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1

Traditional practices in Afghan marriage, responding to women's health needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional practices in marriage, such as early and forced marriage, bride price and baad or restorative justice, are common in Afghanistan. These traditional practices, as well as the concepts of polygamy, zina and boy preference, can be harmful to Afghan women's physical, mental and social wellbeing. The major study objective is to understand how traditional marriage practices influence Afghan women's

M. Dols

2010-01-01

2

Integrating Harm Reduction Therapy and Traditional Substance Abuse Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-size-fits-all therapy has not worked well for a majority of substance users seeking help. New approaches to substance abuse treatment are desperately needed. Traditional models of service delivery offer little, if any, help to people who may not choose abstinence as a goal. To address this concern, the Bridging the Gap Conference was sponsored by the San Francisco Department of

G. Alan Marlatt; Arthur W. Blume; George A. Parks

2001-01-01

3

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

4

Tenure: Traditions, Policies, and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two recent books, "The Case for Tenure" (Matthew W. Finkin, ed.) and "Promotion and Tenure" (William G. Tierney, Estela Mara Bensimon) are important contributions to the dialog about college faculty tenure. Each contributes to but does not fill the professoriate's need for a defense of tenure that incorporates the tradition of principled support…

Hutcheson, Philo

1998-01-01

5

The harm indicators of negative externality of efficiency focused organizational practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual model of harm indicators of negative externality (NE) of organizational practices, to help practitioners and researchers identify the harmful aspects associated with the unsustainable internal efficiency focused organizational practices to achieve a sustainable society. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Initially, the harm indicators of NE of organizational practices are theoretically explored.

Sugumar Mariappanadar

2012-01-01

6

Evaluation of objective structured practical examination and traditional practical examination.  

PubMed

To evaluate the competency of Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE) as an assessment technique compared to Traditional Practical Examination (TDPE) in assessment of laboratory component of physiology, the results of Physiology practical examination of 400 students from 4 Medical Colleges, two Government and two non Government (Dhaka Medical College, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh Medical College, Uttara Women's Medical College) under Dhaka University were studied. Students' performance in OSPE and TDPE was compared. Mean score obtained in OSPE was 77.72+/-0.66 and found significantly higher than that for TDPE (64.44+/-0.61). Again mean scores achieved in OSPE were compared among different Medical Colleges and significant difference was noted. In OSPE, male students achieved significantly higher score than that of female students, especially in responding question station. The outcome of the present study thus indicates that OSPE is a better choice as an assessment technique over the Traditional method measuring wide range of practical skill. It may be concluded that it is important for competency based performance discrimination and it also helps improving students performance quality in laboratory exercise. PMID:17344771

Rahman, N; Ferdousi, S; Hoq, N; Amin, R; Kabir, J

2007-01-01

7

Harm reduction and women in the Canadian national prison system: policy or practice?  

PubMed

Applying the principles of harm reduction within the context of incarcerated populations raises a number of challenges. Although some access to harm reduction strategies has been promoted in general society, a divide between what is available and what is advocated continues to exist within the prison system. This paper explores the perceptions and lived experiences of a sample of nationally incarcerated women in Canada regarding their perceptions and experiences in accessing HIV and Hepatitis C prevention, care, treatment and support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 156 women in Canadian national prisons. Q.S.R. Nudist was used to assist with data management. A constant comparison method was used to derive categories, patterns, and themes. Emergent themes highlighted a gap between access to harm reduction in policy and in practice. Despite the implementation of some harm reduction techniques, women in Canadian prisons reported variable access to both education and methods of reducing HIV/HCV transmission. Concerns were also raised about pre-and post-test counseling for HIV/HCV testing. Best practices are suggested for implementing harm reduction strategies within prisons for women in Canada. PMID:15911510

Rehman, Laurene; Gahagan, Jacqueline; DiCenso, Anne Marie; Dias, Giselle

2004-01-01

8

Maternal health practices, beliefs and traditions in southeast Madagascar.  

PubMed

Contextualising maternal health in countries with high maternal mortality is vital for designing and implementing effective health interventions. A research project was therefore conducted to explore practices, beliefs and traditions around pregnancy, delivery and postpartum in southeast Madagascar. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 256 pregnant women, mothers of young children, community members and stakeholders; transcripts were analysed to identify and explore predetermined and emerging themes. A questionnaire was also conducted with 373 women of reproductive age from randomly selected households. Data was analysed using STATA. Results confirmed high local rates of maternal mortality and morbidity and revealed a range of traditional health care practices and beliefs impacting on women's health seeking behaviours. The following socio-cultural barriers to health were identified: 1) lack of knowledge, 2) risky practices, 3) delays seeking biomedical care, and 4) family and community expectations. Recommendations include educational outreach and behaviour change communications targeted for women, their partners and family, increased engagement with traditional midwives and healers, and capacity building of formal health service providers. PMID:25438515

Morris, Jessica L; Short, Samm; Robson, Laura; Andriatsihosena, Mamy Soafaly

2014-09-01

9

Maternal health practices, beliefs and traditions in southeast Madagascar.  

PubMed

Contextualising maternal health in countries with high maternal mortality is vital for designing and implementing effective health interventions. A research project was therefore conducted to explore practices, beliefs and traditions around pregnancy, delivery and postpartum in southeast Madagascar. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 256 pregnant women, mothers of young children, community members and stakeholders; transcripts were analysed to identify and explore predetermined and emerging themes. A questionnaire was also conducted with 373 women of reproductive age from randomly selected households. Data was analysed using STATA. Results confirmed high local rates of maternal mortality and morbidity and revealed a range of traditional health care practices and beliefs impacting on women's health seeking behaviours. The following socio-cultural barriers to health were identified: 1) lack of knowledge, 2) risky practices, 3) delays seeking biomedical care, and 4) family and community expectations. Recommendations include educational outreach and behaviour change communications targeted for women, their partners and family, increased engagement with traditional midwives and healers, and capacity building of formal health service providers. PMID:25508046

Morris, Jessica L; Short, Samm; Robson, Laura; Andriatsihosena, Mamy Soafaly

2014-09-01

10

Maximising harm reduction in early specialty training for general practice: validation of a safety checklist  

PubMed Central

Background Making health care safer is a key policy priority worldwide. In specialty training, medical educators may unintentionally impact on patient safety e.g. through failures of supervision; providing limited feedback on performance; and letting poorly developed behaviours continue unchecked. Doctors-in-training are also known to be susceptible to medical error. Ensuring that all essential educational issues are addressed during training is problematic given the scale of the tasks to be undertaken. Human error and the reliability of local systems may increase the risk of safety-critical topics being inadequately covered. However adherence to a checklist reminder may improve the reliability of task delivery and maximise harm reduction. We aimed to prioritise the most safety-critical issues to be addressed in the first 12-weeks of specialty training in the general practice environment and validate a related checklist reminder. Methods We used mixed methods with different groups of GP educators (n?=?127) and specialty trainees (n?=?9) in two Scottish regions to prioritise, develop and validate checklist content. Generation and refinement of checklist themes and items were undertaken on an iterative basis using a range of methods including small group work in dedicated workshops; a modified-Delphi process; and telephone interviews. The relevance of potential checklist items was rated using a 4-point scale content validity index to inform final inclusion. Results 14 themes (e.g. prescribing safely; dealing with medical emergency; implications of poor record keeping; and effective & safe communication) and 47 related items (e.g. how to safety-net face-to-face or over the telephone; knowledge of practice systems for results handling; recognition of harm in children) were judged to be essential safety-critical educational issues to be covered. The mean content validity index ratio was 0.98. Conclusion A checklist was developed and validated for educational supervisors to assist in the reliable delivery of safety-critical educational issues in the opening 12-week period of training, and aligned with national curriculum competencies. The tool can also be adapted for use as a self-assessment instrument by trainees to guide patient safety-related learning needs. Dissemination and implementation of the checklist and self-rating scale are proceeding on a national, voluntary basis with plans to evaluate its feasibility and educational impact. PMID:22721273

2012-01-01

11

Representation: A Common Thread in the Traditions and Practices of Information Organization  

E-print Network

Representation: A Common Thread in the Traditions and Practices of Information Organization William of information organization (outside of physically organizing or arranging information objects in files resulting from the information organization traditions of various communities such as the eight traditions

Moen, William E.

12

Traditional healing practices among American Muslims: perceptions of community leaders in southeast Michigan.  

PubMed

Despite growing numbers of American Muslims, little empirical work exists on their use of traditional healing practices. We explored the types of traditional healing practices used by American Muslims in southeast Michigan. Twelve semi-structured interviews with American Muslim community leaders identified through a community-academic steering committee were conducted. Using a framework coding structure, a multidisciplinary investigative team identified themes describing traditional healing practices. Traditional healing practices can be categorized into three domains: Islamic religious text based practices, Islamic worship practices, and folk healing practices. Each domain may further contain therapies such as spiritual healing, medicinal herbs, mind body therapy, and dietary prescriptions. Traditional healing practices are utilized in three capacities of care: primary, secondary, and integrative. Our findings demonstrate that American Muslims actively utilize traditional healing practices. Healthcare practitioners caring for this population should be aware of the potential influence of these practices on health behaviors. PMID:21739160

Alrawi, Sara; Fetters, Michael D; Killawi, Amal; Hammad, Adnan; Padela, Aasim

2012-06-01

13

Farmers Innovations in Agricultural Water Management: Traditional irrigation practices in Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, currently about 90,000 ha or only about 3% of the cultivated land is under irrigation through traditional and modern irrigation schemes. Traditional schemes dominate the irrigation practices as it covers more than 75% of the irrigated area. Traditional irrigation schemes and its irrigation water management practices have been developed by farmers using their indigenous

Enyew Adgo; Muluken Lakachew; M. Zainul Abedin

14

Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender and Fairness in Traditional Practices in Benin, West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined reasoning about fairness in gender-related traditional practices in Benin, West Africa. Fifty adolescents (M = 15.7 years) and 46 adults (M = 33.4 years) were interviewed about traditional practices involving gender hierarchy. Results indicate that the majority attributed decision-making authority to a traditional authority for…

Conry-Murray, Clare

2009-01-01

15

Toxic Red Tides and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Practical Challenge in Coastal Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This national report to IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) contains links to information regarding harmful algal blooms (HABs). Written by Donald Anderson, the report includes: introduction, background, recent trends, physical/biological coupling, small-scale interactions, nutrient dynamics, emerging technologies (molecular probes, remote sensing, models, management issues, and program and policy issues), and a list of references.

Anderson, Donald M. (Donald Mark)

2010-01-04

16

The desi ways: traditional health practices of South Asian women in Canada.  

PubMed

Although many South Asian immigrants have made their homes in Canada, little research has examined health behaviors in this population and fewer studies have examined the use of traditional health practices. As part of a larger study on health-seeking patterns of South Asian women living in Western Canada, an analysis was done on the use of traditional health practices. Using critical ethnographic methods, data were collected through face-to-face individual interviews (n = 50), focus group discussions (n = 12), and community meetings with a cross section of women in the South Asian community. Interviews were conducted in the language of each participant's choice. Thematic analysis was done on the transcribed interviews. Women's descriptions of traditional health practices varied and consisted of home remedies, dietary regimens, prayers, rituals, and consultation with hakims, veds, babajis, pundits, homeopaths, and jyotshis. Choosing to use traditional health practices was influenced by family members, the nature and severity of problems, beliefs and prior experiences, and the feasibility of using these practices. Traditional health practices were used on a daily or episodic basis. Women rarely used traditional health practices exclusively. Traditional health practices were used for small problems or when conventional medicines did not work. For women to meet their health needs, health care providers must be culturally sensitive and respect women's choices to use traditional health practices. PMID:12141847

Hilton, B A; Grewal, S; Popatia, N; Bottorff, J L; Johnson, J L; Clarke, H; Venables, L J; Bilkhu, S; Sumel, P

2001-09-01

17

Risks associated with the practice of traditional Chinese medicine: an Australian study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the nature and frequency of adverse events that occur as a result of the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine) in Australia. Methods: Data on adverse events were obtained as part of a comprehensive survey of all occupational health groups, government-registered and unregistered, who practiced traditional Chinese medicine or 1 of its main

Alan Bensoussan; Stephen P Myers; Anne L Carlton

2000-01-01

18

Clinical risk – minimising harm in practical procedures and use of equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses some of the clinical negligence problems and risk management issues arising from training of health professionals (predominantly junior hospital doctors) in practical procedures. There continue to be incidents, claims and complaints in the NHS arising from the clinical practice of doctors or other health professionals who are not perceived to be competent in some of the practical

Jane Cowan

2000-01-01

19

Modern Performance Practice and Aesthetics in Traditional Scottish Gaelic Singing   

E-print Network

Performance practice and aesthetics is an under-researched area in Scottish Gaelic song. Previous studies have focused on text rather than context, and there is a significant lack of information from the singers themselves, ...

McPhee, Erin K

2009-01-01

20

Bapedi traditional healers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Their socio-cultural profile and traditional healing practice  

PubMed Central

Background Bapedi traditional healers play a vital role in the primary health care of rural inhabitants in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. However, literature profiling their social and demographic variables, as well as their traditional healing practices is lacking. Methods Convenience sampling were used to identify and select two traditional healers from 17 municipalities (resulting in 34 healers being used in this pilot survey) of the Limpopo Province in South Africa. Information on the social and demographic variables, and traditional healing practices of these healers was gathered from January 2013 to July 2013, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented by field surveys for plant identification and collection used in the preparation of remedies. Results Males constituted nearly two-thirds of the participants. Forty eight percent of them became healers through the mentoring of another healer, while 38% acquired their traditional healing knowledge from parents and 14% from grandparents. In contrast to this, 62% of the females obtained theirs from their parents, 30% from fellow traditional healers, and 8% from grandparents. A total of 154 plant species were indicated as used by healers in the treatment of 52 health-related problems. A vast majority (89%) of these practitioners reported that prepared herbal remedies do expire, which is a temperature-dependent process. Determinations of the efficacy of remedies by most healers (67%) were via consultation with ancestors (90%). This study also found that none of the interviewees had any knowledge of provincial or national environmental legislation. Conclusions The current study has shown that Bapedi traditional healers could play a leading role in both the preservation of indigenous knowledge and the primary health care sector. However, of concern is the traditional methods (via consulting ancestors) employed by most of these healers in determining efficacy of remedies, thus indicating a need for a scientific investigations to establish their safety and effectiveness. Equally, there is a need to educate traditional practitioners’ regarding the significance of various conservation legislations in their traditional healing. By addressing these, the national and provincial legislators, medical fraternity as well as environmental agencies will be able to better integrate them in primary health care systems and environmental management. PMID:24410790

2014-01-01

21

Beyond Tradition: Culture, Symbolism, and Practicality in American Indian Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous people have always created what colonial language labels art. Yet there is no Native word for "art" as defined in a Euro-American sense. Art, as the dominant culture envisions, is mostly ornamental. This is in sharp juxtaposition to a Native perspective, which sees art as integrative, inclusive, practical, and constantly…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2013-01-01

22

Outcome orientation - a misconception of probability that harms medical research and practice  

E-print Network

Uncertainty is an everyday experience in medical research and practice, but theory and methods for reasoning clearly about uncertainty were developed only recently. Confirmation bias, selective memory, and many misleading heuristics are known enemies of the insightful clinician, researcher, or citizen; but other snares worth exposing lurk in how we reason about uncertainty in our everyday lives. Here we draw attention to a cognitive bias described by Konold as the "outcome orientation" - little known or possibly unknown to those outside the field of probability pedagogy - and point out how this form of reasoning creates hazards for medical research and practice.

Humphrey, Parris Taylor

2014-01-01

23

Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is

Amy J Kesterton; John Cleland

2009-01-01

24

Modern and Traditional Medical Practices of Vietnam. Vietnamese Concepts of Illness and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses superstitious, folk, traditional, and modern medical practices of Vietnam. Concepts of illness, somatization, behavior labeling, diagnostic attempts, and attitudes toward treatment among Vietnamese are also reviewed. (APM)

Rieu, Le Tai

25

Traditional Healing Practices Among American Muslims: Perceptions of Community Leaders in Southeast Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite growing numbers of American Muslims, little empirical work exists on their use of traditional healing practices. We\\u000a explored the types of traditional healing practices used by American Muslims in southeast Michigan. Twelve semi-structured\\u000a interviews with American Muslim community leaders identified through a community-academic steering committee were conducted.\\u000a Using a framework coding structure, a multidisciplinary investigative team identified themes describing

Sara AlRawiMichael; Michael D. Fetters; Amal Killawi; Adnan Hammad; Aasim Padela

26

Perspectives and Practices of Xhosa-Speaking African Traditional Healers when Managing Psychosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives and practices of Xhosa-speaking African traditional healers, known as "amagqirha", in managing psychosis. Four traditional healers, 3 male and one female, were chosen to take part in the study through their association with psychosis patients undergoing treatment at a South African psychiatric…

Mzimkulu, Kanyiswa G.; Simbayi, Leickness C.

2006-01-01

27

Traditional Healing Practices Sought by Muslim Psychiatric Patients in Lahore, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explored the type of traditional healing practices sought by Muslim psychiatric patients treated at public hospitals of Lahore city, Pakistan. The sample comprised 87 adult psychiatric patients (38% male and 62% female). The patients self-reported on the Case History Interview Schedule that they had sought diverse traditional healing…

Farooqi, Yasmin Nilofer

2006-01-01

28

Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices Among Lower Class Black Americans  

PubMed Central

The medical belief system of lower class black Americans reflects their social, political and economic marginality in the larger society. A moderate life-style is regarded as the basis for good health with special emphasis on protecting one's body from cold, keeping it clean inside and out and maintaining a proper diet. Illnesses and other life events are classified as “natural” or “unnatural.” Natural illnesses result from the effects of cold, dirt and improper diet on the body causing changes in the blood. A number of beliefs about blood and its functions have important clinical implications for the treatment of hypertension and venereal disease and for family planning. Natural illnesses also result from divine punishment and serve as an instrument of social control. Unnatural illnesses are the result of witchcraft and reflect conflict in the social network. It is believed that physicians do not understand and cannot effectively treat such illnesses, but a variety of traditional healers offer help to the victims. Physicians must elicit such beliefs if they are to interact effectively and sensitively with black patients. Social change is required, however, to eliminate the feelings of powerlessness at the root of many of the health problems of poor black Americans. PMID:6364570

Snow, Loudell F.

1983-01-01

29

Female genital mutilation/cutting--towards abandonment of a harmful cultural practice.  

PubMed

Globally, the prevalence of, and support for, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is declining. However, the entrenched sense of social obligation that propagates the continuation of this practice and the lack of open communication between men and women on this sensitive issue are two important barriers to abandonment. There is limited evidence on the role of men and their experiences in FGM/C. Marriageability of girls is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the continuation of this practice. In some countries, more men than women are advocating to end FGM/C. Moreover, men, as partners to women with FGM/C, also report physical and psychosexual problems. The abandonment process involves expanding a range of successful programs, addressing the human rights priorities of communities and providing power over their own development processes. Anecdotal evidence exists that FGM/C is practised amongst African migrant populations in Australia. The Australian Government supports a taskforce to improve community awareness and education, workforce training and evidence building. Internationally, an African Coordinating Centre for abandonment of FGM/C has been established in Kenya with a major global support group to share research, promote solidarity, advocacy and implement a coordinated and integrated response to abandon FGM/C. PMID:24801568

Varol, Nesrin; Fraser, Ian S; Ng, Cecilia H M; Jaldesa, Guyo; Hall, John

2014-10-01

30

Ayahuasca healing beyond the Amazon: the globalization of a traditional indigenous entheogenic practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ayahuasca commonly refers to a psychoactive Amazonian indigenous brew traditionally used for spiritual and healing purposes (that is as an entheogen). Since the late twentieth century, ayahuasca has undergone a process of globalization through the uptake of different kinds of socio-cultural practices, including its sacramental use in some new Brazilian religious movements and its commodified use in cross-cultural vegetalismo practices,

KENNETH W. TUPPER

2009-01-01

31

Household Survey of Pesticide Practice, Deliberate Self-Harm, and Suicide in the Sundarban Region of West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

The toxicological impact and intentional ingestion of pesticides are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to estimate the extent of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicides (suicidal behaviour) and document pesticide practices in Namkhana block of the Sundarban region, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1680 households (21 villages) following a mixed random and cluster design sampling. The survey questionnaire (Household Information on Pesticide Use and DSH) was developed by the research team to elicit qualitative and quantitative information. The Kappa statistic and McNemar's test were used to assess the level of agreement and association between respondents' and investigators' opinions about safe storage of pesticides. Over five years, 1680 households reported 181 incidents of suicidal behaviour. Conflict with family members was the most frequently reported reason for suicidal behaviour (53.6%). The Kappa statistic indicated poor agreement between respondents and investigators about safe storage of pesticides. The pesticide-related annual DSH rate was 158.1 (95% CI 126.2–195.5), and for suicide it was 73.4 (95% CI 52.2–100.3) per 100,000. Unsafe pesticide practice and psychosocial stressors are related to the high rates of suicidal behaviour. An intersectoral approach involving the local governments, agricultural department and the health sector would help to reduce the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:24224181

Banerjee, Sohini; Chowdhury, Arabinda Narayan; Schelling, Esther; Weiss, Mitchell G.

2013-01-01

32

Concerns About Aspects of Harm Reduction and the Overselling of Evidence-Based Practices in the Treatment of Alcohol\\/Other Drug Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This opinion piece addresses concerns about the negative impressions offered by some harm reduction advocates about historical alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment and abstinence-based programs, as well as advocates who would insist that only evidence-based practices be used in AOD treatment.

Jerome F. X. Carroll

2009-01-01

33

Three bodies of practice in a traditional South Indian martial art.  

PubMed

This paper describes three interconnected conceptions of the body in kalarippayattu, the martial tradition of Kerala, South India. It traces continuities and discontinuities among concepts and practices recorded in classic source texts and contemporary martial practice for each of the three 'bodies of practice'. The first is the fluid body of humors and saps. The second is the body as superstructure composed of bones, muscles, and vital spots (marma-s), which supports the fluid body. The concepts and practices of the first two bodies are based on the regional tradition of Ayurveda. They constitute the external physical body (sthula-?arira). The third, subtle or interior body (suksma-?arira) is thought to be encased within the physical body. It provides an experiential map of practice and is the basis for higher stages of meditation. The long-term practice of the martial art (1) makes the body fluid so that healthful congruence of the humors occurs, (2) establishes an intuitive and practical knowledge of vital points (marma) useful in fighting (prayogam) and in treating injuries, and (3) purifies the subtle body and awakens the internal vital energy (prana-vayu) that is manifest as the power (?akti) of the master in combat or medical practice. The paper concludes with a discussion of the interrelationship between these three concepts of the body in the accomplished practice of the martial practitioner. PMID:2660283

Zarrilli, P B

1989-01-01

34

Anatomy Practical Examinations: How Does Student Performance on Computerized Evaluation Compare with the Traditional Format?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical examinations in anatomy are usually conducted on specimens in the anatomy laboratory (referred to here as the "traditional" method). Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle[TM]. In this study, we compare student scores between two assessment environments viz. online and…

Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Taranikanti, Varna; Al-Rawahy, Maimouna; Habbal, Omar

2012-01-01

35

WERA-39-WSASAS Sheep Symposium Integrating Advanced Concepts into Traditional Practices  

E-print Network

WERA-39-WSASAS Sheep Symposium Integrating Advanced Concepts into Traditional Practices June 19) 994-7952, Email: hatfield@montana.edu The Sheep Symposium is sponsored by the following: *WERA-39 Western Extension, research, and academic coordinating committee, sheep *WSASAS Western Section American

Maxwell, Bruce D.

36

Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and processing between non-codified traditional system of medicine and Ayurveda require further methodical studies to establish the relationship between the two on a more objective basis. However, the practice appears to be at crossroads with threat of extinction, because of non-inheritance of the knowledge and non-availability of medicinal plants. Hence conservation strategies for both knowledge and resources at societal, scientific and legislative levels are urgently required to preserve the traditional wisdom. PMID:24934868

2014-01-01

37

Research to Practice - formal dissemination of the School Health and Alcohol Harm Reduction Project (SHAHRP) in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and Aims. This paper discusses the formal dissemination of the School Health and Alcohol Harm Reduction Project (National SHAHRP Dissemination Project) in Australia. The original SHAHRP research programme (SHAHRP study) was assessed previously for effectiveness during a longitudinal research study which followed the student participants over 32 months post-intervention. The SHAHRP study focused on evaluating the behavioural impact of

Nyanda T. McBride; Fiona H. Farringdon; Carol A. Kennedy

2007-01-01

38

Use of a non-traditional university ambulatory practice to teach large animal medicine.  

PubMed

While many other veterinary schools have moved away from a traditional university-based ambulatory practice, the Ohio State University's Large Animal Practice has continued to provide a cost-effective and valuable method of preparing students for today's careers in veterinary medicine. The practice provides a full array of services to production, equine, and camelid clients, including herd health, individual animal medicine and surgery, and emergency services. Acquiring established practices from alumni has formed the client base. Four full-time veterinarians operate the clinic. While these same clinicians do some classroom teaching, their primary responsibility is devoted to the five to six fourth-year veterinary students who rotate through the clinic every two weeks. Teaching methods and objectives for these students include case discussions, homework, truck quiz books, and practice management issues. Financially, the clinic runs as a private practice, with minimal support from the college (201,000 US dollars per fiscal year) and a gross income of 676,000 US dollars per year. Thus, in a cost-effective manner, this required core ambulatory rotation provides students with a scientific learning experience that exposes them to all aspects of large animal production medicine in a real-world setting. PMID:15551233

Masterson, Margaret A; Welker, Bimbo; Midla, Lowell T; Meiring, Richard W; Hoblet, Kent H

2004-01-01

39

Traditional birth attendants in rural Nepal: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices about maternal and newborn health  

PubMed Central

Efforts to formalize the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and neonatal health programs have had limited success. TBAs’ continued attendance at home deliveries suggests potential to influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of TBAs in rural Nepal. Twenty one trained and untrained TBAs participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews about antenatal care, delivery practices, maternal complications, and newborn care. Antenatal care included advice about nutrition and tetanus toxic (TT) immunization but did not include planning ahead for transport in cases of complications. Clean delivery practices were observed by most TBAs though hand washing practices differed by training status. There was no standard practice to identify maternal complications such as excessive bleeding, prolonged labour, or retained placenta, and most referred outside in the event of such complications. Newborn care practices included breastfeeding with supplemental feeds, thermal care after bathing and mustard seed oil massage. TBAs reported high job satisfaction and desire to improve their skills. Despite uncertainty regarding the role of TBAs to manage maternal complications, TBAs may be strategically placed to make potential contributions to newborn survival. PMID:19431006

THATTE, N.; MULLANY, L.C.; KHATRY, S.K.; KATZ, J.; TIELSCH, J.M.; DARMSTADT, G.L.

2008-01-01

40

Female circumcision: Limiting the harm  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the strength of evidence that links many health hazards to female genital cutting. Material and methods: Literature search in Medline/Pubmed and Google scholar. Results: Female genital cutting is still practiced secretly in both underdeveloped and developed countries due to prevailing strong traditional beliefs. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that genital cutting is a harmful procedure if performed by experienced personnel in a suitable theatre with facilities for pain control and anesthesia. Cutting, however, is advised not to go beyond type I. Conclusion: Law makers around the globe are invited to review the legal situation in relation to female genital cutting. Proper counseling of parents about possible risks is a must in order to make informed decision about circumcising their daughters. The procedure should be offered to parents who insist on it; otherwise, they will do it illegally, exposing their daughters to possible complications. PMID:24627762

Kandil, Mohamed

2012-01-01

41

Knowledge and practice of traditional healers in oral health in the Bui Division, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of Cameroonians depend on traditional medicines for their health care needs and about seven per cent of the average household health budget is spent on traditional medicines irrespective of their incomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral care knowledge and practices of Traditional Healers (TH) on oral health delivery in the urban and rural areas of Bui Division of Cameroon and the objectives to determine the cost of treatment and reasons why people visit TH. Methods The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data. Results The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years). Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5) is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50). Conclusions Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care seeking attitudes in this community and barriers affecting the oral health seeking behaviours should be removed. Mutual cooperation, collaboration and by integrating TH into primary oral health care services needs to be increased. PMID:21235814

2011-01-01

42

Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in traditional and dairy cattle farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in 177 cattle farms in Iringa district in the southern highlands of Tanzania was determined through a questionnaire survey. A total of 76 traditional, 92 small-scale dairy and 9 large-scale dairy cattle farms were included in the survey. Results indicated that 87.7% traditional, 97.8% small-scale dairy and 100% large-scale farmers relied solely on the

J. D Keyyu; N. C Kyvsgaard; A. A Kassuku; A. L Willingham

2003-01-01

43

Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol\\/L (greater than 29 micrograms\\/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: (1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and (2) the PbBs of nearly half

M. R. Farfel; J. J. Jr. Chisolm

1990-01-01

44

Optimal water allocation in small hydropower plants between traditional and non-traditional water users: merging theory and existing practices.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water demand for hydropower production is increasing together with the consciousness of the importance of riparian ecosystems and biodiversity. Some Cantons in Switzerland and other alpine regions in Austria and in Süd Tiröl (Italy) started replacing the inadequate concept of Minimum Flow Requirement (MFR) with a dynamic one, by releasing a fix percentage of the total inflow (e.g. 25 %) to the environment. Starting from a model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) and the need of including the environment as an actual water user, we arrived to similar qualitative results, and better quantitative performances. In this paper we explore the space of non-proportional water repartition rules analysed by Gorla and Perona (2013), and we propose new ecological indicators which are directly derived from current ecologic evaluation practices (fish habitat modelling and hydrological alteration). We demonstrate that both MFR water redistribution policy and also proportional repartition rules can be improved using nothing but available information. Furthermore, all water redistribution policies can be described by the model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) in terms of the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU) and a suitable class of nonlinear functions. This is particularly useful to highlights implicit assumptions and choosing best-compromise solutions, providing analytical reasons explaining why efficiency cannot be attained by classic repartition rules. Each water repartition policy underlies an ecosystem monetization and a political choice always has to be taken. We explicit the value of the ecosystem health underlying each policy by means of the PEMU under a few assumptions, and discuss how the theoretic efficient redistribution law obtained by our approach is feasible and doesn't imply high costs or advanced management tools. For small run-of-river power plants, this methodology answers the question "how much water should be left to the river?" and is therefore a simple but effective step towards eco-sustainability. References - Perona, P., Characklis, G., Dürrenmatt, D.J., 2013. Inverse parameters estimation of simple riparian benefit economical models. Journal of Environmental Management . - Gorla, L. and Perona, P., 2013. On quantifying ecologically sustainable flow releases in a diverted river reach. Journal of Hydrology.

Gorla, Lorenzo; Crouzy, Benoît; Perona, Paolo

2014-05-01

45

Is the evidence-based practice movement doing more good than harm? Reflections on Iain Chalmers' case for research-based policy making and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

English Powerful voices are currently insisting that policy and practice must be based on research evidence, and that social science inquiry should be reformed in order to serve this need more effectively. An influential figure in the evidence-based practice movement is Sir Iain Chalmers, previously director of the UK Cochrane Centre. Taking evidence-based medicine as his model, he presents the

Martyn Hammersley

2005-01-01

46

A ‘Latin’ approach to harm reduction: some suggestions from the Italian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the example of many northern European countries, harm reduction strategies were introduced in Italy at the beginning of the 90s in response to the spread of HIV\\/Aids. The peculiarities of Italian culture and tradition led to the adoption of a ‘Latin’ model, while in northern countries the culture of pragmatism and evidence-based practices, together with a long tradition of

Grazia Zuffa

2008-01-01

47

The validity of multiple choice practical examinations as an alternative to traditional free response examination formats in gross anatomy.  

PubMed

Traditionally, an anatomy practical examination is conducted using a free response format (FRF). However, this format is resource-intensive, as it requires a relatively large time investment from anatomy course faculty in preparation and grading. Thus, several interventions have been reported where the response format was changed to a selected response format (SRF). However, validity evidence from those interventions has not proved entirely adequate for the practical anatomy examination, and thus, further investigation was required. In this study, the validity evidence of SRF was examined using multiple choice questions (MCQs) constructed according to different levels of Bloom's taxonomy in comparison with the traditional free response format. A group of 100 medical students registered in a gross anatomy course volunteered to be enrolled in this study. The experimental MCQ examinations were part of graded midterm and final steeplechase practical examination. Volunteer students were instructed to complete the practical examinations twice, once in each of two separate examination rooms. The two separate examinations consisted of a traditional free response format and MCQ format. Scores from the two examinations (FRF and MCQ) displayed a strong correlation, even with higher level Bloom's taxonomy questions. In conclusion, the results of this study provide empirical evidence that the SRF (MCQ) response format is a valid method and can be used as an alternative to the traditional FRF steeplechase examination. PMID:23109285

Shaibah, Hassan Sami; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

2013-01-01

48

The Validity of Multiple Choice Practical Examinations as an Alternative to Traditional Free Response Examination Formats in Gross Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, an anatomy practical examination is conducted using a free response format (FRF). However, this format is resource-intensive, as it requires a relatively large time investment from anatomy course faculty in preparation and grading. Thus, several interventions have been reported where the response format was changed to a selected…

Shaibah, Hassan Sami; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

2013-01-01

49

Comparison of a Computer Simulation Program and a Traditional Laboratory Practical Class for Teaching the Principles of Intestinal Absorption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the effectiveness of an interactive computer-assisted learning program for undergraduate students that simulates experiments performed using isolated, everted sacs of rat small intestine. The program is designed to offer an alternative student-centered approach to traditional laboratory-based practical classes. Knowledge gain of students…

Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

1994-01-01

50

When the New Application Smell Is Gone: Traditional Intranet Best Practices and Existing Web 2.0 Intranet Infrastructures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growth of Web 2.0 library intranets in recent years, many libraries are leaving behind legacy, first-generation intranets. As Web 2.0 intranets multiply and mature, how will traditional intranet best practices--especially in the areas of planning, implementation, and evaluation--translate into an existing Web 2.0 intranet infrastructure?…

Yoose, Becky

2010-01-01

51

Comparing an Inquiry-Based Approach Known as the Science Writing Heuristic to Traditional Science Teaching Practices: Are There Differences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many state and federal governments have mandated in such documents as the National Science Education Standards that inquiry strategies should be the focus of the teaching of science within school classrooms. The difficult part for success is changing teacher practices from perceived traditional ways of teaching to more inquiry-based approaches.…

Akkus, Recai; Gunel, Murat; Hand, Brian

2007-01-01

52

A cross-sectional study on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine in Dembia district, north western Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study pertaining to the practices and perceptions of modern and traditional health practitioners on Traditional Medicine (TM) was carried out from February 25 to April 4, 2008. The results of the study showed that almost all the practitioners in both systems expressed their willingness to collaborate among each other to promote the positive elements of TM. As traditional healing knowledge is still being handed over from one generation to the next, mainly through word of mouth, which will lead to distortion or a total demise of the original knowledge, this report indicates the urgency to document the same. Moreover, the report also implies the need for educating and training the practitioners of the two systems. More also has to be done to create a discussion forum for both modern and TM practitioners, to enable them to share their knowledge. Government support for promotion and development of TM should be considered as a goal to be seriously pursued. The government should also contribute by helping them financially and by arranging training and education for the improvement of the healthcare system given to the public. PMID:20548932

Ragunathan, Muthuswamy; tadesse, Hawi; tujuba, Rebecca

2010-01-01

53

Traditional Assignment Considered Harmful Scott M. Pike  

E-print Network

, data movement, parameter passing, swapping 1. The Data Movement Question The issue of how to achieve the value of some variable (say, x) -- denoting some important quantity at the beginning of the loop body -- get the value of a corresponding variable (say, y) at the end of the prior iteration of the loop body

Weide, Bruce W.

54

Harm Reduction: The Case of Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pragmatically oriented harm minimization policy is traditionally followed regarding alcohol and tobacco. With respect to illegal drugs, ideological positions were stepwise replaced by an equally pragmatic attitude. Serious health and social challenges asked for a range of harm reduction strategies and projects which are briefly described. A preliminary evaluation of those shows a diverse picture with regard to public

Ambros Uchtenhagen

1995-01-01

55

Teaching as a Reflective Practice: The German Didaktik Tradition. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers presents essays by German scholars and practitioners writing from within the German Didaktik tradition and interpretive essays by U.S. scholars. After an introduction, "Starting a Dialogue: A Beginning Conversation between Didaktik and the Curriculum Traditions" (Stefan Hopmann and Kurt Riquarts), there are 18 chapters in…

Westbury, Ian, Ed.; Hopmann, Stefan, Ed.; Riquarts, Kurt, Ed.

