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1

Harmfultraditional practices: interventions to address gendered forms of violence against women and girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful cultural or harmful traditional practices (HTP) have been a concern for the violence against women movement and the health service for a number of years. These forms of violence include female genital mutilation (FGM), prenatal sex selection, child marriage, forced marriage and so-called honour-killings\\/honour based violence (HBV). They are not individual, isolated cases of violence, but expressions of discriminatory

S Creighton; A Gill

2010-01-01

2

Harmful Traditional Practices and Women’s Health: Female Genital Mutilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a After reading this chapter and answering the discussion questions that follow, you should be able to\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Identify and discuss the origin, types, and prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Critically appraise factors that help to perpetuate the practice of FGM globally.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Review the immediate and long-term consequences of FGM and discuss the various approaches for caring for

Sarah Windle; Chuks Kamanu; Ebere Anyanwu; John E. Ehiri

3

A cross sectional study on factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years in Axum town, north Ethiopia, 2013  

PubMed Central

Background Every social grouping in the world has its own cultural practices and beliefs which guide its members on how they should live or behave. Harmful traditional practices that affect children are Female genital mutilation, Milk teeth extraction, Food taboo, Uvula cutting, keeping babies out of exposure to sun, and Feeding fresh butter to new born babies. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years of age in Axum town, North Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted in 752 participants who were selected using multi stage sampling; Simple random sampling method was used to select ketenas from all kebelles of Axum town. After proportional allocation of sample size, systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participants. Data was collected using interviewer administered Tigrigna version questionnaire, it was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics was calculated and logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results Out of the total sample size 50.7% children were females, the mean age of children was 26.28 months and majority of mothers had no formal education. About 87.8% mothers had performed at least one traditional practice to their children; uvula cutting was practiced on 86.9% children followed by milk teeth extraction 12.5% and eye borrows incision 2.4% children. Fear of swelling, pus and rapture of the uvula was the main reason to perform uvula cutting. Conclusion The factors associated with harmful traditional practices were educational status, occupation, religion of mothers and harmful traditional practices performed on the mothers. PMID:24952584

2014-01-01

4

Sudanese women's struggle to eliminate harmful practices.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is widely accepted in the Sudan regardless of educational level. Findings from the 1989-90 Sudan Demographic and Health Survey indicate that a large majority of both men and women approved of the procedure. 73% of men preferred the less harmful "Sunna" type, and 18% preferred infibulation. 4% preferred an intermediate type. Another study found that all the polygynous men with both types of wives preferred non-excised or "Sunna" circumcised women as more sexually responsive and participatory. FGM is part of a continuation of a patriarchal repression of female sexuality. The belief is held among African societies that excision of the clitoris protects a woman from her sexuality by keeping her from temptation, suspicion, and disgrace. FGM occurs mainly in societies that have an absolute and clear requisite of female chastity for marriage. The Islamic view is ambivalent and variable by geographic region. Some physicians defend FGM on "scientific" grounds. The general principle of Islamic education as stated by Shiekh Mahmoud Shaltout of Cairo is that neither "Sunna" nor excision of the clitoris is mandatory. FGM is celebrated as a rite of passage. The practice is disappearing due to education and eradication campaigns. Although unexcised women are considered unclean, the FGM procedure actually interferes with menstruation and escape of urine and results in discomfort and infection. An obstacle to stopping FGM is the fee paid to traditional birth attendants, nurses, and midwives, whose self-interest is to defend the practice. Groups working to eradicate the practice include the Inter-African Committee (since 1984) and the Sudan National Committee on Harmful Traditional Practices (since 1985). Campaigns involve education and promotion of alternative employment for birth attendants and midwives. An impact assessment in Sudan in 1994 found that FGM is now publicly discussed, the influence of elders is declining, and the practice is viewed among the most educated as anti-modern. There is a trend toward use of the less harmful "Sunna" method or else a new "false circumcision," where only plaster is placed around the clitoris. PMID:12346471

Hassan, A

1995-01-01

5

Self-immolation, suicide and self-harm in Buddhist and Western traditions.  

PubMed

There are significant points of similarity between considerations of self-harm and suicide in Buddhist and non-Buddhist traditions, including qualified acceptance of certain forms of self-harm, altruism as a motivation for suicide, and self-immolation as a form of political protest. Differences include specific contexts in which certain forms of self-harm are accepted and the predominant frameworks used to interpret such acts. The integration of Buddhist concepts of dukkha (unsatisfactoriness or suffering) and sati (mindfulness) into Western psychotherapeutic paradigms represents a significant point of convergence between the two traditions, and suggests the possibility of greater dialogue and therapeutic benefit in the future. PMID:21742954

Kelly, Brendan D

2011-07-01

6

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

7

The practice of traditional medicine in Africa.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine is a method of healing founded on its own concept of health and disease. Knowledge is passed on orally from father to son. Healing knowledge is jealously guarded in certain families. In Africa the popularity of traditional healers is attributed to the fact that they take full account of the socio-cultural background of the people. The components of traditional medicine include herbal medicine, therapeutic fasting and dieting, hydrotherapy, radiant healing therapy, venesection, surgery and bone-setting, spinal manipulation and massage, psychotherapy, therapeutic occultism, psychiatry and preventive medicine. In the African environment the therapeutic potential of traditional medicine is great and requires further indepth study to improve methods and training and to form a more effective organization within the ranks of traditional healers. In the physical medicine, vegetable, animal, and mineral substances may be used. In the metaphysical division of traditional medicine, prayers, invocations, or incantations are offered to some mysterious and powerful forces. The practioner usually excels in one or more practices to the exclusion of others. Herbal preparations should be studied with the idea of using them to replace more toxic, synthetic drugs. Some plants used by traditional healers are fennal, serpentine, cinchona, quinine, digitalis, and vinca rosea. PMID:525052

Tella, A

1979-01-01

8

Harm reduction in Cambodia: a disconnect between policy and practice  

PubMed Central

In 2003 the Government of Cambodia officially began to recognise that harm reduction was an essential approach to preventing HIV among people who use drugs and their sexual partners. Several programs aiming to control and prevent HIV among drug users have been implemented in Cambodia, mostly in the capital, Phnom Penh. However, there have been ongoing tensions between law enforcement and harm reduction actors, despite several advocacy efforts targeting law enforcement. This study attempts to better understand the implementation of harm reduction in Cambodia and how the policy environment and harm reduction program implementation has intersected with the role of law enforcement officials in Cambodia. PMID:22770124

2012-01-01

9

Harm reduction psychotherapy: extending the reach of traditional substance use treatment.  

PubMed

Harm reduction is a paradigm-shifting idea that has the potential to significantly improve the treatment of problem substance users. The essence of harm reduction is the recognition that treatment must start from the client's needs and personal goals and that all change that reduces the harms associated with substance use can be regarded as valuable. The paper presents harm reduction's rationale, principles, treatment implications, and application to psychotherapy. The author describes his model of Integrative Harm Reduction Psychotherapy, an approach that integrates a strategic skills-building focus with an exploration of the multiple meanings of substance use and the importance of the therapeutic alliance. PMID:14693253

Tatarsky, Andrew

2003-12-01

10

Developing a Taxonomy of Helpful and Harmful Practices for Clinical Work with Boys and Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study drew upon the knowledge base of member practitioners of the American Psychological Association (APA) to develop a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for treatment with boys and men. Four hundred seventy-five APA-member practitioners solicited from practice-related divisions provided responses to 4 open-ended questions about…

Mahalik, James R.; Good, Glenn E.; Tager, David; Levant, Ronald F.; Mackowiak, Christopher

2012-01-01

11

Validation of suicide and self-harm records in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink  

PubMed Central

Aims The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is increasingly being used to investigate suicide-related adverse drug reactions. No studies have comprehensively validated the recording of suicide and nonfatal self-harm in the CPRD. We validated general practitioners' recording of these outcomes using linked Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) admission data. Methods We identified cases of suicide and self-harm recorded using appropriate Read codes in the CPRD between 1998 and 2010 in patients aged ?15 years. Suicides were defined as patients with Read codes for suicide recorded within 95 days of their death. International Classification of Diseases codes were used to identify suicides/hospital admissions for self-harm in the linked ONS and HES data sets. We compared CPRD-derived cases/incidence of suicide and self-harm with those identified from linked ONS mortality and HES data, national suicide incidence rates and published self-harm incidence data. Results Only 26.1% (n = 590) of the ‘true’ (ONS-confirmed) suicides were identified using Read codes. Furthermore, only 55.5% of Read code-identified suicides were confirmed as suicide by the ONS data. Of the HES-identified cases of self-harm, 68.4% were identified in the CPRD using Read codes. The CPRD self-harm rates based on Read codes had similar age and sex distributions to rates observed in self-harm hospital registers, although rates were underestimated in all age groups. Conclusions The CPRD recording of suicide using Read codes is unreliable, with significant inaccuracy (over- and under-reporting). Future CPRD suicide studies should use linked ONS mortality data. The under-reporting of self-harm appears to be less marked. PMID:23216533

Thomas, Kyla H; Davies, Neil; Metcalfe, Chris; Windmeijer, Frank; Martin, Richard M; Gunnell, David

2013-01-01

12

Hormesis and toxic torts: traditional torts and claims for subclinical harm.  

PubMed

This article explores the implications of hormesis on toxic tort litigation, in particular litigation regarding claims for medical monitoring or subclinical harm. In considering medical monitoring issues, courts have described medical monitoring both as a remedy and as an independent claim. If medical monitoring is upheld as an indepedent claim - as opposed to a remedy awarded after negligence or another claim is plead and proven - the article explains that the evidentiary showing necessary to succeed on the medical monitoring claim may be less rigorous than would be the case if the issues were considered separately. Because hormesis by definition involves low dose exposures that are more likely to involve subclinical harm, exposure evidence that includes a hormetic effect may well become an issue in medical monitoring cases, and may complicate an already confusing doctrine. PMID:18480130

Juni, Robin L

2008-02-01

13

Best Practices: Energy Savings Efficient energy use reduces Colorado State's total energy demand, decreases harmful  

E-print Network

Best Practices: Energy Savings Efficient energy use reduces Colorado State's total energy demand, decreases harmful emissions, and minimizes the cost of providing energy to the campus. As a result of energy conservation initiatives that have been implemented over the past 20 years, growth in the average demand per

14

The Practice and Tradition of Bonesetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Context: Traditional bonesetting is an art that in the face of urbanization, lack of public attention and lack of modern facilities has survived more than 3,000 years. This article explores the role of bonesetters in the developing world, their successes and failures and possible utilization of their services as part of the

A Agarwal; R Agarwal; Geeta Colony

2010-01-01

15

A qualitative analysis of case managers' use of harm reduction in practice.  

PubMed

The harm reduction approach has become a viable framework within the field of addictions, yet there is limited understanding about how this approach is implemented in practice. For people who are homeless and have co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders, the Housing First model has shown promising results in employing such an approach. This qualitative study utilizes ethnographic methods to explore case managers' use of harm reduction within Housing First with a specific focus on the consumer-provider relationship. Analysis of observational data and in-depth interviews with providers and consumers revealed how communication between the two regarding the consumer's substance use interacted with the consumer-provider relationship. From these findings emerged a heuristic model of harm reduction practice that highlighted the profound influence of relationship quality on the paths of communication regarding substance use. This study provides valuable insight into how harm reduction is implemented in clinical practice that ultimately has public health implications in terms of more effectively addressing high rates of addiction that contribute to homelessness and health disparities. PMID:22520277

Tiderington, Emmy; Stanhope, Victoria; Henwood, Benjamin F

2013-01-01

16

Creating Minimum Harm Practice ( MiHaP): a concept for continuous improvement  

PubMed Central

The author asks for the attention of leaders and all other stakeholders to calls of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and the UK National Health Service (NHS) to promote continuous learning to reduce harm to patients. This paper presents a concept for structured bottom-up methodology that enables and empowers all stakeholders to identify, prioritize, and address safety challenges. This methodology takes advantage of the memory of the experiences of all persons involved in providing care. It respects and responds to the uniqueness of each setting by empowering and motivating all team members to commit to harm reduction. It is based on previously published work on “Best Practices Research (BPR)” and on “Systematic Appraisal of Risk and Its Management for Error Reduction (SARAIMER)”. The latter approach, has been shown by the author (with Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) support), to reduce adverse events and their severity through empowerment, ownership and work satisfaction. The author puts forward a strategy for leaders to implement, in response to national and international calls for Better health, Better care, and Better value (the 3B’s of healthcare) in the US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.  This is designed to enable and implement “ A promise to learn- a commitment to act”.  AHRQ has recently published “A Toolkit for Rapid-Cycle Patient Safety and Quality Improvement” that includes an adapted version of SARAIMER. PMID:24715965

Singh, Ranjit

2013-01-01

17

Maximising harm reduction in early specialty training for general practice: validation of a safety checklist  

PubMed Central

Background Making health care safer is a key policy priority worldwide. In specialty training, medical educators may unintentionally impact on patient safety e.g. through failures of supervision; providing limited feedback on performance; and letting poorly developed behaviours continue unchecked. Doctors-in-training are also known to be susceptible to medical error. Ensuring that all essential educational issues are addressed during training is problematic given the scale of the tasks to be undertaken. Human error and the reliability of local systems may increase the risk of safety-critical topics being inadequately covered. However adherence to a checklist reminder may improve the reliability of task delivery and maximise harm reduction. We aimed to prioritise the most safety-critical issues to be addressed in the first 12-weeks of specialty training in the general practice environment and validate a related checklist reminder. Methods We used mixed methods with different groups of GP educators (n?=?127) and specialty trainees (n?=?9) in two Scottish regions to prioritise, develop and validate checklist content. Generation and refinement of checklist themes and items were undertaken on an iterative basis using a range of methods including small group work in dedicated workshops; a modified-Delphi process; and telephone interviews. The relevance of potential checklist items was rated using a 4-point scale content validity index to inform final inclusion. Results 14 themes (e.g. prescribing safely; dealing with medical emergency; implications of poor record keeping; and effective & safe communication) and 47 related items (e.g. how to safety-net face-to-face or over the telephone; knowledge of practice systems for results handling; recognition of harm in children) were judged to be essential safety-critical educational issues to be covered. The mean content validity index ratio was 0.98. Conclusion A checklist was developed and validated for educational supervisors to assist in the reliable delivery of safety-critical educational issues in the opening 12-week period of training, and aligned with national curriculum competencies. The tool can also be adapted for use as a self-assessment instrument by trainees to guide patient safety-related learning needs. Dissemination and implementation of the checklist and self-rating scale are proceeding on a national, voluntary basis with plans to evaluate its feasibility and educational impact. PMID:22721273

2012-01-01

18

The impact of a police drug crackdown on drug injectors’ ability to practice harm reduction: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employs qualitative methods to explore the ramifications of a police drug crackdown on drug injectors’ ability to practice harm reduction. Between August and December 2000, we conducted open-ended interviews with 40 illicit-drug-injecting residents of a New York City police precinct undergoing a crackdown. Interview topics included participants’ experiences with police in the precinct and their drug use practices.

Hannah Cooper; Lisa Moore; Sofia Gruskin; Nancy Krieger

2005-01-01

19

Preventing HIV transmission among Iranian prisoners: Initial support for providing education on the benefits of harm reduction practices  

PubMed Central

Background Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the association between the beliefs of a group of adult, male prisoners in Iran about the transmission of HIV and their high-risk practices while in prison. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004. The study population was a random selection of 100 men incarcerated at Rajaei-Shahr prison. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group discussions were held at the prison to guide the design of the questionnaire. The relationship between components of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and prisoners' risky HIV-related behaviors was examined. Results Calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, a significant, positive association was found between the benefit component of the HBM and prisoners not engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors. Conclusion Educational harm reduction initiatives that promote the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission may decrease prisoners' high-risk behaviors. This finding provides initial support for the Iran prison system's current offering of HIV/AIDS harm reduction programming and suggests the need to offer increased education about the effectiveness of HIV prevention practices. PMID:18541032

Eshrati, Babak; Asl, Rahim Taghizadeh; Dell, Colleen Anne; Afshar, Parviz; Millson, Peggy Margaret E; Kamali, Mohammad; Weekes, John

2008-01-01

20

Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender and Fairness in Traditional Practices in Benin, West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined reasoning about fairness in gender-related traditional practices in Benin, West Africa. Fifty adolescents (M = 15.7 years) and 46 adults (M = 33.4 years) were interviewed about traditional practices involving gender hierarchy. Results indicate that the majority attributed decision-making authority to a traditional authority for…

Conry-Murray, Clare

2009-01-01

21

The ethics of improving African traditional medical practice: scientific or African traditional research methods?  

PubMed

The disease burden in Africa, which is relatively very large compared with developed countries, has been attributed to various factors that include poverty, food shortages, inadequate access to health care and unaffordability of Western medicines to the majority of African populations. Although for 'old diseases' knowledge about the right African traditional medicines to treat or cure the diseases has been passed from generation to generation, knowledge about traditional medicines to treat newly emerging diseases has to be generated in one way or another. In addition, the existing traditional medicines have to be continuously improved, which is also the case with Western scientific medicines. Whereas one school of thought supports the idea of improving medicines, be they traditional or Western, through scientific research, an opposing school of thought argues that subjecting African traditional medicines to scientific research would be tantamount to some form of colonization and imperialism. This paper argues that continuing to use African traditional medicines for old and new diseases without making concerted efforts to improve their efficacy and safety is unethical since the disease burden affecting Africa may continue to rise in spite of the availability and accessibility of the traditional medicines. Most importantly, the paper commends efforts being made in some African countries to improve African traditional medicine through a combination of different mechanisms that include the controversial approach of scientific research on traditional medicines. PMID:19682966

Nyika, Aceme

2009-11-01

22

Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstract words such as "tradition" are like ancient coins whose concrete images have worn away. Traditions can be of two forms--either alive, amendable, and expandable (such as those in a family's annual Christmas celebration), or dead, empty formalities. An example of an empty tradition is the strict rule in freshman composition classes that…

Cowan, Elizabeth

23

Toxic Red Tides and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Practical Challenge in Coastal Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This national report to IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) contains links to information regarding harmful algal blooms (HABs). Written by Donald Anderson, the report includes: introduction, background, recent trends, physical/biological coupling, small-scale interactions, nutrient dynamics, emerging technologies (molecular probes, remote sensing, models, management issues, and program and policy issues), and a list of references.

Anderson, Donald M. (Donald Mark)

24

Smoking cessation treatment and risk of depression, suicide, and self harm in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the risk of suicide, self harm, and depression in patients prescribed varenicline or bupropion with those prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. Design Prospective cohort study within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Setting 349 general practices in England. Participants 119?546 men and women aged 18 years and over who used a smoking cessation product between 1 September 2006 and 31 October 2011. There were 81?545 users of nicotine replacement products (68.2% of all users of smoking cessation medicines), 6741 bupropion (5.6%), and 31?260 varenicline (26.2%) users. Main outcome measures Outcomes were treated depression and fatal and non-fatal self harm within three months of the first smoking cessation prescription, determined from linkage with mortality data from the Office for National Statistics (for suicide) and Hospital Episode Statistics data (for hospital admissions relating to non-fatal self harm). Hazard ratios or risk differences were estimated using Cox multivariable regression models, propensity score matching, and instrumental variable analysis using physicians’ prescribing preferences as an instrument. Sensitivity analyses were performed for outcomes at six and nine months. Results We detected 92 cases of fatal and non-fatal self harm (326.5 events per 100?000 person years) and 1094 primary care records of treated depression (6963.3 per 100?000 person years). Cox regression analyses showed no evidence that patients prescribed varenicline had higher risks of fatal or non-fatal self harm (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 1.49) or treated depression (0.75, 0.65 to 0.87) compared with those prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. There was no evidence that patients prescribed bupropion had a higher risk of fatal or non-fatal self harm (0.83, 0.30 to 2.31) or of treated depression (0.63, 0.46 to 0.87) compared with patients prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. Similar findings were obtained using propensity score methods and instrumental variable analyses. Conclusions There is no evidence of an increased risk of suicidal behaviour in patients prescribed varenicline or bupropion compared with those prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. These findings should be reassuring for users and prescribers of smoking cessation medicines. PMID:24124105

2013-01-01

25

Game-Based Practice versus Traditional Practice in Computer-Based Writing Strategy Training: Effects on Motivation and Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Achieving sustained student engagement with practice in computer-based writing strategy training can be a challenge. One potential solution is to foster engagement by embedding practice in educational games; yet there is currently little research comparing the effectiveness of game-based practice versus more traditional forms of practice. In this…

Proske, Antje; Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.

2014-01-01

26

Islam and harm reduction.  

PubMed

Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. PMID:20006483

Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

2010-03-01

27

Risks associated with the practice of traditional Chinese medicine: an Australian study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the nature and frequency of adverse events that occur as a result of the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine) in Australia. Methods: Data on adverse events were obtained as part of a comprehensive survey of all occupational health groups, government-registered and unregistered, who practiced traditional Chinese medicine or 1 of its main

Alan Bensoussan; Stephen P Myers; Anne L Carlton

2000-01-01

28

Scientific Practice and the Tradition of Advocacy in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this discussion is to describe and contrast several tenets of scientific behavior and practice with the behaviors and practices associated with advocacy. We argue that scientists must focus their efforts on solvable problems, consider their efforts to be uncertain, and present their findings dispassionately, so that others might…

Brigham, F. J.; Gustashaw, W. E., III; St. Peter, Brigham M.

2004-01-01

29

Modern Performance Practice and Aesthetics in Traditional Scottish Gaelic Singing   

E-print Network

Performance practice and aesthetics is an under-researched area in Scottish Gaelic song. Previous studies have focused on text rather than context, and there is a significant lack of information from the singers themselves, ...

McPhee, Erin K

2009-01-01

30

Bapedi traditional healers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Their socio-cultural profile and traditional healing practice  

PubMed Central

Background Bapedi traditional healers play a vital role in the primary health care of rural inhabitants in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. However, literature profiling their social and demographic variables, as well as their traditional healing practices is lacking. Methods Convenience sampling were used to identify and select two traditional healers from 17 municipalities (resulting in 34 healers being used in this pilot survey) of the Limpopo Province in South Africa. Information on the social and demographic variables, and traditional healing practices of these healers was gathered from January 2013 to July 2013, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented by field surveys for plant identification and collection used in the preparation of remedies. Results Males constituted nearly two-thirds of the participants. Forty eight percent of them became healers through the mentoring of another healer, while 38% acquired their traditional healing knowledge from parents and 14% from grandparents. In contrast to this, 62% of the females obtained theirs from their parents, 30% from fellow traditional healers, and 8% from grandparents. A total of 154 plant species were indicated as used by healers in the treatment of 52 health-related problems. A vast majority (89%) of these practitioners reported that prepared herbal remedies do expire, which is a temperature-dependent process. Determinations of the efficacy of remedies by most healers (67%) were via consultation with ancestors (90%). This study also found that none of the interviewees had any knowledge of provincial or national environmental legislation. Conclusions The current study has shown that Bapedi traditional healers could play a leading role in both the preservation of indigenous knowledge and the primary health care sector. However, of concern is the traditional methods (via consulting ancestors) employed by most of these healers in determining efficacy of remedies, thus indicating a need for a scientific investigations to establish their safety and effectiveness. Equally, there is a need to educate traditional practitioners’ regarding the significance of various conservation legislations in their traditional healing. By addressing these, the national and provincial legislators, medical fraternity as well as environmental agencies will be able to better integrate them in primary health care systems and environmental management. PMID:24410790

2014-01-01

31

Three bodies of practice in a traditional south Indian martial art  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes three interconnected conceptions of the body in kaarippayau, the martial tradition of Kerala, south India. It traces continuities and discontinuities among concepts and practices recorded in classic source texts and contemporary martial practice for each of the three 'bodies of practice'. The first is the fluid body of humors and saps. The second is the body as

Phillip B. Zarrilli

1989-01-01

32

Beyond Tradition: Culture, Symbolism, and Practicality in American Indian Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous people have always created what colonial language labels art. Yet there is no Native word for "art" as defined in a Euro-American sense. Art, as the dominant culture envisions, is mostly ornamental. This is in sharp juxtaposition to a Native perspective, which sees art as integrative, inclusive, practical, and constantly…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2013-01-01

33

Adverse drug event trigger tool: a practical methodology for measuring medication related harm  

PubMed Central

?? Adverse drug events continue to be the single most frequent source of healthcare mishaps, continually placing patients at risk of injury. This is not unexpected, given that drug treatment is the most common medical intervention and medication use is a highly complex, multidisciplinary, and largely manual process. Assessing the actual safety of drug use has been historically difficult, mainly because traditional methods such as chart audits and voluntary reporting of data have been shown to be expensive, insensitive, and largely ineffective for detecting mistakes in drug administration and drug related adverse clinical events (ADEs). Computerized methods for detecting ADEs, employing sentinel words or "triggers" in a patient's medical record, are effective but expensive and require customized software linkage to pharmacy databases. This paper describes the use of the "trigger tool", a relatively low cost and "low tech" modification of the automated technique. The adapted technique appears to increase the rate of ADE detection approximately 50-fold over traditional reporting methodologies. PMID:12792009

Rozich, J; Haraden, C; Resar, R

2003-01-01

34

Outcome orientation - a misconception of probability that harms medical research and practice  

E-print Network

Uncertainty is an everyday experience in medical research and practice, but theory and methods for reasoning clearly about uncertainty were developed only recently. Confirmation bias, selective memory, and many misleading heuristics are known enemies of the insightful clinician, researcher, or citizen; but other snares worth exposing lurk in how we reason about uncertainty in our everyday lives. Here we draw attention to a cognitive bias described by Konold as the "outcome orientation" - little known or possibly unknown to those outside the field of probability pedagogy - and point out how this form of reasoning creates hazards for medical research and practice.

Humphrey, Parris Taylor

2014-01-01

35

Traditional Healing Practices Sought by Muslim Psychiatric Patients in Lahore, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explored the type of traditional healing practices sought by Muslim psychiatric patients treated at public hospitals of Lahore city, Pakistan. The sample comprised 87 adult psychiatric patients (38% male and 62% female). The patients self-reported on the Case History Interview Schedule that they had sought diverse traditional healing…

Farooqi, Yasmin Nilofer

2006-01-01

36

Traditional Healing Practices Sought by Muslim Psychiatric Patients in Lahore, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explored the type of traditional healing practices sought by Muslim psychiatric patients treated at public hospitals of Lahore city, Pakistan. The sample comprised 87 adult psychiatric patients (38% male and 62% female). The patients self?reported on the Case History Interview Schedule that they had sought diverse traditional healing methods, including Homeopathy, Naturopathy (Tibb), Islamic Faith Healing, and Sorcery,

Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi

2006-01-01

37

Perspectives and Practices of Xhosa-Speaking African Traditional Healers when Managing Psychosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives and practices of Xhosa-speaking African traditional healers, known as "amagqirha", in managing psychosis. Four traditional healers, 3 male and one female, were chosen to take part in the study through their association with psychosis patients undergoing treatment at a South African psychiatric…

Mzimkulu, Kanyiswa G.; Simbayi, Leickness C.

2006-01-01

38

Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices Among Lower Class Black Americans  

PubMed Central

The medical belief system of lower class black Americans reflects their social, political and economic marginality in the larger society. A moderate life-style is regarded as the basis for good health with special emphasis on protecting one's body from cold, keeping it clean inside and out and maintaining a proper diet. Illnesses and other life events are classified as “natural” or “unnatural.” Natural illnesses result from the effects of cold, dirt and improper diet on the body causing changes in the blood. A number of beliefs about blood and its functions have important clinical implications for the treatment of hypertension and venereal disease and for family planning. Natural illnesses also result from divine punishment and serve as an instrument of social control. Unnatural illnesses are the result of witchcraft and reflect conflict in the social network. It is believed that physicians do not understand and cannot effectively treat such illnesses, but a variety of traditional healers offer help to the victims. Physicians must elicit such beliefs if they are to interact effectively and sensitively with black patients. Social change is required, however, to eliminate the feelings of powerlessness at the root of many of the health problems of poor black Americans. PMID:6364570

Snow, Loudell F.

1983-01-01

39

Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is

Amy J Kesterton; John Cleland

2009-01-01

40

Traditional and emerging forms of dental practice. Cost, accessibility, and quality factors.  

PubMed Central

The traditional and predominant manner of delivering dental care is through a fee-for-service, private practice system. A number of alternative dental care delivery systems have emerged and are being tested, and others are just emerging. These systems include department store practices, hospital dental services, health maintenance organizations, the independent practice of dental hygiene, and denturism. Although it is too soon to draw final conclusions about the efficacy and effectiveness of these systems, we examine them for their potential to compete with and change the way dental care is currently delivered. Using the parameters of cost, accessibility, and quality, we compare these systems to traditional dental practice. Some of these emerging forms clearly have the potential to complete favorably with traditional practice. Other seem less likely to alter the existing system substantially. The system which can best control costs, increase accessibility, and enhance quality will gain the competitive edge. PMID:7091453

Rovin, S; Nash, J

1982-01-01

41

Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm  

PubMed Central

The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in communication, locus of control, and consent/permission before and during physical examinations and procedures. The intent of this article is to act as a catalyst for improved patient care and more research focused on the identification and optimal responses to the needs of men with adverse childhood experiences in the health care setting. PMID:25106042

Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

2014-01-01

42

Best clinical practices for male adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: "do no harm".  

PubMed

The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in communication, locus of control, and consent/permission before and during physical examinations and procedures. The intent of this article is to act as a catalyst for improved patient care and more research focused on the identification and optimal responses to the needs of men with adverse childhood experiences in the health care setting. PMID:25106042

Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

2014-01-01

43

Ayahuasca healing beyond the Amazon: the globalization of a traditional indigenous entheogenic practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ayahuasca commonly refers to a psychoactive Amazonian indigenous brew traditionally used for spiritual and healing purposes (that is as an entheogen). Since the late twentieth century, ayahuasca has undergone a process of globalization through the uptake of different kinds of socio-cultural practices, including its sacramental use in some new Brazilian religious movements and its commodified use in cross-cultural vegetalismo practices,

KENNETH W. TUPPER

2009-01-01

44

Female genital mutilation/cutting--towards abandonment of a harmful cultural practice.  

PubMed

Globally, the prevalence of, and support for, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is declining. However, the entrenched sense of social obligation that propagates the continuation of this practice and the lack of open communication between men and women on this sensitive issue are two important barriers to abandonment. There is limited evidence on the role of men and their experiences in FGM/C. Marriageability of girls is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the continuation of this practice. In some countries, more men than women are advocating to end FGM/C. Moreover, men, as partners to women with FGM/C, also report physical and psychosexual problems. The abandonment process involves expanding a range of successful programs, addressing the human rights priorities of communities and providing power over their own development processes. Anecdotal evidence exists that FGM/C is practised amongst African migrant populations in Australia. The Australian Government supports a taskforce to improve community awareness and education, workforce training and evidence building. Internationally, an African Coordinating Centre for abandonment of FGM/C has been established in Kenya with a major global support group to share research, promote solidarity, advocacy and implement a coordinated and integrated response to abandon FGM/C. PMID:24801568

Varol, Nesrin; Fraser, Ian S; Ng, Cecilia H M; Jaldesa, Guyo; Hall, John

2014-10-01

45

Household Survey of Pesticide Practice, Deliberate Self-Harm, and Suicide in the Sundarban Region of West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

The toxicological impact and intentional ingestion of pesticides are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to estimate the extent of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicides (suicidal behaviour) and document pesticide practices in Namkhana block of the Sundarban region, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1680 households (21 villages) following a mixed random and cluster design sampling. The survey questionnaire (Household Information on Pesticide Use and DSH) was developed by the research team to elicit qualitative and quantitative information. The Kappa statistic and McNemar's test were used to assess the level of agreement and association between respondents' and investigators' opinions about safe storage of pesticides. Over five years, 1680 households reported 181 incidents of suicidal behaviour. Conflict with family members was the most frequently reported reason for suicidal behaviour (53.6%). The Kappa statistic indicated poor agreement between respondents and investigators about safe storage of pesticides. The pesticide-related annual DSH rate was 158.1 (95% CI 126.2–195.5), and for suicide it was 73.4 (95% CI 52.2–100.3) per 100,000. Unsafe pesticide practice and psychosocial stressors are related to the high rates of suicidal behaviour. An intersectoral approach involving the local governments, agricultural department and the health sector would help to reduce the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:24224181

Banerjee, Sohini; Chowdhury, Arabinda Narayan; Schelling, Esther; Weiss, Mitchell G.

2013-01-01

46

Adverse events attributed to traditional Korean medical practices: 1999–2010  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To investigate adverse events attributed to traditional medical treatments in the Republic of Korea. Methods Adverse events recorded in the Republic of Korea between 1999 and 2010 – by the Food and Drug Administration, the Consumer Agency or the Association of Traditional Korean Medicine – were reviewed. Records of adverse events attributed to the use of traditional medical practices, including reports of medicinal accidents and consumers’ complaints, were investigated. Findings Overall, 9624 records of adverse events attributed to traditional medical practices – including 522 linked to herbal treatments – were identified. Liver problems were the most frequently reported adverse events. Only eight of the adverse events were recorded by the pharmacovigilance system run by the Food and Drug Administration. Of the 9624 events, 1389 – mostly infections, cases of pneumothorax and burns – were linked to physical therapy (n?=?285) or acupuncture/moxibustion (n?=?1104). Conclusion In the Republic of Korea, traditional medical practices often appear to have adverse effects, yet almost all of the adverse events attributed to such practices between 1999 and 2010 were missed by the national pharmacovigilance system. The Consumer Agency and the Association of Traditional Korean Medicine should be included in the national pharmacovigilance system. PMID:23940404

Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Ernst, Edzard

2013-01-01

47

Why "do no harm"?  

