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1

Harmful Traditional Practices and Women’s Health: Female Genital Mutilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a After reading this chapter and answering the discussion questions that follow, you should be able to\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Identify and discuss the origin, types, and prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Critically appraise factors that help to perpetuate the practice of FGM globally.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Review the immediate and long-term consequences of FGM and discuss the various approaches for caring for

Sarah Windle; Chuks Kamanu; Ebere Anyanwu; John E. Ehiri

2

A cross sectional study on factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years in Axum town, north Ethiopia, 2013  

PubMed Central

Background Every social grouping in the world has its own cultural practices and beliefs which guide its members on how they should live or behave. Harmful traditional practices that affect children are Female genital mutilation, Milk teeth extraction, Food taboo, Uvula cutting, keeping babies out of exposure to sun, and Feeding fresh butter to new born babies. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years of age in Axum town, North Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted in 752 participants who were selected using multi stage sampling; Simple random sampling method was used to select ketenas from all kebelles of Axum town. After proportional allocation of sample size, systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participants. Data was collected using interviewer administered Tigrigna version questionnaire, it was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics was calculated and logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results Out of the total sample size 50.7% children were females, the mean age of children was 26.28 months and majority of mothers had no formal education. About 87.8% mothers had performed at least one traditional practice to their children; uvula cutting was practiced on 86.9% children followed by milk teeth extraction 12.5% and eye borrows incision 2.4% children. Fear of swelling, pus and rapture of the uvula was the main reason to perform uvula cutting. Conclusion The factors associated with harmful traditional practices were educational status, occupation, religion of mothers and harmful traditional practices performed on the mothers. PMID:24952584

2014-01-01

3

[Harmful practices affecting women's health].  

PubMed

The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

1990-07-01

4

Sudanese women's struggle to eliminate harmful practices.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is widely accepted in the Sudan regardless of educational level. Findings from the 1989-90 Sudan Demographic and Health Survey indicate that a large majority of both men and women approved of the procedure. 73% of men preferred the less harmful "Sunna" type, and 18% preferred infibulation. 4% preferred an intermediate type. Another study found that all the polygynous men with both types of wives preferred non-excised or "Sunna" circumcised women as more sexually responsive and participatory. FGM is part of a continuation of a patriarchal repression of female sexuality. The belief is held among African societies that excision of the clitoris protects a woman from her sexuality by keeping her from temptation, suspicion, and disgrace. FGM occurs mainly in societies that have an absolute and clear requisite of female chastity for marriage. The Islamic view is ambivalent and variable by geographic region. Some physicians defend FGM on "scientific" grounds. The general principle of Islamic education as stated by Shiekh Mahmoud Shaltout of Cairo is that neither "Sunna" nor excision of the clitoris is mandatory. FGM is celebrated as a rite of passage. The practice is disappearing due to education and eradication campaigns. Although unexcised women are considered unclean, the FGM procedure actually interferes with menstruation and escape of urine and results in discomfort and infection. An obstacle to stopping FGM is the fee paid to traditional birth attendants, nurses, and midwives, whose self-interest is to defend the practice. Groups working to eradicate the practice include the Inter-African Committee (since 1984) and the Sudan National Committee on Harmful Traditional Practices (since 1985). Campaigns involve education and promotion of alternative employment for birth attendants and midwives. An impact assessment in Sudan in 1994 found that FGM is now publicly discussed, the influence of elders is declining, and the practice is viewed among the most educated as anti-modern. There is a trend toward use of the less harmful "Sunna" method or else a new "false circumcision," where only plaster is placed around the clitoris. PMID:12346471

Hassan, A

1995-01-01

5

Adapting traditional healing practices.  

PubMed

The Aboriginal people in Canada have been noted to have low self-esteem, subsequently increasing their risk of HIV. To this effect, two traditional healing practices are being used to help these people avoid HIV infection, and to live more healthily and positively if they are infected. The first method is the Medicine Wheel, which is a traditional model used to represent the complex interrelationship among all living things and show how their immune system is physically affected by their emotions and worries. Many Aboriginal AIDS Organizations, counselors and others are now using this AIDS teaching Wheel model. Meanwhile, the second method is the Sharing Circles, which provide an environment where people feel safe to talk about HIV and give participants a sense of support and a means for expression without stigma or judgement. As a result, many people who attend HIV circles begin to take better care of themselves and of others. Overall, it is emphasized that these traditional healing practices can be effectively adapted for use in HIV counseling and education. PMID:12296176

Weiser, J

1999-01-01

6

Traditional agroforestry practices in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional agroforestry systems in the communal areas of Zimbabwe are described. There are systems centered on main fields, on home gardens, on homesites and on grazing areas. In the main fields, the major tree-related management practice is the conservation of preferred indigenous fruit trees. Fruit trees are also the focus of forestry activities around the gardens and the homesite; but

B. M. Campbell; J. M. Clarke; D. J. Gumbo

1991-01-01

7

Harm Reduction Therapy: A Practice-Friendly Review of Research  

PubMed Central

Harm reduction is an umbrella term for interventions aiming to reduce the problematic effects of behaviors. Although harm reduction was originally and most frequently associated with substance use, it is increasingly being applied to a multitude of other behavioral disorders. This article reviews the state of empirical research on harm reduction practices including alcohol interventions for youth, college students, and a variety of other adult interventions. We also review nicotine replacement and opioid substitution, as well as needle exchanges and safe injection sites for intravenous drug users. Dozens of peer-reviewed controlled trial publications provide support for the effectiveness of harm reduction for a multitude of clients and disorders without indications of iatrogenic effects. Harm reduction interventions provide additional tools for clinicians working with clients who, for whatever reason, may not be ready, willing, or able to pursue full abstinence as a goal. PMID:20049923

Logan, Diane E.; Marlatt, G. Alan

2014-01-01

8

Potentially Harmful Practices: Using the DSM With People of Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the potentially harmful practice of utilizing the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as the only tool when diagnosing minority clients with a mental illness. Issues addressed include diagnosing, accuracy, cultural information, revision process, clinical judgment, training, and empirical evidence. A brief discussion of what social workers can do to enhance diagnosing is given, as well

Catheleen Jordan

2011-01-01

9

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

10

Traditional Healing Practices among First Nations Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses post-secondary First Nations students' attitudes toward traditional Native American healing practices in terms of their interest, valuing, and participation. Majority of subjects report having participated in a diversity of native healing practices. Implications of the prevalence of these beliefs and practices are discussed and…

Wyrostok, Nina C.; Paulson, Barbara L.