56

Traditional and Alternative Community Food Security Interventions in Montréal, Québec: Different Practices, Different People.  

PubMed

Food insecurity is steadily increasing in developed countries. Traditional interventions adopted to tackle food insecurity, like food banks, address the urgent need for food. By contrast, alternative interventions, such as community gardens and kitchens, are oriented towards social integration and the development of mutual aid networks. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the populations served by traditional and alternative interventions in food security differ according to measures of vulnerability. We studied newly registered participants to food security interventions. Participants were selected from a random sample of food security community organizations in a two-stage cluster sampling frame. The categorizing variable was participation in a community organization providing either traditional interventions or alternative interventions. Seven measures of vulnerability were used: food security; perceived health; civic participation; perceived social support of the primary network, social isolation, income and education. Regression multilevel models were used to assess associations. 711 participants in traditional interventions and 113 in alternative interventions were enrolled in the study. Between group differences were found with respect to food insecurity, health status perception, civic participation, education and income, but not with respect to social isolation or perceived social support from primary social network. Traditional and alternative food security interventions seem to reach different populations. Participants in traditional interventions were found to have less access to resources, compared to those in alternative interventions. Thus, new participants in traditional interventions may have higher levers of vulnerability than those in alternative interventions. PMID:25012098

Roncarolo, Federico; Adam, Caroline; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

2014-07-11

57

From Mexico to Here: An Observational Study of Traditional Dietary Practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As Mexican-Americans acculturate to the American diet and lifestyle they have increased risk of developing many chronic diseases. An understanding of traditional environment and behavior is needed to address this phenomenon. Transnational qualitative research (participant observation, photography, a...

58

Harm Reduction in Community Mental Health Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harm reduction is a conceptual framework and set of practices that focus on the minimization of the physical, social, and legal harms substance users do to themselves and to society as a whole. Its application to community mental health settings is relatively new, and can create controversies and ethical dilemmas if not properly designed, implemented, and evaluated. Building on the

Michael A. Mancini; Donald M. Linhorst

2010-01-01

59

Challenges to Implementing the Harm Reduction Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social work literature recently has supported greater use of the harm reduction approach in professional practice. Implementing this approach, however, presents its challenges. We explore how practitioners in a housing program for people with histories of psychiatric disabilities, substance use disorders, and homelessness perceived the harm reduction approach. Prior to the opening of this new program, agency staff completed

Michael A. Mancini; Donald M. Linhorst; Francie Broderick; Scott Bayliff

2008-01-01

60

[Optimization theory and practical application of membrane science technology based on resource of traditional Chinese medicine residue].  

PubMed

Resource of traditional Chinese medicine residue is an inevitable choice to form new industries characterized of modem, environmental protection and intensive in the Chinese medicine industry. Based on the analysis of source and the main chemical composition of the herb residue, and for the advantages of membrane science and technology used in the pharmaceutical industry, especially membrane separation technology used in improvement technical reserves of traditional extraction and separation process in the pharmaceutical industry, it is proposed that membrane science and technology is one of the most important choices in technological design of traditional Chinese medicine resource industrialization. Traditional Chinese medicine residue is a very complex material system in composition and character, and scientific and effective "separation" process is the key areas of technology to re-use it. Integrated process can improve the productivity of the target product, enhance the purity of the product in the separation process, and solve many tasks which conventional separation is difficult to achieve. As integrated separation technology has the advantages of simplified process and reduced consumption, which are in line with the trend of the modern pharmaceutical industry, the membrane separation technology can provide a broad platform for integrated process, and membrane separation technology with its integrated technology have broad application prospects in achieving resource and industrialization process of traditional Chinese medicine residue. We discuss the principles, methods and applications practice of effective component resources in herb residue using membrane separation and integrated technology, describe the extraction, separation, concentration and purification application of membrane technology in traditional Chinese medicine residue, and systematically discourse suitability and feasibility of membrane technology in the process of traditional Chinese medicine resource industrialization in this paper. PMID:25095393

Zhu, Hua-Xu; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guo, Li-Wei; Li, Bo; Lu, Jin; Tang, Yu-Ping; Pan, Lin-Mei

2014-05-01

61

Anatomical Practical Examinations: How Does Student Performance on Computerized Evaluation Compare with the Traditional Format?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a research study comparing the scores on online versus traditional examinations in a gross anatomy course. The authors hypothesis was that there would not be a difference between modes of testing on performance. Methods and outcomes are discussed.

2011-09-13

62

Traditional medical practices and medicinal plant usage on a Bahamian Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional medical system of a small Bahamian island is explored through a health survey of 83% of the population and an analysis of the activities and materials of the two main native health ‘professionals’ — the healing specialist and the ‘herbalist’. The present findings suggest that the Bimini medical system has historically been efficacious in the treatment and management

Robert A. Halberstein; Ashley B. Saunders

1978-01-01

63

A community of practice approach to the development of non-traditional learners through networked learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses a sample of online discussions to evaluate the development of adult learners as reflective practitioners within a networked learning community. The context for our study is a blended learning course offering post-experience professional training to non- traditional university students. These students are parents and carers of people with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). We use Lave and Wenger's

Karen Guldberg; Rachel M. Pilkington

2006-01-01

64

Beyond Biomedicine: Developing New Models of Medical Practice from the Pragmatist and Existentialist Traditions  

E-print Network

This thesis seeks to address two distinct sets of criticisms that have been offered at medical practice. The first criticism suggests that medicine today is too exclusive in its application of the term 'disease.' As a consequence, important...

Moore, Cody

2012-07-16

65

Harmful Algal Blooms  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

You may notice a green, red or brown film on your favorite boating or swimming area in the summer. This coloring could mean that the water is affected by harmful algal blooms. Harmful algal blooms are an accumulation of tiny organisms known as algae and can release harmful toxins into the environmen...

2010-06-30

66

The Morality of Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the…

Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared

2009-01-01

67

Harmful Algal Blooms  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

You may notice a green, red or brown film on your favorite boating or swimming area in the summer. This coloring could mean that the water is affected by harmful algal blooms. Harmful algal blooms are an accumulation of tiny organisms known as algae and can release harmful toxins into the environmen...

68

Forecasting Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online newsletter gives a brief summary of societal impacts of harmful algal blooms and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) project, a group funded by NOAA to forecast harmful algal blooms (HABs) along the Washington coast. The site includes colorful SeaWiFS (satellite) images of the coast during upwelling events.

Woodruff, Dana; Institute, Battelle M.

69

Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in traditional and dairy cattle farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania.  

PubMed

Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in 177 cattle farms in Iringa district in the southern highlands of Tanzania was determined through a questionnaire survey. A total of 76 traditional, 92 small-scale dairy and 9 large-scale dairy cattle farms were included in the survey. Results indicated that 87.7% traditional, 97.8% small-scale dairy and 100% large-scale farmers relied solely on the use of anthelmintics, 2.7% traditional farmers used traditional medicines while 9.6% traditional farmers had not any form of worm control practice. Worm infection was ranked the second most important constraint of productivity in cattle in the three production systems. Most farms (57.6% traditional, 35.8% small-scale dairy, 66.7% large-scale dairy) used anthelmintics with a combination of levamisole and oxyclozanide. Benzimidazoles were used only in traditional (25.4%) and small-scale dairy (32.1%) farms while nitroxynil (Trodax) was mostly used in large-scale dairy farms (33.3%). Generally, 40% of farmers treated three or four times a year and the frequency in some farms was surprisingly high for resource poor small-scale farmers. The frequency of anthelmintic treatment was mostly the same regardless of the management system. Treatments in most farms depended on availability of money and drugs and not the epidemiology of parasites. A significant proportion (46.3%, P=0.007) of farmers especially in rural areas failed to follow their pre-planned treatment schedules due to lack of money (86%) and unavailability of drugs (6.6%). Many farmers (58.9%) had used the same type of anthelmintic for four or more consecutive years and 85.3% of them would continue with the same anthelmintic. Farmers in all management systems mostly purchased anthelmintics from private veterinary drug shops and about 43% traditional and 33.3% small-scale dairy farmers mostly in rural areas obtained anthelmintics from village extension officers. Despite the fact that all farmers were aware of worm infection and the associated signs in cattle, 42.5% had poor knowledge on the source of worm infection. Small-scale dairy farmers allowed only a 1-day withdraw period for milk regardless of the type of anthelmintic used and there was no milk and slaughter clearance in traditional farms. It was concluded from this study that worm control in Iringa faces serious constrains and that education of farmers and farm hands is not adequate. Moreover, poor quality control and high price of potent anthelmintics, few extension workers, low income and low education among farmers contributed significantly to erratic worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in peri-urban and rural areas. PMID:12732466

Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Kassuku, A A; Willingham, A L

2003-05-15

70

Impact of HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) Knowledge on HIV Prevention Practices Among Traditional Birth Attendants in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p < 0.01), sterilization of delivery equipment (p < 0.01), participation in blood safety training (p < 0.01), and disposal of sharps (p < 0.01). As long as a high percent of births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health. PMID:25674783

Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

2015-01-01

71

Profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in two districts of Eastern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background The WHO estimates that more than 80% of African populations attend traditional healers for health reasons and that 40%–60% of these have some kind of mental illness. However, little is known about the profiles and outcome of this traditional approach to treatment. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in Jinja and Iganga districts in the Busoga region of Eastern Uganda. Methods Four studies were conducted. Study I used focus group discussions (FGDs) with case vignettes with local community members and traditional healers to explore the lay concepts of psychosis. Studies II and III concerned a cross-sectional survey of patients above 18 years at the traditional healer's shrines and study IV was made on a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with psychosis in study III. Manual content analysis was used in study I; quantitative data in studies II, III, and IV were analyzed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels to determine the association between psychological distress and socio-demographic factors; for study IV, factors associated with outcome were analyzed. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was the analysis used in Study IV. Results The community gave indigenous names to psychoses (mania, schizophrenia, and psychotic depression) and had multiple explanatory models for them. Thus multiple solutions for these problems were sought. Of the 387 respondents, the prevalence of psychological distress was 65.1%, where 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness, and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Over 80% of patients with psychosis used both biomedical and traditional healing systems. Those who combined these two systems seemed to have a better outcome. All the symptom scales showed a percentage reduction of more than 20% at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Conclusion Traditional healers shoulder a large burden of care of patients with mental health problems. This calls for all those who share the goal of improving the mental health of individuals to engage with traditional healers. PMID:21845144

Abbo, Catherine

2011-01-01

72

Is This the End of the English Tradition of Practical A-Level Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From September 2015, schools in England will be teaching new A-level science specifications that have been developed by examination boards to encompass new higher levels of demand developed by the Department for Education. Integral to these new specifications is a radical change to the contribution of practical science to the A-level grade of the…

Carter, Ian

2014-01-01

73

Construction of Life-Practice Moral Education Based on Traditional Chinese Morality with Life Connotation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The actual effect is a big problem in current school moral education. By analyzing the problems in the theory and practice of the current school moral education, the author points out that the reason is that, for a long time, the meaning of morality has been dissimilated, and moral education is considered as a kind of knowledge input and…

Yi, Lian-yun; Peng, Jing

2006-01-01

74

Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

2012-01-01

75

Bridging Best Traditional SWD Practices with XP to Improve the Quality of XP Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software quality is the main factor for the software reliability and software performance. Extreme programming strongly argues that it improves the quality of the software through feedback from iterative software development and by practicing pair programming and test driven development. Software quality is mainly depends on non-functional requirements. In most of cases non-functional requirements are not covered in the exploration

Chetankumar Patel; Muthu Ramachandran

2008-01-01

76

Conceptualizing prenatal care: recent research and the application of tae-kyo, korean traditional beliefs and practices.  

PubMed

The value of prenatal care has long been recognized by various cultures. The author's purpose in this article is to propose a framework to conceptualize prenatal care using the traditional Korean practice of prenatal care called Tae-Kyo, which means education for the fetus. The philosophy of Tae-Kyo shows the importance of children's development from the very beginning of life and indicates the moral and social responsibilities of pregnant women, family members, and communities in delivering healthy babies. This comprehensive view implies a framework for conceptualizing prenatal care that encompasses multidimensional aspects of prenatal care. PMID:24527798

Kim, Yanghee

2015-01-01

77

How Educational Practices Affect the Development of Lifelong Learning Orientations in Traditionally-aged Undergraduate Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated curricular conditions and educational practices that influenced the development of life-long learning orientations\\u000a among 405 undergraduate students. Results suggest that growth in life-long learning orientations was facilitated by instruction\\u000a that included opportunities for reflection, active learning, and perspective-taking and that provided students with opportunities\\u000a for positively interacting with diverse peers. Negative diverse peer interactions were found to stifle

Matthew J. Mayhew; Gregory C. Wolniak; Ernest T. Pascarella

2008-01-01

78

Predictors of Traditional Medicines Utilisation in the Ghanaian Health Care Practice: Interrogating the Ashanti Situation.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine (TRM) use remains universal among individuals, families and communities the world over but the predictive variables of TRM use is still confounding. This population-based study analysed the predictors of TRM use in Ashanti Region, Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional quantitative survey involving systematic random sampled participants (N = 324) was conducted. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used as research instruments. Data were analysed with logit regression, Pearson's Chi square and Fisher's exact tests from the PASW for Windows application (V. 17.0). Overall, 86.1 % (n = 279) reported use of TRM with biologically-based and distant/prayer therapies as the major forms of TRM utilised in the previous 12 months. Among the general population, TRM use was predicted by having low-income levels [odds ratio (OR) 2.883, confidence interval (CI) 1.142-7.277], being a trader (OR 2.321, CI 1.037-5.194), perceiving TRM as effective (OR 4.430, CI 1.645-11.934) and safe (OR 2.730, CI 0.986-4.321), good affective behaviour of traditional medical practitioner (TMP) (OR 2.943, CI 0.875-9.896) and having chronic ill-health (OR 3.821, CI 1.213-11.311). The prevalence of TRM use is high. The study provides evidence that people's experience, personal attributes, health beliefs, attitude to TRM, attitude of TMP to clients and medical history are largely accountable for the upsurge use of TRM rather than socio-demographic factors. Understanding the health-seeking behaviour of individuals is exigent to ascribe appropriate medical care by health care providers. PMID:25173694

Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah

2014-08-31

79

Comparison of a computer simulation program and a traditional laboratory practical class for teaching the principles of intestinal absorption.  

PubMed

Here we describe an evaluation of the effectiveness, compared with a traditional laboratory, of an interactive computer-assisted learning (CAL) program, which simulates a series of experiments performed using isolated, everted sacs of rat small intestine. The program is aimed at undergraduate students of physiology and is designed to offer an alternative student-centered learning approach to the traditional laboratory-based practical class. The evaluative study compared two groups of second-year undergraduate students studying a module on epithelial transport: one group worked independently using the CAL program and associated learning materials, and the other group followed a conventional practical class approach, working in the laboratory under supervision. Knowledge gain of each group was measured by means of a test consisting of a range of question types (e.g., short-answer factual, calculation, interpretation) given to students before and after the module. Student attitude to both approaches was assessed by questionnaire, and the resource requirements were also compared. It was found that the knowledge gain of both groups of students was the same, that students had a positive attitude toward using CAL programs of this type, and that the cost of the conventional laboratory-based approach was five times greater. The potential for integrating CAL programs into the undergraduate curriculum is discussed. PMID:7998619

Dewhurst, D G; Hardcastle, J; Hardcastle, P T; Stuart, E

1994-12-01

80

Moving beyond traditional fire management practices to better minimize community vulnerability to wildfire in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are an important natural process in southern California, but they also present a major hazard for human life and property. The region leads the nation in fire-related losses, and since 2001, wildfires have damaged or destroyed more than 10,000 homes. As human ignitions have increased along with urban development and population growth, fire frequency has also surged, and most home losses occur in large fires when ignitions coincide with Santa Ana windstorms. As the region accommodates more growth in the future, the wildfire threat promises to continue. We will thus explore how a broader, more comprehensive approach to fire management could improve upon traditional approaches for reducing community vulnerability. The traditional approach to mitigating fire risk, in addition to fire suppression, has been to reduce fuel through construction of fuel breaks. Despite increasing expenditure on these treatments, there has been little empirical study of their role in controlling large fires. We will present the results of a study in which we constructed and analyzed a spatial database of fuel breaks in southern California national forests. Our objective was to better understand characteristics of fuel breaks that affect the behavior of large fires and to map where fires and fuel breaks most commonly intersect. We found that fires stopped at fuel breaks 22-47% of the time, depending on the forest, and the reason fires stopped was invariably related to firefighter access and management activities. Fire weather and fuel break condition were also important. The study illustrates the importance of strategic location of fuel breaks because they have been most effective where they provided access for firefighting activities. While fuel breaks have played a role in controlling wildfires at the Wildland Urban Interface, we are evaluating alternative approaches for reducing community vulnerability, including land use planning. Recent research shows that the amount and spatial arrangement of human infrastructure, such as roads and housing developments, strongly influences wildfire patterns. Therefore, we hypothesize that the spatial arrangement and location of housing development is likely to affect the susceptibility of lives and property to fire. In other words, potential for urban loss may be greatest at specific housing densities, spatial patterns of development, and locations of development. If these risk factors can be identified, mapped, and modeled, it is possible that vulnerability to wildfire could be substantially minimized through careful planning for future development - especially because future development will likely increase the region’s fire risk. To address these possibilities, we are evaluating past housing loss in relation to land use planning, in conjunction with other variables that influence fire patterns. We are also exploring alternative future scenarios to identify optimum land use planning strategies for minimizing fire risk.

Syphard, A. D.; Keeley, J. E.; Brennan, T. J.

2010-12-01

81

Wo'Lakol Kiciyapi: Traditional Philosophies of Helping and Healing among the Lakotas: Toward a Lakota-Centric Practice of Social Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 32 traditional Lakota elders, educators, leaders, and mental-health providers found that prereservation Lakota approaches for ensuring social health and well-being were preventative, holistic, spiritual, and linked to the tribe's ceremonial life. Discusses a resurgence of traditional healing practices among the Lakota and…

Voss, Richard W.; Douville, Victor; Little Soldier, Alex; White Hat, Albert

1999-01-01

82

A confluence of traditions: Examining teacher practice in the merging of secondary science and environmental education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embedding environmental education within secondary science curriculum presents both philosophical and practical difficulties for teachers. This ethnographic/narrative study, with its methodology grounded in eco-feminism and realism/constructivism, examines the work of six secondary science teachers as they engage in an action research project focused on merging environmental education in their science lessons. Over the course of several months the teachers examine and discuss their views and their professional development related to the project. In the place of definitive conclusions, eight propositions relating the work of secondary science teachers to environmental education, form the basis for a discussion of the implications of the study. The implications are particularly relevant to secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, where the embedding of environmental education in science studies has been mandated.

Astrid, Steele

83

Harm Reduction Therapy Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harm reduction psychotherapy is the newest approach to engaging and working with substance users and abusers. It combines public health principles and interventions, motivational interviewing, and psychiatric treatment with psychodynamic psychotherapy to create an integrated model of treating individuals with substance abuse and psychiatric or emotional problems. In groups, harm reduction psychotherapy exposes group members to the continuum of drug

Jeannie Little

2006-01-01

84

Benefitting from differences in knowledge, practice and belief: M?ori oral traditions and natural hazards science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper builds upon earlier work that argued the information and experience contained within the knowledge-practice-belief complex of M?tauranga M?ori [M?ori knowledge] is a valuable and neglected area of information and understanding about past catastrophic events in Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ). Here we map M?ori oral traditions (p?r?kau) that relate experience with extreme environmental disturbance (in particular, tsunamis) around the A/NZ coast, compare the findings with geo-archaeological evidence, and discuss the scientific benefits to be gained by considering p?r?kau as legitimate perspectives on history. Not surprisingly, there are both differences and complementarities between traditional M?ori narratives and the available geo-archaeological evidence on extreme coastal disturbances. The findings presented here raise new and important questions about accepted geographies of tsunami risk, the causes and sources of their generation, as well as reasons for the relative paucity and abundance of information in some regions. Ways in which M?tauranga Taiao [M?ori environmental knowledge] and contemporary science can be combined to produce new narratives about extreme environmental disturbance along the A/NZ coastline will require not only acceptance of other ways of knowing but also open engagement with M?ori that respects their rights to tell their own histories. These efforts are encouraged to revitalise and ground-truth the interpretation of traditional stories, corroborate and/or question previous scientific deductions, and improve our collective understanding of the recurring impact of tectonic, geologic and meteorological-based events across A/NZ.

King, D. N.; Goff, J. R.

2010-09-01

85

Practices associated with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza spread in traditional poultry marketing chains: Social and economic perspectives.  

PubMed

In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus. The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities. PMID:23337390

Paul, Mathilde; Baritaux, Virginie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François; Bonnet, Pascal; Ducrot, Christian

2013-04-01

86

Insect repellent plants traditional usage practices in the Ethiopian malaria epidemic-prone setting: an ethnobotanical survey  

PubMed Central

Background The usage of insect repellent plants (IRPs) is one of the centuries-old practices in Africa. In Ethiopia, malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, subsequently the majority of people have a tendency to apply various plants as repellents to reduce or interrupt the biting activity of insects. Accordingly, this survey was undertaken to document and evaluate knowledge and usage practices of the local inhabitants on IRPs in the malaria epidemic-prone setting of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical survey was conducted between January and May 2013. Selected 309 household members were interviewed by administering pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge and usage practices of repellent plants, in Bechobore Kebele, Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Results Overall, 70.2% (217/309) and 91.8% (199/217) of the respondents have had ample awareness and usage practices of repellent plants, respectively. Informants cited about twenty-two plant species as repellents and also indicated that these plants are useful(85.5%), accessible(86.8%), and affordable(83.9%) too. Residents mainly applying dried leaves [93.9% (187/199)] by means of burning/smouldering [98.9% (197/199)] with the traditional charcoal stove to repel insects, primarily mosquitoes. About 52.8% (105/199) of the informants using aproximately15g of dried plant-materials every day. A Chi-square analysis shows statistically a significant link between the knowledge on repellent plants and gender as well as average monthly income although not with the age of the respondents. Nevertheless, the repellent plant usage custom was not significantly associated with gender, monthly income, and age of the informants. Conclusion Though most of the people have had an adequate awareness still a sizable faction of society suffers with deprivation of IRPs knowledge and usage practices. Therefore, this study calls for more surveys to conserve the existing indigenous knowledge and cultural practices. It could lay the first stone to develop the next generation cost-effective vector control tools in the near future. PMID:24521138

2014-01-01

87

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)  

MedlinePLUS

... and people. Harmful algal blooms have threatened beaches, drinking water sources, and even the boating venue for the ... added certain algae associated with HABs to its Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List. This list identifies organisms and ...

88

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online textbook contains detailed information about harmful algal blooms (HABs). Topics include HAB related health hazards, general information about HABs, and taxonomic information regarding different harmful algae. The site also features links to specific aforementioned topic-related sites and maps of observed blooms in Europe and North America, Florida datasets, and historical/real-time data produced by NOAA. It also contains color photographs related to HABs.

Robert R. Stewart

89

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA website features a repository of information about Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). It explains the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act (HABHRCA) and describes the subsequent formation of an Interagency Task Force to develop a national HAB assessment and authorize funding for existing and new research programs on HABs. The site features links to information about current and past research programs, HAB ecological forecasting, related news articles, workshop announcements, and additional HAB information sources.

90

Psychological distress and associated factors among the attendees of traditional healing practices in Jinja and Iganga districts, Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health problems are a major public health concern worldwide. Evidence shows that African communities, including Uganda, use both modern and traditional healing systems. There is limited literature about the magnitude of psychological distress and associated factors among attendees of traditional healing practices. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among attendees of traditional healing practices in two districts in Uganda. Methods Face-to-face interviews with the Lusoga version of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) were carried out with 400 patients over the age of 18 years attending traditional healing in Iganga and Jinja districts in Eastern Uganda. Patients were recruited consecutively in all the traditional healers' shrines that could be visited in the area. Persons with 6 or more positive responses to the SRQ were identified as having psychological distress. Prevalence was estimated and odds ratios of having psychological distress were obtained with multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 387 questionnaire responses were analyzed. The prevalence of psychological distress in connection with attendance at the traditional healers' shrines was 65.1%. Having a co-wife and having more than four children were significantly associated with psyclogical distress. Among the socioeconomic indicators, lack of food and having debts were significantly associated with psychological distress. The distressed group was more likely to need explanations for ill health. Those who visited both the healer and a health unit were less likely to be distressed. Conclusion This study provides evidence that a substantial proportion of attendees of traditional healing practices suffer from psychological distress. Associated factors include poverty, number of children, polygamy, reason for visiting the healer and use of both traditional healing and biomedical health units. These findings may be useful for policy makers and biomedical health workers for the engagement with traditional healers. PMID:19105804

Abbo, Catherine; Ekblad, Solvig; Waako, Paul; Okello, Elialilia; Muhwezi, Wilson; Musisi, Seggane

2008-01-01

91

Provider views of harm reduction versus abstinence policies within homeless services for dually diagnosed adults.  

PubMed

Harm reduction is considered by many to be a legitimate alternative to abstinence-based services for dually diagnosed individuals, yet there is limited understanding of how varying approaches affect front-line practice within services for homeless adults. This paper examines how front-line providers working with individuals who have experienced homelessness, serious mental illness, and addiction view policies of harm reduction versus abstinence within two different approaches to homeless services: the traditional or "treatment first" approach that requires abstinence, and the more recent housing first approach that incorporates harm reduction. As part of a federally funded qualitative study, 129 in-depth interviews conducted with 41 providers were thematically analyzed to understand how providers view harm reduction versus abstinence approaches. Themes included the following: (a) harm reduction as a welcomed alternative, (b) working with ambiguity, and (c) accommodating abstinence. Drawing on recovery principles, the authors consider the broader implications of the findings for behavioral health care with this population. PMID:23404076

Henwood, Benjamin F; Padgett, Deborah K; Tiderington, Emmy

2014-01-01

92

Harm Reduction or Harm Facilitation? A Reply to Maletzky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of harm reduction applied to sexual offending is very upsetting to some clinicians. This paper attempts to anchor harm reduction within the larger framework of relapse prevention. It is argued that reducing harm more accurately represents what clinicians do with sexual offenders rather than preventing or eliminating relapses. There are numerous common misconceptions about harm reduction with sexual

D. R. Laws

1999-01-01

93

Harmful Algal Blooms Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the biological and physical conditions that lead to eutrophication of a water system by using real-time data to predict the the growth of harmful algae. They also conduct research on the Internet to learn more about the causes of harmful algal blooms. Students investigate both the position of the Gulf Stream, as well as population and life cycle characteristics of harmful phytoplankton. The activity includes a worksheet and assessment questions. This resource is found in Rising Tides, a journal created for teachers and students reporting on current oceanography research conducted by NASA, NOAA, and university scientists, featuring articles, classroom activities, readings, teacher/student questions, and imagery for student investigation of marine science.

94

Use of Information-Seeking Strategies for Developing Systematic Reviews and Engaging in Evidence-Based Practice: The Application of Traditional and Comprehensive Pearl Growing--A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Efficient library searches for research evidence are critical to practitioners who wish to engage in evidence-based practice (EBP) as well as researchers who seek to develop systematic reviews. Aims: This review will propose the benefits of the search technique "Pearl Growing" ("Traditional Pearl Growing") as well as an adaptation of…

Schlosser, Ralf W.; Wendt, Oliver; Bhavnani, Suresh; Nail-Chiwetalu, Barbara

2006-01-01

95

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Aquatic Pathobiology website features an overview of harmful algal blooms. Specific focus is given to blooms of microscopic algae occurring in the coastal waters of the United States that produce toxins and impair fish and shellfish production, either directly or indirectly, via degradation of habitats. Links are provided to detailed pages about each of the following: neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), "Brown tide" blooms (BTB), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), and blooms which do not cause illness to humans but are harmful to fish.

Andrew Kane

96

Mentor Profiles -Kevin Harm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Considering his job, Kevin's last name doesn't make sense. Kevin got into nursing because he wants to help, not harm, people. Kevin didn't know what he wanted to do right away; he had another career before nursing. Read about him here.

Gem-Nursing

97

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive NOAA pdf file contains in depth information about harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States. The article contains general information about HABs, location-based assessments of HABs, and case studies of the problem. The article features color photographs of affected areas.

Administration, National O.

98

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

99

How Current Clinical Practice Guidelines for Low Back Pain Reflect Traditional Medicine in East Asian Countries: A Systematic Review of Clinical Practice Guidelines and Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of this study were to investigate whether there is a gap between evidence of traditional medicine (TM) interventions in East-Asian countries from the current Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) and evidence from current systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR-MAs) and to analyze the impact of this gap on present CPGs. Methods We examined 5 representative TM interventions in the health care systems of East-Asian countries. We searched seven relevant databases for CPGs to identify whether core CPGs included evidence of TM interventions, and we searched 11 databases for SR-MAs to re-evaluate current evidence on TM interventions. We then compared the gap between the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs. Results Thirteen CPGs and 22 SR-MAs met our inclusion criteria. Of the 13 CPGs, 7 CPGs (54%) mentioned TM interventions, and all were for acupuncture (only one was for both acupuncture and acupressure). However, the CPGs did not recommend acupuncture (or acupressure). Of 22 SR-MAs, 16 were for acupuncture, 5 for manual therapy, 1 for cupping, and none for moxibustion and herbal medicine. Comparing the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs, an underestimation or omission of evidence for acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy in current CPGs was detected. Thus, applying the results from the SR-MAs, we moderately recommend acupuncture for chronic LBP, but we inconclusively recommend acupuncture for (sub)acute LBP due to the limited current evidence. Furthermore, we weakly recommend cupping and manual therapy for both (sub)acute and chronic LBP. We cannot provide recommendations for moxibustion and herbal medicine due to a lack of evidence. Conclusions The current CPGs did not fully reflect the evidence for TM interventions. As relevant studies such as SR-MAs are conducted and evidence increases, the current evidence on acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy should be rigorously considered in the process of developing or updating the CPG system. PMID:24505363

Cho, Hyun-Woo; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Lim, Byungmook; Heo, Kwang-Ho; Liu, Jian-Ping; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul

2014-01-01

100

Screening decisions must balance potential benefits with potential patient harms  

Cancer.gov

Screening to detect medical conditions has become standard practice for many diseases, but insufficient attention has been paid to the potential for harm, according to research conducted at the University of North Carolina, including members of its UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center. In an article published by the Journal of American Medical Association - Internal Medicine, the authors outline a framework that physicians, patients, policy makers and researchers can use to think systematically about the harms of screening programs. This rationale – a “taxonomy of harms” – makes it easier for decision makers to fully consider all harms to balance against anticipated benefits.

101

Pregnancy as a harm?  

PubMed

Michigan's Appellate Court ruled in 2004 that a pregnancy that resulted from a rape should be considered a bodily injury for sentencing purposes. Interestingly, all three possible outcomes of a pregnancy-abortion, miscarriage, or childbirth-are considered to bring with them significant and substantial physical, psychological, and emotional changes. While the immediate impact of the ruling in People v. Cathey affected only the guilty individual, there are larger implications for this ruling beyond just sentencing guidelines. The ruling can be considered a step forward in prosecuting rapists, but possibly at the expense of reimagining the female body. This article considers the Cathey ruling itself, the potential benefits and consequences of this understanding on feminist discourse, and, crucially, the impact of this decision on abortion discussions. The central question that emerges is, can we both consider pregnancy a harm and believe that this harm is not always wrong-making? PMID:22643758

Kraft, Rory E

2012-01-01

102

Harmful Algae Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Concise information on harmful algal blooms (HABs) and their effect on humans and other organisms. Site features maps of past cases of toxins and deaths associated with HABs, a spreadsheet discussing which toxins are associated with what animals, and a figure outlining the effects of HABs on the food web. Includes information on HAB funding, workshops, and conference proceedings, as well as links to additional HAB information.

103

Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are frequently reported in many countries around the world. Even though this phenomenon has been\\u000a known for a long time1, the causes of HABs and toxicity releases are still not understood. Effective management of HABs of\\u000a cyanobacteria requires an understanding of both the environmental factors associated with their formation and the effectiveness\\u000a of available management alternatives

Igor Linkov; A. Fristachi; F. K. Satterstrom; A. Shifrin; J. Steevens; G. A. Clyde Jr; G. Rice

104

Toxic & Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching unit investigates differences between toxic and non-toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs), where they occur in U.S. waters, causative phytoplankton species, technologies for detecting blooms, which organisms in the food web are affected and how, effects of specific toxins on humans. Five lessons contain: background and glossary; instructions for classroom and lab activities; online data; web links for further study. Lessons are aligned to teaching standards.

105

Harmful Algae Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harmful Algae Digital Library contains a collection of Sea Grant documents in digital format (primarily PDF) arranged by subject area: red tide/PSP, brown tide, ciguatera, killer algae, and Pfiesteria. This collection is part of the National Sea Grant Library (NSGL), which maintains over 36,000 searchable records dedicated to environmental stewardship, long-term economic development and responsible use of America's coastal, ocean and Great Lakes resources.

Library, National S.; University Of Rhode Island-Bay Campus, Noaa

106

Practicing safe trad: why existing approaches to playing-related musculoskeletal disorders may not help the Irish traditional music community.  

PubMed

Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) as they affect the Irish traditional music community is a topic which, to date, has received scant attention. This paper draws on data generated through a series of four focus group interview studies conducted at the Universities of Ulster and Limerick and involving 22 musicians. Specifically, this paper looks at the wider issue of identity within the Irish traditional music community and at how the complexities inherent in this have, perhaps, affected musicians in recognizing, relating to, and dealing with PRMDs. Whether or not the injuries affecting Irish traditional musicians are similar to or different from what other musicians experience, what this study shows is that the sense of self and discrete identity among the Irish traditional music community is so very strong that merely a "one size fits all" approach to addressing these issues is not likely to yield positive results. Health professionals therefore need to be sensitive to such factors when considering their management of PRMDs and to develop approaches along with the traditional music community that are cognisant of their identity as well as their needs. PMID:24337028

Doherty, Liz; Wilson, Iseult M; McKeown, Laura

2013-12-01

107

Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

2013-01-01

108

A Comparison between African Traditional and Modern Child Rearing Practice: With Implication to Youth Guidance and Counselling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the traditional African society (TAS), the child is allowed to interact with learning materials and situations. Consequently, learning becomes relevant, meaningful, and purposeful in relation to the individual and the society. In the modern African society (MAS), education has been at best an experiment that is marked with inconsistencies in…

Tumuti, Sammy

109

The Superintendent Beliefs and Leadership Practices in a School District that Has Successfully Increased the Achievement of Traditionally Marginalized Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Superintendent leadership can influence student achievement and with the alarming gap between the academic achievement of traditionally marginalized students and their peers, superintendents have an ethical duty to lead their districts in closing these achievement gaps. Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2001) suggested that to have a more complete…

Fairbanks-Schutz, Jo-Ellen M.

2010-01-01

110

The corral and the slaughterhouse : knowledge, tradition and the modernization of indigenous reindeer slaughtering practice in the Norwegian Arctic  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a contribution to the ethnography of contemporary indigenous reindeer pastoralism in Norway: specifically, to the study of the neglected fields of reindeer killing and slaughtering practice. Its central contention...

Reinert, Hugo

2008-01-15

111

[Harm Reduction--its history and practice].  

PubMed

In September 1997, Médecins sans Frontières-Holland (MSF-H) began a project to provide training and support for HIV/AIDS prevention among injecting drug users in the Russian Federation. The training course is based on the use of the Rapid Assessment Methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) Programme on Substance Abuse (WHO, 1997) and the European Peer Support Manual (Trautmann and Barendregt, 1994) developed by the Trimbos Institute for the European Commission (both of which have been translated into Russian and, where necessary, adapted for use in Russia), as well as significant articles and books. The training programme also receives advice from the reports to UNAIDS Task Force on HIV Prevention among injecting drug users in Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. MSF-H is a permanent member of this Task Force. PMID:10994111

Burrows, D; Zverev, V V; Sarankov, Iu A

2000-01-01

112

The Educational Approaches of Turkish Pre-Service Elementary Mathematics Teachers in Their First Teaching Practices: Traditional or Constructivist?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aimed to identify the educational approaches that pre-service elementary mathematics teachers adopt for their first teaching practice (TP) and the reasons for their choices. It was carried out with thirteen pre-service teachers (PTs). These PTs were observed during their first TP in a real school setting, and interviews were…

Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

2014-01-01

113

Practices and beliefs of the traditional Dinka healer in relation to provision of modern medical and veterinary services for the Southern Sudan.  