PubMed

Edmund Pellegrino has argued that the dramatic changes in American health care call for critical reflection on the traditional norms governing the therapeutic relationship. This paper offers such reflection on the obligation to "do no harm." Drawing on work by Beauchamp and Childress and Pellegrino and Thomasma, I argue that the libertarian model of medical ethics offered by Engelhardt cannot adequately sustain an obligation to "do no harm." Because the obligation to "do no harm" is not based simply on a negative duty of nonmaleficence but also on a positive duty of beneficence, I argue that it is best understood to derive from the fiduciary nature of the healing relationship. PMID:9129401

Sharpe, V A

1997-01-01

48

Ethnozoology of the Karbis of Assam, India: Use of ichthyofauna in traditional health-care practices  

PubMed Central

Background: Traditional or folk medicine is still prevalent among the Karbis as means of primary health-care. Traditional medicine is not only a source of healing, but the practice is also an important part of their religion and culture. Aim: The aim of the present study is to discuss the use of ichthyofauna in traditional health-care practices among the Karbis and other ethnic tribes of Karbi Anglong district, Assam. Setting and Design: Field study was undertaken from March 2011 to June 2012. A total of 75 informants were selected from 27 villages and the selection was based on their recognition as having sound knowledge relating to health-care practices. Materials and Methods: Information was collected following both unstructured and structured interview methods, group discussions and personal observation. Fish used in health-care practices were collected with the help of local guides and identified using available literatures. Results: The present study has recorded use of 14 species belonging 7 families in the treatment of 25 disease conditions. Traditional health-care practices of the Karbis include both local and oral applications and rituals to cure diseases. Use of fish to cure mental depression like symptoms locally referred as nihu kachingtung is prevalent until today. Studies among the Dimasa and Thadou tribes also revealed the use of fish in traditional medicine as therapies against different ailments, but do not use fish in rituals. Conclusion: Study on fish-based zootherapy could be a viable option for discovery of new compounds with therapeutic potentials. However, the attitude of the present generation towards traditional medicine as being unscientific and acculturation are the main causes of decline of such practice in the Karbis. Destructive fishing practices by poisoning water bodies with synthetic chemicals pose serious threats to aquatic fauna in the hill streams. PMID:24167335

Teronpi, Valentina; Singh, H. T.; Tamuli, A. K.; Teron, Robindra

2012-01-01

49

Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and

Purnima Madhivanan; Bhavana N Kumar; Paul Adamson; Karl Krupp

2010-01-01

50

Chinese traditional thought and practice: lessons for an ecological economics worldview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues the need for a moral dimension, lacking in the neo-classical paradigm, to humanity's relationship with the natural world. Against this background, it reviews Chinese philosophical\\/religious traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, neo-Confucianism, and popular religious practice. The Chinese worldview derived from these traditions is based on ideals of harmony, human perfectibility and systemic fit within natural systems and

T. N. Jenkins

2002-01-01

51

Harm reduction  

PubMed Central

The “Harm Reduction” session was chaired by Dr. Jacques Normand, Director of the AIDS Research Program of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. The three presenters (and their presentation topics) were: Dr. Don Des Jarlais (High Coverage Needle/Syringe Programs for People Who Inject Drugs in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review), Dr. Nicholas Thomson (Harm Reduction History, Response, and Current Trends in Asia), and Dr. Jih-Heng Li (Harm Reduction Strategies in Taiwan). PMID:25278732

Normand, Jacques; Li, Jih-Heng; Thomson, Nicholas; Jarlais, Don Des

2014-01-01

52

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

53

Field Research Practice in Management and Organization Studies: Reclaiming its Tradition of Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review reasserts field research's discovery epistemology. While it occupies a minority position in the study of organization and management, discovery-oriented research practice has a long tradition of giving insight into new, unappreciated and misappreciated processes that are important to how work is accomplished. I argue that while methods discourse has long emphasized that particularizing data and an emergent research

Karen Locke

2011-01-01

54

Traditional birth attendants in rural Nepal: Knowledge, attitudes and practices about maternal and newborn health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to formalise the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and neonatal health programmes have had limited success. TBAs’ continued attendance at home deliveries suggests the potential to influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand the knowledge, attitudes and practices of TBAs in rural Nepal. Twenty-one trained and untrained

N. Thatte; L. C. Mullany; S. K. Khatry; J. Katz; J. M. Tielsch; G. L. Darmstadt

2009-01-01

55

Tradition and Alternative in Educational Practice: Three Stories of Epistemological Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shares experiences of one teacher and two administrators attempting to implement critically oriented, democratic practices in their school systems. Examines three specific events and interrogates them through scientific, critical, and postmodern lenses. Presents five suggestions to unshackle practitioners from educational traditions that neglect…

Keyes, Maureen W.; Capper, Colleen; Jamison, Mike; Martin, Joan; Opsal, Christen

1999-01-01

56

The Meaning Structures of Muslim Bereavements in Israel: Religious Traditions, Mourning Practices, and Human Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grief and mourning of Muslim citizens in Israel are considered. First, a series of mourning customs spanning the period from notification of death until post-mourning are presented from 3 perspectives: (a) the requirements of the Islamic Sunni tradition; (b) the manner in which Islamic mourning rituals are practiced; and (c) the authors'…

Yasien-Esmael, Hend; Rubin, Simon Shimshon

2005-01-01

57

Making Peace the Old Fashioned Way: Infusing Traditional Tribal Practices into Modern ADR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native Americans have their own unique traditional method of resolving disputes. Their processes, called peacemaking by some tribes, place the emphasis not on the guilt of the wrongdoer, but on restoring relationships and finding a solution that is amenable to all involved. This emphasis on saving the relationship has many similarities to current practices of mediation. Among the similar goals

Matt Arbaugh

2012-01-01

58

Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and processing between non-codified traditional system of medicine and Ayurveda require further methodical studies to establish the relationship between the two on a more objective basis. However, the practice appears to be at crossroads with threat of extinction, because of non-inheritance of the knowledge and non-availability of medicinal plants. Hence conservation strategies for both knowledge and resources at societal, scientific and legislative levels are urgently required to preserve the traditional wisdom. PMID:24934868

2014-01-01

59

Causing harm: Criminal law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers two related things. First, a theory of singular causal statements attributing causal responsibility for a particular harm to a particular agent based on the conjunction of a positive condition (necessitation) and a negative condition (avoidability) which captures the notions of sufficiency and necessity in intuitive ideas about agent causation better than traditional conditio sine qua non based

Philip Mullock

1988-01-01

60

Traditional nutritional and surgical practices and their effects on the growth of infants in south-west Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A 1-year birth cohort of 1563 infants was seen bi-monthly for the first year of life. They comprised all identified infants born in Jimma town, south-west Ethiopia, in the year starting 1 Meskren 1985 in the Ethiopian calendar (11 September 1992). Growth in infancy is poor in this town, as it is in Ethiopia more generally: mean z-scores for both weight and length were more than 1.5 SD below the median of the NCHS/WHO reference population by 1 year of age, and infant mortality was 115/1000. In this paper we examine the weight gain of singletons in relation to background variables and to traditional nutritional and surgical practices in the families. Confirming work in other areas, sanitation, water supply, the income of the family and the mother's literacy were important determinants of weight gain. Almost all the infants were initially breast fed, and about 80% were still breast fed at 1 year. Many were also given cows' milk from 4 months onwards. Breast feeding had beneficial effects up to 8 months of age, and cows' milk had beneficial effects after 6 months of age. Supplementary feeds of solids and semi-solids were given at appropriate ages, but had no detectable benefit. Water was given inappropriately early, but did no detectable harm. Episodes of diarrhoea, fever or persistent cough each reduced weight gain. Catch-up in weight then took up to 8 months, probably because of the poor nutritional quality of supplementary feeds. The incidences of local traditional operations in the first year were: circumcision 63% in males and 4% in females, uvulectomy 35% and the extraction of milk teeth 38%. Although circumcision had no detectable adverse effect on weight, uvulectomy and milk teeth extraction both reduced weight gain. PMID:9620568

Asefa, M; Hewison, J; Drewett, R

1998-04-01

61

Native Hawaiian traditional healing: culturally based interventions for social work practice.  

PubMed

Developing cultural competence is a key requirement for social workers in the multicultural environment of the 21st century. However, the development of social work interventions that are syntonic with specific cultural groups is a great challenge. Interventions that are based on the traditional healing practices of a particular culture ensure cultural relevance and consistency with its values and worldview. This article discusses the importance of culturally based interventions within a cultural competence framework and offers examples of such interventions used with Native Hawaiians. Two interventions are discussed, targeted to the micro (direct practice) level and macro (community practice) level of practice. Culturally based social work interventions may be most appropriate for client systems within a particular culture; however, some methods, such as ho'oponopono, have been successfully used with clients from other cultures as well. PMID:12019805

Hurdle, Donna E

2002-04-01

62

Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China  

PubMed Central

Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

2014-01-01

63

Evaluating traditional healers knowledge and practices related to HIV testing and treatment in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In a context of inadequate human resources for health, this study investigated whether traditional healers have the knowledge and skill base which could be utilised to assist in the scaling up of HIV prevention and treatment services in South Africa. Methods Using a cross-sectional research design a total of 186 traditional healers from the Northern Cape province were interviewed. Responses on the following topics were obtained: socio-demographic characteristics; HIV training, experience and practices; and knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and symptoms. Descriptive statistics and chi square tests were used to analyse the responses. Results Traditional healers’ knowledge of HIV and AIDS was not as high as expected. Less than 50% of both trained and untrained traditional healers would treat a person they suspected of being HIV positive. However, a total of 167 (89%) respondents agreed using a condom can prevent HIV and a majority of respondents also agreed that having one sexual partner (127, 68.8%) and abstaining from sex can prevent HIV (145, 78.8%). Knowledge of treatment practices was better with statistically significant results being obtained. Conclusion The results indicate that traditional healers could be used for prevention as well as referring HIV positive individuals for treatment. Traditional healers were enthusiastic about the possibility of collaborating with bio-medical practitioners in the prevention and care of HIV and AIDS patients. This is significant considering they already service the health needs of a large percentage of the South African population. However, further development of training programmes and materials for them on HIV and AIDS related issues would seem necessary. PMID:24152384

2013-01-01

64

The role of traditional medicine practice in primary health care within Aboriginal Australia: a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The practice of traditional Aboriginal medicine within Australia is at risk of being lost due to the impact of colonisation. Displacement of people from traditional lands as well as changes in family structures affecting passing on of cultural knowledge are two major examples of this impact. Prior to colonisation traditional forms of healing, such as the use of traditional healers, healing songs and bush medicines were the only source of primary health care. It is unclear to what extent traditional medical practice remains in Australia in 2013 within the primary health care setting, and how this practice sits alongside the current biomedical health care model. An extensive literature search was performed from a wide range of literature sources in attempt to identify and examine both qualitatively and quantitatively traditional medicine practices within Aboriginal Australia today. Whilst there is a lack of academic literature and research on this subject the literature found suggests that traditional medicine practice in Aboriginal Australia still remains and the extent to which it is practiced varies widely amongst communities across Australia. This variation was found to depend on association with culture and beliefs about disease causation, type of illness presenting, success of biomedical treatment, and accessibility to traditional healers and bush medicines. Traditional medicine practices were found to be used sequentially, compartmentally and concurrently with biomedical healthcare. Understanding more clearly the role of traditional medicine practice, as well as looking to improve and support integrative and governance models for traditional medicine practice, could have a positive impact on primary health care outcomes for Aboriginal Australia. PMID:23819729

2013-01-01

65

Traditional birth attendants in rural Nepal: knowledge, attitudes and practices about maternal and newborn health.  

PubMed

Efforts to formalise the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and neonatal health programmes have had limited success. TBAs' continued attendance at home deliveries suggests the potential to influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand the knowledge, attitudes and practices of TBAs in rural Nepal. Twenty-one trained and untrained TBAs participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews about antenatal care, delivery practices, maternal complications and newborn care. Antenatal care included advice about nutrition and tetanus toxoid (TT) immunisation, but did not include planning ahead for transport in cases of complications. Clean delivery practices were observed by most TBAs, though hand-washing practices differed by training status. There was no standard practice to identify maternal complications, such as excessive bleeding, prolonged labour, or retained placenta, and most referred outside in the event of such complications. Newborn care practices included breastfeeding with supplemental feeds, thermal care after bathing, and mustard seed oil massage. TBAs reported high job satisfaction and desire to improve their skills. Despite uncertainty regarding the role of TBAs to manage maternal complications, TBAs may be strategically placed to make potential contributions to newborn survival. PMID:19431006

Thatte, N; Mullany, L C; Khatry, S K; Katz, J; Tielsch, J M; Darmstadt, G L

2009-01-01

66

Traditional massage of newborns in Nepal: implications for trials of improved practice.  

PubMed

Mustard oil massage of newborns is an integral component of traditional care practices in many communities. Recent evidence suggests that this practice may have detrimental effects, particularly for preterm infants or for those whose skin barrier function is otherwise sub-optimal. Other natural oils such as sunflower, sesame or safflower seed oil may have a beneficial impact on newborn health and survival. Little is known, however, about cultural and other factors related to the acceptance and uptake of alternative, more beneficial oils for massage of the newborn. A questionnaire concerning the usage and reasons for application of mustard and other oils to newborn skin was administered to the caretakers of 8580 newborns in Sarlahi district of rural Nepal. Four focus group discussions among representative groups were conducted to describe the perceived benefits of oil massage and the factors involved in the decision to apply oil. The potential for the introduction of alternative natural oils was explored. Approximately 99 per cent of newborns were massaged at least once with mustard oil in the 2 weeks after birth, and 80 per cent were massaged at least twice daily. Promotion of strength, maintenance of health, and provision of warmth were the most commonly cited reasons for application of mustard oil. Focus group discussion participants noted that smell, oiliness, mode of pre-massage preparation, and perceived absorptive potential on the skin are important contextual factors involved in the practice. Caretakers are willing to consider adaptation of established traditions for the promotion of positive health outcomes if essential contextual criteria are met. An understanding of cultural, social, and economic factors that shape the context of traditional healthcare practices is essential to the design and implementation of intervention trials examining the relative efficacy of application of oils in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity. PMID:15677372

Mullany, Luke C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Khatry, Subarna K; Tielsch, James M

2005-04-01

67

Psychologists in academic health centers: traditions and innovations in education, science, and practice.  

PubMed

Psychologists, interns, and postdoctoral fellows convened in Minneapolis May 3-5, 2007 for the 3rd National Conference of the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers (APAHC): "Psychologists in Academic Health Centers: Traditions and Innovations in Education, Science, and Practice." This paper reviews the development and organization of the conference, which built upon the two previous conferences of the Association of Medical School Psychologists. The articles in this special issue are based on a selected number of the 32 conference presentations, covering a range of timely topics that reflect the conference theme. Participants' positive perceptions and satisfaction with the conference reveal the value of such conferences focused on the activities, interests, opportunities, and challenges of psychologists who work in academic health centers (AHCs) and teaching hospitals. Moreover, the content and success of the conference underscores the importance of APAHC as an organization serving the needs and promoting the interests of psychologists affiliated with AHCs. PMID:19104947

Robiner, William N; Seime, Richard J

2008-03-01

68

Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol\\/L (greater than 29 micrograms\\/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: (1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and (2) the PbBs of nearly half

M. R. Farfel; J. J. Jr. Chisolm

1990-01-01

69

Knowledge, attitude, practice, and management of traditional medicine among people of Burka Jato Kebele, West Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background: Traditional medicine (TM) has maintained its popularity in all regions of the developing world. Even though, the wide acceptance of TM is a well-established fact, its status in a population with access to modern health is not well clear in the whole country. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practice and management of TM among the community of Burka Jato Kebele, West Ethiopia. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 282 sampled individuals’ selected using systematic random sampling from January 28, 2013 to February 8, 2013 in Burka Jato Kebele, Nekemte town, East Wollega Zone, West of Ethiopia. Results: The majority (94.22%) of people in the study area relied on TM. Most of them were aware of medicinal herbs (55.7%). About half (40.79%) of the respondents were aware of the major side-effects of TM such as diarrhea (36.64%). About 31.85% of them prefer traditional medical practices (TMP) because they are cheap. Most (50%) of the species were harvested for their leaves to prepare remedies, followed by seed (21.15%) and root (13.46%) and the methods of preparation were pounding (27.54%), crushing (18.84%), a concoction (15.95%) and squeezing (13.04%). About 53.84% of them were used as fresh preparations. Remedies were reported to be administered through oral (53.85%), dermal or topical (36.54%), buccal (3.85%) and anal (5.77%). Conclusion: The study revealed that the use of TMs were quite popular among the population and a large proportion of the respondents not only preferred, but also used TMs notwithstanding that they lived in the urban communities with better access to modern medical care and medical practitioners. To use TM as a valuable alternative to conventional western medicine, further investigation must be undertaken to determine the validity, efficacy of the plants to make it available as an alternative medicine to human beings.

Gari, Akawak; Yarlagadda, Raghavendra; Wolde-Mariam, Messay

2015-01-01

70

Optimal water allocation in small hydropower plants between traditional and non-traditional water users: merging theory and existing practices.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water demand for hydropower production is increasing together with the consciousness of the importance of riparian ecosystems and biodiversity. Some Cantons in Switzerland and other alpine regions in Austria and in Süd Tiröl (Italy) started replacing the inadequate concept of Minimum Flow Requirement (MFR) with a dynamic one, by releasing a fix percentage of the total inflow (e.g. 25 %) to the environment. Starting from a model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) and the need of including the environment as an actual water user, we arrived to similar qualitative results, and better quantitative performances. In this paper we explore the space of non-proportional water repartition rules analysed by Gorla and Perona (2013), and we propose new ecological indicators which are directly derived from current ecologic evaluation practices (fish habitat modelling and hydrological alteration). We demonstrate that both MFR water redistribution policy and also proportional repartition rules can be improved using nothing but available information. Furthermore, all water redistribution policies can be described by the model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) in terms of the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU) and a suitable class of nonlinear functions. This is particularly useful to highlights implicit assumptions and choosing best-compromise solutions, providing analytical reasons explaining why efficiency cannot be attained by classic repartition rules. Each water repartition policy underlies an ecosystem monetization and a political choice always has to be taken. We explicit the value of the ecosystem health underlying each policy by means of the PEMU under a few assumptions, and discuss how the theoretic efficient redistribution law obtained by our approach is feasible and doesn't imply high costs or advanced management tools. For small run-of-river power plants, this methodology answers the question "how much water should be left to the river?" and is therefore a simple but effective step towards eco-sustainability. References - Perona, P., Characklis, G., Dürrenmatt, D.J., 2013. Inverse parameters estimation of simple riparian benefit economical models. Journal of Environmental Management . - Gorla, L. and Perona, P., 2013. On quantifying ecologically sustainable flow releases in a diverted river reach. Journal of Hydrology.

Gorla, Lorenzo; Crouzy, Benoît; Perona, Paolo

2014-05-01

71

Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources  

PubMed Central

In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

2014-01-01

72

Is the evidence-based practice movement doing more good than harm? Reflections on Iain Chalmers' case for research-based policy making and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

English Powerful voices are currently insisting that policy and practice must be based on research evidence, and that social science inquiry should be reformed in order to serve this need more effectively. An influential figure in the evidence-based practice movement is Sir Iain Chalmers, previously director of the UK Cochrane Centre. Taking evidence-based medicine as his model, he presents the

Martyn Hammersley

2005-01-01

73

When the New Application Smell Is Gone: Traditional Intranet Best Practices and Existing Web 2.0 Intranet Infrastructures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growth of Web 2.0 library intranets in recent years, many libraries are leaving behind legacy, first-generation intranets. As Web 2.0 intranets multiply and mature, how will traditional intranet best practices--especially in the areas of planning, implementation, and evaluation--translate into an existing Web 2.0 intranet infrastructure?…

Yoose, Becky

2010-01-01

74

Non-Western Educational Traditions: Alternative Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of education, as taught in the United States and in the West generally, has focused primarily on how Western educational tradition emerged. This book provides a brief overview of several non-Western approaches to educational thought and practice. An understanding of how other peoples have educated their children, as well as what…

Reagan, Timothy

75

Traditional pig farming practices and productivity in the Jayawijaya region, Papua Province, Indonesia.  

PubMed

The objective of the current survey was to provide an update on pig farming practices in the Jayawijaya region, Papua Province, Indonesia. A structured semi-close-ended questionnaire was used to interview 367 farmers across the Jayawijaya region. Results showed that farms, on average, comprised of 8.8 pigs (CI 8.5-9.1). The average litter size was 6.0 (CI 5.7-6.3) piglets, the farrowing frequency was once a year, and the annual mortality rate was 50.2 % (CI 48.4-51.9). On average, 43.4 % farms (CI 36.4-50.7) allowed pigs to roam freely during daylight hours. Farmers used pigs for their own consumption (62.4 %, CI 57.4-67.4), as a gift (56.6 %, CI 51.5-61.7), or for sale (50.7 %, CI 45.6-55.8). Veterinary services were used intensively by just 11.7 % of farmers (CI 8.2-16.5). Furthermore, 34.2 % (CI 29.3-39) of farmers would sell sick pigs, and 63.1 % (CI 58.2-68.1) would slaughter and consume them. It was also recorded that 68.6 % of farmers (CI 63.7-73.4) would eat sick pigs that had died naturally. These findings suggest that traditional pig farms in Jayawijaya are of low productivity. Moreover, the free roaming of pigs and the sale and consumption of sick pigs have the potential to allow pathogens to circulate between pig and human populations. PMID:25564414

Nugroho, Widi; Cargill, Colin Frank; Putra, I Made; Kirkwood, Roy Neville; Trott, Darren John; Salasia, Siti Isrina Oktavia; Reichel, Michael Philipp

2015-03-01

76

Teaching as a Reflective Practice: The German Didaktik Tradition. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers presents essays by German scholars and practitioners writing from within the German Didaktik tradition and interpretive essays by U.S. scholars. After an introduction, "Starting a Dialogue: A Beginning Conversation between Didaktik and the Curriculum Traditions" (Stefan Hopmann and Kurt Riquarts), there are 18 chapters in…

Westbury, Ian, Ed.; Hopmann, Stefan, Ed.; Riquarts, Kurt, Ed.

77

Traditional and alternative community food security interventions in montréal, Québec: different practices, different people.  

PubMed

Food insecurity is steadily increasing in developed countries. Traditional interventions adopted to tackle food insecurity, like food banks, address the urgent need for food. By contrast, alternative interventions, such as community gardens and kitchens, are oriented towards social integration and the development of mutual aid networks. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the populations served by traditional and alternative interventions in food security differ according to measures of vulnerability. We studied newly registered participants to food security interventions. Participants were selected from a random sample of food security community organizations in a two-stage cluster sampling frame. The categorizing variable was participation in a community organization providing either traditional interventions or alternative interventions. Seven measures of vulnerability were used: food security; perceived health; civic participation; perceived social support of the primary network, social isolation, income and education. Regression multilevel models were used to assess associations. 711 participants in traditional interventions and 113 in alternative interventions were enrolled in the study. Between group differences were found with respect to food insecurity, health status perception, civic participation, education and income, but not with respect to social isolation or perceived social support from primary social network. Traditional and alternative food security interventions seem to reach different populations. Participants in traditional interventions were found to have less access to resources, compared to those in alternative interventions. Thus, new participants in traditional interventions may have higher levers of vulnerability than those in alternative interventions. PMID:25012098

Roncarolo, Federico; Adam, Caroline; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

2015-04-01

78

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyxlooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (coxibs) and gastrointestinal harm: review of clinical trials and clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Background Gastrointestinal harm, known to occur with NSAIDs, is thought to be lower with NSAID and gastroprotective agent, and with inhibitors selective to cyclooxygenase-2 (coxibs) at usual plasma concentrations. We examine competing strategies for available evidence of reduced gastrointestinal bleeding in clinical trials and combine this evidence with evidence from clinical practice on whether the strategies work in the real world, whether guidance on appropriate prescribing is followed, and whether patients adhere to the strategies. Methods We used a series of systematic literature searches to find full publications of relevant studies for evidence about the efficacy of these different gastroprotection strategies in clinical trials, and for evidence that they worked and were adhered to in clinical practice – whether they were effective. We chose to use good quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses when they were available. Results Evidence of efficacy of coxibs compared to NSAIDs for upper gastrointestinal bleeding was strong, with consistent reductions in events of about 50% in large randomised trials (34,460 patients), meta-analyses of randomised trials (52,474 patients), and large observational studies in clinical practice (3,093 bleeding events). Evidence on the efficacy of NSAID plus gastroprotection with acid suppressants (proton pump inhibitors, PPIs, and histamine antagonists, H2As) was based mainly on the surrogate measure of endoscopic ulcers. The limited information on damage to the bowel suggested that NSAID plus PPI was more damaging than coxibs. Eleven observational studies studied 1.6 million patients, of whom 911,000 were NSAID users, and showed that 76% (range 65% to 90%) of patients with at least one gastrointestinal risk factor received no prescription for gastroprotective agent with an NSAID. The exception was a cohort of US veterans with previous gastrointestinal bleeding, where 75% had gastroprotection with an NSAID. When gastroprotection was prescribed, it was often described as inadequate. A single study suggested that patient adherence to prescribed gastroprotection was low. Conclusion Evidence for efficacy of gastroprotection strategies with NSAIDs is limited. In clinical practice few patients who need gastroprotection get it, and those who get it may not take it. For coxibs, gastroprotection is inherent, although probably not complete. PMID:17054784

Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; Phillips, Ceri J; McQuay, Henry J

2006-01-01

79

From Mexico to Here: An Observational Study of Traditional Dietary Practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As Mexican-Americans acculturate to the American diet and lifestyle they have increased risk of developing many chronic diseases. An understanding of traditional environment and behavior is needed to address this phenomenon. Transnational qualitative research (participant observation, photography, a...

80

Traditional male circumcision practices among the Kurya of North-eastern Tanzania and implications for national programmes.  

PubMed

The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS recommend male circumcision (MC) as an additional intervention against HIV infection. Various sub-Saharan African countries are at different stages of rolling out MC programmes. Despite initial fears, studies conducted among traditionally non-circumcising communities in Africa have shown that MC is widely accepted as a biomedical intervention. However, little is known on how traditionally circumcising communities where MC carries considerable social meaning and significance would respond to such programmes. This study was conducted among a traditionally circumcising community in Tarime district in Tanzania as part of a national situation analysis prior to initiating a national MC programme. It employed key informant interviews and focus group discussions for data collection. Results show that the Kurya ethnic group practice MC as a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood. Each clan organises its own circumcision ceremony, which takes place every even numbered years. Clan leaders and traditional circumcisers are central to its organisation. Among the Kurya, there is high regard for traditional MC as it is perceived as upholding cultural practice and identity. It also embodies notions of bravery since anaesthetics are not used. On the other hand, medical MC is not viewed as prestigious since anaesthetics are used to suppress pain. Social pressure for traditional MC is applied through ridiculing of those uncircumcised or circumcised at health facilities. In general, there are positive attitudes towards MC as it is perceived as enhancing personal hygiene and having a protective effect against sexually transmitted infections. For the success of nation-wide MC programmes, there is need to develop programmes that incorporate both clinical and sociocultural interests. PMID:21476151

Mshana, Gerry; Wambura, Mwita; Mwanga, Joseph; Mosha, Jacklin; Mosha, Frank; Changalucha, John

2011-09-01

81

Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors Influencing Middle Level Students' Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…

Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

2011-01-01

82

Journal Clubs and Case Conferences: From Academic Tradition to Communities of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: As small group learning sessions, Journal Clubs (JCs) and Case Conferences (CCs), if structured interactively, have potential as educational formats that can change practice. However, the degree to which these formats, as currently typically structured, lead to practice change is unknown. Methods: We used concepts of communities of…

Price, David W.; Felix, Kate G.

2008-01-01

83

The privatisation of water and its impacts on settlement and traditional cultural practices in Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the ecological and socio-economic aspects of water legislation in Chile. Following legislation that effectively privatised water in the desert and mountain fringes of northern Chile, local farmers that relied upon traditional methods of water management were seriously disadvantaged by legislation that allowed the allocation of scarce water resources to large mining companies. Although legislation exists to

Isabel Maria Madaleno

2007-01-01

84

Anatomical Practical Examinations: How Does Student Performance on Computerized Evaluation Compare with the Traditional Format?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a research study comparing the scores on online versus traditional examinations in a gross anatomy course. The authors hypothesis was that there would not be a difference between modes of testing on performance. Methods and outcomes are discussed.

2011-09-13

85

The use of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) in traditional medicine practice in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) has been used by traditional health practitioners in East Africa for management of diseases, however, the extent of its usefulness has not been established to date. Fieldwork for this study was carried out in the Lake Victoria Basin between March and September 2006. The purpose was to collect ethnomedical information that will serve as a

J. A. Orwa; I. J. O. Jondiko; R. J. A. Minja; M. Bekunda

2008-01-01

86

Definitions of suicide and self-harm behavior in an Australian aboriginal community.  

PubMed

In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way such behavior is defined in an Aboriginal context. A continuation of certain "traditional" cultural forms of self-harm behavior was evident in participant definitions, notably the practice of female hair cutting, also described as a mourning ritual, which appears to serve as a marker both to the individual and others. PMID:19527158

Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

2009-04-01

87

Harmful Algal Blooms  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

You may notice a green, red or brown film on your favorite boating or swimming area in the summer. This coloring could mean that the water is affected by harmful algal blooms. Harmful algal blooms are an accumulation of tiny organisms known as algae and can release harmful toxins into the environmen...

88

Forecasting Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online newsletter gives a brief summary of societal impacts of harmful algal blooms and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) project, a group funded by NOAA to forecast harmful algal blooms (HABs) along the Washington coast. The site includes colorful SeaWiFS (satellite) images of the coast during upwelling events.

Dana Woodruff

89

Profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in two districts of Eastern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background The WHO estimates that more than 80% of African populations attend traditional healers for health reasons and that 40%–60% of these have some kind of mental illness. However, little is known about the profiles and outcome of this traditional approach to treatment. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in Jinja and Iganga districts in the Busoga region of Eastern Uganda. Methods Four studies were conducted. Study I used focus group discussions (FGDs) with case vignettes with local community members and traditional healers to explore the lay concepts of psychosis. Studies II and III concerned a cross-sectional survey of patients above 18 years at the traditional healer's shrines and study IV was made on a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with psychosis in study III. Manual content analysis was used in study I; quantitative data in studies II, III, and IV were analyzed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels to determine the association between psychological distress and socio-demographic factors; for study IV, factors associated with outcome were analyzed. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was the analysis used in Study IV. Results The community gave indigenous names to psychoses (mania, schizophrenia, and psychotic depression) and had multiple explanatory models for them. Thus multiple solutions for these problems were sought. Of the 387 respondents, the prevalence of psychological distress was 65.1%, where 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness, and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Over 80% of patients with psychosis used both biomedical and traditional healing systems. Those who combined these two systems seemed to have a better outcome. All the symptom scales showed a percentage reduction of more than 20% at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Conclusion Traditional healers shoulder a large burden of care of patients with mental health problems. This calls for all those who share the goal of improving the mental health of individuals to engage with traditional healers. PMID:21845144

Abbo, Catherine

2011-01-01

90

Impact of HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) Knowledge on HIV Prevention Practices Among Traditional Birth Attendants in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p < 0.01), sterilization of delivery equipment (p < 0.01), participation in blood safety training (p < 0.01), and disposal of sharps (p < 0.01). As long as a high percent of births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health. PMID:25674783

Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R.; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.

2015-01-01

91

Impact of HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) Knowledge on HIV Prevention Practices Among Traditional Birth Attendants in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p < 0.01), sterilization of delivery equipment (p < 0.01), participation in blood safety training (p < 0.01), and disposal of sharps (p < 0.01). As long as a high percent of births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health. PMID:25674783

Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

2015-01-01

92

Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

2012-01-01

93

Is This the End of the English Tradition of Practical A-Level Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From September 2015, schools in England will be teaching new A-level science specifications that have been developed by examination boards to encompass new higher levels of demand developed by the Department for Education. Integral to these new specifications is a radical change to the contribution of practical science to the A-level grade of the…

Carter, Ian

2014-01-01

94

Tradition and Innovation in the Practical Culture of Schools in Franco's Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews school practice in Spain through the long historic period of the dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco between the 1936 Civil War and Franco's death in 1975. For this purpose, an analysis is made of the most relevant documents (school materials, reports, direct testimonies by practising teachers, scientific papers on education…

Calvo, Carmen Benso

2006-01-01

95

Conceptualizing prenatal care: recent research and the application of Tae-Kyo, Korean traditional beliefs and practices.  

PubMed

The value of prenatal care has long been recognized by various cultures. The author's purpose in this article is to propose a framework to conceptualize prenatal care using the traditional Korean practice of prenatal care called Tae-Kyo, which means education for the fetus. The philosophy of Tae-Kyo shows the importance of children's development from the very beginning of life and indicates the moral and social responsibilities of pregnant women, family members, and communities in delivering healthy babies. This comprehensive view implies a framework for conceptualizing prenatal care that encompasses multidimensional aspects of prenatal care. PMID:24527798

Kim, Yanghee

2015-01-01

96

Predictors of traditional medicines utilisation in the ghanaian health care practice: interrogating the ashanti situation.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine (TRM) use remains universal among individuals, families and communities the world over but the predictive variables of TRM use is still confounding. This population-based study analysed the predictors of TRM use in Ashanti Region, Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional quantitative survey involving systematic random sampled participants (N = 324) was conducted. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used as research instruments. Data were analysed with logit regression, Pearson's Chi square and Fisher's exact tests from the PASW for Windows application (V. 17.0). Overall, 86.1 % (n = 279) reported use of TRM with biologically-based and distant/prayer therapies as the major forms of TRM utilised in the previous 12 months. Among the general population, TRM use was predicted by having low-income levels [odds ratio (OR) 2.883, confidence interval (CI) 1.142-7.277], being a trader (OR 2.321, CI 1.037-5.194), perceiving TRM as effective (OR 4.430, CI 1.645-11.934) and safe (OR 2.730, CI 0.986-4.321), good affective behaviour of traditional medical practitioner (TMP) (OR 2.943, CI 0.875-9.896) and having chronic ill-health (OR 3.821, CI 1.213-11.311). The prevalence of TRM use is high. The study provides evidence that people's experience, personal attributes, health beliefs, attitude to TRM, attitude of TMP to clients and medical history are largely accountable for the upsurge use of TRM rather than socio-demographic factors. Understanding the health-seeking behaviour of individuals is exigent to ascribe appropriate medical care by health care providers. PMID:25173694

Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah

2015-04-01

97

Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking Latina mothers influence the home food environment: implications for future interventions.  

PubMed

This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four Latino parents (33 women; 27 born in Mexico; 21 food-insecure) of preschool-aged children participated in four focus group discussions conducted in Spanish by a trained moderator. The focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded by independent raters. Results suggest that in general, parents were very knowledgeable about healthful eating and cited both parents and school as significant factors influencing children's eating habits; at home, most families had more traditional Mexican foods available than American foods; cost and familiarity with foods were the most influential factors affecting food purchasing; many parents had rules regarding sugar intake; and parents cited role modeling, reinforcement, and creative food preparation as ways to encourage children's healthful eating habits. Finally, parents generated ideas on how to best assist Latino families through interventions. Parents indicated that future interventions should be community based and teach skills to purchase and prepare meals that include low-cost and traditional Mexican ingredients, using hands-on activities. In addition, interventions could encourage and reinforce healthy food-related practices that Latino families bring from their native countries. PMID:21703381

Evans, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Jennings, Rose; Dave, Jayna; Scoblick, Kathryn; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Loyo, Jennifer

2011-07-01

98

Moving beyond traditional fire management practices to better minimize community vulnerability to wildfire in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are an important natural process in southern California, but they also present a major hazard for human life and property. The region leads the nation in fire-related losses, and since 2001, wildfires have damaged or destroyed more than 10,000 homes. As human ignitions have increased along with urban development and population growth, fire frequency has also surged, and most home losses occur in large fires when ignitions coincide with Santa Ana windstorms. As the region accommodates more growth in the future, the wildfire threat promises to continue. We will thus explore how a broader, more comprehensive approach to fire management could improve upon traditional approaches for reducing community vulnerability. The traditional approach to mitigating fire risk, in addition to fire suppression, has been to reduce fuel through construction of fuel breaks. Despite increasing expenditure on these treatments, there has been little empirical study of their role in controlling large fires. We will present the results of a study in which we constructed and analyzed a spatial database of fuel breaks in southern California national forests. Our objective was to better understand characteristics of fuel breaks that affect the behavior of large fires and to map where fires and fuel breaks most commonly intersect. We found that fires stopped at fuel breaks 22-47% of the time, depending on the forest, and the reason fires stopped was invariably related to firefighter access and management activities. Fire weather and fuel break condition were also important. The study illustrates the importance of strategic location of fuel breaks because they have been most effective where they provided access for firefighting activities. While fuel breaks have played a role in controlling wildfires at the Wildland Urban Interface, we are evaluating alternative approaches for reducing community vulnerability, including land use planning. Recent research shows that the amount and spatial arrangement of human infrastructure, such as roads and housing developments, strongly influences wildfire patterns. Therefore, we hypothesize that the spatial arrangement and location of housing development is likely to affect the susceptibility of lives and property to fire. In other words, potential for urban loss may be greatest at specific housing densities, spatial patterns of development, and locations of development. If these risk factors can be identified, mapped, and modeled, it is possible that vulnerability to wildfire could be substantially minimized through careful planning for future development - especially because future development will likely increase the region’s fire risk. To address these possibilities, we are evaluating past housing loss in relation to land use planning, in conjunction with other variables that influence fire patterns. We are also exploring alternative future scenarios to identify optimum land use planning strategies for minimizing fire risk.

Syphard, A. D.; Keeley, J. E.; Brennan, T. J.

2010-12-01

99

Traditional healing with animals (zootherapy): medieval to present-day Levantine practice.  