2000-01-01

11

Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change  

PubMed Central

Background Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is strong adherence to traditional practices. Successful implementation of the package therefore requires in-depth knowledge of the local context and tailored behaviour change communication. Methods This study was carried out in rural Karnataka, India. It uses quantitative data from a prospective survey following mothers through their experience of pregnancy and the postnatal period; and qualitative data from in depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted with mothers, grandmothers and birth attendants. It explores local newborn care practices and beliefs, analyses their harmful or beneficial characteristics and elucidates areas of potential resistance to behaviour change and implementation of the essential newborn care package. Results Findings show that many potentially harmful newborn care practices are being carried out in the study area, such as unhygienic cord cutting, delayed breastfeeding and early bathing. Some are more amenable to change than others, depending on the strength of the underlying beliefs, and acceptability of alternative care. However, movement away from traditional practices is already taking place, particularly amongst the more educated and better off, and there is a clear opportunity to broaden, direct and accelerate this process. Conclusion Community education should be a focus of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) program being implemented in Karnataka. The added capacity of the new Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) could enable more women to be reached. With careful tailoring of behaviour change messages to the local context, government outreach workers can become effective brokers of positive change and significant improvements in home newborn care and neonatal mortality are possible. PMID:19457266

Kesterton, Amy J; Cleland, John

2009-01-01

12

Harmful microinjecting practices among a cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver Canada  

PubMed Central

Objectives We sought to identify factors associated with harmful microinjecting practices in a longitudinal cohort of IDU. Methods Using data from the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS) between January 2004 and December 2005, generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was performed to examine sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with four harmful microinjecting practices (frequent rushed injecting, frequent syringe borrowing, frequently injecting with a used water capsule, frequently injecting alone). Results In total, 620 participants were included in the present analysis. Our study included 251 (40.5%) women and 203 (32.7%) self-identified Aboriginal participants. The median age was 31.9 (interquartile range: 23.4–39.3). GEE analyses found that each harmful microinjecting practice was associated with a unique profile of sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Discussion We observed high rates of harmful microinjecting practices among IDU. The present study describes the epidemiology of harmful microinjecting practices and points to the need for strategies that target higher risk individuals including the use of peer-driven programs and drug-specific approaches in an effort to promote safer injecting practices. PMID:20509739

Rachlis, Beth; Lloyd-Smith, Elisa; Small, Will; Tobin, Diane; Stone, Dave; Li, Kathy; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

2013-01-01

13

[Rapid detection of extrinsic harmful contaminants using quantum dots-coated probes and their application prospects in traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

The contamination of extrinsic harmful contaminants including mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides, etc, brings serious risks to traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), further to human health. Due to their unique photoluminescence, chemiluminescence, electrochemical and electrochemiluminescence properties, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) nanoparticles are widely used to immobilize bioprobes and biosensors, etc. In this review, the luminescence characteristics and specific ligands of QDs probles which are used to determine contaminants were summed up. Then, the applications of QDs-coated novel probes in the determination of mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides were discussed in detail. In addition, the contamination levels and characteristics of extrinsic harmful residues in TCMs were investigated. Further, the maximum levels of those contaminants in TCMs were compared with those set by various countries. Finally, the future development trends and problems of QDs-coated probes in the determination of those extrinsic residues in TCMs were prospected. PMID:24791477

Yang, Xi-Hui; Kong, Wei-Jun; Yang, Mei-Hua; Chen, Shi-Lin; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

2013-12-01

14

[Study of determination method for heavy metals and harmful elements residues in four traditional Chinese medicine injections].  

PubMed

Methods for determination of heavy metals and harmful residues in traditional Chinese medicine injection were established. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used for determination of lead, cadmium and copper, atomic fluorescence spectrometry for arsenic and mercury. The preprocessing method was optimized. The average recoveries of 5 elements were between 91% and 112% while the precisions were less than 2%. The determination limit of lead, cadmium, copper, arsenic and mercury were 0.28, 0.014, 0.49, 0.19, 0.061 microg x L(-1), respectively. The proposed method was simple, sensitive, accurate and reliable, and could be used widely. PMID:19260306

Nie, Li-xing; Jin, Hong-yu; Wang, Gang-li; Tian, Jin-gai; Lin, Rui-chao

2008-12-01

15

Delivery Practices of Traditional Birth Attendants in Dhaka Slums, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

This paper describes associations among delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, and early postpartum morbidity in women in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During November 1993–May 1995, data on delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, delivery-related complications, and postpartum morbidity were collected through interviews with 1,506 women, 489 home-based birth attendants, and audits in 20 facilities where the women from this study gave birth. Associations among maternal characteristics, birth practices, delivery-location, and early postpartum morbidity were specifically explored. Self-reported postpartum morbidity was associated with maternal characteristics, delivery-related complications, and some birthing practices. Dais with more experience were more likely to use potentially-harmful birthing practices which increased the risk of postpartum morbidity among women with births at home. Postpartum morbidity did not differ by birth-location. Safe motherhood programmes must develop effective strategies to discourage potentially-harmful home-based delivery practices demonstrated to contribute to morbidity. PMID:18402192

Fronczak, N.; Arifeen, S.E.; Moran, A.C.; Caulfield, L.E.; Baqui, A.H.

2007-01-01

16

Chemistry practical lessons: altering traditions for students' emancipation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a response to Maria Andree's paper. Andree tells in the paper how mistakes in practical lessons may be critical events to change students' attitudes in regard science. While traditionally mistakes in practical lessons could obligate students to repeat the experiment in order to get the `right result' in the paper we have a good example how we can use the incident to potentiate students' participation. In my response I illustrate how transferable is what Andree speaks about but I put forward further reflections about the traditions that may act as impediment for students' participation. I thus suggest that the critical paradigm should be a component in reflecting about science classroom practices in order to alter the traditions.

Nhalevilo, Emilia Afonso

2012-06-01

17

Beliefs and rituals in traditional birth attendant practice in Guatemala.  

PubMed

Childbearing women and infants in developing countries continue to experience unacceptably high rates of mortality and morbidity in spite of targeted initiatives to address the problem. The aim of this study was to identify the beliefs and rituals of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in one indigenous Guatemalan community to better understand the cultural influences on perinatal care practices. Ethnographic methods were used to increase understanding of the practice of 10 Mayan TBAs. Three themes were constructed: sacred calling, sacred knowledge and sacred ritual. PMID:16595402

Walsh, Linda V

2006-04-01

18

Creating Minimum Harm Practice ( MiHaP): a concept for continuous improvement.  