PubMed

One class of traditional Dinka healers is a practical surgeon-bonesetter-obstetrician who practices (all but obstetrics) on both people and animals. His anatomical, physiological, and pathological knowledge and surmises, derived almost entirely from observations on cattle, are in some respects remarkable, especially those on the function of the kidney and nature of the circulatory system. He shares with ancient Egyptian healers the belief that sperm originate in the spinal cord and brain and performs a unique surgical operation on the horns of bulls that has been known in the Nile valley since the Egyptian 5th dynasty. With minimum training he might function effectively within the governmental health and veterinary services of the southern Sudan, an area populated mostly by transhumant cattle-culture peoples not easily reached through conventional health services. PMID:10252763

Schwabe, C W; Kuojok, I M

1981-01-01

114

Harm reduction or harm facilitation? A reply to Maletzky.  

PubMed

The concept of harm reduction applied to sexual offending is very upsetting to some clinicians. This paper attempts to anchor harm reduction within the larger framework of relapse prevention. It is argued that reducing harm more accurately represents what clinicians do with sexual offenders rather than preventing or eliminating relapses. There are numerous common misconceptions about harm reduction with sexual offenders and explanations are provided for each of these. Finally, it is argued that harm reduction acknowledges that sexual abuse and all forms of interpersonal violence are actually public health issues. Adoption of this viewpoint, however, requires acceptance of a more humanistic perspective rather than a medical, psychological, legal, or political solution to a grievous social problem. PMID:10497782

Laws, D R

1999-07-01

115

The right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health care  

PubMed Central

Background State parties to human rights conventions and declarations are often faced with the seemingly contradictory problem of having an obligation to protect people from harmful practices while also having an obligation to enable access to culturally appropriate effective healing. As people increasingly migrate across the globe, previous distinctions between ‘traditional’ and ‘complementary and alternative medicine’ practices are being transcended. There are connections across transnational healing pathways that link local, national, and global movements of people and knowledge. Objective This paper contributes to the development of the concept and practice of the right to health in all its forms, exploring the right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health (R2TCAH) across different contexts. Design The paper draws on four settings – England, South Africa, Kenya, and Jordan – and is based on key informant interviews and a literature review undertaken in 2010, and updated in 2013. The paper begins by reviewing the international legal context for the right to health. It then considers legal and professional regulations from the global north and south. Results Additional research is needed to establish the legal basis, compare regulatory frameworks, and explore patient and provider perspectives of regulation. This leads to being able to make recommendations on how to balance protection from harm and the obligation to ensure culturally appropriate services. Such an exploration must also challenge Western theories of human rights. Key concepts, such as individual harm, consent, and respect of the autonomy of the individual already established and recognised in international health law, could be adopted in the development of a template for future comparative research. Conclusions Exploration of the normative content of the right to health in all its forms will contribute to supporting traditional, complementary, and alternative health service users and providers in terms of access to information, non-discrimination, clarification of state obligations, and accountability. PMID:24767601

Stuttaford, Maria; Al Makhamreh, Sahar; Coomans, Fons; Harrington, John; Himonga, Chuma; Hundt, Gillian Lewando

2014-01-01

116

Reduction in episodes of self harm/harm to others in severely mentally ill population through assertive outreach.  

PubMed

This article aims to apply the process of clinical governance to the management of patients with a major mental illness, living in the community, with a history of self harm and/or harm to others; and to design an early warning system to drive rapid intervention if patients miss a clinic appointment. This follows the recommendations of good clinical practice for this vulnerable group. PMID:11183972

Turner, M S; Douglas, A R; O'Sullivan, J P; Nicol, M

2000-01-01

117

Impacts of traditional land use practices on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools of mountain ecosystems in Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop production, animal husbandry and forestry are three closely interlinked components of land use systems in the mountains of Nepal. Forests are the major source of fuel wood, construction materials, fodder and litter. The latter is used as a bedding material for livestock and forms an important component of farmyard manure. In addition forest grazing by cattle is a common practice. Excessive extraction of biomass from the forest leads to a decline of soil organic matter and nutrient contents. On the landscape scale these negative effects will partly be compensated by positive effects on soil organic matter and nutrient stocks of arable soils. The experimental data base for a quantification of such effects at the scale of communities is however poor, in particular for Nepal. Understanding the impact of subsistence farming on ecosystems is imperative in order to recommend successful and sustainable land management practices. The aim of our study is to quantify effects of land use on carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes for mountain communities in Nepal. Results of a case study in the buffer zone area of the Sagarmatha National Park are presented. The potential vegetation comprises mixed forests of Quercus semicarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Tsuga dumosa. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil and vegetation were quantified for three different land use types, namely: forest with low human impact, forests with high human impact and agricultural land. The scale of disturbance of the forests has been classified by visual estimation considering the percentage of litter raked, number of lopped trees, and grazing intensity assessed by signs of trampling and the number of trails. After stratification of the community area, 20 plots of 10 m radius were established (17 forest plots, 3 plots for arable land) where biometric data of the vegetation were determined and sub-samples were taken for chemical analyses. Organic layers (litter remaining after litter raking) and soil samples were collected (volumetric sampling of geometric horizons down to 1 m depth). Fluxes of carbon and nitrogen from the forests were accounted by combining results of sub samples of biomass extracted by local people during the field survey and information on amounts and source areas provided by the farmers. Also the amount of carbon and nutrients applied with farmyard manure and the extraction by harvest was determined for the arable land. First estimates of carbon and nitrogen cycling at the community level and on impacts on soil status will be presented.

Giri, Anjana; Katzensteiner, Klaus

2010-05-01

118

Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…

Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

2008-01-01

119

First, do no harm.  

PubMed

Returning to the concept presented at the beginning of this paper, in an era when for many people the quality and longevity of life have never been better, why are there increasing levels of dissatisfaction with life? According to Thomas (1974), "there is something fundamentally, radically unhealthy about all this. We do not seem to be seeking more exuberance in living as much as staving off failure, putting off dying. We have lost all confidence in the human body. The new consensus is that we are badly designed, intrinsically fallible, vulnerable to a host of hostile influences. We live in danger of falling apart at any moment and are therefore always in need of surveillance and propping up." Certainly health educators cannot accept all the blame for this contemporary fad; however, they may contribute to the phenomenon by implicitly suggesting that people are entitled to some idealized level of health and wellness which includes halcyon days immune from the pain and ravages of life in the real world.2+ Henry David Thoreau offered a perceptive view of how life should be experienced when he wrote: "I did not wish to live what was not life, living is so dear; nor did I wish to practice resignation, unless it was quite necessary.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2516045

Lamarine, R J

1989-01-01

120

Sex-work harm reduction.  

PubMed

Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process. PMID:16360791

Rekart, Michael L

2005-12-17

121

Veterinarians and public practice at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine: building on a tradition of expertise and partnership.  

PubMed

The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM), a regional veterinary college for Maryland and Virginia, has a long and unique tradition of encouraging careers in public and corporate veterinary medicine. The VMRCVM is home to the Center for Public and Corporate Veterinary Medicine (CPCVM), and each year approximately 10% of the veterinary students choose the public/corporate veterinary medicine track. The faculty of the CPCVM, and their many partners from the veterinary public practice community, teach in the veterinary curriculum and provide opportunities for students locally, nationally, and internationally during summers and the final clinical year. Graduates of the program work for government organizations, including the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as in research, in industry, and for non-governmental organizations. Recent activities include securing opportunities for students, providing career counseling for graduate veterinarians interested in making a career transition, delivering continuing education, and offering a preparatory course for veterinarians sitting the board examination for the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. As the VMRCVM moves forward in recognition of the changing needs of the veterinary profession, it draws on its tradition of partnership and capitalizes on the excellence of its existing program. Future plans for the CPCVM include possible expansion in the fields of public health, public policy, international veterinary medicine, organizational leadership, and the One Health initiative. Quality assurance and evaluation of the program is ongoing, with recognition that novel evaluation approaches will be useful and informative. PMID:18723808

Feldman, Katherine A; Walters, Bettye K

2008-01-01

122

Involving traditional birth attendants in emergency obstetric care in Tanzania: policy implications of a study of their knowledge and practices in Kigoma Rural District  

PubMed Central

Introduction Access to quality maternal health services mainly depends on existing policies, regulations, skills, knowledge, perceptions, and economic power and motivation of service givers and target users. Critics question policy recommending involvement of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in emergency obstetric care (EmoC) services in developing countries. Objectives This paper reports about knowledge and practices of TBAs on EmoC in Kigoma Rural District, Tanzania and discusses policy implications on involving TBAs in maternal health services. Methods 157 TBAs were identified from several villages in 2005, interviewed and observed on their knowledge and practice in relation to EmoC. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection and analysis depending on the nature of the information required. Findings Among all 157 TBAs approached, 57.3% were aged 50+ years while 50% had no formal education. Assisting mothers to deliver without taking their full pregnancy history was confessed by 11% of all respondents. Having been attending pregnant women with complications was experienced by 71.2% of all respondents. Only 58% expressed adequate knowledge on symptoms and signs of pregnancy complications. Lack of knowledge on possible risk of HIV infections while assisting childbirth without taking protective gears was claimed by 5.7% of the respondents. Sharing the same pair of gloves between successful deliveries was reported to be a common practice by 21.1% of the respondents. Use of unsafe delivery materials including local herbs and pieces of cloth for protecting themselves against HIV infections was reported as being commonly practiced among 27.6% of the respondents. Vaginal examination before and during delivery was done by only a few respondents. Conclusion TBAs in Tanzania are still consulted by people living in underserved areas. Unfortunately, TBAs’ inadequate knowledge on EmOC issues seems to have contributed to the rising concerns about their competence to deliver the recommended maternal services. Thus, the authorities seeming to recognize and promote TBAs should provide support to TBAs in relation to necessary training and giving them essential working facilities, routine supportive supervision and rewarding those seeming to comply with the standard guidelines for delivering EmoC services. PMID:24124663

2013-01-01

123

Curriculum Vitae Kyle E. Harms 1 KYLE EDWARD HARMS  

E-print Network

-2001 Postdoctoral Visiting Fellow, Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY; Supervisor; Supervisor ­ S. Joseph Wright PUBLICATIONS REFEREED JOURNAL ARTICLES LSU-G = LSU graduate student in my group., Stefan A. Schnitzer, Claire Baldeck, Kyle E. Harms, Robert John, Scott A. Mangan, Elena Lobo, Joseph B

Harms, Kyle E.

124

Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Forecasting System provided by NOAA supplies information on the location, extent, and potential for development or movement of harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico. The forecasting system relies on satellite imagery, field observations, and buoy data to provide the large spatial scale and high frequency of observations required to assess bloom location and movements. Conditions are posted to this web page twice a week during the HAB season. Additional analysis is included in the HAB Bulletin that is provided to state and local resource managers in the region. The web page includes links to the HAB bulletin, available mapping systems, contributors, and other HAB resources.

National Ocean Service (NOS); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

125

Dual diagnosis — does harm reduction have a role?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pragmatic approach to those with a dual diagnosis of mental illness and problem drug use accepts that drug and alcohol use is firmly established in this population, and aims to minimise and reduce any harms associated with using. However, it is evident that we know little about drug using practices and knowledge among this group in order to effect

Peter Phillips; Joanne Labrow

2000-01-01

126

Relapse prevention or harm reduction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the notion of harm reduction can provide a more useful framework for the management of sex offenders. In this model, any reduction in the frequency or intensity of sexual offending is construed as positive. The zero-tolerance position, implicit in the relapse prevention model, has been a conspicuous failure in areas such as drug addiction and alcoholism.

D. R. Laws

1996-01-01

127

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Primarily through the use of engaging graphics, this resource outlines where Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occur in U.S. waters. It also addresses the differences between toxic and non-toxic HABs, which organisms in the food web are affected, how specific toxins work and the symptoms associated with them, and the causative phytoplankton species.

Laboratory, Bigelow

128

Situational determinants of inpatient self-harm.  

PubMed

Auto-aggressive individuals have a higher likelihood of engaging in interpersonal violence, and vice versa. It is unclear, however, whether ward circumstances are involved in determining whether aggression-prone patients will engage in auto-aggressive or outwardly directed aggressive behavior. The current study focuses on the situational antecedents of self-harming behavior and outwardly directed aggression of psychiatric inpatients. Inwardly and outwardly aggressive behavior were monitored on a locked 20-bed psychiatric admissions ward for 3.5 years with the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R). A map of the ward was attached to each SOAS-R form, enabling staff members to specify locations of aggressive incidents. Time of onset, location, and provoking factors of auto-aggressive incidents were compared to those connected to aggression against others or objects. Of a total of 774 aggressive incidents, 154 (20%) concerned auto-aggressive behavior. Auto-aggression was significantly more prevalent during the evening (i.e., 50% compared to 32%), and reached its highest level between 8 and 9 P.M. (17% compared to 7%). The majority of self-harming acts (66%) were performed on patients' bedrooms. Outwardly directed aggression was particularly common in the day-rooms (24%), the staff office (19%), the hallways of the ward (14%), and the dining rooms (10%). Provoking factors of auto-aggressive behavior are less often of an interactional nature compared to outwardly directed aggression. The results suggest that a lack of stimulation and interaction with others increases the risk of self-injurious behavior. Practical and testable measures to prevent self-harm are proposed. PMID:12079033

Nijman, Henk L I; à Campo, Joost M L G

2002-01-01

129

Use of traditional and complementary health practices in prenatal, delivery and postnatal care in the context of HIV transmission from mother to child (PMTCT) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was as part of a baseline assessment in PMTCT in the traditional health sector: a) to determine the views of women who have used the services of traditional practitioners before, during and/or after pregnancy, and b) to conduct formative research with traditional health practitioners (THPs), i.e. herbalists, diviners and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on HIV, pregnancy care, delivery and infant care. The sample included a) 181 postnatal care clients with a child less than 12 months interviewed at postnatal clinic visits from 20 primary care clinics in the Kouga Local Service Area (LSA), Cacadu district, Eastern Cape, and b) 54 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and 47 herbalists and/or diviners were interviewed from Kouga LSA. Results showed that THP (in particular TBAs and to a certain extend herbalists/diviners) play a significant role in pregnancy and postnatal care, and also with the assistance of delivery. Certain HIV risk practices were reported on the practice of TBAs. THPs also seem to have some role in infant feeding and family planning. THPs should be trained in optimising their services in pregnancy and postnatal care, and preparation for health facility delivery. In addition, they should be trained on HIV risk practices, HIV/AIDS, HIV prevention including PMTCT, infant feeding and family planning. PMID:20209007

Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Treger, Latasha

2009-01-01

130

Considering harm and safety in youth mental health: a call for attention and action.  

PubMed

The possibility of harm from mental health provision, and in particular harm from youth mental health provision, has been largely overlooked. We contend that if we continue to assume youth mental health services can do no harm, and all that is needed is more services, we continue to risk the possibility that the safety of children and young people is unintentionally compromised. We propose a three level framework for considering harm from youth mental health provision (1. ineffective engagement, 2. ineffective practice and 3. adverse events) and suggest how this framework could be used to support quality improvement in services. PMID:25052687

Wolpert, Miranda; Deighton, Jessica; Fleming, Isobel; Lachman, Peter

2015-01-01

131

The Olympics and harm reduction?  

PubMed Central

The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent. The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping. PMID:22788912

2012-01-01

132

Harms and deprivation of benefits for nonhuman primates in research.  

PubMed

The risks of harm to nonhuman primates, and the absence of benefits for them, are critically important to decisions about nonhuman primate research. Current guidelines for review and practice tend to be permissive for nonhuman primate research as long as minimal welfare requirements are fulfilled and human medical advances are anticipated. This situation is substantially different from human research, in which risks of harms to the individual subject are typically reduced to the extent feasible. A risk threshold is needed for the justification of research on nonhuman primates, comparable to the way risk thresholds are set for vulnerable human subjects who cannot provide informed consent. Much of the laboratory research conducted today has inadequate standards, leading to common physical, psychological, and social harms. PMID:24627264

Ferdowsian, Hope; Fuentes, Agustín

2014-04-01

133

Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

134

Red Tide and Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Project Oceanography pdf document contains information and activities related to red tide and harmful algal blooms (HABs). The activities and lesson plans are designed for elementary school, middle school, and may be adapted for high school students. Articles include: harmful algal blooms, Florida red tide, implications of harmful algal blooms, and student information about harmful algal blooms. Activities are introduced with background information and include: "Growing Algae" and "Algal Explosion." The document also features activity extension projects and a glossary of terms.

Project Oceanography

135

Harm reduction: lessons learned from tobacco control  

E-print Network

Harm reduction: lessons learned from tobacco control Marcus R. Munafò Department of Experimental to alcohol) is a rational argument applied to an irrational (i.e. addictive) behaviour. The history of harm, such as the psychoactive effects of the sub- stance. How do harm reduction efforts fare when exposed to the harsh realities

136

Cannabis and Harm Reduction: A Nursing Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of nursing care is to promote health and reduce harm caused by injury, disease, or poor self-care. Harm reduction is a public health model, which is gaining popularity as an effective modality to help persons reduce the negative consequences associated with their drug use. The harm reduction model blends well with the core principles of nursing. When viewed

Mary Lynn Mathre

2002-01-01

137

Traditional West Coast Native Medicine  

PubMed Central

An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” plant by the Haida people illustrates that Native medicine has both spiritual and physical properties. Modern family practice shares many important foundations with traditional healing systems. PMID:21253031

Deagle, George

1988-01-01

138

Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional

Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

2005-01-01

139

Adjacent stimulation and measurement patterns considered harmful.  

PubMed

We characterize the ability of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to distinguish changes in internal conductivity distributions, and analyze it as a function of stimulation and measurement patterns. A distinguishability measure, z, is proposed which is related to the signal-to-noise ratio of a medium and to the probability of detection of conductivity changes in a region of interest. z is a function of the number of electrodes, the EIT stimulation and measurement protocol, the stimulation amplitude, the measurement noise, and the size and location of the contrasts. Using this measure we analyze various choices of stimulation and measurement patterns under the constraint of medical electrical safety limits (maximum current into the body). Analysis is performed for a planar placement of 16 electrodes for simulated 3D tank and chest shapes, and measurements in a saline tank. Results show that the traditional (and still most common) adjacent stimulation and measurement patterns have by far the poorest performance (by 6.9 ×). Good results are obtained for trigonometric patterns and for pair drive and measurement patterns separated by over 90°. Since the possible improvement over adjacent patterns is so large, we present this result as a call to action: adjacent patterns are harmful, and should be abandoned. We recommend using pair drive and measurement patterns separated by one electrode less than 180°. We describe an approach to modify an adjacent pattern EIT system by adjusting electrode placement. PMID:21646709

Adler, Andy; Gaggero, Pascal Olivier; Maimaitijiang, Yasheng

2011-07-01

140

Traditional Medicine in Oman: Its Role in Ophthalmology  

PubMed Central

Aim: To present three patients with ocular disease who developed a range of complications following use of traditional medications. Settings and Design: Case series Methods: Three patients who were examined in the Ophthalmic department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in the Sultanate of Oman between 2003 and 2004, seeking care following use of traditional medicines and or healing practices for various ophthalmic problems described below. Results: The first patient was a computer professional with a chalazion; the patient used a plant extract from ‘Calotropis procera’ as a part of the treatment. He developed corneal edema with decrease in vision in his left eye following application of the plant extract. Treatment with topical steroids and antibiotics resulted in a complete clinical and visual recovery. The second patient developed a fungal corneal ulcer (dermatophyte - Trichophyton mentagrophyte) after sustaining injury with an animal tail to the right eye and used honey for pain relief prior to presentation. She responded poorly to anti-fungal treatment, underwent a penetrating keratoplasty with recurrence of infection in the graft that resulted in a vascularized corneal scar. The third patient was a five-year-old child who was treated with ‘wasam’ on the occiput for intraocular inflammation following bilateral uncomplicated cataract extraction. Following this treatment the topical steroid was discontinued. The ‘Wasam’ treatment indirectly resulted in exacerbation of the intraocular inflammation and secondary glaucoma and poor vision as well as ‘Wasam ulcers’ on the occiput. Despite treatment of the intraocular inflammation, the visual outcome was poor. Conclusion: Traditional medicine in Oman is sought by many for variable reasons. Lack of evidence-based scientific data on its safety or efficacy does not deter the Omanis from flocking the traditional healers. However, when applied in the treatment of ocular diseases, traditional medicine and healing practices seem to cause more harm than benefit for the patient. PMID:20142969

Shenoy, Radha; Bialasiewicz, Alexander; Khandekar, Rajiv; Al Barwani, Badar; Al Belushi, Habiba

2009-01-01

141

Monitoring Indicators of Harmful Cyanobacteria in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Harmful algal blooms can occur when certain types of microscopic algae grow quickly in water, forming visible patches that might harm the health of the environment, plants, or animals. In freshwater, species of Cyanobacteria (also known as bluegreen algae) are the dominant group of harmful, bloom-forming algae. When Cyanobacteria form a harmful algal bloom, potential impairments include restricted recreational activities because of algal scums or algal mats, potential loss of public water supply because of taste and odor compounds (for example, geosmin), and the production of toxins (for example, microcystin) in amounts capable of threatening human health and wildlife.

Kiesling, Richard L.; Gary, Robin H.; Gary, Marcus O.

2008-01-01

142

A Comparison of Preservice Teachers' Responses to Cyber versus Traditional Bullying Scenarios: Similarities and Differences and Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior studies indicate that teachers differ in how they respond to different kinds of traditional bullying, and that their beliefs predict their intervention intentions. The current study provided the first extension of this work into the realm of cyber bullying. Preservice teachers in the United Kingdom ("N" = 222) were presented with…

Boulton, Michael J.; Hardcastle, Katryna; Down, James; Fowles, John; Simmonds, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

143

Understanding Patient Values and the Manifestations in Clinical Research with Traditional Chinese Medicine—With Practical Suggestions for Trial Design and Implementation  

PubMed Central

Objective. To define patient values, identify their manifestations in a randomized clinical trial, and investigate the possible implications for clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine. Methods. We categorized patient values manifestations into patient choice, preference, compliance, and patient-reported outcomes and summarized the underlying personal values through purposeful electronic searches for relevant reports. By hypothesizing a set of positive versus negative circumstances occurring in the enrollment, intervention allocation, treatment, and the follow-up stage of a trial, it is possible to discuss the potential implications of patient values manifestation on a trial with traditional Chinese medicine. Results. Patient values and its manifestations are ubiquitous in the process of clinical research with traditional Chinese medicine. These values may provide motivation for participation or engender the internal and external validity of the study. Conclusions. Trialists should attach sufficient importance to the needs and concerns of individual participant. To incorporate patient values into the design and conduct of a clinical study with traditional Chinese medicine, researchers are recommended to adopt participant-friendly design and use patient-reported outcomes, take convenience-for-patients measures, and help foster rational beliefs and behaviors of trial participants. PMID:24363772

Shang, Hongcai

2013-01-01

144

Online drug user-led harm reduction in Hungary: a review of "Daath".  

PubMed

Harm reduction has been increasingly finding its way into public drug policies and healthcare practices worldwide, with successful intervention measures justifiably focussing on the highest-risk groups, such as injecting drug users. However, there are also other types of drug users in need for harm reduction, even though they pose less, low, or no public health risk. Occasionally, drug users may autonomously organise themselves into groups to provide advocacy, harm reduction, and peer-help services, sometimes online. The http://www.daath.hu website has been operated since 2001 by the "Hungarian Psychedelic Community", an unorganised drug user group with a special interest in hallucinogenic and related substances. As of today, the website serves about 1200 visitors daily, and the online community comprises of more than 8000 registered members. The Daath community is driven by a strong commitment to the policy of harm reduction in the form of various peer-help activities that aim to expand harm reduction without promoting drug use. Our review comprehensively summarises Daath's user-led harm reduction services and activities from the last ten years, firstly outlining the history and growth phases of Daath, along with its self-set guidelines and policies. Online services (such as a discussion board, and an Ecstasy pill database) and offline activities (such as Ecstasy pill field testing, and a documentary film about psychedelics) are described. In order to extend its harm reduction services and activities in the future, Daath has several social, commercial, and legislative challenges to face. Starting with a need to realign its focus, outlooks for the upcoming operation of Daath are pondered. Future trends in harm reduction, such as separating harm-decreasing from benefit-increasing, are also discussed. We aim to share these innovative harm reduction measures and good practices in order to be critically assessed, and--if found useful--adapted and applied elsewhere. PMID:24088321

Móró, Levente; Rácz, József

2013-01-01

145

Online drug user-led harm reduction in Hungary: a review of “Daath”  

PubMed Central

Harm reduction has been increasingly finding its way into public drug policies and healthcare practices worldwide, with successful intervention measures justifiably focussing on the highest-risk groups, such as injecting drug users. However, there are also other types of drug users in need for harm reduction, even though they pose less, low, or no public health risk. Occasionally, drug users may autonomously organise themselves into groups to provide advocacy, harm reduction, and peer-help services, sometimes online. The http://www.daath.hu website has been operated since 2001 by the “Hungarian Psychedelic Community”, an unorganised drug user group with a special interest in hallucinogenic and related substances. As of today, the website serves about 1200 visitors daily, and the online community comprises of more than 8000 registered members. The Daath community is driven by a strong commitment to the policy of harm reduction in the form of various peer-help activities that aim to expand harm reduction without promoting drug use. Our review comprehensively summarises Daath’s user-led harm reduction services and activities from the last ten years, firstly outlining the history and growth phases of Daath, along with its self-set guidelines and policies. Online services (such as a discussion board, and an Ecstasy pill database) and offline activities (such as Ecstasy pill field testing, and a documentary film about psychedelics) are described. In order to extend its harm reduction services and activities in the future, Daath has several social, commercial, and legislative challenges to face. Starting with a need to realign its focus, outlooks for the upcoming operation of Daath are pondered. Future trends in harm reduction, such as separating harm-decreasing from benefit-increasing, are also discussed. We aim to share these innovative harm reduction measures and good practices in order to be critically assessed, and – if found useful – adapted and applied elsewhere. PMID:24088321

2013-01-01

146

The use of video conferencing to develop a community of practice for preceptors located in rural and non traditional placement settings: An evaluation study.  

PubMed

Support for nursing students in rural and non-traditional health environments within Tasmania is predominately undertaken by preceptors. It is recognised that preceptors who work within these environments, require support in their role and opportunities to communicate with academic staff within universities. Multiple methods of information distribution support and networking opportunities provide preceptors with flexible options to keep them abreast of the student learning process. This paper presents survey findings from preceptors in rural and non-traditional professional experience placement environments taken from a pilot project regarding the implementation of video conferencing forums for education and peer networking in Tasmania. The purpose of the evaluation was to establish whether video conferencing met the requirements of preceptors' understanding of learning and teaching requirements during students' professional experience placement. The findings reveal preceptors' workload pressures and the need for organisational support were key barriers that prevented preceptor participation. PMID:25434830

Zournazis, Helen E; Marlow, Annette H

2014-11-18

147

Harm reduction as paradigm: Is better than bad good enough? The origins of harm reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the articles in the recent special issue on harm reduction illustrate, the last decade has seen an impressive expansion of harm reduction in public health. Policies and programs using it have dramatically improved the formerly ignored health problems of marginalized populations. This article looks at the history of harm reduction, and the growing role that the medicalization of social

Gordon Roe

2005-01-01

148

Harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief overview of harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention strategies. Universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies are described for several populations including elementary and secondary schools, colleges, and medical settings. This paper primarily reviews individually focused alcohol prevention efforts in the United States (US), where harm reduction has been less well received in comparison to

Clayton Neighbors; Mary E. Larimer; Ty W. Lostutter; Briana A. Woods

2006-01-01

149

Assessing the International Harm Reduction Association (IHRA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, IHRA received a 5-year grant from DFID to develop a conducive policy environment for the implementation and scaling up of harm reduction activities on a global scale. An independent evaluation of the DFID programme focused primarily on IHRA's work with multilateral agencies such as those of the United Nations and civil society organisations, in particular harm reduction networks

David Macdonald

2011-01-01

150

Toward a psychology of harm reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses 3 different strategies for dealing with the harmful consequences of drug use and other risky behaviors: We can discourage people from engag- ing in the behavior (prevalence reduction), we can en- courage people to reduce the frequency or extent of the behavior (quantity reduction), or we can try to reduce the harmful consequences of the behavior when

Robert J. MacCoun

1998-01-01

151

Defining Relapse from a Harm Reduction Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the treatment of addictions, engaging in any substance use following treatment is often viewed as a treatment failure. This paper provides theoretical and empirical support for a harm reduction approach to the evaluation of treatment outcomes. Such an approach focuses on consequences associated with the post-treatment drinking, without using rigid definitions of “success”; or “failure.”; Harm reduction approaches to

Katie Witkiewitz

2005-01-01

152

Practitioner Review: Self-Harm in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Repeated self-harm in adolescents is common and associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm there have been few systematic reviews of the topic. Aims: The main aim of this article is to review randomised controlled…

Ougrin, Dennis; Tranah, Troy; Leigh, Eleanor; Taylor, Lucy; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum

2012-01-01

153

Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

Eversman, Michael H.

2012-01-01

154

Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

2006-01-01

155

The Harm Principle and Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewedas the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food iscurrently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept ofharm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the HarmPrinciple a plausible political principle, so this principlecannot be used to justify existing regulation; and (b) that evenif the

Nils Holtug

2001-01-01

156

Traditional gender role beliefs and individual outcomes: An exploratory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey administered to 806 undergraduate students serve as the basis for analyzing the relationships among traditional gender roles, same-sex intimacy, and homophobia. High levels of homophobia and low levels of intimacy were found among those who believe strongly in the traditional roles. Previous research has shown both homophobia and a lack of intimacy to be harmful

Leonard P. Stark

1991-01-01

157

Learning a New Approach to Teach in a Traditional Context: A Case of Thai Primary School Teachers Making Fundamental Changes in Their Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined a unique professional development model and its contribution to teachers' practice. The study also sought to understand the process of teacher learning as teachers made fundamental changes in their teaching. The new model of professional development was implemented in the context of the Social Forestry, Education and…

Namfa, Benjalug

2012-01-01

158

Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.  

PubMed

This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems. PMID:23740348

Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

2014-09-01

159

Harm reduction policies in Argentina: A critical view  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of ‘harm’ underpinning current drug harm reduction policies is most often limited to viral infections and other health consequences for drug users. This paper analyses harm reduction policies in Argentina, with the purpose of challenging and extending this narrow conception of harm to encompass all harms inflicted on drug users, in a context of criminalization of drug use

M. E. Epele; M. Pecheny

2007-01-01

160

A Mi'kmaq First Nation cosmology: investigating the practice of contemporary Aboriginal Traditional Medicine in dialogue with counselling – toward an Indigenous therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores from a Mi'kmaq and Aboriginal standpoint foundational knowledge in Indigenous therapeutics. Based on an eco-social-psycho-spiritual way of working, the article proposes Indigenous cultural models that open a window to a rich cultural repository of meanings associated with Indigenous cosmology, ontology and epistemology. The three layers of meaning, theory and practice within the symbolic ‘Medicine Lodge’ or ‘Place

Kisiku Saqawei Paqtism Randolph Bowers

2010-01-01

161

Exploring traditional end-of-life beliefs, values, expectations, and practices among Chinese women living in England: Informing culturally safe care.  

PubMed

Objective: This study explores the end-of-life (EoL) beliefs, values, practices, and expectations of a select group of harder-to-reach Chinese women living in England. Method: A cultural safety approach was undertaken to interpret 11 in-depth, semistructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in Mandarin and Cantonese. Transcripts were translated and back-translated by two researchers. Findings were analyzed using the technical analytical principles of grounded theory. Results: The key themes generated from our analysis include: acculturation; differential beliefs and norms in providing care: family versus health services; language and communication; Eastern versus Western spiritual practices and beliefs; and dying, death, and the hereafter. Significance of Results: End-of-life discussions can be part of an arduous, painful, and uncomfortable process, particularly for migrants living on the margins of society in a new cultural setting. For some Chinese people living in the United Kingdom, end-of-life care requires attention to acculturation, particularly Western versus Eastern beliefs on religion, spirituality, burial practices, and provision of care, and the availability of culturally specific care, all of which encompass issues related to gender. Stories of a purposive sample of Chinese women were viewed through a cultural safety lens to gain a deeper understanding of how social and cultural norms and expectations, in addition to the pressures of acculturation, impact gendered roles and responsibilities. The analysis revealed variations between/within Eastern and Western culture that resulted in pronounced, and oftentimes gendered, differences in EoL care expectations. PMID:25346037

Fang, Mei Lan; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Sixsmith, Judith; Wong, Louise Yuen Ming; Callender, Matthew

2014-10-27

162

Resolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders  

E-print Network

Resolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders: Which evolutionary genetic unable to eliminate genes (susceptibility alleles) that predispose to common, harmful, heritable mental not harmful among ancestors), (2) balancing selection (susceptibility alleles sometimes increased fitness

Miller, Geoffrey

163

High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

164

Self-harm in young people.  

PubMed

Self-harm is a common problem among young people with many presenting to clinical services via general hospitals, but many more do not come to the attention of clinical services at all. Self-harm is strongly associated with completed suicide so it is extremely important that patients are assessed and treated for this problem effectively. Despite the scale of the problem in young people, there is a very limited evidence base on what interventions may help them to recover from self-harm. The evidence is discussed here and some recommendations are made about how to engage clinically with young people who self-harm from assessment to therapeutic intervention. PMID:25114299

Townsend, Ellen

2014-11-01

165

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms Educational Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four lesson plans focus on understanding toxic and harmful algal blooms. Designed for use in conjunction with Bigelow Laboratory's "Toxic and Harmful Algal Bloom" web site. Each module includes background, learning objectives, student preparation, and standards-related classroom or lab activity. Topics cover: role of algae in the food web; development of algal blooms; impacts and bioaccumulation of bloom-related toxins; control of blooms and role playing a community response.

166

Alcohol and harm reduction, then and now  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquor control school of thought of the 1890s–1930s offered a clear alternative to alcohol prohibition, much as today some strands of harm-reduction thinking are an alternative to drug prohibition. Liquor control studies were an elite concern, often unusually international in perspective. Characteristics of the thinking included a focus on the harms from drinking, whether or not drinking per se

Robin Room

2004-01-01

167

[Self-harm presentations in movies].  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to demonstrate how movies can enhance our understanding of the phenomenology of self-destructive behaviour. Various aspects of self-harm, including psychological individual characteristics and cultural trends, have been elucidated through a strategic selection of movies. As movies represent a popular rather than a medical discourse, they can provide physicians and health professionals with different and non-medical perspectives of self-harm. PMID:19415103

Skårderud, Finn

2009-04-30

168

Extreme Natural Events: Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA website features a repository of information about Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). It explains the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act (HABHRCA) and describes the subsequent formation of an Interagency Task Force to develop a national HAB assessment and authorize funding for existing and new research programs on HABs. The site features links to information about current and past research programs, HAB ecological forecasting, related news articles, workshop announcements, and additional HAB information sources.

Public domain

169

Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing  

PubMed Central

Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres) which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included in harm reduction advocacy or training strategies to support or operationalise legalised harm reduction interventions. The practices of street police challenge harm reduction policies, entirely understandably given the competing pressures on them. For harm reduction to be effective in Vietnam, it is essential that the ambiguities and contradictions between laws to control HIV and to control drugs be resolved for the street-level police. PMID:22769590

2012-01-01

170

Assessing the likely harms to kidney vendors in regulated organ markets.  

PubMed

Advocates of paid living kidney donation frequently argue that kidney sellers would benefit from paid donation under a properly regulated kidney market. The poor outcomes experienced by participants in existing markets are often entirely attributed to harmful black-market practices. This article reviews the medical and anthropological literature on the physical, psychological, social, and financial harms experienced by vendors under Iran's regulated system of donor compensation and black markets throughout the world and argues that this body of research not only documents significant harms to vendors, but also provides reasons to believe that such harms would persist under a regulated system. This does not settle the question of whether or not a regulated market should be introduced, but it does strengthen the case against markets in kidneys while suggesting that those advocating such a system cannot appeal to the purported benefits to vendors to support their case. PMID:25229573

Koplin, Julian

2014-01-01

171

Gestures of Despair and Hope: A View on Deliberate Self-harm From Economics and Evolutionary Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-standing theoretical tradition in clinical psychology and psychiatry sees deliberate self-harm (DSH), such as wrist-cutting, as functionala means to avoid painful emotions, for example, or to elicit attention from others. There is substantial evidence that DSH serves these functions. Yet the specific links between self-harm and such functions remain obscure. Why don't self-harmers use less destructive behaviors to blunt

Edward H. Hagen; Paul J. Watson; Peter Hammerstein

2008-01-01

172

The effect of computer-assisted therapeutic practice for children with handwriting deficit: a comparison with the effect of the traditional sensorimotor approach.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the effect of computer-assisted practice with the sensorimotor approach on the remediation of handwriting problems in children with dysgraphia. In a randomized controlled trial, experiments were conducted to verify the intervention effect. Forty two children with handwriting deficit were assigned to computer-assisted instruction, sensorimotor training, or a control group. Handwriting performance was measured using the elementary reading/writing test and computerized handwriting evaluation before and after 6 weeks of intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA of changed scores were conducted to show whether statistically significant differences across the three groups were present. Significant differences in the elementary reading/writing test were found among the three groups. The computer group showed more significant improvements than the other two groups did. In the kinematic and kinetic analyses, the computer group showed promising results in the remediation of handwriting speed and fluency. This study provided clinical evidence for applying a computer-assisted handwriting program for children with dysgraphia. Clinicians and school teachers are provided with a systematic intervention for the improvement of handwriting difficulties. PMID:24770471

Chang, Shao-Hsia; Yu, Nan-Ying

2014-07-01

173

Is human existence worth its consequent harm?  