PubMed

Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. This article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (the Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) throughout history. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the Levant from early medieval to present-day traditional medicine yielded 99 substances of animal origin which were used medicinally during that long period. Fifty-two animal extracts and products were documented as being used from the early Muslim period (10th century) to the late Ottoman period (19th century). Seventy-seven were recorded as being used in the 20th century. Seven main animal sources have been exploited for medical uses throughout history: honey, wax, adder, beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, and ambergris. The first three are local and relatively easy to obtain; the last four are exotic, therefore, rare and expensive. The use of other materials of animal origin came to an end in the course of history because of change in the moral outlook of modern societies. Among the latter we note mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. PMID:12576209

Lev, Efraim

2003-03-01

100

A confluence of traditions: Examining teacher practice in the merging of secondary science and environmental education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embedding environmental education within secondary science curriculum presents both philosophical and practical difficulties for teachers. This ethnographic/narrative study, with its methodology grounded in eco-feminism and realism/constructivism, examines the work of six secondary science teachers as they engage in an action research project focused on merging environmental education in their science lessons. Over the course of several months the teachers examine and discuss their views and their professional development related to the project. In the place of definitive conclusions, eight propositions relating the work of secondary science teachers to environmental education, form the basis for a discussion of the implications of the study. The implications are particularly relevant to secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, where the embedding of environmental education in science studies has been mandated.

Astrid, Steele

101

The Harmful Algae Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Relevant sections in this resource include What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), an Introduction to Algal Blooms and "Red Tide", Algae Species (which algae are responsible for the harmful effects?), Adverse Impacts, Human Illness (food poisoning associated with harmful algal blooms & information on diagnosis and treatment), HAB Distribution Maps, HAB events in the United States and around the world, HAB related articles as printed in the news media, and a photo gallery of visible algal blooms, photomicrographs, and satellite imagery.

Donald Anderson

2004-06-17

102

Benefitting from differences in knowledge, practice and belief: M?ori oral traditions and natural hazards science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper builds upon earlier work that argued the information and experience contained within the knowledge-practice-belief complex of M?tauranga M?ori [M?ori knowledge] is a valuable and neglected area of information and understanding about past catastrophic events in Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ). Here we map M?ori oral traditions (p?r?kau) that relate experience with extreme environmental disturbance (in particular, tsunamis) around the A/NZ coast, compare the findings with geo-archaeological evidence, and discuss the scientific benefits to be gained by considering p?r?kau as legitimate perspectives on history. Not surprisingly, there are both differences and complementarities between traditional M?ori narratives and the available geo-archaeological evidence on extreme coastal disturbances. The findings presented here raise new and important questions about accepted geographies of tsunami risk, the causes and sources of their generation, as well as reasons for the relative paucity and abundance of information in some regions. Ways in which M?tauranga Taiao [M?ori environmental knowledge] and contemporary science can be combined to produce new narratives about extreme environmental disturbance along the A/NZ coastline will require not only acceptance of other ways of knowing but also open engagement with M?ori that respects their rights to tell their own histories. These efforts are encouraged to revitalise and ground-truth the interpretation of traditional stories, corroborate and/or question previous scientific deductions, and improve our collective understanding of the recurring impact of tectonic, geologic and meteorological-based events across A/NZ.

King, D. N.; Goff, J. R.

2010-09-01

103

Insect repellent plants traditional usage practices in the Ethiopian malaria epidemic-prone setting: an ethnobotanical survey  

PubMed Central

Background The usage of insect repellent plants (IRPs) is one of the centuries-old practices in Africa. In Ethiopia, malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, subsequently the majority of people have a tendency to apply various plants as repellents to reduce or interrupt the biting activity of insects. Accordingly, this survey was undertaken to document and evaluate knowledge and usage practices of the local inhabitants on IRPs in the malaria epidemic-prone setting of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical survey was conducted between January and May 2013. Selected 309 household members were interviewed by administering pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge and usage practices of repellent plants, in Bechobore Kebele, Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Results Overall, 70.2% (217/309) and 91.8% (199/217) of the respondents have had ample awareness and usage practices of repellent plants, respectively. Informants cited about twenty-two plant species as repellents and also indicated that these plants are useful(85.5%), accessible(86.8%), and affordable(83.9%) too. Residents mainly applying dried leaves [93.9% (187/199)] by means of burning/smouldering [98.9% (197/199)] with the traditional charcoal stove to repel insects, primarily mosquitoes. About 52.8% (105/199) of the informants using aproximately15g of dried plant-materials every day. A Chi-square analysis shows statistically a significant link between the knowledge on repellent plants and gender as well as average monthly income although not with the age of the respondents. Nevertheless, the repellent plant usage custom was not significantly associated with gender, monthly income, and age of the informants. Conclusion Though most of the people have had an adequate awareness still a sizable faction of society suffers with deprivation of IRPs knowledge and usage practices. Therefore, this study calls for more surveys to conserve the existing indigenous knowledge and cultural practices. It could lay the first stone to develop the next generation cost-effective vector control tools in the near future. PMID:24521138

2014-01-01

104

Traditional beliefs part of people's lives.  

PubMed

Many couples worldwide practice rituals, herbal approaches, and similar traditional approaches to regulate fertility, but many of them are ineffective at preventing pregnancy and some may even be harmful. Health providers who are familiar with cultural beliefs about fertility may use nonharmful practices (e.g., rituals or storytelling) to teach couples about the fertile period or modern contraception. In fact, providers gain credibility when they teach family planning in ways that include traditional beliefs. In Nigeria, fertility regulation methods were used before modern contraception was introduced. In both Nigeria and Niger, some customs prohibit premarital sexual intercourse. Others promote sexual abstinence for up to three years to promote proper birth spacing. Even though many beliefs do not prevent pregnancy and cause no harm, they can be used to assure women that they are in control of their own fertility. Such beliefs include avoiding the sun or moon at certain times or wearing charms (e.g., dead spiders, children's teeth, or leopard skin bracelets). Providers should discourage dangerous or counterproductive beliefs, however. For example, the Nigerian belief that intercourse during menstruation turns people into albinos (although it is not harmful) may encourage sex during the fertile period. Some harmful beliefs or practices include douching with hot water, salt, vinegar, lemon, or potassium after sex; eating arsenic or castor oil seeds; and drinking water used to wash dead bodies. A 28-bead necklace is being used to help women keep track of their menstrual cycle and know when the risk of pregnancy is greatest. 11 white beads designate the fertile period, with fluorescent beads indicating the peak days of ovulation. In Brazil, the third most popular family planning method is natural family planning (NFP), indicating a clear demand for NFP; yet many couples use NFP incorrectly. In the Philippines, lime juice is used to prevent bean pods from opening and releasing their seeds. This is used to explain how the pill can prevent the ovary from releasing an egg. PMID:12320441

Keller, S

1996-01-01

105

Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Smithsonian Institution website features the publication "Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates", a fully illustrated identification guide for harmful dinoflagellate taxa. The website reviews general information on dinoflagellate morphology and other criteria used in species identification. Each taxon is presented with a species overview, and a taxonomic description of cell and thecal plate morphology, reproduction, life cycle, ecology, toxicity, species comparison, habitat and locality, and etymology. This is supplemented with a number of high-resolution light and scanning electron photomicrographs and line drawings. Taxonomic treatment of harmful dinoflagellate taxa includes nomenclatural types, type locality, and common synonyms. An extensive glossary of terms and relevant literature citations are also provided.

Maria A. Faust

106

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online textbook contains detailed information about harmful algal blooms (HABs). Topics include HAB related health hazards, general information about HABs, and taxonomic information regarding different harmful algae. The site also features links to specific aforementioned topic-related sites and maps of observed blooms in Europe and North America, Florida datasets, and historical/real-time data produced by NOAA. It also contains color photographs related to HABs.

Robert R. Stewart

107

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA website features a repository of information about Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). It explains the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act (HABHRCA) and describes the subsequent formation of an Interagency Task Force to develop a national HAB assessment and authorize funding for existing and new research programs on HABs. The site features links to information about current and past research programs, HAB ecological forecasting, related news articles, workshop announcements, and additional HAB information sources.

108

Provider views of harm reduction versus abstinence policies within homeless services for dually diagnosed adults  

PubMed Central

Harm reduction is considered by many to be a legitimate alternative to abstinence-based services for dually diagnosed individuals, yet there is limited understanding of how varying approaches affect front-line practice within supportive housing services for homeless adults. This paper examines how front-line providers working with individuals who have experienced homelessness, serious mental illness, and addiction view policies of harm reduction versus abstinence within two distinctly different approaches to homeless services: the traditional or ‘treatment first’ (TF) approach that requires abstinence and the more recent Housing First (HF) approach that incorporates harm reduction. As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 129 in-depth interviews conducted with 41 providers were thematically analyzed to understand how providers view a harm reduction versus abstinence approach. Themes included: (a) harm reduction as a welcomed alternative; (b) working with ambiguity; and (c) accommodating abstinence. Drawing on recovery principles, we consider the broader implications of the findings for behavioral health care with this population. PMID:23404076

Padgett, Deborah K.; Tiderington, Emmy

2013-01-01

109

Ethical considerations in African traditional medicine: a response to Nyika.  

PubMed

Like other so-called 'parallel' practices in medicine, traditional medicine (TM) does not avoid criticism or even rejection. Nyika's article 'Ethical and Regulatory Issues Surrounding African Traditional Medicine in the Context of HIV/AIDS' looks at some of the issues from a traditional Western ethical perspective and suggests that it should be rejected. I respond to this article agreeing with Nyika's three major criticisms: lack of informed consent, confidentiality and paternalism. However, as traditional healers are consulted by over 70% of South Africans before any other type of healthcare professional, a blanket negation of TM is not possible, nor is it politically feasible. A pragmatic approach would be to work within the current structures for positive change. I point out that, as all cultural practices do, TM will change over time. Yet, until some regulations and change occur, the problem of harm to patients remains a major concern. PMID:17355330

van Bogaert, Donna Knapp

2007-04-01

110

Changing Mindsets: A Case Study of a Community of Practice between Charter and Traditional Public School Leaders in the School Leaders Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the essential elements of a community of practice intended to increase communication and collaboration between traditional public and charter school leaders. Members of the Los Angeles Cohort of the School Leaders Network participated in this study. This case study triangulated observation, interview, and…

Ponce, Manuel N., Jr.

2013-01-01

111

Use of Information-Seeking Strategies for Developing Systematic Reviews and Engaging in Evidence-Based Practice: The Application of Traditional and Comprehensive Pearl Growing--A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Efficient library searches for research evidence are critical to practitioners who wish to engage in evidence-based practice (EBP) as well as researchers who seek to develop systematic reviews. Aims: This review will propose the benefits of the search technique "Pearl Growing" ("Traditional Pearl Growing") as well as an adaptation of…

Schlosser, Ralf W.; Wendt, Oliver; Bhavnani, Suresh; Nail-Chiwetalu, Barbara

2006-01-01

112

Harmful Algal Blooms Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the biological and physical conditions that lead to eutrophication of a water system by using real-time data to predict the the growth of harmful algae. They also conduct research on the Internet to learn more about the causes of harmful algal blooms. Students investigate both the position of the Gulf Stream, as well as population and life cycle characteristics of harmful phytoplankton. The activity includes a worksheet and assessment questions. This resource is found in Rising Tides, a journal created for teachers and students reporting on current oceanography research conducted by NASA, NOAA, and university scientists, featuring articles, classroom activities, readings, teacher/student questions, and imagery for student investigation of marine science.

2012-08-03

113

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Aquatic Pathobiology website features an overview of harmful algal blooms. Specific focus is given to blooms of microscopic algae occurring in the coastal waters of the United States that produce toxins and impair fish and shellfish production, either directly or indirectly, via degradation of habitats. Links are provided to detailed pages about each of the following: neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), "Brown tide" blooms (BTB), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), and blooms which do not cause illness to humans but are harmful to fish.

Andrew Kane

114

The Role of Local Knowledge and Traditional Extraction Practices in the Management of Giant Earthworms in Brazil  

PubMed Central

The giant earthworm, Rhinodrilus alatus (Righi 1971), has been captured in the southeastern Brazilian Cerrado biome for approximately 80 years and used as bait for amateur fishing throughout Brazil. Local knowledge and traditional extraction practices are crucial for the establishment of management strategies for the species because, although its extraction involves conflicts and social and environmental impacts, the species is one of the major sources of income for approximately 3,000 people, especially for members of an Afro-descendant community that has approximately 2,000 inhabitants. Participatory tools, such as seasonal calendar, transect walks and participatory maps, were individually or collectively used with extractors and traders (former extractors), and 129 semi-structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with the same individuals between 2005 and 2012. The capture of Rhinodrilus alatus was observed in different seasons and areas of occurrence of the species in 17 municipalities, where this giant earthworm is the only species extracted for trade. All information obtained was verified by community members in 17 meetings. The extractors have an extensive knowledge of the life history, behavior, distribution, and possible impacts of climate change on the species. Different capture techniques, which have different impacts, are used during the dry and rainy seasons and are passed by the extractors through the generations. Local knowledge contributed to the establishment of agreements for the use of capture techniques that have less impact, to the expansion of scientific knowledge and the reassessment of the conservation status of Rhinodrilus alatus. The present study may serve as an example for management projects for other giant earthworm species in other regions of Brazil and in other countries. PMID:25874618

2015-01-01

115

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

116

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage serves as a portal to the CDC's collection of harmful algal bloom (HAB) resources for the general public. Visitors can find general information about HABs, as well as focus areas targeting Cyanobacteria, Ciguatera, red tide, and Pfiesteria piscicida. Links are also provided to publications, CDC activities, and datasets (organized by federal, state, and international levels).

National Center for Environmental Health Health Studies Branch

117

Mentor Profiles -Kevin Harm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Considering his job, Kevin's last name doesn't make sense. Kevin got into nursing because he wants to help, not harm, people. Kevin didn't know what he wanted to do right away; he had another career before nursing. Read about him here.

Gem-Nursing

118

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive NOAA pdf file contains in depth information about harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States. The article contains general information about HABs, location-based assessments of HABs, and case studies of the problem. The article features color photographs of affected areas.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

119

Concoction of harmful substances in homemade alcoholic beverages in rural areas of Mopani district in Limpopo province-RSA: implications for social work practice.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this article is to explore and describe the production and consumption of homemade alcohol and its associated challenges in relation to implications for social work practice. Qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was ideal and purposive and snowball sampling methods were used in this research. Data was collected through interviews with brewers and consumers of homemade alcoholic beverages. It was found that foreign substances are put into homemade alcoholic beverages for commercial reasons in an attempt to address social exclusion. PMID:24066633

Makhubele, J C

2013-10-01

120

Village health workers' and traditional birth attendants' record keeping practices in two rural LGAs in Oyo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Village health workers (VHWs) and Traditional Birth attendants (TBAs) provide health care services to the communities in which they live, improving access to health care as well as serving as an important link between the periphery (the communities) and the health sector. The data this category of workers generates about their communities will strengthen primary health care management information system in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of VHWs and TBAs regarding record keeping in Ibarapa Central and Akinyele local government areas (LGAs) of Oyo State, Nigeria. Using a pre-tested, semi structured questionnaire and an observation checklist, trained research assistants visited and interviewed all the active, registered VHWs and TBAs in the two LGAs. Results showed that there were a total of 62 and 102 active VHWs/TBAs in Ibarapa Central and Akinyele LGAs respectively with most of them being farmers aged between 30-59 years. Over two-thirds in both LGAs knew the uses of record keeping for monitoring and evaluation purposes and most of them felt that keeping records was easy. Sixty-one percent of the respondents in Ibarapa Central and 96% of those in Akinyele LGA reported keeping records of their health activities. Of those who kept records, two thirds in Ibarapa Central and almost all (96%) in Akinyele LGA reported forwarding the records they keep. The type of records they keep was mostly on patients' treatment and (in Akinyele) delivery records using an exercise book. Most did not have the VHW/TBA record of work or the community profiles (wall chats) developed and recommended by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) because they were not supplied. The factors associated with record keeping included duration as a VHW/TBA, previous training on record keeping, receiving feedback. Recommendations made included ensuring availability of materials and periodic training and re-training of the VHWs/TBAs by the LGAs, and regular provision of feedback by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA). PMID:15032467

Umar, U S; Olumide, E A A; Bawa, S B

2003-06-01

121

Screening decisions must balance potential benefits with potential patient harms  

Cancer.gov

Screening to detect medical conditions has become standard practice for many diseases, but insufficient attention has been paid to the potential for harm, according to research conducted at the University of North Carolina, including members of its UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center. In an article published by the Journal of American Medical Association - Internal Medicine, the authors outline a framework that physicians, patients, policy makers and researchers can use to think systematically about the harms of screening programs. This rationale – a “taxonomy of harms” – makes it easier for decision makers to fully consider all harms to balance against anticipated benefits.

122

Harmful Algal Blooms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

Graham, Jennifer L.

2007-01-01

123

The Harmful Algae Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the National Office of Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Blooms and housed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, this site covers the dark side of the organisms that provide the foundation for almost all marine life. The site focuses on the small number of algae that produce potent neurotoxins that "can be transferred through the food web where they affect and even kill the higher forms of life such as zooplankton, shellfish, fish, birds, marine mammals, and even humans that feed either directly or indirectly on them." The site is divided into the following sections: photos of "Red Tide" blooms, species responsible for harmful effects, adverse impacts at higher trophic levels, human illness associated with algal blooms, and effects in your region. Researchers, educators, and people with interests in such recent headline topics such as the Pfiesteria scare can all find useful information at this site.

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. National Office for Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Blooms .

1997-01-01

124

Harmful Algae Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harmful Algae Digital Library contains a collection of Sea Grant documents in digital format (primarily PDF) arranged by subject area: red tide/PSP, brown tide, ciguatera, killer algae, and Pfiesteria. This collection is part of the National Sea Grant Library (NSGL), which maintains over 36,000 searchable records dedicated to environmental stewardship, long-term economic development and responsible use of America's coastal, ocean and Great Lakes resources.

National Sea Grant Library

125

Toxic & Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching unit investigates differences between toxic and non-toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs), where they occur in U.S. waters, causative phytoplankton species, technologies for detecting blooms, which organisms in the food web are affected and how, effects of specific toxins on humans. Five lessons contain: background and glossary; instructions for classroom and lab activities; online data; web links for further study. Lessons are aligned to teaching standards.

126

Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions  

PubMed Central

Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID:25286166

Rhodes, Evelyn L.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

2014-01-01

127

DO OFFENSIVE WORDS HARM PEOPLE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harm thesis—the assumption that words harm people—is a defining feature of sexual harassment, hate speech, verbal abuse, and obscene telephone call (OTC) offenses. This thesis ignores the possibility that swearing can be advantageous, cathartic, or an acceptable substitute for physical aggression. Observational data, courtroom evidence and verbal abuse research reviewed here produce conflicting conclusions on the question of harm.

Timothy Jay

2009-01-01

128

Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

2013-01-01

129

The Dream Will Tell: Militant Muslim Dreaming in the Context of Traditional and Contemporary Islamic Dream Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-Qaeda and Taliban leadership and membership appear to have been motivated, inspired, and guided by certain dreams. Their understanding of dreams seems to draw at least partly on traditional and contemporary Islamic dream theories. If this hypothesis is correct, then there is a need for the urgent study of Islamic Jihadist political\\/religious conversion and guidance dreams across the Middle East.

Iain R. Edgar

2004-01-01

130

Farmer rationality and the adoption of environmentally sound practices; A critique of the assumptions of traditional agricultural extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional extension has been a top down process: scientists developed products and methods which, following promulgation by extension agencies, farmers were expected to adopt. Extension agents considered farmers who failed to adopt new techniques to be recalcitrant and irrational. Farmers' attitudes and their lack of knowledge were considered to be the main barriers to adoption. Little consideration was given to

F. Vanclay; G. Lawrence

1994-01-01

131

Traditional male circumcision practices among the Kurya of North-eastern Tanzania and implications for national programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS recommend male circumcision (MC) as an additional intervention against HIV infection. Various sub-Saharan African countries are at different stages of rolling out MC programmes. Despite initial fears, studies conducted among traditionally non-circumcising communities in Africa have shown that MC is widely accepted as a biomedical intervention. However, little

Gerry Mshana; Mwita Wambura; Joseph Mwanga; Jacklin Mosha; Frank Mosha; John Changalucha

2011-01-01

132

The Superintendent Beliefs and Leadership Practices in a School District that Has Successfully Increased the Achievement of Traditionally Marginalized Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Superintendent leadership can influence student achievement and with the alarming gap between the academic achievement of traditionally marginalized students and their peers, superintendents have an ethical duty to lead their districts in closing these achievement gaps. Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2001) suggested that to have a more complete…

Fairbanks-Schutz, Jo-Ellen M.

2010-01-01

133

Ecology of Harmful Algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edna Graneli and Jefferson T. Turner, Editors;Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 189; Springer; ISBN 3540322094; 413 pp.; 2006; $195 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) affect commercially and recreationally important species, human health, and ecosystem functioning. Hallmark events are the visually stunning blooms where waters are discolored and filled with ichthyotoxin-producing algae that lead to large fish kills. Of most concern, however, are HABs that pose a threat to human health. For example, some phycotoxins bioaccumulate in the guts and tissues of commercially and recreationally important species that when consumed by humans, may result in nausea, paralysis, memory loss, and even death. In addition to the deleterious impacts of phycotoxins, HABs can be problematic in other ways. For example, the decay of blooms often leads to low dissolved oxygen in subsurface waters. Blooms also reduce light penetration into the water column. Both processes disrupt ecosystems and in some cases have completely destroyed benthic communities.

Roelke, Daniel L.

2007-07-01

134

The role of Chinese traditional medical practice as a form of health care in Singapore. I. Preliminary study.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of 672 sampled records of patients of a major institution providing Chinese traditional medicine in Singapore reveals that 97.3% of the patients were Chinese, with a dialect group distribution following closely that of the Singapore Chinese. The male-to-female patient ratio was 1.0:1.13. There were fewer patients of the pediatric age group and more of those from age 30 upwards. Some 43% of the patients sought treatment for "infective" and "internal, emotional and weakness" diseases. The prevalent disease conditions seen among patients from the different age groups are also analyzed and discussed in this paper. PMID:6892484

Ho, S C; Lun, K C; Ng, W K

1980-01-01

135

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Stagnation Scale—A Traditional Chinese Medicine Construct Operationalized for Mental Health Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Traditional Chinese medicine stagnation (“yu”) syndrome is characterized by a cluster of mind\\/body obstruction-like symptoms.\\u000a Previous studies have operationalized the concept as a psychological construct through scale development, producing a three-factor\\u000a 16-item inventory with good psychometric properties.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  The study aimed to further validate the Stagnation Scale by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and examine self-appraisal\\u000a of stagnation as an illness.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A

Siu-man Ng; Ted Chun Tat Fong; Xiao-lu Wang; Yi-jie Wang

136

The meaning and value of traditional occupational practice: a Karen woman's story of weaving in the United States.  

PubMed

This case study sought to understand the meaning of restoring traditional weaving as an occupation among Karen women from Burma who now live in an urban city in the United States and to examine the impact of weaving on their daily lives in terms of identity, empowerment, social support, and opportunities for entrepreneurship. The story of one Karen woman, Paw Law Eh, is described. Her story exemplifies the negative consequences of restricted access to familiar and meaningful daily activities, or "occupations", the relationship between occupation and self-identity, how participation in valued occupations can enhance social networks, and the restorative effects that are possible when engagement in meaningful occupations are maintained or restored. Her story demonstrates that occupational therapists have the skills and opportunity to contribute significantly to the well-being of Karen women by supporting the restoration of the occupation of weaving. PMID:23531562

Smith, Yda J; Stephenson, Stephanie; Gibson-Satterthwaite, Michelle

2013-01-01

137

The right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health care  

PubMed Central

Background State parties to human rights conventions and declarations are often faced with the seemingly contradictory problem of having an obligation to protect people from harmful practices while also having an obligation to enable access to culturally appropriate effective healing. As people increasingly migrate across the globe, previous distinctions between ‘traditional’ and ‘complementary and alternative medicine’ practices are being transcended. There are connections across transnational healing pathways that link local, national, and global movements of people and knowledge. Objective This paper contributes to the development of the concept and practice of the right to health in all its forms, exploring the right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health (R2TCAH) across different contexts. Design The paper draws on four settings – England, South Africa, Kenya, and Jordan – and is based on key informant interviews and a literature review undertaken in 2010, and updated in 2013. The paper begins by reviewing the international legal context for the right to health. It then considers legal and professional regulations from the global north and south. Results Additional research is needed to establish the legal basis, compare regulatory frameworks, and explore patient and provider perspectives of regulation. This leads to being able to make recommendations on how to balance protection from harm and the obligation to ensure culturally appropriate services. Such an exploration must also challenge Western theories of human rights. Key concepts, such as individual harm, consent, and respect of the autonomy of the individual already established and recognised in international health law, could be adopted in the development of a template for future comparative research. Conclusions Exploration of the normative content of the right to health in all its forms will contribute to supporting traditional, complementary, and alternative health service users and providers in terms of access to information, non-discrimination, clarification of state obligations, and accountability. PMID:24767601

Stuttaford, Maria; Al Makhamreh, Sahar; Coomans, Fons; Harrington, John; Himonga, Chuma; Hundt, Gillian Lewando

2014-01-01

138

Health, Healthcare Access, and Use of Traditional Versus Modern Medicine in Remote Peruvian Amazon Communities: A Descriptive Study of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices  

PubMed Central

There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. PMID:25688165

Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

2015-01-01

139

Health, healthcare access, and use of traditional versus modern medicine in remote peruvian Amazon communities: a descriptive study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. PMID:25688165

Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

2015-04-01

140

Helping Self-Harming Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 14 to 17 percent of adolescents today self-harm, deliberately cutting, burning, or bruising themselves. Most self-harming adolescents use the behavior as a coping strategy to get immediate relief from emotional distress or other stressors in their lives. Stressors include fitting in with peers, activity and homework overload, fears…

Selekman, Matthew D.

2009-01-01

141

Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.  

PubMed

A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety. PMID:24680078

Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

2014-04-01

142

An overview of harms associated with ?-lactam antimicrobials: where do the carbapenems fit in?  

PubMed Central

The US Institute of Medicine's focus on patient safety has motivated hospital administrators to facilitate a culture of safety. As a result, subcommittees of the pharmacy and therapeutics committee have emerged in many hospitals to focus on adverse events and patient safety. Antimicrobial harms have gained the attention of practicing clinicians and hospital formulary committees, because they top the list of drugs that are associated with adverse events and because of certain serious harms that have ultimately led to the withdrawal of some antimicrobial agents. In the near future, several antimicrobials in the late phase of development will become available for clinical use (ceftobiprole, ceftaroline, and telavancin), and others (doripenem and dalbavancin) have recently joined the armamentarium. Because new antimicrobials will become part of the treatment armamentarium, it is important to discuss our current understanding of antimicrobial harms in general. Although not thought of as traditional adverse events, Clostridium difficile infection and development of resistance during therapy are adverse events that occur as a result of antimicrobial exposure and therefore are discussed. In addition, a distillation of our current understanding of ?-lactam specific adverse events will be provided. Finally, new methods of administration are being evaluated that may influence peak concentration-related antimicrobial adverse events. PMID:18495060

Owens, Robert C

2008-01-01

143

Impacts of traditional land use practices on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools of mountain ecosystems in Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop production, animal husbandry and forestry are three closely interlinked components of land use systems in the mountains of Nepal. Forests are the major source of fuel wood, construction materials, fodder and litter. The latter is used as a bedding material for livestock and forms an important component of farmyard manure. In addition forest grazing by cattle is a common practice. Excessive extraction of biomass from the forest leads to a decline of soil organic matter and nutrient contents. On the landscape scale these negative effects will partly be compensated by positive effects on soil organic matter and nutrient stocks of arable soils. The experimental data base for a quantification of such effects at the scale of communities is however poor, in particular for Nepal. Understanding the impact of subsistence farming on ecosystems is imperative in order to recommend successful and sustainable land management practices. The aim of our study is to quantify effects of land use on carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes for mountain communities in Nepal. Results of a case study in the buffer zone area of the Sagarmatha National Park are presented. The potential vegetation comprises mixed forests of Quercus semicarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Tsuga dumosa. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil and vegetation were quantified for three different land use types, namely: forest with low human impact, forests with high human impact and agricultural land. The scale of disturbance of the forests has been classified by visual estimation considering the percentage of litter raked, number of lopped trees, and grazing intensity assessed by signs of trampling and the number of trails. After stratification of the community area, 20 plots of 10 m radius were established (17 forest plots, 3 plots for arable land) where biometric data of the vegetation were determined and sub-samples were taken for chemical analyses. Organic layers (litter remaining after litter raking) and soil samples were collected (volumetric sampling of geometric horizons down to 1 m depth). Fluxes of carbon and nitrogen from the forests were accounted by combining results of sub samples of biomass extracted by local people during the field survey and information on amounts and source areas provided by the farmers. Also the amount of carbon and nutrients applied with farmyard manure and the extraction by harvest was determined for the arable land. First estimates of carbon and nitrogen cycling at the community level and on impacts on soil status will be presented.

Giri, Anjana; Katzensteiner, Klaus

2010-05-01

144

Releasing genetically modified organisms: will any harm outweigh any advantage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The public debate about genetically modified organisms has concentrated largely on concerns about food safety and potential risks to the environment. In both cases there appears to be an assumption that existing crops and animals are safe. I discuss the experience we have to date from traditional methods and conclude that most concerns about environmental harm are more

John E. Beringer

2000-01-01

145

IOC Harmful Algal Bloom Programme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) website aims to foster the effective management of, and scientific research on, harmful algal blooms (HAB) to understand their causes, predict their occurrences, and mitigate their effects. The site includes an overview of the program, introduction to HABs, links to relevant databases and activities, and services provided (including literature grants, an identification service, publications, and training courses). The site also features Harmful Algal News, an IOC-published newsletter on toxic algae and algal blooms.

146

Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government  

PubMed Central

Background The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Methods Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Results Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives—for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions—can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. Conclusions By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. PMID:23933915

Martineau, F.P.; Graff, H.; Mitchell, C.; Lock, K.

2014-01-01

147

Palliative Care and Traditional Practices of Death and Dying in Wa'ab (Yap Proper) and in the Outer Islands of Yap  

PubMed Central

Background Death remains one of the most important and significant activities in Yap, an event that involves the entire island. A death of a Yapese not only unites the family, it initiates a complex series of reaffirmed kinship ties, rituals and exchanges that refocus the entire community and create new social identities for the participants. How these ties, exchanges, and identities are changing due to new economic challenges and new social pressures were the focus of this preliminary study, which sought to document the resiliency or fragility of traditional structures, measured in the efforts around death and dying in Yap and to identify ways that the health care system can intervene to improve palliative care. Methods 226 persons (49 on Wa'ab - Yap Proper - and 177 on the Outer Islands) participated in 16 focus groups, of which eight were on Wa'ab and eight on four Outer Islands: Fais, Falalop, Fetherai, and Mogmog. We additionally conducted 6 semi-structured open-ended key informant interviews, added to capture more of Yap's enormous sociocultural diversity. Results The islands of Yap, particularly the Outer Islands, continue to support one of the world's best traditional palliative care involving the immediate family, more distant relatives and in many cases the entire community. However, participants showed considerable concern for ways that this system is weakening and offered numerous suggestions for improving and strengthening palliative care in Yap. Discussion Although caution must be exercised not to undermine the existing system, six recommendations on how the health system can intervene can be identified. These involve identifying a key resource person on each island; supplying small, practical “comfort care” kits; making more pain medication available; conducting regular home visits; improving patient-physician and physician-family communication; designing a suicide intervention strategy; and documenting existing variations of how the dying are cared for on the other Outer Islands of Yap. PMID:22235155

Yalmadau, Kelly; Maluchmai, Maryann R; Tun, Petra; Yinnifel, Cyril; Hancock, W Thane

2011-01-01

148

Involving traditional birth attendants in emergency obstetric care in Tanzania: policy implications of a study of their knowledge and practices in Kigoma Rural District  

PubMed Central

Introduction Access to quality maternal health services mainly depends on existing policies, regulations, skills, knowledge, perceptions, and economic power and motivation of service givers and target users. Critics question policy recommending involvement of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in emergency obstetric care (EmoC) services in developing countries. Objectives This paper reports about knowledge and practices of TBAs on EmoC in Kigoma Rural District, Tanzania and discusses policy implications on involving TBAs in maternal health services. Methods 157 TBAs were identified from several villages in 2005, interviewed and observed on their knowledge and practice in relation to EmoC. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection and analysis depending on the nature of the information required. Findings Among all 157 TBAs approached, 57.3% were aged 50+ years while 50% had no formal education. Assisting mothers to deliver without taking their full pregnancy history was confessed by 11% of all respondents. Having been attending pregnant women with complications was experienced by 71.2% of all respondents. Only 58% expressed adequate knowledge on symptoms and signs of pregnancy complications. Lack of knowledge on possible risk of HIV infections while assisting childbirth without taking protective gears was claimed by 5.7% of the respondents. Sharing the same pair of gloves between successful deliveries was reported to be a common practice by 21.1% of the respondents. Use of unsafe delivery materials including local herbs and pieces of cloth for protecting themselves against HIV infections was reported as being commonly practiced among 27.6% of the respondents. Vaginal examination before and during delivery was done by only a few respondents. Conclusion TBAs in Tanzania are still consulted by people living in underserved areas. Unfortunately, TBAs’ inadequate knowledge on EmOC issues seems to have contributed to the rising concerns about their competence to deliver the recommended maternal services. Thus, the authorities seeming to recognize and promote TBAs should provide support to TBAs in relation to necessary training and giving them essential working facilities, routine supportive supervision and rewarding those seeming to comply with the standard guidelines for delivering EmoC services. PMID:24124663

2013-01-01

149

Ecstasy: as harmful as heroin?  

PubMed

There is evidence that the use of MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine), colloquially known as "ecstasy" particularly among late adolescents and young adults is increasing in Australia. Despite recent government-sponsored public education programs, there is a perception that recreational use of MDMA is much less harmful than other illicit substances like heroin. Recent seizures by police in Australia underline the extent of the demand for MDMA and how lucrative trafficking in MDMA has become. In two recent Australian cases, appellate courts considered the legislative intent of both State and Commonwealth legislation and held that a quantity-based penalty regime applied which distinguished between "traffickable" and "commercial" quantities of illicit drugs and that no distinction turned on the relative "harmfulness" of MDMA. In examining the question of harmfulness, this column summarises the pharmacology and morbidity of MDMA and considers the links between MDMA and other substances of abuse and the implications for further prevention programs. PMID:20169795

Scott, Russ

2009-12-01

150

Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Forecasting System provided by NOAA supplies information on the location, extent, and potential for development or movement of harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico. The forecasting system relies on satellite imagery, field observations, and buoy data to provide the large spatial scale and high frequency of observations required to assess bloom location and movements. Conditions are posted to this web page twice a week during the HAB season. Additional analysis is included in the HAB Bulletin that is provided to state and local resource managers in the region. The web page includes links to the HAB bulletin, available mapping systems, contributors, and other HAB resources.

National Ocean Service (NOS)

151

Smartphone security limitations: conflicting traditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smartphones are becoming a dominant form of mobile computing in the United States, and more slowly, the world. The smartphone, as a platform, blends a traditional general computing platform with a specialized mobile phone platform. However, each platform comes with its own tradition of social practices and policies. The general computing tradition is historically open, allowing its owners, i.e., users

Nathaniel Husted; Hassen Saïdi; Ashish Gehani

2011-01-01

152

Programming Languages Considered Harmful in Writing Automated Software Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although programming languages are widely used for writing automated software test code, we argue that this is a harmful practice for software quality assurance. Programming languages are designed to implement complex algorithms and do not provide a natural mechanism for describing software tests. Software tests consist of sequences of test actions - such as, inputting test input data, checking test

Chang Liu; Debra J. Richardson

1999-01-01

153

Women, harm reduction and HIV.  

PubMed

Gender shapes the experience of drug use and its associated risks. In most parts of the world, however, harm reduction and drug treatment programmes that tailor their services to meet women's needs are rare or nonexistent. Many existing services inadvertently exclude women, and discriminatory policies and social stigma drive women drug users from care and expose them to human rights abuses. Women drug users often provide sex in exchange for housing, sustenance and protection, suffer violence from sexual partners and practise unsafe sex. This paper, drawing upon evidence from existing studies, examines ways in which gender-related factors can increase women drug users' vulnerability and decrease their access to harm reduction, drug treatment and sexual and reproductive health services. It recommends designing services with low-threshold access for women drug users that help them to become more independent, involving the women in designing services and policies, making programmes available for mothers, incorporating sexual and reproductive health into harm reduction services, providing gender-sensitive drug treatment and integrated harm reduction programmes for drug-using sex workers, connecting with domestic violence and rape prevention services and educating mainstream providers. Overall, investigating the circumstances women drug users face will help to formulate policies and programmes that better serve women who use drugs. PMID:18513618

Pinkham, Sophie; Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

2008-05-01

154

Book Review No Harm Intended  

E-print Network

Book Review No Harm Intended Marvin L. Minsky and Seymour A. Papert. Perceptrons: An Introduction The Authors are professors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Minsky in Electrical Engineering and Papert in Applied Mathematics. Minsky's major research interests are artificial intelligence (AI

Pollack, Jordan B.

