14. Harmful algae blooms removal from fresh water with modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunguang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiangqin

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite and vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid were investigated to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies in freshwater containing harmful algae blooms (HABs) (Microcystis aeruginosa). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, converted fluorescence microscope, plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and Zetasizer were used to study the flocculation mechanism of modified vermiculite. It was found that the vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid could coagulate algae cells through charge neutralization, chemical bridging, and netting effect. The experimental results show that the efficiency of flocculation can be notably improved by modified vermiculite. Ninety-eight per cent of algae cells in algae solution could be removed within 10 min after the addition ofmodified vermiculite clay. The method that removal of HABs with modified vermiculite is economical with high efficiency, and more research is needed to assess their ecological impacts before using in practical application. PMID:24600873

  15. How Would We Know if Psychotherapy Were Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimidjian, Sona; Hollon, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Patients can be harmed by treatment or by the decisions that are made about those treatments. Although dramatic examples of harmful effects of psychotherapy have been reported, the full scope of the problem remains unclear. The field currently lacks consensus about how to detect harm and what to do about it when it occurs. In this article, we

  16. How Would We Know if Psychotherapy Were Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimidjian, Sona; Hollon, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Patients can be harmed by treatment or by the decisions that are made about those treatments. Although dramatic examples of harmful effects of psychotherapy have been reported, the full scope of the problem remains unclear. The field currently lacks consensus about how to detect harm and what to do about it when it occurs. In this article, we…

  17. 30 CFR 722.11 - Imminent dangers and harms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Imminent dangers and harms. 722.11 Section 722... INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.11 Imminent dangers and harms. (a) If an... expected to cause, significant, imminent environmental harm to land, air, or water resources,...

  18. 47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidence of harm. 76.1203 Section 76.1203... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A... system in those circumstances where electronic or physical harm would be caused by the attachment...

  19. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imminent harm notice of action. 200...): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent harm notice of action. The Board may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on...

  20. 47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incidence of harm. 76.1203 Section 76.1203... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A... system in those circumstances where electronic or physical harm would be caused by the attachment...

  1. Laggards or Leaders: Conservers of Traditional Agricultural Knowledge in Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Jere L.; Thomas, Justin L.; Valdivia, Corinne; Yucra, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    Many sustainable agricultural practices are based on local and traditional farming knowledge. This article examines the conservation and loss of three traditional practices in the Bolivian Altiplano that agronomic research has shown increase the resiliency of small farmers in the face of climate-related risks. These practices are the use of

  2. Laggards or Leaders: Conservers of Traditional Agricultural Knowledge in Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Jere L.; Thomas, Justin L.; Valdivia, Corinne; Yucra, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    Many sustainable agricultural practices are based on local and traditional farming knowledge. This article examines the conservation and loss of three traditional practices in the Bolivian Altiplano that agronomic research has shown increase the resiliency of small farmers in the face of climate-related risks. These practices are the use of…

  3. Harm reduction psychotherapy: an innovative alternative to classical addictions theory.

    PubMed

    Denning, Patt

    2002-05-01

    Harm Reduction Psychotherapy is an innovative treatment for people with alcohol and other drug problems. Unlike the traditional disease model of addiction, HRP uses a biopsychosocial approach to understand the complexities of drug use, abuse, and addiction. In other words, in the context of HRP, addiction is not the primary issue. Rather, it is an interactive phenomenon in which the relative weight of biology, psychology, and social factors varies for each person and for each drug he or she uses. HRP allows us to assess each person individually and to plan treatment that is tailored to the individual's relationship with alcohol and other drugs. It also incorporates other important problems: emotional disorders, family problems, social alienation, and medical complications. These issues are discussed at the beginning of consultation, without patients having to focus solely on their alcohol or drug problem. The unique aspect to HRP is that patients do not have to commit to abstinence as a condition of, or even necessarily as a goal of, treatment. HRP seeks to identify and work with the barriers to treatment adherence in any patient. It is clear that most medical patients have some difficulty understanding and adhering to medical recommendations and treatment protocols. However, drug users have particular problems that must be identified. HRP helps people create individual strategies to decrease harmful alcohol and drug use. It uses a nonjudgmental and collaborative approach to actively encourage individuals to explore their own barriers to change and to choose among a range of options such as abstinence, moderation, or other short-term goals. Motivational interviewing can be used to motivate behavioral change with the goal of reducing the effects of adverse consequences. PMID:12087633

  4. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nick; Moore, Tim; Crofts, Nick

    2012-01-01

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers.In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness.While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050

  5. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers. In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness. While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050

  6. The harm principle as a mid-level principle?: three problems from the context of infectious disease control.

    PubMed

    Krom, André

    2011-10-01

    Effective infectious disease control may require states to restrict the liberty of individuals. Since preventing harm to others is almost universally accepted as a legitimate (prima facie) reason for restricting the liberty of individuals, it seems plausible to employ a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control. Moral practices like infectious disease control support - or even require - a certain level of theory-modesty. However, employing a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control faces at least three problems. First, it is unclear what we gain by attaining convergence on a specific formulation of the harm principle. Likely candidates for convergence, a harm principle aimed at preventing harmful conduct, supplemented by considerations of effectiveness and always choosing the least intrusive means still leave ample room for normative disagreement. Second, while mid-level principles are sometimes put forward in response to the problem of normative theories attaching different weight to moral principles, employing a mid-level harm principle completely leaves open how to determine what weight to attach to it in application. Third, there appears to be a trade-off between attaining convergence and finding a formulation of the harm principle that can justify liberty-restrictions in all situations of contagion, including interventions that are commonly allowed. These are not reasons to abandon mid-level theorizing altogether. But there is no reason to be too theory-modest in applied ethics. Morally justifying e.g. if a liberty-restriction in infectious disease control is proportional to the aim of harm-prevention, promptly requires moving beyond the mid-level harm principle. PMID:21929702

  7. Harms from discharge to primary care: mixed methods analysis of incident reports

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Huw; Edwards, Adrian; Hibbert, Peter; Rees, Philippa; Prosser Evans, Huw; Panesar, Sukhmeet; Carter, Ben; Parry, Gareth; Makeham, Meredith; Jones, Aled; Avery, Anthony; Sheikh, Aziz; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Discharge from hospital presents significant risks to patient safety, with up to one in five patients experiencing adverse events within 3 weeks of leaving hospital. Aim To describe the frequency and types of patient safety incidents associated with discharge from secondary to primary care, and commonly described contributory factors to identify recommendations for practice. Design and setting A mixed methods analysis of 598 patient safety incident reports in England and Wales related to ‘Discharge’ from the National Reporting and Learning System. Method Detailed data coding (with 20% double-coding), data summaries generated using descriptive statistical analysis, and thematic analysis of special-case sample of reports. Incident type, contributory factors, type, and level of harm were described, informing recommendations for future practice. Results A total of 598 eligible reports were analysed. The four main themes were: errors in discharge communication (n = 151; 54% causing harm); errors in referrals to community care (n = 136; 73% causing harm); errors in medication (n = 97; 87% causing harm); and lack of provision of care adjuncts such as dressings (n = 62; 94% causing harm). Common contributory factors were staff factors (not following referral protocols); and organisational factors (lack of clear guidelines or inefficient processes). Improvement opportunities include developing and testing electronic discharge methods with agreed minimum information requirements and unified referrals systems to community care providers; and promoting a safety culture with ‘safe discharge’ checklists, discharge coordinators, and family involvement. Conclusion Significant harm was evident due to deficits in the discharge process. Interventions in this area need to be evaluated and learning shared widely. PMID:26622036

  8. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) Compared With Traditional Assessment Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To compare objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) and traditional assessment methods among recent pharmacy graduates. Methods. Individual student performance in OSCEs was compared with performance on traditional pharmacy-practice examinations at the same level of program study. Results. A moderate correlation was found between individual attainment in OSCE examinations and on traditional pharmacy practice examinations at the same level. Conclusions. OSCEs add value to traditional methods of assessment because the 2 evaluation methods measure different competencies. PMID:21931449

  9. Harm reduction and equity of access to care for French prisoners: a review

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Laurent; Carrieri, M Patrizia; Wodak, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite France being regarded as a model of efficient harm reduction policy and equity of access to care in the general community, the health of French inmates is a critical issue, as harm reduction measures are either inaccessible or only partially implemented in French prisons. Method Using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, information was collected and analyzed about HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence, risk practices, mortality, access to harm reduction measures and care for French prison inmates. Results Data about the occurrence of bloodborne diseases, drug use and access to care in prisons remain limited and need urgent updating. Needle exchange programs are not yet available in French prisons and harm reduction interventions and access to OST remain limited or are heterogeneous across prisons. The continuity of care at prison entry and after release remains problematic and should be among the primary public health priorities for French prisoners. Conclusion Preventive and harm reduction measures should be urgently introduced at least as pilot programs. The implementation of such measures, not yet available in French prisons, is not only a human right for prison inmates but can also provide important public health benefits for the general population. PMID:18495018

  10. Harm reduction for young people who use prescription opioids extra-medically: Obstacles and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Green, Traci C; Yedinak, Jesse L; Hadland, Scott E

    2016-05-01

    Extra-medical prescription opioid (EMPO) use - intentional use without a prescription or outside of prescribed parameters - is a public health crisis in the United States and around the world. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the prevalence of EMPO use and adverse sequelae, including opioid overdose and hepatitis C infection, are elevated among people aged 18-25. Despite these preventable health risks, many harm reduction interventions are underutilized by, or inaccessible to, EMPO-using youth. In this commentary, we describe key harm reduction strategies for young people who use prescription opioids. We examine individual, social, and policy-level barriers to the implementation of evidence-based approaches that address EMPO use and related harms among young people. We highlight the need for expanded services and new interventions to engage this diverse and heterogeneous at-risk population. A combination of medical, social, and structural harm reduction interventions are recommended. Furthermore, research to inform strategies that mitigate particularly high-risk practices (e.g., polysubstance use) is warranted. Finally, we discuss how the meaningful involvement of youth in the implementation of harm reduction strategies is a critical component of the public health response to the prescription opioid epidemic. PMID:26919826

  11. The harms of prostitution: critiquing Moen's argument of no-harm.

    PubMed

    Westin, Anna

    2014-02-01

    In this short critical analysis, the author examines the recent argument by Moen in his article 'Is Prostitution Harmful?' In highlighting why prostitution does not cause harm to either member involved in the act, Moen argues that prostitution is not an ethical concern. However, while Moen is able to clearly challenge contemporary objections to prostitution, the author of this review will suggest that Moen's argument is itself incomplete as it does not address essential key ontological issues. This critical analysis will briefly suggest why this omission weakens Moen's argument. Finally, it will conclude with examining why prostitution differs substantially from other professions through the type of harm that it causes to the moral agents involved. PMID:23760729

  12. Harming high performers: a social comparison perspective on interpersonal harming in work teams.

    PubMed

    Lam, Catherine K; Van der Vegt, Gerben S; Walter, Frank; Huang, Xu

    2011-05-01

    This study developed a multilevel model of the interpersonal harming behavior associated with social comparison processes in work teams. We tested this model using temporally lagged data from a sample of student teams (Study 1) and cross-sectional data from a sample of work teams in a telecommunication services company (Study 2). In both studies, social relations analyses revealed that in teams with less cooperative goals, comparison to a higher performing team member was positively associated with interpersonal harming behavior, but only when expectations of future performance similarity to that member were low. The interactive relationship of social comparison and expected future performance similarity with interpersonal harming was buffered, however, in teams with more cooperative goals. PMID:21171734

  13. No excuses: televised pornography harms children.

    PubMed

    Benedek, E P; Brown, C F

    1999-01-01

    All youngsters are at some risk from exposure to televised pornography, as described above. At particular risk for harm, however, are the most vulnerable children in our society--children in single-parent homes, children with mental and emotional disturbances, mentally challenged children, children who have been physically and/or sexually abused, and children in dysfunctional families. Youngsters for whom television serves as a babysitter or parental surrogate unfortunately are exposed to few competing influences to television viewing. In addition, parents in such homes are least likely to know what their children are viewing and to be able to pass on their own values about sex and sexual behavior. The main possible effects of televised pornography that must concern us as clinicians, educators, and parents are modeling and imitation of language heard and behaviors observed in televised pornography; negative interference with children's normal sexual development; emotional reactions such as nightmares and feelings of anxiety, guilt, confusion, and/or shame; stimulation of premature sexual activity; development of unrealistic, misleading, and/or harmful attitudes toward sex and adult male-female relationships; and undermining of family values with resultant conflict between parents and children. Much more research is clearly needed on this topic. Because of the ethical and procedural problems surrounding research on children exposed to pornography, ideal research designs may never be possible. Nonetheless, we hope that this article will stimulate further discussion and work. To devise public policy that protects children from potentially harmful material while at the same time respecting the media's First Amendment rights, such public discourse and responsible research are essential. PMID:10579105