PubMed Central

Benatar argues that it is better never to have been born because of the harms always associated with human existence. Non?existence entails no harm, along with no experience of the absence of any benefits that existence might offer. Therefore, he maintains that procreation is morally irresponsible, along with the use of reproductive technology to have children. Women should seek termination if they become pregnant and it would be better for potential future generations if humans become extinct as soon as humanely possible. These views are challenged by the argument that while decisions not to procreate may be rational on the grounds of the harm that might occur, it may equally rational to gamble under certain circumstances that future children would be better?off experiencing the harms and benefits of life rather than never having the opportunity of experiencing anything. To the degree that Benatar's arguments preclude the potential rationality of any such gamble, their moral relevance to concrete issues concerning human reproduction is weakened. However, he is right to emphasise the importance of foreseen harm when decisions are made to attempt to have children. PMID:17906053

Doyal, Len

2007-01-01

174

In harm’s way? Payday loan access and military personnel performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does borrowing at 400 percent APR do more harm than good? The Pentagon asserts that payday loans harm military readiness and successfully lobbied for a binding 36 percent APR cap on loans to military members and their families (effective October 1, 2007). But existing evidence on how access to high-interest debt affects borrower behavior is inconclusive. We use within-state variation

Scott Carrell; Jonathan Zinman

2008-01-01

175

Characteristics of Self-Harm Behaviour among Identified Self-Harming Youth in Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's…

Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.

2012-01-01

176

"Cloning Considered Harmful" Considered Harmful Cory Kapser and Michael W. Godfrey  

E-print Network

"Cloning Considered Harmful" Considered Harmful Cory Kapser and Michael W. Godfrey Software}@uwaterloo.ca Abstract Current literature on the topic of duplicated (cloned) code in software systems often considers describes several patterns of cloning that we have encountered in our case studies and discusses

Godfrey, Michael W.

177

Traditional Teacher Education Still Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fresh from teaching his first full school year the author reflects on his traditional teacher preparation path into the classroom and finds he was instilled with a common sense of ethics, compassion, a demand for reflective practice, and a robust guiding philosophy. As a college student, he learned theory and was able to augment that with…

Jacobs, Nick

2013-01-01

178

Superoxide and traditional Chinese medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional Chinese medicinal practices, herbs are classified as ‘cold’, ‘neutral’, or ‘hot’. Fluorometric analysis of herbs with ‘cold’ properties revealed that these herbs produce large amounts of superoxide. In contrast, herbs with ‘hot’ properties have scavenging activities. We believe that this electron transfer to form superoxide and the scavenging of superoxide may elucidate the phenomena of the ‘yin’ (represented

W. S. Lin; W. C. L. Chan; C. S. Hew

1995-01-01

179

Update on Harm-Reduction Policy and Intervention Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harm reduction is a pragmatic approach to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol and drug use or other high-risk activities by incorporating several strategies that cut across the spectrum from safer use to managed use to abstinence. The primary goal of most harm-reduction approaches is to meet individuals “where they are at?? and not to ignore or condemn the harmful

G. Alan Marlatt; Katie Witkiewitz

2010-01-01

180

Strategies for Implementation of Harm Reduction in Treatment Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harm reduction is a set of strategies that we all use everyday to protect us from the harms of living in a complex world. Central to the principles of harm reduction is the need to respect the client's autonomy and develop a relationship of mutual collaboration with the goal of reducing drugand alcohol-related harm. Additional principles stress the need to

Patt Denning

2001-01-01

181

Harm reduction in hospitals: is it time?  

PubMed Central

Among persons who inject drugs (IDU), illicit drug use often occurs in hospitals and contributes to patient expulsion and/or high rates of leaving against medical advice (AMA) when withdrawal is inadequately managed. Resultant disruptions in medical care may increase the likelihood of several harms including drug resistance to antibiotics as well as costly readmissions and increased patient morbidity. In this context, there remains a clear need for the evaluation of harm reduction strategies versus abstinence-based strategies with respect to addressing ongoing issues related to substance use among addicted hospitalized patients. While hospitalization can be used to stabilize addicted patients as they recover from their acute illness and help them to achieve abstinence, patients unable to maintain abstinence should not be penalized for failing to do so at the expense of their health. This article describes harm reduction activities within hospitals and areas for future investigation. PMID:19638238

Rachlis, Beth S; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio SG; Wood, Evan

2009-01-01

182

Helpful and harmful expectations of premarital interventions.  

PubMed

Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of premarital programs, estimates indicate that only 30% of couples use these services. This study examined the helpful and harmful aspects of premarital programs that may encourage or discourage participation. As expected, participants identified improved communication and problem solving skills as most beneficial. Disclosing secrets or past relationship issues that threaten the stability of the relationship was viewed as most harmful. Implications for the recruitment of couples and for the design and implementation of premarital programs are discussed. PMID:11928181

Valiente, Carlos E; Belanger, Catherine J; Estrada, Ana U

2002-01-01

183

Moving beyond an exclusive focus on harm avoidance in obsessive compulsive disorder: considering the role of incompleteness.  

PubMed

Cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have predominantly viewed compulsions as being motivated by harm avoidance. However, sensations of things being incomplete or not "just right" may also underlie compulsions in OCD. Preliminary research suggests that distinguishing between harm avoidance and incompleteness in OCD may have practical utility, but the research on this topic is very limited to date. The current study further addressed the role of incompleteness in OCD. A confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence for harm avoidance and incompleteness as separate constructs in a student sample. Supporting the benefits of considering incompleteness in addition to harm avoidance, self-reported levels of both constructs were significantly correlated with all domains of OCD symptoms and perfectionism assessed. Further, some evidence for unique relationships was found (e.g., incompleteness with ordering and personally prescribed perfectionism; harm avoidance with obsessing). The role of incompleteness in OCD warrants greater attention. PMID:18721636

Pietrefesa, Ashley S; Coles, Meredith E

2008-09-01

184

Investigating the efficacy of practical skill teaching: a pilot-study comparing three educational methods.  

PubMed

Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a randomised controlled trial, with concealed allocation and blinded participants and outcome assessment. Each of the three randomly allocated groups were exposed to a different practical skills teaching method (traditional, pre-recorded video tutorial or student self-video) for two specific practical skills during the semester. Clinical performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The students were also administered a questionnaire to gain the participants level of satisfaction with the teaching method, and their perceptions of the teaching methods educational value. There were no significant differences in clinical performance between the three practical skill teaching methods as measured in the OSCE, or for student ratings of satisfaction. A significant difference existed between the methods for the student ratings of perceived educational value, with the teaching approaches of pre-recorded video tutorial and student self-video being rated higher than 'traditional' live tutoring. Alternative teaching methods to traditional live tutoring can produce equivalent learning outcomes when applied to the practical skill development of undergraduate health professional students. The use of alternative practical skill teaching methods may allow for greater flexibility for both staff and infrastructure resource allocation. PMID:22354336

Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

2013-03-01

185

Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers  

PubMed Central

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

2006-01-01

186

DNS Resolvers Considered Harmful Kyle Schomp  

E-print Network

DNS Resolvers Considered Harmful Kyle Schomp , Mark Allman , and Michael Rabinovich Case Western Reserve University, International Computer Science Institute Abstract-- The Domain Name System (DNS, shared DNS resolvers are a notorious security weak spot in the system. We propose an unorthodox approach

Rabinovich, Michael "Misha"

187

ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms represent one of the most serious ecological stressors in lakes, rivers, estuaries and marine environments. When there are persistent or frequent blooms with high biomass of cyanobacterial cells, colonies or filaments in the water, a wide range of i...

188

Alcohol and harm reduction in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption is an important health issue in Brazil. This paper provides an overview of alcohol-related problems in the country and explores some of the initiatives employed to address these problems. Although the notion of alcohol harm reduction is relatively new in Brazil, much work has been done to incorporate it further into the country's drug policy. The paper discusses

Mônica Gorgulho; Vera Da Ros

2006-01-01

189

BMI Screening in Schools: Helpful or Harmful  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a comprehensive review of policies and research regarding body mass index (BMI) screening in schools in the United Kingdom and the United States. Although there are potential benefits to conducting screenings in schools, there is also the potential to do harm to the children who are identified as overweight. School administrators need to…

Ikeda, Joanne P.; Crawford, Patricia B.; Woodward-Lopez, Gail

2006-01-01

190

Characterization of biogenic amines and factors influencing their formation in traditional Chinese sausages.  

PubMed

Biogenic amines in 42 traditional Chinese sausage samples obtained from different regions were determined by HPLC. The result showed that cadaverine was the major amine, followed by tyramine and putrescine. A total of 4 groups of samples were identified on the basis of total amines by cluster analysis. Group A included samples showing low amine contents (76.5 to 220 mg/kg) and accounted for 28.5% of the sausages examined. Group B included samples with moderate amine contents (220 to 600 mg/kg) and accounted for 45.2%. Group C included 11.9% of the samples showing high total biogenic amines contents (600 to 1000 mg/kg) and group D contained 14.28% of the samples showing very high levels of biogenic amines (higher than 1000 mg/kg). High correlation coefficients were found between the total counts of Enterobacteria and concentrations of total biogenic amines (r = 0.73). Sanitary quality of raw materials and the specific flora are import factors influencing biogenic amines formation in traditional Chinese sausages. Practical Application: Biogenic amines are considered potentially harmful substances to human health worldwide and are usually found in fermented sausage.Traditional Chinese sausage is one form of spontaneously fermented sausage and manufactured in small-scale plants following spontaneous fermentation. Little information, however, exists on the traditional Chinese sausage. PMID:20722938

Lu, Shiling; Xu, Xinglian; Shu, Ruihua; Zhou, Guanghong; Meng, Yong; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Yanping; Wang, Peng

2010-08-01

191

Navajo Pawn: A Misunderstood Traditional Trading Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Navajo trading has been a crucial component of that tribe's localized economy for generations and has been the subject of much scholarship over the years. The role of the Navajo trader in influencing the types and styles of crafts that Navajos created as well as providing tribal members with an outlet for those items remains important to their…

Kiser, William S.

2012-01-01

192

Adverse Events in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Development, Testing, and Findings of an NICU- Focused Trigger Tool to Identify Harm in North American NICUs  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES.Currently there are few practical methods to identify and measure harm to hospitalized children. Patients in NICUs are at high risk and warrant a detailed assessment of harm to guide patient safety efforts. The purpose of this work was to develop a NICU-focused tool for adverse event detection and to describe the incidence of adverse events in NICUs identified by

Paul J. Sharek; Jeffrey D. Horbar; Wilbert Mason; Hema Bisarya; Cary W. Thurm; Gautham Suresh; James E. Gray; William H. Edwards; Donald Goldmann; David Classen; Vermont Burlington

2010-01-01

193

Putting at risk what we know: Reflecting on the drug-using subject in harm reduction and its political implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a poststructuralist analysis of the cultural inscription of drug-using subjects in the neo-liberal discourses of contemporary harm reduction. We argue that although neo-liberal discourses downplay material constraints on individual human agency, divert policy and practice away from structural issues, limit the conception of effective strategies for harm reduction and ignore alternative formulations of the subject, they are

David Moore; Suzanne Fraser

2006-01-01

194

Responding to command hallucinations to harm: the unpleasant voices scale and harm command safety protocol.  

PubMed

Command hallucinations are relatively common in voice hearers and are taken seriously because of the potential threat to self and others. Many variables mediate the relationship between hearing commands and acting on them. This article describes the implementation of the Harm Command Safety Protocol and the Unpleasant Voices Scale to respond to command hallucinations to harm in the context of the dissemination of a multisite, evidence-based behavioral management course for patients with auditory hallucinations. PMID:20349886

Gerlock, April A; Buccheri, Robin; Buffum, Martha D; Trygstad, Louise; Dowling, Glenna A

2010-05-01

195

Screening of surfactants for harmful algal blooms mitigation.  

PubMed

Screening experiments were conducted in order to find promising synthetic surfactants for harmful algal blooms (HABs) mitigation. The chemically synthesized surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) showed characteristics of relatively high inhibition efficiency, high biodegradability and low cost. The motility inhibition ratios of 10 mg/L CAPB on Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Alexandrium tamarense were about 60% after 5 min. The biodegradation test indicated that the half-life of CAPB in seawater was shorter than one day and 90% was biodegraded after five days under the initial concentration of 100 mg/L at 25 degrees C. Further cell lysis experiments revealed the selective lysis effect of CAPB on different HAB organisms. More than 90% of C. polykrikoides lysed at the concentration of 10 mg/L CAPB after 24 h and at 15 mg/L CAPB after 4 h, whereas the lysis effect of CAPB on A. tamarense was slight, no more than 10% after 2 h interaction with 50 mg/L CAPB. This research provided preliminary data for CAPB as a candidate in harmful algal blooms mitigation and pointed out unresolved problems for its practical application in the meantime. PMID:15111041

Sun, Xiao-Xia; Han, Kyung-Nam; Choi, Joong-Ki; Kim, Eun-Ki

2004-05-01

196

Introduction to complementary, alternative, and traditional therapies.  

PubMed

The use of complementary, alternative, and traditional therapies is increasing in the United States, and patients and their families are bringing these practices into the acute care setting. Acute and critical care nurses are in a unique and trusted position to advocate for their patients and to promote safe incorporation of complementary, alternative, and traditional therapies into the plan of care. PMID:25452409

Kramlich, Debra

2014-12-01

197

Experience as Canon: Three Religious Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how a Canon (body of ideas, doctrines, and practices) becomes embodied in religious communities, how that experience forms the faithful in the tradition, and how that experience modifies the Canon of that tradition. Explores this phenomenon within the Jewish, Catholic, and Lutheran communities. (MJP)

Blumberg, Sherry H.; Clendenen, Avis; Schmidt, Stephen A.

1997-01-01

198

Year-Round versus Traditional Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document serves as a literature review for the practicality and cost effectiveness of traditional versus year-round school systems. The differences in year-round and traditional schools are many, as the debate lingers on which type is best for students' learning. Generally conclusive, the literature indicates that year-round schools' benefits…

Lyttle, LeighAnne

2011-01-01

199

Insulin degludec. Uncertainty over cardiovascular harms.  

PubMed

Insulin isophane (NPH) is the standard long-acting human insulin for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Long-acting human insulin analogues are also available: insulin glargine and insulin detemir. Uncertainties remain concerning their long-term adverse effects. Insulin degludec (Tresiba, Novo Nordisk) is another long-acting human insulin analogue, also approved in the EU for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It was authorised at a concentration of 100 units per ml, like other insulins, and also at a concentration of 200 units per ml. There are no comparative data on insulin degludec 200 units per ml in patients using high doses of insulin. Insulin degludec has mainly been evaluated in ten randomised, unblinded, "non-inferiority" trials lasting 26 to 52 weeks, nine versus insulin glargine and one versus insulin detemir. Insulin degludec was administered at a fixed time each evening, or in either the morning or evening on alternate days, at varying intervals of 8 to 40 hours between doses. Efficacy in terms of HbA1c control was similar to that of the other insulin analogues administered once a day. The frequency of severe hypoglycaemia was similar in the groups treated with insulin degludec and those treated with the other insulins (10% to 12% among patients with type 1 diabetes and less than 5% in patients with type 2 diabetes). Deaths and other serious adverse events were similarly frequent in the different groups. A meta-analysis of clinical trials, carried out by the US Food and Drug Administration, suggested an increase of about 60% in the incidence of cardiovascular complications, based on a composite endpoint combining myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death. Other adverse effects observed in these trials were already known to occur with human insulin and its analogues, including weight gain, hypersensitivity reactions, reactions at the injection site, etc. The trials were too short in duration to assess long-term harms, particularly cancer. Clinical experience with insulin degludec in pregnant women is very limited. It is therefore best to avoid using this analogue during pregnancy. In France, the concentration of all other insulins injected with a syringe or prefilled pen is 100 units per ml. The new concentration of 200 units per ml contained in insulin degludec prefilled pens creates a risk of confusion and overdose. In practice, there is already a relatively wide range of options available for patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who require insulin therapy. As insulin degludec has no proven advantages, it is better to avoid using it, at least pending further data on the risk of cardiovascular events. Insulin isophane remains the first-choice long-acting insulin, while insulin glargine is most appropriate for some patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25121146

2014-06-01

200

Harm reduction approaches to alcohol use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harm reduction approaches to alcohol problems have endured a controversial history in both the research literature and the popular media. Although several studies have demonstrated that controlled drinking is possible and that moderation-based treatments may be preferred over abstinence-only approaches, the public and institutional views of alcohol treatment still support zero-tolerance. After describing the problems with zero-tolerance and the benefits

G. Alan Marlatt; Katie Witkiewitz

2002-01-01

201

Comparing Alternatives For Replacing Harmful Chemicals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methodology developed to provide guidance for replacement of industrial chemicals that must be phased out by law because they are toxic and/or affect environment adversely. Chemicals and processes ranked numerically. Applies mostly to chemicals contributing to depletion of ozone in upper atmosphere; some other harmful chemicals included. Quality function deployment matrix format provides convenient way to compare alternative processes and chemicals. Overall rating at bottom of each process-and-chemical column indicates relative advantage.

Cruit, W.; Schutzenhofer, S.; Goldberg, B.; Everhart, K.

1995-01-01

202

Electrofishing and its harmful effects on fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electrofishing, a valuable sampling technique in North America for over half a century, involves a very dynamic and complex mix of physics, physiology, and behavior that remains poorly understood. New hypotheses have been advanced regarding "power transfer" to fish and the epileptic nature of their responses to electric fields, but these too need to be more fully explored and validated. Fishery researchers and managers in the Colorado River Basin, and elsewhere, are particularly concerned about the harmful effects of electrofishing on fish, especially endangered species. Although often not externally obvious or fatal, spinal injuries and associated hemorrhages sometimes have been documented in over 50% of fish examined internally. Such injuries can occur anywhere in the electrofishing field at or above the intensity threshold for twitch. These injuries are believed to result from powerful convulsions of body musculature (possibly epileptic seizures) caused mostly by sudden changes in voltage as when electricity is pulsed or switched on or off. Significantly fewer spinal injuries are reported when direct current, low-frequency pulsed direct current (<30 Hz), or specially designed pulse trains are used. Salmoniae are especially susceptible. Endangered cyprinids of the Colorado River Basin are generally much less susceptible, enough so to allow cautious use of less harmful currents for most recovery monitoring and research. However, the endangered catostomid Xyrauchen texanus appears sufficiently susceptible to warrant a continued minimal-use policy. Other harmful effects, such as bleeding at gills or vent and excessive physiological stress, are also of concern. Mortality, usually by asphyxiation, is a common result of excessive exposure to tetanizing intensities near electrodes or poor handling of captured specimens. Reported effects on reproduction are contradictory, but electrofishing over spawning grounds can harm embryos. Electrofishing is often considered the most effective and benign technique for capturing moderate- to large-size fish, but when adverse effects are problematic and cannot be sufficiently reduced, its use should be severely restricted.

Snyder, Darrel E.

2003-01-01

203

Reducing tobacco harm: research challenges and issues.  

PubMed

The emergence of potential reduced-exposure tobacco and cigarette-like products and the reduction of smoking as a treatment approach, have recently been forcing the debate and discussion about the science that is necessary to inform policies, regulation, and programs. To deal effectively with the issues evolving around tobacco harm reduction, a comprehensive and strategic research agenda must be forged, and a multi-disciplinary, collaborative approach must be taken. The goal of this article is to describe research challenges and issues related to tobacco exposure and harm reduction. Scientists from multiple disciplines and individuals from government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and tobacco control advocacy groups as well as the pharmaceutical and tobacco industries attended a two-day meeting that focused on addressing the current knowledge regarding tobacco harm reduction, identifying gaps in knowledge, and recommending research directions. Workgroups, comprising a subset of attendees, met after the conference to synthesize, discuss, and prioritize the important research frontiers. The resulting document provides guidance for scientists, grant funding agencies, industry and policy makers by identifying areas in which to invest research effort and funds to develop a science base to ensure the future health of this nation and world. PMID:12573171

Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Slade, John; Benowitz, Neal L; Giovino, Gary A; Gritz, Ellen R; Leischow, Scott; Warner, Kenneth E

2002-01-01

204

Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia.  

PubMed

Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. PMID:25518881

Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2014-01-01

205

Harmful algae blooms removal from fresh water with modified vermiculite.  

PubMed

Vermiculite and vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid were investigated to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies in freshwater containing harmful algae blooms (HABs) (Microcystis aeruginosa). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, converted fluorescence microscope, plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and Zetasizer were used to study the flocculation mechanism of modified vermiculite. It was found that the vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid could coagulate algae cells through charge neutralization, chemical bridging, and netting effect. The experimental results show that the efficiency of flocculation can be notably improved by modified vermiculite. Ninety-eight per cent of algae cells in algae solution could be removed within 10 min after the addition ofmodified vermiculite clay. The method that removal of HABs with modified vermiculite is economical with high efficiency, and more research is needed to assess their ecological impacts before using in practical application. PMID:24600873

Miao, Chunguang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiangqin

2014-01-01

206

Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. PMID:25518881

Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2014-01-01

207

Laggards or Leaders: Conservers of Traditional Agricultural Knowledge in Bolivia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many sustainable agricultural practices are based on local and traditional farming knowledge. This article examines the conservation and loss of three traditional practices in the Bolivian Altiplano that agronomic research has shown increase the resiliency of small farmers in the face of climate-related risks. These practices are the use of…

Gilles, Jere L.; Thomas, Justin L.; Valdivia, Corinne; Yucra, Edwin S.

2013-01-01

208

16 CFR 1102.10 - Reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements...submission. To be entered into the Database, reports of harm must be submitted to...Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database reports of harm containing all of...

2011-01-01

209

16 CFR 1102.10 - Reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.10...submission. To be entered into the Database, reports of harm must be submitted to...Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database reports of harm containing all of...

2014-01-01

210

16 CFR 1102.10 - Reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.10...submission. To be entered into the Database, reports of harm must be submitted to...Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database reports of harm containing all of...

2013-01-01

211

16 CFR 1102.10 - Reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.10...submission. To be entered into the Database, reports of harm must be submitted to...Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database reports of harm containing all of...

2012-01-01

212

30 CFR 722.11 - Imminent dangers and harms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that contributed to the imminent danger or harm. (e) When imposing...require abatement of the imminent danger or harm in the most expeditious...that contributed to the imminent danger to life or the environment have been eliminated....

2010-07-01

213

30 CFR 7.508 - Harmful gas removal components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Harmful gas removal components. (a) Each refuge...Carbon dioxide removal components shall be used with breathable...Carbon dioxide removal components shall remove carbon...harmful gas removal component. (b) The...

2011-07-01

214

30 CFR 7.508 - Harmful gas removal components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Harmful gas removal components. (a) Each refuge...Carbon dioxide removal components shall be used with breathable...Carbon dioxide removal components shall remove carbon...harmful gas removal component. (b) The...

2014-07-01

215

30 CFR 7.508 - Harmful gas removal components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Harmful gas removal components. (a) Each refuge...Carbon dioxide removal components shall be used with breathable...Carbon dioxide removal components shall remove carbon...harmful gas removal component. (b) The...

2010-07-01

216

30 CFR 7.508 - Harmful gas removal components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Harmful gas removal components. (a) Each refuge...Carbon dioxide removal components shall be used with breathable...Carbon dioxide removal components shall remove carbon...harmful gas removal component. (b) The...

2012-07-01

217

30 CFR 7.508 - Harmful gas removal components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Harmful gas removal components. (a) Each refuge...Carbon dioxide removal components shall be used with breathable...Carbon dioxide removal components shall remove carbon...harmful gas removal component. (b) The...

2013-07-01

218

Could Nutrients in Fish Shield Fetus from Mercury's Harms?  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Could Nutrients in Fish Shield Fetus From Mercury's Harms? No developmental problems ... mercury exposure, pregnant women who eat lots of fish may not harm their unborn children, a new ...

219

Building therapeutic staff: client relationships with women who self-harm.  

PubMed

This article examines the aims and objectives of a training package devised for nurses working directly with women who self-harm and detained in institutions. The training package aims to change and inform staff attitudes toward self-harming behavior and to encourage therapeutic responses and interventions. The first key step in helping these women is to understand why they resort to self-harm. Some of the underlying reasons why these women try to hurt themselves include dominance of older women, histories of abuse, and feelings of powerlessness. The training program uses a seminar format followed by reflective practice sessions which enables the nursing staff to explore how both theoretical constructs and women's experiences could inform and influence the delivery of care. It utilized community-produced and focused support networks, and consisted of six sessions, each lasting around 2 hours and 30 minutes. Seminar topics include reasons for self-harm, types of women who self-harm, caring for and myths about these women, and communication issues. PMID:9071885

Rea, K; Aiken, F; Borastero, C

1997-01-01

220

Risk, Death and Harm: The Normative Foundations of Risk Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is death a harm? Is the risk of death a harm? These questions lie at the foundations of risk regulation. Agencies that regulate threats to human life, such as the EPA, OSHA, the FDA, the CPSC, or NHTSA, invariably assume that premature death is a first-party harm - a welfare setback to the person who dies - and often assume

Matthew D. Adler

2003-01-01

221

Variability and dilemmas in harm reduction for anabolic steroid users in the UK: a multi-area interview study  

PubMed Central

Background The UK continues to experience a rise in the number of anabolic steroid-using clients attending harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes. Methods The present study uses interviews conducted with harm reduction service providers as well as illicit users of anabolic steroids from different areas of England and Wales to explore harm reduction for this group of drug users, focussing on needle distribution policies and harm reduction interventions developed specifically for this population of drug users. Results The article addresses the complexity of harm reduction service delivery, highlighting different models of needle distribution, such as peer-led distribution networks, as well as interventions available in steroid clinics, including liver function testing of anabolic steroid users. Aside from providing insights into the function of interventions available to steroid users, along with principles adopted by service providers, the study found significant tensions and dilemmas in policy implementation due to differing perspectives between service providers and service users relating to practices, risks and effective interventions. Conclusion The overarching finding of the study was the tremendous variability across harm reduction delivery sites in terms of available measures and mode of operation. Further research into the effectiveness of different policies directed towards people who use anabolic steroids is critical to the development of harm reduction. PMID:24986546

2014-01-01

222

Brief Report: The Self Harm Questionnaire--A New Tool Designed to Improve Identification of Self Harm in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Self Harm Questionnaire (SHQ) aiming at identification of self-harm in adolescents has been developed and piloted in a sample of 12-17 year olds (n = 100). The adolescents were recruited from both in- and outpatient psychiatric services. Concurrent validity of the SHQ was evaluated by comparing the SHQ results with recorded self harm in the…

Ougrin, Dennis; Boege, Isabel

2013-01-01

223

Best Practices in Grading. Research into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…

Johnston, Howard

2011-01-01

224

The effect of paranoia on the judging of harmful events.  

PubMed

Objective. Social psychological research has indicated that intentional harm may be perceived as causing greater damage than unintentional harm. It has been proposed that this harm magnification is a consequence of a need to blame, condemn and punish ("blame motivation"). The objective of the current study was to replicate these findings and to test whether such judgements about harmful events are associated with the level of an individual's paranoia. Method. Three hundred adults read a scenario in which a head of a company causes a reduction in employees' pay. Participants were randomly allocated to versions in which the outcome of the executive's action was intended or unintended. Ratings were made of intent, harm caused and blame motivation. Participants also completed assessments of paranoia and anxiety. Results. Intentional harm was judged as causing worse outcomes than unintentional harm, explaining a small amount of variance in harm scores. Paranoia moderated judgements of intent and blame motivation but not the degree of harm caused; high paranoia, relative to low paranoia, was associated with the unintentional scenario generating higher attributions of intent and blame and the intentional scenario generating lower attributions of intent and blame. Anxiety levels did not affect judgements. Conclusions. The study supports the theory that there is a reasoning bias that magnifies the consequences of intentional harm relative to unintentional harm. In the initial judgement about intent, people with paranoia are less accurate in their use of contextual information. PMID:25345664

Freeman, Daniel; Evans, Nicole; ?ernis, Emma; Lister, Rachel; Dunn, Graham

2015-03-01

225

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms: causes, consequences, and controls.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest oxygenic photoautotrophs and have had major impacts on shaping its biosphere. Their long evolutionary history (? 3.5 by) has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recently anthropogenic modifications of aquatic environments, including nutrient over-enrichment (eutrophication), water diversions, withdrawals, and salinization. Many cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. Bloom-forming cyanobacterial taxa can be harmful from environmental, organismal, and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, depleting oxygen upon bloom senescence, and producing a variety of toxic secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanotoxins). How environmental factors impact cyanotoxin production is the subject of ongoing research, but nutrient (N, P and trace metals) supply rates, light, temperature, oxidative stressors, interactions with other biota (bacteria, viruses and animal grazers), and most likely, the combined effects of these factors are all involved. Accordingly, strategies aimed at controlling and mitigating harmful blooms have focused on manipulating these dynamic factors. The applicability and feasibility of various controls and management approaches is discussed for natural waters and drinking water supplies. Strategies based on physical, chemical, and biological manipulations of specific factors show promise; however, a key underlying approach that should be considered in almost all instances is nutrient (both N and P) input reductions; which have been shown to effectively reduce cyanobacterial biomass, and therefore limit health risks and frequencies of hypoxic events. PMID:23314096

Paerl, Hans W; Otten, Timothy G

2013-05-01

226

Benzodiazepine harm: how can it be reduced?  

PubMed Central

The benzodiazepines (BZDs) are anxiolytics, hypnotics, anticonvulsants, muscle-relaxants and induce anaesthesia. Adverse effects comprise sedation subjectively and cognitive and psychomotor impairment objectively. Complex skills such as driving can be compromised. Paradoxical excitement can have forensic implications. Long term use beyond the licensed durations is common but both efficacy and adverse effects associated with this have been poorly documented. Withdrawal and dependence have excited particular concern, and even polemic. Perhaps a third of long term (beyond 6?months) users experience symptoms and signs on attempting to withdraw – anxiety, insomnia, muscle spasms and tension and perceptual hypersensitivity. Uncommonly, fits or a psychosis may supervene. The patterns following withdrawal vary widely. The usual method of withdrawal is slow tapering but it may not obviate the problems completely. BZDs are also drugs of abuse either on their own or in conjunction with opioids and stimulants. Claims have been made that the use of BZDs is associated with increased mortality. This is a concern in view of the widespread usage of these drugs, particularly in the elderly. All of these factors impinge on the risk?:?benefit ratio and the severity of the indications. Harm reduction should focus on choice of alternative treatments both psychological and pharmacological. Guidelines emphasise that BZDs are not drugs of first choice and should only be used short term. Schedules are available to educate about methods of withdrawal in current users, emphasising the slow rate of taper. General principles of harm minimization in the addiction field are appropriate to BZD abuse. PMID:22882333

Lader, Malcolm

2014-01-01

227

Minimizing Harm and Maximizing Pleasure: Considering the Harm Reduction Paradigm for Sexuality Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the potential for introducing harm reduction into sexuality education. When the goal of sexuality education is on prevention and focuses on risk and public health concerns, a discussion of pleasure is rendered problematic, as many pleasurable behaviors are inherently "unsafe" or "risky" when considered using a safe-sex lens.…

Naisteter, Michal A.; Sitron, Justin A.

2010-01-01

228

Harm reduction, methadone maintenance treatment and the root causes of health and social inequities: An intersectional lens in the Canadian context  

PubMed Central

Background Using our research findings, we explore Harm Reduction and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) using an intersectional lens to provide a more complex understanding of Harm Reduction and MMT, particularly how Harm Reduction and MMT are experienced differently by people dependent on how they are positioned. Using the lens of intersectionality, we refine the notion of Harm Reduction by specifying the conditions in which both harm and benefit arise and how experiences of harm are continuous with wider experiences of domination and oppression; Methods A qualitative design that uses ethnographic methods of in-depth individual and focus group interviews and naturalistic observation was conducted in a large city in Canada. Participants included Aboriginal clients accessing mainstream mental health and addictions care and primary health care settings and healthcare providers; Results All client-participants had profound histories of abuse and violence, most often connected to the legacy of colonialism (e.g., residential schooling) and ongoing colonial practices (e.g., stigma & everyday racism). Participants lived with co-occurring illness (e.g., HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C, PTSD, depression, diabetes and substance use) and most lived in poverty. Many participants expressed mistrust with the healthcare system due to everyday experiences both within and outside the system that further marginalize them. In this paper, we focus on three intersecting issues that impact access to MMT: stigma and prejudice, social and structural constraints influencing enactment of peoples' agency, and homelessness; Conclusions Harm reduction must move beyond a narrow concern with the harms directly related to drugs and drug use practices to address the harms associated with the determinants of drug use and drug and health policy. An intersectional lens elucidates the need for harm reduction approaches that reflect an understanding of and commitment to addressing the historical, socio-cultural and political forces that shape responses to mental illness/health, addictions, including harm reduction and methadone maintenance treatment. PMID:21718531

2011-01-01

229

When Traditions Become Innovations and Innovations Become Traditions in Everyday Food Pedagogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the way learning to cook remains important for the maintenance of "ethnic" food traditions and how sharing food knowledge plays a role in intercultural exchanges. Ethnographic data from an ongoing study in Melbourne is presented to highlight how, in everyday practices, both tradition and innovation are involved in learning…

Benny, Helen

2012-01-01

230

Mediating MDMA-Related Harm: Preloading and Post-loading Among Ecstasy-Using Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecstasy use remains a key concern for professionals working in fields related to youth and drug use. At the forefront of these concerns are issues related to neurological dysfunction and depression—both acute and long-term—associated with MDMA use. Ecstasy users have been shown to assess Ecstasy related harms and to engage in a variety of practices to manage these risks. To

Brian C. Kelly

2009-01-01

231

Ecological Education in Rural China: Rediscovering Traditional Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article has implications for the ecological sustainability crisis now looming in China and what this portends for the practice of education. Chemical agriculture, although improving agricultural production, harms ecological systems in rural communities. The author presents research on a group of intellectuals and social activists in 1…

Liu, Yan

2008-01-01

232

The Olympic Region Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the website of the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership, which was organized to develop collaboration and cooperation among federal, state and local management agencies, coastal Indian tribes, marine resource-based businesses, public interest groups, and academic institutions. The ORHAB partnership investigates the origins of blooms of toxic algae, monitors where and when the blooms occur, assesses the environmental conditions conducive to blooms and toxification of intertidal shellfish populations, and explores methods that can be used to reduce HAB impacts on humans and the environment. Information in this website is organized into the following categories: Home, About ORHAB, HAB impacts, project plan, partnerships, benefits, meetings, gallery, sustaining ORHAB, education, and outreach.

Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) Partnership

233

Come As You Are: Harm Reduction Drop-In Groups for Multi–Diagnosed Drug Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harm reduction is a radical new paradigm in substance abuse treatment. It is most noted for its public health interventions, such as syringe exchange, with active drug users in order to reduce the harms associated with alcohol and other drug use. Harm reduction therapy is the treatment approach of the harm reduction movement. Harm reduction therapy, and harm reduction therapy

Jeannie Little; Kimya Hodari; Jamie Lavender; Anna Berg

2008-01-01

234

Lead encephalopathy due to traditional medicines.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine use is common in developing countries and increasingly popular in the western world. Despite the popularity of traditional medicines, scientific research on safety and efficacy is limited. However documented fatalities and severe illness due to lead poisoning are increasingly recognized to be associated with traditional medicine use. As society becomes more globalized, it is imperative for pharmacists and health care providers to learn about the safety of traditional medical practices. The information presented educates and alerts pharmacists and health care providers about the potential of traditional medicines to cause lead encephalopathy. Case reports were located through systematic literature searches using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE and The Cochrane library from 1966 to the February 2007. Reference lists of identified articles and the authors' own files were also searched. Inclusion criteria were cases of human lead encephalopathy associated with traditional medical practices. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. Data were subsequently extracted and summarized in narrative and tabular form. We found 76 cases of lead encephalopathy potentially associated with traditional medicine. Ayurvedic medicines were associated with 5 cases (7%), Middle eastern traditional medicines with 66 cases (87%) and 5 cases (7%) with other traditional medicines. Of the 76 cases, 5% were in adults and 95% were in infants and young children. Of the 4 adult cases, at least one was left with residual neurological impairment. In infants and young children, among 72 cases 8 (11%) were fatal, and at least 15 (21%) had residual neurological deficits. Traditional medicine users should be screened for lead exposure and strongly encouraged to discontinue metal-containing remedies. Therefore, the United States Food and Drug Administration and corresponding agencies in other countries should require and enforce heavy metal testing for all imported traditional medicines and "dietary supplements". PMID:18690981

Karri, Surya K; Saper, Robert B; Kales, Stefanos N

2008-01-01

235

Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks  

PubMed Central

Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly linked to older people in rural areas. In the rural areas surveyed, significant economic and social benefits are derived from traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use. Policy makers designing ways to reduce alcohol-related risks and harms need to give thoughtful consideration to the role traditional alcohol plays in the local society and to suggest changes that do not create unintended problems. PMID:25037953

2014-01-01

236

Co-calibration of deliberate self harm (DSH) behaviours: towards a common measurement metric.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to co-calibrate items from different deliberate self-harm (DSH) behavioural scales on the same measurement metric and compare cut points and item hierarchy across those scales. Participants included 568 young Australians aged 18-30 years (62% university students, 21% mental health patients, and 17% community volunteers). Six DSH scales (containing 82 items) were administered, namely, Self-Injury Questionnaire Treatment Related (SIQTR), Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviours Interview (SITBI), Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory (DSHI), Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury (ISAS), Self-Harm Information Form (SHIF) and Self-Harm Inventory (SHI). Data were co-calibrated onto an underlying metric using the Rasch measurement model. The resulting calibration shows that the different scales occupy different ranges on the hierarchy of DSH methods with prevalence estimates ranging from 47.7 to 77.1%. A raw score conversion table is provided to adjust prevalence rates and to equate cut points on the six scales. A Rasch-validated hierarchy of DSH behaviours is also provided to inform the development of DSH nomenclatures and assist clinical practice. PMID:22727708

Latimer, Shane; Covic, Tanya; Tennant, Alan

2012-11-30

237

Mental Health Nurses' Experiences of Caring for Patients Suffering from Self-Harm  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to explore mental health nurses' experiences of caring for inpatients who self-harm during an acute phase. The setting was four psychiatric clinics in Norway. Fifteen mental health nurses (MHNs) were recruited. Semistructured interviews comprised the method for data collection, with content analysis used for data analysis. Two main categories emerged: challenging and collaborative nurse-patient relationship and promoting well-being through nursing interventions. The underlying meaning of the main categories was interpreted and formulated as a latent theme: promoting person-centered care to patients suffering from self-harm. How MHNs promote care for self-harm patients can be described as a person-centered nursing process. MHNs, through the creation of a collaborative nurse-patient relationship, reflect upon nursing interventions and seek to understand each unique patient. The implication for clinical practice is that MHNs are in a position where they can promote patients' recovery processes, by offering patients alternative activities and by working in partnership with patients to promote their individual strengths and life knowledge. MHNs strive to help patients find new ways of living with their problems. The actual study highlighted that MHNs use different methods and strategies when promoting the well-being of self-harm patients. PMID:25512876

Talseth, Anne-Grethe

2014-01-01

238

Traditional Construction in Burma  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Traditional construction throughout Burma utilizes bamboo and other lightweight building materials, resulting in structures that are not generally durable but are quite earthquake-safe.  As traditional structures such as this house give way to more modern masonry buildings, seismic risk will in...

239

Intelligent glasses, watches and vests…oh my! Rethinking the meaning of "harm" in the age of wearable technologies.  

PubMed

The widespread release and adoption of wearable devices will likely accelerate the "hybrid era", already initiated by mobile digital devices, with progressively deeper levels of human-technology co-evolution and increasing blurring of our boundaries with machines. Questions about the potentially harmful nature of information and communication technologies have been asked before, since the introduction of the telephone, the Web, and more recently, mobile phones. Our capacity to answer them now is limited by outdated conceptual approaches to harm, mostly derived from drug evaluation; and by the slow and static nature of traditional research tools. In this article, we propose a re-conceptualizing of the meaning of "harm", which builds on a global effort focused on health, adding flexibility and richness within a context that acknowledges the physical, mental, and social domains in which it can occur. PMID:25668291

Jadad, Alejandro R; Fandiño, Marcela; Lennox, Robin

2015-01-01

240

Intelligent Glasses, Watches and Vests…Oh My! Rethinking the Meaning of “Harm” in the Age of Wearable Technologies  

PubMed Central

The widespread release and adoption of wearable devices will likely accelerate the “hybrid era”, already initiated by mobile digital devices, with progressively deeper levels of human-technology co-evolution and increasing blurring of our boundaries with machines. Questions about the potentially harmful nature of information and communication technologies have been asked before, since the introduction of the telephone, the Web, and more recently, mobile phones. Our capacity to answer them now is limited by outdated conceptual approaches to harm, mostly derived from drug evaluation; and by the slow and static nature of traditional research tools. In this article, we propose a re-conceptualizing of the meaning of “harm”, which builds on a global effort focused on health, adding flexibility and richness within a context that acknowledges the physical, mental, and social domains in which it can occur. PMID:25668291

Fandiño, Marcela; Lennox, Robin

2015-01-01

241

Interprofessional and Interagency Training for Working with Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: An Evaluation of Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the outcomes of short interagency training courses provided by six Local Safeguarding Children Boards in England. The aim was to develop practical skills in recognising and responding to the needs of children with harmful sexual behaviour in an interagency context. The courses all employed interactive learning and teaching…

Hackett, Simon; Carpenter, John; Patsios, Demi; Szilassy, Eszter

2013-01-01

242

Native American Healing Traditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American healing practices requires helping professionals to have knowledge of Native American cultural belief systems about

Tarrell A. A. Portman; Michael T. Garrett

2006-01-01

243

Traditional medicine and genomics  

PubMed Central

‘Omics’ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics. PMID:21829298

Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

2010-01-01

244

Climate change: links to global expansion of harmful cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest (?3.5 bya) oxygen evolving organisms, and they have had major impacts on shaping our modern-day biosphere. Conversely, biospheric environmental perturbations, including nutrient enrichment and climatic changes (e.g. global warming, hydrologic changes, increased frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones, more intense and persistent droughts), strongly affect cyanobacterial growth and bloom potentials in freshwater and marine ecosystems. We examined human and climatic controls on harmful (toxic, hypoxia-generating, food web disrupting) bloom-forming cyanobacteria (CyanoHABs) along the freshwater to marine continuum. These changes may act synergistically to promote cyanobacterial dominance and persistence. This synergy is a formidable challenge to water quality, water supply and fisheries managers, because bloom potentials and controls may be altered in response to contemporaneous changes in thermal and hydrologic regimes. In inland waters, hydrologic modifications, including enhanced vertical mixing and, if water supplies permit, increased flushing (reducing residence time) will likely be needed in systems where nutrient input reductions are neither feasible nor possible. Successful control of CyanoHABs by grazers is unlikely except in specific cases. Overall, stricter nutrient management will likely be the most feasible and practical approach to long-term CyanoHAB control in a warmer, stormier and more extreme world. PMID:21893330

Paerl, Hans W; Paul, Valerie J

2012-04-01

245

The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization?  

PubMed

Ayahuasca is a tea made from two plants native to the Amazon, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, which, respectively, contain the psychoactive chemicals harmala alkaloids and dimethyltryptamine. The tea has been used by indigenous peoples in countries such as Brazil, Ecuador and Peru for medicinal, spiritual and cultural purposes since pre-Columbian times. In the 20th century, ayahuasca spread beyond its native habitat and has been incorporated into syncretistic practices that are being adopted by non-indigenous peoples in modern Western contexts. Ayahuasca's globalization in the past few decades has led to a number of legal cases which pit religious freedom against national drug control laws. This paper explores some of the philosophical and policy implications of contemporary ayahuasca use. It addresses the issue of the social construction of ayahuasca as a medicine, a sacrament and a "plant teacher." Issues of harm reduction with respect to ayahuasca use are explored, but so too is the corollary notion of "benefit maximization." PMID:18638702

Tupper, Kenneth W

2008-08-01

246

Young Children Selectively Avoid Helping People with Harmful Intentions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigated whether young children are selectively prosocial toward others, based on the others' moral behaviors. In Study 1 (N = 54), 3-year-olds watched 1 adult (the actor) harming or helping another adult. Children subsequently helped the harmful actor less often than a third (previously neutral) adult, but helped the helpful and…

Vaish, Amrisha; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2010-01-01

247

Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats  

E-print Network

Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats Sze-Bi Hsu Feng-Bin Wang Xiao from the dynamics of harmful algae and zooplankton in flowing- water habitats where a main channel. For the system modeling the dynamics of algae and their toxin that contains little limiting nutrient, we

Hsu, Sze-Bi

248

Overview of harm reduction treatments for alcohol problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As evidenced by the tremendous range of scholarly articles included in this special issue, it is readily apparent that harm reduction is more than a theory, treatment approach, or policy. Rather, harm reduction is an orientation and belief system that has widespread empirical support as a means to improve the lives and functioning of individuals who use and abuse alcohol.

Katie Witkiewitz; G. Alan Marlatt

2006-01-01

249

Optical methods for monitoring harmful gas in animal facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal facilities produce large amounts of harmful gases such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and methane, many of which have a pungent odor. The harmful gases produced by animal housing not only affect the health of people and livestock but also pollute the air. The detection of the harmful gases can effectively improve efficiency of livestock production and reduce environmental pollution. More and more optical detection methods are applied to the detection of the harmful gases produced by animal housing. This summarizes optical detection methods for monitoring the harmful gases in animal housing recently, including nondispersive infrared gas analyzer, ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The basic principle and the characteristics of these methods are illustrated and the applications on the detection of harmful gases in animal housing are described. Meanwhile, the research of harmful gases monitoring for livestock production based on these methods were listed. The current situation and future development of the detection methods for harmful gases generated by animal housing were summarized by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Zhang, Shirui; Dong, Daming; Zheng, Wengang; Wang, Jihua

2014-06-01

250

Opportunities and threats for competitors in product-harm crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Product-harm crises have become an almost familiar phenomenon in today's business environment as technology becomes more vulnerable. Even if a product-harm crisis is associated with the company that manufactured the defective product, the entire industry may be affected. Not only consumers of the affected company, but also consumers of competitors are affected by the crisis. The paper seeks

George Siomkos; Amalia Triantafillidou; Aikaterini Vassilikopoulou; Ioannis Tsiamis

2010-01-01

251

Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB), a funding program within NOAA that seeks to develop effective methods for prevention, control, and mitigation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). The page provides an overview of the program, offers a link to the funding announcement, and lists accomplishments of the program.

Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR); Noaa

252

Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the variations in behaviour displayed by young people who sexually harm, as previous research has shown that they are not a homogeneous sample. Three conceptually distinct sets of behaviour were hypothesized, relating to various modes of interaction between the young people with harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) and their…

Almond, Louise; Canter, David

2007-01-01

253

Hate Speech and Its Harms: A Communication Theory Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses J.W. Carey's transmission and ritual communication models to illustrate harms caused by hate speech. Examines legal precedent for the ritual model, but suggests that courts more often adopt the transmission model. Argues that, although the ritual model points to a different, long-term harm caused by hate speech, its adoption raises troubling…

Calvert, Clay

1997-01-01

254

Training Implications of Harmful Effects of Psychological Treatments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this article is to delineate training implications regarding harmful effects associated with psychotherapy. The authors strongly recommend that trainees be made aware of (and encouraged to examine carefully) the potentially harmful treatments that have been recently identified (Lilienfeld, 2007). Consistent with a broad perspective on…

Castonguay, Louis G.; Boswell, James F.; Constantino, Michael J.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Hill, Clara E.

2010-01-01

255

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash  

E-print Network

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans and Their Environment Page iii Donna Lisenby and Eric

Short, Daniel

256

DDT, epigenetic harm, and transgenerational environmental justice  

PubMed Central

Although the environmentally harmful effects of widespread dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) use became well-known following Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962), its human health effects have more recently become clearer. A ban on the use of DDT has been in place for over 30 years, but recently DDT has been used for malaria control in areas such as Africa. Recent work shows that DDT has transgenerational effects in progeny and generations never directly exposed to DDT. These effects have health implications for individuals who are not able to have any voice in the decision to use the pesticide. The transgenerational effects of DDT are considered in light of some widely accepted ethical principles. We argue that this reframes the decision to use DDT, requiring us to incorporate new considerations, and new kinds of decision making, into the deliberative process that determines its ongoing use. Ethical considerations for intergenerational environmental justice are presented that include concern and respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, and justice. Here, we offer a characterization of the kinds of ethical considerations that must be taken into account in any satisfactory decisions to use DDT. PMID:25086599

2014-01-01

257

Evaluation of Harmful Algal Bloom Outreach Activities  

PubMed Central

With an apparent increase of harmful algal blooms (HABs) worldwide, healthcare providers, public health personnel and coastal managers are struggling to provide scientifically-based appropriately-targeted HAB outreach and education. Since 1998, the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami, with its 24 hour/365 day/year free Aquatic Toxins Hotline (1–888–232–8635) available in several languages, has received over 25,000 HAB-related calls. As part of HAB surveillance, all possible cases of HAB-related illness among callers are reported to the Florida Health Department. This pilot study evaluated an automated call processing menu system that allows callers to access bilingual HAB information, and to speak directly with a trained Poison Information Specialist. The majority (68%) of callers reported satisfaction with the information, and many provided specific suggestions for improvement. This pilot study, the first known evaluation of use and satisfaction with HAB educational outreach materials, demonstrated that the automated system provided useful HAB-related information for the majority of callers, and decreased the routine informational call workload for the Poison Information Specialists, allowing them to focus on callers needing immediate assistance and their healthcare providers. These results will lead to improvement of this valuable HAB outreach, education and surveillance tool. Formal evaluation is recommended for future HAB outreach and educational materials. PMID:18463727

Fleming, Lora E.; Jerez, Eva; Stephan, Wendy Blair; Cassedy, Amy; Bean, Judy A; Reich, Andrew; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine; Nierenberg, Kate; Watkins, Sharon; Hollenbeck, Julie; Weisman, Richard

2007-01-01

258

The "Natural Law Tradition."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

Finnis, John

1986-01-01

259

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

260

Incidence and Complications of Traditional Eye Medications in Nigeria in a Teaching Hospital  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the types and nature of traditional eye medications (TEMs), their sources, and the ocular complications that may arise from use in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of consecutive subjects who used TEM before presentation to the Eye Clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria between July 1, 2004 and June 30, 2008. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 113 subjects were evaluated of which 64 were males (56.6%), females (43.4%) were females. There was no significant difference in the number of males and females (P > 0.05). Rural dwellers were more likely to use TEM than urban dwellers (P < 0.0001). The mean age of the subjects was 47.9 ± 22.3 years (range, 4-90 years). The most common traditional medication was derived from plant extracts (54.9%) followed by concoctions (21.2%). Complications occurred in 54.8% of the subjects. Ocular complications included corneal opacities in 13.35% of subjects, staphyloma in 9%, and corneal ulcers in 8%. Other complications were panophthalmitis, endophthalmitis, uveitis, cataract, and bullous keratopathy. Eleven subjects underwent evisceration or enucleation of the affected eye. There was no significant difference in the type of medication used and ocular complications (P = 0.956). Sources of TEM were self-medication in 38.9% of subjects, relatives in 27.4%, and traditional healers in 17.7%. Conclusion: The use of TEM is a common practice that could be harmful and lead to blindness. Proper health education of the public and traditional healers can reduce the prevalence of preventable blindness. PMID:21180431

Ukponmwan, Catherine U.; Momoh, Nanaiashat

2010-01-01

261

[The place of syringe exchange programs in reducing harm in Canadian prisoners].  

PubMed

The prevalence rates of illicit drug consumption within the prison system are much higher than those in the Canadian population in general. Of the substances used in detention, those of most concern to prison and public health authorities are injection drugs, as the sharing of injection drug equipment may be responsible for the high prevalence of blood-borne diseases in prison facilities. Faced with this situation, the Correctional Service of Canada put in practice a number of harm reduction strategies targeting injection drug users, such as methadone maintenance programs and access to bleach. However, despite their use in the community, needle-exchange programs are not yet allowed in penitentiaries. This article analyzes the limits of harm reduction strategies approved by the prison authorities and discusses the sources of resistance that continue to impede the realization of a pilot project to assess the feasibility of needle-exchange programs in detention in Canada. PMID:19263972

Orsi, Mylène M; Brochu, Serge

2009-01-01

262

Reporting of harms data in RCTs: a systematic review of empirical assessments against the CONSORT harms extension  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the standard of reporting of harms-related data, in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement extension for harms. Design Systematic review. Data sources The Cochrane library, Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies We included publications of studies that used the CONSORT harms extension to assess the reporting of harms in RCTs. Results We identified 7 studies which included between 10 and 205 RCTs. The clinical areas of the 7 studies were: hypertension (1), urology (1), epilepsy (1), complimentary medicine (2) and two not restricted to a clinical topic. Quality of the 7 studies was assessed by a risk of bias tool and was found to be variable. Adherence to the CONSORT harms criteria reported in the 7 studies was inadequate and variable across the items in the checklist. Adverse events are poorly defined, with 6 studies failing to exceed 50% adherence to the items in the checklist. Conclusions Readers of RCT publications need to be able to balance the trade-offs between benefits and harms of interventions. This systematic review suggests that this is compromised due to poor reporting of harms which is evident across a range of clinical areas. Improvements in quality could be achieved by wider adoption of the CONSORT harms criteria by journals reporting RCTs. PMID:24078752

Hodkinson, Alex; Kirkham, Jamie J; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Gamble, Carrol

2013-01-01

263

iDetect: An immunity based algorithm to detect harmful content shared in Peer-to-Peer networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A huge amount of harmful and illegal contents such as child pornography and abuse vid eo are shared in Peer- to-Peer (P2P) network and have brought some se­ rious social problems. Traditional detection algorithm­ s monitor and analyze the content of the P2P traffic by deploying centralized powerful servers. The im­ mense amount of sharing, transferring and frequent­ ly updating

JIAN-MING LVI; ZHI-WEN YUI; Tie-Ying Zhang

2011-01-01

264

[Health and social harm related alcohol].  

PubMed

Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources. PMID:25090405

Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

2014-08-01

265

Traditional Field Crops. Appropriate Technologies for Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, primarily designed to help Peace Corps volunteers develop and strengthen their agricultural skills, deals with traditional field crops. The focus of the manual is on surveying and interpreting local agricultural environment and individual farm units, developing agricultural extension techniques and practices, and providing basic…

Leonard, David

266

History confirms the traditional meaning  

SciTech Connect

This article complements the Rhinelander and Rubin article (this issue) and provides an account of US and USSR practice subsequent to the ABM Treaty. The Soviet subsequent practice from 1972 to date, like that of the US from 1972 until 1985, has fully supported the validity of the traditional interpretation, and explicitly rejected the reinterpretation, both before and after the reinterpretation was announced. The record is unambiguous. The Reagan administration's continued support of its radical reinterpretation of the ABM Treaty cannot be justified. In seeking to place the matter in perspective, one could do worse than apply the golden rule: what would the US have thought if after many years the USSR had suddenly, unilaterally, reinterpreted the ABM Treaty (or any other) to suit a policy purpose of its own, contrary to US policy and to the original clear understanding of both parties. What would the US have thought if the Soviets had then publicly acknowledged that they had done so without examining either their own ratification record of the record of the subsequent practice of the parties, without consulting any but one of their own negotiators, and before compiling much of their own relevant negotiating records.

Garthoff, R.L.

1987-09-01

267

'Dark logic': theorising the harmful consequences of public health interventions.  

PubMed

Although it might be assumed that most public health programmes involving social or behavioural rather than clinical interventions are unlikely to be iatrogenic, it is well established that they can sometimes cause serious harms. However, the assessment of adverse effects remains a neglected topic in evaluations of public health interventions. In this paper, we first argue for the importance of evaluations of public health interventions not only aiming to examine potential harms but also the mechanisms that might underlie these harms so that they might be avoided in the future. Second, we examine empirically whether protocols for the evaluation of public health interventions do examine harmful outcomes and underlying mechanisms and, if so, how. Third, we suggest a new process by which evaluators might develop 'dark logic models' to guide the evaluation of potential harms and underlying mechanisms, which includes: theorisation of agency-structure interactions; building comparative understanding across similar interventions via reciprocal and refutational translation; and consultation with local actors to identify how mechanisms might be derailed, leading to harmful consequences. We refer to the evaluation of a youth work intervention which unexpectedly appeared to increase the rate of teenage pregnancy it was aiming to reduce, and apply our proposed process retrospectively to see how this might have strengthened the evaluation. We conclude that the theorisation of dark logic models is critical to prevent replication of harms. It is not intended to replace but rather to inform empirical evaluation. PMID:25403381

Bonell, Chris; Jamal, Farah; Melendez-Torres, G J; Cummins, Steven

2015-01-01

268

Insights from analysis for harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products.  

PubMed

A total of 20 commercial cigarette and 16 commercial smokeless tobacco products were assayed for 96 compounds listed as harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) by the US Food and Drug Administration. For each product, a single lot was used for all testing. Both International Organization for Standardization and Health Canada smoking regimens were used for cigarette testing. For those HPHCs detected, measured levels were consistent with levels reported in the literature, however substantial assay variability (measured as average relative standard deviation) was found for most results. Using an abbreviated list of HPHCs, statistically significant differences for most of these HPHCs occurred when results were obtained 4-6months apart (i.e., temporal variability). The assay variability and temporal variability demonstrate the need for standardized analytical methods with defined repeatability and reproducibility for each HPHC using certified reference standards. Temporal variability also means that simple conventional comparisons, such as two-sample t-tests, are inappropriate for comparing products tested at different points in time from the same laboratory or from different laboratories. Until capable laboratories use standardized assays with established repeatability, reproducibility, and certified reference standards, the resulting HPHC data will be unreliable for product comparisons or other decision making in regulatory science. PMID:24973503

Oldham, Michael J; DeSoi, Darren J; Rimmer, Lonnie T; Wagner, Karl A; Morton, Michael J

2014-10-01

269

Native American Healing Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

2006-01-01

270

Non-Traditional Wraps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

Owens, Buffy

2009-01-01

271

Traditional Cherokee Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

Hendrix, Janey B.

272

Traditional healers formalised?  

PubMed

Traditional healers are the first to be called for help when illness strikes the majority of South Africans. Their communities have faith in their ability to cure or alleviate conditions managed by doctors, and much more. A visit to such practitioners' websites (they are up with the latest advertising technology!) shows that they promise help with providing more power, love, security or money, protection from evil people and spirits, enhancing one's sex life with penis enlargement and vagina tightening spells, etc. Contemplating such claims, it is easy to be dismissive of traditional healers. But in this issue of the SAMJ Nompumelelo Mbatha and colleagues1 argue that the traditional healers' regulatory council, promised by an Act of Parliament, should be established, followed by (or preferably preceded by) formal recognition by employers of sick certificates issued by traditional healers. Can matters be so simply resolved? What does this mean for doctors and other formally recognised healthcare professionals, and how to respond to such claims and social pressures? PMID:22380886

Van Niekerk, Jp

2012-03-01

273

Traditional Islamic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical and descriptive account of the Islamic school system is presented. Traditional Islamic schools began with the founding of Islam in the seventh century A.D.; the madrasas or Islamic universities were considered to be among the world's finest higher education institutes. Although Islamic scholarship began to wane in the 14th century,…

Pollak, Susan

274

Tradition in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

Heisenberg, Werner

1973-01-01

275

47 CFR 18.115 - Elimination and investigation of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. 18.115 Section 18.115...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. (a) The operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful interference to radio services shall...

2012-10-01

276

47 CFR 25.255 - Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary terrestrial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary...GHz and 2 GHz bands. If harmful interference is caused to other services by...

2010-10-01

277

47 CFR 25.255 - Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary terrestrial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary...GHz and 2 GHz bands. If harmful interference is caused to other services by...

2012-10-01

278

47 CFR 25.255 - Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary terrestrial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary...6/2.4 GHz bands. If harmful interference is caused to other services by...

2013-10-01

279

47 CFR 18.115 - Elimination and investigation of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. 18.115 Section 18.115...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. (a) The operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful interference to radio services shall...

2011-10-01

280

47 CFR 25.255 - Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary terrestrial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary...6/2.4 GHz bands. If harmful interference is caused to other services by...

2014-10-01

281

47 CFR 18.115 - Elimination and investigation of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. 18.115 Section 18.115...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. (a) The operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful interference to radio services shall...

2010-10-01

282

47 CFR 25.255 - Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary terrestrial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary...GHz and 2 GHz bands. If harmful interference is caused to other services by...

2011-10-01

283

47 CFR 18.115 - Elimination and investigation of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. 18.115 Section 18.115...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. (a) The operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful interference to radio services shall...

2013-10-01

284

Physical Mechanisms Driving Harmful Algal Blooms Along the Texas Coast  

E-print Network

, formerly known as Gymnodinium breve, in the Gulf of Mexico. K. brevis is harmful because it produces brevetoxin, a ladder-frame polyether that acts as a potent neurotoxin in vertebrates. K. brevis commonly causes fish kills, respiratory irritation...

Ogle, Marcus 1982-

2012-12-12

285

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2012-10-01

286

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2013-10-01

287

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2011-10-01

288

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2014-10-01

289

Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John

2013-01-01

290

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2010-10-01

291

Molecular insights into the niche of harmful brown tides  

E-print Network

Recurrent brown tide blooms caused by the harmful alga Alureococcus anophagefferens have decimated coastal ecosystems and shellfisheries along the Eastern U.S and South Africa. The exact mechanisms controlling bloom ...

Wurch, Louie L. (Louie Lorne)

2011-01-01

292

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

E-print Network

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the ...

Bertrand, Erin Marie

293

Harmful situations, impure people: An attribution asymmetry across moral domains.  

PubMed

People make inferences about the actions of others, assessing whether an act is best explained by person-based versus situation-based accounts. Here we examine people's explanations for norm violations in different domains: harmful acts (e.g., assault) and impure acts (e.g., incest). Across four studies, we find evidence for an attribution asymmetry: people endorse more person-based attributions for impure versus harmful acts. This attribution asymmetry is partly explained by the abnormality of impure versus harmful acts, but not by differences in the moral wrongness or the statistical frequency of these acts. Finally, this asymmetry persists even when the situational factors that lead an agent to act impurely are stipulated. These results suggest that, relative to harmful acts, impure acts are linked to person-based attributions. PMID:25490126

Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

2015-03-01

294

24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent...may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on probation or...

2010-04-01

295

Is Obesity Harmful If Metabolic Factors Are Normal?  

MedlinePLUS

Is Obesity Harmful If Metabolic Factors Are Normal? The full report is titled “Are Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Benign Conditions? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” It is in the ...

296

[Harm reduction policies in Brazil: contributions of a North American program].  

PubMed

Given the rapid spread of the HIV epidemic and the need to control its transmission among intravenous drug users (IDU), harm reduction strategies have been incorporated in many countries, including Brazil. Considering these aspects and taking into account the emergence of drugs as a core concern on the government's agenda, especially crack cocaine, this article presents some of the contributions acquired from observing and recording the practices of an American model of research and care for IDUs, namely the UFO (You Find Out) Study. Issues such as participants' access and adherence, financing difficulties, sustainability and outcome evaluation were considered. The study involved documental research, systematic observation and interviews with key informants. Some of the UFO features that could contribute to the formulation of harm reduction policies in Brazil are highlighted. The UFO appears to be a successful example of harm reduction initiatives that successfully contact and guarantee the commitment of that risk group, ensuring its access to health services and reducing risks associated with drug use. PMID:24473612

Inglez-Dias, Aline; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Bastos, Francisco I; Page, Kimberly

2014-01-01

297

Harm reduction in Bern: from outreach to heroin maintenance.  

PubMed Central

In Switzerland, harm-reduction programs have the support of the national government and many localities, in congruence with much of the rest of Europe and in contrast with the United States, and take place in public settings. The threat of AIDS is recognized as the greater harm. This paper describes the overall national program and highlights the experience from one city; the program is noteworthy because it is aimed at gathering comparative data from controlled trials. PMID:10101377

Haemmig, R. B.

1995-01-01

298

Whole cell hybridisation for monitoring harmful marine microalgae.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is a powerful molecular biological tool to detect and enumerate harmful microorganism in the marine environment. Different FISH methods are available, and especially in combination with automated counting techniques, the potential for a routine monitoring of harmful marine microalgae is attainable. Various oligonucleotide probes are developed for detecting harmful microalgae. However, FISH-based methods are not yet regularly included in monitoring programmes tracking the presence of harmful marine microalgae. A limitation factor of the FISH technique is the currently available number of suited fluorochromes attached to the FISH probes to detect various harmful species in one environmental sample at a time. However, coupled automated techniques, like flow cytometry or solid-phase cytometry, can facilitate the analysis of numerous field samples and help to overcome this drawback. A great benefit of FISH in contrast to other molecular biological detection methods for harmful marine microalgae is the direct visualisation of the hybridised target cells, which are not permitted in cell free formats, like DNA depending analysis methods. Therefore, an additional validation of the FISH-generated results is simultaneously given. PMID:23835584

Toebe, Kerstin

2013-10-01

299

Modeling of underground thermal behavior of solar hot water during treatment of harmful plants  

SciTech Connect

Annihilation of harmful plants among vegetables by solar hot-water injection into the roots is an alternative to chemical treatment methods. A three-dimensional solution of the heat diffusion equation between the treated region and the vegetable root is presented with related boundary conditions. Soil properties and dimensional characteristics are important for obtaining safety limitations of the treatment. A mathematical model with suitable outputs gives practical results for correct application of solar hot water. Critical distances between overheating of vegetable roots and useful irrigation water effects are distinguished.

Eltez, M. [Ege Univ., Bornova-Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.

1998-04-01

300

Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article describes how corporate policies influence health and reviews recent health

Nicholas Freudenberg

2005-01-01

301

Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article…

Freudenberg, Nicholas

2005-01-01

302

HARMFUL ALGAE POSE ADDITIONAL CHALLENGES FOR OYSTER RESTORATION: IMPACTS OF THE HARMFUL ALGAE KARLODINIUM VENEFICUM AND PROROCENTRUM  

E-print Network

KARLODINIUM VENEFICUM AND PROROCENTRUM MINIMUM ON EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE OYSTERS CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA (HABs). The effects of two common Chesapeake Bay HAB dinoflagellates, Karlodinium veneficum difficult. KEY WORDS: oysters, larvae, harmful algae, HABs, Chesapeake Bay, oyster restoration, Karlodinium

North, Elizabeth W.

303

The tyranny of tradition.  

PubMed

This paper narrates the cruelty enforced by tradition on the lives of women in India. It begins with the life of the author's great-grandmother Ponnamma wherein the family was rigidly patriarchal, and Brahmin values were applied. Here, women had very little say in the decisions men made, were forced in an arranged marriage before puberty, were not sent to school, and were considered unimportant. This tradition lived on in the author's grandmother Seetha and in the life of her mother Saras. However, in the story of Saras, following the death of her husband, they departed from rigid Brahmin tradition and orthodoxy. Her mother, unperturbed by the challenges she faced, consistently devised ways to cope and succeeded in changing environment. Meaningless Brahmatic rituals and prayers found no place in her life, which she approached with a cosmopolitan and humanitarian outlook. In essence, she shaped the lives of three daughters and a son, and all her grandchildren, making a success of not only her own but of all whose lives she touched. PMID:12322347

Gulati, L

1999-01-01

304

Victims' Perceptions of Traditional and Cyberbullying, and the Psychosocial Correlates of Their Victimisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well recognised that there are serious correlates for victims of traditional bullying. These have been shown to include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms, in addition to often severe physical harm and even suicide. Bullied students also feel more socially ineffective and have greater interpersonal…

Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally

2012-01-01

305

Hybrid re Assembage : bridging traditional craft and digital design  

E-print Network

Hybrid reAssemblage is a design gestalt that lies at the cross-section of digital design practice and the tactile qualities of traditional craft. It spans a territory in which the value of artifacts is produced through ...

Zoran, Amit (Amit Shlomo)

2013-01-01

306

Linking Telehealth and Traditional Healers in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper presents a preliminary qualitative analysis to assess the viability of a wireless cell phone based system that would serve to enhance communication between traditional healers and western-oriented healthcare providers (doctors, nurses) in South Africa. We conducted 15 semi-structured interviews with various types of traditional healers (diviners, spiritualists, herbalists) in Cape Town to assess their characteristics, treatment practices

Wallace Chigona; Glen T. Cameron; Antonie Stam; Tamara L. Stam; Jean-Paul Van Belle; Sharon Wu

2008-01-01

307

Reengineering: breaking tradition.  

PubMed

The increased use of technology and standards of care have turned the PACU into a high-technology, costly environment that is intensive care-like in character. The use of new-generation anesthetics and reversal and pain control agents has added significantly to the escalation of actual costs while decreasing length of stay. PACU managers are being called on to justify this high-dollar real estate with diminishing productivity statistics. The concept of reengineering is applied to these challenges as a management tool to break traditions to respond to the changing environment. PMID:8064633

Geuder, D

1994-08-01

308

Treating senile dementia with traditional Chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

Senile dementia is a syndrome in the elderly involving deficits in memory and cognition. There has been a long history of research and medical practice in dementia in China, during which the ancient Chinese people have formed a whole theory and accumulated abundant experience in the treatment of dementia. During recent decades, with new theories and technologies being digested and integrated, progress has been made in the medical and pharmacy research on senile dementia in China. In this review, we will focus on the traditional opinion, clinical practice, and recent progress in pharmacological research in China towards the treatment of dementia. We also discuss the potential trends of global convergence. PMID:18044136

Yan, Han; Li, Lin; Tang, Xi Can

2007-01-01

309

Mediating MDMA-related harm: preloading and post-loading among Ecstasy-using youth.  

PubMed

Ecstasy use remains a key concern for professionals working in fields related to youth and drug use. At the forefront of these concerns are issues related to neurological dysfunction and depression--both acute and long-term--associated with MDMA use. Ecstasy users have been shown to assess Ecstasy related harms and to engage in a variety of practices to manage these risks. To contend with risk related to neurological dysfunction and depression, some youth have turned to "preloading" and "post-loading": the practice of consuming other substances to mitigate the negative effects of Ecstasy. Drawing upon data from an ethnographic study of club drug use among youth, the author provides a descriptive profile of the practices of preloading and post-loading as well as the motivations underlying these behaviors among New York City area youth. Youth utilize a range of preloading and post-loading practices, yet do not universally share similar practices, attitudes, and knowledge. It is critical to link clinical and behavioral sciences research to further study both the efficacy and safety of these practices. PMID:19455906

Kelly, Brian C

2009-03-01

310

Challenges in reducing cannabis-related harm in Australia.  

PubMed

This paper outlines the major policy challenges in reducing cannabis-related harm in Australia. The first is uncertainty about the health effects of cannabis, especially in young people. The second is uncertainty about the extent and severity of harms attributed to cannabis prohibition by its critics. The paper summarises and briefly states the extent of these putative harms to the degree that the data allow. The third challenge is a consequence of the first two, and the very different weightings that proponents of more liberal or restrictive policies give to harms arising from cannabis use and those arising from prohibition, namely, strong disagreements within the community about how we should respond to cannabis use by young people. In the face of such disagreement the formulation of cannabis policy necessitates a political compromise. The compromise that has emerged is a continued prohibition of cannabis production, sale and use, combined with either civil penalties for use in some states and reduced penalties or diversion in others. It concludes with suggestions about what needs to be learned about the health effects of cannabis use and the costs and benefits of cannabis prohibition if we are to develop policies that are more effective in reducing harms caused by cannabis use. PMID:19320694

Hall, Wayne D

2009-03-01

311

Health in China. Traditional Chinese medicine: one country, two systems.  

PubMed Central

China is the only country in the world where Western medicine and traditional medicine are practised alongside each other at every level of the healthcare system. Traditional Chinese medicine has a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of disease, which has developed over thousands of years. Traditional treatments include herbal remedies, acupuncture, acupressure and massage, and moxibustion. They account for around 40% of all health care delivered in China. The current government policy of expansion of traditional facilities and manpower is being questioned because many hospitals using traditional Chinese medicine are already underutilized and depend on government subsidies for survival. Research priorities include randomised controlled trials of common treatments and analysis of the active agents in herbal remedies. As more studies show the clinical effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, an integrated approach to disease using a combination of Western medicine and traditional approaches becomes a possibility for the future. PMID:9240055

Hesketh, T.; Zhu, W. X.