155

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Primarily through the use of engaging graphics, this resource outlines where Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occur in U.S. waters. It also addresses the differences between toxic and non-toxic HABs, which organisms in the food web are affected, how specific toxins work and the symptoms associated with them, and the causative phytoplankton species.

Bigelow Laboratory

156

Hurt, Harm, and School Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nietzsche overlooks some possibilities. Something may not kill us, yet leave us sickly or crippled. But he is right, too. It may make us stronger. It is ancient wisdom that we grow through facing adversity: ad astra per aspera?to the stars through adversity. We know, too, that too much of something good may do us harm. One can overstudy, or…

Rozycki, Edward G.

2004-01-01

157

Is Inequality Harmful for Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is inequality harmful for growth? The authors suggest that it is. In a society where distributional conflict is important, political decisions produce economic policies that tax investment and growth-promoting activities in order to redistribute income. The paper formulates a theoretical model that captures this idea. The model's implications are supported by the evidence. Both historical panel data and postwar cross-sections

Torsten Persson; Guido Tabellini

1994-01-01

158

Reducing harm from tobacco use.  

PubMed

If current trends in smoking prevalence continue, even with the implementation of enhanced tobacco control measures, millions of smokers will continue to fall ill and die as a direct result of their smoking. Many of these will be from the most deprived groups in society - smoking continues to be one of the strongest drivers of health inequalities. The personal costs of this morbidity and mortality, as well as costs to business and the economy, are unequalled and will therefore remain high for several decades to come. However, there is an addition to the tobacco control armoury that could have a marked impact on public health, but it requires radical action to be taken. This would be to embrace harm reduction, but this approach is as controversial in the case of tobacco as it is in the case of illicit drugs from where it derives. However, harm reduction remains the Cinderella of the three major strategies for reducing smoking-related harm, the others being prevention and cessation. Here we make the case that harm reduction has an important role to play in reducing the health burden of tobacco use. PMID:23035032

McNeill, Ann; Munafò, Marcus R

2013-01-01

159

Delusions as harmful malfunctioning beliefs.  

PubMed

Delusional beliefs are typically pathological. Being pathological is clearly distinguished from being false or being irrational. Anna might falsely believe that his husband is having an affair but it might just be a simple mistake. Again, Sam might irrationally believe, without good evidence, that he is smarter than his colleagues, but it might just be a healthy self-deceptive belief. On the other hand, when a patient with brain damage caused by a car accident believes that his father was replaced by an imposter or another patient with schizophrenia believes that "The Organization" painted the shops on a street in red and green to convey a message, these beliefs are not merely false or irrational. They are pathological. What makes delusions pathological? This paper explores the negative features because of which delusional beliefs are pathological. First, I critically examine the proposals according to which delusional beliefs are pathological because of (1) their strangeness, (2) their extreme irrationality, (3) their resistance to folk psychological explanations or (4) impaired responsibility-grounding capacities of people with them. I present some counterexamples as well as theoretical problems for these proposals. Then, I argue, following Wakefield's harmful dysfunction analysis of disorder, that delusional beliefs are pathological because they involve some sorts of harmful malfunctions. In other words, they have a significant negative impact on wellbeing (=harmful) and, in addition, some psychological mechanisms, directly or indirectly related to them, fail to perform the jobs for which they were selected in the past (=malfunctioning). An objection to the proposal is that delusional beliefs might not involve any malfunctions. For example, they might be playing psychological defence functions properly. Another objection is that a harmful malfunction is not sufficient for something to be pathological. For example, false beliefs might involve some malfunctions according to teleosemantics, a popular naturalist account of mental content, but harmful false beliefs do not have to be pathological. I examine those objections in detail and show that they should be rejected after all. PMID:25467777

Miyazono, Kengo

2015-05-01

160

Use of traditional and complementary health practices in prenatal, delivery and postnatal care in the context of HIV transmission from mother to child (PMTCT) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was as part of a baseline assessment in PMTCT in the traditional health sector: a) to determine the views of women who have used the services of traditional practitioners before, during and/or after pregnancy, and b) to conduct formative research with traditional health practitioners (THPs), i.e. herbalists, diviners and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on HIV, pregnancy care, delivery and infant care. The sample included a) 181 postnatal care clients with a child less than 12 months interviewed at postnatal clinic visits from 20 primary care clinics in the Kouga Local Service Area (LSA), Cacadu district, Eastern Cape, and b) 54 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and 47 herbalists and/or diviners were interviewed from Kouga LSA. Results showed that THP (in particular TBAs and to a certain extend herbalists/diviners) play a significant role in pregnancy and postnatal care, and also with the assistance of delivery. Certain HIV risk practices were reported on the practice of TBAs. THPs also seem to have some role in infant feeding and family planning. THPs should be trained in optimising their services in pregnancy and postnatal care, and preparation for health facility delivery. In addition, they should be trained on HIV risk practices, HIV/AIDS, HIV prevention including PMTCT, infant feeding and family planning. PMID:20209007

Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Treger, Latasha

2009-01-01

161

Considering harm and safety in youth mental health: a call for attention and action.  

PubMed

The possibility of harm from mental health provision, and in particular harm from youth mental health provision, has been largely overlooked. We contend that if we continue to assume youth mental health services can do no harm, and all that is needed is more services, we continue to risk the possibility that the safety of children and young people is unintentionally compromised. We propose a three level framework for considering harm from youth mental health provision (1. ineffective engagement, 2. ineffective practice and 3. adverse events) and suggest how this framework could be used to support quality improvement in services. PMID:25052687

Wolpert, Miranda; Deighton, Jessica; Fleming, Isobel; Lachman, Peter

2015-01-01

162

The Olympics and harm reduction?  

PubMed Central

The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent. The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping. PMID:22788912

2012-01-01

163

Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

164

Red Tide and Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Project Oceanography pdf document contains information and activities related to red tide and harmful algal blooms (HABs). The activities and lesson plans are designed for elementary school, middle school, and may be adapted for high school students. Articles include: harmful algal blooms, Florida red tide, implications of harmful algal blooms, and student information about harmful algal blooms. Activities are introduced with background information and include: "Growing Algae" and "Algal Explosion." The document also features activity extension projects and a glossary of terms.

Project Oceanography

165

Traditional West Coast Native Medicine  

PubMed Central

An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” plant by the Haida people illustrates that Native medicine has both spiritual and physical properties. Modern family practice shares many important foundations with traditional healing systems. PMID:21253031

Deagle, George

1988-01-01

166

Manual Clot Removal After Heart Attack May Not Help, Could Harm  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Manual Clot Removal After Heart Attack May Not Help, Could Harm Researchers also report ... practice, this study of more than 10,000 heart attack patients found no benefit in terms of reducing ...

167

Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

2005-01-01

168

The deliberate self-harm syndrome.  

PubMed

Recent research has differentiated several distinct classes of self-destructive behavior. This paper describes the clinical characteristics of one class, the deliberate self-harm syndrome. Analysis of 56 published case reports of self-harm revealed a typical pattern of onset in late adolescence, multiple recurrent episodes, low lethality, harm deliberately inflicted upon the body, and extension of the behavior over many years. Since the clinical characteristics of the deliberate self-harm syndrome differ substantially from those of other classes of self-destructive behavior, the authors propose that DSM-IV classify deliberate self-harm as a separate diagnostic syndrome. PMID:6859301

Pattison, E M; Kahan, J

1983-07-01

169

Nonsuicidal Self-Harm Among Community Adolescents: Understanding the “Whats” and “Whys” of Self-Harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires assessing self-harm, adjustment, health behaviors, suicide history, and social desirability were completed by 424 school-based adolescents.

Aviva Laye-Gindhu; Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl

2005-01-01

170

Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology.\\u000a Drawing from Agnew’s (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects\\u000a of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation. The data come from a school-based\\u000a survey

Carter Hay; Ryan Meldrum

2010-01-01

171

Environments, risk and health harms: a qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK  

PubMed Central

Objectives The illicit use of anabolic steroids among the gym population continues to rise, along with the number of steroid using clients attending harm reduction services in the UK. This presents serious challenges to public health. Study objectives were to account for the experiences of anabolic steroid users and investigate how ‘risk environments’ produce harm. Methods Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 24 users of anabolic steroids engaged with harm reduction services in the UK. Results Body satisfaction was an important factor when deciding to start the use of anabolic steroids. Many users were unaware of the potential dangers of using drugs from the illicit market, whereas some had adopted a range of strategies to negotiate the hazards relating to the use of adulterated products, including self-experimentation to gauge the perceived efficacy and unwanted effects of these drugs. Viewpoints, first-hand anecdotes, norms and practices among groups of steroid users created boundaries of ‘sensible’ drug use, but also promoted practices that may increase the chance of harms occurring. Established users encouraged young users to go to harm reduction services but, at the same time, promoted risky injecting practices in the belief that this would enhance the efficacy of anabolic steroids. Conclusions Current steroid-related viewpoints and practices contribute to the risk environment surrounding the use of these drugs and may undermine the goal of current public health strategies including harm reduction interventions. The level of harms among anabolic steroid users are determined by multiple and intertwining factors, in addition to the harms caused by the pharmacological action or injury and illness associated with incorrect injecting techniques. PMID:24898090

Kimergård, Andreas; McVeigh, Jim

2014-01-01

172

Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional

Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

2005-01-01

173

Esoteric healing traditions: a conceptual overview.  

PubMed

This paper presents, for the first time, a comprehensive scholarly examination of the history and principles of major traditions of esoteric healing. After a brief conceptual overview of esoteric religion and healing, summaries are provided of eight major esoteric traditions, including descriptions of beliefs and practices related to health, healing, and medicine. These include what are termed the kabbalistic tradition, the mystery school tradition, the gnostic tradition, the brotherhoods tradition, the Eastern mystical tradition, the Western mystical tradition, the shamanic tradition, and the new age tradition. Next, commonalities across these traditions are summarized with respect to beliefs and practices related to anatomy and physiology; nosology and etiology; pathophysiology; and therapeutic modalities. Finally, the implications of this survey of esoteric healing are discussed for clinicians, biomedical researchers, and medical educators. PMID:18316053

Levin, Jeff

2008-01-01

174

Quantifying the RR of harm to self and others from substance misuse: results from a survey of clinical experts across Scotland  

PubMed Central

Objective To produce an expert consensus hierarchy of harm to self and others from legal and illegal substance use. Design Structured questionnaire with nine scored categories of harm for 19 different commonly used substances. Setting/participants 292 clinical experts from across Scotland. Results There was no stepped categorical distinction in harm between the different legal and illegal substances. Heroin was viewed as the most harmful, and cannabis the least harmful of the substances studied. Alcohol was ranked as the fourth most harmful substance, with alcohol, nicotine and volatile solvents being viewed as more harmful than some class A drugs. Conclusions The harm rankings of 19 commonly used substances did not match the A, B, C classification under the Misuse of Drugs Act. The legality of a substance of misuse is not correlated with its perceived harm. These results could inform any legal review of drug misuse and help shape public health policy and practice. PMID:22833648

Mackay, Kirsty; Murphy, Jen; McIntosh, Andrew; McIntosh, Claire; Anderson, Seonaid; Welch, Killian

2012-01-01

175

[Traditional nostrum].  

PubMed

The commercialization of drugs started toward the end of Heian period (794-1192) when not only aristocrats and monks who were traditional patrons to drug makers, but also local clans and landlords who became powerful as a result of the disbanding of aristocratic manors accumulated enough wealth to spend money on medicine. Although traveling around the country was still a dangerous endeavor, merchants assembled groups to bring lucrative foreign drugs (mainly Chinese) to remote areas. The spread of commercial drugs to common people, however, did not happen until the early Edo period (1603-1867), when the so-called barrier system was installed nationwide to make domestic travel safe. Commercialization started in large cities and gradually spread to other areas. Many nostrums popular until recently appeared in the Genroku period (1688-1703) or later. Many such nostrums were all-cures, often consisting of such active ingredients as Saussureae radix, Agalloch, or Gambir. Even in the Edo period, many people living in agricultural or fishing villages, as well as those in the lower tier, were still poor. Much of the medication available to those people was therefore made of various plant or animal-derived substances that were traditionally used as folk medicines. PMID:17153114

Sugiyama, Shigeru

2006-01-01

176

A Comparison of Preservice Teachers' Responses to Cyber versus Traditional Bullying Scenarios: Similarities and Differences and Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior studies indicate that teachers differ in how they respond to different kinds of traditional bullying, and that their beliefs predict their intervention intentions. The current study provided the first extension of this work into the realm of cyber bullying. Preservice teachers in the United Kingdom ("N" = 222) were presented with…

Boulton, Michael J.; Hardcastle, Katryna; Down, James; Fowles, John; Simmonds, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

177

Runoff and soil loss under different land management practices in vineyards: grass cover treatments and traditional tillage. Results from simulated rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land degradation control is crucial in croplands located in semiarid lands, due to its low soil formation rate, above all in slope fields. This study is located in the South East of Madrid (Spain), in a vineyard at 800 masl under Mediterranean semiarid climatic conditions, with an average slope of 14%. We studied the impact of traditional tillage measuring runoff

Marta Ruiz-Colmenero; Ramon Bienes; Maria-Jose Marques

2010-01-01

178

Online drug user-led harm reduction in Hungary: a review of “Daath”  

PubMed Central

Harm reduction has been increasingly finding its way into public drug policies and healthcare practices worldwide, with successful intervention measures justifiably focussing on the highest-risk groups, such as injecting drug users. However, there are also other types of drug users in need for harm reduction, even though they pose less, low, or no public health risk. Occasionally, drug users may autonomously organise themselves into groups to provide advocacy, harm reduction, and peer-help services, sometimes online. The http://www.daath.hu website has been operated since 2001 by the “Hungarian Psychedelic Community”, an unorganised drug user group with a special interest in hallucinogenic and related substances. As of today, the website serves about 1200 visitors daily, and the online community comprises of more than 8000 registered members. The Daath community is driven by a strong commitment to the policy of harm reduction in the form of various peer-help activities that aim to expand harm reduction without promoting drug use. Our review comprehensively summarises Daath’s user-led harm reduction services and activities from the last ten years, firstly outlining the history and growth phases of Daath, along with its self-set guidelines and policies. Online services (such as a discussion board, and an Ecstasy pill database) and offline activities (such as Ecstasy pill field testing, and a documentary film about psychedelics) are described. In order to extend its harm reduction services and activities in the future, Daath has several social, commercial, and legislative challenges to face. Starting with a need to realign its focus, outlooks for the upcoming operation of Daath are pondered. Future trends in harm reduction, such as separating harm-decreasing from benefit-increasing, are also discussed. We aim to share these innovative harm reduction measures and good practices in order to be critically assessed, and – if found useful – adapted and applied elsewhere. PMID:24088321

2013-01-01

179

Traditional gender role beliefs and individual outcomes: An exploratory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey administered to 806 undergraduate students serve as the basis for analyzing the relationships among traditional gender roles, same-sex intimacy, and homophobia. High levels of homophobia and low levels of intimacy were found among those who believe strongly in the traditional roles. Previous research has shown both homophobia and a lack of intimacy to be harmful

Leonard P. Stark

1991-01-01

180

Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

Eversman, Michael H.

2012-01-01

181

The Harm Principle and Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewedas the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food iscurrently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept ofharm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the HarmPrinciple a plausible political principle, so this principlecannot be used to justify existing regulation; and (b) that evenif the

Nils Holtug

2001-01-01

182

TEXAS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM COORDINATION MX964014  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly ¿ of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...

183

Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

2006-01-01

184

Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children.

Not Available

1989-07-21

185

[Hazard, risk and harm in clinical trials].  

PubMed

Investigators and other stakeholders involved in clinical trials are not aware about all possible harms, hazards and risks related to this activity. Different categories of harms may occur during clinical trials like: physical (injury, illness, pain, suffering, or discomfort), psychological, social, economic, legal, dignitary and relational. Clinical trial participants are not the only one stakeholder exposed to different types of hazards. Among others the most important are: investigators, sponsors, centers (where clinical trials are conducted), contract research organizations and bioethics committees. Regardless of multiple hazards, substantial harms are discovered relatively rare. This situation could be explained by a small number of high risk potential clinical trials and low social awareness about different types of possible harms. Proper education should ameliorate our knowledge about hazards, risks and harms in clinical trials. PMID:18942326

Czarkowski, Marek

2008-08-01

186

The fading links between tradition and oral health in Singapore.  

PubMed

Singapore is an island republic of 616 km2. Four main ethnic groups make up its population of 2.4 million; these are the Chinese, Malays, Indians and others. Singapore's successful housing, industrialization and modernization programmes have caused tremendous changes in the lifestyles and expectations of the people. This very success has rendered some traditional customs impractical and irrelevant. Older Indians and Malay women still chew betel-nut. During the Hindu Thaipusam ceremony a traditional practice of dental interest is the piercing of devotees' cheeks and tongues with slivers of silver. There is no pain, bleeding or permanent tissue damage. The Chinese pick their teeth, crack melon seeds and scrape their tongues every morning. They also drink large quantities of unsweetened tea. Yet they remain caries-prone. Singaporeans have recently adopted the practice of eating at all hours of the day and night. This may have a bearing on their future caries state. Singapore has two categories of dental practitioner: the graduate and the registered but unqualified dentist who is invariably of Chinese descent. The swaged metal crown over sound and diseased tooth structure is frequently the unfortunate trademark of the latter. Often abscesses and cysts develop beneath these crowns. Successful dental health programmes have produced a DMFT of 2.8 in 12-year-old children, which betters the DMF target of 3.0 set by WHO for the year 2000. The progressive outlook of Singaporeans may eventually reduce further the number of traditional practices which are harmful to oral health. PMID:6597130

Cheong, Y H

1984-12-01

187

Does Clinical Management Improve Outcomes following Self-Harm? Results from the Multicentre Study of Self-Harm in England  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence to guide clinical management of self-harm is sparse, trials have recruited selected samples, and psychological treatments that are suggested in guidelines may not be available in routine practice. Aims To examine how the management that patients receive in hospital relates to subsequent outcome. Methods We identified episodes of self-harm presenting to three UK centres (Derby, Manchester, Oxford) over a 10 year period (2000 to 2009). We used established data collection systems to investigate the relationship between four aspects of management (psychosocial assessment, medical admission, psychiatric admission, referral for specialist mental health follow up) and repetition of self-harm within 12 months, adjusted for differences in baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Results 35,938 individuals presented with self-harm during the study period. In two of the three centres, receiving a psychosocial assessment was associated with a 40% lower risk of repetition, Hazard Ratios (95% CIs): Centre A 0.99 (0.90–1.09); Centre B 0.59 (0.48–0.74); Centre C 0.59 (0.52–0.68). There was little indication that the apparent protective effects were mediated through referral and follow up arrangements. The association between psychosocial assessment and a reduced risk of repetition appeared to be least evident in those from the most deprived areas. Conclusion These findings add to the growing body of evidence that thorough assessment is central to the management of self-harm, but further work is needed to elucidate the possible mechanisms and explore the effects in different clinical subgroups. PMID:23936430

Kapur, Nav; Steeg, Sarah; Webb, Roger; Haigh, Matthew; Bergen, Helen; Hawton, Keith; Ness, Jennifer; Waters, Keith; Cooper, Jayne

2013-01-01

188

The Search for Common Values at Winnetka: One District Challenges Its Traditions, Practices, and Philosophical Assumptions. New Directions for School Leadership. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the Winnetka public school system reexamined its philosophy, questions were raised about the alignment between theory and practice. This sourcebook represents the thinking of teachers about how the validity of their philosophy of education rests on their ability to analyze what they are, discover how they came to be what they are, and imagine…

Karaganis, Sandra, Ed.

1998-01-01

189

Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article focuses on the role and techniques of effective ("distributed") practice that leads to full and fluent mastery of mental mathematics as well as conceptual growth around properties of arithmetic. It lists the essential mental math skills needed for fluent computation at grades 1, 2, and 3. The article describes a number of strategies for developing mental skills and links to pages with more details on others (some not yet complete). While this article refers to the Think Math! curriculum published by EDC, the methods generalize to any program. The Fact of the Day technique and a related video are cataloged separately.

Paul Goldenberg

2011-10-25

190

Neonatal jaundice--traditional Chinese medicine approach.  

PubMed

Herbal treatment of neonatal jaundice (NNJ) has been practiced in China for a long time. Even to-date, a variety of herbal items, including "Yin-chin" (Artemisia), "Huang-qin" (Scutellaria), "Da-huang" (Rheum officinale), "Gan-cao" (Glycyrrhiza), and "Huang-lin" (Coptis chinesis), are still being prescribed to jaundiced infants, often in combination with modern treatment such as phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Their efficacy has, however, not been tested by properly conducted randomised controlled trial. On the other hand, exposure to herbs either before or after birth has been suspected to be a cause of hemolysis and jaundice in the newborns. It is also widely believed in the Chinese community that a number of herbal items are hemolytic agents in infants deficient in the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). The belief is so deep rooted that each infant detected to have G6PD deficiency by neonatal cord blood screening is given a G6PD deficiency alert card, which states that the child must avoid these herb items for life. In a cohort of 1008 mother-infant pairs, however, we have previously shown that there was no association between maternal herb consumption during pregnancy and the incidence or severity of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in their offsprings, including those who were deficient in G6PD. A thorough search of medical literature also fails to detect any evidence that any of the herbs stated in the G6PD deficiency alert card causes hemolysis in G6PD-deficient subjects. Thus, there are many misunderstandings and unsubstantiated beliefs about the relationship between herbal medicine and NNJ. Given the potential usefulness of Chinese traditional medicine, which has been practiced for almost 3000 years and is still gaining momentum in the modern days, extensive scientific studies to determine the therapeutic efficacy and potential harmful effects of the various herbal items are warranted. PMID:11803427

Fok, T F

2001-12-01

191

Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.  

PubMed

This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems. PMID:23740348

Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

2014-09-01

192

Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate…

Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

2010-01-01

193

Runoff and soil loss under different land management practices in vineyards: grass cover treatments and traditional tillage. Results from simulated rainfall.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land degradation control is crucial in croplands located in semiarid lands, due to its low soil formation rate, above all in slope fields. This study is located in the South East of Madrid (Spain), in a vineyard at 800 masl under Mediterranean semiarid climatic conditions, with an average slope of 14%. We studied the impact of traditional tillage measuring runoff and soil loss in plots in two critical moments of the vineyard crop: summer with dry soil, and fall when tillage is done in order to facilitate the infiltration of winter rainfal?s water. Three treatments were tested in nine erosion plots (4m x 0,5m): traditional tillage ("till"); Brachypodium distachyon (L.) ("bra") allowing self-sowing; Secale cereale ("sec"), mown in early spring. Short (15 minutes) but intense (2,16 mm/min) simulated rainfalls were carried out at each plot: The simulated rainfalls made in summer over the vineyard tilled in spring ("till") produced little runoff (41 ml min-1; erosion rate of 0.24 g m-2) and it lasted 6 min from the start of the shower, it was due to the roughness and because the soil was near its wilting point. The low erosion rate is attributable to the sealing of soil after the rains occurred in spring. In treatments with plant cover runoff began earlier, at the 3rd minute. The average runoff was 516 and 730 ml min-1 and erosion rates were 3.04 g m-2 and 1.41 g m-2 in "bra" and "sec" respectively. There were significant differences (F = 31.6, P <0.001) in runoff coefficient between the three treatments with the highest ratio shown in "sec". The average runoff coefficients obtained were 16% in "sec", 13% in "bra" and 1.4% in "till". Moreover two simulated rainfalls were carried out in autumn in order to test the effect of the autumnal traditional tillage. The plant cover treatments were efficient controlling the erosion (sediment yield were in "till"; "sec" and "bra" respectively 2.66, 0. 29, 0. 11 g m-2 in the first simulation, and 11.67, 0.66, 0.14 g m-2 in the second simulation). Before tillage the average runoff coefficient in "till" was 19% (six times higher than in plant cover treatments) probably because of its sealing and compaction due to the lack of plants. After tillage, in spite of the increase of roughness, and on the contrary to obtained in summer, the runoff increases. It is explained by the soil moisture: In the first simulated rainfall, the soil was 72% of its water holding capacity at 10 cm, and 44% at 35 cm soil depth. However, in the second simulated rainfall the surface was completely wet, and at 35 cm it reached the 85% of water holding capacity. Comparing the runoff and erosion behavior in each treatment for both seasons, it is shown that in summer a shallow tillage increases the infiltration significantly. However in autumn, when the soil is wetter, the tillage increases runoff and erosion significantly. This has to be taken into account in order to change traditional uses in steep crops. Keywords: erosion, runoff, simulated rainfall, vineyard, tillage, vegetable cover Aknowledgements: Projects FP06-DR3 IMIDRA and RTA2007-0086 INIA. Predoctoral grant from INIA. Bodegas and Viñedos Gosálbez-Ortí.

Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramon; Marques, Maria-Jose

2010-05-01

194

Exploring traditional end-of-life beliefs, values, expectations, and practices among Chinese women living in England: Informing culturally safe care.  

PubMed

Objective: This study explores the end-of-life (EoL) beliefs, values, practices, and expectations of a select group of harder-to-reach Chinese women living in England. Method: A cultural safety approach was undertaken to interpret 11 in-depth, semistructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in Mandarin and Cantonese. Transcripts were translated and back-translated by two researchers. Findings were analyzed using the technical analytical principles of grounded theory. Results: The key themes generated from our analysis include: acculturation; differential beliefs and norms in providing care: family versus health services; language and communication; Eastern versus Western spiritual practices and beliefs; and dying, death, and the hereafter. Significance of Results: End-of-life discussions can be part of an arduous, painful, and uncomfortable process, particularly for migrants living on the margins of society in a new cultural setting. For some Chinese people living in the United Kingdom, end-of-life care requires attention to acculturation, particularly Western versus Eastern beliefs on religion, spirituality, burial practices, and provision of care, and the availability of culturally specific care, all of which encompass issues related to gender. Stories of a purposive sample of Chinese women were viewed through a cultural safety lens to gain a deeper understanding of how social and cultural norms and expectations, in addition to the pressures of acculturation, impact gendered roles and responsibilities. The analysis revealed variations between/within Eastern and Western culture that resulted in pronounced, and oftentimes gendered, differences in EoL care expectations. PMID:25346037

Fang, Mei Lan; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Sixsmith, Judith; Wong, Louise Yuen Ming; Callender, Matthew

2014-10-27

195

High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

196

Comparison of an effect-model-law-based method versus traditional clinical practice guidelines for optimal treatment decision-making: application to statin treatment in the French population.  

PubMed

Healthcare authorities make difficult decisions about how to spend limited budgets for interventions that guarantee the best cost-efficacy ratio. We propose a novel approach for treatment decision-making, OMES-in French: Objectif thérapeutique Modèle Effet Seuil (in English: Therapeutic Objective-Threshold-Effect Model; TOTEM). This approach takes into consideration results from clinical trials, adjusted for the patients' characteristics in treatment decision-making. We compared OMES with the French clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the management of dyslipidemia with statin in a computer-generated realistic virtual population, representing the adult French population, in terms of the number of all-cause deaths avoided (number of avoided events: NAEs) under treatment and the individual absolute benefit. The total budget was fixed at the annual amount reimbursed by the French social security for statins. With the CPGs, the NAEs was 292 for an annual cost of 122.54 M€ compared with 443 with OMES. For a fixed NAEs, OMES reduced costs by 50% (60.53 M€ yr(-1)). The results demonstrate that OMES is at least as good as, and even better than, the standard CPGs when applied to the same population. Hence the OMES approach is a practical, useful alternative which will help to overcome the limitations of treatment decision-making based uniquely on CPGs. PMID:25209407

Kahoul, Riad; Gueyffier, François; Amsallem, Emmanuel; Haugh, Margaret; Marchant, Ivanny; Boissel, François-Henri; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

2014-11-01

197

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms Educational Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four lesson plans focus on understanding toxic and harmful algal blooms. Designed for use in conjunction with Bigelow Laboratory's "Toxic and Harmful Algal Bloom" web site. Each module includes background, learning objectives, student preparation, and standards-related classroom or lab activity. Topics cover: role of algae in the food web; development of algal blooms; impacts and bioaccumulation of bloom-related toxins; control of blooms and role playing a community response.

198

[Self-harm presentations in movies].  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to demonstrate how movies can enhance our understanding of the phenomenology of self-destructive behaviour. Various aspects of self-harm, including psychological individual characteristics and cultural trends, have been elucidated through a strategic selection of movies. As movies represent a popular rather than a medical discourse, they can provide physicians and health professionals with different and non-medical perspectives of self-harm. PMID:19415103

Skårderud, Finn

2009-04-30

199

Extreme Natural Events: Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA website features a repository of information about Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). It explains the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act (HABHRCA) and describes the subsequent formation of an Interagency Task Force to develop a national HAB assessment and authorize funding for existing and new research programs on HABs. The site features links to information about current and past research programs, HAB ecological forecasting, related news articles, workshop announcements, and additional HAB information sources.

Public domain

200

Self-harm in young offenders.  

PubMed

The prevalence and correlates of self-harm and suicidal behavior in 515 young offenders (mean age 17.3 years, SD = 1.7) serving community-based orders (CBOs; n = 242) or custodial sentences (n = 273) in Victoria, Australia, are described. Results from structured interviews showed that 83 (16.1%) participants reported self-harming in the previous 6 months, and this was more common among those serving custodial sentences than those serving CBOs (19.4% vs. 12.4%; OR 3.10, 95% CI: 1.74-5.55). Multiple incidents were more common in females and 24% (95% CI: 19-39) of participants who had self-harmed reported having done so with suicidal intent. Self-harm was associated with recent bullying victimization, expulsion from school, past year violent victimization, cannabis dependence, and risk-taking behavior in the preceding year. The epidemiological profile of self-harm in this population appears to be distinct from that seen in the general population. Young offenders who self-harm are a vulnerable group with high rates of psychiatric morbidity, substance misuse problems, and social risk factors. They may benefit from targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, delivered both within-and during the transition from-the youth justice system. PMID:24773535

Borschmann, Rohan; Coffey, Carolyn; Moran, Paul; Hearps, Stephen; Degenhardt, Louisa; Kinner, Stuart A; Patton, George

2014-12-01

201

Self-harm and suicide in adolescents.  

PubMed

Self-harm and suicide are major public health problems in adolescents, with rates of self-harm being high in the teenage years and suicide being the second most common cause of death in young people worldwide. Important contributors to self-harm and suicide include genetic vulnerability and psychiatric, psychological, familial, social, and cultural factors. The effects of media and contagion are also important, with the internet having an important contemporary role. Prevention of self-harm and suicide needs both universal measures aimed at young people in general and targeted initiatives focused on high-risk groups. There is little evidence of effectiveness of either psychosocial or pharmacological treatment, with particular controversy surrounding the usefulness of antidepressants. Restriction of access to means for suicide is important. Major challenges include the development of greater understanding of the factors that contribute to self-harm and suicide in young people, especially mechanisms underlying contagion and the effect of new media. The identification of successful prevention initiatives aimed at young people and those at especially high risk, and the establishment of effective treatments for those who self-harm, are paramount needs. PMID:22726518

Hawton, Keith; Saunders, Kate E A; O'Connor, Rory C

2012-06-23

202

Authority dependence and judgments of utilitarian harm.  

PubMed

Three studies tested the conditions under which people judge utilitarian harm to be authority dependent (i.e., whether its right or wrongness depends on the ruling of an authority). In Study 1, participants judged the right or wrongness of physical abuse when used as an interrogation method anticipated to yield useful information for preventing future terrorist attacks. The ruling of the military authority towards the harm was manipulated (prohibited vs. prescribed) and found to significantly influence judgments of the right or wrongness of inflicting harm. Study 2 established a boundary condition with regards to the influence of authority, which was eliminated when the utility of the harm was definitely obtained rather than forecasted. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of Studies 1-2 in a completely different context-an expert committee's ruling about the harming of chimpanzees for biomedical research. These results are discussed as they inform ongoing debates regarding the role of authority in moderating judgments of complex and simple harm. PMID:23747648

Piazza, Jared; Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin

2013-09-01

203

Protecting against harm: safeguarding adults in general medicine.  

PubMed

The abuse of adults who are vulnerable or at risk is an important cause of harm to patients. Doctors have a duty to act on concerns about abuse and to seek to protect those in need. We discuss two case examples of how abuse can present in a general hospital setting and use these to consider the steps clinicians should take in the interests of patients. We also describe definitions in relation to safeguarding adults and illustrate principles with which to approach safeguarding practice. PMID:25099831

Boland, Billy; Burnage, Jemima; Scott, Adrian

2014-08-01

204

Screening electronic patient records to detect preventable harm: a trigger tool for primary care.  

PubMed

Minimising the risk of preventable harm to patients is a National Health Service (NHS) priority in the UK. In the past decade, a patient safety agenda has been established in many secondary care, but is only now migrating to primary care. Information about the epidemiology of error, contributory factors and the scale of preventable harm is limited in comparison to what is known in acute hospitals. We describe how to apply a recently developed trigger tool - a rapid audit method of screening electronic patient records to detect patient harm - as a feasible part of routine primary care practice. We promote the idea that the trigger tool approach will enable care teams and clinicians to refocus their learning and improvement efforts on one of the most serious issues facing the NHS or any modern healthcare system - how to minimise the risks of unintended but avoidable harm to patients. PMID:21575334

De Wet, Carl; Bowie, Paul

2011-01-01

205

Assessing the likely harms to kidney vendors in regulated organ markets.  

PubMed

Advocates of paid living kidney donation frequently argue that kidney sellers would benefit from paid donation under a properly regulated kidney market. The poor outcomes experienced by participants in existing markets are often entirely attributed to harmful black-market practices. This article reviews the medical and anthropological literature on the physical, psychological, social, and financial harms experienced by vendors under Iran's regulated system of donor compensation and black markets throughout the world and argues that this body of research not only documents significant harms to vendors, but also provides reasons to believe that such harms would persist under a regulated system. This does not settle the question of whether or not a regulated market should be introduced, but it does strengthen the case against markets in kidneys while suggesting that those advocating such a system cannot appeal to the purported benefits to vendors to support their case. PMID:25229573

Koplin, Julian

2014-01-01

206

Bullying victimization and adolescent self-harm: testing hypotheses from general strain theory.  

PubMed

Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation. The data come from a school-based survey of adolescents in a rural county of a southeastern state (n = 426); 50% of subjects are female, their mean age was 15 years, and non-Hispanic whites represent 66% of the sample. The analysis revealed that both types of bullying are positively related to self-harm and suicidal ideation, net of controls. Moreover, those relationships are partially mediated by the negative emotions experienced by those who are bullied and partially moderated by features of the adolescent's social environment and self. Regarding the latter, exposure to authoritative parenting and high self-control diminished the harmful effects of bullying victimization on self-harm and suicidal ideation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these conclusions for future research and for policy efforts designed to reduce self-harm. PMID:20072852

Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

2010-05-01

207

The effect of computer-assisted therapeutic practice for children with handwriting deficit: a comparison with the effect of the traditional sensorimotor approach.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the effect of computer-assisted practice with the sensorimotor approach on the remediation of handwriting problems in children with dysgraphia. In a randomized controlled trial, experiments were conducted to verify the intervention effect. Forty two children with handwriting deficit were assigned to computer-assisted instruction, sensorimotor training, or a control group. Handwriting performance was measured using the elementary reading/writing test and computerized handwriting evaluation before and after 6 weeks of intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA of changed scores were conducted to show whether statistically significant differences across the three groups were present. Significant differences in the elementary reading/writing test were found among the three groups. The computer group showed more significant improvements than the other two groups did. In the kinematic and kinetic analyses, the computer group showed promising results in the remediation of handwriting speed and fluency. This study provided clinical evidence for applying a computer-assisted handwriting program for children with dysgraphia. Clinicians and school teachers are provided with a systematic intervention for the improvement of handwriting difficulties. PMID:24770471

Chang, Shao-Hsia; Yu, Nan-Ying

2014-07-01

208

Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside  

PubMed Central

Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems' data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation.