PubMed

The author asks for the attention of leaders and all other stakeholders to calls of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and the UK National Health Service (NHS) to promote continuous learning to reduce harm to patients. This paper presents a concept for structured bottom-up methodology that enables and empowers all stakeholders to identify, prioritize, and address safety challenges. This methodology takes advantage of the memory of the experiences of all persons involved in providing care. It respects and responds to the uniqueness of each setting by empowering and motivating all team members to commit to harm reduction. It is based on previously published work on "Best Practices Research (BPR)" and on "Systematic Appraisal of Risk and Its Management for Error Reduction (SARAIMER)". The latter approach, has been shown by the author (with Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) support), to reduce adverse events and their severity through empowerment, ownership and work satisfaction. The author puts forward a strategy for leaders to implement, in response to national and international calls for Better health, Better care, and Better value (the 3B's of healthcare) in the US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. ( )This is designed to enable and implement " A promise to learn- a commitment to act".  AHRQ has recently published "A Toolkit for Rapid-Cycle Patient Safety and Quality Improvement" that includes an adapted version of SARAIMER. PMID:24715965

Singh, Ranjit

2013-01-01

19

Behavioral HIV Harm Reduction Programs for Incarcerated Women: Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical overview of characteristics of successful HIV harm reduction programs that target behavior, and a description of an existing program, AIDS Counseling and Education (ACE) at Bedford Hills Correctional Facility, New York, that promotes HIV harm reduction among incarcerated women through peer education. Successful harm reduction programs are: grounded in theory

Allison C. Morrill; Rev. Elizabeth Mastroieni; Sarah Roskam Leibel

1998-01-01

20

The impact of a police drug crackdown on drug injectors’ ability to practice harm reduction: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employs qualitative methods to explore the ramifications of a police drug crackdown on drug injectors’ ability to practice harm reduction. Between August and December 2000, we conducted open-ended interviews with 40 illicit-drug-injecting residents of a New York City police precinct undergoing a crackdown. Interview topics included participants’ experiences with police in the precinct and their drug use practices.

Hannah Cooper; Lisa Moore; Sofia Gruskin; Nancy Krieger

2005-01-01

21

Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender and Fairness in Traditional Practices in Benin, West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined reasoning about fairness in gender-related traditional practices in Benin, West Africa. Fifty adolescents (M = 15.7 years) and 46 adults (M = 33.4 years) were interviewed about traditional practices involving gender hierarchy. Results indicate that the majority attributed decision-making authority to a traditional authority for…

Conry-Murray, Clare

2009-01-01

22

Native Hawaiian Traditional Healing: Culturally Based Interventions for Social Work Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of culturally-based interventions delivered by social workers with adequate professional skills to provide services to ethnic, racial, and cultural groups. Offers two examples of interventions based on traditional Hawaiian values and practices, which target direct practice and community practice. Explains how traditional

Hurdel, Donna E.

2002-01-01

23

Toxic Red Tides and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Practical Challenge in Coastal Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This national report to IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) contains links to information regarding harmful algal blooms (HABs). Written by Donald Anderson, the report includes: introduction, background, recent trends, physical/biological coupling, small-scale interactions, nutrient dynamics, emerging technologies (molecular probes, remote sensing, models, management issues, and program and policy issues), and a list of references.

Anderson, Donald M. (Donald Mark)

2010-01-04

24

Smoking cessation treatment and risk of depression, suicide, and self harm in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the risk of suicide, self harm, and depression in patients prescribed varenicline or bupropion with those prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. Design Prospective cohort study within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Setting 349 general practices in England. Participants 119?546 men and women aged 18 years and over who used a smoking cessation product between 1 September 2006 and 31 October 2011. There were 81?545 users of nicotine replacement products (68.2% of all users of smoking cessation medicines), 6741 bupropion (5.6%), and 31?260 varenicline (26.2%) users. Main outcome measures Outcomes were treated depression and fatal and non-fatal self harm within three months of the first smoking cessation prescription, determined from linkage with mortality data from the Office for National Statistics (for suicide) and Hospital Episode Statistics data (for hospital admissions relating to non-fatal self harm). Hazard ratios or risk differences were estimated using Cox multivariable regression models, propensity score matching, and instrumental variable analysis using physicians’ prescribing preferences as an instrument. Sensitivity analyses were performed for outcomes at six and nine months. Results We detected 92 cases of fatal and non-fatal self harm (326.5 events per 100?000 person years) and 1094 primary care records of treated depression (6963.3 per 100?000 person years). Cox regression analyses showed no evidence that patients prescribed varenicline had higher risks of fatal or non-fatal self harm (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 1.49) or treated depression (0.75, 0.65 to 0.87) compared with those prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. There was no evidence that patients prescribed bupropion had a higher risk of fatal or non-fatal self harm (0.83, 0.30 to 2.31) or of treated depression (0.63, 0.46 to 0.87) compared with patients prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. Similar findings were obtained using propensity score methods and instrumental variable analyses. Conclusions There is no evidence of an increased risk of suicidal behaviour in patients prescribed varenicline or bupropion compared with those prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. These findings should be reassuring for users and prescribers of smoking cessation medicines. PMID:24124105

2013-01-01

25

A Modern Business Practice Works Its Way into Traditional Industries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kent State University's Trumbull Campus offers customized training in such "soft skills" as team building, problem solving, conflict resolution, communication, and time management. Classes are offered in traditional classrooms, via the Internet, and through videoconferencing. (JOW)

Shure, Jennifer L.

2001-01-01

26

Effectiveness of general practice interventions for patients with harmful alcohol consumption.  

PubMed Central

Harmful alcohol consumption can have severe consequences for both the individual and society. A review of the six published studies on the effectiveness of general practitioner interventions for individuals with harmful alcohol consumption suggests that between five and 10 minutes of advice leads to reductions of alcohol consumption of around 25-35% at follow up six months or one year later. Two of the three studies which failed to demonstrate an intervention effect had inadequate sample sizes and in two of the studies the control group was a comparison group which received minimal advice to reduce alcohol consumption. There was greater evidence for an intervention effect among men than women. The methodological problems of the studies are discussed. PMID:8251237

Anderson, P

1993-01-01

27

Traditional Postpartum Practices and Food Consuming Among Women in Rural Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the development in advanced medical and public health services has provided both proactive and passive postpartum care in the rural areas, the traditional practices are still influential. The objective of this study was to investigate the traditional practices and food consuming for Thai postpartum women in the rural areas. The descriptive study used both the quantitative and qualitative methods.

Supunnee Thrakul; Pranee Lundberg; Karn Chaladthanyagid; Pennapa Unsanit

28

Delivery Practices of Traditional Birth Attendants in Dhaka Slums, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes associations among delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, and early postpartum morbidity in women in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During November 1993- May 1995, data on delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, delivery-related com- plications, and postpartum morbidity were collected through interviews with 1,506 women, 489 home- based birth attendants, and audits in 20

N. Fronczak; S. E. Arifeen; A. C. Moran; L. E. Caulfield; A. H. Baqui

2007-01-01

29

Bapedi traditional healers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Their socio-cultural profile and traditional healing practice  