1997-01-01

312

Mobilizing drug consumption rooms: inter-place networks and harm reduction drug policy.  

PubMed

This article discusses the learning and politics involved in spreading Drug Consumption Rooms (DCRs) globally. DCRs are health facilities, operating under a harm reduction philosophy, where people consume illicit drugs in a supervised setting. Approximately 90 are located in almost 60 cities in 11 countries. They are intensely local attempts to improve the lives of specific populations and urban neighborhoods. DCRs are also global models that travel. This article examines the relationship between DCRs as facilities that are fixed in place and DCRs as globally-mobilized models of drug policy and public health practice. Drawing on research from seven countries, we apply concepts from the policy mobilities literature to analyze the travels of the DCR model and the political strategies involved in the siting of these public health service facilities. We detail the networked mobilization of the DCR model from Europe to Canada and Australia, the learning among facilities, the strategies used to mold the DCR model to local contexts, and the role of DCR staff in promoting continued proliferation of DCRs. We conclude by identifying some immobilities of DCRs to identify questions about practices, principles and future directions of harm reduction. PMID:25576837

McCann, Eugene; Temenos, Cristina

2015-01-01

313

Harmful Gas Recognition Exploiting a CTL Sensor Array  

PubMed Central

In this paper, a novel cataluminescence (CTL)-based sensor array consisting of nine types of catalytic materials is developed for the recognition of several harmful gases, namely carbon monoxide, acetone, chloroform and toluene. First, the experimental setup is constructed by using sensing nanomaterials, a heating plate, a pneumatic pump, a gas flow meter, a digital temperature device, a camera and a BPCL Ultra Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer. Then, unique CTL patterns for the four types of harmful gas are obtained from the sensor array. The harmful gases are successful recognized by the PCA method. The optimal conditions are also investigated. Finally, experimental results show high sensitivity, long-term stability and good linearity of the sensor array, which combined with simplicity, make our system a promising application in this field. PMID:24113681

Wang, Qihui; Xie, Lijun; Zhu, Bo; Zheng, Yao; Cao, Shihua

2013-01-01

314

Between harm reduction, loss and wellness: on the occupational hazards of work.  

PubMed

Those working in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services must cope with a range of stresses, including post traumatic stress and vicarious trauma. Pain and loss are just a part of the job. So is dealing with premature death as a result of HIV, hypertension, and even overdose. Faced with a range of challenges, some workers in the field even turn to self-medication. For some, it is about pleasure; for others it is about alleviating suffering. In recent years, several leaders in the AIDS and harm reduction fields have died ahead of their time. Some stopped taking their medications; others overdosed. Rather than weakness or pathology, French sociologist Emile Durkheim saw self-destructive behavior as a byproduct of social disorganization and isolation, as a way of contending with a breakdown of social bonds and alienation. There are any number of reasons why such behavior becomes part of work for those involved with battling the dueling epidemics of Hepatitis C, HIV, and related concerns. Forms of stress related to this work include secondary trauma, compassion fatigue, organizational conflict, burnout, complications of direct services, and lack of funding. Faced with day-to- day struggles over poverty, punitive welfare systems, drug use, the war on drugs, high risk behavior, structural violence, and illness, many in the field are left to wonder how to strive for wellness when taking on so much pain. For some, self-injury and self-medication are ways of responding. Building on ethnographic methods, this reflective analysis considers the stories of those who have suffered, as well as a few of the ways those in the field cope with harm and pain. The work considers the moral questions we face when we see our friends and colleagues suffer. It asks how we as practitioners strive to create a culture of wellness and support in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services. Through a brief review of losses and literature thereof, the essay considers models of harm reduction practice that emphasize health, pleasure and sustainability for practitioners. PMID:23548032

Shepard, Benjamin C

2013-01-01

315

How do drug users define their progress in harm reduction programs? Qualitative research to develop user-generated outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Harm reduction is a relatively new and controversial model for treating drug users, with little formal research on its operation and effectiveness. In order to advance the study of harm reduction programs and our understanding of how drug users define their progress, qualitative research was conducted to develop outcomes of harm reduction programming that are culturally relevant, incremental, (i.e., capable of measuring change), and hierarchical (i.e., capable of showing how clients improve over time). Methods The study used nominal group technique (NGT) to develop the outcomes (phase 1) and focus group interviews to help validate the findings (phase 2). Study participants were recruited from a large harm-reduction program in New York City and involved approximately 120 clients in 10 groups in phase 1 and 120 clients in 10 focus groups in phase 2. Results Outcomes of 10 life areas important to drug users were developed that included between 10 to 15 incremental measures per outcome. The outcomes included ways of 1) making money; 2) getting something good to eat; 3) being housed/homeless; 4) relating to families; 5) getting needed programs/benefits/services; 6) handling health problems; 7) handling negative emotions; 8) handling legal problems; 9) improving oneself; and 10) handling drug-use problems. Findings also provided insights into drug users' lives and values, as well as a window into understanding how this population envisions a better quality of life. Results challenged traditional ways of measuring drug users based solely on quantity used and frequency of use. They suggest that more appropriate measures are based on the extent to which drug users organize their lives around drug use and how much drug use is integrated into their lives and negatively impacts other aspects of their lives. Conclusions Harm reduction and other programs serving active drug users and other marginalized people should not rely on institutionalized, provider-defined solutions to problems in living faced by their clients. PMID:15333130

Ruefli, Terry; Rogers, Susan J

2004-01-01

316

The cost of treatment of deliberate self-harm.  

PubMed Central

The recent changes in NHS management structure have allowed us for the first time, to estimate the cost of treatment of an illness. We wanted to determine the treatment cost of a case of deliberate self-harm (DSH) to a large University Teaching Hospital and to this aim, we reviewed the case notes of 190 consecutive cases of deliberate self-harm presenting to A&E. On average, each attendance costs 425.24 pounds, from attendance to A&E to hospital discharge. PMID:8452618

Yeo, H M

1993-01-01

317

Adolescents With Suicidal and Nonsuicidal Self-Harm: Clinical Characteristics and Response to Therapeutic Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-harm is one of the best predictors of death by suicide, but few studies directly compare adolescents with suicidal versus nonsuicidal self-harm. Seventy adolescents presenting with self-harm (71% young women, ages 12–18 years) who participated in a randomized controlled trial were divided into suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm categories using the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment. Adolescents with suicidal self-harm

Dennis Ougrin; Tobias Zundel; Marinos Kyriakopoulos; Reetoo Banarsee; Daniel Stahl; Eric Taylor

2012-01-01

318

Management Challenges to Implementing Agile Processes in Traditional Development Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions with traditional developers and managers concerning agile software development practices nearly always contain two somewhat contradictory ideas. They find that on small, stand-alone projects, agile practices are less burdensome and more in tune with the software industry's increasing needs for rapid development and coping with continuous change. Managers face several barriers, real and perceived, when they try to bring

Barry W. Boehm; Richard Turner

2005-01-01

319

Time and Tradition. Amana Community Schools Folklife Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Amana (Iowa) Folklife Curriculum has been planned as an easily-implemented sequence of activities comparing community and family folklife traditions with current practices. The K-5 activities are planned to coincide with holidays in the regular school calendar whenever possible. All activities compare and contrast present-day practices with…

Trumpold, Caroline; Kellenberger, Gordon

320

Primary School Children and Self Harm: The Emotional Impact upon Education Professionals, and Their Understandings of Why Children Self Harm and How This Is Managed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence suggesting that self harm among young people is beginning earlier, in childhood and adolescent years. This paper reports on a qualitative study of primary school staff responses to self harm among children. Some studies with adolescents show self harm presents challenges to education professionals who may lack training or…

Simm, Rebecca; Roen, Katrina; Daiches, Anna

2010-01-01

321

Violence and suffering in television news: toward a broader conception of harmful television content for children.  

PubMed

Traditionally, the public and professional debate about the inappropriateness of media violence for children focuses mainly on the negative effects of violence in entertainment programming. However, since the terrorist attacks on September 11th and the recent coverage of the war in Iraq, the suitability of real-life news violence for children may be doubted more than ever. To draw attention to the potential harmful effects of violence presented in news programs, it is argued in the present article that health care professionals should advocate a broader conception of media violence than thus far has been used. On the basis of recent research, potential effects of violent news content, such as fear, aggression, and desensitization, are discussed and recommendations are provided on how to abate these outcomes. PMID:15173505

Walma van der Molen, Juliette H

2004-06-01

322

Mayo Clinic: Tradition and Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heeding the words of their father, one Dr. W.W. Mayo, âÂÂNo one is big enough to be independent of othersâÂÂ, Dr. William J. Mayo and Dr. Charles H. Mayo helped create one of the worldâÂÂs first private integrated group practices of medicine. Now known as the Mayo Clinic, the story of their work is closely intertwined with the story of American medical history. As an attempt to bring this story to the web-browsing public, staff members at the Clinic recently created this historical timeline that offers some perspective on their institutional history. With their mouse in hand, visitors can move across the interactive timeline, which deploys high-quality photographs and short descriptions in its quest to document the ClinicâÂÂs various achievements, such as the creation of the first heart bypass machine in 1955. Finally, online visitors can get up close and personal to some of the artifacts that are close to the Mayo Clinic traditions, including a 1904 photograph of some of the medical staff at the Clinic.

2006-01-01

323

Usability Evaluation Considered Harmful (Some of the Time)  

E-print Network

, relative satisfaction). Or if the team is considering purchasing one of two competing products, evaluation1 Usability Evaluation Considered Harmful (Some of the Time) Saul Greenberg Department of Computer, and institutions with usability groups advocate usability evaluation as a critical part of every design process

Greenberg, Saul

324

Protecting Prisoners from Harmful Research: Is "Being Heard" Enough?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving the conditions under which incarcerated populations give "informed consent" is a desirable goal given prisoners' lack of autonomy; part of the Institutional Review Board's (IRB) procedures is the inclusion of representative voices from the prisoner population as a mechanism to reduce harms. The most recent review of the ethics of…

Mobley, Alan; Henry, Stuart; Plemmons, Dena

2007-01-01

325

Mental health, drugs and the call to reinstate harm reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a risk that harm reduction is being taken for granted. Despite saving many hundreds of thousands of lives from HIV and AIDS and the ongoing value it provides to drug and alcohol treatment, its principles have not travelled well - and at worst are being forgotten or shunned by some hardliners. Here, David Chaisty champions the logic and

David Chaisty

2006-01-01

326

Ingestion of magnets: innocent in solitude, harmful in groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign body ingestion is frequent in children and generally associated with little morbidity. However, some foreign bodies are innocent when ingested as a single object, but may have harmful effect if numerous. We report a 9-year-old girl who swallowed 5 magnets, causing acute intestinal obstruction. At laparotomy, 2 magnets were found in the cecum and 3 in the transverse colon,

Barbara E. Wildhaber; Claude Le Coultre; Bernard Genin

2005-01-01

327

Iatrogenic Harm Caused by Diagnostic Errors in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Little is known about diag- nostic errors for a disease worldwide. Such errors could alter the disease's natural history, especially if unwar- ranted interventions cause irreversible harm. Fibrodys- plasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a rare, autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by episodes of permanent heterotopic ossification of soft tissues, occurs worldwide without racial, ethnic, or geographic predilec- tion. There is

Joseph A. Kitterman; Sharon Kantanie; David M. Rocke; Frederick S. Kaplan

2005-01-01

328

Harms of Unintentional Leaks during Volume Targeted Pressure Support Ventilation  

E-print Network

1 Harms of Unintentional Leaks during Volume Targeted Pressure Support Ventilation Sonia Khirani1 Background: Volume targeted pressure support ventilation (VT-PSV) is a hybrid mode increasingly used. The objective of the study was to determine the ability of home ventilators to maintain the preset minimal VT

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Mental Health Status Among the Staff of Harm Reduction Centers  

PubMed Central

Background: Creating a supportive environment encourages charity services to help risk groups and individuals which has magnificent impacts on reducing their harm. Objectives: According to this plan, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health status in the staff of harm reduction centers. Materials and Methods: The clustered sample of this comparative study consisted of 49 staff of harm reduction centers. The study was supported by the United Nations Development Program in Tehran, Iran. The participants completed GHQ-28 and DASS-21 questionnaires along with sociologic forms and the results were evaluated by descriptive statistics indexes and independent sample t-test. Results: One-hundred percent of the participants in this study showed the symptoms of psychological disorders, and approximately 16 percent suffered from moderate to high degree of anxiety, depression and stress. The level of anxiety (P ? 0.04) and stress (P ? 0.01) in the younger staff (less than 40 years) was significantly higher than older staff (more than 40 years old). In addition, somatic symptoms (P ? 0.05) and social withdrawal (P ? 0.01) were significantly higher in women than men. Conclusions: Accordingly, major mental disorders in the staff of harm reduction centers, especially women and younger people need to be considered more than before. PMID:24971296

Rezazade, Majid; Lashani, Zeynab; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

2014-01-01

330

Development and Validation of the Self-Harm Reasons Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the reasons for self-harm (SH) may be paramount for the identification and treatment of SH behavior. Presently, the psychometric properties for SH reason questionnaires are generally unknown or tested only in non-inpatient samples. Existing inpatient measures may have limited generalizability and do not examine SH apart from an…

Lewis, Stephen P.; Santor, Darcy A.

2008-01-01

331

Strength-Based Efforts for Promoting Recovery from Psychological Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much resilience research highlights protective factors that prevent risk. Here the author focuses on resilience as the ability to recover from psychological harm. The strength-based view sees resilience as a transformational experience. One applicant of this approach is the Phoenix Intervention Program for Children (PIPC) which combines concepts…

De Civita, Mirella

2006-01-01

332

What is causing the harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Harmful and nuisance algal blooms have been increasing in size and extent since about 2000. In recent years, the release of the algal toxin microcystin has become a growing concern and has resulted in the inability to use water from Lake Erie as a drinking water source to the 400,000 residents of T...

333

Harm and Repair: Observing restorative justice in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the decision-making process for negotiating reparative contracts with offenders in a restorative justice model. Based on a content analysis of videotaped Community Reparative Board meetings with probationers in Vermont, this paper defines restoration as a core concept in restorative justice; examines how boards identify harm to victims and community; discusses how boards identify strategies to repair identified

David R. Karp

2001-01-01

334

School Bullying: Tools for Avoiding Harm and Liability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every hour of every day, students experience bullying and harassment at school by their peers. The immediate and long-term impact on the victims' learning capabilities, emotional health, and self-esteem is staggering. " School Bullying: Tools for Avoiding Harm and Liability" tackles this critical problem with an easy-to-use framework that guides…

McGrath, Mary Jo

2006-01-01

335

Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the variations in characteristics that exist among youths who sexually harm (YSH). Three conceptually distinct sets of background characteristics are hypothesized from the literature relating to whether the YSH was abused, delinquent or impaired. Forty-one characteristics were drawn from an extensive and detailed review of…

Almond, Louise; Canter, David; Salfati, C. Gabrielle

2006-01-01

336

Doing Harm While Doing Good: The Child Protection Paradox  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every Australian citizen expects state and territory governments to protect children from child abuse and neglect. Protecting children from harm is seen as good. This however is not a simple matter. The ultimate act in protecting children is to remove them from parental care. This causes trauma for the child and pain and distress for parents no…

Ainsworth, Frank; Hansen, Patricia

2012-01-01

337

Ecstasy use in Australia: patterns of use and associated harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored patterns of ecstasy use and associated harm through the administration of a structured interview schedule to 329 ecstasy users, recruited from three Australian cities. A broad range of ecstasy users were interviewed, but on the whole, the sample was young, relatively well educated and most were employed or students. Patterns of use were varied, although extensive polydrug

Libby Topp; Julie Hando; Paul Dillon; Ann Roche; Nadia Solowij

1999-01-01

338

Harming Ourselves and Defiling Others: What Determines a Moral Domain?  

PubMed Central

Recent work has distinguished “harm” from “purity” violations, but how does an act get classified as belonging to a domain in the first place? We demonstrate the impact of not only the kind of action (e.g., harmful versus impure) but also its target (e.g., oneself versus another). Across two experiments, common signatures of harm and purity tracked with other-directed and self-directed actions, respectively. First, participants judged self-directed acts as primarily impure and other-directed acts as primarily harmful. Second, conservatism predicted harsher judgments of self-directed but not other-directed acts. Third, while participants delivered harsher judgments of intentional versus accidental acts, this effect was smaller for self-directed than other-directed acts. Finally, participants judged self-directed acts more harshly when focusing on the actor’s character versus the action itself; other-directed acts elicited the opposite pattern. These findings suggest that moral domains are defined not only by the kind of action but also by the target of the action. PMID:24040245

Chakroff, Alek; Dungan, James; Young, Liane

2013-01-01

339

Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients  

PubMed Central

Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28?days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83%) prescriptions and 93 (87%) medicines. 47 (38%) of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97%) received at least one medicine (median number 2) with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99%) and 297 (85%) of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable. PMID:22931304

2012-01-01

340

The harm argument against surrogacy revisited: two versions not to forget.  

PubMed

It has been a common claim that surrogacy is morally problematic since it involves harm to the child or the surrogate-the harm argument. Due to a growing body of empirical research, the harm argument has seen a decrease in popularity, as there seems to be little evidence of harmful consequences of surrogacy. In this article, two revised versions of the harm argument are developed. It is argued that the two suggested versions of the harm argument survive the current criticism against the standard harm argument. The first version argues that the child is harmed by being separated from the gestational mother. The second version directs attention to the fact that surrogacy involves great incentives to keep the gestational mother's level of maternal-fetal attachment low, which tend to increase the risk of harm to the child. While neither of the two arguments is conclusive regarding the moral status of surrogacy, both constitute important considerations that are often ignored. PMID:24664239

Agnafors, Marcus

2014-08-01

341

The Harmful Plankton Project on the Internet: The User-Friendly Guide to Harmful Phytoplankton in UK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains an online guide for identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates and diatoms (primarily from UK waters). The guide is divided into several sections: contents (species list); schematic drawings (including characteristic features); illustrative data sheets (including key features, measurements, ecological data, references, a detailed taxonomic description, and lists of similar species and/or synonyms); methods of sampling, fixation, and staining; glossary; and references.

Minter, Evan; Montagnes, David

2010-05-07

342

Teaching reflective practice in practice settings: students' perceptions of their clinical educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice potential not being realised. This study explored final year physiotherapy students' perceptions of clinical educators as

Franziska Trede; Megan Smith

2012-01-01

343

Practical leadership  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines conceptions of leadership and leadership enactment by teachers to develop a conceptual foundation for teacher leadership. The research question driving this study was: How do elementary school teacher leaders within a curricular and instructional reform effort describe their conceptions and enactment of leadership within their school and district contexts? Two program sites for elementary school science reform were selected, and six teachers from each program were invited to participate in the study. First-hand reports of conceptions of leadership and stories of enactment, collected through individual and focus group interviews with the teachers, served as the primary data for the study. A case for each of the twelve teachers is presented and analyzed. The outcome of the study is a theory of practical leadership. This conception draws upon the intellectual tradition of practical reasoning, which emphasizes deliberation and action of the individual when faced with a decision or a problematic situation. Practical leadership draws primarily from three dimensions: the self of the leader; the contexts in which the leader is acting; and the purposes that drive the leader's actions. Examples of leadership enactment from the cases are presented with attention to how these enactment stories demonstrate the teachers' use of practical reasoning in the situations described. The final analysis looks more specifically at the idea of practical leadership using a dynamic model called "leadership space" to demonstrate interactions among self, contexts, and purposes over time. The dissertation highlights three conclusions: (1) practical reasoning as the theoretical foundation for analyzing leadership provides a useful and valid analytical framework since it locates the leadership enactment in the deliberation and actions of the leader rather than understanding leadership as the application of a generalized set of principles about how to lead; (2) conceptions of leadership influence leadership enactment; and (3) teacher leadership roles are crafted, not filled.

Sato, Mistilina Dawn

344

Discussing harm-causing errors with patients: an ethics primer for plastic surgeons.  

PubMed

Plastic surgery is a field that demands perfection, yet despite our best efforts errors occur every day. Most errors are minor, but occasionally patients are harmed by our mistakes. Although there is a strong ethical requirement for full disclosure of medical errors, data suggest that surgeons have a difficult time disclosing errors and apologizing. "Conventional wisdom" has been to avoid frank discussion of errors with patients. This concept is fueled by the fear of litigation and the notion that any expression of apology leads to malpractice suits. Recently, there has been an increase in the literature pointing to the inadequacy of this approach. Policies that require disclosure of harm-causing medical errors to the patient and the family, apology, and an offer of compensation cultivate the transparency necessary for quality improvement efforts as well as the positive moral development of trainees. There is little published in the plastic surgery literature regarding error disclosure to provide guidance to practitioners. In this article, we will review the ethical, therapeutic, and practical issues involved in discussing the error with the patient and apologizing by presenting a representative case. This primer will provide an understanding of the definition of medical error, the ethical support of error disclosure, the barriers to disclosure, and how to overcome those barriers. PMID:24830658

Vercler, Christian J; Buchman, Steven R; Chung, Kevin C

2015-02-01

345

Origin and uses of primum non nocere--above all, do no harm!  

PubMed

The so-called Hippocratic injunction to do no harm has been an axiom central to clinical pharmacology and to the education of medical and graduate students. With the recent reexamination of the nature and magnitude of adverse reactions to drugs, the purposes of this research and review were to discover the origin of this unique Latin expression. It has been reported that the author was neither Hippocrates nor Galen. Searches of writings back to the Middle Ages have uncovered the appearance of the axiom as expressed in English, coupled with its unique Latin, in 1860, with attribution to the English physician, Thomas Sydenham. Commonly used in the late 1800s into the early decades of the 1900s, it was nearly exclusively transmitted orally; it rarely appeared in print in the early 20th century. Its applicability and limitations as a guide to the ethical practice of medicine and pharmacological research are discussed. Despite insufficiencies, it remains a potent reminder that every medical and pharmacological decision carries the potential for harm. PMID:15778417

Smith, Cedric M

2005-04-01

346

Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?  

PubMed

A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners' (GPs') advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service's National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are reviewed, including their political acceptability. It is tentatively concluded that widespread dissemination of SBI, without the implementation of alcohol control measures, might have indirect influences on levels of consumption and harm but would be unlikely on its own to result in public health benefits. However, if and when alcohol control measures were introduced, SBI would still have an important role in the battle against alcohol-related harm. PMID:23186309

Heather, Nick

2012-01-01

347

The Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NFSC) Harmful Algal Blooms Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features the NFSC Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) Program, which works cooperatively with other NOAA agencies and provides information concerning HABs and marine biotoxins to the public, state and federal agencies, tribes, university, and others in the Eastern Pacific region. The website provides an overview of HABs and biotoxins, NWFSC research and research partnerships, outreach information (including Red Tides and ORHAB newsletters), and links to related websites.

The Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

348

Distinguishing between Subgroups of Adolescents Who Self-Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differences in factors associated with subgroups of adolescents in the continuum of deliberate self-harm (DSH) phenomena were investigated. In an anonymous self-report survey of 6,020 adolescents aged 15 and 16 years, 3.2% of adolescents (5.3% females, 1.3% males) reported DSH with intent to die, 2.8% (4.3% females; 1.5% males) reported DSH…

Hargus, Emily; Hawton, Keith; Rodham, Karen

2009-01-01

349

Pubertal Stage and Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To ascertain the association between pubertal stage and deliberate self-harm. Method: Cross-sectional survey of 12- to 15-year-olds in 300 secondary schools in the U.S. state of Washington in February-April 2002 and the Australian state of Victoria in June-August 2002. A total of 3,332 students in grades 7 and 9 provided complete data…

Patton, George C.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Beyers, Jennifer M.; Bond, Lyndal; Toumbourou, John W.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.

2007-01-01

350

Preventing Ultimate Harm as the Justification for Biomoral Modification.  

PubMed

Most advocates of biogenetic modification hope to amplify existing human traits in humans in order to increase the value of such traits as intelligence and resistance to disease. These advocates defend such enhancements as beneficial for the affected parties. By contrast, some commentators recommend certain biogenetic modifications to serve social goals. As Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu see things, human moral psychology is deficient relative to the most important risks facing humanity as a whole, including the prospect of Ultimate Harm, the point at which worthwhile life is forever impossible on the planet. These risks can be mitigated, they say, by enhancing moral psychology in novel ways. Persson and Savulescu argue that some parents should modify the underlying biogenetics of their children's moral psychology, if such measures were safe and effective, but they admit these interventions may not decouple humanity from Ultimate Harm. Neither are these modifications the only options, they concede, for addressing risks to humanity. Even with these concessions, saving humanity from itself is a fairly poor reason to modify the moral psychology of children. In most ways, adults would be better candidates, morally speaking, for modifications of psychology. Even then, there is no direct link between morally enhanced human beings and the hoped-for effect of better protection from Ultimate Harm. Asserting a general duty of all to contribute to the avoidance of Ultimate Harm is a better moral strategy than intervening in the moral psychology of some, even though meeting that duty may involve substantial interference with the free exercise of one's interests. PMID:25186171

Murphy, Timothy F

2014-09-01

351

Threat of Bodily Harm Has Opposing Effects on Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theoretical frameworks have suggested that anxiety\\/stress impairs cognitive performance. A competing prediction is made by attentional narrowing models that predict that stress decreases the processing of task-irrelevant items, thus benefiting performance when task-irrelevant information interferes with behavior. Critically, previous studies have not evaluated these competing frameworks when potent emotional manipulations are involved. Here, we used threat of bodily harm

Kesong Hu; Andrew Bauer; Srikanth Padmala; Luiz Pessoa

2012-01-01

352

Payment Source and Emergency Management of Deliberate Self-Harm  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated whether health insurance type (private vs Medicaid) influences the delivery of acute mental health care to patients with deliberate self-harm. Methods. Using National Medicaid Analytic Extract Files (2006) and MarketScan Research Databases (2005–2007), we analyzed claims focusing on emergency episodes of deliberate self-harm of Medicaid- (n?=?8228) and privately (n?=?2352) insured adults. We analyzed emergency department mental health assessments and outpatient mental health visits in the 30 days following the emergency visit for discharged patients. Results. Medicaid-insured patients were more likely to be discharged (62.7%), and among discharged patients they were less likely to receive a mental health assessment in the emergency department (47.8%) and more likely to receive follow-up outpatient mental health care (52.9%) than were privately insured patients (46.9%, 57.3%, and 41.2%, respectively). Conclusions. Acute emergency management of deliberate self-harm is less intensive for Medicaid- than for privately insured patients, although discharged Medicaid-insured patients are more likely to receive follow-up care. Programmatic reforms are needed to improve access to emergency mental health services, especially in hospitals that serve substantial numbers of Medicaid-insured patients. PMID:22515853

Marcus, Steven C.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Olfson, Mark

2012-01-01

353

Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms (MERHAB)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features the Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms (MERHAB) Program. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are occurring with increasing frequency and duration along our shores. Nearly every coastal region is struggling to mitigate the often devastating impacts to local economies and serious human health threats associated with a variety of harmful algae. MERHAB projects have been developed to enhance existing water and shellfish monitoring programs with new technology allowing for pro-active detection of coastal HAB events. The ultimate aim of MERHAB is to help build sustainable regional partnerships that provide managers with crucial information in time for critical decisions needed to mitigate HAB impacts. The MERHAB research program is addressing the growing national HAB threat by expanding the number of coastal regions benefiting from advancements in algal identification, detection, modeling, and prediction. This page discusses the issue of HABs, research addressing the issue, and related accomplishments. A link is provided to a list of MERHAB research abstracts.

Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR)

354

Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment harms developing chicken embryos.  

PubMed

Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment (rESWT) has became one of the best investigated treatment modalities for cellulite, including the abdomen as a treatment site. Notably, pregnancy is considered a contraindication for rESWT, and concerns have been raised about possible harm to the embryo when a woman treated with rESWT for cellulite is not aware of her pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that rESWT may cause serious physical harm to embryos. To this end, chicken embryos were exposed in ovo to various doses of radial shock waves on either day 3 or day 4 of development, resembling the developmental stage of four- to six-week-old human embryos. We found a dose-dependent increase in the number of embryos that died after radial shock wave exposure on either day 3 or day 4 of development. Among the embryos that survived the shock wave exposure a few showed severe congenital defects such as missing eyes. Evidently, our data cannot directly be used to draw conclusions about potential harm to the embryo of a pregnant woman treated for cellulite with rESWT. However, to avoid any risks we strongly recommend applying radial shock waves in the treatment of cellulite only if a pregnancy is ruled out. PMID:25655309

Kiessling, Maren C; Milz, Stefan; Frank, Hans-Georg; Korbel, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Christoph

2015-01-01

355

Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment harms developing chicken embryos  

PubMed Central

Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment (rESWT) has became one of the best investigated treatment modalities for cellulite, including the abdomen as a treatment site. Notably, pregnancy is considered a contraindication for rESWT, and concerns have been raised about possible harm to the embryo when a woman treated with rESWT for cellulite is not aware of her pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that rESWT may cause serious physical harm to embryos. To this end, chicken embryos were exposed in ovo to various doses of radial shock waves on either day 3 or day 4 of development, resembling the developmental stage of four- to six-week-old human embryos. We found a dose-dependent increase in the number of embryos that died after radial shock wave exposure on either day 3 or day 4 of development. Among the embryos that survived the shock wave exposure a few showed severe congenital defects such as missing eyes. Evidently, our data cannot directly be used to draw conclusions about potential harm to the embryo of a pregnant woman treated for cellulite with rESWT. However, to avoid any risks we strongly recommend applying radial shock waves in the treatment of cellulite only if a pregnancy is ruled out. PMID:25655309

Kiessling, Maren C.; Milz, Stefan; Frank, Hans-Georg; Korbel, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Christoph

2015-01-01

356

Does use of pesticides known to harm natural enemies of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) result in increased number of miticide applications? An examination of California walnut orchards.  

PubMed

Integrated pest management (IPM) offers guidelines to reduce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) outbreaks by avoiding pesticides known to be harmful to the natural enemies of spider mites. However, in practice, these guidelines can be inconsistent in their effectiveness. The project examined whether California walnut (Juglans L.) growers, following IPM guidelines to avoid pesticides harmful to the natural enemies of spider mites, achieved lower miticide use. Significant statistical tests suggested that fields with harmful applications were 40% more likely to have a miticide application than fields without. Although the IPM guidelines achieved the goal of reducing miticide use, further analysis of other potential causal mechanisms behind outbreaks could strengthen the effectiveness of the guidelines, potentially increasing IPM adoption. PMID:22066177

Steinmann, Kimberly P; Zhang, Minghua; Grant, Joseph A

2011-10-01

357

9 CFR 105.3 - Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products. 105.3 Section...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS...REVOCATION, OR TERMINATION OF BIOLOGICAL LICENSES OR PERMITS § 105...dangerous, or harmful biological products. (a)...

2010-01-01

358

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2014-10-01

359

47 CFR 87.479 - Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations...Radiodetermination Service § 87.479 Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations...been permitted on the basis of non-interference to the established...

2012-10-01

360

47 CFR 87.479 - Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations...Radiodetermination Service § 87.479 Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations...been permitted on the basis of non-interference to the established...

2011-10-01

361

47 CFR 87.479 - Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations...Radiodetermination Service § 87.479 Harmful interference to radionavigation land stations...been permitted on the basis of non-interference to the established...

2013-10-01

362

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2011-10-01

363

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2010-10-01

364

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2013-10-01

365

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2012-10-01

366

Traditional Chinese medicine: Some historical and epistemological reflections  

Microsoft Academic Search

So-called Chinese medicine is practiced widely in the U.S.A. and Europe, and traditional Chinese medical concepts are presented, and advocated, through a vast body of secondary literature in European languages, as alternatives to current western interpretations of illness and disease. The present paper analyses some of the values determining the reception of traditional Chinese medicine in the west, and it

Paul U. Unschuld

1987-01-01

367

The Permanence of Provenance: The "Two Traditions" and the American Archival Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the claims that the American archival profession owes its existence to the unique combination of a "historical manuscripts tradition" and a "public archives tradition" over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It also evaluates the differences and similarities between the traditions' theories of practice and…

Hirsch, Rebecca

2010-01-01

368

Setting Occupational Sex Segregation in Motion: Demand-Side Explanations of Sex Traditional Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The employment of women in female-dominated occupations and men in male-dominated occu- pations (sex traditional employment) is a fundamental source of economic sex inequality. Despite this, we know little about how organizational practices and policies link workers to sex traditional jobs. The author tests theoretically hypothesized determinants of sex traditional employment using data on the sex of the last hire

JULIE A. KMEC

2005-01-01

369

Traditional Occupations in a Modern World: Implications for Career Guidance and Livelihood Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an attempt to examine the place and significance of traditional occupations as careers in today's world. The areas of tension and compatibility between ideas and values that signify modernity and the practice of traditional occupations are reviewed. The meaning of "traditional occupations" is unravelled, the potential that…

Ratnam, Anita

2011-01-01

370

Traditional marine resource management in Vanuatu: Acknowledging, supporting and strengthening indigenous management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the marine related traditional knowledge held by fishers in Vanuatu relates to increasing catches while managing resources of cultural, social and subsistence value. Traditional beliefs and practices asso- ciated with fisheries and their management follow natural cycles of resource abundance, accessibility, and respect for customary rules enshrined in oral traditions. Many management related rules that control fish- ers'

Francis R. Hickey

2006-01-01

371

Self-harm in British South Asian women: psychosocial correlates and strategies for prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To review the rates of self-harm in British South Asian women, look into the factors that contribute to these high rates of self-harm and discuss possible strategies for prevention and provision of culturally sensitive service for South Asian women who harm themselves. METHOD: Review. RESULTS: South Asian women are significantly more likely to self harm between ages 16–24 years

MI Husain; W Waheed; Nusrat Husain

2006-01-01

372

Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine  

PubMed Central

Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

Dorai, Ananda A.

2012-01-01

373

Negative Intrusive Thoughts and Dissociation as Risk Factors for Self-Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between self-harm and vulnerability factors were studied in a general population of 432 participants, of whom 30% reported some experience of self-harm. This group scored higher on dissociation and childhood trauma, had lower self-worth, and reported more negative intrusive thoughts. Among the non-harming group, 10% scored similarly…

Batey, Helen; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie

2010-01-01

374

30 CFR 722.12 - Non-imminent dangers or harms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Non-imminent dangers or harms. 722.12 Section...722.12 Non-imminent dangers or harms. (a) If...violations do not create an imminent danger to the health or safety...minimize harm to the public or the environment. (g) If any...

2010-07-01

375

Harm reduction as the basis for Hepatitis C policy and programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harm reduction measures have helped drug users reduce the risk and severity of adverse consequences without leading to increases in overall levels of drug use in the general population. Indeed, in many cases harm reduction has been a vital first step towards recovery from addiction. This presentation explores different conceptualizations of harm reduction, presents a framework for drug policy based

Eric Single

376

Harmful Alcohol Use on Campus: Impact on Young People at University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people at university are more likely to consume alcohol at harmful levels than their same-age peers who are not at university, and harmful alcohol use affects many aspects of campus life. This study aimed to investigate alcohol use and alcohol-related harms, both experienced and witnessed, among students at an Australian university. An…

Rickwood, Debra; George, Amanda; Parker, Rhian; Mikhailovich, Katja

2011-01-01

377

How useful is the concept of the 'harm threshold' in reproductive ethics and law?  

PubMed

In his book Reasons and Persons, Derek Parfit suggests that people are not harmed by being conceived with a disease or disability if they could not have existed without suffering that particular condition. He nevertheless contends that entities can be harmed if the suffering they experience is sufficiently severe. By implication, there is a threshold which divides harmful from non-harmful conceptions. The assumption that such a threshold exists has come to play a part in UK policy making. I argue that Parfit's distinction between harmful and non-harmful conceptions is untenable. Drawing on Kant's refutation of the ontological argument for God's existence, I suggest that the act of creation cannot be identical with the act of harming-nor indeed of benefiting-however great the offspring's suffering may be. I suggest that Parfit is right that bringing children into existence does not usually harm them, but I argue that this must be applied to all conceptions, since Parfit cannot show how the harm threshold can be operationalised. If we think certain conceptions are unethical or should be illegal, this must be on other grounds than that the child is harmed by them. I show that a Millian approach in this context fails to exemplify the empirical and epistemological advantages which are commonly associated with it, and that harm-based legislation would need to be based on broader harm considerations than those relating to the child who is conceived. PMID:25106477

Smajdor, Anna

2014-10-01

378

Advocating for a Harm-Minimization Approach to Drug Education in Australian Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of using a harm-minimization approach to drug education in Australian schools has existed in both national and state government policy documents for over two decades. However, this approach appears to be ineffectively and inconsistently incorporated within the curriculum. Harm minimization emphasizes strategies that reduce the harms

Guzys, Diana; Kendall, Sharon

2006-01-01

379

Attempted Suicide, Self-Harm, and Violent Victimization among Regular Illicit Drug Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships among attempted suicide, nonsuicidal self-harm, and physical assault were examined in 400 regular users of heroin and/or psychostimulants. Twenty-eight percent had episodes of nonsuicidal self-harm, 32% had attempted suicide, and 95% had been violently assaulted. The number of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents were…

Darke, Shane; McCrim, Michelle Torok; Kaye, Sharlene; Ross, Joanne

2010-01-01

380

What's So Non-Traditional About Non-Traditional Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The characteristics and expectations of non-traditional community college students are examined. It is emphasized that changes in bottom-line services and programs will need to be made in order to accomodate this large group. (LH)

Waterhouse, Pearl G.