Lomba, Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, Rob H G; McCracken, David I

2015-01-01

209

Superoxide and traditional Chinese medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional Chinese medicinal practices, herbs are classified as ‘cold’, ‘neutral’, or ‘hot’. Fluorometric analysis of herbs with ‘cold’ properties revealed that these herbs produce large amounts of superoxide. In contrast, herbs with ‘hot’ properties have scavenging activities. We believe that this electron transfer to form superoxide and the scavenging of superoxide may elucidate the phenomena of the ‘yin’ (represented

W. S. Lin; W. C. L. Chan; C. S. Hew

1995-01-01

210

Traditional Teacher Education Still Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fresh from teaching his first full school year the author reflects on his traditional teacher preparation path into the classroom and finds he was instilled with a common sense of ethics, compassion, a demand for reflective practice, and a robust guiding philosophy. As a college student, he learned theory and was able to augment that with…

Jacobs, Nick

2013-01-01

211

Challenges and opportunities to integrating traditional healing into counselling and psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses limitations of Western psychological practice and the calls for integrating traditional healing practices into counselling and psychotherapy. It also explores challenges to and opportunities in integrated psychological practice systems which revolve around issues related to different paradigmatic perspectives about health and ill-health, practice issues and negative characterization of traditional healing and traditional healers, research into traditional healing

Olaniyi Bojuwoye; Tholene Sodi

2010-01-01

212

Characteristics of Self-Harm Behaviour among Identified Self-Harming Youth in Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's…

Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.

2012-01-01

213

Subjective Probability of Receiving Harm as a Function of Attraction and Harm Delivered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was hypothesized that subjects who liked a source of potential harm would estimate the probability of receiving harm mediated by him as lower than would subjects who disliked the source. To test the hypothesis, subjects were asked to estimate the probability that a liked or disliked confederate would deliver an electric shock on each of 10…

Schlenker, Barry R.; And Others

214

Harmful effects of carrageenan fed to animals.  

PubMed

An increased number of reports have appeared in the literature describing the harmful effects of degraded and undegraded carrageenan supplied to several animal species in their diet or drinking fluid. The harmful effects include foetal toxicity, teratogenicity, birth defects, pulmonary lesions, hepatomegaly, prolonged storage in Kupffer cells, ulcerative disease of the large bowel with hyperplastic, metaplastic, and polypoidal mucosal changes, enhancement of neoplasia by carcinogens, and, more ominously, colorectal carcinoma. Degraded carrageenan as a drug or food additive has been restricted in the United States by the FDA, but undegraded carrageenan is still widely used throughout the world as a food additive. Its harmful effects in animals are almost certainly associated with its degradation during passage through the gastrointestinal tract. There is a need for extreme caution in the use of carrageenan or carrageenan-like products as food additives in our diet, and particularly in slimming recipes. PMID:7349769

Watt, J; Marcus, R

1981-01-01

215

Engaging staff to deliver compassionate care and reduce harm.  

PubMed

The delivery of compassionate care leads to safer care but this will only occur with an engaged workforce under effective leadership. In addition, there is a need to understand the behaviours that drive nurses to make particular decisions about care. This article describes the pilot of a simple survey tool (ENGAGE) to ascertain levels of staff engagement to use as an enabler of effective change. It also describes a unique pilot initiative of focus group work, quality improvements and leadership coaching on two hospital wards. This work centred on the patient-nurse relationship and challenged the traditional teaching of preventing harm. Initial results were promising: while many staff did not feel nurtured or guided by their manager or acknowledged by the senior team, they did feel glad to come to work and empowered to improve patient care. Three months after the first ENGAGE survey, a repeat found significantly improved levels of engagement. Alongside this were improvements in avoidable harms and patient experience. Staff were motivated to improve care and admitted they did not really see their patients as individuals with identity and personality. Managers were motivated to improve engagement and take their wards forward. PMID:25302836

Day, Helen

216

Solitary Confinement and Risk of Self-Harm Among Jail Inmates  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to better understand acts of self-harm among inmates in correctional institutions. Methods. We analyzed data from medical records on 244?699 incarcerations in the New York City jail system from January 1, 2010, through January 31, 2013. Results. In 1303 (0.05%) of these incarcerations, 2182 acts of self-harm were committed, (103 potentially fatal and 7 fatal). Although only 7.3% of admissions included any solitary confinement, 53.3% of acts of self-harm and 45.0% of acts of potentially fatal self-harm occurred within this group. After we controlled for gender, age, race/ethnicity, serious mental illness, and length of stay, we found self-harm to be associated significantly with being in solitary confinement at least once, serious mental illness, being aged 18 years or younger, and being Latino or White, regardless of gender. Conclusions. These self-harm predictors are consistent with our clinical impressions as jail health service managers. Because of this concern, the New York City jail system has modified its practices to direct inmates with mental illness who violate jail rules to more clinical settings and eliminate solitary confinement for those with serious mental illness. PMID:24521238

Kaba, Fatos; Lewis, Andrea; Glowa-Kollisch, Sarah; Hadler, James; Lee, David; Alper, Howard; Selling, Daniel; MacDonald, Ross; Solimo, Angela; Parsons, Amanda

2014-01-01

217

Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers  

PubMed Central

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

2006-01-01

218

Harm reduction in hospitals: is it time?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among persons who inject drugs (IDU), illicit drug use often occurs in hospitals and contributes to patient expulsion and\\/or high rates of leaving against medical advice (AMA) when withdrawal is inadequately managed. Resultant disruptions in medical care may increase the likelihood of several harms including drug resistance to antibiotics as well as costly readmissions and increased patient morbidity. In this

Beth S Rachlis; Thomas Kerr; Julio SG Montaner; Evan Wood

2009-01-01

219

Harmful Algal Blooms & Muck What's the Difference?  

E-print Network

type. However, both represent significantly different species. Unlike green algae such as Cladophora, blue-green algae is technically not an algae, but is a bacteria known as cyanobacteria that photosynthesizes like algae do. Blue-green harmful algal blooms (HABs) and green algae blooms can be found

220

MFR PAPER 1128 Tires have no harmful  

E-print Network

in a 2,OOO-liter circu- lar fiberglass tank to determine if pollutants would leach from the tires of ancruatlng organlama. water, but we could find no informa- tion on the possible leaching of toxic substances from tires in salt water. To supply some answers to the ques- tion of whether tire reefs harm fish

221

How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

2013-01-01

222

Can NLP help or harm your business?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify what neurolinguistic programming (NLP) is, how it might be useful for individuals and organizations, and to explore the question whether NLP can help or harm a business. The paper also aims to give a balanced view of NLP, outlining how it can benefit organizations but also how it is most

Graham Yemm

2006-01-01

223

Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya  

PubMed Central

Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession. PMID:21547046

Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

2010-01-01

224

Traditional Aboriginal Health Practice in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia is the only continent to have been occupied exclusively by nomadic hunters and gatherers until recent times. Carbon dating of skeletal remains proves that Australian Aboriginal history started some 40,000 years ago, long before Captain Cook landed on the eastern coast in 1770. This history is not completely lost. It is retained in the minds and memories of successive

Dayalan Devanesen; Patrick Maher

225

Navajo Pawn: A Misunderstood Traditional Trading Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Navajo trading has been a crucial component of that tribe's localized economy for generations and has been the subject of much scholarship over the years. The role of the Navajo trader in influencing the types and styles of crafts that Navajos created as well as providing tribal members with an outlet for those items remains important to their…

Kiser, William S.

2012-01-01

226

Ethnobotany of pru , a traditional Cuban refreshment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban, Smilax domingensis Willd., and Pimenta dioica Merr., are three species widely used within Cuban ethnobotanical traditions\\u000a and practices. Pru is a traditional refreshment and medicinal drink produced by their decoction and fermentation with sugar.\\u000a It is claimed to have hypotensive, stomachic, depurative, and diuretic properties. Pru has long been confined to a number\\u000a of traditional villages in eastern Cuba,

Gabriele Volpato; Daimy Godínez

2004-01-01

227

Year-Round versus Traditional Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document serves as a literature review for the practicality and cost effectiveness of traditional versus year-round school systems. The differences in year-round and traditional schools are many, as the debate lingers on which type is best for students' learning. Generally conclusive, the literature indicates that year-round schools' benefits…

Lyttle, LeighAnne

2011-01-01

228

The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder  

PubMed Central

A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as “tailor-made medicine” and has properties similar to “mind and body” or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients’ lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans. There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms. PMID:24148283

2013-01-01

229

Laggards or Leaders: Conservers of Traditional Agricultural Knowledge in Bolivia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many sustainable agricultural practices are based on local and traditional farming knowledge. This article examines the conservation and loss of three traditional practices in the Bolivian Altiplano that agronomic research has shown increase the resiliency of small farmers in the face of climate-related risks. These practices are the use of…

Gilles, Jere L.; Thomas, Justin L.; Valdivia, Corinne; Yucra, Edwin S.

2013-01-01

230

CSCOR Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features the Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Team. Over the past decade harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased along U.S. coasts causing major resource, economic, and health impacts. State and Federal managers responding to blooms often lack timely access to cutting-edge science useful in minimizing HAB impacts on coastal communities. The NCCOS Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) HAB Event Response program addresses the need to inject science into management by supporting coastal managers faced with responding to unusual or unexpected HABs. This page describes how to apply for funding and accomplishments achieved by the program. Links are provided to CSCOR Event Responses.

Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR)

231

Injection molding of polymeric LIGA HARMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of an ongoing research effort at LSU is to develop the three-step LIGA process to inexpensively manufacture\\u000a high aspect ratio microstructures (HARMs). The first two steps of the process (lithography and electroplating) produce a metallic\\u000a mold insert that can be used as a template for molding microstructures. The final step of LIGA is molding. This paper focuses

M. S. Despa; K. W. Kelly; J. R. Collier

1999-01-01

232

Autism: Common, heritable, but not harmful  

PubMed Central

We assert that one of the examples used by Keller & Miller (K&M), namely, autism, is indeed common, and heritable, but we question whether it is harmful. We provide a brief review of cognitive science literature in which autistics perform superiorly to non-autistics in perceptual, reasoning, and comprehension tasks; however, these superiorities are often occluded and are instead described as dysfunctions. PMID:25506106

Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Dawson, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

2014-01-01

233

Electrofishing and its harmful effects on fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electrofishing, a valuable sampling technique in North America for over half a century, involves a very dynamic and complex mix of physics, physiology, and behavior that remains poorly understood. New hypotheses have been advanced regarding "power transfer" to fish and the epileptic nature of their responses to electric fields, but these too need to be more fully explored and validated. Fishery researchers and managers in the Colorado River Basin, and elsewhere, are particularly concerned about the harmful effects of electrofishing on fish, especially endangered species. Although often not externally obvious or fatal, spinal injuries and associated hemorrhages sometimes have been documented in over 50% of fish examined internally. Such injuries can occur anywhere in the electrofishing field at or above the intensity threshold for twitch. These injuries are believed to result from powerful convulsions of body musculature (possibly epileptic seizures) caused mostly by sudden changes in voltage as when electricity is pulsed or switched on or off. Significantly fewer spinal injuries are reported when direct current, low-frequency pulsed direct current (<30 Hz), or specially designed pulse trains are used. Salmoniae are especially susceptible. Endangered cyprinids of the Colorado River Basin are generally much less susceptible, enough so to allow cautious use of less harmful currents for most recovery monitoring and research. However, the endangered catostomid Xyrauchen texanus appears sufficiently susceptible to warrant a continued minimal-use policy. Other harmful effects, such as bleeding at gills or vent and excessive physiological stress, are also of concern. Mortality, usually by asphyxiation, is a common result of excessive exposure to tetanizing intensities near electrodes or poor handling of captured specimens. Reported effects on reproduction are contradictory, but electrofishing over spawning grounds can harm embryos. Electrofishing is often considered the most effective and benign technique for capturing moderate- to large-size fish, but when adverse effects are problematic and cannot be sufficiently reduced, its use should be severely restricted.

Snyder, Darrel E.

2003-01-01

234

Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia.  

PubMed

Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. PMID:25518881

Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2014-01-01

235

Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. PMID:25518881

Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2014-01-01

236

Electronic cigarettes. Potential harms and benefits.  

PubMed

Use of electronic cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine-containing vapor, has increased rapidly across the country and globally. Perceived and marketed as a "healthier alternative" to conventional cigarettes, few data exist regarding the safety of these devices and their efficacy in harm reduction and treatment of tobacco dependence; even less is known about their overall impact on population health. This review highlights the recent data regarding electronic cigarette toxicity, impact on lung function, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation. Studies show that the vapor generated from electronic cigarettes has variable amounts of nicotine and potential harmful toxins, albeit at levels lower than in conventional cigarettes. The long-term carcinogenic and lung function effects of electronic cigarettes are not known. Although some data demonstrate that electronic cigarettes may be effective in reducing conventional cigarette consumption, there are no data demonstrating the efficacy of electronic cigarettes as a tool to achieve cessation. Until robust longitudinal evaluations demonstrate the safety of electronic cigarettes and efficacy in treatment of tobacco dependence, their role as a harm reduction tool is unclear. PMID:24575993

Drummond, M Bradley; Upson, Dona

2014-02-01

237

Microsoft Word - Tobacco Harm Reduction Flyer for email.doc  

Cancer.gov

Tobacco Harm Reduction Network S everal smoked and smokeless tobacco products are currently being promoted and marketed with implicit or explicit claims of reduced harm, and more such products are expected to emerge from industry pipelines. These new

238

Damage to Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Judgment of Harmful Intent  

E-print Network

Moral judgments, whether delivered in ordinary experience or in the courtroom, depend on our ability to infer intentions. We forgive unintentional or accidental harms and condemn failed attempts to harm. Prior work ...

Young, Liane

239

How Would We Know if Psychotherapy Were Harmful?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients can be harmed by treatment or by the decisions that are made about those treatments. Although dramatic examples of harmful effects of psychotherapy have been reported, the full scope of the problem remains unclear. The field currently lacks consensus about how to detect harm and what to do about it when it occurs. In this article, we…

Dimidjian, Sona; Hollon, Steven D.

2010-01-01

240

Harm reduction psychotherapy: an innovative alternative to classical addictions theory.  

PubMed

Harm Reduction Psychotherapy is an innovative treatment for people with alcohol and other drug problems. Unlike the traditional disease model of addiction, HRP uses a biopsychosocial approach to understand the complexities of drug use, abuse, and addiction. In other words, in the context of HRP, addiction is not the primary issue. Rather, it is an interactive phenomenon in which the relative weight of biology, psychology, and social factors varies for each person and for each drug he or she uses. HRP allows us to assess each person individually and to plan treatment that is tailored to the individual's relationship with alcohol and other drugs. It also incorporates other important problems: emotional disorders, family problems, social alienation, and medical complications. These issues are discussed at the beginning of consultation, without patients having to focus solely on their alcohol or drug problem. The unique aspect to HRP is that patients do not have to commit to abstinence as a condition of, or even necessarily as a goal of, treatment. HRP seeks to identify and work with the barriers to treatment adherence in any patient. It is clear that most medical patients have some difficulty understanding and adhering to medical recommendations and treatment protocols. However, drug users have particular problems that must be identified. HRP helps people create individual strategies to decrease harmful alcohol and drug use. It uses a nonjudgmental and collaborative approach to actively encourage individuals to explore their own barriers to change and to choose among a range of options such as abstinence, moderation, or other short-term goals. Motivational interviewing can be used to motivate behavioral change with the goal of reducing the effects of adverse consequences. PMID:12087633

Denning, Patt

2002-05-01

241

Favorite Family Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use the text The Relatives Came by Cynthia Rylant as a springboard for discussion about family traditions. After identifying the traditions observed by the relatives, students meet in small groups to brainstorm new traditions that could arise from the families gathering together during the winter. The lesson is concluded by having each student write about their own favorite family tradition and share it with a small group.

2012-12-08

242

Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation  

E-print Network

next class #12;Traditional Cel Animation · Film runs at 24 frames per second (fps) ­ That's 1440 stand - Transfer onto film by taking a photograph of the stack #12;Principles of Traditional AnimationAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

Treuille, Adrien

243

Variability and dilemmas in harm reduction for anabolic steroid users in the UK: a multi-area interview study  

PubMed Central

Background The UK continues to experience a rise in the number of anabolic steroid-using clients attending harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes. Methods The present study uses interviews conducted with harm reduction service providers as well as illicit users of anabolic steroids from different areas of England and Wales to explore harm reduction for this group of drug users, focussing on needle distribution policies and harm reduction interventions developed specifically for this population of drug users. Results The article addresses the complexity of harm reduction service delivery, highlighting different models of needle distribution, such as peer-led distribution networks, as well as interventions available in steroid clinics, including liver function testing of anabolic steroid users. Aside from providing insights into the function of interventions available to steroid users, along with principles adopted by service providers, the study found significant tensions and dilemmas in policy implementation due to differing perspectives between service providers and service users relating to practices, risks and effective interventions. Conclusion The overarching finding of the study was the tremendous variability across harm reduction delivery sites in terms of available measures and mode of operation. Further research into the effectiveness of different policies directed towards people who use anabolic steroids is critical to the development of harm reduction. PMID:24986546

2014-01-01

244

Alternative medicine for management of breast masses: More harm than good  

PubMed Central

Case series Patient: — Final Diagnosis: Breast cancer Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents Background: Several well-established, evidence-based treatment modalities are currently available and widely applied to breast cancer patients, but it is known that some of the cancer patients use traditional/alternative medicine other than their treatments. Case Report: Herein, we report the cases of 2 middle-aged women (45 and 50 years old) with malignant breast masses who experienced serious complications in response to self-prescribed use of alternative medicine practices to treat their condition in lieu of evidence-based medical treatment. Specifically, the use and/or inappropriate application of alternative medical approaches promoted the progression of malignant fungating lesions in the breast for these 2 patients. The first patient sought medical assistance upon development of a fungating lesion 7?8 cm in diameter and involving 1/3 of the breast, with a palpable mass of 5×6 cm immediately beneath the wound. The second patient sought medical assistance upon development of a wide, bleeding, ulcerous area with patchy necrotic tissue that comprised 2/3 of the breast and had a 10×6 cm palpable mass under the affected area. Use of some non-evidence-based medical treatments as complementary to evidence-based medical treatments may benefit the patient on an emotional level; however, this strategy should be used with caution, as the non-evidence-based therapies may cause physical harm or even counteract the evidence-based treatment. Conclusions: A malignant, fungating wound is a serious complication of advanced breast cancer. It is critical that the public is informed about the potential problems of self-treating wounds such as breast ulcers and masses. Additionally, campaigns are needed to increase awareness of the risks and life-threatening potential of using non-evidence-based medical therapies exclusively. PMID:25050141

Akbulut, Sami; Yagmur, Yusuf; Gumus, Serdar; Babur, Mehmet; Can, Mehmet Ali

2014-01-01

245

The harms of prostitution: critiquing Moen's argument of no-harm.  

PubMed

In this short critical analysis, the author examines the recent argument by Moen in his article 'Is Prostitution Harmful?' In highlighting why prostitution does not cause harm to either member involved in the act, Moen argues that prostitution is not an ethical concern. However, while Moen is able to clearly challenge contemporary objections to prostitution, the author of this review will suggest that Moen's argument is itself incomplete as it does not address essential key ontological issues. This critical analysis will briefly suggest why this omission weakens Moen's argument. Finally, it will conclude with examining why prostitution differs substantially from other professions through the type of harm that it causes to the moral agents involved. PMID:23760729

Westin, Anna

2014-02-01

246

Harms from medicines: inevitable, in error or intentional  

PubMed Central

Rational therapeutics requires a balance between benefits and harms. (i) Harm may be inevitable. Some adverse drug reactions cannot be predicted or prevented. (ii) Some harm occurs in error when a medicine is wrongly formulated, prescribed, dispensed or administered. Adverse drug reactions that might have been prevented, for example, by monitoring, fall into this category. (iii) Rarely, harm is inflicted deliberately, for example, in murder by poisoning. Here I consider adverse drug reactions, errors and deliberate drug-induced harm from the perspective of a clinical pharmacologist. PMID:23683079

Ferner, Robin E

2014-01-01

247

Drug use and harm reduction in Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Opium has been cultivated in Afghanistan since 1100 A.D., although production has steadily increased since 1979. Currently, Afghanistan produces three-quarters of the global opium supply, with injection drug use and HIV currently following the opium trade route through Central Asia. Although systematic studies are lacking, heroin use appears to be on the rise in Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to briefly provide historical background and current statistics for drug production and use in Afghanistan, to discuss the new government's policies towards problem drug use and available rehabilitation programs, and to assess Afghan harm reduction needs with consideration of regional trends. PMID:16146577

Todd, Catherine S; Safi, Naqibullah; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2005-01-01

248

Harmful effect of detergents on lipase.  

PubMed

In order to study effects of detergents at molecular level, we have done activity measurements of wheat germ lipase in increasing concentration of some commercial detergents. Conformational changes in protein structure using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy were studied in increasing concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Our study proves that detergents may lead to loss of enzymatic activity and structure of plant enzymes. Since detergents are common source of pollution in water bodies and the water from these resources can be used in fields, our study may prove helpful in creating awareness about harmful action of detergents. PMID:24807844

Fatima, Sadaf; Ajmal, Rehan; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan H

2014-11-01

249

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms: causes, consequences, and controls.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest oxygenic photoautotrophs and have had major impacts on shaping its biosphere. Their long evolutionary history (? 3.5 by) has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recently anthropogenic modifications of aquatic environments, including nutrient over-enrichment (eutrophication), water diversions, withdrawals, and salinization. Many cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. Bloom-forming cyanobacterial taxa can be harmful from environmental, organismal, and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, depleting oxygen upon bloom senescence, and producing a variety of toxic secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanotoxins). How environmental factors impact cyanotoxin production is the subject of ongoing research, but nutrient (N, P and trace metals) supply rates, light, temperature, oxidative stressors, interactions with other biota (bacteria, viruses and animal grazers), and most likely, the combined effects of these factors are all involved. Accordingly, strategies aimed at controlling and mitigating harmful blooms have focused on manipulating these dynamic factors. The applicability and feasibility of various controls and management approaches is discussed for natural waters and drinking water supplies. Strategies based on physical, chemical, and biological manipulations of specific factors show promise; however, a key underlying approach that should be considered in almost all instances is nutrient (both N and P) input reductions; which have been shown to effectively reduce cyanobacterial biomass, and therefore limit health risks and frequencies of hypoxic events. PMID:23314096

Paerl, Hans W; Otten, Timothy G

2013-05-01

250

When Traditions Become Innovations and Innovations Become Traditions in Everyday Food Pedagogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the way learning to cook remains important for the maintenance of "ethnic" food traditions and how sharing food knowledge plays a role in intercultural exchanges. Ethnographic data from an ongoing study in Melbourne is presented to highlight how, in everyday practices, both tradition and innovation are involved in learning…

Benny, Helen

2012-01-01

251

Ethnic Label Use in Adolescents from Traditional and Non-Traditional Immigrant Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding adolescents' use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance of identity and self-definition in adolescents' lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional

Kiang, Lisa; Perreira, Krista M.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

252

Traditional Arts Knowledge, Traditional Ecological Lore: The Intersection of Art Education and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching about Native artworks as part of school arts curriculum can serve to pass on traditional ecological knowledge while also contextualizing colonialism's influence on traditional and contemporary Native arts practices. This article explores how schools can actively engage in community arts partnerships with American Indians who have…

Bequette, James W.

2007-01-01

253

Continuing to challenge practice to be evidence based.  

PubMed

Practice habits continue in clinical practice despite the availability of research and other forms of evidence that should be used to guide critical care practice interventions. This article is based on a presentation at the 2014 National Teaching Institute of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. The article is part of a series of articles that challenge critical care nurses to examine the evidence guiding nursing practice interventions. Four common practice interventions are reviewed: (1) weight-based medication administration, (2) chest tube patency maintenance, (3) daily interruption of sedation, and (4) use of chest physiotherapy in children. For weight-based administration of medication, the patient's actual weight should be measured, rather than using an estimate. The therapeutic effectiveness and dosages of medications used in obese patients must be critically evaluated. Maintaining patency of chest tubes does not require stripping and milking, which probably do more harm than good. Daily interruption of sedation and judicious use of sedatives are appropriate in most patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Traditional chest physiotherapy does not help children with pneumonia, bronchiolitis, or asthma and does not prevent atelectasis after extubation. Critical care nurses are challenged to evaluate their individual practice and to adopt current evidence-based practice interventions into their daily practice. PMID:25834007

Makic, Mary Beth Flynn; Rauen, Carol; Jones, Kimmith; Fisk, Anna C

2015-04-01

254

Harm reduction, methadone maintenance treatment and the root causes of health and social inequities: An intersectional lens in the Canadian context  

PubMed Central

Background Using our research findings, we explore Harm Reduction and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) using an intersectional lens to provide a more complex understanding of Harm Reduction and MMT, particularly how Harm Reduction and MMT are experienced differently by people dependent on how they are positioned. Using the lens of intersectionality, we refine the notion of Harm Reduction by specifying the conditions in which both harm and benefit arise and how experiences of harm are continuous with wider experiences of domination and oppression; Methods A qualitative design that uses ethnographic methods of in-depth individual and focus group interviews and naturalistic observation was conducted in a large city in Canada. Participants included Aboriginal clients accessing mainstream mental health and addictions care and primary health care settings and healthcare providers; Results All client-participants had profound histories of abuse and violence, most often connected to the legacy of colonialism (e.g., residential schooling) and ongoing colonial practices (e.g., stigma & everyday racism). Participants lived with co-occurring illness (e.g., HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C, PTSD, depression, diabetes and substance use) and most lived in poverty. Many participants expressed mistrust with the healthcare system due to everyday experiences both within and outside the system that further marginalize them. In this paper, we focus on three intersecting issues that impact access to MMT: stigma and prejudice, social and structural constraints influencing enactment of peoples' agency, and homelessness; Conclusions Harm reduction must move beyond a narrow concern with the harms directly related to drugs and drug use practices to address the harms associated with the determinants of drug use and drug and health policy. An intersectional lens elucidates the need for harm reduction approaches that reflect an understanding of and commitment to addressing the historical, socio-cultural and political forces that shape responses to mental illness/health, addictions, including harm reduction and methadone maintenance treatment. PMID:21718531

2011-01-01

255

Ecological Education in Rural China: Rediscovering Traditional Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article has implications for the ecological sustainability crisis now looming in China and what this portends for the practice of education. Chemical agriculture, although improving agricultural production, harms ecological systems in rural communities. The author presents research on a group of intellectuals and social activists in 1…

Liu, Yan

2008-01-01

256

Prevention. How much harm? How much benefit? 3. Physical, psychological and social harm.  

PubMed Central

Harm caused by preventive programs may be physical, psychological, social or, if informed consent has not been obtained, ethical. Adverse effects of preventive screening programs may occur at any of the three levels of the "screening cascade", the screening procedure itself, the investigation of abnormal results of screening tests or the treatment of detected abnormalities or diseases. The greatest harm occurs at the second and third levels. Examples of procedures that may cause physical harm are venipuncture, mammography, colonoscopy, breast biopsy, transrectal ultrasonography, prostate biopsy, weight-reducing and cholesterol-lowering diets and radical prostatectomy. The psychological and social harm of preventive programs involves anticipated discomfort or perception of adverse effects of preventive interventions; unpleasant interactions with health care workers, time required for preventive programs, excessive overall awareness of health, anxiety over the results of a screening test implications of a positive screening test, consequences of being labelled as "sick" or "at risk," psychopathologic effects induced directly by preventive programs and, in the case of a false-negative test result, false assurance of disease-free status. Since the positive predictive value of screening tests in the general population is always low, most abnormal test results are "false-positive," these engender a great deal of psychological discuss among patients. PMID:8800074

Marshall, K G

1996-01-01

257

Little cigars, big cigars: omissions and commissions of harm and harm reduction information on the Internet.  

PubMed

We conducted a comparative analysis of "harm," "harm reduction," and "little cigar" information about cigars on 10 major English-language health Web sites. The sites were from governmental and nongovernmental organizations based in seven different countries and included "harm" and "harm reduction" information, discussions of little cigars, quantitative estimates of health risks, and qualifying behavioral characteristics (inhalation, number per day). Of the 10 Web sites, 7 offered statements explicitly indicating that cigars may be safer than cigarettes. None of the Web sites reviewed described that little cigars are likely as dangerous as cigarettes. Some Web sites provided quantitative estimates of health risks and extensive discussions of qualifying factors. Reading grade levels were higher than desirable. Extensive and complex information on the reduced risks of cigars compared with cigarettes is available on Web sites affiliated with prominent health organizations. Yet these sites fail to warn consumers that popular cigarette-like little cigars and cigarillos are likely to be just as dangerous as cigarettes, even for those who have never smoked cigarettes. Improvement of these Web sites is urgently needed to provide the public with high-quality health information. PMID:18569755

Dollar, Katherine M; Mix, Jacqueline M; Kozlowski, Lynn T

2008-05-01

258

Pordi, L. (2008). Tibetan medicine today. Neo-traditionalism as an analytical lens and a political tool, in L. Pordi (ed.), Tibetan Medicine in the Contemporary World. Global Politics of Medical Knowledge and Practice, London & New  

E-print Network

Pordié, L. (2008). Tibetan medicine today. Neo-traditionalism as an analytical lens and a political tool, in L. Pordié (ed.), Tibetan Medicine in the Contemporary World. Global Politics of Medical-32. Tibetan medicine today. Neo-traditionalism as an analytical lens and a political tool Laurent Pordié p3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2008-01-01

259

Lead Encephalopathy Due to Traditional Medicines  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicine use is common in developing countries and increasingly popular in the western world. Despite the popularity of traditional medicines, scientific research on safety and efficacy is limited. However documented fatalities and severe illness due to lead poisoning are increasingly recognized to be associated with traditional medicine use. As society becomes more globalized, it is imperative for pharmacists and health care providers to learn about the safety of traditional medical practices. The information presented educates and alerts pharmacists and health care providers about the potential of traditional medicines to cause lead encephalopathy. Case reports were located through systematic literature searches using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE and The Cochrane library from 1966 to the February 2007. Reference lists of identified articles and the authors' own files were also searched. Inclusion criteria were cases of human lead encephalopathy associated with traditional medical practices. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. Data were subsequently extracted and summarized in narrative and tabular form. We found 76 cases of lead encephalopathy potentially associated with traditional medicine. Ayurvedic medicines were associated with 5 cases (7%), Middle eastern traditional medicines with 66 cases (87%) and 5 cases (7%) with other traditional medicines. Of the 76 cases, 5% were in adults and 95% were in infants and young children. Of the 4 adult cases, at least one was left with residual neurological impairment. In infants and young children, among 72 cases 8 (11%) were fatal, and at least 15 (21%) had residual neurological deficits. Traditional medicine users should be screened for lead exposure and strongly encouraged to discontinue metal–containing remedies. Therefore, the United States Food and Drug Administration and corresponding agencies in other countries should require and enforce heavy metal testing for all imported traditional medicines and “dietary supplements”. PMID:18690981

Karri, Surya K.; Saper, Robert B.; Kales, Stefanos N.

2008-01-01

260

Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks  

PubMed Central

Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly linked to older people in rural areas. In the rural areas surveyed, significant economic and social benefits are derived from traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use. Policy makers designing ways to reduce alcohol-related risks and harms need to give thoughtful consideration to the role traditional alcohol plays in the local society and to suggest changes that do not create unintended problems. PMID:25037953

2014-01-01

261

Do no harm--normal tissue effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation therapy confers enormous benefits that must be balanced against the possibilities for harm including late toxicity in normal tissues and radiation-induced second malignancies. A small percentage of patients experience severe late complications. The question is, do these late sequelae occur randomly, or are they confined to individuals who are genetically predisposed to radiosensitivity. Experiments with knockout mice and with patients demonstrate that individuals heterozygous for a number of genes appear to be radiosensitive. If radiosensitive patients were identified prospectively by genetic analysis, they could be spared the trauma of late sequelae. Several large studies have shown a statistically significant excess of radiation-induced malignancies in radiotherapy patients. Most second cancers are carcinomas, developing in the lining cells of the body often remote from the treatment site. Radiation-induced sarcomas appear only in the heavily irradiated areas. These are small in number but appear with a very high relative risk.

Hall, E. J.

2001-01-01

262

African Traditional Religion (ATR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The African Traditional Religion (ATR) site which hosts the on Bibliography on African Traditional Religion contains several more items of interest, including articles and documents exploring the contact points of ATR with Islam and Christianity, country-by-country statistics on adherents of ATR, and a number of related links.

Isizoh, Chidi Denis.

263

Traditions of technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern technology, with about 300 years of history behind it, has become the dominant tradition by marginalizing the other traditions of technology in the West and in the rest of the world. Important roles have been played in this marginalization by the ideology of Englightenment, by the Industrial Revolution, and nineteenth and twentieth century colonialism. They have blurred the difference

1979-01-01

264

Traditional Native Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

Grant, Agnes

1985-01-01

265

Family Customs and Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

MacGregor, Cynthia

266

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage are the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the most important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the West. This article gives a brief introduction to the written history, theory, and teaching of Chinese herbal

You-Ping Zhu; Herman J. Woerdenbag

1995-01-01

267

Mental Health Nurses' Experiences of Caring for Patients Suffering from Self-Harm  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to explore mental health nurses' experiences of caring for inpatients who self-harm during an acute phase. The setting was four psychiatric clinics in Norway. Fifteen mental health nurses (MHNs) were recruited. Semistructured interviews comprised the method for data collection, with content analysis used for data analysis. Two main categories emerged: challenging and collaborative nurse-patient relationship and promoting well-being through nursing interventions. The underlying meaning of the main categories was interpreted and formulated as a latent theme: promoting person-centered care to patients suffering from self-harm. How MHNs promote care for self-harm patients can be described as a person-centered nursing process. MHNs, through the creation of a collaborative nurse-patient relationship, reflect upon nursing interventions and seek to understand each unique patient. The implication for clinical practice is that MHNs are in a position where they can promote patients' recovery processes, by offering patients alternative activities and by working in partnership with patients to promote their individual strengths and life knowledge. MHNs strive to help patients find new ways of living with their problems. The actual study highlighted that MHNs use different methods and strategies when promoting the well-being of self-harm patients. PMID:25512876

Talseth, Anne-Grethe

2014-01-01

268

Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.  

PubMed

Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies. PMID:23748884

Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

2014-12-01

269

Why breast cancer patients seek traditional healers.  

PubMed

Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or "bomoh" at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities. PMID:22295249

Muhamad, Mazanah; Merriam, Sharan; Suhami, Norhasmilia

2012-01-01

270

Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers  

PubMed Central

Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities. PMID:22295249

Muhamad, Mazanah; Merriam, Sharan; Suhami, Norhasmilia

2012-01-01

271

Intelligent glasses, watches and vests…oh my! Rethinking the meaning of "harm" in the age of wearable technologies.  