PubMed Central

Background Bapedi traditional healers play a vital role in the primary health care of rural inhabitants in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. However, literature profiling their social and demographic variables, as well as their traditional healing practices is lacking. Methods Convenience sampling were used to identify and select two traditional healers from 17 municipalities (resulting in 34 healers being used in this pilot survey) of the Limpopo Province in South Africa. Information on the social and demographic variables, and traditional healing practices of these healers was gathered from January 2013 to July 2013, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented by field surveys for plant identification and collection used in the preparation of remedies. Results Males constituted nearly two-thirds of the participants. Forty eight percent of them became healers through the mentoring of another healer, while 38% acquired their traditional healing knowledge from parents and 14% from grandparents. In contrast to this, 62% of the females obtained theirs from their parents, 30% from fellow traditional healers, and 8% from grandparents. A total of 154 plant species were indicated as used by healers in the treatment of 52 health-related problems. A vast majority (89%) of these practitioners reported that prepared herbal remedies do expire, which is a temperature-dependent process. Determinations of the efficacy of remedies by most healers (67%) were via consultation with ancestors (90%). This study also found that none of the interviewees had any knowledge of provincial or national environmental legislation. Conclusions The current study has shown that Bapedi traditional healers could play a leading role in both the preservation of indigenous knowledge and the primary health care sector. However, of concern is the traditional methods (via consulting ancestors) employed by most of these healers in determining efficacy of remedies, thus indicating a need for a scientific investigations to establish their safety and effectiveness. Equally, there is a need to educate traditional practitioners’ regarding the significance of various conservation legislations in their traditional healing. By addressing these, the national and provincial legislators, medical fraternity as well as environmental agencies will be able to better integrate them in primary health care systems and environmental management. PMID:24410790

2014-01-01

30

Practice, instruction and skill acquisition in soccer: Challenging tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acquisition of soccer skills is fundamental to our enjoyment of the game and is essential to the attainment of expertise. Players spend most of their time in practice with the intention of improving technical skills. However, there is a lack of scientific research relating to the effective acquisition of soccer skills, especially when compared with the extensive research base

A. MARK WILLIAMS; NICOLA J. HODGES

2005-01-01

31

Beyond Tradition: Culture, Symbolism, and Practicality in American Indian Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous people have always created what colonial language labels art. Yet there is no Native word for "art" as defined in a Euro-American sense. Art, as the dominant culture envisions, is mostly ornamental. This is in sharp juxtaposition to a Native perspective, which sees art as integrative, inclusive, practical, and constantly…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2013-01-01

32

Three bodies of practice in a traditional south Indian martial art  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes three interconnected conceptions of the body in kaarippayau, the martial tradition of Kerala, south India. It traces continuities and discontinuities among concepts and practices recorded in classic source texts and contemporary martial practice for each of the three 'bodies of practice'. The first is the fluid body of humors and saps. The second is the body as

Phillip B. Zarrilli

1989-01-01

33

Leadership Practices of NonTraditional Seminary Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine differences in Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-Self) scores between masters-level seminary students based on the independent variables of student age, class load, gender, marital status, and parental status. The 1,254 masters-level seminary students enrolled on the main campus of Dallas Theological Seminary for the fall semester of 2003 received a survey packet, consisting

GEORGE MILTON HILLMAN Jr

2008-01-01

34

Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices Among Lower Class Black Americans  

PubMed Central

The medical belief system of lower class black Americans reflects their social, political and economic marginality in the larger society. A moderate life-style is regarded as the basis for good health with special emphasis on protecting one's body from cold, keeping it clean inside and out and maintaining a proper diet. Illnesses and other life events are classified as “natural” or “unnatural.” Natural illnesses result from the effects of cold, dirt and improper diet on the body causing changes in the blood. A number of beliefs about blood and its functions have important clinical implications for the treatment of hypertension and venereal disease and for family planning. Natural illnesses also result from divine punishment and serve as an instrument of social control. Unnatural illnesses are the result of witchcraft and reflect conflict in the social network. It is believed that physicians do not understand and cannot effectively treat such illnesses, but a variety of traditional healers offer help to the victims. Physicians must elicit such beliefs if they are to interact effectively and sensitively with black patients. Social change is required, however, to eliminate the feelings of powerlessness at the root of many of the health problems of poor black Americans. PMID:6364570

Snow, Loudell F.

1983-01-01

35

Active patients: the integration of modern and traditional obstetric practices in Nepal.  

PubMed

This paper describes the integration of modern and traditional obstetric practices in a provincial hospital in the Maithili-speaking area of southern Nepal. The doctors and nurses consciously distance themselves from the traditional practices of their obstetrical patients, whom they view as 'ignorant'; but because hospital resources are insufficient to impose the normative form of modern medical organization, patients and their relatives assert a more active role in providing hospital-based care. In consequence, mothers are delivered according to both modern, clinical as well as local cultural practices. Recent WHO policy has cast modern medicine as the agent in the integration of traditional healing within national health systems. This essay shows that in poor countries the powers of agency may not be exclusively in the hands of the medical profession. Patients, and others in their social networks, have become agents, constraining and negotiating the terms on which modern medicine is to be integrated within their traditional obstetric practices. PMID:2740927

Reissland, N; Burghart, R

1989-01-01

36

A study of the beliefs and birthing practices traditional midwives in rural Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a descriptive study of the beliefs and practices of the traditional midwives in a rural Guatemalan village. During pregnancy and birth, traditional midwives who have received minimal or no training attend more than 80% of the indigenous Mayan women. Data were obtained from interviews with the midwives and from direct observation of midwives attending births. The midwives had

Jennifer B. Lang; Elizabeth D. Elkin

1997-01-01

37

Traditionality and Cancer Screening Practices Among American Indian Women in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study purpose was to examine the relationship between cancer screening and traditionality, using a culturally specific survey instrument. American Indian (AI) women were randomly selected from the Vermont Breast Cancer Surveillance System (VBCSS), a statewide mammography database. The 13 items that assessed traditionality examined identity, cultural beliefs, customs, and health practices. The sample of 115 was predominately married, educated,

Mary K. Canales; William Rakowski; Alan Howard

2007-01-01

38

Perspectives and Practices of Xhosa-Speaking African Traditional Healers when Managing Psychosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives and practices of Xhosa-speaking African traditional healers, known as "amagqirha", in managing psychosis. Four traditional healers, 3 male and one female, were chosen to take part in the study through their association with psychosis patients undergoing treatment at a South African psychiatric…

Mzimkulu, Kanyiswa G.; Simbayi, Leickness C.

2006-01-01

39

Best Practices: Energy Savings Efficient energy use reduces Colorado State's total energy demand, decreases harmful  

E-print Network

and outdoor lights at South College Gym to more energy efficient bulbs, which saves about $4,500/yr and energy-saving elements such as efficient lighting. While the initial investment may cost a little more upBest Practices: Energy Savings Efficient energy use reduces Colorado State's total energy demand

40

Ayahuasca healing beyond the Amazon: the globalization of a traditional indigenous entheogenic practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ayahuasca commonly refers to a psychoactive Amazonian indigenous brew traditionally used for spiritual and healing purposes (that is as an entheogen). Since the late twentieth century, ayahuasca has undergone a process of globalization through the uptake of different kinds of socio-cultural practices, including its sacramental use in some new Brazilian religious movements and its commodified use in cross-cultural vegetalismo practices,

KENNETH W. TUPPER

2009-01-01

41

Household Survey of Pesticide Practice, Deliberate Self-Harm, and Suicide in the Sundarban Region of West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

The toxicological impact and intentional ingestion of pesticides are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to estimate the extent of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicides (suicidal behaviour) and document pesticide practices in Namkhana block of the Sundarban region, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1680 households (21 villages) following a mixed random and cluster design sampling. The survey questionnaire (Household Information on Pesticide Use and DSH) was developed by the research team to elicit qualitative and quantitative information. The Kappa statistic and McNemar's test were used to assess the level of agreement and association between respondents' and investigators' opinions about safe storage of pesticides. Over five years, 1680 households reported 181 incidents of suicidal behaviour. Conflict with family members was the most frequently reported reason for suicidal behaviour (53.6%). The Kappa statistic indicated poor agreement between respondents and investigators about safe storage of pesticides. The pesticide-related annual DSH rate was 158.1 (95% CI 126.2–195.5), and for suicide it was 73.4 (95% CI 52.2–100.3) per 100,000. Unsafe pesticide practice and psychosocial stressors are related to the high rates of suicidal behaviour. An intersectoral approach involving the local governments, agricultural department and the health sector would help to reduce the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:24224181

Banerjee, Sohini; Chowdhury, Arabinda Narayan; Schelling, Esther; Weiss, Mitchell G.