1978-01-01

381

Traditional Birth Attendant Training and Local Birthing Practices in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…

Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla

2011-01-01

382

Codes of medical ethics: Traditional foundations and contemporary practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hippocratic Coprus recognized the interaction of 'business' and patient-health moral considerations, and urged that the former be subordinated to the latter. During the 1800s with the growth of complexity in both scientific knowledge and the organization of health services, the medical ethical codes addressed themselves to elaborate rules of conduct to be followed by the members of the newly

P. Sohl; H. A. Bassford

1986-01-01

383

Aesthetic Practice and Spirituality: Chi in Traditional East Asian Brushwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of multicultural art education has been addressed by art educators over the past 15 years. Art educators maintain that art is capable of empowering mutual respect and appreciation for people, objects, and ideas among diverse groups. Although many educators/teachers use non-Western artworks or artifacts to enrich their art programs,…

Chung, Sheng Kuan

2006-01-01

384

Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2011-01-01

385

Basic principles of Bulgarian folk dietary traditions.  

PubMed

Bulgarian folk dietary tradition is one of the most ancient traditions in the world. Its origin can be traced back to prehistoric times. The contribution of ancient Thracians to it, for instance, with respect to some major foods, preparation of foods, practices and customs, is so deeply ingrained in it that to a large extent it determines its overall character. And this is actually an all-European legacy. The Proto-Bulgarian legacy in the field of nutrition is also considerable. Of particular importance here is the correlation of meals with time and with the so called good and bad periods of time. In the present study we have attempted to formulate some of the important principles of the Bulgarian folk dietary tradition. They are only a small part of the vast realm of principles concerning the diet of Bulgarians. All Bulgarian customs, rules and bans in the field of nutrition are based on them. Until quite recently they have had an obligatory character. They have coded in them the thousand-year-long experience of the Bulgarian people. All important rational aspects repeatedly verified in real life under different conditions and situations have been included in them. Thus a complete system of rules and norms of behaviour have been obtained giving exhaustive answers to all questions related to nutrition. It is designed to help people and future generations to avoid risk situations and prevent catastrophes resulting from malnutrition. PMID:10534918

Kuvandzhiev, G

1999-01-01

386

Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2013-07-01

387

Factors influencing patronage of traditional bone setters.  

PubMed

In clinical orthopaedic practice, many patients are seen presenting with complications after being treated by traditional bone setters (TBS). These complications do not seem to deter other patients from patronising the TBS rather than modern orthopaedic service (MOS). Basic beliefs about TBS in particular and traditional healers (TH) in general are likely to be responsible for their continuing popularity. One hundred and eighty adults and adolescents were surveyed by means of interviewer administered questionnaires at a popular motor park, traditional and modern health facilities. While 37% (n = 67) of the respondents believe that TBS are indispensable (cannot do without), 32.8% (n = 65) believe they are desirable (can do without though useful) and 11% (n = 20) thought they are nuisances and fraudsters. Forty three per cent of them felt that TBS are competent or very competent, 24% adjudged their practice satisfactory (good but with some deficiencies) and 23% believe they are either incompetent or very incompetent. Education did not seem to influence these beliefs as the expressed opinion on the indispensability/desirability of TBS by those who had no formal education was similar to that of those who had primary education, p > 0.5, and College/University education, p) 0.1. The services of the TBS were thought to be cheaper (n = 103) than MOS (n = 36) although more (n = 120) believe that doctors explain the causes of injuries and illness rather than TBS (n = 35). The community opinion of TBS, irrespective of educational status, is probably predominantly positive in addition to their services being thought to be cheaper than modern orthopaedic service, hence their continued relevance in the treatment of musculo skeletal injuries and diseases. PMID:11126089

Thanni, L O

2000-01-01

388

Harm, hype and evidence: ELSI research and policy guidance  

PubMed Central

There has been much investment in research on the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) associated with genetic and genomic research. This research should inform the development of the relevant policy. So far, much of the relevant policy - such as in the areas of patents, genetic testing and genetic discrimination - seems to be informed more by speculation of harm and anecdote than by available evidence. Although a quest for evidence cannot always be allowed to delay policy choice, it seems axiomatic to us that policy options are improved by the incorporation of evidence. PMID:23534337

2013-01-01

389

Worst New England Harmful Algal Bloom in 30 Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online 2005 article reports the most severe bloom since 1972 of the microscopic alga, Alexandrium fundyense, which spread from Maine to Massachusetts, resulting in extensive commercial and recreational shellfish harvesting closures to protect humans from paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The article discusses harmful algal blooms (HABs) and reports how NOAA-funded research is addressing the problem. It includes links to research programs, up-to-date information about shellfish closures, images of the causative microbes, related press releases and legislation, and other informational sources.

Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR); Noaa

390

Propofol's effect on the sciatic nerve: Harmful or protective?  

PubMed Central

Propofol can inhibit the inflammatory response and reduce the secretion and harmful effects of astrocyte-derived proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, after propofol was injected into the injured sciatic nerve of mice, nuclear factor kappa B expression in the L4–6 segments of the spinal cord in the injured side was reduced, apoptosis was decreased, nerve myelin defects were alleviated, and the nerve conduction block was lessened. The experimental findings indicate that propofol inhibits the inflammatory and immune responses, decreases the expression of nuclear factor kappa B, and reduces apoptosis. These effects of propofol promote regeneration following sciatic nerve injury. PMID:25206562

Sun, Yi; Zhang, Xizhe; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Yong’an; Jiang, Yiwen; Cao, Jian

2013-01-01

391

Remote sensing and GIS techniques for assessment of the soil water content in order to improve agricultural practice and reduce the negative impact on groundwater: case study, agricultural area ?tefan cel Mare, C?l?ra?i County.  

PubMed

Traditional agricultural practices based on non-customized irrigation and soil fertilization are harmful for the environment, and may pose a risk for human health. By continuing the use of these practices, it is not possible to ensure effective land management, which might be acquired by using advanced satellite technology configured for modern agricultural development. The paper presents a methodology based on the correlation between remote sensing data and field observations, aiming to identify the key features and to establish an interpretation pattern for the inhomogeneity highlighted by the remote sensing data. Instead of using classical methods for the evaluation of land features (field analysis, measurements and mapping), the approach is to use high resolution multispectral and hyperspectral methods, in correlation with data processing and geographic information systems (GIS), in order to improve the agricultural practices and mitigate their environmental impact (soil and shallow aquifer). PMID:22744689

Tevi, Giuliano; Tevi, Anca

2012-01-01

392

The Critical Tradition in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical tradition in Bulgaria includes all philosophical studies concerned directly or indirectly with Kant’s philosophy. In this sense, it can be called the Kantian trend in the Bulgarian philosophical tradition. Compared with other philosophical schools, such as Rehmke’s philosophy, dialectical materialism, etc., Kantianism develops relatively steadily, neither achieving lasting pre-eminence over other trends nor losing ground altogether. In the

Dimitar Tsatsov

2001-01-01

393

Sustaining safe practice: twenty years on.  

PubMed

This paper examines the ways in which populations at risk of HIV in the developed world have enculturated the knowledges and technologies of both the medical and the social sciences. By revisiting a number of review papers and by reviewing findings from a range of studies, we argue that gay men have appropriated information that has enabled them to sustain safe practices while they have eschewed information that has made maintenance difficult. The paper describes a range of risk reduction strategies and compares the responses of populations at risk of HIV in the years before the advent of highly active antiviral therapy (HAART) with their responses after the introduction of HAART in 1996. We concentrate our argument on the changing responses to HIV risk of gay men, although occasionally illustrate our argument with reference to the responses of injecting drug users. The responses of gay men to risk post-HAART--particularly those who reside in Australia--speak to the adoption of a range of considered strategies, not altogether safe, to reduce harm. We argue that such strategies need to be understood and addressed within a 'new' social public health, that is, a public health that takes what social analysis has to say seriously. The paper examines the differences between the traditional, the 'modern' epidemiological/clinical and the 'new' social or socio-cultural public healths and describes the tensions between the medical and the social science disciplines in their efforts to inform public health. Key concepts provided by social science such as agency (including individual and collective agency), alongside its methodological reflexivity are key to effective public health. The risk avoidance strategies adopted by gay men suggest a way forward by turning our attention to the ways in which medicine is taken in(to) their practice. PMID:12753812

Kippax, Susan; Race, Kane

2003-07-01

394

Traditional Knowledge Strengthens NOAA's Environmental Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.

Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

2010-12-01

395

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

SciTech Connect

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

Gobler, Christopher J. [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Berry, Dianna L. [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Dyhrman, Sonya T. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Wilhelm, Steven W [ORNL; Salamov, Asaf [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lobanov, Alexei V. [Brigham and Women's Hospital; Zhang, Yan [Brigham and Women's Hospital; Collier, Jackie L. [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Wurch, Louie L. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Kustka, Adam B. [Rutgers University; Dill, Brian [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL

2011-01-01

396

Overdiagnosis: how our compulsion for diagnosis may be harming children.  

PubMed

Overdiagnosis occurs when a true abnormality is discovered, but detection of that abnormality does not benefit the patient. It should be distinguished from misdiagnosis, in which the diagnosis is inaccurate, and it is not synonymous with overtreatment or overuse, in which excess medication or procedures are provided to patients for both correct and incorrect diagnoses. Overdiagnosis for adult conditions has gained a great deal of recognition over the last few years, led by realizations that certain screening initiatives, such as those for breast and prostate cancer, may be harming the very people they were designed to protect. In the fall of 2014, the second international Preventing Overdiagnosis Conference will be held, and the British Medical Journal will produce an overdiagnosis-themed journal issue. However, overdiagnosis in children has been less well described. This special article seeks to raise awareness of the possibility of overdiagnosis in pediatrics, suggesting that overdiagnosis may affect commonly diagnosed conditions such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, bacteremia, food allergy, hyperbilirubinemia, obstructive sleep apnea, and urinary tract infection. Through these and other examples, we discuss why overdiagnosis occurs and how it may be harming children. Additionally, we consider research and education strategies, with the goal to better elucidate pediatric overdiagnosis and mitigate its influence. PMID:25287462

Coon, Eric R; Quinonez, Ricardo A; Moyer, Virginia A; Schroeder, Alan R

2014-11-01

397

[Policies to prevent the harm caused by alcohol].  

PubMed

The impact on health of alcohol in a given society is mainly related with the volume and pattern of drinking, and these are related with individual factors, but also with environmental factors, among which public policies are important determinants. Public policies may favour or reduce alcohol use, and thus have a substantial preventive capacity. The effectiveness of policies to prevent the harm caused by alcohol has been reviewed in recent documents, which provide evidence to extract recommendations. This paper reviews the most effective policies to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, with an emphasis in the use of taxes to increase its cost, availability regulation, and policies on drinking and driving. The regulation of alcohol promotion and publicity is also assessed, as well as the detection and treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence. The state of alcohol related policies in Spain is analysed, as well as the obstacles, for the adoption of policies more prone to prevention, and recommendations for the future are made. PMID:25090407

Villalbí, Joan R; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Gili-Miner, Miquel; Espelt, Albert; Brugal, M Teresa

2014-08-01

398

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

SciTech Connect

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

Grigoriev, Igor; Gobler, Christopher; Salamov, Asaf; Kuo, Alan; Terry, Astrid; Pangillian, Jasmyn; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Berry, Dianna; Dyhrman, Sonya; Wilhelm, Steven; Lobanov, Alexei; Zhang, Yan; Collier, Jackie; Wurch, Louie; Kusta, Adam; Dill, Brian; Shsh, Manesh; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Paulsen, Ian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa; Talmage, Stephanie; Walker, Elyse; Koch, Florian; Burson, Amanda; Marcoval, Maria; Tang, Yin-Zhong; LeCleir, Gary; Coyne, Kathyrn; Berg, Gry; Bertrand, Erin; Saito, Mak; Gladyshev, Vadim

2011-02-18

399

The harms of enhancement and the conclusive reasons view.  

PubMed

Many critics of bioenhancement go to considerable lengths to establish the existence of reasons against pursuing bioenhancements but do little to establish the absence of reasons in favor. This suggests that they accept what Allen Buchanan has called the conclusive reasons view (CRV). According to this view, our reasons against bioenhancement are obviously decisive, so there is no need to balance them against countervailing reasons. Buchanan criticizes the CRV by showing that the reasons most commonly adduced against bioenhancement are not decisive, or, at least, not obviously so. In this article, I suggest that both Buchanan and the authors to whom he is responding underestimate the strength of the case for the CRV. There are, I argue, harm-based reasons against bioenhancement that provide stronger support to the CRV than the reasons that have most often been adduced by critics of enhancement. However, I then argue that even these harm-based reasons are not obviously decisive. Thus, I ultimately agree with Buchanan about the falsity of the CRV, though I disagree with him about the reasons for its falsity. PMID:25473855

Douglas, Thomas

2015-01-01

400

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

SciTech Connect

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements demonstrated that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the first HAB genome (A. anophagefferens) and compared its gene complement to those of six competing phytoplankton species identified via metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on the gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 mbp) and more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen utilization, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

Gobler, C J; Grigoriev, I V; Berry, D L; Dyhrman, S T; Wilhelm, S W; Salamov, A; Lobanov, A V; Zhang, Y; Collier, J L; Wurch, L L; Kustka, A B; Dill, B D; Shah, M; VerBerkomes, N C; Kuo, A; Terry, A; Pangilinan, J; Lindquist, E A; Lucas, S; Paulsen, I; Hattenrath-Lehmann, T K; Talmage, S; Walker, E A; Koch, F; Burson, A M; Marcoval, M A; Tang, Y; LeCleir, G R; Coyne, K J; Berg, G M; Bertrand, E M; Saito, M A; Gladyshev, V N

2011-03-02

401

Michael Polanyi And The Liberal Philosophical Tradition In Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key Words: Michael Polanyi, liberal philosophical tradition, Hungarian social and economic development, Hungarian history, liberal Hungarian statesmen This essay describes the Hungarian historical background out of which Michael Polanyi's lifelong commitment to a liberal, democratic form of government grew. Hungary's liberal thinkers blossomed in the nineteenth centruy, but their orientation was more political and practical than philosophical. Enlightenment ideas did

Éva Gábor

402

The Ethnographic Research Tradition and Mathematics Education Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, though ethnography is a powerful methodology, it has rarely been used by educational researchers. Describes the research tradition of ethnography, compares ethnography with more common educational research practices, and discusses advantages of improved commuication for both mathematics education and educational anthrpology. (PK)

Eisenhart, Margaret A.

1988-01-01

403

Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of opiate addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Chinese medicine consists of natural products including plants, animals and minerals. TCM has been practiced in China for more than 2000 years, and for the past 200 years has been used in treatment of drug addiction. Ten Chinese medicines for the treatment of opiate addiction have been approved by the Chinese

Jie Shi; Yan-li Liu; Yu-xia Fang; Guo-zhu Xu; Hai-fen Zhai; Lin Lu

2006-01-01

404

Charter School Competition, Organization, and Achievement in Traditional Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market models of education reform predict that the growth of charter schools will infuse competition into the public school sector, forcing traditional public schools to improve the practices they engage in to educate students. Some scholars have criticized these models, arguing that competition from charter schools is unlikely to produce…

Davis, Tomeka M.

2013-01-01

405

Acidbase physiology: the 'traditional' and the 'modern' approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The interpretation and understanding of acid-base dysfunction has recently been revisited. The 'traditional' approach developed from the pioneering work of Henderson and Hasselbalch and is still the most widely used in clinical practice. There are a number of problems identified with this approach, however. The 'modern' approach derives from Stewart's work in physical chemistry. In this review we describe

A. A. Sirker; A. Rhodes; R. M. Grounds; E. D. Bennett

2002-01-01

406

Traditional Male Circumcision In A Rural Community In Kedah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Forty three of the eligible 71 subjects participated in the study giving the response rate as 60.5%. The most common age for circumcision was 9 years old. Despite private clinics being the most common place of circumcisions, there was an increasing number of boys going to the 'Tok Mudim' for circumcision. A Mass Circumcision Ceremony is traditionally practiced. The

Teh Swee-Ping; Narayan K A

2009-01-01

407

Necrotising fasciitis and cellulitis after traditional Samoan tattooing: case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Samoan tattooing, ta tatau, is a vital part of Samoan culture. It is being performed with greater frequency on New Zealand resident Samoans. Unfortunately, ta tatau has recently been the causal factor in two significant infectious cases, in one of which death resulted. The two cases were clinically reviewed. An investigation into the history and practice of ta tatau

Christopher J. W. Porter; Jeremy W. Simcock; Craig A. MacKinnon

2005-01-01

408

The Traditional World of Islam Film Series: A Teacher's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide describes a series of six films examining the influence of Islamic doctrine and traditional practices on human endeavors throughout the Islamic world. The objective of the series is to fill an informational gap concerning the important contributions that Islamic civilization has made to the achievements of man. The films are entitled:…

Fix, Jerrold E.

409

Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh: Implications for the adaptation of kangaroo mother care for community-based interventions.  

PubMed

Bangladesh has one of the world's highest rates of low birth weight along with prevalent traditional care practices that leave newborns highly vulnerable to hypothermia, infection, and early death. We conducted formative research to explore existing newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh with an emphasis on thermal protection, and to identify potential facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for the community level delivery of kangaroo mother care (CKMC). Forty in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions were conducted between September and December 2012. Participants included pregnant women and mothers, husbands, maternal and paternal grandmothers, traditional birth attendants, village doctors, traditional healers, pharmacy men, religious leaders, community leaders, and formal healthcare providers. Audio recordings were transcribed and translated into English, and the textual data were analyzed using the Framework Approach. We find that harmful newborn care practices, such as delayed wrapping and early initiation of bathing, are changing as more biomedical advice from formal healthcare providers is reaching the community through word-of-mouth and television campaigns. While the goal of CKMC was relatively easily understood and accepted by many of the participants, logistical and to a lesser extent ideological barriers exist that may keep the practice from being adopted easily. Women feel a sense of inevitable responsibility for household duties despite the desire to provide the best care for their new babies. Our findings showed that participants appreciated CKMC as an appropriate treatment method for ill babies, but were less accepting of it as a protective method of caring for seemingly healthy newborns during the first few days of life. Participants highlighted the necessity of receiving help from family members and witnessing other women performing CKMC with positive outcomes if they are to adopt the behavior themselves. Focusing intervention messages on building a supportive environment for CKMC practice will be critical for the intervention's success. PMID:25441314

Hunter, Erin C; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Shah, Rashed; Farzin, Azadeh; Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Akhter, Sadika; Baqui, Abdullah H

2014-12-01

410

Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.  

PubMed

As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented. PMID:25416371

Ee, Henry

2014-01-01

411

Professional care after deliberate self-harm: a qualitative study of young people’s experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is increasingly common among young people. At the same time, treatment and support after DSH are often hampered by low compliance. Aim To explore young people’s perceptions of care and support during a 6-month period following their first contact for DSH. Methods We conducted nine semistructured interviews with young people aged 16–24 years 6 months after their first contact for DSH. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Three main themes were extracted from the interviews. “Am I really in good hands?” describes whether the participants felt they were being listened to and taken seriously and whether they could rely on the competence of the professionals and the appropriateness of treatment, including keeping agreements and communication with other relevant agencies. “Help should match life circumstances” comprises how basic practicalities such as travel possibilities affect treatment and concomitant assistance in everyday living. Financial matters and jobseeking were perceived as necessary for optimal treatment and well-being. “Making yourself better” includes participants’ efforts to manage on their own, through realizing their own responsibility to be engaged and actively take part in treatment planning. Conclusion Flexibility and responsiveness to young people’s own views and specific needs in treatment arrangements are of crucial importance. The significance of basic practical help cannot be underestimated and should not be overlooked.

Idenfors, Hans; Kullgren, Gunnar; Salander Renberg, Ellinor

2015-01-01

412

“Nothing Special, Everything Is Maamuli”: Socio-Cultural and Family Practices Influencing the Perinatal Period in Urban India  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting. Methods and Findings Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women’s experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events. Conclusions A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will help plan culturally appropriate integrated perinatal health care. PMID:25369447

Raman, Shanti; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura; Razee, Husna; Ritchie, Jan

2014-01-01

413

Childbirth customs in Orthodox Jewish traditions.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe cultural beliefs of Orthodox Jewish families regarding childbirth in order to help family physicians enhance the quality and sensitivity of their care. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: These findings were based on a review of the literature searched in MEDLINE (1966 to present), HEALTHSTAR (1975 to present), EMBASE (1988 to present), and Social Science Abstracts (1984 to present). Interviews with several members of the Orthodox Jewish community in Edmonton, Alta, and Vancouver, BC, were conducted to determine the accuracy of the information presented and the relevance of the paper to the current state of health care delivery from the recipients' point of view. MAIN MESSAGE: Customs and practices surrounding childbirth in the Orthodox Jewish tradition differ in several practical respects from expectations and practices within the Canadian health care system. The information presented was deemed relevant and accurate by those interviewed, and the subject matter was considered to be important for improving communication between patients and physicians. Improved communication and recognition of these differences can improve the quality of health care provided to these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Misunderstandings rooted in different cultural views of childbirth and the events surrounding it can adversely affect health care provided to women in the Orthodox Jewish community in Canada. A basic understanding of the cultural foundations of potential misunderstandings will help Canadian physicians provide effective health care to Orthodox Jewish women. PMID:10099807

Bodo, K.; Gibson, N.

1999-01-01

414

Adolescents with suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm: clinical characteristics and response to therapeutic assessment.  

PubMed

Self-harm is one of the best predictors of death by suicide, but few studies directly compare adolescents with suicidal versus nonsuicidal self-harm. Seventy adolescents presenting with self-harm (71% young women, ages 12-18 years) who participated in a randomized controlled trial were divided into suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm categories using the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment. Adolescents with suicidal self-harm were more likely than those with nonsuicidal self-harm to be young women, 22/23 (96%) versus 34/47 (72%), odds ratio (OR) = 8.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.03, 50.0]; had a later age of onset of self-harm, 15.4 years vs. 13.8 years, mean difference = 1.6, 95% CI [.8, 2.43]; and used self-poisoning more often, 18/23 (78%) versus 11/47 (23%), OR = 3.43, 95% CI [2.00, 5.89]. Only those with nonsuicidal self-harm had an improvement on Children's Global Assessment Scale score following a brief therapeutic intervention, mean difference = 8.20, 95% CI [.97, 15.42]. However, there was no interaction between treatment and suicidality. There are important differences between adolescents presenting with suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm. Suicidal self-harm in adolescence may be associated with a less favorable response to therapeutic assessment. PMID:21859219

Ougrin, Dennis; Zundel, Tobias; Kyriakopoulos, Marinos; Banarsee, Reetoo; Stahl, Daniel; Taylor, Eric

2012-03-01

415

The Role of Theory in Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are at least three ways in which educational theory can be used in practice: (1) to reexamine our traditional approaches, (2) to provide direction in future practice, and (3) to generate research. Reexamination of traditional approaches through analysis and utilization of theoretical methods is one means of promoting constant growth and…

Pyfer, Jean L.

416

Unconventional dentistry in India - an insight into the traditional methods.  

PubMed

Unconventional medicine (UM) has been known and practised since the recorded history of civilization. Some unconventional practices may be viewed as "the continuity of traditions, religious beliefs, and even quackery that non-specialists practice." These practices have been associated with religious beliefs and the spiritual domain as well as with the physical domain. In ancient Old World civilizations, UM was performed by skilled experts or wise men; in today's Western civilization, practitioners may or may not be licensed, and some are charlatans. Dentistry, like medicine, is a traditional, science-based, highly regulated healthcare profession that serves increasingly sophisticated and demanding clients. Today, traditional dental practice is dealing with an array of challenges to the established professional system; these challenges are generally termed "alternative" (or complementary, unconventional, or integrative). Genuine alternatives are comparable methods of equal value that have met scientific and regulatory criteria for safety and effectiveness. Because "alternative care" has become politicized and is often a misnomer - referring to practices that are not alternative to, complementary to, or integrating with conventional health care - the more accurate term "unconventional" is used. PMID:25161919

Boloor, Vinita Ashutosh; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Rao, Anupama; Jenifer, Haziel; Pratap, Sruthy

2014-07-01

417

Unconventional Dentistry in India – An Insight into the Traditional Methods  

PubMed Central

Unconventional medicine (UM) has been known and practised since the recorded history of civilization. Some unconventional practices may be viewed as “the continuity of traditions, religious beliefs, and even quackery that non-specialists practice.” These practices have been associated with religious beliefs and the spiritual domain as well as with the physical domain. In ancient Old World civilizations, UM was performed by skilled experts or wise men; in today's Western civilization, practitioners may or may not be licensed, and some are charlatans. Dentistry, like medicine, is a traditional, science-based, highly regulated healthcare profession that serves increasingly sophisticated and demanding clients. Today, traditional dental practice is dealing with an array of challenges to the established professional system; these challenges are generally termed “alternative” (or complementary, unconventional, or integrative). Genuine alternatives are comparable methods of equal value that have met scientific and regulatory criteria for safety and effectiveness. Because “alternative care” has become politicized and is often a misnomer – referring to practices that are not alternative to, complementary to, or integrating with conventional health care – the more accurate term “unconventional” is used. PMID:25161919

Boloor, Vinita Ashutosh; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Rao, Anupama; Jenifer, Haziel; Pratap, Sruthy

2014-01-01

418

LIABILITY FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC HARM: THE ROAD TO RECOVERY.  

PubMed

This article examines the judicial approach to emotional harm claims from a medical perspective. Legal rules in this area are already recognised as being illogical and incoherent. Psychological and psychiatric research illustrate that they also conflict with empirical findings. By basing claims on erroneous criteria, courts may deny liability in meritorious cases, and impose liability in possibly less deserving claims. This not only brings the law into disrepute, but also reinforces the stigma that surrounds mental illness, and does disservice to an already misunderstood and vulnerable section of people in society. The article examines the evidence for the threshold requirement that distress must qualify for a psychiatric diagnosis to be actionable, and for the Alcock secondary victim criteria. It contends that these legal rules are based in misconceptions about mental illness and trauma, and suggests an alternative approach that is more principled, yet also addresses policy concerns about excessive liability. PMID:25223239

Ahuja, Jyoti

2014-09-14

419

Synthesis of Porous Inorganic Hollow Fibers without Harmful Solvents.  

PubMed

A route for the fabrication of porous inorganic hollow fibers with high surface-area-to-volume ratio that avoids harmful solvents is presented. The approach is based on bio-ionic gelation of an aqueous mixture of inorganic particles and sodium alginate during wet spinning. In a subsequent thermal treatment, the bio-organic material is removed and the inorganic particles are sintered. The method is applicable to the fabrication of various inorganic fibers, including metals and ceramics. The route completely avoids the use of organic solvents, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and additives associated with the currently used fiber fabrication methods. In addition, it inherently avoids the manifestation of so-called macro voids and allows the facile incorporation of additional metal oxides in the inorganic hollow fibers. PMID:25256812

Shukla, Sushumna; de Wit, Patrick; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W J; Kappert, Emiel J; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck E

2015-01-01

420

Geoengineering and the Problem of Comparative Judgments of Harm.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suppose geoengineering "works" and that there are no competing antagonistic interventions. Even on this rosy scenario, it is extremely unlikely that it will "work" for everyone since (as Schneider pointed out many years ago) there is no reason to think the effects of geoengineering will offset the effects of global warming locally. It may seem obvious that at best then, the benefits of geoengineering will be unequal and at worst, some will benefit while some will be harmed. I argue that this is a much harder claim to formulate operationally than one might think since it is by no means clear what the appropriate base line for making such judgments is, nor whether such base lines are commensurable.

Bunzl, M.

2007-12-01

421

Changes to clinician attire have done more harm than good.  

PubMed

The introduction of 'bare below the elbows' policies to facilitate handwashing led to the disappearance of the white coat from medical and surgical wards. While rates of key healthcare acquired infections in hospitals, e.g. Clostridium difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, have fallen, argument continues around the contribution of hand hygiene and dress codes to these changes. Conversely, the number of complaints against clinicians continues to rise, and respect for medical staff is falling. Are these phenomena linked to the disappearance of the white coat? Here, we debate the effects of these changes to clinician attire and ask whether the putative benefits in terms of infection control are outweighed by the possible harms to the doctor-patient relationship alleged to be caused by the loss of the white coat. PMID:25516900

Dancer, S G; Duerden, B I

2014-12-01

422

25 CFR 224.137 - What must the Director do if a tribe's noncompliance has resulted in harm or the potential for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...noncompliance has resulted in harm or the potential for harm to a physical trust asset...noncompliance has resulted in harm or the potential for harm to a physical trust asset...determines that there is harm or the potential for harm to a physical trust...

2010-04-01

423

Psychiatric nurses' attitudes toward patients with borderline personality disorder experiencing deliberate self-harm.  

PubMed

The aim of this descriptive study was to explore the attitudes of psychiatric nurses toward patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) experiencing deliberate self-harm. A convenience sample of psychiatric nurses (N = 83) working on the adult behavioral health units of three psychiatric hospitals in Pennsylvania were surveyed about their attitudes toward BPD inpatients experiencing deliberate self-harm using the Adapted Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire. Psychiatric nurses had positive attitudes toward hospitalized BPD patients with deliberate self-harm issues. Psychiatric nurses with more years of nursing experience and self-reported need for further BPD continuing education had more positive attitudes toward hospitalized BPD patients with deliberate self-harm issues, findings that nurse educators need to consider when planning curricula. Future studies need to examine the longitudinal effect of continuing education on nurses' attitudes and outcomes for BPD patients with deliberate self-harm issues. PMID:23244348

Hauck, Judith L; Harrison, Barbara E; Montecalvo, Anthony L

2013-01-01

424

The role of conscious reasoning and intuition in moral judgment: testing three principles of harm.  

PubMed

Is moral judgment accomplished by intuition or conscious reasoning? An answer demands a detailed account of the moral principles in question. We investigated three principles that guide moral judgments: (a) Harm caused by action is worse than harm caused by omission, (b) harm intended as the means to a goal is worse than harm foreseen as the side effect of a goal, and (c) harm involving physical contact with the victim is worse than harm involving no physical contact. Asking whether these principles are invoked to explain moral judgments, we found that subjects generally appealed to the first and third principles in their justifications, but not to the second. This finding has significance for methods and theories of moral psychology: The moral principles used in judgment must be directly compared with those articulated in justification, and doing so shows that some moral principles are available to conscious reasoning whereas others are not. PMID:17201791

Cushman, Fiery; Young, Liane; Hauser, Marc

2006-12-01

425

The relational tradition: landscape and canon.  

PubMed

This essay charts the origins, influences, and evolution of the relational tradition in contemporary psychoanalysis. Considering the theoretical and philosophical influences from nineteenth-century Americans like William James and C. S Pierce, and noting the seminal modern work of Steven Mitchell and Jay Greenberg in opening a critique of one-person focused drive theory, the essay follows developments over a quarter century. Hallmarks of the relational approach-social construction, two-person psychologies, multiple self-states, social regulation and construction of identities like gender and sexual orientation, and an evolving theory of clinical practice-are reviewed. New developments in clinical theory, in the study of identity categories, in the work on embodiment and enactment, and in developmental models are also reviewed. PMID:21934148

Harris, Adrienne E

2011-08-01

426

Is Traditional Educational Media Dead?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of films on the author and concludes that traditional media has not died out, but rather has changed due to technology. Films are now watched on television as well as at a cinema; radio is more pervasive; and newspapers are still valued. (LRW)

Ljubic, Milan

2000-01-01

427

Restored Behavior and Oral Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in oral traditions has benefitted the field of interpretation in two ways: a new emphasis on the social and cultural contexts of performance, and an expanded perspective on performance manifestations. In Richard Schechner's concept of "restored behavior," the interpreter engages in a reconstruction of living behavior independent of its…

Miranda, Kathleen Bindert

428

Traditional midwifery: a case study.  

PubMed

To improve utilization of available maternity care resources in Botswana, a qualitative investigation of traditional midwives was conducted. Ethnographic interviews and videotaped naturalistic observations were utilized to develop a profile of one such midwife. The themes of communication, information sharing, and cooperation with the modern sector were of particular concern. The profile that emerged showed a woman who is socially and culturally integrated into the local community, represents a highly valuable source of information on cultural conceptions of crucial importance to childbearing Botswana women, demonstrates the value of a close personal relationship and communication with the delivering woman, realizes the limitations of her own capacity in birthing situations, and maintains close links with and makes referrals to the local hospital where indicated. The prototypical traditional midwife who was the focus of this study was a 48-year-old Botswana woman who had attended over 350 births since 1971. Among her roles were pregnancy diagnosis, assessment of nutritional intake, counseling regarding the side effects of pregnancy massage of the abdomen, delivery, assessment of the newborn, cord care, and cultural rituals. After delivery, the traditional midwife makes home visits to follow up on vulnerable populations and encourage use of family planning to space births. Personalized teaching and collaboration with the modern sector are also used by the traditional midwife to address the needs of infertile couples. PMID:12282434

Anderson, S

1985-01-01

429

Individualizing in Traditional Classroom Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…

Thornell, John G.