  14. Visualizing harm reduction: Methodological and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Switzer, S; Guta, A; de Prinse, K; Chan Carusone, S; Strike, C

    2015-05-01

    The use of visual methods is becoming increasingly common and accepted in health research. This paper explores the opportunities and constraints of using photo-based methods in the context of a community-based participatory research study on how to engage people living with HIV in conversations about a hospital's recently introduced harm reduction policy. Using a blended approach of photovoice and photo-elicited interviews, we provided participants (n = 16) with cameras and asked them to take a series of photos that "show how you feel about or have experienced harm reduction as a Casey House client." We reflect on methodological insights from the study to think through the process of doing photo-based work on a stigmatized topic in a small hospital setting by foregrounding: 1) how the act of taking photos assisted participants in visualizing connections between space, harm reduction, and substance use; 2) expectations of participation and navigating daily health realities; and 3) issues of confidentiality, anonymity and stigma in clinical settings. These reflections provide a case study on the importance of critically examining the process of engaging with photo-based methods. We conclude the paper by re-thinking issues of context and photo-based methods. Rather than viewing context as a neutral backdrop to apply a method, context should be viewed as an active force in shaping what can or cannot be done or produced within the space. Photo-based methods may offer an effective community-engagement strategy but may require modification for use in a clinical setting when working on a stigmatized topic with individuals with complex health care needs. Given the potential of visual methods as a community engagement strategy, research teams are advised to understand the entire process as a data collection opportunity so that these methods can be further explored in a variety of contexts. PMID:25841098

  15. Harmful effect of detergents on lipase.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Fatima S; Ajmal R; Badr G; Khan RH

    2014-11-01

    In order to study effects of detergents at molecular level, we have done activity measurements of wheat germ lipase in increasing concentration of some commercial detergents. Conformational changes in protein structure using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy were studied in increasing concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Our study proves that detergents may lead to loss of enzymatic activity and structure of plant enzymes. Since detergents are common source of pollution in water bodies and the water from these resources can be used in fields, our study may prove helpful in creating awareness about harmful action of detergents.

  16. Harmful effect of detergents on lipase.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Sadaf; Ajmal, Rehan; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan H

    2014-11-01

    In order to study effects of detergents at molecular level, we have done activity measurements of wheat germ lipase in increasing concentration of some commercial detergents. Conformational changes in protein structure using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy were studied in increasing concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Our study proves that detergents may lead to loss of enzymatic activity and structure of plant enzymes. Since detergents are common source of pollution in water bodies and the water from these resources can be used in fields, our study may prove helpful in creating awareness about harmful action of detergents. PMID:24807844

  17. Brief Report: The Self Harm Questionnaire--A New Tool Designed to Improve Identification of Self Harm in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ougrin, Dennis; Boege, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The Self Harm Questionnaire (SHQ) aiming at identification of self-harm in adolescents has been developed and piloted in a sample of 12-17 year olds (n = 100). The adolescents were recruited from both in- and outpatient psychiatric services. Concurrent validity of the SHQ was evaluated by comparing the SHQ results with recorded self harm in the

  18. Brief Report: The Self Harm Questionnaire--A New Tool Designed to Improve Identification of Self Harm in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ougrin, Dennis; Boege, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The Self Harm Questionnaire (SHQ) aiming at identification of self-harm in adolescents has been developed and piloted in a sample of 12-17 year olds (n = 100). The adolescents were recruited from both in- and outpatient psychiatric services. Concurrent validity of the SHQ was evaluated by comparing the SHQ results with recorded self harm in the…

  19. Harms from medicines: inevitable, in error or intentional

    PubMed Central

    Ferner, Robin E

    2014-01-01

    Rational therapeutics requires a balance between benefits and harms. (i) Harm may be inevitable. Some adverse drug reactions cannot be predicted or prevented. (ii) Some harm occurs in error when a medicine is wrongly formulated, prescribed, dispensed or administered. Adverse drug reactions that might have been prevented, for example, by monitoring, fall into this category. (iii) Rarely, harm is inflicted deliberately, for example, in murder by poisoning. Here I consider adverse drug reactions, errors and deliberate drug-induced harm from the perspective of a clinical pharmacologist. PMID:23683079

  20. [On the subject of tradition].

    PubMed

    Zuurmont, I

    1996-04-01

    HIV/STD prevention programs can stimulate debate over behavior change at the community level. In 1993, Yayasan Haumeni, a local nongovernmental organization (NGO) in Timor, southeastern Asia, launched an HIV/STD prevention program when voluntary health agents announced an increased level of STDs in the community. The NGO first conducted a study in 12 villages to identify the main modes of HIV transmission. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and group discussions with traditional healers, religious leaders, and youth. A ritual linked to puberty was found to be a practice potentially fostering the transmission of HIV/STDs in the community. Once circumcised by traditional practitioners, pubescent boys in the community are expected to have sexual relations with 2-4 different women. Study participants also discussed the subjects of multiple sex partners, abortion, adolescent pregnancy, family planning, and the exodus of young people. Study results were presented to district decision-makers, who decided to implement an education program on HIV and STDs designed to foment debate upon the circumcision ritual, the sex roles of men and women, and perceptions of male sexual power. Even though it remains too early to assess sexual behavior changes in the community, some young people and their families have begun to question the traditional circumcision practice and its associated rituals. PMID:12322626

  1. Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex impairs judgment of harmful intent

    PubMed Central

    Young, Liane; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel; Damasio, Hanna; Hauser, Marc; Damasio, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Moral judgments, whether delivered in ordinary experience or in the courtroom, depend on our ability to infer intentions. We forgive unintentional or accidental harms and condemn failed attempts to harm. Prior work demonstrates that patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) deliver abnormal judgments in response to moral dilemmas, and that these patients are especially impaired in triggering emotional responses to inferred or abstract events (e.g., intentions), as opposed to real or actual outcomes. We therefore predicted that VMPC patients would deliver abnormal moral judgments of harmful intentions in the absence of harmful outcomes, as in failed attempts to harm. This prediction was confirmed in the current study: VMPC patients judged attempted harms including attempted murder as more morally permissible relative to controls. These results highlight the critical role of the VMPC in processing harmful intent for moral judgment. PMID:20346759

  2. Benzodiazepine harm: how can it be reduced?

    PubMed

    Lader, Malcolm

    2014-02-01

    The benzodiazepines (BZDs) are anxiolytics, hypnotics, anticonvulsants, muscle-relaxants and induce anaesthesia. Adverse effects comprise sedation subjectively and cognitive and psychomotor impairment objectively. Complex skills such as driving can be compromised. Paradoxical excitement can have forensic implications. Long term use beyond the licensed durations is common but both efficacy and adverse effects associated with this have been poorly documented. Withdrawal and dependence have excited particular concern, and even polemic. Perhaps a third of long term (beyond 6? months) users experience symptoms and signs on attempting to withdraw - anxiety, insomnia, muscle spasms and tension and perceptual hypersensitivity. Uncommonly, fits or a psychosis may supervene. The patterns following withdrawal vary widely. The usual method of withdrawal is slow tapering but it may not obviate the problems completely. BZDs are also drugs of abuse either on their own or in conjunction with opioids and stimulants. Claims have been made that the use of BZDs is associated with increased mortality. This is a concern in view of the widespread usage of these drugs, particularly in the elderly. All of these factors impinge on the risk?:?benefit ratio and the severity of the indications. Harm reduction should focus on choice of alternative treatments both psychological and pharmacological. Guidelines emphasise that BZDs are not drugs of first choice and should only be used short term. Schedules are available to educate about methods of withdrawal in current users, emphasising the slow rate of taper. General principles of harm minimization in the addiction field are appropriate to BZD abuse. PMID:22882333

  3. Reducing harm from alcohol: call to action.

    PubMed

    Casswell, Sally; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon

    2009-06-27

    Despite clear evidence of the major contribution alcohol makes to the global burden of disease and to substantial economic costs, focus on alcohol control is inadequate internationally and in most countries. Expansion of industrial production and marketing of alcohol is driving alcohol use to rise, both in emerging markets and in young people in mature alcohol markets. Cost-effective and affordable interventions to restrict harm exist, and are in urgent need of scaling up. Most countries do not have adequate policies in place. Factors impeding progress include a failure of political will, unhelpful participation of the alcohol industry in the policy process, and increasing difficulty in free-trade environments to respond adequately at a national level. An effective national and international response will need not only governments, but also non-governmental organisations to support and hold government agencies to account. International health policy, in the form of a Framework Convention on Alcohol Control, is needed to counterbalance the global conditions promoting alcohol-related harm and to support and encourage national action. PMID:19560606

  4. Reducing harm from alcohol: call to action.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Casswell S; Thamarangsi T

    2009-06-27

    Despite clear evidence of the major contribution alcohol makes to the global burden of disease and to substantial economic costs, focus on alcohol control is inadequate internationally and in most countries. Expansion of industrial production and marketing of alcohol is driving alcohol use to rise, both in emerging markets and in young people in mature alcohol markets. Cost-effective and affordable interventions to restrict harm exist, and are in urgent need of scaling up. Most countries do not have adequate policies in place. Factors impeding progress include a failure of political will, unhelpful participation of the alcohol industry in the policy process, and increasing difficulty in free-trade environments to respond adequately at a national level. An effective national and international response will need not only governments, but also non-governmental organisations to support and hold government agencies to account. International health policy, in the form of a Framework Convention on Alcohol Control, is needed to counterbalance the global conditions promoting alcohol-related harm and to support and encourage national action.

  5. Substance abuse and developments in harm reduction

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Y W

    2000-01-01

    A drug is a substance that produces a psychoactive, chemical or medicinal effect on the user. The psychoactive effect of mood-altering drugs is modulated by the user's perception of the risks of drug use, his or her ability to control drug use and the demographic, socioeconomic and cultural context. The ability to control drug use may vary along a continuum from compulsive use at one end to controlled use at the other. The "drug problem" has been socially constructed, and the presence of a moral panic has led to public support for the prohibitionist approach. The legalization approach has severely attacked the dominant prohibitionist approach but has failed to gain much support in society because of its extreme libertarian views. The harm reduction approach, which is based on public health principles, avoids the extremes of value-loaded judgements on drug use and focuses on the reduction of drug-related harm through pragmatic and low-threshold programs. This approach is likely to be important in tackling the drug problem in the 21st century. PMID:10870502

  6. Substance abuse and developments in harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Y W

    2000-06-13

    A drug is a substance that produces a psychoactive, chemical or medicinal effect on the user. The psychoactive effect of mood-altering drugs is modulated by the user's perception of the risks of drug use, his or her ability to control drug use and the demographic, socioeconomic and cultural context. The ability to control drug use may vary along a continuum from compulsive use at one end to controlled use at the other. The "drug problem" has been socially constructed, and the presence of a moral panic has led to public support for the prohibitionist approach. The legalization approach has severely attacked the dominant prohibitionist approach but has failed to gain much support in society because of its extreme libertarian views. The harm reduction approach, which is based on public health principles, avoids the extremes of value-loaded judgements on drug use and focuses on the reduction of drug-related harm through pragmatic and low-threshold programs. This approach is likely to be important in tackling the drug problem in the 21st century. PMID:10870502

  7. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms: causes, consequences, and controls.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Otten, Timothy G

    2013-05-01

    Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest oxygenic photoautotrophs and have had major impacts on shaping its biosphere. Their long evolutionary history (≈ 3.5 by) has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recently anthropogenic modifications of aquatic environments, including nutrient over-enrichment (eutrophication), water diversions, withdrawals, and salinization. Many cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. Bloom-forming cyanobacterial taxa can be harmful from environmental, organismal, and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, depleting oxygen upon bloom senescence, and producing a variety of toxic secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanotoxins). How environmental factors impact cyanotoxin production is the subject of ongoing research, but nutrient (N, P and trace metals) supply rates, light, temperature, oxidative stressors, interactions with other biota (bacteria, viruses and animal grazers), and most likely, the combined effects of these factors are all involved. Accordingly, strategies aimed at controlling and mitigating harmful blooms have focused on manipulating these dynamic factors. The applicability and feasibility of various controls and management approaches is discussed for natural waters and drinking water supplies. Strategies based on physical, chemical, and biological manipulations of specific factors show promise; however, a key underlying approach that should be considered in almost all instances is nutrient (both N and P) input reductions; which have been shown to effectively reduce cyanobacterial biomass, and therefore limit health risks and frequencies of hypoxic events. PMID:23314096