2013-01-01

42

Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and

Purnima Madhivanan; Bhavana N Kumar; Paul Adamson; Karl Krupp

2010-01-01

43

Harm reduction  

PubMed Central

The “Harm Reduction” session was chaired by Dr. Jacques Normand, Director of the AIDS Research Program of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. The three presenters (and their presentation topics) were: Dr. Don Des Jarlais (High Coverage Needle/Syringe Programs for People Who Inject Drugs in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review), Dr. Nicholas Thomson (Harm Reduction History, Response, and Current Trends in Asia), and Dr. Jih-Heng Li (Harm Reduction Strategies in Taiwan).

Normand, Jacques; Li, Jih-Heng; Thomson, Nicholas; Jarlais, Don Des

2014-01-01

44

HIV/AIDS-Related Attitudes and Practices Among Traditional Healers in Zamb?zia Province, Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives To document HIV knowledge, treatment practices, and the willingness of traditional healers to engage with the health system in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Settings/location Traditional healers offer culturally acceptable services and are more numerous in Mozambique than are allopathic providers. Late presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported among persons who have first sought care from traditional healers. Design One hundred and thirty-nine (139) traditional healers were interviewed in their native languages (Chuabo or Lomwe) in Zambézia Province. Furthermore, 24 traditional healers were observed during patient encounters. Healers answered a semistructured questionnaire regarding their knowledge of HIV/AIDS, general treatment practices, attitudes toward the allopathic health system, and their beliefs in their abilities to cure AIDS. Results Traditional healers were older and had less formal education than the general population. Razor cutting in order to rub herbs into bloodied skin was observed, and healers reported razor cutting as a routine practice. Healers stated that they did not refer HIV patients to clinics for two principal reasons: (1) patient symptoms/signs of HIV were unrecognized, and (2) practitioners believed they could treat the illness effectively themselves. Traditional healers were far more likely to believe in a spiritual than an infectious origin of HIV disease. Prior HIV/AIDS training was not associated with better knowledge or referral practices, though 81% of healers were interested in engaging allopathic providers. Conclusions It was found that the HIV-related practices of traditional healers probably increase risk for both HIV-infected and uninfected persons through delayed care and reuse of razors. Mozambican traditional healers attribute HIV pathogenesis to spiritual, not infectious, etiologies. Healers who had received prior HIV training were no more knowledgeable, nor did they have better practices. The willingness expressed by 4 in 5 healers to engage local formal health providers in HIV/AIDS care suggests a productive way forward, though educational efforts must be effective and income concerns considered. PMID:23171035

Blevins, Meridith; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Pires, Paulo; Vergara, Alfredo; Vermund, Sten H.

2012-01-01

45

Traditional birth attendants in rural Nepal: Knowledge, attitudes and practices about maternal and newborn health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to formalise the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and neonatal health programmes have had limited success. TBAs’ continued attendance at home deliveries suggests the potential to influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand the knowledge, attitudes and practices of TBAs in rural Nepal. Twenty-one trained and untrained

N. Thatte; L. C. Mullany; S. K. Khatry; J. Katz; J. M. Tielsch; G. L. Darmstadt

2009-01-01

46

The Meaning Structures of Muslim Bereavements in Israel: Religious Traditions, Mourning Practices, and Human Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grief and mourning of Muslim citizens in Israel are considered. First, a series of mourning customs spanning the period from notification of death until post-mourning are presented from 3 perspectives: (a) the requirements of the Islamic Sunni tradition; (b) the manner in which Islamic mourning rituals are practiced; and (c) the authors' interpretative perspective. Next, a synopsis of the

Hend Yasien-Esmael; Simon Shimshon Rubin

2005-01-01

47

Dr. Roland Fryer's Apollo 20 Report, "Injecting Charter School Best Practices into Traditional Public Schools  

E-print Network

1 Review of Dr. Roland Fryer's Apollo 20 Report, "Injecting Charter School Best Practices into Traditional Public Schools: Evidence from Houston" Houston Education Research Consortium (HERC) February 5, 2014 Introduction The Apollo 20 program is a bold effort to turn around the lowest performing schools

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

48

Breaking Tradition: An Exploration of the Historical Relationship Between Theory and Practice in Second Language Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book illustrates the history of language teaching and explores how theory has repeatedly been mistranslated into practice. First, it provides a tradition of language teaching that is communicatively oriented. The works of Guarino Guarini, a 15th century educator, and Ignatius of Loyola, a 16th century educational administrator, are examined…

Musumeci, Diane

49

Field Research Practice in Management and Organization Studies: Reclaiming its Tradition of Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review reasserts field research's discovery epistemology. While it occupies a minority position in the study of organization and management, discovery-oriented research practice has a long tradition of giving insight into new, unappreciated and misappreciated processes that are important to how work is accomplished. I argue that while methods discourse has long emphasized that particularizing data and an emergent research

Karen Locke

2011-01-01

50

Navigating Two Worlds: Experiences of Counsellors Who Integrate Aboriginal Traditional Healing Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is revival in the use of traditional healing among Canadian Aboriginal communities and the therapeutic benefits of these practices have received much research attention. An argument is repeatedly made for incorporating indigenous healing into clinical interventions, yet recommendations on how this may be accomplished are lacking. The present…

Oulanova, Olga; Moodley, Roy

2010-01-01

51

A study of the beliefs and birthing practices of traditional midwives in rural Guatemala.  