1980-01-01

430

Progress in traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) natural products have been used to produce impressive responses in atopic eczema and related dermatological disorders that have proved resistant to orthodox treatments. The increasing popularity of TCM natural products has also produced fear about their toxicity and uncertainty about their ingredients. In the western world, very little is known of the efficacy and safety

K. Chan

1995-01-01

431

Open Universities: A British Tradition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book challenges the notion that the open university is a recent invention and argues that in Britain there is a long and varied tradition of similar developments, and that there has been a significant 20th century reduction in the openness of universities, particularly in the period from the 1950s to the 1970s. Selected examples of open…

Bell, Robert; Tight, Malcolm

432

Traditional Navajo Maps and Wayfinding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An example of the way finding process when using verbal and other traditional maps among the Navajo Indians of the southwestern United States is presented. The scholarly literature on the Southwest offers examples of verbal maps that construct both linear space, such as trails, and broad geographical space, including hunting territories and large…

Francis, Harris; Kelley, Klara

2005-01-01

433

Documenting Dene Traditional Environmental Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a participatory action research project, local Dene and non-Native researchers in Fort Good Hope and Colville Lake, Northwest Territories (Canada), are documenting Dene traditional environmental knowledge and resource management systems. Problems in integrating Dene knowledge and Western science stem from incompatible world views. (SV)

Johnson, Martha

1992-01-01

434

Harm Reduction: The Drugification of Alcohol Polices and the Alcoholisation of Drug Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of Harm Reduction emerged from the drug field in the 1980s in the context of reducing the risk of the spread of\\u000a blood-borne viruses without necessarily reducing drug use. The concept has since become increasingly influential in the alcohol\\u000a and even tobacco fields. In Australia, for example, most state liquor acts now identify Harm Reduction (or Harm Minimisation)

Tim Stockwell

435

Estimating the health impacts of tobacco harm reduction policies: A simulation modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

With adult smoking prevalence rates declining too slowly to reach national objectives, opinion leaders are considering policies to improve tobacco-related outcomes by regulating the composition of cigarettes to be (1) less harmful and/or (2) less addictive. Because harm reduction efforts may actually encourage higher cigarette consumption by promoting a safer image, and addictiveness reduction may increase the harmfulness of cigarettes

Sajjad Ahmad; John Billimek

2005-01-01

436

Perceived Harmfulness Predicts Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs Among College Students: Interactions with Sensation-Seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the level of perceived harmfulness of nonmedical prescription stimulant and analgesic use in a sample\\u000a of college students, and examines the prospective relationship between perceived harmfulness and subsequent nonmedical use.\\u000a In addition, we explore whether the association between perceived harmfulness and nonmedical use varies by level of sensation-seeking.\\u000a Personal interviews, including questions on sensation-seeking and drug use,

Amelia M. Arria; Kimberly M. Caldeira; Kathryn B. Vincent; Kevin E. O’Grady; Eric D. Wish

2008-01-01

437

Retrospective record review in proactive patient safety work – identification of no-harm incidents  

PubMed Central

Background In contrast to other safety critical industries, well-developed systems to monitor safety within the healthcare system remain limited. Retrospective record review is one way of identifying adverse events in healthcare. In proactive patient safety work, retrospective record review could be used to identify, analyze and gain information and knowledge about no-harm incidents and deficiencies in healthcare processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospective record review for the detection and characterization of no-harm incidents, and compare findings with conventional incident-reporting systems. Methods A two-stage structured retrospective record review of no-harm incidents was performed on a random sample of 350 admissions at a Swedish orthopedic department. Results were compared with those found in one local, and four national incident-reporting systems. Results We identified 118 no-harm incidents in 91 (26.0%) of the 350 records by retrospective record review. Ninety-four (79.7%) no-harm incidents were classified as preventable. The five incident-reporting systems identified 16 no-harm incidents, of which ten were also found by retrospective record review. The most common no-harm incidents were related to drug therapy (n?=?66), of which 87.9% were regarded as preventable. Conclusions No-harm incidents are common and often preventable. Retrospective record review seems to be a valuable tool for identifying and characterizing no-harm incidents. Both harm and no-harm incidents can be identified in parallel during the same record review. By adding a retrospective record review of randomly selected records to conventional incident-reporting, health care providers can gain a clearer and broader picture of commonly occurring, no-harm incidents in order to improve patient safety. PMID:23876023

2013-01-01

438

Deliberate self-harm: a search for self or a cry for help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to advance current research on the functions and expressions of self-injury and in particular to examine two motives of self-harm: (a) self-harm in response to threats to self (termed: search for self) and (b) self-harm as an act of communication to others (termed: a cry for help). Method: Study 1 investigated 45 participants

Carryn Tertia Padoa

2008-01-01

439

Self-harm and psychosocial characteristics of looked after and looked after and accommodated young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children and young people who are classed as “looked after” and “looked after and accommodated”, have been identified as being especially at risk of self-harm, however there is little research that has assessed self-harm among these groups. This study investigates self-harm rates, distinguishing between cognitions and behaviours with non-suicidal and suicidal intent among the looked after and looked after and

E. Harkess-Murphy; J. MacDonald; J. Ramsay

2012-01-01

440

Clinical and social outcomes of adolescent self harm: population based birth cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the mental health, substance use, educational, and occupational outcomes of adolescents who self harm in a general population sample, and to examine whether these outcomes differ according to self reported suicidal intent. Design Population based birth cohort study. Setting Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK birth cohort of children born in 1991-92. Participants Data on lifetime history of self harm with and without suicidal intent were available for 4799 respondents who completed a detailed self harm questionnaire at age 16 years. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. Main outcome measures Mental health problems (depression and anxiety disorder), assessed using the clinical interview schedule-revised at age 18 years, self reported substance use (alcohol, cannabis, cigarette smoking, and illicit drugs) at age 18 years, educational attainment at age 16 and 19 years, occupational outcomes at age 19 years, and self harm at age 21 years. Results Participants who self harmed with and without suicidal intent at age 16 years were at increased risk of developing mental health problems, future self harm, and problem substance misuse, with stronger associations for suicidal self harm than for non-suicidal self harm. For example, in models adjusted for confounders the odds ratio for depression at age 18 years was 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.55 to 3.15) in participants who had self harmed without suicidal intent at age 16 years and 3.94 (2.67 to 5.83) in those who had self harmed with suicidal intent. Suicidal self harm, but not self harm without suicidal intent, was also associated with poorer educational and employment outcomes. Conclusions Adolescents who self harm seem to be vulnerable to a range of adverse outcomes in early adulthood. Risks were generally stronger in those who had self harmed with suicidal intent, but outcomes were also poor among those who had self harmed without suicidal intent. These findings emphasise the need for early identification and treatment of adolescents who self harm. PMID:25335825

Heron, Jon; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Tilling, Kate; Gunnell, David

2014-01-01

441

Emotional reactions of anger and shame to the norm violation characterizing episodes of interpersonal harm.  

PubMed

Norms are the socially shared restraints by which human behaviour is regulated. When applied to events involving interpersonal harm, the perceived level of norm violation by a perpetrator will lead to a target's emotional reactions of both anger and shame, with such processes mediated by the target's judgments of his or her loss of face arising from the episode, the perpetrator's intent to harm, and the blame ascribed to the perpetrator. Structural equation modelling (SEM) confirmed this set of linkages with targets of harm from both Hong Kong and the United States reporting on a harmful exchange in their own life, suggesting the generalizability of this model in disparate cultural contexts. PMID:18573225

Kam, Chester Chun-Seng; Bond, Michael Harris

2009-06-01

442

The Drinker’s Effect on the Social Environment: A Conceptual Framework for Studying Alcohol’s Harm to Others  

PubMed Central

The paper considers conceptual and methodological issues in studying the scope of alcohol’s harm to others. Reasons are suggested for the relative neglect of the topic. The approaches in two relevant research traditions are considered: population surveys on alcohol problems, and economic cost of alcohol studies. Ways of conceptualizing and measuring aspects of the drinker’s effects on others are considered, in terms of main types of relationship with the other, and in terms of major societal response institutions. The main types of data tend to measure different levels of severity, with population survey data dominated by less severe problems, and response institution data by more severe problems; so both are needed for a three-dimensional view. Research questions for the field and its policy significance are noted. PMID:20617064

Room, Robin; Ferris, Jason; Laslett, Anne-Marie; Livingston, Michael; Mugavin, Janette; Wilkinson, Claire

2010-01-01

443

A Case of Severe Septicemia Following Traditional Samoan Tattooing  

PubMed Central

Traditional Samoan tattoos, or tatau, are created by master tattooists, or tufuga ta tatau, and their assistants using multi-pointed handmade tools. These tools are used to tap tattoo pigment into the skin, usually over several days. This traditional process is considered an honor to the one receiving the tatau. Unfortunately, as it is typically practiced according to cultural traditions, the sanitary practices are less than ideal. There have been several reported cases of severe infection, sepsis, shock, and even death as a result of traditional Samoan tattoos. Although Hawai'i is the home of the second largest Samoan population in the United States, short of only American Samoa, literature review found no published case reports in this state. Presented is a case of a 46-year-old man, who, after undergoing a modified version of traditional Samoan tattooing for 5 days, was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe septic shock due to poly-microbial bacteremia with Group A Streptococcus and Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus. In addition, we will discuss the previously reported cases, mainly documented in New Zealand, and review some of the mandatory sanitary standards put into place there. PMID:23386988

Layman, Clifton; Bacomo, Ferdinand; Hsue, Gunther

2013-01-01

444

Responding to Global Shifts: Meta-Practice as a Relevant Social Work Practice Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to increasing global changes, this article proposes that social work education add meta-practice to traditional micro-, mezzo-, and macro-practice curriculum areas. Drawing on pertinent literature, the authors conceptualize meta-practice as a necessary paradigm shift for competent and relevant social work practice. Further, the authors…

Grise-Owens, Erlene; Miller, J. Jay; Owens, Larry W.

2014-01-01

445

Ichthyofauna Used in Traditional Medicine in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Fish represent the group of vertebrates with the largest number of species and the largest geographic distribution; they are also used in different ways by modern civilizations. The goal of this study was to compile the current knowledge on the use of ichthyofauna in zootherapeutic practices in Brazil, including ecological and conservational commentary on the species recorded. We recorded a total of 85 species (44 fresh-water species and 41 salt-water species) used for medicinal purposes in Brazil. The three most commonly cited species were Hoplias malabaricus, Hippocampus reidi, and Electrophorus electricus. In terms of conservation status, 65% of species are in the “not evaluated” category, and 14% are in the “insufficient data” category. Three species are in the “vulnerable” category: Atlantoraja cyclophora, Balistes vetula, and Hippocampus erectus. Currently, we cannot avoid considering human pressure on the population dynamics of these species, which is an essential variable for the conservation of the species and the ecosystems in which they live and for the perpetuation of traditional medical practices. PMID:22454668

El-Deir, Ana Carla Asfora; Collier, Carolina Alves; de Almeida Neto, Miguel Santana; Silva, Karina Maria de Souza; Policarpo, Iamara da Silva; Araújo, Thiago Antonio S.; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa

2012-01-01

446

Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions  

PubMed Central

Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2012-01-01

447

Indian Traditional Ayurvedic System of Medicine and Nutritional Supplementation  

PubMed Central

Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional ways are being given up. Affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate traditional herbal medicine are underway. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine, remains the most ancient yet living traditions. Although India has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, it still needs more extensive research and evidence base. Increased side effects, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases, high cost of new drugs, microbial resistance and emerging, diseases are some reasons for renewed public interest in complementary and alternative medicines. Numerous nutraceutical combinations have entered the international market through exploration of ethnopharmacological claims made by different traditional practices. This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its role in translational medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders. PMID:23864888

Pandey, M. M.; Rastogi, Subha; Rawat, A. K. S.

2013-01-01

448

Pesticide poisoning in nonfatal, deliberate self-harm: A public health issue  

PubMed Central

Background: Nonfatal, deliberate self-harm (DSH), particularly with pesticides, is a major public health problem in many developing countries of the world. Agriculture is the primary occupation of most people living in the Sundarban region in West Bengal, India. Pesticides are extensively used in agriculture and these agents are most frequently used in DSH. Aim: This study sought to identify the nature of methods and agents used in nonfatal DSH attempts in the Sundarban area under South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Detailed demographic and clinical data on DSH cases of 13 Block Primary Health Centres (BPHCs') admission registers were analysed. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted with the Panchayat Samithy of each block to elicit their perception about the problem of pesticide-related DSH or suicide in the region. Results: Five thousand, one hundred and seventy-eight (1,887 male and 3,291 female) subjects were admitted in the BPHCs during the study period from 1999 to 2001. Organophosphorous pesticide poisoning was found to be the most common method (85.1%) in DSH. This emphasizes the importance of developing an urgent poisoning prevention program with a special focus on improving clinical services as well as initiating farmers' education programs focusing on safe pesticide practices at the primary care level. PMID:20711394

Chowdhary, A. N.; Banerjee, Sohini; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, M. K.

2007-01-01

449

Traditional cheeses: rich and diverse microbiota with associated benefits.  

PubMed

The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in cheeses (in both core and surface) and on the wooden surfaces of traditional equipment. The inhibition seems to be associated with their qualitative and quantitative composition rather than with their degree of diversity. The inhibitory mechanisms are not well elucidated. Both cross-sectional and cohort studies have evidenced a strong association of raw-milk consumption with protection against allergic/atopic diseases; further studies are needed to determine whether such association extends to traditional raw-milk cheese consumption. In the future, the use of meta-omics methods should help to decipher how traditional cheese ecosystems form and function, opening the way to new methods of risk-benefit management from farm to ripened cheese. PMID:24642348

Montel, Marie-Christine; Buchin, Solange; Mallet, Adrien; Delbes-Paus, Céline; Vuitton, Dominique A; Desmasures, Nathalie; Berthier, Françoise

2014-05-01

450

Group therapy for adolescents with repeated self harm: randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group therapy for self harm in young people.Design Two arm, single (assessor) blinded parallel randomised allocation trial of a group therapy intervention in addition to routine care, compared with routine care alone. Randomisation was by minimisation controlling for baseline frequency of self harm, presence of conduct disorder, depressive disorder, and severity of

J M Green; A J Wood; M J Kerfoot; G Trainor; C Roberts; J Rothwell; A Woodham; E Ayodeji; B Barrett; S Byford; R Harrington

2011-01-01

451

Expansion of potentially harmful algal taxa in a Georgia Estuary (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is widespread that species of harmful algae are showing up in new locations and that toxic bloom events may be increasing in magnitude and frequency. These trends are sometimes but not exclusively associated with cultural eutrophication. On the southeast coast of the USA, harmful species, bloom events, and deleterious ecosystem impacts were restricted to eutrophic estuaries and adjacent shelf

Peter G. Verity

2010-01-01

452

Outpatient Care of Young People after Emergency Treatment of Deliberate Self-Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Little is known about the mental health care received by young people after an episode of deliberate self-harm. This study examined predictors of emergency department (ED) discharge, mental health assessments in the ED, and follow-up outpatient mental health care for Medicaid-covered youth with deliberate self-harm. Method: A…

Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Marcus, Steven C.; Olfson, Mark

2012-01-01

453

Adolescents Who Have Sexually Harmed: An Evaluation of a Specialist Treatment Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has been conducted to date exploring the extent to which treatment can impact upon dynamic factors thought to be related to sexually harmful behaviour in adolescents. This study explores the within-treatment change in a group of adolescent males who have sexually harmed. Pre- and post-treatment psychometric data for 34 participants…

Edwards, Rachel; Whittaker, Mette Kristensen; Beckett, Richard; Bishopp, Daz; Bates, Andrew

2012-01-01

454

Making plans for Nigella - the cases for, and against, harm reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deciding the best course of treatment for a drug or alcohol user can be a complex one. Continuing our look at harm reduction and abstinence, we ask what the best plans are for Nigella, a young woman with mental health problems who uses heroin to prevent recurring self-harm. In a refreshing and challenging critique Lesley Don explores the decision-making process

Lesley Don

2005-01-01

455

Changing attitudes towards harm reduction among treatment professionals: a report from the American Midwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of an educational presentation in changing the attitudes towards harm reduction (HR) of drug and alcohol treatment professionals working in the Midwest region of the United States. Treatment professionals (N=137) with a mean of 10.13 years of drug or alcohol treatment experience attended a 2-h educational presentation about harm reduction. Participants’ attitudes towards HR were

Perilou Goddard

2003-01-01

456

Harm Reduction, Students and Pleasure: an examination of student responses to a binge drinking campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecent debates about ‘binge drinking’ in New Zealand have positioned alcohol consumption amongst young drinkers as of concern. Research notes that students drink more heavily than their peers and that they have a higher incidence of alcohol related harms. In response, a harm reduction campaign aimed at first year university students was developed at a New Zealand university. Methods: This

Fiona Hutton

457

A Duty of Care: Non-Drinkers and Alcohol Related Harm among an Australian University Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies documenting the harm associated with excessive drinking amongst university students are numerous. Fewer studies have explored the experience of non-drinkers in the university setting. In 2008, 826 students aged 18-29 years responded to an online survey aiming to investigate alcohol use and alcohol related harm at an Australian university.…

Mikhailovich, Katja; George, Amanda; Rickwood, Debra; Parker, Rhian

2011-01-01

458

Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use among Youth in the USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews studies that examined perceived risk or beliefs about harmful effects associated with marijuana use. Perceived risk was construed as consisting of at least four areas (physical harm; parental disapproval; peer disapproval; fear of arrest). Perception of risk varied with several factors including age and gender. Secondary data analysis was…

Danseco, Evangeline R.; Kingery, Paul M.; Coggeshall, Mark

1999-01-01

459

Harms associated with psychoactive substances: findings of the UK National Drug Survey.  

PubMed

Nutt and colleagues' 'rational' scale to assess the harms of commonly used drugs was based on ratings by a panel of experts. This survey aimed to assess drug users' views of the harms of drugs using the same scale. As users' drug choices are not solely based on harms, we additionally assessed perceived benefits. The survey was hosted at http://www.nationaldrugsurvey.org. UK residents reported their experience of 20 commonly used substances; those with direct experience of a substance rated its physical, dependence-related and social harms as well as benefits. A total of 1501 users completed the survey. There was no correlation between the classification of the 20 drugs under the Misuse of Drugs Act and ranking of harms by users. Despite being unclassified substances, alcohol, solvents and tobacco were rated within the top ten most harmful drugs. There was a remarkably high correlation (r = 0.896) overall between rankings by users' and by experts. Ecstasy, cannabis and LSD were ranked highest by users on both acute and chronic benefits. These findings imply that users are relatively well informed about the harms associated with the drugs they use. They also suggest that the current UK legal classification system is not acting to inform users of the harms of psychoactive substances. PMID:19939875

Morgan, Celia J A; Muetzelfeldt, Leslie; Muetzelfeldt, Mark; Nutt, David J; Curran, H Valerie

2010-02-01

460

Mixotrophy, a major mode of nutrition for harmful algal species in eutrophic waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically most harmful algal species (HAS) have been thought to be strictly phototrophic. Mixotrophy, the use of phototrophy and heterotrophy in combination, has been emphasized as operative mainly in nutrient-poor habitats as a mechanism for augmenting nutrient supplies. Here we examine an alternate premise, that many harmful algae which thrive in eutrophic habitats are mixotrophs that respond both directly to

JoAnn M. Burkholder; Patricia M. Glibert; Hayley M. Skelton

2008-01-01

461

Sex, Drugs, and Skateboarding: Public Support for Prevalence Reduction vs. Harm Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1050 California adults examined public attitudes toward prevalence reduction (PR; reducing the number of people engaging in an activity) and harm reduction (HR; reducing the harm associated with an activity) across three controversial domains (heroin use, tobacco use, and teen sexual behavior), and a less controversial risky sport (skateboarding). PR was viewed favorably for heroin

Robert J. MacCoun

462

Developing an Effective Intervention for IDU Women: A Harm Reduction Approach to Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harm reduction is fundamentally a movement intended to empower the patient and consumer of health services. This project applied harm reduction theory as a strategy to empower collaborating community partners and researchers to overcome their preconceptions about each other in order to create a successful HIV prevention intervention and evaluation…

Brown, Nancy L.; Luna, Veronica; Ramirez, M. Heliana; Vail, Kenneth A.; Williams, Clark A.

2005-01-01

463

Filter for lowering harmful crankcase emissions in an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes combination with a crankcase vent connected to an internal combustion engine, a device for separating harmful emissions. It comprises: a housing unit; an inlet for taking in crankcase emissions a beveled surface for return of liquid portions of the crankcase emissions via the inlet; silica beads to filter harmful crankcase emissions, and viscous fluid coating the silica

Sweeten

1991-01-01

464

Help-Seeking for Suicidal Thoughts and Self-Harm in Young People: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that only a minority of young people experiencing suicidal thoughts or self-harm present to any health services. This is of concern given that young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm often require treatment for mental illness as well as to reduce their risk of completed suicide. We reviewed…

Michelmore, Lisa; Hindley, Peter

2012-01-01

465

Prevalence and Predictors of Harmful Khat Use Among University Students in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive assessment of harmful khat use is lacking because often researchers rely on a simple tool for studying it. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of harmful khat use among Ethiopian university students by developing a comprehensive scale based on Alcohol Use Identification Test, Severity of Dependency Syndrome scale, and International Classification of Diseases definition of harmful substance use. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of harmful khat use. One in five current khat user students were identified as harmful khat users [20.6% (95% CI: 14.3–22.3)]. Harmful khat use in this study was strongly associated with chewing at commercial places [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.01–5.33)], and having non-student friends accompanying the khat-chewing ceremony [AOR = 3.77 (95% CI: 1.09–13.03). Students who started chewing khat at the age of 20 years or later [AOR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.07–0.55)] and those who preferred to study in the library [AOR = 0.31(95% CI: 0.12–0.81)] were less likely to be harmful khat users. The university authorities, in addition to provision of student guidance on substance-use prevention, need to work in collaboration with the surrounding community and responsible public authorities in order to reduce harmful use of khat by their students. PMID:24940069

Gebrehanna, Ewenat; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

2014-01-01

466

HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS: RISK ASSESSMENT NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The symposium session, Indicators for Effects and Predictions of Harmful Algal Blooms, explored the current state of indicators used to assess the human health and ecological risks caused by harmful algal blooms, and highlighted future needs and impediments that must be overcome...

467

How common are thoughts of self-harm in a UK palliative care population?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was carried out to determine the incidence of thoughts of self-harm in a population of palliative care patients and to determine the association of thoughts of self harm with age, diagnosis and scoring above a prevalidated threshold for depression using the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS). Two hundred and forty-eight (108 male and 140 female) patients participated in

Mari Lloyd-Williams

2002-01-01

468

Responding to Self-Harm: A Documentary Analysis of Agency Policy and Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the findings of a documentary analysis of policies and procedures relating to self-harm from a range of organisations working with young people in the UK. It identifies the extent to which policies and/or procedures relating to self-harm are available for service providers and offers a wider understanding of the concepts of…

Paul, Sally; Hill, Malcolm

2013-01-01

469

Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents in Oxford, 1985-1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews data collected by the Oxford Monitoring System for Attempted Suicide in teenagers between 1985-1995 to determine trends in acts of deliberate self-harm. Notes substantial increase in number of episodes of deliberate self-harm for both males and females. Discusses implications for hospital and counseling professionals and well as…

Hawton, Keith; Fagg, Joan; Simkin, Sue; Bale, Elizabeth; Bond, Alison

2000-01-01

470

Impulse Noise: Can Hitting a Softball Harm Your Hearing?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to identify whether or not different materials of softball bats (wooden, aluminum, and composite) are a potential risk harm to hearing when batting players strike a 12?? core .40 softball during slow, underhand pitch typical of recreational games. Peak sound pressure level measurements and spectral analyses were conducted for three controlled softball pitches to a batting participant using each of the different bat materials in an unused outdoor playing field with regulation distances between the pitcher's mound and batter's box. The results revealed that highest recorded peak sound pressure level was recorded from the aluminum (124.6?dBC) bat followed by the composite (121.2?dBC) and wooden (120.0?dBC) bats. Spectral analysis revealed composite and wooden bats with similar broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response. The aluminum bat also produced a broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response, but there were also two very distinct peaks at around 1700?Hz and 2260?Hz above the noise floor that produced its ringing (or ping) sound after being struck. Impulse (transient) sounds less than 140?dBC may permit multiple exposures, and softball bats used in a recreational slow pitch may pose little to no risk to hearing. PMID:24778596

Atcherson, Samuel R.

2014-01-01

471

Does Random Treatment Assignment Cause Harm to Research Participants?  

PubMed Central

Background Some argue that by precluding individualized treatment, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) provide substandard medical care, while others claim that participation in clinical research is associated with improved patient outcomes. However, there are few data to assess the impact of random treatment assignment on RCT participants. We therefore performed a systematic review to quantify the differences in health outcomes between randomized trial participants and eligible non-participants. Methods and Findings Studies were identified by searching Medline, the Web of Science citation database, and manuscript references. Studies were eligible if they documented baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of RCT participants and eligible non-participants, and allowed non-participants access to the same interventions available to trial participants. Primary study outcomes according to patient group (randomized trial participants versus eligible non-participants) were extracted from all eligible manuscripts. For 22 of the 25 studies (88%) meeting eligibility criteria, there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between patients who received random assignment of treatment (RCT participants) and those who received individualized treatment assignment (eligible non-participants). In addition, there was no relation between random treatment assignment and clinical outcome in 15 of the 17 studies (88%) in which randomized and nonrandomized patients had similar health status at baseline. Conclusions These findings suggest that randomized treatment assignment as part of a clinical trial does not harm research participants. PMID:16719548

Gross, Cary P; Krumholz, Harlan M; Van Wye, Gretchen; Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Wendler, David

2006-01-01

472

Blink-related microtrauma: when the ocular surface harms itself.  

PubMed

Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis results mechanically from blinking under prolonged unphysiological conditions. The pathogenic process is known as blink-related microtrauma. This review aimed to explore the validity of a general theory that besides superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, there may be other diseases of the ocular surface arising from mechanical microtrauma. A review of relevant clinical and microscopic lesions in a range of ocular surface disorders with possible mechanical aetiology was conducted. New terms were selected to facilitate understanding of such new aetiology. Besides superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, other ocular surface disorders regarded as primarily derived from blink microtrauma are: other filamentary keratitides; blepharospasm and severe ptosis; canthal/palpebral froth; affections from disordered eyelid lining; and contact lens related damage. A group of secondarily microtraumatic disorders was identified, including the example of microtrauma impacting upon interpalpebral bulbar prominences. Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis is the archetype of diseases affecting a unique combination; namely, the ocular surface conjoined with its lacrimal fluid. It is only one among many diseases actively generated within the confines of 'a self-harming surface'. PMID:12786767

Cher, Ivan

2003-06-01

473

Promotion of harmful algal blooms by zooplankton predatory activity  

PubMed Central

The relationship between algae and their zooplanktonic predators typically involves consumption of nutrients by algae, grazing of the algae by zooplankton which in turn enhances predator biomass, controls algal growth and regenerates nutrients. Eutrophication raises nutrient levels, but does not simply increase normal predator–prey activity; rather, harmful algal bloom (HAB) events develop often with serious ecological and aesthetic implications. Generally, HAB species are outwardly poor competitors for nutrients, while their development of grazing deterrents during nutrient stress ostensibly occurs too late, after the nutrients have largely been consumed already by fast-growing non-HAB species. A new mechanism is presented to explain HAB dynamics under these circumstances. Using a multi-nutrient predator–prey model, it is demonstrated that these blooms can develop through the self-propagating failure of normal predator–prey activity, resulting in the transfer of nutrients into HAB growth at the expense of competing algal species. Rate limitation of this transfer provides a continual level of nutrient stress that results in HAB species exhibiting grazing deterrents protecting them from top-down control. This process is self-stabilizing as long as nutrient demand exceeds supply, maintaining the unpalatable status of HABs; such events are most likely under eutrophic conditions with skewed nutrient ratios. PMID:17148360

Mitra, Aditee; Flynn, Kevin J

2006-01-01

474

The role of selective predation in harmful algal blooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feature of marine plankton communities is the occurrence of rapid population explosions. When the blooming species are directly or indirectly noxious for humans, these proliferations are denoted as harmful algal blooms (HAB). The importance of biological interactions for the appearance of HABs, in particular when the proliferating microalgae produce toxins that affect other organisms in the food web, remains still poorly understood. Here we analyse the role of toxins produced by a microalgal species and affecting its predators, in determining the success of that species as a bloom former. A three-species predator-prey model is used to define a criterion that determines whether a toxic microalga will be able to initiate a bloom in competition against a non-toxic one with higher growth rate. Dominance of the toxic species depends on a critical parameter that defines the degree of feeding selectivity by grazers. The criterion is applied to a particular simplified model and to numerical simulations of a full marine ecosystem model. The results suggest that the release of toxic compounds affecting predators may be a plausible biological factor in allowing the development of HABs.

Solé, Jordi; Garcia-Ladona, Emilio; Estrada, Marta

2006-08-01

475

Toxicity of harmful cyanobacterial blooms to bream and roach.  

PubMed

Aquatic ecosystems are facing increasing environmental pressures, leading to an increasing frequency of cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (cHABs) that have emerged as a worldwide concern due to their growing frequency and their potential toxicity to the fauna that threatens the functioning of ecosystems. Cyanobacterial blooms raise concerns due to the fact that several strains produce potent bioactive or toxic secondary metabolites, such as the microcystins (MCs), which are hepatotoxic to vertebrates. These strains of cyanobacteria may be potentially toxic to fish via gastrointestinal ingestion and also by direct absorption of the toxin MC from the water. The purpose of our study was to investigate toxic effects observed in fish taken from several lakes in the Ile-de-France region, where MCs-producing blooms occur. This study comprises histological studies and the measurement of MC concentrations in various organs. The histological findings are similar to those obtained following laboratory exposure of medaka fish to MCs: hepatic lesions predominate and include cell lysis and cell detachment. MC concentrations in the organs revealed that accumulation was particularly high in the digestive tract and the liver, which are known to be classical targets of MCs. In contrast concentrations were very low in the muscles. Differences in the accumulation of MC variants produced by blooms indicate that in order to more precisely evaluate the toxic potential of a specific bloom it is necessary not only to consider the concentration of toxins, but also the variants produced. PMID:23732128

Trinchet, Isabelle; Cadel-Six, Sabrina; Djediat, Chakib; Marie, Benjamin; Bernard, Cécile; Puiseux-Dao, Simone; Krys, Sophie; Edery, Marc

2013-09-01

476

Soil Salinity under Traditional and Improved Irrigation Schedules in Central Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

season. This over-watering, however, may preclude salt accumulation in the soil profile, since salt stress for most Traditional irrigation management in some semiarid zones waste crops has not been reported in the area. water relative to crop evapotranspiration requirements. Improved The traditional irrigation practices will not be sustain- irrigation schedules (irrigation depths were adjusted to seasonal crop consumption), however, may

R. Caballero; A. Bustos; R. Román

2001-01-01

477

Does It Take a Miracle? Negotiating Knowledges, Identities, and Communities of Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Li Fengyi, a practitioner of traditional Chinese medicine in Shanghai, China, told me that he saw striking similarities between the American TV medical drama series ER and his own everyday practice, I was at once sur- prised and fascinated. In 1998 and 1999, I worked with Li at the Jiren Clinic of Traditional Chinese Medicine, a private clinic that

Mei Zhan

2001-01-01

478

A framework for organizing and selecting quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Several quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment of health care interventions exist but it is unclear how the approaches differ. Our aim was to review existing quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment and to develop an organizing framework that clarifies differences and aids selection of quantitative approaches for a particular benefit-harm assessment. Methods We performed a review of the literature to identify quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment. Our team, consisting of clinicians, epidemiologists, and statisticians, discussed the approaches and identified their key characteristics. We developed a framework that helps investigators select quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment that are appropriate for a particular decisionmaking context. Results Our framework for selecting quantitative approaches requires a concise definition of the treatment comparison and population of interest, identification of key benefit and harm outcomes, and determination of the need for a measure that puts all outcomes on a single scale (which we call a benefit and harm comparison metric). We identified 16 quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment. These approaches can be categorized into those that consider single or multiple key benefit and harm outcomes, and those that use a benefit-harm comparison metric or not. Most approaches use aggregate data and can be used in the context of single studies or systematic reviews. Although the majority of approaches provides a benefit and harm comparison metric, only four approaches provide measures of uncertainty around the benefit and harm comparison metric (such as a 95 percent confidence interval). None of the approaches considers the actual joint distribution of benefit and harm outcomes, but one approach considers competing risks when calculating profile-specific event rates. Nine approaches explicitly allow incorporating patient preferences. Conclusion The choice of quantitative approaches depends on the specific question and goal of the benefit-harm assessment as well as on the nature and availability of data. In some situations, investigators may identify only one appropriate approach. In situations where the question and available data justify more than one approach, investigators may want to use multiple approaches and compare the consistency of results. When more evidence on relative advantages of approaches accumulates from such comparisons, it will be possible to make more specific recommendations on the choice of approaches. PMID:23163976

2012-01-01

479

Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms  

PubMed Central

Background Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs). However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. Methods We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. Results In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Conclusions Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants), others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research. PMID:22824297

2012-01-01

480

Harmful potential toxic elements in greenhouse soils under long-term cultivation in Almería (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals (HM) are considered highly significant environmental contaminants and are the object of many scientific research works into the soil environment. Activities like agriculture or industry can increase the concentration of these contaminants in soils and waters, which can affect the food chain. Intensification of certain agricultural practices, constant and excessive use of fertilizers and phytosanitary products, and using machinery, increase the HM content in agricultural soils. Many studies have dealt with HM accumulation over time. Despite these works, the influence of long periods of time on these contents, the dynamics and evolution of these elements in agricultural soils, especially soils used for intensive farming purposes under greenhouse conditions, remain unknown to a certain extent. The western Almería region (Spain) is a very important area from both the socio-economic and agricultural viewpoints. A common practice in greenhouse agriculture is the addition of agrochemicals to soils and crops to improve nutrient supply or crop protection and disease control. Such intense agricultural activity has a strong impact, which may have negative repercussions on both these greenhouse soils and the environment. A research has been carried out to determine the total and available levels of six harmful potentially toxic elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn and Co), and to assess long-term variations in the greenhouse soils of western Almeria. The results indicate that managing soils in the greenhouse preparation stage determines major changes in total and available HM contents. Furthermore, Cd, Cu and Pb enrichment in soil was observed depending on the element and years of growth.

Joaquin Ramos-Miras, Jose; Rodríguez Martín, Jose Antonio; Boluda, Rafael; Bech, Jaume; Gil, Carlos

2014-05-01

481

Information visualization: Beyond traditional engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called Information Visualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.

Thomas, James J.

1995-01-01

482

Grey Wolf in Tibetan Tradition  

E-print Network

GREY WOLF IN TIBETAN TRADITION -MYNAK R. TULKU \\ "Holding the banner of wolf symbolises holding by force, that is, conquest". (1) It is true that the expression "grey woJf" is used much later than "wolf", though ordinarily the colour... of the wolf is grey in Tibet as in other parts of the world too (2). The first instances-in the works on Mahakala (mgon-po ~ifjili·ij') and KiIa (phur-pa ~~·t:r) in Kanjur (bka' - 'gyur I:\\"l""«;~') and Tenjur (bstan-'gyur I:\\~~''''~'''') (3)-did not use...

Tulku, Mynak R.

1967-07-11

483

Harmful alcohol use of those who died a violent death (the extended region of Ljubljana 1995-1999).  

PubMed

Consumption of alcohol increases the risk of dying a violent death. We wanted to establish a connection between harmful alcohol use and dying a violent death. We analyzed all such victims in the extended region of Ljubljana. The research included 1630 deceased, who were autopsied at the Forensic Institute of the Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine in the period from 1995 to 1999. Presence of alcohol was established in 76.3% of the cases. From all included in the research, 38.2% of all work accident victims, 28.8% of all murder victims, 25.4% of suicides, 24.6% of victims involved in traffic accidents and 19.3% of those who died in accidents at home. 23.2% of all violent death victims had a concentration of alcohol above 1.5 g/kg; among those, victims of traffic accidents, suicides and accidents at home represent the largest part. The lowest values of alcohol in blood were found in those who died because of accidents at work. The highest values were found in males aged 35-44. The research confirmed that consumption of alcohol in Slovenia was strongly connected to violent deaths. The blood levels of alcohol of the victims are distinctively higher where there are practically no limitations of alcohol consumption and lower in the environment or activities where legal restrictions prohibit or at least explicitly limit harmful use of alcohol (working environment). PMID:15694729

Skibin, L; Bilban, M; Balazic, J

2005-01-17

484

Traditions of the Sun: Explore the World's Ancient Observatories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online exhibit allows visitors to explore traditions of solar observation and ancient astronomy practiced by the Chaco and Mayan cultures of the New World. There is a brief discussion on the development of solar observation and astronomy by early agricultural communities, and slide presentations of sites in the Chaco Culture National Historical Park and the Mayan cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Dzibilchaltun, Mayapan, and others. Visitors will learn about the Sun and Native American solar practices within a larger historical and cultural context, and about Mayan astronomy, history, culture, and science.

485

Cephalopods as vectors of harmful algal bloom toxins in marine food webs.  

PubMed

Here we summarize the current knowledge on the transfer and accumulation of harmful algal bloom (HAB)-related toxins in cephalopods (octopods, cuttlefishes and squids). These mollusks have been reported to accumulate several HAB-toxins, namely domoic acid (DA, and its isomers), saxitoxin (and its derivatives) and palytoxin (and palytoxin-like compounds) and, therefore, act as HAB-toxin vectors in marine food webs. Coastal octopods and cuttlefishes store considerably high levels of DA (amnesic shellfish toxin) in several tissues, but mainly in the digestive gland (DG)--the primary site of digestive absorption and intracellular digestion. Studies on the sub-cellular partitioning of DA in the soluble and insoluble fractions showed that nearly all DA (92.6%) is found in the cytosol. This favors the trophic transfer of the toxins since cytosolic substances can be absorbed by predators with greater efficiency. The available information on the accumulation and tissue distribution of DA in squids (e.g., in stranded Humboldt squids, Dosidicus gigas) is scarcer than in other cephalopod groups. Regarding paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), these organisms accumulate them at the greatest extent in DG > kidneys > stomach > branchial hearts > posterior salivary glands > gills. Palytoxins are among the most toxic molecules identified and stranded octopods revealed high contamination levels, with ovatoxin (a palytoxin analogue) reaching 971 ?g kg?¹ and palytoxin reaching 115 ?g kg?¹ (the regulatory limit for PlTXs is 30 ?g kg?¹ in shellfish). Although the impacts of HAB-toxins in cephalopod physiology are not as well understood as in fish species, similar effects are expected since they possess a complex nervous system and highly developed brain comparable to that of the vertebrates. Compared to bivalves, cephalopods represent a lower risk of shellfish poisoning in humans, since they are usually consumed eviscerated, with exception of traditional dishes from the Mediterranean area. PMID:24018900

Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Costa, Pedro; Rosa, Rui

2013-09-01

486

Cephalopods as Vectors of Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins in Marine Food Webs  

PubMed Central

Here we summarize the current knowledge on the transfer and accumulation of harmful algal bloom (HAB)-related toxins in cephalopods (octopods, cuttlefishes and squids). These mollusks have been reported to accumulate several HAB-toxins, namely domoic acid (DA, and its isomers), saxitoxin (and its derivatives) and palytoxin (and palytoxin-like compounds) and, therefore,