  8. Benzodiazepine harm: how can it be reduced?

    PubMed Central

    Lader, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    The benzodiazepines (BZDs) are anxiolytics, hypnotics, anticonvulsants, muscle-relaxants and induce anaesthesia. Adverse effects comprise sedation subjectively and cognitive and psychomotor impairment objectively. Complex skills such as driving can be compromised. Paradoxical excitement can have forensic implications. Long term use beyond the licensed durations is common but both efficacy and adverse effects associated with this have been poorly documented. Withdrawal and dependence have excited particular concern, and even polemic. Perhaps a third of long term (beyond 6?months) users experience symptoms and signs on attempting to withdraw anxiety, insomnia, muscle spasms and tension and perceptual hypersensitivity. Uncommonly, fits or a psychosis may supervene. The patterns following withdrawal vary widely. The usual method of withdrawal is slow tapering but it may not obviate the problems completely. BZDs are also drugs of abuse either on their own or in conjunction with opioids and stimulants. Claims have been made that the use of BZDs is associated with increased mortality. This is a concern in view of the widespread usage of these drugs, particularly in the elderly. All of these factors impinge on the risk?:?benefit ratio and the severity of the indications. Harm reduction should focus on choice of alternative treatments both psychological and pharmacological. Guidelines emphasise that BZDs are not drugs of first choice and should only be used short term. Schedules are available to educate about methods of withdrawal in current users, emphasising the slow rate of taper. General principles of harm minimization in the addiction field are appropriate to BZD abuse. PMID:22882333

  9. Variability and dilemmas in harm reduction for anabolic steroid users in the UK: a multi-area interview study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK continues to experience a rise in the number of anabolic steroid-using clients attending harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes. Methods The present study uses interviews conducted with harm reduction service providers as well as illicit users of anabolic steroids from different areas of England and Wales to explore harm reduction for this group of drug users, focussing on needle distribution policies and harm reduction interventions developed specifically for this population of drug users. Results The article addresses the complexity of harm reduction service delivery, highlighting different models of needle distribution, such as peer-led distribution networks, as well as interventions available in steroid clinics, including liver function testing of anabolic steroid users. Aside from providing insights into the function of interventions available to steroid users, along with principles adopted by service providers, the study found significant tensions and dilemmas in policy implementation due to differing perspectives between service providers and service users relating to practices, risks and effective interventions. Conclusion The overarching finding of the study was the tremendous variability across harm reduction delivery sites in terms of available measures and mode of operation. Further research into the effectiveness of different policies directed towards people who use anabolic steroids is critical to the development of harm reduction. PMID:24986546

  10. Hyperspectral remote sensing study of harmful algal blooms in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yixiang

    Recent development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides capability to identify and classify harmful algal blooms beyond the estimation of chlorophyll concentrations. This study uses hyperspectral data to extract spectral signatures, classify algal blooms, and map the spatial distribution of the algal blooms in the upper Chesapeake Bay. Furthermore, water quality parameters from ground stations have been used together with remote sensing data to provide better understanding of the formation and transformation of the life cycle of harmful algal blooms, and the cause of their outbreaks in the upper Chesapeake Bay. The present results show a strong and significant positive correlation between chlorophyll concentrations and total organic nitrogen concentrations. This relation suggests that total organic nitrogen played an important role in triggering the harmful algal blooms in the upper Chesapeake Bay in this study. This study establishes an integrated approach which combines hyperspectral imaging with multispectral ocean color remote sensing data and traditional water quality monitoring system in the study of harmful algal blooms in small water bodies such as the Chesapeake Bay. Presently, remote sensing is well integrated into the research community, but is less commonly used by resource managers. This dissertation couples remote sensing technologies with specific monitoring programs. The present results will help natural resource managers, local authorities, and the public to utilize an integrated approach in order to better understand, evaluate, preserve, and restore the health of the Chesapeake Bay waters and habitats.

  11. "Who" Helps and Harms "Whom"? Relational Antecedents of Interpersonal Helping and Harming in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkataramani, Vijaya; Dalal, Reeshad S.

    2007-01-01

    Antecedents of interpersonally directed forms of citizenship and counterproductive behaviors (i.e., interpersonal helping and harming, respectively) have been studied most often under the broad categories of individual differences and job attitudes. Although these behaviors often are exhibited within the confines of interpersonal relationships,

  12. Merseyside, the first harm reduction conferences, and the early history of harm reduction.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Pat

    2007-03-01

    In the mid 1980s, Liverpool implemented pioneering approaches to dealing with the problems caused by the use of drugs. The Mersey Harm Reduction Model concentrated on reducing the harms rather than, as previously was the case, trying to reduce drug use itself. This policy was given great impetus by the emergence of HIV and the danger of infection from using contaminated injection equipment. It became imperative to reduce this kind of risk behaviour by providing clean injecting equipment, prescribing methadone (and in a small percentage of cases, heroin) and by using outreach workers to go into the community and help people where they lived and to attract them into services. The police played a key role. Service uptake was rapid and included many who had never had previous contact with services. An HIV epidemic did not happen amongst injecting drug users in Mersey. In 1991, the approach was applied to the new phenomenon of the use of MDMA with the publication of the leaflet 'Chill Out'. The First International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm took place in Liverpool in 1990 as a response to the interest shown in what was happening in the region and the International Harm Reduction Association was born out of these conferences. PMID:17689357

  13. Little cigars, big cigars: omissions and commissions of harm and harm reduction information on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Dollar, Katherine M; Mix, Jacqueline M; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2008-05-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of "harm," "harm reduction," and "little cigar" information about cigars on 10 major English-language health Web sites. The sites were from governmental and nongovernmental organizations based in seven different countries and included "harm" and "harm reduction" information, discussions of little cigars, quantitative estimates of health risks, and qualifying behavioral characteristics (inhalation, number per day). Of the 10 Web sites, 7 offered statements explicitly indicating that cigars may be safer than cigarettes. None of the Web sites reviewed described that little cigars are likely as dangerous as cigarettes. Some Web sites provided quantitative estimates of health risks and extensive discussions of qualifying factors. Reading grade levels were higher than desirable. Extensive and complex information on the reduced risks of cigars compared with cigarettes is available on Web sites affiliated with prominent health organizations. Yet these sites fail to warn consumers that popular cigarette-like little cigars and cigarillos are likely to be just as dangerous as cigarettes, even for those who have never smoked cigarettes. Improvement of these Web sites is urgently needed to provide the public with high-quality health information. PMID:18569755

  14. Minimizing Harm and Maximizing Pleasure: Considering the Harm Reduction Paradigm for Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naisteter, Michal A.; Sitron, Justin A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the potential for introducing harm reduction into sexuality education. When the goal of sexuality education is on prevention and focuses on risk and public health concerns, a discussion of pleasure is rendered problematic, as many pleasurable behaviors are inherently "unsafe" or "risky" when considered using a safe-sex lens.…

  15. Prevention. How much harm? How much benefit? 3. Physical, psychological and social harm.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, K G

    1996-01-01

    Harm caused by preventive programs may be physical, psychological, social or, if informed consent has not been obtained, ethical. Adverse effects of preventive screening programs may occur at any of the three levels of the "screening cascade", the screening procedure itself, the investigation of abnormal results of screening tests or the treatment of detected abnormalities or diseases. The greatest harm occurs at the second and third levels. Examples of procedures that may cause physical harm are venipuncture, mammography, colonoscopy, breast biopsy, transrectal ultrasonography, prostate biopsy, weight-reducing and cholesterol-lowering diets and radical prostatectomy. The psychological and social harm of preventive programs involves anticipated discomfort or perception of adverse effects of preventive interventions; unpleasant interactions with health care workers, time required for preventive programs, excessive overall awareness of health, anxiety over the results of a screening test implications of a positive screening test, consequences of being labelled as "sick" or "at risk," psychopathologic effects induced directly by preventive programs and, in the case of a false-negative test result, false assurance of disease-free status. Since the positive predictive value of screening tests in the general population is always low, most abnormal test results are "false-positive," these engender a great deal of psychological discuss among patients. PMID:8800074

  16. Traditional Construction in Burma

    Traditional construction throughout Burma utilizes bamboo and other lightweight building materials, resulting in structures that are not generally durable but are quite earthquake-safe.  As traditional structures such as this house give way to more modern masonry buildings, seismic risk will in...

  17. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  18. Teaching Tradition Teaches Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graveline, Fyre Jean

    2002-01-01

    Presented in a poetic format, the challenges of revitalizing traditional Indigenous healing and teaching strategies in an Aboriginal counseling program within a Eurocentric university are highlighted from a Native perspective. Contradictions that have arisen in bringing tradition into a modern university context provide lessons from which to

  19. Family Customs and Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cynthia

    Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

  20. Mathematics: Montessori of Traditional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessner, Ruth

    1995-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the approaches to mathematics in Montessori schools and traditional schools. Suggests that in a traditional curriculum, math is studied as a separate subject and isolated discipline, in an abstract format, with the entire group of children moving together through the prescribed curriculum. In contrast, the Montessori school…

  1. Traditional Native Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

  2. When Traditions Become Innovations and Innovations Become Traditions in Everyday Food Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benny, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the way learning to cook remains important for the maintenance of "ethnic" food traditions and how sharing food knowledge plays a role in intercultural exchanges. Ethnographic data from an ongoing study in Melbourne is presented to highlight how, in everyday practices, both tradition and innovation are involved in learning…

  3. Traditional and non-traditional collective bargaining: strategies to improve the patient care environment.

    PubMed

    Budd, Karen W; Warino, Linda S; Patton, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Acquiring organizational autonomy and control over nursing practice, through a combination of traditional and non-traditional collective bargaining (CB) strategies, is emerging as an important solution to the nursing shortage crisis. For the past 60 years, nurses have improved their economic and general welfare by organizing through traditional CB, particularly during periods of nursing shortages. During the past decade, however, the downsizing of nursing staffs, systems redesign, and oppressive management practices have created such poor nursing practice environments that improvement in wages no longer is viewed as the primary purpose of CB. Much more essential to nurses is assuring they have a safe practice environment free of mandatory overtime and other work issues, and a voice in the resource allocation decisions that affect their ability to achieve quality health outcomes for patients. The thesis presented in this article is that traditional and non-traditional CB strategies empower nurses to find such a voice and gain control over nursing practice. This article describes the current shortage; discusses how CB can be used to help nurses find a voice to effect change; reviews the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) history of collective action activities; explains differences between traditional and non-traditional CB strategies; and presents a case study in which both strategies were used to improve the present patient care environment. PMID:14998358

  4. Abstracts in high profile journals often fail to report harm

    PubMed Central

    Bernal-Delgado, Enrique; Fisher, Elliot S

    2008-01-01

    Background To describe how frequently harm is reported in the abstract of high impact factor medical journals. Methods Design and population: We carried out a blinded structured review of a random sample of 363 Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) carried out on human beings, and published in high impact factor medical journals in 2003. Main endpoint: 1) Proportion of articles reporting harm in the abstract; and 2) Proportion of articles that reported harm in the abstract when harm was reported in the main body of the article. Analysis: Corrected Prevalence Ratio (cPR) and its exact confidence interval were calculated. Non-conditional logistic regression was used. Results 363 articles and 407 possible comparisons were studied. Overall, harm was reported in 135 abstracts [37.2% (CI95%:32.2 to 42.4)]. Harm was reported in the main text of 243 articles [66.9% (CI95%: 61.8 to 71.8)] and was statistically significant in 54 articles [14.9% (CI95%: 11.4 to 19.0)]. Among the 243 articles that mentioned harm in the text, 130 articles [53.5% (CI95% 47.0 to 59.9)] reported harm in the abstract; a figure that rose to 75.9% (CI95%: 62.4 to 86.5) when the harm reported in the text was statistically significant. Harm in the abstract was more likely to be reported when statistically significant harm was reported in the main body of the article [cPR = 1.70 (CI95% 1.47 to 1.92)] and when drug companies (not public institutions) funded the RCTs [cPR = 1.29 (CI95% 1.03 to 1.67)]. Conclusion Abstracts published in high impact factor medical journals underreport harm, even when harm is reported in the main body of the article. PMID:18371200

  5. Do no harm--normal tissue effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy confers enormous benefits that must be balanced against the possibilities for harm including late toxicity in normal tissues and radiation-induced second malignancies. A small percentage of patients experience severe late complications. The question is, do these late sequelae occur randomly, or are they confined to individuals who are genetically predisposed to radiosensitivity. Experiments with knockout mice and with patients demonstrate that individuals heterozygous for a number of genes appear to be radiosensitive. If radiosensitive patients were identified prospectively by genetic analysis, they could be spared the trauma of late sequelae. Several large studies have shown a statistically significant excess of radiation-induced malignancies in radiotherapy patients. Most second cancers are carcinomas, developing in the lining cells of the body often remote from the treatment site. Radiation-induced sarcomas appear only in the heavily irradiated areas. These are small in number but appear with a very high relative risk.