PubMed

The widespread release and adoption of wearable devices will likely accelerate the "hybrid era", already initiated by mobile digital devices, with progressively deeper levels of human-technology co-evolution and increasing blurring of our boundaries with machines. Questions about the potentially harmful nature of information and communication technologies have been asked before, since the introduction of the telephone, the Web, and more recently, mobile phones. Our capacity to answer them now is limited by outdated conceptual approaches to harm, mostly derived from drug evaluation; and by the slow and static nature of traditional research tools. In this article, we propose a re-conceptualizing of the meaning of "harm", which builds on a global effort focused on health, adding flexibility and richness within a context that acknowledges the physical, mental, and social domains in which it can occur. PMID:25668291

Jadad, Alejandro R; Fandiño, Marcela; Lennox, Robin

2015-01-01

272

Intelligent Glasses, Watches and Vests…Oh My! Rethinking the Meaning of “Harm” in the Age of Wearable Technologies  

PubMed Central

The widespread release and adoption of wearable devices will likely accelerate the “hybrid era”, already initiated by mobile digital devices, with progressively deeper levels of human-technology co-evolution and increasing blurring of our boundaries with machines. Questions about the potentially harmful nature of information and communication technologies have been asked before, since the introduction of the telephone, the Web, and more recently, mobile phones. Our capacity to answer them now is limited by outdated conceptual approaches to harm, mostly derived from drug evaluation; and by the slow and static nature of traditional research tools. In this article, we propose a re-conceptualizing of the meaning of “harm”, which builds on a global effort focused on health, adding flexibility and richness within a context that acknowledges the physical, mental, and social domains in which it can occur. PMID:25668291

Fandiño, Marcela; Lennox, Robin

2015-01-01

273

Guidance Document Fume hoods are used when handling toxic or hazardous chemicals. Harmful gases, vapors and fumes  

E-print Network

Guidance Document FumeHoods Fume hoods are used when handling toxic or hazardous chemicals. Harmful such as toxic gases, chemicals which emit toxic vapors, volatile radioactive material, respirable toxic powders shallow trap) whenever practical. This will contain minor spills and prevent spillage onto your feet

274

Interprofessional and Interagency Training for Working with Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: An Evaluation of Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the outcomes of short interagency training courses provided by six Local Safeguarding Children Boards in England. The aim was to develop practical skills in recognising and responding to the needs of children with harmful sexual behaviour in an interagency context. The courses all employed interactive learning and teaching…

Hackett, Simon; Carpenter, John; Patsios, Demi; Szilassy, Eszter

2013-01-01

275

Dealing with Alcohol-related problems in the Night-Time Economy: A Study Protocol for Mapping trends in harm and stakeholder views surrounding local community level interventions  

PubMed Central

Background This project will provide a comprehensive investigation into the prevalence of alcohol-related harms and community attitudes in the context of community-based interventions being implemented to reduce harm in two regional centres of Australia. While considerable experimentation and innovation to address these harms has occurred in both Geelong and Newcastle, only limited ad-hoc documentation and analysis has been conducted on changes in the prevalence of harm as a consequence, leaving a considerable gap in terms of a systematic, evidence-based analysis of changes in harm over time and the need for further intervention. Similarly, little evidence has been reported regarding the views of key stakeholder groups, industry, government agencies, patrons or community regarding the need for, and the acceptability of, interventions to reduce harms. This project will aim to provide evidence regarding the impact and acceptability of local initiatives aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Methods/Design This study will gather existing police data (assault, property damage and drink driving offences), Emergency Department presentations and Ambulance attendance data. Further, the research team will conduct interviews with licensed venue patrons and collect observational data of licensed venues. Key informant interviews will assess expert knowledge from key industry and government stakeholders, and a community survey will assess community experiences and attitudes towards alcohol-related harm and harm-reduction strategies. Overall, the project will assess: the extent of alcohol-related harm in the context of harm-reduction interventions, and the need for and acceptability of further intervention. Discussion These findings will be used to improve evidence-based practice both nationally and internationally. Ethical Approval This project has been approved by Deakin University HREC. PMID:21682908

2011-01-01

276

Continental Traditions and Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, prepared for a European conference on mathematics education in the 1980's, reviews the traditional curricular approach and recent changes in ten European countries. The contributions of individuals and national societies to these changes are discussed. (SD)

Servais, W.

1975-01-01

277

The "Natural Law Tradition."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

Finnis, John

1986-01-01

278

Black African Traditional Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

Zaslavsky, Claudia

1970-01-01

279

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

280

Climate change: links to global expansion of harmful cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest (?3.5 bya) oxygen evolving organisms, and they have had major impacts on shaping our modern-day biosphere. Conversely, biospheric environmental perturbations, including nutrient enrichment and climatic changes (e.g. global warming, hydrologic changes, increased frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones, more intense and persistent droughts), strongly affect cyanobacterial growth and bloom potentials in freshwater and marine ecosystems. We examined human and climatic controls on harmful (toxic, hypoxia-generating, food web disrupting) bloom-forming cyanobacteria (CyanoHABs) along the freshwater to marine continuum. These changes may act synergistically to promote cyanobacterial dominance and persistence. This synergy is a formidable challenge to water quality, water supply and fisheries managers, because bloom potentials and controls may be altered in response to contemporaneous changes in thermal and hydrologic regimes. In inland waters, hydrologic modifications, including enhanced vertical mixing and, if water supplies permit, increased flushing (reducing residence time) will likely be needed in systems where nutrient input reductions are neither feasible nor possible. Successful control of CyanoHABs by grazers is unlikely except in specific cases. Overall, stricter nutrient management will likely be the most feasible and practical approach to long-term CyanoHAB control in a warmer, stormier and more extreme world. PMID:21893330

Paerl, Hans W; Paul, Valerie J

2012-04-01

281

The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization?  

PubMed

Ayahuasca is a tea made from two plants native to the Amazon, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, which, respectively, contain the psychoactive chemicals harmala alkaloids and dimethyltryptamine. The tea has been used by indigenous peoples in countries such as Brazil, Ecuador and Peru for medicinal, spiritual and cultural purposes since pre-Columbian times. In the 20th century, ayahuasca spread beyond its native habitat and has been incorporated into syncretistic practices that are being adopted by non-indigenous peoples in modern Western contexts. Ayahuasca's globalization in the past few decades has led to a number of legal cases which pit religious freedom against national drug control laws. This paper explores some of the philosophical and policy implications of contemporary ayahuasca use. It addresses the issue of the social construction of ayahuasca as a medicine, a sacrament and a "plant teacher." Issues of harm reduction with respect to ayahuasca use are explored, but so too is the corollary notion of "benefit maximization." PMID:18638702

Tupper, Kenneth W

2008-08-01

282

FIRST DO NO HARM: THE PROBLEM OF SPYWARE  

E-print Network

's knowledge and can have harmful, amplified effects inside the body of the user's computer. LikeFIRST DO NO HARM: THE PROBLEM OF SPYWARE By Susan P. Crawford TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION of Pittsburgh School of Law's "Where IP Meets IP: Technology and the Law" symposium convened by Michael Madison

Shamos, Michael I.

283

Partially Overlapped Channels Not Considered Harmful Arunesh Mishra1  

E-print Network

in different technologies are known to have partial overlap. However, due to the interference effects amongPartially Overlapped Channels Not Considered Harmful Arunesh Mishra1 Vivek Shrivastava2 Suman the model, we illustrate that the use of partially overlapped chan- nels is not always harmful. In fact

Liblit, Ben

284

Portugal's Budget Austerity May Do More Harm Than Good  

E-print Network

Portugal's Budget Austerity May Do More Harm Than Good July 02, 2013 4:00 AM by LAUREN FRAYER severe budget austerity does more harm than good. LAUREN FRAYER, BYLINE: Of all the bailed-out countries in Europe, Portugal has been the good student - taking the austerity medicine its lenders prescribe

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

285

Self-Harm and Conventional Gender Roles in Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women.…

Straiton, Melanie L.; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Grimholt, Tine K.; Dieserud, Gudrun

2013-01-01

286

Harmful soil changes in storm water infiltration devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of chemical soil properties in storm water infiltration devices is based on the concern that these soils accumulate harmful substances like heavy metals more than normal soils. In case of confirmation of this concern, this investigation is to prove the dimension of the harmful soil changes and to see if there is a transgression of trigger values of

HILLER Dieter; DORNAUF Christine; WINZIG Guido

1999-01-01

287

16 CFR 1102.28 - Publication of reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...but not later than the tenth business day after such report of harm is transmitted to the manufacturer or private labeler by the CPSC. (b) Exceptions. The Commission may publish a report of harm that meets the requirements of § 1102.10(d) in...

2013-01-01

288

16 CFR 1102.28 - Publication of reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...but not later than the tenth business day after such report of harm is transmitted to the manufacturer or private labeler by the CPSC. (b) Exceptions. The Commission may publish a report of harm that meets the requirements of § 1102.10(d) in...

2011-01-01

289

16 CFR 1102.28 - Publication of reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...but not later than the tenth business day after such report of harm is transmitted to the manufacturer or private labeler by the CPSC. (b) Exceptions. The Commission may publish a report of harm that meets the requirements of § 1102.10(d) in...

2012-01-01

290

16 CFR 1102.28 - Publication of reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...but not later than the tenth business day after such report of harm is transmitted to the manufacturer or private labeler by the CPSC. (b) Exceptions. The Commission may publish a report of harm that meets the requirements of § 1102.10(d) in...

2014-01-01

291

Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats  

E-print Network

Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats Sze-Bi Hsu Feng-Bin Wang Xiao from the dynamics of harmful algae and zooplankton in flowing- water habitats where a main channel. For the system modeling the dynamics of algae and their toxin that contains little limiting nutrient, we

Hsu, Sze-Bi

292

Optical methods for monitoring harmful gas in animal facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal facilities produce large amounts of harmful gases such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and methane, many of which have a pungent odor. The harmful gases produced by animal housing not only affect the health of people and livestock but also pollute the air. The detection of the harmful gases can effectively improve efficiency of livestock production and reduce environmental pollution. More and more optical detection methods are applied to the detection of the harmful gases produced by animal housing. This summarizes optical detection methods for monitoring the harmful gases in animal housing recently, including nondispersive infrared gas analyzer, ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The basic principle and the characteristics of these methods are illustrated and the applications on the detection of harmful gases in animal housing are described. Meanwhile, the research of harmful gases monitoring for livestock production based on these methods were listed. The current situation and future development of the detection methods for harmful gases generated by animal housing were summarized by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Zhang, Shirui; Dong, Daming; Zheng, Wengang; Wang, Jihua

2014-06-01

293

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash  

E-print Network

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

Short, Daniel

294

Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB), a funding program within NOAA that seeks to develop effective methods for prevention, control, and mitigation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). The page provides an overview of the program, offers a link to the funding announcement, and lists accomplishments of the program.

Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR)

295

Prostitution Harms Women Even if Legalized or Decriminalized  

Microsoft Academic Search

With examples from a 2003 New Zealand prostitution law, this article discusses the logi- cal inconsistencies in laws sponsoring prostitution and includes evidence for the physi- cal, emotional, and social harms of prostitution. These harms are not decreased by legal- ization or decriminalization. The article addresses the confusion caused by organizations that oppose trafficking but at the same time promote

MELISSA FARLEY

2004-01-01

296

Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Non-indigenous species (NIS) are common in the United States landscape. While some are beneficial, others are harmful and can cause significant economic, environmental, and health damage. This study, requested by the U.S. House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, examined State and Federal policies related to these harmful NIS. The report is…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

297

Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the variations in behaviour displayed by young people who sexually harm, as previous research has shown that they are not a homogeneous sample. Three conceptually distinct sets of behaviour were hypothesized, relating to various modes of interaction between the young people with harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) and their…

Almond, Louise; Canter, David

2007-01-01

298

Harmful immune reactions during acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Acute coronary syndrome, including myocardial infarction, can occur as a result of ischaemia-reperfusion injury caused by acute occlusion of the coronary vessel/s following the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque. Superimposed thrombosis at the lesion obstructs blood supply to the myocardium causing myocardial necrosis and ischaemic inflammation. Although not fully described, researchers believe that this process is initiated by a dysfunctional endothelium that activates the nearby leukocytes in the blood stream, thus attracting them to the arterial wall and initiating a cascade of complex mechanisms that lead to myocardial infarction. Interestingly, this process is two sided as the leaking soluble factors from a damaged and/or necrotic myocardium enter the systemic circulation, activating the innate and adaptive cell-mediated immune responses, which include increasing cytotoxic mediators. We hypothesize that this unwanted side effect of increase in proinflammatory mediators can lead to harmful systemic immune reactions directed towards various dysfunctional endothelia. Additionally, a strong inflammatory response, caused by myocardial damage, can impair ventricular function, on top of baseline necrosis. To evaluate this hypothesis, we propose to use in vivo tests to measure endothelial dysfunction, as well as ventricular dysfunction by ultrasound methods, and their correlation with immunological and/or biochemical parameters. These tests will be useful in assessing the risk and therapeutic outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome. PMID:22398389

Laskarin, G; Zaputovic, L; Persic, V; Ruzic, A; Sotosek Tokmadzic, V

2012-06-01

299

Will harmful dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi grow phagotrophically?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the phagotrophic ability of dinoflagellate strain Karenia mikimotoi KM-Lü (isolated from the South China Sea), using fluorescent microspheres, bacteria isolated from the culture of K. mikimotoi and a marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana. We found that K. mikimotoi cultured under conditions of high light intensity could ingest fluorescent microspheres (diameters 0.5 and 2.0 ?m) and fluorescence-labeled bacteria and microalgae. Under a low light intensity, however, only fluorescent microspheres (diameter 0.5 ?m) and fluorescence-labeled microalgae were ingested. K. mikimotoi showed better growth by ingesting living marine bacteria or microalgae I. galbana than the controls, either in nutrient-depleted or nutrient-replete conditions. In nutrient-depleted conditions, the growth of K. mikimotoi was more significant with I. galbana as the prey item. In conclusion, the harmful dinoflagellate K. mikimotoi from the South China Sea has apparent phagotrophic ability, and some marine bacteria and microalgae may promote the growth of K. mikimotoi.

Zhang, Qingchun; Yu, Rencheng; Song, Jingjing; Yan, Tian; Wang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Mingjiang

2011-07-01

300

DDT, epigenetic harm, and transgenerational environmental justice  

PubMed Central

Although the environmentally harmful effects of widespread dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) use became well-known following Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962), its human health effects have more recently become clearer. A ban on the use of DDT has been in place for over 30 years, but recently DDT has been used for malaria control in areas such as Africa. Recent work shows that DDT has transgenerational effects in progeny and generations never directly exposed to DDT. These effects have health implications for individuals who are not able to have any voice in the decision to use the pesticide. The transgenerational effects of DDT are considered in light of some widely accepted ethical principles. We argue that this reframes the decision to use DDT, requiring us to incorporate new considerations, and new kinds of decision making, into the deliberative process that determines its ongoing use. Ethical considerations for intergenerational environmental justice are presented that include concern and respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, and justice. Here, we offer a characterization of the kinds of ethical considerations that must be taken into account in any satisfactory decisions to use DDT. PMID:25086599

2014-01-01

301

Evaluation of harmful algal bloom outreach activities.  

PubMed

With an apparent increase of harmful algal blooms (HABs) worldwide, healthcare providers, public health personnel and coastal managers are struggling to provide scientifically-based appropriately-targeted HAB outreach and education. Since 1998, the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami, with its 24 hour/365 day/year free Aquatic Toxins Hotline (1-888-232-8635) available in several languages, has received over 25,000 HAB-related calls. As part of HAB surveillance, all possible cases of HAB-related illness among callers are reported to the Florida Health Department. This pilot study evaluated an automated call processing menu system that allows callers to access bilingual HAB information, and to speak directly with a trained Poison Information Specialist. The majority (68%) of callers reported satisfaction with the information, and many provided specific suggestions for improvement. This pilot study, the first known evaluation of use and satisfaction with HAB educational outreach materials, demonstrated that the automated system provided useful HAB-related information for the majority of callers, and decreased the routine informational call workload for the Poison Information Specialists, allowing them to focus on callers needing immediate assistance and their healthcare providers. These results will lead to improvement of this valuable HAB outreach, education and surveillance tool. Formal evaluation is recommended for future HAB outreach and educational materials. PMID:18463727

Fleming, Lora E; Jerez, Eva; Stephan, Wendy Blair; Cassedy, Amy; Bean, Judy A; Reich, Andrew; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine; Nierenberg, Kate; Watkins, Sharon; Hollenbeck, Julie; Weisman, Richard

2007-01-01

302

Protecting children from harmful food marketing: options for local government to make a difference.  

PubMed

The obesity epidemic cannot be reversed without substantial improvements in the food marketing environment that surrounds children. Food marketing targeted to children almost exclusively promotes calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and takes advantage of children's vulnerability to persuasive messages. Increasing scientific evidence reveals potentially profound effects of food marketing on children's lifelong eating behaviors and health. Much of this marketing occurs in nationwide media (eg, television, the Internet), but companies also directly target children in their own communities through the use of billboards and through local environments such as stores, restaurants, and schools. Given the harmful effect of this marketing environment on children's health and the industry's reluctance to make necessary changes to its food marketing practices, government at all levels has an obligation to act. This article focuses on policy options for municipalities that are seeking ways to limit harmful food marketing at the community level. PMID:21843422

Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

2011-09-01

303

Traditional Field Crops. Appropriate Technologies for Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, primarily designed to help Peace Corps volunteers develop and strengthen their agricultural skills, deals with traditional field crops. The focus of the manual is on surveying and interpreting local agricultural environment and individual farm units, developing agricultural extension techniques and practices, and providing basic…

Leonard, David

304

Traditional Asian Martial Arts Training: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Martial arts have become increasingly popular in the West, where they are practiced for self-defense, mental discipline, harmony of body and mind, physical fitness, and sport. It is estimated that 2–10 million Americans actively train. The literature pertaining to traditional martial arts training indicates that black belts do not conform to the violent, aggressive stereotypes portrayed in popular martial arts

John C. Cox

1993-01-01

305

The Individual Differences Tradition in Counseling Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counseling psychology developed in the 1950s out of applied psychology, which at that time was the application of the psychology of individual differences. The present article traces this historical development, from individual differences psychology through psychological testing, vocational counseling, and student personnel work, to counseling psychology. The individual differences tradition in counseling psychology research and practice is described, and the

René V. Dawis

1992-01-01

306

Harmed patients gaining voice: Challenging dominant perspectives in the construction of medical harm and patient safety reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient safety is a central issue in healthcare. In the United Kingdom, where there is more accurate information on National Health Service (NHS) hospitals than on primary care or the private sector, the evidence on adverse incidents shows that avoidable medical harm is a major concern. This paper looks at the occurrence of medical harm and argues that in the

Josephine Enyonam Ocloo

2010-01-01

307

iDetect: An immunity based algorithm to detect harmful content shared in Peer-to-Peer networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A huge amount of harmful and illegal contents such as child pornography and abuse vid eo are shared in Peer- to-Peer (P2P) network and have brought some se­ rious social problems. Traditional detection algorithm­ s monitor and analyze the content of the P2P traffic by deploying centralized powerful servers. The im­ mense amount of sharing, transferring and frequent­ ly updating

JIAN-MING LVI; ZHI-WEN YUI; Tie-Ying Zhang

2011-01-01

308

Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs. PMID:21477299

2011-01-01

309

Controlling harmful algal blooms through clay flocculation.  

PubMed

The potential use of clays to control harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been explored in East Asia, Australia, the United States, and Sweden. In Japan and South Korea, minerals such as montmorillonite, kaolinite, and yellow loess, have already been used in the field effectively, to protect fish mariculture from Cochlodinium spp. and other blooms. Cell removal occurs through the flocculation of algal and mineral particles, leading to the formation of larger aggregates (i.e. marine snow), which rapidly settle and further entrain cells during their descent. In the U.S., several clays and clay-rich sediments have shown high removal abilities (e.g. > 80% cell removal efficiency) against Karenia brevis, Heterosigma akashiwo, Pfiesteria piscicida and Aureococcus anophagefferens. In some cases, the removal ability of certain clays was further enhanced with chemical flocculants, such as polyaluminum chloride (PAC), to increase their adhesiveness. However, cell removal was also affected by bloom concentration, salinity, and mixing. Cell mortality was observed after clay addition, and increased with increasing clay concentration, and prolonged exposure to clays in the settled layer. Mesocosm, field enclosure, and flume experiments were also conducted to address cell removal with increasing scale and flow, water-column impacts, and the possible benthic effects from clay addition. Results from these studies will be presented, especially those in regards to water quality, seawater chemistry, bottom erodibility and faunal impacts in the benthos. At this time, clay dispersal continues to be a promising method for controlling HABs and mitigating their impacts based on existing information and experimental data. PMID:15134251

Sengco, Mario R; Anderson, Donald M

2004-01-01

310

Traditional Chinese Biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

311

Native American Healing Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

2006-01-01

312

An Agent Harms a Victim: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study on Specific Moral Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statement: An agent harms a victim, depicts a situation that triggers moral emotions. Depending on whether the agent and the victim are the self or someone else, it can lead to four different moral emotions: self-anger (I harm myself), guilt (I harm someone), other-anger (someone harms me), and compassion (someone harms someone). In order to investigate the neural correlates

Gayannée Kédia; Sylvie Berthoz; Michele Wessa; Denis Hilton; Jean-luc Martinot

2008-01-01

313

Understanding the potential impact of transgenic crops in traditional agriculture: maize farmers' perspectives in Cuba, Guatemala and Mexico.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered transgenic crop varieties (TGVs) have spread rapidly in the last 10 years, increasingly to traditionally-based agricultural systems (TBAS) of the Third World both as seed and food. Proponents claim they are key to reducing hunger and negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Opponents claim they will have the opposite effect. The risk management process (RMP) is the primary way in which TGVs are regulated in the US (and many other industrial countries), and proponents claim that the findings of that process in the US and its regulatory consequences should be extended to TBAS. However, TBAS differ in important ways from industrial agriculture, so TGVs could have different effects in TBAS, and farmers there may evaluate risks and benefits differently. To evaluate some potential impacts of TGVs in TBAS we used the RMP as a framework for the case of Bt maize in Mesoamerica and Cuba. We interviewed 334 farmers in Cuba, Guatemala and Mexico about farming practices, evaluations of potential harm via hypothetical scenarios, and ranking of maize types. Results suggest high potential for transgene flow via seed, grain and pollen; differences in effects of this exposure in TBAS compared with industrial agriculture; farmers see some potential consequences as harmful. Perceptions of harm differ among farmers in ways determined by their farming systems, and are different from those commonly assumed in industrial systems. An RMP including participation of farmers and characteristics of TBAS critical for their functioning is necessary to ensure that investments in agricultural technologies will improve, not compromise these agricultural systems. PMID:16634221

Soleri, Daniela; Cleveland, David A; Aragón, Flavio; Fuentes, Mario R; Ríos, Humberto; Sweeney, Stuart H

2005-01-01

314

Against Harmful Research on Non-Agreeing Children.  

PubMed

The Code of Federal Regulations permits harmful research on children who have not agreed to participate, but I will argue that it should be no more permissive of harmful research on such children than of harmful research on adults who have not agreed to participate. Of course, the Code permits harmful research on adults. Such research is not morally problematic, however, because adults must agree to participate. And, of course, the Code also permits beneficial research on children without needing their explicit agreement. This sort of research is also not problematic, this time because paternalism towards children may be justifiable. The moral problem at the center of this paper arises from the combination of two potential properties of pediatric research, first that it might be harmful and second that its subjects might not agree to participate. In Section 2 of this article I explain how the Code permits harmful research on non-agreeing children. Section 3 contains my argument that we should no more permit harmful research on non-agreeing children than on non-agreeing adults. In Section 4, I argue that my thesis does not presuppose that pediatric assent has the same moral force that adult consent does. In Section 5, I argue that the distinction between non-voluntary and involuntary research is irrelevant to my thesis. In Section 6, I rebut an objection based on the power of parental permission. In Section 7 I suggest how the Code of Federal Regulations might be changed. PMID:25257384

Chwang, Eric

2014-09-24

315

Perceived intent motivates people to magnify observed harms.  

PubMed

Existing moral psychology research commonly explains certain phenomena in terms of a motivation to blame. However, this motivation is not measured directly, but rather is inferred from other measures, such as participants' judgments of an agent's blameworthiness. The present paper introduces new methods for assessing this theoretically important motivation, using tools drawn from animal-model research. We test these methods in the context of recent "harm-magnification" research, which shows that people often overestimate the damage caused by intentional (versus unintentional) harms. A preliminary experiment exemplifies this work and also rules out an alternative explanation for earlier harm-magnification results. Exp. 1 asks whether intended harm motivates blame or merely demonstrates the actor's intrinsic blameworthiness. Consistent with a motivational interpretation, participants freely chose blaming, condemning, and punishing over other appealing tasks in an intentional-harm condition, compared with an unintentional-harm condition. Exp. 2 also measures motivation but with converging indicators of persistence (effort, rate, and duration) in blaming. In addition to their methodological contribution, these studies also illuminate people's motivational responses to intentional harms. Perceived intent emerges as catalyzing a motivated social cognitive process related to social prediction and control. PMID:25733850

Ames, Daniel L; Fiske, Susan T

2015-03-24

316

Traditional Grammar: An Interactive Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is traditional grammar dead? Donald Hardy, a professor of English at Northern Illinois University, doesn't think so. He recently posted this "e-grammar" on the Web to help teach users how to distinguish their nouns from their verbs, their nominative cases from their subjunctives, and their present perfect from their past. The descriptions are clear and concise, while quizzes at the end of each chapter as well as five practice exams allow readers to test their retention and keep track electronically of their score. (We were not convinced, however, that the typical exemplifications of the rules that are the core of each chapter truly constitute an "interactive" aspect of the text as the introduction claims.)

317

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Community in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will allow students to apply their understanding of the role of algae in the food web, the general impacts of harmful algal blooms, and ways that our societies deal with blooms in a simulated situation. Students are presented with a scenario of a recent harmful algal bloom in the fictional town of Habport. They are assigned roles and are asked to prepare for and participate in a Habport town meeting called to discuss the bloom. As the students are allowed time to discuss what occurred during their town meeting, they will better understand the broader ecological, social, and economic impact of a harmful algal bloom.

318

Tradition in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

Heisenberg, Werner

1973-01-01

319

Traditional Cherokee Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

Hendrix, Janey B.

320

Traditional Islamic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical and descriptive account of the Islamic school system is presented. Traditional Islamic schools began with the founding of Islam in the seventh century A.D.; the madrasas or Islamic universities were considered to be among the world's finest higher education institutes. Although Islamic scholarship began to wane in the 14th century,…

Pollak, Susan

321

THIS MONTHS TOPIC: TRADITIONAL  

E-print Network

University of Calgary Kaitlin Breton-Honeyman PhD Candidate, Environmental and Life Sciences Trent University the latest ideas and issues in science and technology in an informal setting. PRESENTED BY: @TWScalgaryTHIS MONTHS TOPIC: TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE The Inuit view of how the Arctic is changing WITH SPECIAL

Garousi, Vahid

322

Supply-side harm reduction strategies: Bolivia's experiment with social control.  

PubMed

Harm reduction approaches to drug control have almost exclusively focussed on consumers in northern countries. This article supports recent analysis that indicates that such policies also hold relevance for producer countries by drawing on recent policy innovations in Bolivia. When Evo Morales, the president of the national coca grower confederation, was elected the country's first indigenous president in 2005, he promised to fundamentally change 25 years of the U.S.-funded "drug war" that had generated repeated human rights violations. The new policy, which implicitly incorporates harm reduction principles combined with respect for human rights, recognizes coca leaf's traditional use and cultural importance and relies on vigorous local organizations to implement a community-based programme called social control. Results to date indicate that Bolivia's social control experience has reduced violence in coca growing communities, ensured small farmers a subsistence income from coca and increased sovereignty, while making a modest contribution to containing expansion of coca cultivation. The programme has registered 50,000 farmers who are allowed to cultivate limited quantities of coca to supply traditional users and helped them gain secure title to their land. This registration is combined with satellite surveillance to guarantee that farmers do not exceed limits established by law. To date, the programme's reach is incomplete and coca is still diverted to the drug trade. Nonetheless, the approach may offer lessons for other drug producer countries, particularly where strong socio-political organizations are found in combination with closeknit communities holding shared cultural values. PMID:22818891

Farthing, Linda; Kohl, Benjamin

2012-11-01

323

Molecular insights into the niche of harmful brown tides  

E-print Network

Recurrent brown tide blooms caused by the harmful alga Alureococcus anophagefferens have decimated coastal ecosystems and shellfisheries along the Eastern U.S and South Africa. The exact mechanisms controlling bloom ...

Wurch, Louie L. (Louie Lorne)

2011-01-01

324

16 CFR 1102.10 - Reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...reports of harm must be submitted to the CPSC using one of the following methods: (1) Internet submissions through the CPSC's Internet Web site on an electronic... (2) Telephonic submissions through a CPSC call center, where the information...

2011-01-01

325

16 CFR 1102.10 - Reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...reports of harm must be submitted to the CPSC using one of the following methods: (1) Internet submissions through the CPSC's Internet Web site on an electronic... (2) Telephonic submissions through a CPSC call center, where the information...

2012-01-01

326

16 CFR 1102.10 - Reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...reports of harm must be submitted to the CPSC using one of the following methods: (1) Internet submissions through the CPSC's Internet Web site on an electronic... (2) Telephonic submissions through a CPSC call center, where the information...

2014-01-01

327

16 CFR 1102.10 - Reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reports of harm must be submitted to the CPSC using one of the following methods: (1) Internet submissions through the CPSC's Internet Web site on an electronic... (2) Telephonic submissions through a CPSC call center, where the information...

2013-01-01

328

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2010-10-01

329

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2012-10-01

330

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2014-10-01

331

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2013-10-01

332

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2011-10-01

333

24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent...may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on probation or...

2010-04-01

334

Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John

2013-01-01

335

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

E-print Network

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the ...

Bertrand, Erin Marie

336

24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent...may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on probation or...

2014-04-01

337

24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent...may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on probation or...

2013-04-01

338

24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent...may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on probation or...

2011-04-01

339

24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent...may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on probation or...

2012-04-01

340

Harmful situations, impure people: an attribution asymmetry across moral domains.  

PubMed

People make inferences about the actions of others, assessing whether an act is best explained by person-based versus situation-based accounts. Here we examine people's explanations for norm violations in different domains: harmful acts (e.g., assault) and impure acts (e.g., incest). Across four studies, we find evidence for an attribution asymmetry: people endorse more person-based attributions for impure versus harmful acts. This attribution asymmetry is partly explained by the abnormality of impure versus harmful acts, but not by differences in the moral wrongness or the statistical frequency of these acts. Finally, this asymmetry persists even when the situational factors that lead an agent to act impurely are stipulated. These results suggest that, relative to harmful acts, impure acts are linked to person-based attributions. PMID:25490126

Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

2015-03-01

341

[Harm reduction policies in Brazil: contributions of a North American program].  

PubMed

Given the rapid spread of the HIV epidemic and the need to control its transmission among intravenous drug users (IDU), harm reduction strategies have been incorporated in many countries, including Brazil. Considering these aspects and taking into account the emergence of drugs as a core concern on the government's agenda, especially crack cocaine, this article presents some of the contributions acquired from observing and recording the practices of an American model of research and care for IDUs, namely the UFO (You Find Out) Study. Issues such as participants' access and adherence, financing difficulties, sustainability and outcome evaluation were considered. The study involved documental research, systematic observation and interviews with key informants. Some of the UFO features that could contribute to the formulation of harm reduction policies in Brazil are highlighted. The UFO appears to be a successful example of harm reduction initiatives that successfully contact and guarantee the commitment of that risk group, ensuring its access to health services and reducing risks associated with drug use. PMID:24473612

Inglez-Dias, Aline; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Bastos, Francisco I; Page, Kimberly

2014-01-01

342

HARM: A Numerical Scheme for General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HARM uses a conservative, shock-capturing scheme for evolving the equations of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. The fluxes are calculated using the Harten, Lax, & van Leer scheme. A variant of constrained transport, proposed earlier by Tóth, is used to maintain a divergence-free magnetic field. Only the covariant form of the metric in a coordinate basis is required to specify the geometry. On smooth flows HARM converges at second order.

Gammie, Charles, F.; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Tóth, Gábor

2012-09-01

343

Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Nutrient sources, composition, and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although algal blooms, including those considered toxic or harmful, can be natural phenomena, the nature of the global problem\\u000a of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has expanded both in extent and its public perception over the last several decades. Of concern,\\u000a especially for resource managers, is the potential relationship between HABs and the accelerated eutrophication of coastal\\u000a waters from human activities.

Donald M. Anderson; Patricia M. Glibert; Joann M. Burkholder

2002-01-01

344

GHB use among Australians: characteristics, use patterns and associated harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) users, their GHB and other drug use patterns, and the harms associated with GHB use. Seventy-six GHB users were recruited and administered a structured interview on GHB use and related harms. GHB users appeared to be a stable, highly educated and well-functioning group. They had had extensive

Louisa Degenhardt; Shane Darke; Paul Dillon

2002-01-01

345

Harm reduction history, response, and current trends in Asia  

PubMed Central

HIV epidemics in Asia have been initially driven through injecting drug use and the use of shared needles and syringes. Molecular epidemiological work has shown that where there is heroin trafficking and use, so too is there HIV. Given the often strict enforcement of national anti-narcotic laws, harm reduction responses to HIV infections driven by injecting drug use have been historically slow. As it became clear that preventing HIV meant embracing harm reduction, many countries in the region have adopted harm reduction as part of their national AIDS strategy and increasingly as part of their national drug strategy. Initial successes have proven that harm reduction, as it pertains to HIV among IDUs, can and does work in Asia. These initial successes have led to more comprehensive scale-up of other essential components of HIV prevention among IDUs, including increased availability of opiate substitution programs. Still, multiple challenges remain as overall coverage of services in the region remains poor. Changes in the availability and patterns of use of drugs, including the exponential increase in the use of amphetamine-type stimulants, is providing ongoing challenges to both the law enforcement and public health sectors. This paper reflects on the history of harm reduction in Asia and the shifting trends forcing policy makers to adapt and expand harm reduction strategies to include an ever widening approach to criminal justice, policing, public health, and human rights. PMID:25264414

Thomson, Nicholas

2014-01-01

346

Modeling of underground thermal behavior of solar hot water during treatment of harmful plants  

SciTech Connect

Annihilation of harmful plants among vegetables by solar hot-water injection into the roots is an alternative to chemical treatment methods. A three-dimensional solution of the heat diffusion equation between the treated region and the vegetable root is presented with related boundary conditions. Soil properties and dimensional characteristics are important for obtaining safety limitations of the treatment. A mathematical model with suitable outputs gives practical results for correct application of solar hot water. Critical distances between overheating of vegetable roots and useful irrigation water effects are distinguished.

Eltez, M. [Ege Univ., Bornova-Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.

1998-04-01

347

Sustainable Traditional Medicine: Taking the Inspirations from Ancient Veterinary Science  

PubMed Central

Rapid reduction in natural resources as a consequence to the expanded urbanization, global warming and reduced natural habitat posed a considerable threat to the sustainability of traditional medicine. Being completely dependent upon natural resources like herbs, minerals and animal products, traditional medicine would possibly rank first in order of extinction of heritage if an alternative way is not considered well in time. In reference to the use of animal products, Ayurveda presents some unique examples where animals are used without causing harm to them and so without posing a threat to their existence. In the current context, when natural resources are facing a threat to their existence, a revisit to these ideas may give us a new insight to refine our look at natural resources used in traditional medicine. PMID:18980947

Rastogi, Sanjeev; Kaphle, Krishna

2011-01-01

348

Victims’ perceptions of traditional and cyberbullying, and the psychosocial correlates of their victimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well recognised that there are serious correlates for victims of traditional bullying. These have been shown to include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms, in addition to often severe physical harm and even suicide. Bullied students also feel more socially ineffective and have greater interpersonal difficulties, together with higher absenteeism from school and lower academic competence.

Marilyn Campbell; Barbara Spears; Phillip Slee; Des Butler; Sally Kift

2012-01-01

349

Victims' Perceptions of Traditional and Cyberbullying, and the Psychosocial Correlates of Their Victimisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well recognised that there are serious correlates for victims of traditional bullying. These have been shown to include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms, in addition to often severe physical harm and even suicide. Bullied students also feel more socially ineffective and have greater interpersonal…

Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally

2012-01-01

350

Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article…

Freudenberg, Nicholas

2005-01-01

351

Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article describes how corporate policies influence health and reviews recent health

Nicholas Freudenberg

2005-01-01

352

Hybrid re Assembage : bridging traditional craft and digital design  

E-print Network

Hybrid reAssemblage is a design gestalt that lies at the cross-section of digital design practice and the tactile qualities of traditional craft. It spans a territory in which the value of artifacts is produced through ...