PubMed

This is a descriptive study of the beliefs and practices of the traditional midwives in a rural Guatemalan village. During pregnancy and birth, traditional midwives who have received minimal or no training attend more than 80% of the indigenous Mayan women. Data were obtained from interviews with the midwives and from direct observation of midwives attending births. The midwives had few skills with which to handle complications. They failed to use basic aseptic technique and were unfamiliar with lifesaving skills such as fundal massage and proper infant stimulation. Even though most of the midwives interviewed had attended a Ministry of Health training course, they lacked basic knowledge of safe obstetric practices. To reduce infant and maternal mortality rates, traditional midwives must be adequately trained. The teaching methods used by an indigenous Guatemalan group training elderly, illiterate midwives are described as an example of an effective training program. PMID:9037932

Lang, J B; Elkin, E D

1997-01-01

52

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

53

Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and processing between non-codified traditional system of medicine and Ayurveda require further methodical studies to establish the relationship between the two on a more objective basis. However, the practice appears to be at crossroads with threat of extinction, because of non-inheritance of the knowledge and non-availability of medicinal plants. Hence conservation strategies for both knowledge and resources at societal, scientific and legislative levels are urgently required to preserve the traditional wisdom. PMID:24934868

2014-01-01

54

Harm Induction vs. Harm Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disease model for drug use and abuse, while still the predominant conceptualization guiding U.S. treatment, is now being challenged by the harm reduction model, highly developed in Britain. This paper examines both positions in light of historical\\/cultural differences related to Puritan zealotry and argues that with regard to illegal drugs, America's War on Drugs actually inflicts harm. The huge

Katherine Van Wormer

1999-01-01

55

Native Hawaiian traditional healing: culturally based interventions for social work practice.  

PubMed

Developing cultural competence is a key requirement for social workers in the multicultural environment of the 21st century. However, the development of social work interventions that are syntonic with specific cultural groups is a great challenge. Interventions that are based on the traditional healing practices of a particular culture ensure cultural relevance and consistency with its values and worldview. This article discusses the importance of culturally based interventions within a cultural competence framework and offers examples of such interventions used with Native Hawaiians. Two interventions are discussed, targeted to the micro (direct practice) level and macro (community practice) level of practice. Culturally based social work interventions may be most appropriate for client systems within a particular culture; however, some methods, such as ho'oponopono, have been successfully used with clients from other cultures as well. PMID:12019805

Hurdle, Donna E

2002-04-01

56

Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China  

PubMed Central

Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

2014-01-01

57

Shifting from traditional to modern child rearing practices in the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional families in the Sudan are close?knit and elders are respected. Parents love their children but do not hesitate to punish for disobedience. A program to teach urban Sudanese mothers to change their child rearing practices to enhance the development of their young preschool children was carried out by home visitors. Changes on the Draw?A?Man test indicated that, whether they

Edith H. Grotberg; Gasim Bardin

1989-01-01

58

Current status of traditional mental health practice in Ilorin Emirate Council area, Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven traditional mental health practitioners (TMHPs) and 16 patients' relatives (PR) were studied with a view to gaining an understanding of the current status of traditional mental health practice in five local government areas in Ilorin Emirate Council Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was collected using Practitioners' Questionnaire (PQ), Patients' Relatives' Questionnaire (PRQ), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and observation of TMHPs in their clinics. Factors which affect utilization of traditional mental health services were also reviewed. We found that TMHPs still enjoy considerable patronage from the populace, are more in numerical strength, and are more widely and evenly dispersed in the community than orthodox mental health practitioners (OMHPs). About 74% of TMHPs expressed interest in attending seminars aimed at improving their skills. Most of the patients' relatives expressed the belief that only traditional healers can understand the supernatural aetiological basis of mental disorders, and can therefore offer more effective care than OMHPs. Some of the negative practices observed were (i) infliction of corporal punishment and physical restraints on patients by some TMHPs resulting in wounds, which often become septic (ii) low level of hygiene at the clinics and (iii) lack of adequate follow-up care. In conclusion, since TMHPs still play a major role in the treatment of the mentally ill in this environment, OMHPs should assist them in improving on some of the negative practices identified. Thus, there is an urgent need to organize a training programme for TMHPs to expose them to the general rules of hygiene in medical care, basic principles of orthodox mental health practice, including human treatment of the mentally ill. PMID:10821086

Makanjuola, A B; Adelekan, M L; Morakinyo, O

2000-01-01

59

The role of traditional medicine practice in primary health care within Aboriginal Australia: a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The practice of traditional Aboriginal medicine within Australia is at risk of being lost due to the impact of colonisation. Displacement of people from traditional lands as well as changes in family structures affecting passing on of cultural knowledge are two major examples of this impact. Prior to colonisation traditional forms of healing, such as the use of traditional healers, healing songs and bush medicines were the only source of primary health care. It is unclear to what extent traditional medical practice remains in Australia in 2013 within the primary health care setting, and how this practice sits alongside the current biomedical health care model. An extensive literature search was performed from a wide range of literature sources in attempt to identify and examine both qualitatively and quantitatively traditional medicine practices within Aboriginal Australia today. Whilst there is a lack of academic literature and research on this subject the literature found suggests that traditional medicine practice in Aboriginal Australia still remains and the extent to which it is practiced varies widely amongst communities across Australia. This variation was found to depend on association with culture and beliefs about disease causation, type of illness presenting, success of biomedical treatment, and accessibility to traditional healers and bush medicines. Traditional medicine practices were found to be used sequentially, compartmentally and concurrently with biomedical healthcare. Understanding more clearly the role of traditional medicine practice, as well as looking to improve and support integrative and governance models for traditional medicine practice, could have a positive impact on primary health care outcomes for Aboriginal Australia. PMID:23819729

2013-01-01

60

From tradition to evidence: decolonization of the evidence-based practice system.  

PubMed

Culture counts in the prevention and treatment of behavioral ailments. The Native American Health Center (NAHC) has successfully developed a model that incorporates cultural adaptations into EBPs, yet also believes community-defined and practice-based evidence are relevant in the validation of traditional practices. American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) traditional practices are more than complementary forms of healing. They are stand-alone methods, developed and used by tribal people long before the concept of EBPs existed. There is a need for funders to respect these practices as autonomous mental health strategies. The reasons for promoting change are explained through an understanding of key dimensions of AI/AN behavioral health issues. These key dimensions were identified in the 2001 Surgeon General's Report and an extensive literature review of Indigenous research methodologies. Recommendations are made based upon their ability to promote AI/AN empowerment, to support movement toward self-determination using the Indigenous Research Agenda model. This model honors fluid movement of Indigenous people through states of survival, recovery, development and self-determination through four categories for action: decolonization, mobilization, transformation, and healing. The end results are options for holistic approaches to influence policy changes in the EBP system. PMID:22400463

Lucero, Esther

2011-01-01

61

Traditional healing practice and folk medicines used by Mishing community of North East India.  

PubMed

Assam and Arunachal Pradesh have very rich tradition of herbal medicines used in the treatment of various ailments. Tribal communities practice different types of traditional healing practices. Enough documentation is available on the healing practices in other tribal communities except Mishing community of Assam and foot hill of East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh hence the attempt was made for the same. A survey on folk medicinal plants and folk healers of Mishing tribe was conducted in few places of Lakhimpur and Dhemaji district of Assam and East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, where this ethnic group is living since time immemorial. All information was collected based on interview and field studies with local healers within the community. The identification of medicinal plants collected with help of indigenous healers was done. Such medicines have been shown to have significant healing power, either in their natural state or as the source of new products processed by them. This study is mainly concentrated with plants used to cure diseases and to enquire about different healing systems. Detail note on the method of preparation of precise dose, the part/parts of plants used and method of application is given. PMID:23125508

Shankar, Rama; Lavekar, G S; Deb, S; Sharma, B K

2012-07-01

62

Contemporary Traditional Pottery Practices at Archaeo-Historically Important Sites, District Khargone, Madhya Pradesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Khargone district is located at the southwest border of Madhya Pradesh. The district comprises of many archaeological and historical sites viz. Navdatoli, Maheshwar, Kasrawad, Mandleshwar. Archaeological excavations at these sites revealed vast cultural assemblage from Lower Paleolithic to Medieval Period. Pottery plays significant role in the reconstruction and understanding of past technologies and socio-economic-religious life. Present paper endeavors to understand contemporary traditional pottery practices at these sites. Besides documentation of degeneration of technology, authors aim to put forth the survival problems of the potters. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to examine the possible reasons behind their present socio-economic conditions.