  6. Lead encephalopathy due to traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Karri, Surya K; Saper, Robert B; Kales, Stefanos N

    2008-01-01

    Traditional medicine use is common in developing countries and increasingly popular in the western world. Despite the popularity of traditional medicines, scientific research on safety and efficacy is limited. However documented fatalities and severe illness due to lead poisoning are increasingly recognized to be associated with traditional medicine use. As society becomes more globalized, it is imperative for pharmacists and health care providers to learn about the safety of traditional medical practices. The information presented educates and alerts pharmacists and health care providers about the potential of traditional medicines to cause lead encephalopathy. Case reports were located through systematic literature searches using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE and The Cochrane library from 1966 to the February 2007. Reference lists of identified articles and the authors' own files were also searched. Inclusion criteria were cases of human lead encephalopathy associated with traditional medical practices. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. Data were subsequently extracted and summarized in narrative and tabular form. We found 76 cases of lead encephalopathy potentially associated with traditional medicine. Ayurvedic medicines were associated with 5 cases (7%), Middle eastern traditional medicines with 66 cases (87%) and 5 cases (7%) with other traditional medicines. Of the 76 cases, 5% were in adults and 95% were in infants and young children. Of the 4 adult cases, at least one was left with residual neurological impairment. In infants and young children, among 72 cases 8 (11%) were fatal, and at least 15 (21%) had residual neurological deficits. Traditional medicine users should be screened for lead exposure and strongly encouraged to discontinue metal-containing remedies. Therefore, the United States Food and Drug Administration and corresponding agencies in other countries should require and enforce heavy metal testing for all imported traditional medicines and "dietary supplements". PMID:18690981

  7. Ecological Education in Rural China: Rediscovering Traditional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    This article has implications for the ecological sustainability crisis now looming in China and what this portends for the practice of education. Chemical agriculture, although improving agricultural production, harms ecological systems in rural communities. The author presents research on a group of intellectuals and social activists in 1…

  8. Ecological Education in Rural China: Rediscovering Traditional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    This article has implications for the ecological sustainability crisis now looming in China and what this portends for the practice of education. Chemical agriculture, although improving agricultural production, harms ecological systems in rural communities. The author presents research on a group of intellectuals and social activists in 1

  9. Geoengineering, Climate Harm, and Business as Usual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankunis, F. J.; Peacock, K.

    2014-12-01

    We define geoengineering (GE) as the intentional use of technology to change the planet's climate. Many people believe GE is different in kind rather than degree from any other organized activity in human history. In fact, humans caused changes in the planet's climate long before the industrial age, and all organisms engineer their environments directly or indirectly. The relevant difference between this cumulative and generally inadvertent activity and GE is the presence of intention. Now that science has revealed the extent to which humans can change the climate, however, even the continuance of Business as Usual (BAU) is, in effect, a form of intentional GE, albeit one that will cause significant climate harm, defined as effects such as sea level rise that will impact human well-being. But as with all forms of engineering, the devil is in the details: what forms of GE should be tried first? Some methods, such as large-scale afforestation, are low risk but have long-term payoffs; others, such as aerosol injection into the stratosphere, could help buy time in a warming crisis but have unknown side-effects and little long-term future. Climate change is a world-wide, inter-generational tragedy of the commons. Rational choice theory, the spatial and temporal extension of the problem, poorly fitted moral frameworks, and political maneuvering are all factors that inhibit solutions to the climate tragedy of the commons. The longer that such factors are allowed to dominate decision-making (or the lack thereof) the more likely it is that humanity will be forced to resort to riskier and more drastic forms of GE. We argue that this fact brings an additional measure of urgency to the search for ways to engineer the climate differently so as to avoid climate harm in the most lasting and least risky way.

  10. Brief intervention strategies for harmful drinkers: new directions for medical education.

    PubMed Central

    Babor, T F

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology of behavioural interventions for harmful drinkers have created a new role for clinical practice and new challenges for medical education. Several reports from expert committees have recommended new initiatives in the secondary prevention of alcohol problems through physician-based interventions at the primary care level. The conceptual and scientific bases for these recommendations are discussed in terms of recent studies of harmful and hazardous drinkers. The behavioural principles thought to account for the effectiveness of brief interventions are explained. Despite these promising developments, difficulties are inherent in the introduction of new technologies, especially behavioural technologies, into medical practice. A major challenge to medical education will be the development of academic programs that not only teach skills and competencies in secondary prevention but also deal with the socialization of physicians as behavioural practitioners. PMID:2224675

  11. The relationship between self-harm and alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Norman, Hilary; Borrill, Jo

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the literature concerning the relationship between alexithymia and self-harm. Fifteen studies were selected following a systematic search of relevant databases. Results indicate significantly higher levels of alexithymia in women who self-harm compared with women who do not self-harm. Studies of men were less conclusive and require further investigation. A subsample of the studies found that childhood abuse and bullying were more likely to be associated with self-harm if alexithymia was present as a mediator. Other studies found that depression mediated between alexithymia and self-harm. The results indicate that the poor emotional cognition and expression associated with alexithymia may increase vulnerability to self-harm, particularly in women. PMID:26011069

  12. Potentially Harmful Therapy and Multicultural Counseling: Bridging Two Disciplinary Discourses

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Dennis C.; Gone, Joseph P.; Nagata, Donna K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years psychologists have been increasingly concerned about potentially harmful therapy, yet this recent discourse has not addressed issues that have long been voiced by the multicultural counseling and psychotherapy movement. We aim to begin to bring these seemingly disparate discourses of harm into greater conversation with one another, in the service of placing the discipline on a firmer foothold in its considerations of potentially harmful therapy. After reviewing the two discourses and exploring reasons for their divergence, we argue that they operate according to differing assumptions pertaining to the sources, objects, and scope of harm. We then argue that these differences reveal the discipline’s need to better appreciate that harm is a social construct, that psychotherapy may be inherently ethnocentric, and that strategies for collecting evidence of harm should be integrated with a social justice agenda. PMID:26339075

  13. Harm reduction, methadone maintenance treatment and the root causes of health and social inequities: An intersectional lens in the Canadian context

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Using our research findings, we explore Harm Reduction and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) using an intersectional lens to provide a more complex understanding of Harm Reduction and MMT, particularly how Harm Reduction and MMT are experienced differently by people dependent on how they are positioned. Using the lens of intersectionality, we refine the notion of Harm Reduction by specifying the conditions in which both harm and benefit arise and how experiences of harm are continuous with wider experiences of domination and oppression; Methods A qualitative design that uses ethnographic methods of in-depth individual and focus group interviews and naturalistic observation was conducted in a large city in Canada. Participants included Aboriginal clients accessing mainstream mental health and addictions care and primary health care settings and healthcare providers; Results All client-participants had profound histories of abuse and violence, most often connected to the legacy of colonialism (e.g., residential schooling) and ongoing colonial practices (e.g., stigma & everyday racism). Participants lived with co-occurring illness (e.g., HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C, PTSD, depression, diabetes and substance use) and most lived in poverty. Many participants expressed mistrust with the healthcare system due to everyday experiences both within and outside the system that further marginalize them. In this paper, we focus on three intersecting issues that impact access to MMT: stigma and prejudice, social and structural constraints influencing enactment of peoples' agency, and homelessness; Conclusions Harm reduction must move beyond a narrow concern with the harms directly related to drugs and drug use practices to address the harms associated with the determinants of drug use and drug and health policy. An intersectional lens elucidates the need for harm reduction approaches that reflect an understanding of and commitment to addressing the historical, socio-cultural and political forces that shape responses to mental illness/health, addictions, including harm reduction and methadone maintenance treatment. PMID:21718531

  14. Best Practices in Grading. Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…

  15. Traditional Indonesian dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Surono, Ingrid S

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago blessed with one of the richest mega-biodiversities and also home to one of the most diverse cuisines and traditional fermented foods. There are 3 types of traditional dairy foods, namely the butter-like product minyak samin; yogurt-like product dadih; and cheese-like products dali or bagot in horbo, dangke, litsusu, and cologanti, which reflect the culture of dairy product consumption in Indonesia. PMID:26715081

  16. Self-harm to preferentially harm the pathogens within: non-specific stressors in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Therapies with increasing specificity against pathogens follow the immune system's evolutionary course in maximizing host defence while minimizing self-harm. Nevertheless, even completely non-specific stressors, such as reactive molecular species, heat, nutrient and oxygen deprivation, and acidity can be used to preferentially harm pathogens. Strategic use of non-specific stressors requires exploiting differences in stress vulnerability between pathogens and hosts. Two basic vulnerabilities of pathogens are: (i) the inherent vulnerability to stress of growth and replication (more immediately crucial for pathogens than for host cells) and (ii) the degree of pathogen localization, permitting the host's use of locally and regionally intense stress. Each of the various types of non-specific stressors is present during severe infections at all levels of localization: (i) ultra-locally within phagolysosomes, (ii) locally at the infected site, (iii) regionally around the infected site and (iv) systemically as part of the acute-phase response. We propose that hosts strategically use a coordinated system of non-specific stressors at local, regional and systemic levels to preferentially harm the pathogens within. With the rising concern over emergence of resistance to specific therapies, we suggest more scrutiny of strategies using less specific therapies in pathogen control. Hosts' active use of multiple non-specific stressors is likely an evolutionarily basic defence whose retention underlies and supplements the well-recognized immune defences that directly target pathogens. PMID:27075254

  17. Self-harm to preferentially harm the pathogens within: non-specific stressors in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    LeGrand, Edmund K; Day, Judy D

    2016-04-13

    Therapies with increasing specificity against pathogens follow the immune system's evolutionary course in maximizing host defence while minimizing self-harm. Nevertheless, even completely non-specific stressors, such as reactive molecular species, heat, nutrient and oxygen deprivation, and acidity can be used to preferentially harm pathogens. Strategic use of non-specific stressors requires exploiting differences in stress vulnerability between pathogens and hosts. Two basic vulnerabilities of pathogens are: (i) the inherent vulnerability to stress of growth and replication (more immediately crucial for pathogens than for host cells) and (ii) the degree of pathogen localization, permitting the host's use of locally and regionally intense stress. Each of the various types of non-specific stressors is present during severe infections at all levels of localization: (i) ultra-locally within phagolysosomes, (ii) locally at the infected site, (iii) regionally around the infected site and (iv) systemically as part of the acute-phase response. We propose that hosts strategically use a coordinated system of non-specific stressors at local, regional and systemic levels to preferentially harm the pathogens within. With the rising concern over emergence of resistance to specific therapies, we suggest more scrutiny of strategies using less specific therapies in pathogen control. Hosts' active use of multiple non-specific stressors is likely an evolutionarily basic defence whose retention underlies and supplements the well-recognized immune defences that directly target pathogens. PMID:27075254

  18. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly linked to older people in rural areas. In the rural areas surveyed, significant economic and social benefits are derived from traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use. Policy makers designing ways to reduce alcohol-related risks and harms need to give thoughtful consideration to the role traditional alcohol plays in the local society and to suggest changes that do not create unintended problems. PMID:25037953

  19. Mental Health Nurses' Experiences of Caring for Patients Suffering from Self-Harm

    PubMed Central

    Talseth, Anne-Grethe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore mental health nurses' experiences of caring for inpatients who self-harm during an acute phase. The setting was four psychiatric clinics in Norway. Fifteen mental health nurses (MHNs) were recruited. Semistructured interviews comprised the method for data collection, with content analysis used for data analysis. Two main categories emerged: challenging and collaborative nurse-patient relationship and promoting well-being through nursing interventions. The underlying meaning of the main categories was interpreted and formulated as a latent theme: promoting person-centered care to patients suffering from self-harm. How MHNs promote care for self-harm patients can be described as a person-centered nursing process. MHNs, through the creation of a collaborative nurse-patient relationship, reflect upon nursing interventions and seek to understand each unique patient. The implication for clinical practice is that MHNs are in a position where they can promote patients' recovery processes, by offering patients alternative activities and by working in partnership with patients to promote their individual strengths and life knowledge. MHNs strive to help patients find new ways of living with their problems. The actual study highlighted that MHNs use different methods and strategies when promoting the well-being of self-harm patients. PMID:25512876