Zoran, Amit (Amit Shlomo)

2013-01-01

353

Advocate program for healthy traditional houses, ume kbubu, in a timor community: preserving traditional behavior and promoting improved health outcomes.  

PubMed

Families in the Timor society of Indonesia have customarily used traditional houses, called Ume Kbubu, for confinement practices of a newborn baby and the mother during the first 40 days after birth. The practice, known as Sei (smoke) tradition, involves retaining heat, which is believed to foster healing, inside the house by continuously burning a wood burning stove. Exacerbated by inadequate ventilation in the traditional house, this practice results in poor indoor air quality and negatively affects the health of the mother and baby. Preliminary findings from a baseline study conducted in 2009 identified high levels of indoor air pollution in Ume Kbubu where mothers practiced the Sei tradition. Many respondents expressed that they suffered from respiratory health problems during the practice. On the basis of those results, a follow-up study was conducted in 2011 to develop and test a communication-focused behavior change intervention that would foster conversion of traditional houses into healthy Ume Kbubu and promote changes to traditional practices for better health outcomes. The study suggests that redesigning an Ume Kbubu house could promote better air quality inside the house and involving the community in the health intervention program led to positive changes in the Sei practice (i.e., decreasing the Sei period's length from 40 days to 4 days on average and attempting to reduce household air pollution). The study resulted in several recommendations in relation to sustained transformation to improve health behaviors. PMID:25839199

Prasodjo, Rachmalina; Musadad, D Anwar; Muhidin, Salut; Pardosi, Jerico; Silalahi, Maria

2015-03-31

354

Efficacy of Quality Criteria to Identify Potentially Harmful Information: A Cross-sectional Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web Sites  

PubMed Central

Background Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated. PMID:15249270

Walji, Muhammad; Sagaram, Smitha; Sagaram, Deepak; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson, Craig; Mirza, Nadeem Q

2004-01-01

355

Name of the game International students learn Aggie traditions  

E-print Network

and traditions education, a tour of Kyle Field, yell practice, and admission to Saturday´s game against IowaName of the game International students learn Aggie traditions By Kimberly Huebner Published. Huang, a first year graduate student from Taiwan studying education, said she now feels comfortable

Allen, Roland E.

356

Vaginal Douching Among Latinas: Practices and Meaning  

PubMed Central

Objectives Vaginal douching is widely practiced by American women, particularly among minority groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. This research sought to investigate vaginal hygiene practices and meaning associated with them among Latina women and adolescents. Study results would guide development of an intervention to decrease douching among Latinas. Methods In depth qualitative interviews conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking women aged 16–40, seeking care for any reason who reported douching within the last year (n = 34). Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. One-third of interviews were conducted in Spanish. Results Two explanatory models for douching motives emerged: one stressed cosmetic benefits; the other, infection prevention and control. Most women reported douching to eliminate menstrual residue; a small number reported douching in context of sexual intercourse or vaginal symptoms. Many were unaware of associated health risks. Respondents typically learned about douching from female family members and friends. Male partners were described as having little to no involvement in the decision to douche. Women varied in their willingness to stop douching. Two-thirds reported receiving harm reduction messages about “overdouching”. About half indicated previous discussion about douching with health care providers; some had reduced frequency in response to counseling. A number of previously unreported vaginal hygiene practices and products were described, including use of a range of traditional hygiene practices, and products imported from outside the US. Conclusions Respondents expressed a range of commitment to douching. Counseling messages acknowledging benefits women perceive as well as health risks should be developed and delivered tailored to individual beliefs. Further research is needed to assess prevalence and safety of previously unreported practices. PMID:18297379

Baquero, María; Anderson, Matthew R.; Alvarez, Adelyn; Karasz, Alison

2009-01-01

357

Competition in liver transplantation: helpful or harmful?  

PubMed

Improved outcomes of liver transplantation have led to increases in the numbers of US transplant centers and candidates on the list. The resultant and ever-expanding organ shortage has created competition among centers, especially in regions with multiple liver transplant programs. Multiple reports now document that competition among the country's transplant centers has led to the listing of increasingly high-risk patients and the utilization of more marginal liver allografts. The transplant and medical communities at large should carefully re-evaluate these practices and promote innovative approaches to restoring trust in the allocation of donor organs and confirming that there is nationwide conformity in the guidelines used for evaluating and listing potential candidates for this scarce resource. PMID:25370903

Saidi, Reza F; Razavi, Moaven; Cosimi, A Benedict; Ko, Dicken S C

2015-02-01

358

Sugar beet traditional breeding.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With rapidly changing agricultural practices, target environments, and biotic and abiotic stresses, plant breeders face the task of continually selecting plants with desirable traits with the goal to assemble advantageous combinations of genes in new varieties. Sugar beet has been selectively bred s...

359

Harm reduction - a historical view from the left.  

PubMed

The harm reduction movement formed during a period in which social movements of the working class and the excluded were weak, neo-liberalism ideologically triumphant, and potential opposition movements were viewed as offering "tinkering" with the system rather than a total social alternative. This climate shaped and limited the perspectives, strategies, and tactics of harm reductionists almost everywhere. In many countries, this period was also marked by a "political economy of scapegoating" that often targeted drug users as the cause of social woes. This scapegoating took the form of "divide and rule" political initiatives by business and political leaderships to prevent social unrest in a long period of worldwide economic trends toward lowered profit rates and toward increasing income inequality. However, times have changed. Mass strikes and other labor struggles, opposition to the World Trade Organisation and other agencies of neo-liberalism, community-based protests against belt-tightening, and other forms of social unrest have been increasing in many countries. This opens up the possibility of new allies for the harm reduction movement, but also poses difficult problems for which we need to develop answers. On-the-ground experience in alliance formation needs to be combined with careful discussion of and research about what approaches work to convince other movements to work for and with harm reduction, and which approaches do not. Class differences within the harm reduction movement are likely to become more salient in terms of (a) creating internal tensions, (b) increasingly, opening up new ways in which working class harm reductionists can organize within their own communities and workplaces, and (c) producing different strategic orientations that will need to be discussed and debated. As a movement, we will need to find ways to accommodate and discuss differing perspectives, needs, and assessments of opportunities and threats without paralyzing harm reduction activities. PMID:11275494

Friedman, S R.; Southwell, M; Bueno, R; Paone, D; Byrne, J; Crofts, N

2001-04-01

360

It's a wonderful life: is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born?  

PubMed

"It's a Wonderful Life," the title of Frank Capra's classic 1946 movie, seems to encapsulate a fundamental all-American conviction. Unsurprisingly, several courts and jurists have applied the movie-title maxim as the ultimate retort to one of the most intriguing questions in modern tort discourse: Is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born? Wrongful life claimants answer in the affirmative, whereas Capra's aphorism makes a compelling counter-argument. In my opinion, the contrasting views represent equally legitimate subjective beliefs rather than objective truths, so neither may ever prevail. Without a satisfactory solution from conventional wisdom, the life-as-injury debate may be the Gordian knot of tort law. The purpose of this Article is to cut, rather than untie, the knot: Allow the child to recover without challenging or validating the deep-seated perception of life. Part I shows that hostility to liability in tort for wrongful life is almost universal, crossing lands and seas. Part II argues that this demurral is ultimately rooted in the absence of one of the central components of the cause of action. A tort action must fail because of the inability--both logical and practical--to establish "harm" under the traditional definition of this term. Part III opines that because the Gordian knot of tort law cannot be untied, it must be cut altogether. We must replace the traditional tort framework, which gives rise to an insoluble problem, with a more promising contractual framework inspired by the celebrated case of Hawkins v. McGee. In my view, the child may base an action on the claim that the defendant promised the parents that the child would be born without a certain defect and that the promise went unfulfilled. In formal terms, the child is an intended third party beneficiary of the contract between the parents and the consultant in which the latter warranted birth without a particular disability. The warranty of the future child's physical integrity and health, an integral and inseparable part of the contract, should form the basis of the child's cause of action. PMID:18354869

Perry, Ronen

2007-11-01

361

Minor Self-Harm and Psychiatric Disorder: A Population-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as…

Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Moffit, Terrie E.

2004-01-01

362

Native Americans: traditional healing.  

PubMed

There are an estimated 4.1 million people who are classified as American Indian and Alaska Native alone or in combination with one or more other races. This racial group composes 1.5% of the total U.S. population. The leading causes of illness and death among American Indians are heart disease, cancer, unintentional injuries (accidents), diabetes, and stroke. American Indians also have a high prevalence of obesity, chronic renal failure, alcoholism, and are at increased risk for mental health issues and suicide. In an effort to build a trusted relationship with these patients and become an active participant in their care, the health care provider must demonstrate respect for the traditions of the American Indian. PMID:17494460

Broome, Barbara; Broome, Rochelle

2007-04-01

363

Contraception: traditional and religious attitudes.  

PubMed

Humans have tried to control fertility for centuries. Primitive, preliterate societies practiced infanticide and abortion. When primitive women understood the advantages of conception control, they tried, when possible, to use contraception. In the 4th century B.C., Plato and Aristotle advocated a one-child family. Greek medical literature reported a hollow tube inserted through the cervix into the uterus and a potion as contraceptives. Islamic physicians had much knowledge about conception control. The attitudes toward contraception. In the 5th century B.C., Saint Augustine condemned contraception, even among married couples. The condom emerged in the early modern period. Yet, they were usually worn to protect against disease, e.g., bilharzia in Egypt and syphilis in Europe. The cervical cap and the diaphragm are examples of occlusive pessaries. By 1880, contraceptives and spermicides were advertised. In 1928, the IUD joined the existing contraceptives. Today we have combined oral contraceptives. Judaic law requires husbands to fulfill their wives sexual needs, separate from their duty to procreate. It also calls men, not women, to procreate and forbids men from masturbating, thus Judaic law does not forbid women from practicing contraception. The Roman Catholic church forbids contraceptive use because it is a sin against nature. Some Protestant denominations have allowed contraceptive use. Islamic law states that children are gifts from Allah. Some Moslems believe that they must have many children, but Allah and the Prophet state that children have rights to education and future security. These rights allow couples to prevent pregnancy. Neither Hinduism nor Buddhism prohibit contraceptive use. Differences in husband-wife communication, sex roles, access to contraceptives, and traditional family values will have more of an effect on contraceptive use and fertility than theological barriers or the social class of religious groups. PMID:8365507

Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

1993-04-01

364

Between harm reduction, loss and wellness: on the occupational hazards of work  

PubMed Central

Those working in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services must cope with a range of stresses, including post traumatic stress and vicarious trauma. Pain and loss are just a part of the job. So is dealing with premature death as a result of HIV, hypertension, and even overdose. Faced with a range of challenges, some workers in the field even turn to self-medication. For some, it is about pleasure; for others it is about alleviating suffering. In recent years, several leaders in the AIDS and harm reduction fields have died ahead of their time. Some stopped taking their medications; others overdosed. Rather than weakness or pathology, French sociologist Emile Durkheim saw self-destructive behavior as a byproduct of social disorganization and isolation, as a way of contending with a breakdown of social bonds and alienation. There are any number of reasons why such behavior becomes part of work for those involved with battling the dueling epidemics of Hepatitis C, HIV, and related concerns. Forms of stress related to this work include secondary trauma, compassion fatigue, organizational conflict, burnout, complications of direct services, and lack of funding. Faced with day-to- day struggles over poverty, punitive welfare systems, drug use, the war on drugs, high risk behavior, structural violence, and illness, many in the field are left to wonder how to strive for wellness when taking on so much pain. For some, self-injury and self-medication are ways of responding. Building on ethnographic methods, this reflective analysis considers the stories of those who have suffered, as well as a few of the ways those in the field cope with harm and pain. The work considers the moral questions we face when we see our friends and colleagues suffer. It asks how we as practitioners strive to create a culture of wellness and support in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services. Through a brief review of losses and literature thereof, the essay considers models of harm reduction practice that emphasize health, pleasure and sustainability for practitioners. PMID:23548032

2013-01-01

365

Self-harm and conventional gender roles in women.  

PubMed

A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that those with lower scores on Instrumentality and Unmitigated Agency (positive and negative masculinity) and higher scores on Insecurity (negative femininity) had greater odds of self-harming. Relationships were weaker after accounting for generalized self-efficacy. Results are discussed in relation to previous findings and suggestions for prevention are made. PMID:23293983

Straiton, Melanie L; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Grimholt, Tine K; Dieserud, Gudrun

2013-04-01

366

[Deliberate self-harm (DSH). Between constraint and relief].  

PubMed

This article is the product of the research work done on "Deliberate self-harm -DSH-: a constraint way to open to the world?" in which this Deliberate Self Harm was explored as from the phenomenological psychopathology and the suicidology theoretical approach, such research being done on the subjective and reflective narrations of people undergoing such problems, coming from different sources. Some discourse patterns are exposed that may be considered of great usefulness for the identification, the treatment -or postvention-, as well as for the prevention of the problem at issue. As an annex, a Survey of Self-harm is presented made for data collection and the planning of actions in communitarian interventions with adolescents form different places in Argentina, in conjunction with the Argentinean Professional Team of the Argentinean Association for Suicide Prevention. PMID:25546543

Martínez, Daniela V

2014-01-01

367

Harmful Gas Recognition Exploiting a CTL Sensor Array  

PubMed Central

In this paper, a novel cataluminescence (CTL)-based sensor array consisting of nine types of catalytic materials is developed for the recognition of several harmful gases, namely carbon monoxide, acetone, chloroform and toluene. First, the experimental setup is constructed by using sensing nanomaterials, a heating plate, a pneumatic pump, a gas flow meter, a digital temperature device, a camera and a BPCL Ultra Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer. Then, unique CTL patterns for the four types of harmful gas are obtained from the sensor array. The harmful gases are successful recognized by the PCA method. The optimal conditions are also investigated. Finally, experimental results show high sensitivity, long-term stability and good linearity of the sensor array, which combined with simplicity, make our system a promising application in this field. PMID:24113681

Wang, Qihui; Xie, Lijun; Zhu, Bo; Zheng, Yao; Cao, Shihua

2013-01-01

368

How do drug users define their progress in harm reduction programs? Qualitative research to develop user-generated outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Harm reduction is a relatively new and controversial model for treating drug users, with little formal research on its operation and effectiveness. In order to advance the study of harm reduction programs and our understanding of how drug users define their progress, qualitative research was conducted to develop outcomes of harm reduction programming that are culturally relevant, incremental, (i.e., capable of measuring change), and hierarchical (i.e., capable of showing how clients improve over time). Methods The study used nominal group technique (NGT) to develop the outcomes (phase 1) and focus group interviews to help validate the findings (phase 2). Study participants were recruited from a large harm-reduction program in New York City and involved approximately 120 clients in 10 groups in phase 1 and 120 clients in 10 focus groups in phase 2. Results Outcomes of 10 life areas important to drug users were developed that included between 10 to 15 incremental measures per outcome. The outcomes included ways of 1) making money; 2) getting something good to eat; 3) being housed/homeless; 4) relating to families; 5) getting needed programs/benefits/services; 6) handling health problems; 7) handling negative emotions; 8) handling legal problems; 9) improving oneself; and 10) handling drug-use problems. Findings also provided insights into drug users' lives and values, as well as a window into understanding how this population envisions a better quality of life. Results challenged traditional ways of measuring drug users based solely on quantity used and frequency of use. They suggest that more appropriate measures are based on the extent to which drug users organize their lives around drug use and how much drug use is integrated into their lives and negatively impacts other aspects of their lives. Conclusions Harm reduction and other programs serving active drug users and other marginalized people should not rely on institutionalized, provider-defined solutions to problems in living faced by their clients. PMID:15333130

Ruefli, Terry; Rogers, Susan J

2004-01-01

369

How do drug users define their progress in harm reduction programs? Qualitative research to develop user-generated outcomes.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Harm reduction is a relatively new and controversial model for treating drug users, with little formal research on its operation and effectiveness. In order to advance the study of harm reduction programs and our understanding of how drug users define their progress, qualitative research was conducted to develop outcomes of harm reduction programming that are culturally relevant, incremental, (i.e., capable of measuring change), and hierarchical (i.e., capable of showing how clients improve over time). METHODS: The study used nominal group technique (NGT) to develop the outcomes (phase 1) and focus group interviews to help validate the findings (phase 2). Study participants were recruited from a large harm-reduction program in New York City and involved approximately 120 clients in 10 groups in phase 1 and 120 clients in 10 focus groups in phase 2. RESULTS: Outcomes of 10 life areas important to drug users were developed that included between 10 to 15 incremental measures per outcome. The outcomes included ways of 1) making money; 2) getting something good to eat; 3) being housed/homeless; 4) relating to families; 5) getting needed programs/benefits/services; 6) handling health problems; 7) handling negative emotions; 8) handling legal problems; 9) improving oneself; and 10) handling drug-use problems. Findings also provided insights into drug users' lives and values, as well as a window into understanding how this population envisions a better quality of life. Results challenged traditional ways of measuring drug users based solely on quantity used and frequency of use. They suggest that more appropriate measures are based on the extent to which drug users organize their lives around drug use and how much drug use is integrated into their lives and negatively impacts other aspects of their lives. CONCLUSIONS: Harm reduction and other programs serving active drug users and other marginalized people should not rely on institutionalized, provider-defined solutions to problems in living faced by their clients. PMID:15333130

Ruefli, Terry; Rogers, Susan J

2004-08-26

370

Time and Tradition. Amana Community Schools Folklife Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Amana (Iowa) Folklife Curriculum has been planned as an easily-implemented sequence of activities comparing community and family folklife traditions with current practices. The K-5 activities are planned to coincide with holidays in the regular school calendar whenever possible. All activities compare and contrast present-day practices with…

Trumpold, Caroline; Kellenberger, Gordon

371

Nature and community in Western culture: Wendell Berry's alternative tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is an examination of the ideals and practices that have characterized Western culture's relationship to the natural world. The conventional approach, depicted by some of the most prominent ecological publications of recent years, criticizes the Western tradition for both its ideals and practices. The ideals are assumed to be best represented in Western philosophy and religion and both

Donna Daniel Schindler

2001-01-01

372

Management Challenges to Implementing Agile Processes in Traditional Development Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions with traditional developers and managers concerning agile software development practices nearly always contain two somewhat contradictory ideas. They find that on small, stand-alone projects, agile practices are less burdensome and more in tune with the software industry's increasing needs for rapid development and coping with continuous change. Managers face several barriers, real and perceived, when they try to bring

Barry W. Boehm; Richard Turner

2005-01-01

373

Mexico-U.S. Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workshop on Taxonomy of Harmful Algal Blooms; Veracruz, Mexico, 18-22 February 2008; A workshop on harmful algal bloom (HAB) taxonomy, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Health of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, was held at the Aquarium of Veracruz and focused on standardizing methods to detect HABs that affect coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico. This binational effort was established under the umbrella of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA), initially formed in 2004 by the five U.S. Gulf states (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) with participation from U.S. federal agencies and other stakeholders.

Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

2008-06-01

374

Accuracy of harm scores entered into an event reporting system.  

PubMed

This quality improvement project evaluated the accuracy of harm scores entered into an event reporting system by inpatient nursing staff at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. Nurses scored 10 safety scenarios using 2 versions of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality scale to determine interrater reliability. Results indicated inconsistency in the way nurses scored the scenarios, suggesting that the event reporting system may not accurately portray the severity of harm in patient safety events. Nurse executives can use this information to guide the development and implementation of incident reporting systems. PMID:25803804

Abbasi, Toni; Adornetto-Garcia, Debra; Johnston, Patricia A; Segovia, Julie H; Summers, Barbara

2015-04-01

375

Violence and suffering in television news: toward a broader conception of harmful television content for children.  

PubMed

Traditionally, the public and professional debate about the inappropriateness of media violence for children focuses mainly on the negative effects of violence in entertainment programming. However, since the terrorist attacks on September 11th and the recent coverage of the war in Iraq, the suitability of real-life news violence for children may be doubted more than ever. To draw attention to the potential harmful effects of violence presented in news programs, it is argued in the present article that health care professionals should advocate a broader conception of media violence than thus far has been used. On the basis of recent research, potential effects of violent news content, such as fear, aggression, and desensitization, are discussed and recommendations are provided on how to abate these outcomes. PMID:15173505

Walma van der Molen, Juliette H

2004-06-01

376

The drinker's effect on the social environment: a conceptual framework for studying alcohol's harm to others.  

PubMed

The paper considers conceptual and methodological issues in studying the scope of alcohol's harm to others. Reasons are suggested for the relative neglect of the topic. The approaches in two relevant research traditions are considered: population surveys on alcohol problems, and economic cost of alcohol studies. Ways of conceptualizing and measuring aspects of the drinker's effects on others are considered, in terms of main types of relationship with the other, and in terms of major societal response institutions. The main types of data tend to measure different levels of severity, with population survey data dominated by less severe problems, and response institution data by more severe problems; so both are needed for a three-dimensional view. Research questions for the field and its policy significance are noted. PMID:20617064

Room, Robin; Ferris, Jason; Laslett, Anne-Marie; Livingston, Michael; Mugavin, Janette; Wilkinson, Claire

2010-04-01

377

Young Children in Institutional Care at Risk of Harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey has revealed a large number of young children in institutional care across Europe. Young children placed in institutional care without parents may be at risk of harm. This review considers systematically the research evidence on the impact of institutional care on brain growth, attachment, social behavior, and cog- nitive development. Analytical epidemiological study designs (i.e., including a

REBECCA JOHNSON; KEVIN BROWNE; CATHERINE HAMILTON-GIACHRITSIS

2006-01-01

378

Harms of Unintentional Leaks during Volume Targeted Pressure Support Ventilation  

E-print Network

1 Harms of Unintentional Leaks during Volume Targeted Pressure Support Ventilation Sonia Khirani1 Background: Volume targeted pressure support ventilation (VT-PSV) is a hybrid mode increasingly used. The objective of the study was to determine the ability of home ventilators to maintain the preset minimal VT

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

379

MD5 To Be Considered Harmful Someday Dan Kaminsky  

E-print Network

been released ­ code implementing the attack isn't even public yet ­ sufficient information has been1 MD5 To Be Considered Harmful Someday Dan Kaminsky Senior Security Consultant, Avaya dan a perception that the flaws identified have no applied implications. We show that the appendability of Merkle

380

Mental Health Status Among the Staff of Harm Reduction Centers  

PubMed Central

Background: Creating a supportive environment encourages charity services to help risk groups and individuals which has magnificent impacts on reducing their harm. Objectives: According to this plan, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health status in the staff of harm reduction centers. Materials and Methods: The clustered sample of this comparative study consisted of 49 staff of harm reduction centers. The study was supported by the United Nations Development Program in Tehran, Iran. The participants completed GHQ-28 and DASS-21 questionnaires along with sociologic forms and the results were evaluated by descriptive statistics indexes and independent sample t-test. Results: One-hundred percent of the participants in this study showed the symptoms of psychological disorders, and approximately 16 percent suffered from moderate to high degree of anxiety, depression and stress. The level of anxiety (P ? 0.04) and stress (P ? 0.01) in the younger staff (less than 40 years) was significantly higher than older staff (more than 40 years old). In addition, somatic symptoms (P ? 0.05) and social withdrawal (P ? 0.01) were significantly higher in women than men. Conclusions: Accordingly, major mental disorders in the staff of harm reduction centers, especially women and younger people need to be considered more than before. PMID:24971296

Rezazade, Majid; Lashani, Zeynab; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

2014-01-01

381

The Harmful Algal Bloom: Simple Plants With Toxic Implications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides scientific understanding, detection, monitoring, assessment, and prediction of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxia (low oxygen). Specifics are given on understanding HABs (red tide) where they occur, the climate and economic impact on the environment as well as a framework of response options.

2003-07-27

382

Automatically Classifying Benign and Harmful Data Races Using Replay Analysis  

E-print Network

Automatically Classifying Benign and Harmful Data Races Using Replay Analysis Satish Narayanasamy Abstract Many concurrency bugs in multi-threaded programs are due to data races. There have been many efforts to develop static and dynamic mechanisms to automatically find the data races. Most of the prior

Calder, Bradley

383

Method for disposing of harmful organic waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is provided for safely and permanently disposing of harmful waste materials of a predominantly organic character. The basic concept is provision of a medium in which the organic waste material may either be dissolved or suspended, and the imparting of coagulating properties to the solution or slurry so formed. A suitable, relatively inexpensive medium which may be employed

1965-01-01

384

Approaches to model the life cycle of harmful algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of harmful algal blooms (HABs) need to include autecological characteristics of the HAB species because the bloom dynamics can only be successfully described if relevant life cycle aspects (in particular en- and excystment) are included in some way. This study presents an overview on how the life cycle is considered in current Lagrangian and Eulerian models. Examples of the

Inga Hense

2010-01-01

385

Research on the life cycles of harmful algae: A commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the life cycles of harmful algae has advanced substantially in the last decade, in part through increased support of major research programs such as the SEED and the ECOHAB – Gulf of Maine projects. As with most research, the new knowledge answers some questions but raises more that require further inquiry, particularly since life-cycle strategies appear to

Karen A. Steidinger

2010-01-01

386

Does Income Inequality Harm Health? New Cross-National Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The provocative hypothesis that income inequality harms population health has sparked a large body of research, some of which has reported strong associations between income inequality and population health. Cross-national evidence is frequently cited in support of this important hypothesis, but the hypothesis remains controversial, and the…

Beckfield, Jason

2004-01-01

387

What is causing the harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Harmful and nuisance algal blooms have been increasing in size and extent since about 2000. In recent years, the release of the algal toxin microcystin has become a growing concern and has resulted in the inability to use water from Lake Erie as a drinking water source to the 400,000 residents of T...

388

Cognitive-behavioural therapy for deliberate self-harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) intervention for patients who engage in Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH). The CBT intervention was designed to supplement usual care following an episode of DSH. The study involved 90 people (95% females), aged 15–35 years, who were randomly assigned to CBT in addition to treatment as

Nadja Slee

2008-01-01

389

Disclosure of Unknown Harms in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unknown harms are by their nature difficult to communicate. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has known risks (e.g., metal projectiles, dislodgement of medical implants), this imaging modality also has potential unknown long-term negative health effects associated with its static magnetic fields. We carried out a research ethics board (REB) file review of previously approved MRI research studies and found that

Jennifer Marshall

2010-01-01

390

Sexual Orientation and Self-Harm in Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Recent studies of homosexual people have found higher rates of nonfa- tal suicidal behavior than among hetero- sexuals. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between self- harm and sexual orientation for men and women separately, defining sexual orien- tation by sexual attraction rather than by behavior. Method: In a birth cohort of 1,019 New Zealand young

Keren Skegg; Shyamala Nada-Raja; Sheila Williams

2003-01-01

391

Doing Harm While Doing Good: The Child Protection Paradox  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every Australian citizen expects state and territory governments to protect children from child abuse and neglect. Protecting children from harm is seen as good. This however is not a simple matter. The ultimate act in protecting children is to remove them from parental care. This causes trauma for the child and pain and distress for parents no…

Ainsworth, Frank; Hansen, Patricia

2012-01-01

392

Resolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders  

E-print Network

such as schizophrenia, depression, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and mental retardation are surprisinglyResolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders: Which evolutionary genetic disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder? We assess three leading explanations for this apparent

Miller, Geoffrey

393

Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the variations in characteristics that exist among youths who sexually harm (YSH). Three conceptually distinct sets of background characteristics are hypothesized from the literature relating to whether the YSH was abused, delinquent or impaired. Forty-one characteristics were drawn from an extensive and detailed review of…

Almond, Louise; Canter, David; Salfati, C. Gabrielle

2006-01-01

394

Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients  

PubMed Central

Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28?days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83%) prescriptions and 93 (87%) medicines. 47 (38%) of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97%) received at least one medicine (median number 2) with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99%) and 297 (85%) of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable. PMID:22931304

2012-01-01

395

Prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in licensed premises that are associated with alcohol-related harm.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in a group of licensed premises associated with alcohol-related harm. During March 1999, 108 licensed premises with one or more police-identified alcohol-related incidents in the previous 3 months received a visit from a police officer. A 30-item audit checklist was used to determine the responsible hospitality policies being undertaken by each premises within eight policy domains: display required signage (three items); responsible host practices to prevent intoxication and under-age drinking (five items); written policies and guidelines for responsible service (three items); discouraging inappropriate promotions (three items); safe transport (two items); responsible management issues (seven items); physical environment (three items) and entry conditions (four items). No premises were undertaking all 30 items. Eighty per cent of the premises were undertaking 20 of the 30 items. All premises were undertaking at least 17 of the items. The proportion of premises undertaking individual items ranged from 16% to 100%. Premises were less likely to report having and providing written responsible hospitality documentation to staff, using door charges and having entry/re-entry rules. Significant differences between rural and urban premises were evident for four policies. Clubs were significantly more likely than hotels to have a written responsible service of alcohol policy and to clearly display codes of dress and conditions of entry. This study provides an indication of the extent and nature of responsible hospitality policies in a sample of licensed premises that are associated with a broad range of alcohol related harms. The finding that a large majority of such premises appear to adopt responsible hospitality policies suggests a need to assess the validity and reliability of tools used in the routine assessment of such policies, and of the potential for harm from licensed premises. PMID:12188989

Daly, Justine B; Campbell, Elizabeth M; Wiggers, John H; Considine, Robyn J

2002-06-01

396

An audit of the NICE self-harm guidelines at a local Accident and Emergency department in North Wales.  

PubMed

This paper reports the findings of a self-harm audit based on data collected at an A&E department in North Wales. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines on the short term physical and psychological management of self-harm were published in 2004 and the audit was based on technical criteria recommended in the guideline booklet, including standards of psychosocial assessment, staff training and patient satisfaction information. The data in this study related to fifty consecutive self-harm attendances at the A&E department Ysbyty Glan Clwyd in the Spring of 2007. The hospital serves a mixed rural/urban population of approximately 250,000. Patient satisfaction questionnaires were made available to the group subsequently, whilst the staff training audit was distributed more widely to include emergency, medicine and mental health divisions of the Conwy & Denbighshire NHS Trust. The results demonstrated generally high standards of care on psychosocial assessment, though information relating to initial ambulance involvement in treatment was often unclear. The response to the staff-training questionnaire was an encouraging 44% and indicated wide variations between staff groups and areas of work. The patient satisfaction returns demonstrated favourable responses, with several comments added to expand on tick box replies. Service developments, as a result of the audit, include the proposal to provide mental health and self-harm training to all those staff likely to encounter the behaviour--not just to those who work in mental health. Patients, from the questionnaire, who express a willingness to become part of a mental health planning group are now provided details of the patient participation involvement (PPI) group, where their experiences can often inform service improvement. Meanwhile the case note audit has reinforced the need for a practical self-harm pathway which will ensure consistency. PMID:18042484

Jones, Russell; Avies-Jones, Alison

2007-10-01

397

Cost-effectiveness and harm-benefit analyses of risk-based screening strategies for breast cancer.  

PubMed

The one-size-fits-all paradigm in organized screening of breast cancer is shifting towards a personalized approach. The present study has two objectives: 1) To perform an economic evaluation and to assess the harm-benefit ratios of screening strategies that vary in their intensity and interval ages based on breast cancer risk; and 2) To estimate the gain in terms of cost and harm reductions using risk-based screening with respect to the usual practice. We used a probabilistic model and input data from Spanish population registries and screening programs, as well as from clinical studies, to estimate the benefit, harm, and costs over time of 2,624 screening strategies, uniform or risk-based. We defined four risk groups, low, moderate-low, moderate-high and high, based on breast density, family history of breast cancer and personal history of breast biopsy. The risk-based strategies were obtained combining the exam periodicity (annual, biennial, triennial and quinquennial), the starting ages (40, 45 and 50 years) and the ending ages (69 and 74 years) in the four risk groups. Incremental cost-effectiveness and harm-benefit ratios were used to select the optimal strategies. Compared to risk-based strategies, the uniform ones result in a much lower benefit for a specific cost. Reductions close to 10% in costs and higher than 20% in false-positive results and overdiagnosed cases were obtained for risk-based strategies. Optimal screening is characterized by quinquennial or triennial periodicities for the low or moderate risk-groups and annual periodicity for the high-risk group. Risk-based strategies can reduce harm and costs. It is necessary to develop accurate measures of individual risk and to work on how to implement risk-based screening strategies. PMID:24498285

Vilaprinyo, Ester; Forné, Carles; Carles, Misericordia; Sala, Maria; Pla, Roger; Castells, Xavier; Domingo, Laia; Rue, Montserrat

2014-01-01

398

The Harmful Plankton Project on the Internet: The User-Friendly Guide to Harmful Phytoplankton in UK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains an online guide for identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates and diatoms (primarily from UK waters). The guide is divided into several sections: contents (species list); schematic drawings (including characteristic features); illustrative data sheets (including key features, measurements, ecological data, references, a detailed taxonomic description, and lists of similar species and/or synonyms); methods of sampling, fixation, and staining; glossary; and references.

Minter, Evan

399

Health risks and opportunities for harm reduction among injection-drug-using clients of Saskatoon's needle exchange program.  

PubMed

Information about injection drug users' lifestyles is necessary to develop effective harm reduction strategies. One way to gather this information is through needle exchange programs. In 1998, a convenience sample of 100 clients of Saskatoon's needle exchange service was interviewed about their injection and sexual practices. Ritalin and morphine were the most commonly injected drugs. Over half the participants (53%) reported having shared needles, usually with friends, relatives, and partners. Slightly more (62%) had shared injection equipment. Most participants had multiple sexual partners, especially the women, half of whom were sex trade workers. Condom use was higher with casual partners than with regular partners. While awareness about HIV transmission was high, most participants considered their risk of infection to be below average. These findings are discussed in light of the insights they provide regarding both health risks and opportunities for harm reduction in the study population. PMID:11089287

Laurie, M L; Green, K L

2000-01-01

400

Teaching Reflective Practice in Practice Settings: Students' Perceptions of Their Clinical Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice

Trede, Franziska; Smith, Megan

2012-01-01

401

Discussing harm-causing errors with patients: an ethics primer for plastic surgeons.  

PubMed

Plastic surgery is a field that demands perfection, yet despite our best efforts errors occur every day. Most errors are minor, but occasionally patients are harmed by our mistakes. Although there is a strong ethical requirement for full disclosure of medical errors, data suggest that surgeons have a difficult time disclosing errors and apologizing. "Conventional wisdom" has been to avoid frank discussion of errors with patients. This concept is fueled by the fear of litigation and the notion that any expression of apology leads to malpractice suits. Recently, there has been an increase in the literature pointing to the inadequacy of this approach. Policies that require disclosure of harm-causing medical errors to the patient and the family, apology, and an offer of compensation cultivate the transparency necessary for quality improvement efforts as well as the positive moral development of trainees. There is little published in the plastic surgery literature regarding error disclosure to provide guidance to practitioners. In this article, we will review the ethical, therapeutic, and practical issues involved in discussing the error with the patient and apologizing by presenting a representative case. This primer will provide an understanding of the definition of medical error, the ethical support of error disclosure, the barriers to disclosure, and how to overcome those barriers. PMID:24830658

Vercler, Christian J; Buchman, Steven R; Chung, Kevin C

2015-02-01

402

The role of social and health statistics in measuring harm from alcohol.  

PubMed

Since excess use of alcohol contributes to so many varieties of health and social harms, in most countries, there are many potential sources of data indicative of alcohol-related harms. In few instances, compilation and interpretation of these data are straightforward, but, mostly, they are open to various sources of measurement error, which need to be taken into account if they are to be applied for research purposes. Police and health statistics are the major source of such information, but the underlying systems are not usually set up with the purpose of monitoring alcohol-related events. In both of these domains, types of events can be identified, which are wholly attributable to excess alcohol use, i.e. drunk-driving, alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Specific alcohol-related events are particularly prone to variations in, respectively, police enforcement practices, medical diagnostic fashion and sensitivity to prejudices about alcohol-related problems. A case will be made in this paper for the use of multiple surrogate measures of alcohol-related harm drawn from several sources in order to measure and track local, regional and national trends. For health statistics on mortality and morbidity, the aetiologic fraction (AF) method will be recommended for such monitoring purposes. It will also be recommended that these data be categorised by the degree to which cases are attributable to alcohol and also by whether the underlying hazardous drinking pattern is a brief drinking bout or a sustained pattern of heavy intake over a number of years. Nighttime occurrences of road crashes, public violence from both police and emergency room attendance data will also be recommended. It will be argued that routine recording of alcohol relatedness of events is usually unreliable, and the above surrogate measures are preferable. Recommendations will also be made for utilising national surveys of drinking behaviour to improve the calculation of alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, as well as refine estimates of per capita alcohol consumption, another major 'surrogate' measure of alcohol-related harm. The arguments will be illustrated with reference to Australia's National Alcohol Indicators Project and related research projects. PMID:11288467

Stockwell, T; Chikritzhs, T; Brinkman, S

2000-01-01

403

Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?  