Geedh, Smita; Nadgauda, Tejaswini

63

Is prostitution harmful?  

PubMed

A common argument against prostitution states that selling sex is harmful because it involves selling something deeply personal and emotional. More and more of us, however, believe that sexual encounters need not be deeply personal and emotional in order to be acceptable--we believe in the acceptability of casual sex. In this paper I argue that if casual sex is acceptable, then we have few or no reasons to reject prostitution. I do so by first examining nine influential arguments to the contrary. These arguments purport to pin down the alleged additional harm brought about by prostitution (compared to just casual sex) by appealing to various aspects of its practice, such as its psychology, physiology, economics and social meaning. For each argument I explain why it is unconvincing. I then weight the costs against the benefits of prostitution, and argue that, in sum, prostitution is no more harmful than a long line of occupations that we commonly accept without hesitation. PMID:22930676

Moen, Ole Martin

2014-02-01

64

Comparing an Inquiry-based Approach known as the Science Writing Heuristic to Traditional Science Teaching Practices: Are there differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many state and federal governments have mandated in such documents as the National Science Education Standards that inquiry strategies should be the focus of the teaching of science within school classrooms. The difficult part for success is changing teacher practices from perceived traditional ways of teaching to more inquiry?based approaches. Arguments are often made about the effectiveness of these traditional

Recai Akkus; Murat Gunel; Brian Hand

2007-01-01

65

Knowledge and practice of traditional healers in oral health in the Bui Division, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of Cameroonians depend on traditional medicines for their health care needs and about seven per cent of the average household health budget is spent on traditional medicines irrespective of their incomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral care knowledge and practices of Traditional Healers (TH) on oral health delivery in the urban and rural areas of Bui Division of Cameroon and the objectives to determine the cost of treatment and reasons why people visit TH. Methods The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data. Results The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years). Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5) is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50). Conclusions Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care seeking attitudes in this community and barriers affecting the oral health seeking behaviours should be removed. Mutual cooperation, collaboration and by integrating TH into primary oral health care services needs to be increased. PMID:21235814

2011-01-01

66

Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India  

PubMed Central

Background There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Results Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Conclusions Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT and maternal child health programs in India. PMID:20860835

2010-01-01

67

The meaning structures of Muslim bereavements in Israel: religious traditions, mourning practices, and human experience.  

PubMed

The grief and mourning of Muslim citizens in Israel are considered. First, a series of mourning customs spanning the period from notification of death until post-mourning are presented from 3 perspectives: (a) the requirements of the Islamic Sunni tradition; (b) the manner in which Islamic mourning rituals are practiced; and (c) the authors' interpretative perspective. Next, a synopsis of the personal experiences of two adult children to the death of their elderly father illustrates Muslim bereavement from a narrative point of view. Lastly, the concluding section continues a consideration of the distinction between the Islamic religious emphasis on return to functioning and the myriad ways in which the memory and relationship to the deceased are experienced. The article demonstrates how belief system, Islamic mourning rituals, and the power of loss create an experiential blend that is neither monolithic nor stereotypical. PMID:16187476

Yasien-Esmael, Hend; Rubin, Simon Shimshon

2005-01-01

68

Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources  

PubMed Central

In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

2014-01-01

69

Traditional practices and medicinal plants use during pregnancy by Anyi-Ndenye women (Eastern Côte d'Ivoire).  

PubMed

The use of plants during pregnancy is a common practice in Africa. In Côte d'Ivoire, despite modern antenatal medical prescriptions, most pregnant women resort to traditional medicine to ensure foetus development and facilitate childbirth. Yet, there is not enough research on the African traditional medicine concerning this aspect of health. Therefore, the plants used by pregnant women need to be better known in order to offer integrated antenatal care. This study analyzes the salience of plants used, the associated practices and reasons of such practices by pregnant women in Yakassé-Féyassé, an Anyi-Ndenye town of the Eastern Côte d'Ivoire. Methods include an ethnobotany survey (freelist method, interview with pregnant women during their antenatal consultation and with specialists). The survey led to a list of 75 plants distributed in 3 class of salience. In addition, 90.3 % of pregnant women use these practices which are nevertheless ignored by Midwives during antenatal visits. PMID:21987942

Malan, Djah F; Neuba, Danho F R

2011-03-01

70

Is the evidence-based practice movement doing more good than harm? Reflections on Iain Chalmers' case for research-based policy making and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

English Powerful voices are currently insisting that policy and practice must be based on research evidence, and that social science inquiry should be reformed in order to serve this need more effectively. An influential figure in the evidence-based practice movement is Sir Iain Chalmers, previously director of the UK Cochrane Centre. Taking evidence-based medicine as his model, he presents the

Martyn Hammersley

2005-01-01

71

A cross-sectional study on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine in Dembia district, north western Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study pertaining to the practices and perceptions of modern and traditional health practitioners on Traditional Medicine (TM) was carried out from February 25 to April 4, 2008. The results of the study showed that almost all the practitioners in both systems expressed their willingness to collaborate among each other to promote the positive elements of TM. As traditional healing knowledge is still being handed over from one generation to the next, mainly through word of mouth, which will lead to distortion or a total demise of the original knowledge, this report indicates the urgency to document the same. Moreover, the report also implies the need for educating and training the practitioners of the two systems. More also has to be done to create a discussion forum for both modern and TM practitioners, to enable them to share their knowledge. Government support for promotion and development of TM should be considered as a goal to be seriously pursued. The government should also contribute by helping them financially and by arranging training and education for the improvement of the healthcare system given to the public. PMID:20548932

Ragunathan, Muthuswamy; tadesse, Hawi; tujuba, Rebecca

2010-01-01

72

Infertility and other fertility related issues in the practice of traditional healers and Christian religious healers in south western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Traditional healers have been an established source of health care delivery in Africa for centuries while Christian religious healers (193 traditional healers and 99 Christian religious healers) with respect to infertility and some other fertility-related issues. The findings show that both types of healers believe that infertility is most commonly due to the past life of the woman, physical problems related to the womb or to male potency, and imcompatibity between the man and the woman. Traditional healers also believed that being bewitched or being cursed can lead to infertility. Both groups of healers threat infertility by sacrifices, prayer and fasting, and timing of intercourse to coincide with the fertile period. Also 61% of traditional healers and 87% of religious healers advice their-clients with infertility to do nothing at least initially. To those clients seeking advice on preventing pregnancy, traditional healers tend to recommend herbal concoctions, beads and rings while Christian healers tended to recommend condoms, withdrawal method and the safe period. Both groups are consulted on premarital sex, premarital conception, sex during pregnancy and influencing the sex of an unborn baby. It was concluded that both traditional healers and Christian faith healers are involved with infertility and other fertility-related issues in their practices. There is an overlap in beliefs about causes and treatment of such conditions among both groups although areas of differences in beliefs and practices are clearly identifiable. PMID:10456130

Obisesan, K A; Adeyemo, A A

1998-01-01

73

The validity of multiple choice practical examinations as an alternative to traditional free response examination formats in gross anatomy.  