  20. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    PubMed

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies. PMID:23748884

  1. Poor communication on patients’ medication across health care levels leads to potentially harmful medication errors

    PubMed Central

    Frydenberg, Karin; Brekke, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Objective General practitioners have a key role in updating their patients’ medication. Poor communication regarding patients’ drug use may easily occur when patients cross health care levels. We wanted to explore whether such inadequate communication leads to errors in patients’ medication on admission, during hospital stay, and after discharge, and whether these errors were potentially harmful. Design Exploratory case study of 30 patients. Setting General practices in central Norway and medical ward of Innlandet Hospital Trust Gjøvik, Norway. Subjects 30 patients urgently admitted to the medical ward, and using three or more drugs on admission. Main outcome measures Discrepancies between the patients’ actual drugs taken and what was recorded on admission to hospital, during hospitalization, at discharge, and five weeks after hospital stay. The discrepancies were grouped according to the NCC Merp Index for Categorizing Medication Errors to assess their potential harm. Results The 30 patients used a total of 250 drugs, and 50 medication errors were found, affecting 18 of the patients; 27 errors were potentially harmful, according to NCC Merp Index: 23 in category E, four in category F. Half of the errors originated from an incomplete medication list in the referral letter. Conclusion The majority of the medication errors were made when the patients were admitted to hospital, and a substantial proportion were potentially harmful. The medication list should be reviewed together with the patient on admission, and each patient should carry an updated medication list provided by his or her general practitioner. PMID:23050954

  2. Intelligent glasses, watches and vests…oh my! Rethinking the meaning of "harm" in the age of wearable technologies.

    PubMed

    Jadad, Alejandro R; Fandiño, Marcela; Lennox, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The widespread release and adoption of wearable devices will likely accelerate the "hybrid era", already initiated by mobile digital devices, with progressively deeper levels of human-technology co-evolution and increasing blurring of our boundaries with machines. Questions about the potentially harmful nature of information and communication technologies have been asked before, since the introduction of the telephone, the Web, and more recently, mobile phones. Our capacity to answer them now is limited by outdated conceptual approaches to harm, mostly derived from drug evaluation; and by the slow and static nature of traditional research tools. In this article, we propose a re-conceptualizing of the meaning of "harm", which builds on a global effort focused on health, adding flexibility and richness within a context that acknowledges the physical, mental, and social domains in which it can occur. PMID:25668291

  3. Primary care management of patients who self-harm.

    PubMed

    Allan, Charlotte L; Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2012-05-01

    Self-harm is best defined as 'any act of self-poisoning or self-injury carried out by an individual irrespective of motivation'. With a 10.5% lifetime risk, self-reported self-harm is common in the community. Self-harm can occur at any age but is most common in young people. Prior self-harm is the key risk factor both for repeated self-harm and also for subsequent suicide. The presence of depressive symptoms predicts repeated self-harm, as does any history of psychiatric illness. Assessment of self-harm (actual or planned) should include: details of preplanning; final acts; the event itself; what happened afterwards; as well as broader psychosocial risk factors. Patients should be asked to reflect on the episode to consider whether they regret it, or whether they are likely to repeat it. Patients should be screened for depression, anxiety, psychosis and history of self-harm. Physical illness and substance misuse increase risk. Referral to secondary care community mental health teams should be considered for patients who present in primary care with a history of self-harm and a risk of repetition. Patients with continuing thoughts or serious intent of self-harm, where supportive or protective factors cannot be identified, may need urgent referral to secondary care. Prediction of further episodes of self-harm is difficult. Some clinicians may find the use of standardised rating scales, such as the SAD PERSONS scale, a useful way to identify patients who warrant referral and further assessment. The GP should provide long-term continuity of care, and maintain a holistic awareness of a patient's life events enabling discussion of the patient's emotional problems at an early stage with the aim of intervening before a crisis. PMID:22774378

  4. Defining and redefining harm reduction in the Lao context

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The response to drug use in Laos has focused on reducing opium supply (supply reduction) and rates of drug use (demand reduction). However, recently there is increased interest among government counterparts to discuss and develop broader responses to injecting drug use (IDU) including the introduction of harm reduction programs. The concept of harm reduction has just been introduced to Lao PDR and as yet there is no agreement on a definition of the concept. We highlight here a range of issues that remain controversial in Lao PDR in the HIV, drug use and harm reduction discourse, the definition of 'harm reduction' and related terms; and the scope of harm reduction. This was a qualitative study, consisting of in-depth interviews with 27 law enforcement and 8 health officers who work in the fields of HIV and/or drug control about their understanding of HIV related to drug use, and concepts of harm reduction. Content analysis was performed to identify the coding, categories and themes. We found that law enforcement officers in particular had limited understanding about harm reduction and the feasibility and appropriateness of harm reduction services in the Lao context. Harm reduction should be a core element of a public health response to HIV where drug use and IDU exists. Recommendations include the necessity of increasing the awareness of harm reduction among law enforcement officers and providing appropriate evidence to support the needs of harm reduction policy and programs. HIV prevention and treatment strategies should be integrated within existing social and cultural frameworks, working with the task force for HIV/IDU and other government counterparts. PMID:22769736

  5. Innovative techniques for harmful algal toxin analysis.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R H; Kirkpatrick, G J

    2001-01-01

    The global increase in frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has led to more frequent incidence of seafood-borne illnesses and adverse impacts on natural resources. In response, public health agencies worldwide have mobilized to initiate HAB monitoring programs. To meet this demand, innovative analytical techniques are being developed that provide rapid and reliable detection of the causative organisms and the toxins produced. Modifications to conventional chromatography and mass spectrometry have greatly improved sensitivity and selectivity of these methods toward naturally occurring phycotoxins. Bioassay techniques using live organisms are giving way to molecular and cellular methods that measure the toxicologically significant activity of the toxin molecules. Molecular probes are being applied to distinguish species-specific RNA and DNA sequences for rapid identification of HAB-causing organisms. The direction of this new technology is to develop rapid and reliable screening methods for phycotoxins and the causative organisms to provide protection for public health, aquaculture, and natural resources. New methods also are being developed for detecting minute amounts of toxin molecules in microenvironments, leading to understanding the toxicokinetics and toxicological functions of the toxins. PMID:11351396

  6. Evaluation of harmful algal bloom outreach activities.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lora E; Jerez, Eva; Stephan, Wendy Blair; Cassedy, Amy; Bean, Judy A; Reich, Andrew; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine; Nierenberg, Kate; Watkins, Sharon; Hollenbeck, Julie; Weisman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    With an apparent increase of harmful algal blooms (HABs) worldwide, healthcare providers, public health personnel and coastal managers are struggling to provide scientifically-based appropriately-targeted HAB outreach and education. Since 1998, the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami, with its 24 hour/365 day/year free Aquatic Toxins Hotline (1-888-232-8635) available in several languages, has received over 25,000 HAB-related calls. As part of HAB surveillance, all possible cases of HAB-related illness among callers are reported to the Florida Health Department. This pilot study evaluated an automated call processing menu system that allows callers to access bilingual HAB information, and to speak directly with a trained Poison Information Specialist. The majority (68%) of callers reported satisfaction with the information, and many provided specific suggestions for improvement. This pilot study, the first known evaluation of use and satisfaction with HAB educational outreach materials, demonstrated that the automated system provided useful HAB-related information for the majority of callers, and decreased the routine informational call workload for the Poison Information Specialists, allowing them to focus on callers needing immediate assistance and their healthcare providers. These results will lead to improvement of this valuable HAB outreach, education and surveillance tool. Formal evaluation is recommended for future HAB outreach and educational materials. PMID:18463727

  7. Traditional Chinese biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed. PMID:19888561

  8. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  9. Self-Harm and Conventional Gender Roles in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straiton, Melanie L.; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Grimholt, Tine K.; Dieserud, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women.

  10. Young Children Selectively Avoid Helping People with Harmful Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Amrisha; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether young children are selectively prosocial toward others, based on the others' moral behaviors. In Study 1 (N = 54), 3-year-olds watched 1 adult (the actor) harming or helping another adult. Children subsequently helped the harmful actor less often than a third (previously neutral) adult, but helped the helpful and…

  11. Managing Sexually Harmful Behaviour in a Residential Special School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Graham, Nicola; Ikin, Annette; Penney, Heather; Kovacs, Lisa; Mercer, Dawn; Edwards, Richard; Jones, Dylan; Mace, Floyd Charles

    2012-01-01

    Children and young people with learning disabilities who present sexually harmful behaviour are marginalised and do not always participate in community activities. This case study describes a multi-component intervention that successfully reduced the sexually harmful behaviour of a 16-year-old boy with a mild learning disability. The intervention…

  12. 16 CFR 1102.28 - Publication of reports of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Procedural Requirements § 1102.28... publish reports of harm that meet the requirements for publication in the Database. The Commission will... Commission may publish a report of harm that meets the requirements of § 1102.10(d) in the Database...

  13. 16 CFR 1102.28 - Publication of reports of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Procedural Requirements § 1102.28... publish reports of harm that meet the requirements for publication in the Database. The Commission will... Commission may publish a report of harm that meets the requirements of § 1102.10(d) in the Database...

  14. 16 CFR 1102.28 - Publication of reports of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Procedural Requirements § 1102.28... publish reports of harm that meet the requirements for publication in the Database. The Commission will... Commission may publish a report of harm that meets the requirements of § 1102.10(d) in the Database...

  15. Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Louise; Canter, David

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the variations in behaviour displayed by young people who sexually harm, as previous research has shown that they are not a homogeneous sample. Three conceptually distinct sets of behaviour were hypothesized, relating to various modes of interaction between the young people with harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) and their…

  16. 40 CFR 51.151 - Significant harm levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant harm levels. 51.151 Section 51.151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Emergency Episodes § 51.151 Significant harm levels. Each plan for a Priority I region must include...

  17. Moral complexity in middle childhood: children's evaluations of necessary harm.

    PubMed

    Jambon, Marc; Smetana, Judith G

    2014-01-01

    We assessed 5- to 11-year-olds' (N = 76) judgments of straightforward moral transgressions (prototypical harm) as well as their evaluations of complex, hypothetical scenarios in which an actor transgresses in order to prevent injury (necessary harm). The nature of the actor's transgression (psychological or physical harm) varied across participants. Moral judgments and justifications, knowledge of the actor's psychological experience, and their associations were examined. At all ages, children negatively evaluated prototypical harm; judgments of necessary harm became increasingly more forgiving with age as justifications pertaining to the actor's harm decreased. References to the actor's positive actions and children's tendency to coordinate conflicting concerns increased with age, but only when evaluating psychological harm. Across conditions, older children viewed transgressors as holding increasingly more positive attitudes toward their own actions, and this was uniquely associated with more forgiving moral judgments and justifications of necessary but not prototypical harm. Findings are discussed in relation to the emergence of more flexible and nuanced moral evaluations during middle childhood. PMID:23647415

  18. 30 CFR 722.11 - Imminent dangers and harms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imminent dangers and harms. 722.11 Section 722... INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.11 Imminent dangers and harms. (a) If an... create an imminent danger to the health or safety of the public, the authorized representative...

  19. Self-Harm and Conventional Gender Roles in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straiton, Melanie L.; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Grimholt, Tine K.; Dieserud, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women.…

  20. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  1. Training Implications of Harmful Effects of Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castonguay, Louis G.; Boswell, James F.; Constantino, Michael J.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Hill, Clara E.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to delineate training implications regarding harmful effects associated with psychotherapy. The authors strongly recommend that trainees be made aware of (and encouraged to examine carefully) the potentially harmful treatments that have been recently identified (Lilienfeld, 2007). Consistent with a broad perspective on…

  2. Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Non-indigenous species (NIS) are common in the United States landscape. While some are beneficial, others are harmful and can cause significant economic, environmental, and health damage. This study, requested by the U.S. House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, examined State and Federal policies related to these harmful NIS. The report is…

  3. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement 200.1540 Imminent harm notice of action. The Board may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on...

  4. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement 200.1540 Imminent harm notice of action. The Board may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on...

  5. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement 200.1540 Imminent harm notice of action. The Board may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on...

  6. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent harm notice of action. The Board may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on...