PubMed Central

A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners’ (GPs’) advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service’s National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are reviewed, including their political acceptability. It is tentatively concluded that widespread dissemination of SBI, without the implementation of alcohol control measures, might have indirect influences on levels of consumption and harm but would be unlikely on its own to result in public health benefits. However, if and when alcohol control measures were introduced, SBI would still have an important role in the battle against alcohol-related harm. PMID:23186309

2012-01-01

404

The Tradition Continues: A Gendered Perspective  

E-print Network

. The Bureau of Census did not report divorce statistics after 1931 until 1940. The 1940 The Tradition Continues: A Gendered Perspective statistics were not available when Marriage and the Family went to press in March, 1942. 2. The decrease in divorces from... and Extent of Divorce" (Becker and Hill 1942)illustrates her work and offers an insight to patterns and practices of divorce policies that were prevalent fifty years ago. ELLIOTT'S RESEARCH ON DIVORCE Marriage and the Fami/y was published in 1942 when...

Zale, Stephanne L.

1991-04-01

405

In Brief: A strategy to deal with harmful algal blooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coordinated federal program is needed to develop a strategy for the prevention, control, and mitigation of harmful algal blooms (HABs), according to a 12 September interagency report issued by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. National Science and Technology Council. The congressionally mandated report, ``National Assessment of Efforts to Predict and Respond to Harmful Algal Blooms in U.S. Waters,'' notes that ``the frequency and geographic distribution of HABs have been increasing worldwide.'' The report also indicates that all U.S. coastal states have experienced HABs over the last decade and that the blooms appear to be affecting freshwater systems more frequently.

Showstack, Randy

2007-09-01

406

How MDMA's pharmacology and pharmacokinetics drive desired effects and harms.  

PubMed

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an agent of abuse that has been used by over 16 million Americans. Increased energy, elevated mood, bonding with others, and psychedelic effects are desired effects while liver damage, extended depressed mood, sexual assault, rhabdomyolysis, serotonin syndrome, multiorgan failure, cardiovascular events, arrhythmias, and death are possible adverse effects. These desirable and adverse effects of MDMA are extensions of its fascinating pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic profile. In addition to methamphatemine like effects, MDMA also has mescaline like effects and increases the release of cortisol, oxytocin, and antidiuretic hormone. The desirable effects of MDMA are accentuated by the rave or electronic dance music scene where warm temperatures, vigorous dancing, loud music, and light shows accentuate some of the responses. However, the same environment increases the risk of certain harms. Knowledge of the constellation of these factors is needed for education, prevention of harm, and treatment. PMID:24431106

Michael White, C

2014-03-01

407

Research on the life cycles of harmful algae: A commentary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of the life cycles of harmful algae has advanced substantially in the last decade, in part through increased support of major research programs such as the SEED and the ECOHAB - Gulf of Maine projects. As with most research, the new knowledge answers some questions but raises more that require further inquiry, particularly since life-cycle strategies appear to be key to the initiation phase of many harmful algal blooms (HABs) in specific geographic areas. Three major themes can be used to integrate these organisms and their environment in relation to life cycles: benthic-pelagic coupling, endogenous and exogenous feedback loops, and bio-physical concentration mechanisms. With the new knowledge that is being generated, predictive models can be refined and tested. This commentary highlights recent advances in life-cycle research from the perspective of further research needs.

Steidinger, Karen A.

2010-02-01

408

The Benefits and Harms of Transmitting Into Space  

E-print Network

Deliberate and unintentional radio transmissions from Earth propagate into space. These transmissions could be detected by extraterrestrial watchers over interstellar distances. Here, we analyze the harms and benefits of deliberate and unintentional transmissions relevant to Earth and humanity. Comparing the magnitude of deliberate radio broadcasts intended for messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence (METI) with the background radio spectrum of Earth, we find that METI attempts to date have much lower detectability than emissions from current radio communication technologies on Earth. METI broadcasts are usually transient and several orders of magnitude less powerful than other terrestrial sources such as astronomical and military radars, which provide the strongest detectable signals. The benefits of radio communication on Earth likely outweigh the potential harms of detection by extraterrestrial watchers; however, the uncertainty regarding the outcome of contact with extraterrestrial beings creates diffi...

Haqq-Misra, Jacob; Som, Sanjoy; Baum, Seth

2012-01-01

409

Traditional Chinese medicine: Some historical and epistemological reflections  

Microsoft Academic Search

So-called Chinese medicine is practiced widely in the U.S.A. and Europe, and traditional Chinese medical concepts are presented, and advocated, through a vast body of secondary literature in European languages, as alternatives to current western interpretations of illness and disease. The present paper analyses some of the values determining the reception of traditional Chinese medicine in the west, and it

Paul U. Unschuld

1987-01-01

410

The Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NFSC) Harmful Algal Blooms Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features the NFSC Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) Program, which works cooperatively with other NOAA agencies and provides information concerning HABs and marine biotoxins to the public, state and federal agencies, tribes, university, and others in the Eastern Pacific region. The website provides an overview of HABs and biotoxins, NWFSC research and research partnerships, outreach information (including Red Tides and ORHAB newsletters), and links to related websites.

The Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

411

The power few: experimental criminology and the reduction of harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of experimental criminology is finding ways to reduce harm from crime and injustice. The problem of experimental criminology is that so few experiments produce evidence of big effects from the interventions they test.\\u000a One solution to this problem may be concentrating scarce resources for experiments on the “power few:” the small percentage\\u000a of places, victims, offenders, police officers

Lawrence W. Sherman

2007-01-01

412

Integrated care pathway for self-harm: our way forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBalancing pressures of the 4-h wait in Accident and Emergency (A&E) and the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) requirement for a psychosocial assessment (PSA) before leaving hospital for patients presenting with self-harm is a challenge. This paper suggests a new method for coping with this demand.MethodsA score of 5 or above on the Modified Sad Persons Scale (MSPS), rated

Mukesh Kripalani; Sath Nag; Sagarika Nag; Amanda Gash

2010-01-01

413

What's in my buckets today? Foreseeing and forestalling patient harm.  

PubMed

Operating theatre teams work in an imperfect system characterised by time pressure, goal conflicts, lack of team stability and steep authority gradients between consultants and other team members. Despite this, they often foresee and forestall errors that could harm patients. The paper discusses the strengths and limitations of using Reason's three buckets model of error prevention as a framework for training operating theatre staff how to foresee and forestall incidents. PMID:24720055

Carthey, Jane

2014-03-01

414

Preventing Ultimate Harm as the Justification for Biomoral Modification.  

PubMed

Most advocates of biogenetic modification hope to amplify existing human traits in humans in order to increase the value of such traits as intelligence and resistance to disease. These advocates defend such enhancements as beneficial for the affected parties. By contrast, some commentators recommend certain biogenetic modifications to serve social goals. As Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu see things, human moral psychology is deficient relative to the most important risks facing humanity as a whole, including the prospect of Ultimate Harm, the point at which worthwhile life is forever impossible on the planet. These risks can be mitigated, they say, by enhancing moral psychology in novel ways. Persson and Savulescu argue that some parents should modify the underlying biogenetics of their children's moral psychology, if such measures were safe and effective, but they admit these interventions may not decouple humanity from Ultimate Harm. Neither are these modifications the only options, they concede, for addressing risks to humanity. Even with these concessions, saving humanity from itself is a fairly poor reason to modify the moral psychology of children. In most ways, adults would be better candidates, morally speaking, for modifications of psychology. Even then, there is no direct link between morally enhanced human beings and the hoped-for effect of better protection from Ultimate Harm. Asserting a general duty of all to contribute to the avoidance of Ultimate Harm is a better moral strategy than intervening in the moral psychology of some, even though meeting that duty may involve substantial interference with the free exercise of one's interests. PMID:25186171

Murphy, Timothy F

2014-09-01

415

Large band spectral analysis and harmful risks of dental turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have attributed harmful effects to ultrasonic frequencies and recently many have addressed the problem of\\u000a early deafness among dentists caused by high-speed air turbines. In this study, we measured the spectra of the sounds generated\\u000a by high-speed air turbines, ranging from audible to ultrasonic frequencies (0–70 kHz). The hypothesis advanced is that the\\u000a ultrasound spectrum of high-speed air

S. Barek; O. Adam; J. F. Motsch

1999-01-01

416

Harmful Algal Blooms and Coastal Business: Economic Consequences in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs) on coastal businesses in the Ft. Walton Beach and Destin areas of northwest Florida were estimated for 1995–1999. Separate time-series models for the restaurant and lodging sectors revealed that HABs reduced restaurant and lodging revenues in the localized study area by $2.8 million and $3.7 million per month, respectively, which represents a 29%

Sherry L. Larkin; Charles M. Adams

2007-01-01

417

Setting Occupational Sex Segregation in Motion: Demand-Side Explanations of Sex Traditional Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The employment of women in female-dominated occupations and men in male-dominated occu- pations (sex traditional employment) is a fundamental source of economic sex inequality. Despite this, we know little about how organizational practices and policies link workers to sex traditional jobs. The author tests theoretically hypothesized determinants of sex traditional employment using data on the sex of the last hire

JULIE A. KMEC

2005-01-01

418

The Permanence of Provenance: The "Two Traditions" and the American Archival Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the claims that the American archival profession owes its existence to the unique combination of a "historical manuscripts tradition" and a "public archives tradition" over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It also evaluates the differences and similarities between the traditions' theories of practice and…

Hirsch, Rebecca

2010-01-01

419

Traditional Occupations in a Modern World: Implications for Career Guidance and Livelihood Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an attempt to examine the place and significance of traditional occupations as careers in today's world. The areas of tension and compatibility between ideas and values that signify modernity and the practice of traditional occupations are reviewed. The meaning of "traditional occupations" is unravelled, the potential that…

Ratnam, Anita

2011-01-01

420

Reconstructing Old Norse Oral Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The written residue of oral tradition from the medieval Nordic world encompasses a wide variety of pan-national genres, including charms, legends, and genealogical lore, but modern scholarly attention has generally focused on two areas: (1) the prose (and often prosimetrical) Icelandic sagas and (2) traditional poetry in its two dominant forms, eddic and scaldic. Many factors play into this somewhat

Stephen Mitchell

2003-01-01

421

Aspects of Traditional Inupiat Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional Inupiat society was, and is, about knowing the right time to be in the right place, with the right tools to take advantage of a temporary abundance of resources. Sharing the necessary knowledge about the natural world with the next generation was critical. The example of learning to hunt is used to demonstrate features of traditional

Ongtooguk, Paul

2000-01-01

422

Frame Tales and Oral Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frame tales, medieval literary works in which characters become narrators by telling stories of their own, owe a great debt to oral tradition and transmission. Oral tradition provides much of the raw material for these texts, while at the same time providing medieval audiences and modern readers cues for understanding them. Frame tales depict oral storytelling events in such a

Bonnie D. Irwin

2003-01-01

423

A Traditional Library Goes Virtual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the change from a traditional, paper-based collection to an electronic library at Bell Canada's Information Resource Center in Montreal. Highlights include universal desktop access for users; library Web site; decline in traditional services to increased use of online services; materials, including books, consultant reports, and…

Boyd, Stephanie

2002-01-01

424

Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates  

PubMed Central

The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783

Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

2012-01-01

425

Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment harms developing chicken embryos  

PubMed Central

Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment (rESWT) has became one of the best investigated treatment modalities for cellulite, including the abdomen as a treatment site. Notably, pregnancy is considered a contraindication for rESWT, and concerns have been raised about possible harm to the embryo when a woman treated with rESWT for cellulite is not aware of her pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that rESWT may cause serious physical harm to embryos. To this end, chicken embryos were exposed in ovo to various doses of radial shock waves on either day 3 or day 4 of development, resembling the developmental stage of four- to six-week-old human embryos. We found a dose-dependent increase in the number of embryos that died after radial shock wave exposure on either day 3 or day 4 of development. Among the embryos that survived the shock wave exposure a few showed severe congenital defects such as missing eyes. Evidently, our data cannot directly be used to draw conclusions about potential harm to the embryo of a pregnant woman treated for cellulite with rESWT. However, to avoid any risks we strongly recommend applying radial shock waves in the treatment of cellulite only if a pregnancy is ruled out. PMID:25655309

Kiessling, Maren C.; Milz, Stefan; Frank, Hans-Georg; Korbel, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Christoph

2015-01-01

426

Prediction of Harmful Human Health Effects of Chemicals from Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a great need to assess the harmful effects of chemicals to which man is exposed. Various in silico techniques including chemical grouping and category formation, as well as the use of (Q)SARs can be applied to predict the toxicity of chemicals for a number of toxicological effects. This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art of the prediction of the harmful effects of chemicals to human health. A variety of existing data can be used to obtain information; many such data are formalized into freely available and commercial databases. (Q)SARs can be developed (as illustrated with reference to skin sensitization) for local and global data sets. In addition, chemical grouping techniques can be applied on "similar" chemicals to allow for read-across predictions. Many "expert systems" are now available that incorporate these approaches. With these in silico approaches available, the techniques to apply them successfully have become essential. Integration of different in silico approaches with each other, as well as with other alternative approaches, e.g., in vitro and -omics through the development of integrated testing strategies, will assist in the more efficient prediction of the harmful health effects of chemicals

Cronin, Mark T. D.

427

Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms (MERHAB)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features the Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms (MERHAB) Program. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are occurring with increasing frequency and duration along our shores. Nearly every coastal region is struggling to mitigate the often devastating impacts to local economies and serious human health threats associated with a variety of harmful algae. MERHAB projects have been developed to enhance existing water and shellfish monitoring programs with new technology allowing for pro-active detection of coastal HAB events. The ultimate aim of MERHAB is to help build sustainable regional partnerships that provide managers with crucial information in time for critical decisions needed to mitigate HAB impacts. The MERHAB research program is addressing the growing national HAB threat by expanding the number of coastal regions benefiting from advancements in algal identification, detection, modeling, and prediction. This page discusses the issue of HABs, research addressing the issue, and related accomplishments. A link is provided to a list of MERHAB research abstracts.

Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR)

428

Anthropogenic nutrients and harmful algae in coastal waters.  

PubMed

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are thought to be increasing in coastal waters worldwide. Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment has been proposed as a principal causative factor of this increase through elevated inorganic and/or organic nutrient concentrations and modified nutrient ratios. We assess: 1) the level of understanding of the link between the amount, form and ratio of anthropogenic nutrients and HABs; 2) the evidence for a link between anthropogenically generated HABs and negative impacts on human health; and 3) the economic implications of anthropogenic nutrient/HAB interactions. We demonstrate that an anthropogenic nutrient-HAB link is far from universal, and where it has been demonstrated, it is most frequently associated with high biomass rather than low biomass (biotoxin producing) HABs. While organic nutrients have been shown to support the growth of a range of HAB species, insufficient evidence exists to clearly establish if these nutrients specifically promote the growth of harmful species in preference to benign ones, or if/how they influence toxicity of harmful species. We conclude that the role of anthropogenic nutrients in promoting HABs is site-specific, with hydrodynamic processes often determining whether blooms occur. We also find a lack of evidence of widespread significant adverse health impacts from anthropogenic nutrient-generated HABs, although this may be partly due to a lack of human/animal health and HAB monitoring. Detailed economic evaluation and cost/benefit analysis of the impact of anthropogenically generated HABs, or nutrient reduction schemes to alleviate them, is also frequently lacking. PMID:25173729

Davidson, Keith; Gowen, Richard J; Harrison, Paul J; Fleming, Lora E; Hoagland, Porter; Moschonas, Grigorios

2014-12-15

429

Please Don't Eat the Daisies (A Guide to Harmful Plants).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews common wild, cultivated, and household plants which may be harmful to humans by causing allergic reactions, dermatitis, physical injury, or internal poisoning. Includes brief descriptions of plants, their potential harm, and some illustrations. (DC)

Manor, C. Robert

1982-01-01

430

47 CFR 87.479 - Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations. 87.479 Section 87.479...Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations. (a) Military or...experience interference or unexplained loss of equipment performance, the...

2013-10-01

431

47 CFR 87.479 - Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations. 87.479 Section 87.479...Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations. (a) Military or...experience interference or unexplained loss of equipment performance, the...

2014-10-01

432

47 CFR 87.479 - Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations. 87.479 Section 87.479...Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations. (a) Military or...experience interference or unexplained loss of equipment performance, the...

2012-10-01

433

47 CFR 87.479 - Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations. 87.479 Section 87.479...Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations. (a) Military or...experience interference or unexplained loss of equipment performance, the...

2011-10-01

434

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2014-10-01

435

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2013-10-01

436

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2012-10-01

437

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2010-10-01

438

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2011-10-01

439

9 CFR 105.3 - Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological...actions to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

2011-01-01

440

9 CFR 105.3 - Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological...actions to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

2012-01-01

441

9 CFR 105.3 - Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological...actions to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

2013-01-01

442

9 CFR 105.3 - Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological...actions to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

2010-01-01

443

9 CFR 105.3 - Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological...actions to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

2014-01-01

444

Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine  

PubMed Central

Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

Dorai, Ananda A.

2012-01-01

445

Traditional Native healing. Alternative or adjunct to modern medicine?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the extent to which family physicians in British Columbia agree with First Nations patients' using traditional Native medicines. DESIGN: Randomized cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Family medicine practices in British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A randomized volunteer sample of 79 physicians from the registry of the BC Chapter of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Of 125 physicians contacted, 46 did not reply. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physicians' demographic variables and attitudes toward patients' use of traditional Native medicines. RESULTS: Respondents generally accepted the use of traditional Native medicines for health maintenance, palliative care, and the treatment of benign illness. More disagreement was found with its use for serious illnesses, both for outpatients and in hospital, and especially in intensive care. Many physicians had difficulty forming a definition of traditional Native medicine, and were unable to give an opinion on its health risks or benefits. A significant positive correlation appeared between agreement with the use of traditional Native medicines and physicians' current practice serving a large First Nations population, as well as with physicians' knowing more than five patients using traditional medicine. CONCLUSIONS: Cooperation between traditional Native and modern health care systems requires greater awareness of different healing strategies, governmental support, and research to determine views of Native patients and healers. PMID:7841824

Zubek, E. M.

1994-01-01

446

Approaching Traditional Literature in Non-Traditional Ways.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three brief essays that discuss approaching traditional literature (Thornton Wilder's "Our Town," Mark Twain "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," and Geoffrey Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales") in imaginative ways in high school English and vocational/technical classrooms. (RS)

Tensen, Tracy Anderson; And Others

1996-01-01

447

How Much Detail Needs to Be Elucidated in Self-Harm Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessing self-harm through brief multiple choice items is simple and less invasive than more detailed methods of assessment. However, there is currently little validation for brief methods of self-harm assessment. This study evaluates the extent to which adolescents' perceptions of self-harm agree with definitions in the literature, and what…

Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P.

2010-01-01

448

Reports of Self-Harm and Social Stressors among Early Adolescents: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined reports of self-harm by early adolescents as well as associations between salient interpersonal stressors and self-harm. While attending health education centers located in Illinois, Indiana, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania, early adolescents (n = 737) responded to a questionnaire measuring stressors, coping, and self-harm.…

Teufel, James A.; Brown, Stephen L.; Birch, David A.

2007-01-01

449

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2010-07-01

450

Differential Profiles of Risk of Self-Harm among Clinically Referred Primary School Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk of self-harm among clinic referred children aged 6- to 12-years-old was investigated using the recently developed Self-Harm Risk Assessment for Children (SHRAC) instrument which comprises six factors: Affect traits; verbalizing of self-harm; socialization; dissociation; self-directing; and self-appraisal. The SHRAC was completed by the…

Angelkovska, Anne; Houghton, Stephen; Hopkins, Sarah

2012-01-01

451

Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus J. Heisler a,3  

E-print Network

Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus J. Heisler a,3 , P.M. Glibert b between water quality and eutrophication and the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). This meeting in revised form 21 January 2008 Accepted 1 August 2008 Keywords: Eutrophication Harmful algal blooms HABs

Cochlan, William P.

452

Public health, human rights and the harm reduction paradigm: from risk reduction to vulnerability reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the utility of expanding the harm reduction paradigm to incorporate vulnerability reduction. The thrust of harm reduction interventions to date, particularly in injection drug use, has been risk reduction. Many interventions have been designed to reduce drug-related harm by altering high-risk behaviours. Vulnerability looks behind risk. The notion of vulnerability incorporates the complex of underlying factors that

Nadine Ezard

2001-01-01

453

Attempted Suicide, Self-Harm, and Violent Victimization among Regular Illicit Drug Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships among attempted suicide, nonsuicidal self-harm, and physical assault were examined in 400 regular users of heroin and/or psychostimulants. Twenty-eight percent had episodes of nonsuicidal self-harm, 32% had attempted suicide, and 95% had been violently assaulted. The number of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents were…

Darke, Shane; McCrim, Michelle Torok; Kaye, Sharlene; Ross, Joanne

2010-01-01

454

Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

455

An examination of traditional versus non-traditional benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the perceived value of traditional versus non-tradition benefits may be related to the employee-employer relationship, and how the perception of that relationship might be linked to job performance and turnover intentions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Multi-source data were collected from a random sample of employees and their supervisors at a healthcare

Lori A. Muse; Lori L. Wadsworth

2012-01-01

456

Traditional Practice for Non-Traditional Students? Examining the Role of Pedagogy in Higher Education Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current agenda for widening participation (WP) promotes equal access to higher education (HE), yet it also implicitly requires institutions to develop support strategies to ensure a successful learning experience and good retention for different groups of students. The objective of this article is predominantly reflected in the latter goal and…

Roberts, Steven

2011-01-01

457

Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2013-07-01

458

Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2011-01-01

459

Aesthetic Practice and Spirituality: Chi in Traditional East Asian Brushwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of multicultural art education has been addressed by art educators over the past 15 years. Art educators maintain that art is capable of empowering mutual respect and appreciation for people, objects, and ideas among diverse groups. Although many educators/teachers use non-Western artworks or artifacts to enrich their art programs,…

Chung, Sheng Kuan

2006-01-01

460

Codes of medical ethics: Traditional foundations and contemporary practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hippocratic Coprus recognized the interaction of 'business' and patient-health moral considerations, and urged that the former be subordinated to the latter. During the 1800s with the growth of complexity in both scientific knowledge and the organization of health services, the medical ethical codes addressed themselves to elaborate rules of conduct to be followed by the members of the newly

P. Sohl; H. A. Bassford

1986-01-01

461

Bibliography on African Traditional Religion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Chidi Denis Isizoh, this bibliography contains books, journal articles, and selections from larger works that focus on traditional religions in Africa. Citations include items in French and German as well as English.

Isizoh, Chidi Denis.

462

A patient-reported spectrum of adverse health care experiences: harms, unnecessary care, medication illness, and low health confidence.  

PubMed

As part of a health "checkup," a large national sample of adults used an Internet technology that also asks about adverse experiences. About half of all respondents do not feel very confident they can manage and control most of their health problems, almost 30% consider that their hospital or emergency department use was unnecessary, 20% believe that their medications may be causing illness, and 1.5% report a medical-related harm. Routine measures across a spectrum of adverse experiences are easy to obtain as part of everyday practice. Attention to these measures by health professionals should make care safer and less wasteful. PMID:23748273

Wasson, John H

2013-01-01

463

Institutional traditions in teachers' manners of teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to make a close case study of one teacher's teaching in relation to established traditions within science education in Sweden. The teacher's manner of teaching is analysed with the help of an epistemological move analysis. The moves made by the teacher are then compared in a context of educational philosophy and selective tradition. In the analyses the focus is to study the process of teaching and learning in action in institutionalised and socially shared practices. The empirical material consists of video recordings of four lessons with the same group of students and the same teacher. The students are all in Year 7 in a Swedish 9-year compulsory school. During these lessons the students work with a subject area called "Properties of materials". The results show that the teacher makes a number of different moves with regard to how to proceed and come to a conclusion about what the substances are. Many of these moves are special in that they indicate that the students need to be able to handle the procedural level of school science. These moves do not deal directly with the knowledge production process, but with methodological aspects. The function of the moves turns the students' attention from one source of knowledge to another. The moves are aimed at helping the students to help themselves, since it is through their own activity and their own thinking that learning takes place. This is characteristic in the teacher's manner of teaching. When compared in a context of educational philosophy, this manner of teaching has similarities with progressentialism; a mixture of essentialism and progressivism. This educational philosophy is a central aspect of what is called the academic tradition—a selective tradition common in science education in Sweden between 1960 and 1990.

Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Östman, Leif

2012-03-01

464

Aerosol dynamics and health: strategies to reduce exposure and harm.  

PubMed

The term 'air pollution' is used to describe the presence of chemicals or materials in the atmosphere that produce poor air quality. Air pollutants may be classified into four principal categories which include anthropogenic (man-made; e.g. combustion products), biogenic (biological; e.g. pollen, allergens), technogenic (technology; e.g. metal aerosols or smelter) and geogenic (geological; e.g. erosion of earth, i.e. minerals, volcanic ash). From these categories are derived the seven main pollutants of human health concern, i.e. carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbons, lead, and particulate matter (PM). The common provenance of all these emissions is from the combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, petrol and diesel), biomass (e.g. cooking) and tobacco smoke. PM is now considered to be the most precarious of pollutants, with the combustion-derived nano-particles being linked to a myriad of premature and excess deaths world-wide; especially for persons with pre-existing cardiovascular disorders. This meeting intended to bring together scientists from a host of disciplines (toxicologists, biologists, chemists, physicists and material scientists) that work at the bio-particulate interface. It aimed to present and discuss, via topical 'break-out' sessions, the current thoughts on the 'burden to human health' following exposure to and harm from combustion-derived particles. Furthermore, strategies for 'harm reduction' were another feature of this cross-disciplinary meeting. The final objectives were to identify biomarkers of exposure and harm to these inhalation hazards. All topics covered sought to find biomarker indices for human health effects. PMID:19604050

Rupp, Gerald

2009-07-01

465

Asian herbal?tobacco cigarettes: “not medicine but less harmful”?  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the development and health claims of Asian herbal?tobacco cigarettes. Methods Analysis of international news sources, company websites, and the transnational tobacco companies' (TTC) documents. PubMed searches of herbs and brands. Results Twenty?three brands were identified, mainly from China. Many products claimed to relieve respiratory symptoms and reduce toxins, with four herb?only products advertised for smoking cessation. No literature was found to verify the health claims, except one Korean trial of an herb?only product. Asian herbal?tobacco cigarettes were initially produced by China by the 1970s and introduced to Japan in the 1980s. Despite initial news about research demonstrating a safer cigarette, the TTC analyses of these cigarettes suggest that these early products were not palatable and had potentially toxic cardiovascular effects. By the late 1990s, China began producing more herbal?tobacco cigarettes in a renewed effort to reduce harmful constituents in cigarettes. After 2000, tobacco companies from Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand began producing similar products. Tobacco control groups in Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand voiced concern over the health claims of herbal?tobacco products. In 2005, China designated two herbal?tobacco brands as key for development. Conclusion Asian herbal?tobacco cigarettes claim to reduce harm, but no published literature is available to verify these claims or investigate unidentified toxicities. The increase in Asian herbal?tobacco cigarette production by 2000 coincides with the Asian tobacco companies' regular scientific meetings with TTCs and their interest in harm reduction. Asia faces additional challenges in tobacco control with these culturally concordant products that may discourage smokers from quitting. PMID:17400933

Chen, Aiyin; Glantz, Stanton; Tong, Elisa

2007-01-01

466

Harm, hype and evidence: ELSI research and policy guidance  

PubMed Central

There has been much investment in research on the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) associated with genetic and genomic research. This research should inform the development of the relevant policy. So far, much of the relevant policy - such as in the areas of patents, genetic testing and genetic discrimination - seems to be informed more by speculation of harm and anecdote than by available evidence. Although a quest for evidence cannot always be allowed to delay policy choice, it seems axiomatic to us that policy options are improved by the incorporation of evidence. PMID:23534337

2013-01-01

467

Approaches to model the life cycle of harmful algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of harmful algal blooms (HABs) need to include autecological characteristics of the HAB species because the bloom dynamics can only be successfully described if relevant life cycle aspects (in particular en- and excystment) are included in some way. This study presents an overview on how the life cycle is considered in current Lagrangian and Eulerian models. Examples of the latter are given, which range from crude parameterizations in one-compartment models, to stage-resolving twelve-compartment models. Advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches are highlighted. A generalized model classification is presented which may be used as a framework for further phytoplankton life cycle modeling studies.

Hense, Inga

2010-11-01

468

Worst New England Harmful Algal Bloom in 30 Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online 2005 article reports the most severe bloom since 1972 of the microscopic alga, Alexandrium fundyense, which spread from Maine to Massachusetts, resulting in extensive commercial and recreational shellfish harvesting closures to protect humans from paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The article discusses harmful algal blooms (HABs) and reports how NOAA-funded research is addressing the problem. It includes links to research programs, up-to-date information about shellfish closures, images of the causative microbes, related press releases and legislation, and other informational sources.

Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR)

469

Traditional Knowledge Strengthens NOAA's Environmental Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.

Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

2010-12-01

470

The impact of harm reduction on HIV and illicit drug use.  

PubMed

There has been widespread support for harm reduction programs as an essential component for responding to the HIV and illicit drug use epidemics. However, despite the growing international acceptance of harm reduction, there continues to be strong opposition to this approach, with critics alleging that harm reduction programs enable drug use. Vancouver, Canada provides a compelling case study that demonstrates that many positive impacts of harm reduction can be attained while addiction treatment-related goals are simultaneously supported. While the evidence for harm reduction is clearly mounting, it is unfortunate that ideological and political barriers to implementing harm reduction programs in Canada remain. As evidenced by Vancouver and elsewhere, harm reduction programs do not exacerbate drug use and undermine treatment efforts and should thereby occupy a well-deserved space within the continuum of programs and services offered to people who inject drugs. PMID:24559062

Ti, Lianping; Kerr, Thomas

2014-01-01

471

A media information analysis for implementing effective countermeasure against harmful rumor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When large scale earthquake occurred, the word of "harmful rumor" came to be frequently heard. The harmful rumor means an economic damage which is caused by the action that people regard actually safe foods or areas as dangerous and then abort consumption or sightseeing. In the case of harmful rumor caused by earthquake, especially, tourism industry receives massive economic damage. Currently, harmful rumor which gives substantial economic damage have become serious social issue which must be solved. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure method for harmful rumor on the basis of media trend in order to implement speedy recovery from harmful rumor. Here, we investigate the amount and content of information which is transmitted to the general public by the media when an earthquake occurred. In addition, the media information in three earthquakes is treated as instance. Finally, we discuss an effective countermeasure method for dispeling harmful rumor through these analysis results.

Nagao, Mitsuyoshi; Suto, Kazuhiro; Ohuchi, Azuma

2010-04-01

472

The association of ADHD symptoms to self-harm behaviours: a systematic PRISMA review  

PubMed Central

Background Self-harm is a major public health issue in young people worldwide and there are many challenges to its management and prevention. Numerous studies have indicated that ADHD is associated with completed suicides and other suicidal behaviours (i.e., suicidal attempt and ideation). However, significantly less is known about the association between ADHD and self-harm. Method This is the first review of the association between ADHD and self-harm. A systematic PRISMA review was conducted. Two internet-based bibliographic databases (Medline and CINAHL) were searched to access studies which examined to any degree the association between, specifically, ADHD and self-harm. Results Only 15 studies were identified which investigated the association between ADHD and self-harm and found evidence to support that ADHD is a potential risk factor for self-harm. Conclusion This association raises the need for more awareness of self-harm in individuals with symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24884622

2014-01-01

473

The pituri story: a review of the historical literature surrounding traditional Australian Aboriginal use of nicotine in Central Australia  

PubMed Central

The harmful outcomes of nicotine self administration have been the focus of sustained global health education campaigns that have targeted tobacco smoking and to a lesser extent, smokeless tobacco use. 'Smokeless tobacco' infers that the nicotine is not burnt, and administration can be through a range of methods including chewing. The chewing of wild tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp.) is practiced across a broad inland area of Central Australia by traditional Aboriginal groups. Collectively these plants are known by a variety of names - one common name being 'pituri'. This is the first paper to examine the historical literature and consider the linkage between pituri use and health outcomes. Using a narrative approach, this paper reviews the literature generated since 1770 surrounding the term pituri and the behaviours associated with its use. The review examines the scientific literature, as well as the diaries and journals of nineteenth century explorers, expedition notes, and early Australian novels to expound the scientific evidence and broaden the sense of understanding related to pituri, particularly the behavioural elements. The evaluation considers the complexities of ethnobotany pertaining to language and distance and the ethnopharmacology of indigenous plant usage. The review compares the use of burnt and smokeless tobacco to pituri and establishes the foundation for research into the clinical significance and health outcomes of pituri use. Additionally, this review provides contemporary information for clinicians providing care for patients who chew pituri. PMID:20831827

2010-01-01

474

Traditional herbal medicines worldwide, from reappraisal to assessment in Europe.  

PubMed

Since 2004 the regulatory framework within the European Union has a specific assessment procedure for herbal medicinal products, with a medicinal use based on traditional practice. The main requirement concerning the traditional use is focussed on the period of time for medical use: at least 30 years, including 15 years in the EU. In addition to requirements for quality and safety, an evaluation of pharmacological effects or efficacy based on long-standing use, is a main objective. "Traditional Use" however encompasses European, and non-European traditional use. Outside the EU, the medicinal use of herbal substances, preparations, and combinations is well-known, with a long history, which is well-documented in the different systems of medical practice. This has been addressed by WHO, but it has been acknowledged also by European Commission that herbal products from other systems of medicine, can be subject to the procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products. This paper will focus on the possibilities, restraints, and challenges of regulatory practice in the European Union regarding these category of medicinal products. PMID:25043781

van Galen, Emiel

2014-12-01

475

Remote sensing of harmful algal blooms in the Mississippi Sound and Mobile Bay: Modelling and algorithm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incidence and severity of harmful algal blooms have increased in recent decades, as have the economic effects of their occurrence. The diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. caused fisheries closures in Mobile Bay during 2005 due to elevated levels of domoic acid. In the previous 4 years Karenia brevis counts of >5,000 cells L-1 have occurred in Mobile Bay and the Mississippi Sound. Population levels of this magnitude had previously been recorded only in 1996. Increases in human populations, urban sprawl, development of shoreline properties, sewage effluent and resultant changes in N-P ratios of discharge waters, and decline in forest and marsh lands, will potentially increase future harmful algal bloom occurrences in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Due to this trend in occurrence of harmful algal populations, there has been an increasing awareness of the need for development of monitoring systems in this region. Traditional methods of sampling have proven costly in terms of time and resources, and increasing attention has been turned toward use of satellite data in phytoplankton monitoring and prediction. This study shows that remote sensing does have utility in monitoring and predicting locations of phytoplankton blooms in this region. It has described the composition and spatial and temporal relationships of these populations, inferring salinity, total nitrogen and total phosphorous as the primary variables driving phytoplankton populations in Mobile Bay and the Mississippi Sound. Diatoms, chlorophytes, cryptophytes, and dinoflagellates were most abundant in collections. Correlations between SeaWiFS, MODIS and in situ data have shown relationships between Rrs reflectance and phytoplankton populations. These data were used in formation of a decision tree model predicting environmental conditions conducive to the formation of phytoplankton blooms that is driven completely by satellite data. Empirical algorithms were developed for prediction of salinity, based on Rrs ratios of 510 nm/555 nm, creating a new data product for us