  7. Continuing to challenge practice to be evidence based.

    PubMed

    Makic, Mary Beth Flynn; Rauen, Carol; Jones, Kimmith; Fisk, Anna C

    2015-04-01

    Practice habits continue in clinical practice despite the availability of research and other forms of evidence that should be used to guide critical care practice interventions. This article is based on a presentation at the 2014 National Teaching Institute of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. The article is part of a series of articles that challenge critical care nurses to examine the evidence guiding nursing practice interventions. Four common practice interventions are reviewed: (1) weight-based medication administration, (2) chest tube patency maintenance, (3) daily interruption of sedation, and (4) use of chest physiotherapy in children. For weight-based administration of medication, the patient's actual weight should be measured, rather than using an estimate. The therapeutic effectiveness and dosages of medications used in obese patients must be critically evaluated. Maintaining patency of chest tubes does not require stripping and milking, which probably do more harm than good. Daily interruption of sedation and judicious use of sedatives are appropriate in most patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Traditional chest physiotherapy does not help children with pneumonia, bronchiolitis, or asthma and does not prevent atelectasis after extubation. Critical care nurses are challenged to evaluate their individual practice and to adopt current evidence-based practice interventions into their daily practice. PMID:25834007

  8. Family traditions and generations.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Gerald; Barrera, Maru

    2009-01-01

    Currently, traditional family values that have been passed down through generations appear to be at risk. This has significant implications for the stability and health of individuals, families, and communities. This article explores selected issues related to intergenerational transmission of family values and cultural beliefs, with particular reference to Western culture and values that are rooted in Jewish and Christian traditions. It also examines family values and parenting styles as they influence the developing perspective of children and the family's adaptation to a changing world. PMID:19752638

  9. Climate change: links to global expansion of harmful cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Paul, Valerie J

    2012-04-01

    Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest (∼3.5 bya) oxygen evolving organisms, and they have had major impacts on shaping our modern-day biosphere. Conversely, biospheric environmental perturbations, including nutrient enrichment and climatic changes (e.g. global warming, hydrologic changes, increased frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones, more intense and persistent droughts), strongly affect cyanobacterial growth and bloom potentials in freshwater and marine ecosystems. We examined human and climatic controls on harmful (toxic, hypoxia-generating, food web disrupting) bloom-forming cyanobacteria (CyanoHABs) along the freshwater to marine continuum. These changes may act synergistically to promote cyanobacterial dominance and persistence. This synergy is a formidable challenge to water quality, water supply and fisheries managers, because bloom potentials and controls may be altered in response to contemporaneous changes in thermal and hydrologic regimes. In inland waters, hydrologic modifications, including enhanced vertical mixing and, if water supplies permit, increased flushing (reducing residence time) will likely be needed in systems where nutrient input reductions are neither feasible nor possible. Successful control of CyanoHABs by grazers is unlikely except in specific cases. Overall, stricter nutrient management will likely be the most feasible and practical approach to long-term CyanoHAB control in a warmer, stormier and more extreme world. PMID:21893330

  10. Separation of wind's influence on harmful cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhizhang; Liang, Dongfang; du, Hanbei; Pang, Yong; Hu, Kaimin; Wang, Jianjian

    2016-07-01

    Wind is an important physical factor involved in Harmful Cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs). Its integrated influence was separated to three components: (a) Direct Disturbance Impact (DDI) on cyanbacterial proliferation, (b) Indirect Nutrient Impact (INI) by sediment release and (c) Direct Transportation Impact (DTI) by both gentle wind-induced surface drift and wave-generated Stokes drift. By the combination of field investigation, laboratory experiment and numerical simulation their individual contributions to the severe bloom event in May 2007 in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu, was explored. Wind synthetically made 10.5 percent promotion to the bloom on May 28, 2007, but the impact varied with locations. DTI was featured with the strongest contribution of wind's impacts on CyanoHABs, while INI stood at the lowest level and DDI played an intermediate role. From the point of whole Meiliang Bay, the influencing weights of DTI, DDI and INI were approximately 48.55%, 32.30% and 19.15% respectively. DTI exerted the higher promotion in the regions of middle-east (ME), southwest (SW) and southeast (SE), and its actual contribution rate on CyanoHABs ranged from 6.41% to 7.46%. Due to the background nutrient load, INI was characterized by a tiny effect with the contribution rate being 2.18% on average. From the south bay to the north, DDI was detected with a decreasing tendency, with the practical contribution rate generally falling from 4.13% to 2.7%. PMID:27108214

  11. First do no harm: iatrogenic maintaining factors in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Janet; Crane, Anna; McKnight, Rebecca; Buchanan, Emmakate; Wolfe, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the way that we as clinicians may play an inadvertent role in perpetuating eating disordered behaviour. This is considered within the theoretical framework of Schmidt and Treasures' maintenance model of anorexia nervosa (AN). The model includes four main domains; interpersonal factors, pro-AN beliefs, emotional style and thinking style. Interpersonal reactions are of particular relevance as clinicians (as with family members) may react with high expressed emotion and unknowingly encourage eating disorder behaviours to continue. Hostility in the form of coercive refeeding in either a hospital or outpatient setting may strengthen conditioned food avoidance and pessimism may hamper motivation to change. Negative schema common to eating disorders, for example low self-esteem, perfectionism and striving for social value may augment existing or initiate new eating disorder behaviour. Services can become a reinforcing influence by providing an overly protective, palliating environment which ensures safety, security and acceptance whilst reducing loneliness and isolation. This stifles the need for an individual to develop their own sense of responsibility, autonomy and independence allowing avoidance to dominate. Furthermore, the highly structured environment of inpatient care supports the rigid attention to detail and inflexibility that is characteristic of people with eating disorders, and allows these negative behaviours to thrive. Careful planning of service provision, reflective practice, supervision and regular team feedback is essential to prevent iatrogenic harm. PMID:21714039

  12. Disclosing harmful medical errors to patients: tackling three tough cases.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Thomas H; Bell, Sigall K; Smith, Kelly M; Mello, Michelle M; McDonald, Timothy B

    2009-09-01

    A gap exists between recommendations to disclose errors to patients and current practice. This gap may reflect important, yet unanswered questions about implementing disclosure principles. We explore some of these unanswered questions by presenting three real cases that pose challenging disclosure dilemmas. The first case involves a pancreas transplant that failed due to the pancreas graft being discarded, an error that was not disclosed partly because the family did not ask clarifying questions. Relying on patient or family questions to determine the content of disclosure is problematic. We propose a standard of materiality that can help clinicians to decide what information to disclose. The second case involves a fatal diagnostic error that the patient's widower was unaware had happened. The error was not disclosed out of concern that disclosure would cause the widower more harm than good. This case highlights how institutions can overlook patients' and families' needs following errors and emphasizes that benevolent deception has little role in disclosure. Institutions should consider whether involving neutral third parties could make disclosures more patient centered. The third case presents an intraoperative cardiac arrest due to a large air embolism where uncertainty around the clinical event was high and complicated the disclosure. Uncertainty is common to many medical errors but should not deter open conversations with patients and families about what is and is not known about the event. Continued discussion within the medical profession about applying disclosure principles to real-world cases can help to better meet patients' and families' needs following medical errors. PMID:19736193

  13. The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization?

    PubMed

    Tupper, Kenneth W

    2008-08-01

    Ayahuasca is a tea made from two plants native to the Amazon, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, which, respectively, contain the psychoactive chemicals harmala alkaloids and dimethyltryptamine. The tea has been used by indigenous peoples in countries such as Brazil, Ecuador and Peru for medicinal, spiritual and cultural purposes since pre-Columbian times. In the 20th century, ayahuasca spread beyond its native habitat and has been incorporated into syncretistic practices that are being adopted by non-indigenous peoples in modern Western contexts. Ayahuasca's globalization in the past few decades has led to a number of legal cases which pit religious freedom against national drug control laws. This paper explores some of the philosophical and policy implications of contemporary ayahuasca use. It addresses the issue of the social construction of ayahuasca as a medicine, a sacrament and a "plant teacher." Issues of harm reduction with respect to ayahuasca use are explored, but so too is the corollary notion of "benefit maximization." PMID:18638702

  14. Design and Implementation of Harmful Algal Bloom Diagnosis System Based on J2EE Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chunfeng; Zheng, Haiyong; Ji, Guangrong; Lv, Liang

    According to the shortcomings which are time consuming and laborious of the traditional HAB (Harmful Algal Bloom) diagnosis by the experienced experts using microscope, all kinds of methods and technologies to identify HAB emerged such as microscopic images, molecular biology, characteristics of pigments analysis, fluorescence spectra, inherent optical properties, etc. This paper proposes the design and implementation of a web-based diagnosis system integrating the popular methods for HAB identification. This system is designed with J2EE platform based on MVC (Model-View-Controller) model as well as technologies such as JSP, Servlets, EJB and JDBC.

  15. Interprofessional and Interagency Training for Working with Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: An Evaluation of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Simon; Carpenter, John; Patsios, Demi; Szilassy, Eszter

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the outcomes of short interagency training courses provided by six Local Safeguarding Children Boards in England. The aim was to develop practical skills in recognising and responding to the needs of children with harmful sexual behaviour in an interagency context. The courses all employed interactive learning and teaching…

  16. Young children selectively avoid helping people with harmful intentions.

    PubMed

    Vaish, Amrisha; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether young children are selectively prosocial toward others, based on the others' moral behaviors. In Study 1 (N = 54), 3-year-olds watched 1 adult (the actor) harming or helping another adult. Children subsequently helped the harmful actor less often than a third (previously neutral) adult, but helped the helpful and neutral adults equally often. In Study 2 (N = 36), 3-year-olds helped an actor who intended but failed to harm another adult less often than a neutral adult, but helped an accidentally harmful and a neutral adult equally often. Children's prosocial behavior was thus mediated by the intentions behind the actor's moral behavior, irrespective of outcome. Children thus selectively avoid helping those who cause--or even intend to cause--others harm. PMID:21077854

  17. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American

  18. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  19. Harm perception of nicotine products in college freshmen.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie Y; Curbow, Barbara; Stillman, Frances A

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the association of sociodemographic characteristics and smoking behaviors (i.e., cigarette, cigar, and waterpipe) with nicotine product harm perception in college freshmen. Students were asked to compare the perceived harmfulness of 11 nicotine-delivering products with that of a regular cigarette. Data were from a cross-sectional Internet survey conducted during the spring 2004 semester at a private university (N = 411). Binomial logistic regression was used to determine the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors with nicotine product harm perception. A statistically significant association was found between nicotine product harm perception and sex, race, income, citizenship, and smoking behavior (p< or =.05). Regarding the three medicinal nicotine replacement therapies, 19.6% of respondents incorrectly perceived the nicotine patch to be as harmful as or more harmful than a regular cigarette; corresponding values were 24.1% for nicotine gum and 52.9% for nicotine inhaler. Respondents incorrectly perceived the following smoked tobacco products to be less harmful than regular cigarettes: ultra-light cigarettes (40.4%), waterpipe (37%), light cigarettes (35.2%), cigarillos (17.4%), and cigars (16.9%). Regarding smokeless nicotine products, 89.3% of respondents incorrectly perceived dip and chew to be as harmful as or more harmful than regular cigarettes; corresponding values were 36.2% for nicotine lollipops and 35.2% for nicotine water. Our findings reveal misperceptions about nicotine product harmfulness and underscore the importance of developing a science base to inform policies and educate consumers about these products. PMID:17763115

  20. Dealing with Alcohol-related problems in the Night-Time Economy: A Study Protocol for Mapping trends in harm and stakeholder views surrounding local community level interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This project will provide a comprehensive investigation into the prevalence of alcohol-related harms and community attitudes in the context of community-based interventions being implemented to reduce harm in two regional centres of Australia. While considerable experimentation and innovation to address these harms has occurred in both Geelong and Newcastle, only limited ad-hoc documentation and analysis has been conducted on changes in the prevalence of harm as a consequence, leaving a considerable gap in terms of a systematic, evidence-based analysis of changes in harm over time and the need for further intervention. Similarly, little evidence has been reported regarding the views of key stakeholder groups, industry, government agencies, patrons or community regarding the need for, and the acceptability of, interventions to reduce harms. This project will aim to provide evidence regarding the impact and acceptability of local initiatives aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Methods/Design This study will gather existing police data (assault, property damage and drink driving offences), Emergency Department presentations and Ambulance attendance data. Further, the research team will conduct interviews with licensed venue patrons and collect observational data of licensed venues. Key informant interviews will assess expert knowledge from key industry and government stakeholders, and a community survey will assess community experiences and attitudes towards alcohol-related harm and harm-reduction strategies. Overall, the project will assess: the extent of alcohol-related harm in the context of harm-reduction interventions, and the need for and acceptability of further intervention. Discussion These findings will be used to improve evidence-based practice both nationally and internationally. Ethical Approval This project has been approved by Deakin University HREC. PMID:21682908

  1. Teaching Traditional Tropical Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that the teaching of traditional tropical agriculture through the presentation of large numbers of categories or types tends to overemphasize superficial differences at the expense of comprehending the inner essence of life as it exists for the majority of the world's farmers. Offers an alternative approach which claims to foster greater…

  2. Traditional healers formalised?

    PubMed

    Van Niekerk, Jp

    2012-03-01

    Traditional healers are the first to be called for help when illness strikes the majority of South Africans. Their communities have faith in their ability to cure or alleviate conditions managed by doctors, and much more. A visit to such practitioners' websites (they are up with the latest advertising technology!) shows that they promise help with providing more power, love, security or money, protection from evil people and spirits, enhancing one's sex life with penis enlargement and vagina tightening spells, etc. Contemplating such claims, it is easy to be dismissive of traditional healers. But in this issue of the SAMJ Nompumelelo Mbatha and colleagues1 argue that the traditional healers' regulatory council, promised by an Act of Parliament, should be established, followed by (or preferably preceded by) formal recognition by employers of sick certificates issued by traditional healers. Can matters be so simply resolved? What does this mean for doctors and other formally recognised healthcare professionals, and how to respond to such claims and social pressures? PMID:22380886

  3. Tradition in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisenberg, Werner

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

  4. In Defense of Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekich, John

    A disturbing trend is developing in higher education which may jeopardize the quality and importance of the classical tradition in education. This trend is exemplified by demands that the liberal arts be made relevant and comprehensible to the student and that they be related in some way to the search for a good job. The great classical…

  5. Musical Traditions. Puzzle Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the changes in musical experiences, such as live versus recorded music, as society has developed technologically. Presents a crossword puzzle that focuses on the traditions and musicians of baroque, classical, and romantic music each originating in Europe. Includes the clues and word list. (CMK)

  6. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  7. Modern vs. Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  8. Non-Traditional Wraps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  9. The Traditional Rebel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemansky, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the Linden, New Jersey, schools' introduction and use of electronic musical technology and contemporary instruments in the orchestral music program, which has broadened the musical repertoire and the recruitment of talented students not schooled in the classical tradition. Four applications of technology for rehearsals and instrumental…

  10. Validation of the Bayesian Alcoholism Test Compared to Single Biomarkers in Detecting Harmful Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Korzec, Sanne; Korzec, Alex; Conigrave, Katherine; Gisolf, Janneke; Tabakoff, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Conventional tests for alcohol dependence often fail to detect hazardous and harmful alcohol use (HHAU) accurately. We previously validated the Bayesian Alcoholism Test (BAT) for the detection of HHAU among males. This uses 15 biochemical and clinical variables, including questionnaire data to calculate the probability of harmful (>80 g alcohol/day), hazardous (40–80 g/day) and ‘moderate’ (<40 g/day) drinking. Here we investigate the BAT's diagnostic performance when more limited clinical data are available. Methods: The WHO/ISBRA Collaborative Project recruited subjects from the general community and alcohol dependence treatment services. We analysed data from male drinkers: 318 alcohol dependent, 220 heavy and 712 moderate drinkers. Drinking was assessed using the Alcohol-Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule. Eight of 15 markers used in the original BAT could be extracted from the WHO/ISBRA dataset. Results: Comparing harmful to moderate drinkers, the area under the ROC curve for BAT (0.90) was significantly higher than that for CDT (0.82), GGT (0.77) and AST (0.76). Comparing hazardous to moderate drinkers, the area under the ROC curve for BAT (0.78) was significantly higher than that for AST (0.65) but not significantly higher than that for CDT (0.71) and GGT (0.70). For all 1250 subjects, the amount consumed correlated significantly better with BAT (0.65) than with CDT (0.52), GGT (0.44) or AST (0.40) alone. Conclusions: The BAT is more accurate than commonly used single biological markers in detecting harmful alcohol use, even when only half the input requirements are available. Computerized record keeping increases the practicality of use of algorithms in the detection of harmful drinking. PMID:19293144

  11. Preventing Alcohol-Related Harm in College Students: Alcohol-Related Harm Prevention Program Effects on Hypothesized Mediating Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, J. W.; Tatterson, J. W.; Roberts, M. M.; Johnston, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Alcohol-related Harm Prevention (AHP) program is a normative education and skill-acquisition program designed to reduce serious, long-term alcohol-related harm in college students. Without admonishing students not to drink, which is likely to fail in many student populations, the AHP program attempts to give students the necessary perceptions,…

  12. Primary healthcare provider knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding alternative tobacco products and marijuana: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S; Scott, Kimberly N; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J

    2016-06-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This qualitative study explored knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding traditional and alternative tobacco products (cigar-like products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, e-cigarettes) and marijuana among rural and urban Georgia primary healthcare providers. The sample comprised 20 healthcare providers in primary care settings located in the Atlanta Metropolitan area and rural southern Georgia who participated in semi-structured interviews. Results indicated a lack of knowledge about these products, with some believing that some products were less harmful than traditional cigarettes or that they may be effective in promoting cessation or harm reduction. Few reported explicitly assessing use of these various products in clinic. In addition, healthcare providers reported a need for empirical evidence to inform their clinical practice. Healthcare providers must systematically assess use of the range of tobacco products and marijuana. Evidence-based recommendations or information sources are needed to inform clinical practice and help providers navigate conversations with patients using or inquiring about these products. PMID:26802106

  13. Traditional Field Crops. Appropriate Technologies for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, David

    This manual, primarily designed to help Peace Corps volunteers develop and strengthen their agricultural skills, deals with traditional field crops. The focus of the manual is on surveying and interpreting local agricultural environment and individual farm units, developing agricultural extension techniques and practices, and providing basic…

  14. Tradition, Mediation and Growth in Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunliffe, Leslie

    1990-01-01

    Presents an art education model based on Elliot Eisner's three-domain model, emphasizing students' concept ownership and skill development. Criticizes late-modernism influenced practices, arguing creativity can be achieved only through tradition. Diagrams relationships between what art students learn in college and how they later teach. (KM)

  15. First, do no harm: the role of defibrillators and advanced medical care in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    McKenas, D K

    1997-05-01

    Primum non nocere-First, do no harm. How often have we as physicians and health care providers heard those words? We at American Airlines did not wish to put even one person in harm's way by not having care available to save a life in a remote commercial aviation environment. The decision was purely a business decision of the AMR corporation, who always keeps the welfare of the customer at the fore. It may not be the right choice for the entire commercial aviation industry under an FAA mandate. We know that we will save lives of persons traveling on American Airlines with this program. If the 'ripple' that we have started expands to affect the practices of other commercial air carriers in the domestic United States, American's reward will be a great one-to know that the lives of many people will be saved because one air carrier has taken the first step. PMID:9143743

  16. Two traditions of interaction research.

    PubMed

    Perkyl, Anssi

    2004-03-01

    The paper compares Bales' Interaction Process Analysis (IPA) with Sacks' Conversation Analysis (CA), arguing that CA has answered several questions that originally motivated the development of IPA, and while doing so, it has re-specified the phenomena of interaction research. These two research traditions are in many ways diametrically opposed: the former is quantitative, theory-oriented and aims at global characterizations of interactional situations, while the latter is qualitative, inductive and aims at characterizing specific layers of organization (such as turn taking or sequence organization) that give structure to interactional situations. Their primary objects of study are different. For the Balesian tradition, it is the functioning and the structure of a small group, whereas in the Sacksian tradition, it is the structures and practices of human social interaction per se. It is argued, however, that CA has radically expanded understanding of the questions IPA was originally developed to address. These questions include allocation of resources, control and solidarity. Bales' research deals with them in terms of the differentiation of participants of a group, whereas CA has re-specified them as emergent aspects of the very rules and structures that constitute and regulate interaction sequences. The uniqueness of the CA perspective on social interaction is demonstrated by exploring the display of emotion as an interactional phenomenon. It is argued that the display of emotion is intrinsically embedded in the sequential organization of action. Sensitive 'coding and counting' approaches can detect emotion displays, but the contribution of CA is to show the specific ways in which they are part of the business of interaction. PMID:15035695

  17. Harm reduction interventions in HIV care: a qualitative exploration of patient and provider perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. A culture of stringent drug policy, one-size-fits-all treatment approaches, and drug-related stigma has clouded clinical HIV practice in the United States. The result is a series of missed opportunities in the HIV care environment. An approach which may address the broken relationship between patient and provider is harm reduction—which removes judgment and operates at the patient’s stage of readiness. Harm reduction is not a routine part of care; rather, it exists outside clinic walls, exacerbating the divide between compassionate, stigma-free services and the medical system. Methods. Qualitative, phenomenological, semi-structured, individual interviews with patients and providers were conducted in three publicly-funded clinics in Chicago, located in areas of high HIV prevalence and drug use and serving African-American patients (N = 38). A deductive thematic analysis guided the process, including: the creation of an index code list, transcription and verification of interviews, manual coding, notation of emerging themes and refinement of code definitions, two more rounds of coding within AtlasTi, calculation of Cohen’s Kappa for interrater reliability, queries of major codes and analysis of additional common themes. Results. Thematic analysis of findings indicated that the majority of patients felt receptive to harm reduction interventions (safer injection counseling, safer stimulant use counseling, overdose prevention information, supply provision) from their provider, and expressed anticipated gratitude for harm reduction information and/or supplies within the HIV care visit, although some were reluctant to talk openly about their drug use. Provider results were mixed, with more receptivity reported by advanced practice nurses, and more barriers cited by physicians. Notable barriers included: role-perceptions, limited time, inadequate training, and the patients themselves. Discussion. Patients are willing to receive harm reduction interventions from their HIV care providers, while provider receptiveness is mixed. The findings reveal critical implications for diffusion of harm reduction into HIV care, including the need to address cited barriers for both patients and providers to ensure feasibility of implementation. Strategies to address these barriers are discussed, and recommendations for further research are also shared. PMID:27114879

  18. Harm reduction interventions in HIV care: a qualitative exploration of patient and provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Carlberg-Racich, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background. A culture of stringent drug policy, one-size-fits-all treatment approaches, and drug-related stigma has clouded clinical HIV practice in the United States. The result is a series of missed opportunities in the HIV care environment. An approach which may address the broken relationship between patient and provider is harm reduction-which removes judgment and operates at the patient's stage of readiness. Harm reduction is not a routine part of care; rather, it exists outside clinic walls, exacerbating the divide between compassionate, stigma-free services and the medical system. Methods. Qualitative, phenomenological, semi-structured, individual interviews with patients and providers were conducted in three publicly-funded clinics in Chicago, located in areas of high HIV prevalence and drug use and serving African-American patients (N = 38). A deductive thematic analysis guided the process, including: the creation of an index code list, transcription and verification of interviews, manual coding, notation of emerging themes and refinement of code definitions, two more rounds of coding within AtlasTi, calculation of Cohen's Kappa for interrater reliability, queries of major codes and analysis of additional common themes. Results. Thematic analysis of findings indicated that the majority of patients felt receptive to harm reduction interventions (safer injection counseling, safer stimulant use counseling, overdose prevention information, supply provision) from their provider, and expressed anticipated gratitude for harm reduction information and/or supplies within the HIV care visit, although some were reluctant to talk openly about their drug use. Provider results were mixed, with more receptivity reported by advanced practice nurses, and more barriers cited by physicians. Notable barriers included: role-perceptions, limited time, inadequate training, and the patients themselves. Discussion. Patients are willing to receive harm reduction interventions from their HIV care providers, while provider receptiveness is mixed. The findings reveal critical implications for diffusion of harm reduction into HIV care, including the need to address cited barriers for both patients and providers to ensure feasibility of implementation. Strategies to address these barriers are discussed, and recommendations for further research are also shared. PMID:27114879

  19. Insights from analysis for harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Michael J; DeSoi, Darren J; Rimmer, Lonnie T; Wagner, Karl A; Morton, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    A total of 20 commercial cigarette and 16 commercial smokeless tobacco products were assayed for 96 compounds listed as harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) by the US Food and Drug Administration. For each product, a single lot was used for all testing. Both International Organization for Standardization and Health Canada smoking regimens were used for cigarette testing. For those HPHCs detected, measured levels were consistent with levels reported in the literature, however substantial assay variability (measured as average relative standard deviation) was found for most results. Using an abbreviated list of HPHCs, statistically significant differences for most of these HPHCs occurred when results were obtained 4-6months apart (i.e., temporal variability). The assay variability and temporal variability demonstrate the need for standardized analytical methods with defined repeatability and reproducibility for each HPHC using certified reference standards. Temporal variability also means that simple conventional comparisons, such as two-sample t-tests, are inappropriate for comparing products tested at different points in time from the same laboratory or from different laboratories. Until capable laboratories use standardized assays with established repeatability, reproducibility, and certified reference standards, the resulting HPHC data will be unreliable for product comparisons or other decision making in regulatory science. PMID:24973503

  20. Perceived intent motivates people to magnify observed harms

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Existing moral psychology research commonly explains certain phenomena in terms of a motivation to blame. However, this motivation is not measured directly, but rather is inferred from other measures, such as participants’ judgments of an agent’s blameworthiness. The present paper introduces new methods for assessing this theoretically important motivation, using tools drawn from animal-model research. We test these methods in the context of recent “harm-magnification” research, which shows that people often overestimate the damage caused by intentional (versus unintentional) harms. A preliminary experiment exemplifies this work and also rules out an alternative explanation for earlier harm-magnification results. Exp. 1 asks whether intended harm motivates blame or merely demonstrates the actor’s intrinsic blameworthiness. Consistent with a motivational interpretation, participants freely chose blaming, condemning, and punishing over other appealing tasks in an intentional-harm condition, compared with an unintentional-harm condition. Exp. 2 also measures motivation but with converging indicators of persistence (effort, rate, and duration) in blaming. In addition to their methodological contribution, these studies also illuminate people’s motivational responses to intentional harms. Perceived intent emerges as catalyzing a motivated social cognitive process related to social prediction and control. PMID:25733850

  1. Elephant resource-use traditions.

    PubMed

    Fishlock, Victoria; Caldwell, Christine; Lee, Phyllis C

    2016-03-01

    African elephants (Loxodonta africana) use unusual and restricted habitats such as swampy clearings, montane outcrops and dry rivers for a variety of social and ecological reasons. Within these habitats, elephants focus on very specific areas for resource exploitation, resulting in deep caves, large forest clearings and sand pits as well as long-established and highly demarcated routes for moving between resources. We review evidence for specific habitat exploitation in elephants and suggest that this represents socially learned cultural behaviour. Although elephants show high fidelity to precise locations over the very long term, these location preferences are explained neither by resource quality nor by accessibility. Acquiring techniques for exploiting specific resource sites requires observing conspecifics and practice and is evidence for social learning. Elephants possess sophisticated cognitive capacities used to track relationships and resources over their long lifespans, and they have an extended period of juvenile dependency as a result of the need to acquire this considerable social and ecological knowledge. Thus, elephant fidelity to particular sites results in traditional behaviour over generations, with the potential to weaken relationships between resource quality and site preferences. Illustrating the evidence for such powerful traditions in a species such as elephants contributes to understanding animal cognition in natural contexts. PMID:26359083

  2. [News in sport's cardiology: too much sport harmful for the heart?].

    PubMed

    Carr, Franois

    2015-01-01

    Essentials moderate and regular physical activity is beneficial at any age and whatever medical and surgical history. His practice must always be encouraged. The practice of a sport competition has no additional health benefit. The signs of athlete's heart may exit standards, we must know them to prevent against abusive indications. In some typically male subjects a priori predisposed veterans and often a sport, especially too intensive endurance can be harmful to the cardiovascular system. Orthostatic intolerance and atrial fibrillation are the most frequent, the decrease of sport is justified. Current scientific evidence is not sufficiently substantiated to routinely advising against an intense sport endurance. However, after 60years it should prevent the sporting potential risks of too intensive sports practice and discourage him practice with a competitive spirit. PMID:26276295

  3. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), already sold in USA and in some European Countries, are low-nitrosamine cigarettes, low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g., the Swedish Snus), cigarette-like products, and medicinal nicotine products. Even e-cigarette delivers nicotine. With the exception of snus and medicinal nicotine, studies on the health effects of PREPs have not been carried out, although some PREPs are already sold and promoted as products that effectively reduce health risks. Thus, a second disaster similar to that occurred for light cigarettes could happen in the next years. Only medicinal nicotine and snus could be valid candidates to become PREPs, even if they pose some significant health risks. The World Health Organization, following a precautionary approach, has recently published a list of 9 carcinogens or toxicants recommended for mandated lowering (the tobacco-specific nitrosamines NNN and NNK, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, benzo[a]pyrene, 1-3 butadiene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde), and 9 carcinogens or toxicants for monitoring in usual cigarettes (not PREPs), underlining that tobacco companies cannot use this reduction strategy as a promotional message, as it occurred for light cigarettes in the 70s and 80s. The present status quo, in which cigarettes are freely available, medicinal nicotine, being a drug, is available under a regulated market, and Snus is prohibited, actually denies smokers the right to choose safer nicotine products. The solution suggested by the UK Royal College of Physicians is to balance the nicotine market, framing tobacco products and medicinal nicotine in the same regulation system; establishing a nicotine and tobacco regulatory authority;making medicinal nicotine more available; evaluating the feasibility of the introduction in the English market of Swedish Snus. California Government remarks that the nicotine maintenance is not a valid strategy, because it could induce smokers not to try to quit.Thus, California Department of Health Services prohibits promotion of snus and medicinal nicotine as a harm reduction strategy. However, the US Federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, signed by President Obama in 2009, places tobacco products under FDA jurisdiction: FDA must define criteria for lowering carcinogens and toxicants in tobacco products, making more available medicinal nicotine, evaluating PREPs, creating a federal Tobacco Control Agency.Which approaches is Italy going to follow? PMID:21926451

  4. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs. PMID:21477299

  5. The tyranny of tradition.

    PubMed

    Gulati, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper narrates the cruelty enforced by tradition on the lives of women in India. It begins with the life of the author's great-grandmother Ponnamma wherein the family was rigidly patriarchal, and Brahmin values were applied. Here, women had very little say in the decisions men made, were forced in an arranged marriage before puberty, were not sent to school, and were considered unimportant. This tradition lived on in the author's grandmother Seetha and in the life of her mother Saras. However, in the story of Saras, following the death of her husband, they departed from rigid Brahmin tradition and orthodoxy. Her mother, unperturbed by the challenges she faced, consistently devised ways to cope and succeeded in changing environment. Meaningless Brahmatic rituals and prayers found no place in her life, which she approached with a cosmopolitan and humanitarian outlook. In essence, she shaped the lives of three daughters and a son, and all her grandchildren, making a success of not only her own but of all whose lives she touched. PMID:12322347

  6. Emergency mental health nursing for self-harming refugees and asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Procter, Nicholas G

    2005-09-01

    This article describes the structure and function of emergency mental health nursing practice for self-harming refugees and asylum seekers on Temporary Protection Visas. Emergency nurses working in accident and emergency departments or as part of crisis intervention teams will see self-harming refugees and asylum seekers at the very point of their distress. This clinical paper is intended to support nurses in their practice should they encounter an adult asylum seeker needing emergency mental health care. Practical strategies are highlighted to help mental health nurses assess, care, and comfort refugees and asylum seekers in this predicament. Mental health nurses should, where possible, work closely with asylum seekers, their support workers, and accredited interpreters and translators to ensure the appropriate use of language when dealing with mental and emotional health issues without further isolating the asylum seeker from appropriate services. To help strengthen continuity and integration of mental health supports for refugees and asylum seekers, well-resourced care must be experienced as coherent and connected. A coherent, interdisciplinary and team-orientated approach will synthesize different viewpoints to shape clinical practice and create workable solutions in local situations. PMID:16181157

  7. Abortion traditions in rural Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Sobo, E J

    1996-02-01

    Abortion is not condoned in Jamaica. Its meaning is linked to the meanings of kinship and parenthood, which are expressed through procreation and involve altruism and the assumption of responsibility for the well-being of others. Abortion subverts these ideals but indigenous methods for it are known and are secretly used. The inconsistencies between abortion talk and abortion practice are examined, and the structural functions of abortion (and of its culturally constructed, ideological meaning) are discussed. The distinction--and the overlap--between abortion as such and menstrual regulation is explored. The use of the culturally constructed 'witchcraft baby' syndrome to justify abortion is also investigated. Traditional abortion techniques follow from (and can illuminate) general health practices, which focus on inducing the ejection of 'blockages' and toxins, and from ethnophysiological beliefs about procreation and reproductive health, which easily allow for menstrual delays not caused by conception. The latter understanding and the similarity between abortifacients, emmenagogues and general purgatives allows women flexibility in interpreting the meanings of their missed periods and the physical effects of the remedy. PMID:8643976

  8. Understanding the potential impact of transgenic crops in traditional agriculture: maize farmers' perspectives in Cuba, Guatemala and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soleri, Daniela; Cleveland, David A; Aragón, Flavio; Fuentes, Mario R; Ríos, Humberto; Sweeney, Stuart H

    2005-01-01

    Genetically engineered transgenic crop varieties (TGVs) have spread rapidly in the last 10 years, increasingly to traditionally-based agricultural systems (TBAS) of the Third World both as seed and food. Proponents claim they are key to reducing hunger and negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Opponents claim they will have the opposite effect. The risk management process (RMP) is the primary way in which TGVs are regulated in the US (and many other industrial countries), and proponents claim that the findings of that process in the US and its regulatory consequences should be extended to TBAS. However, TBAS differ in important ways from industrial agriculture, so TGVs could have different effects in TBAS, and farmers there may evaluate risks and benefits differently. To evaluate some potential impacts of TGVs in TBAS we used the RMP as a framework for the case of Bt maize in Mesoamerica and Cuba. We interviewed 334 farmers in Cuba, Guatemala and Mexico about farming practices, evaluations of potential harm via hypothetical scenarios, and ranking of maize types. Results suggest high potential for transgene flow via seed, grain and pollen; differences in effects of this exposure in TBAS compared with industrial agriculture; farmers see some potential consequences as harmful. Perceptions of harm differ among farmers in ways determined by their farming systems, and are different from those commonly assumed in industrial systems. An RMP including participation of farmers and characteristics of TBAS critical for their functioning is necessary to ensure that investments in agricultural technologies will improve, not compromise these agricultural systems. PMID:16634221

  9. Besides Your Lungs, Smoking May Harm Your Job Prospects, Paycheck

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158242.html Besides Your Lungs, Smoking May Harm Your Job Prospects, Paycheck Income difference ... HealthDay News) -- The "Mad Men" glory days of smoking at work are long gone. Today, smokers have ...

  10. Texting After Dark May Harm Teens' Sleep, Grades

    MedlinePlus

    ... Harm Teens' Sleep, Grades Disruptive effects of 'blue light' on sleep are intensified in the dark, researchers ... but new research shows that texting after the lights go out takes a toll on students' sleep ...

  11. Harmful situations, impure people: an attribution asymmetry across moral domains.

    PubMed

    Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

    2015-03-01

    People make inferences about the actions of others, assessing whether an act is best explained by person-based versus situation-based accounts. Here we examine people's explanations for norm violations in different domains: harmful acts (e.g., assault) and impure acts (e.g., incest). Across four studies, we find evidence for an attribution asymmetry: people endorse more person-based attributions for impure versus harmful acts. This attribution asymmetry is partly explained by the abnormality of impure versus harmful acts, but not by differences in the moral wrongness or the statistical frequency of these acts. Finally, this asymmetry persists even when the situational factors that lead an agent to act impurely are stipulated. These results suggest that, relative to harmful acts, impure acts are linked to person-based attributions. PMID:25490126

  12. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158807.html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college ... concussion, a new study says. During a regular football season, about two dozen college players developed a ...

  13. Small Bump in Blood Pressure During Pregnancy Might Harm Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Might Harm Baby Risks for low birth weight and stillbirth increase, research suggests To use the ... had about 70 percent greater odds for low birth weight or stillbirth compared to women with normal blood ...

  14. Exercise May Counter Harms from Too Much Sitting, Study Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preidt Friday, April 8, 2016 FRIDAY, April 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Regular exercise helps counteract the harmful health effects of too much sitting, a new British study suggests. "This research is significant because ...

  15. Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

  16. Harm or Mere Inconvenience? Denying Women Emergency Contraception

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the likely impact on women of being denied emergency contraception (EC) by pharmacists who conscientiously refuse to provide it. A common view—defended by Elizabeth Fenton and Loren Lomasky, among others—is that these refusals inconvenience rather than harm women so long as the women can easily get EC somewhere else close by. I argue from a feminist perspective that the refusals harm women even when they can easily get EC somewhere else close by. PMID:20706565

  17. Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescence: A Challenge for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Ron

    2006-01-01

    Acts of deliberate self-harm (DSH) by adolescents are thought to be on the increase. Many of those who self-harm are of school age and it is to be expected that schools (and their teachers) will be aware of the problem and will respond appropriately as part of their pastoral-care provision. However, a recent survey of research in pastoral care and

  18. Parental Detection of Youth's Self-Harm Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Olfson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The rate and predictors of parental detection of youth self-harm behavior and relationship with help-seeking were examined in 7,036 parent-child dyads from the 1999 and 2004 surveys of Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain. Youth self-harm behavior was reported by 463 (6.6%) children and adolescents but only 190 (2.7%) of the

  19. Harm reduction in Bern: from outreach to heroin maintenance.

    PubMed Central

    Haemmig, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    In Switzerland, harm-reduction programs have the support of the national government and many localities, in congruence with much of the rest of Europe and in contrast with the United States, and take place in public settings. The threat of AIDS is recognized as the greater harm. This paper describes the overall national program and highlights the experience from one city; the program is noteworthy because it is aimed at gathering comparative data from controlled trials. PMID:10101377

  20. Harm or Mere Inconvenience? Denying Women Emergency Contraception.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the likely impact on women of being denied emergency contraception (EC) by pharmacists who conscientiously refuse to provide it. A common view-defended by Elizabeth Fenton and Loren Lomasky, among others-is that these refusals inconvenience rather than harm women so long as the women can easily get EC somewhere else close by. I argue from a feminist perspective that the refusals harm women even when they can easily get EC somewhere else close by. PMID:20706565