PubMed

Traditionally, an anatomy practical examination is conducted using a free response format (FRF). However, this format is resource-intensive, as it requires a relatively large time investment from anatomy course faculty in preparation and grading. Thus, several interventions have been reported where the response format was changed to a selected response format (SRF). However, validity evidence from those interventions has not proved entirely adequate for the practical anatomy examination, and thus, further investigation was required. In this study, the validity evidence of SRF was examined using multiple choice questions (MCQs) constructed according to different levels of Bloom's taxonomy in comparison with the traditional free response format. A group of 100 medical students registered in a gross anatomy course volunteered to be enrolled in this study. The experimental MCQ examinations were part of graded midterm and final steeplechase practical examination. Volunteer students were instructed to complete the practical examinations twice, once in each of two separate examination rooms. The two separate examinations consisted of a traditional free response format and MCQ format. Scores from the two examinations (FRF and MCQ) displayed a strong correlation, even with higher level Bloom's taxonomy questions. In conclusion, the results of this study provide empirical evidence that the SRF (MCQ) response format is a valid method and can be used as an alternative to the traditional FRF steeplechase examination. PMID:23109285

Shaibah, Hassan Sami; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

2013-01-01

74

The Validity of Multiple Choice Practical Examinations as an Alternative to Traditional Free Response Examination Formats in Gross Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, an anatomy practical examination is conducted using a free response format (FRF). However, this format is resource-intensive, as it requires a relatively large time investment from anatomy course faculty in preparation and grading. Thus, several interventions have been reported where the response format was changed to a selected…

Shaibah, Hassan Sami; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

2013-01-01

75

Non-Western Educational Traditions: Alternative Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of education, as taught in the United States and in the West generally, has focused primarily on how Western educational tradition emerged. This book provides a brief overview of several non-Western approaches to educational thought and practice. An understanding of how other peoples have educated their children, as well as what…

Reagan, Timothy

76

Knowledge and practices of traditional birth attendants in prenatal services in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A questionnaire-based study was conducted on 189 Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) on their knowledge and practices in prenatal services. Only 86 (45.5%) of them associated cessation of menstrual period with pregnancy while others use mystic power 46 (24.3%), early morning sickness, pallor of conjunctiva and reaction to herbs 56 (29.6%) to detect pregnancy. Fundal height n=76 (40.2%), palpation n=82 (43.4%), special soaps and soups n=52 (27.5%) and special devices n=8 (4.2%) are used to determine stages of pregnancy. Foetal health status is determined by regular foetal movements n=95 (50.3%), mystic power n=15 (8%), soap n=2 (1.1%), special concoction 9 (4.8%), health status of mother n=67 (35.4%) and foetal heart beat n=24 (12.7%). Ninety seven (51.3%) of them used herbal treatment, 77 (40.7%) used incantations, 189 (100%) used special soaps as their main methods of delivery, while only 18 (9.5%) of respondents refer difficult cases to hospitals. Instruments used for separating cord were blade 123 (65.1%) and scissors 40 (21.1%). Symptoms recognized by the TBAs as signs of complications in pregnancy were dizziness, swollen feet, pallor, tiredness, absent foetal movement, loss of appetite, heaviness, pain in back/stomach/side, weight loss, vomiting, bleeding, fever/malaria, head ache, bad dream, premature or delayed labour. Although some of them recognized some danger signs in pregnancy and labour, only very few would refer difficult cases for emergency obstetric interventions. Clear protocols for management and referral, which are necessary for improved maternal survival, should be provided through regular training of the TBAs. PMID:15971555

Ahmed, O A; Odunukwe, N N; Akinwale, O P; Raheem, T Y; Efienemokwu, C E; Ogedengbe, O; Salako, L A

2005-03-01

77

Improving communication and practical skills in working with inpatients who self-harm: a pre-test/post-test study of the effects of a training programme  

PubMed Central

Background Differing perspectives of self-harm may result in a struggle between patients and treatment staff. As a consequence, both sides have difficulty communicating effectively about the underlying problems and feelings surrounding self-harm. Between 2009 and 2011, a programme was developed and implemented to train mental health care staff (nurses, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, and occupational therapists) in how to communicate effectively with and care for patients who self-harm. An art exhibition focusing on self-harm supported the programme. Lay experts in self-harm, i.e. people who currently harm themselves, or who have harmed themselves in the past and have the skills to disseminate their knowledge and experience, played an important role throughout the programme. Methods Paired sample t-tests were conducted to measure the effects of the training programme using the Attitude Towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire, the Self-Perceived Efficacy in Dealing with Self-Harm Questionnaire, and the Patient Contact Questionnaire. Effect sizes were calculated using r. Participants evaluated the training programme with the help of a survey. The questionnaires used in the survey were analysed descriptively. Results Of the 281 persons who followed the training programme, 178 completed the questionnaires. The results show a significant increase in the total scores of the three questionnaires, with large to moderate effect sizes. Respondents were positive about the training, especially about the role of the lay expert. Conclusion A specialised training programme in how to care for patients who self-harm can result in a more positive attitude towards self-harm patients, an improved self-efficacy in caring for patients who self-harm, and a greater closeness with the patients. The deployment of lay experts is essential here. PMID:24592861

2014-01-01

78

The Clinical Practice of Traditional and Nontraditional Dental Hygienists. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information is presented on a study designed to gather details about the services provided by clinical dental hygienists in traditional and nontraditional settings. The 10 research topics addressed include: services provided by the clinical RDH in the traditional and nontraditional setting; time allocated for such services; how patients are…

Boyer, E. Marcia

79

Traditional birth attendants among the Annang of Nigeria : Current practices and proposed programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigerian Traditional Birth Attendants interfere as little as possible in the natural course of labor and delivery, capitalizing on the forces of gravity and the woman's own body to assist in a normal birth. The traditional birth attendant allows the laboring woman to squat for delivery, avoids the use of enemas and episiotomies, and cuts the cord following delivery of

Pamela J. Brink

1982-01-01

80

Teaching as a Reflective Practice: The German Didaktik Tradition. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers presents essays by German scholars and practitioners writing from within the German Didaktik tradition and interpretive essays by U.S. scholars. After an introduction, "Starting a Dialogue: A Beginning Conversation between Didaktik and the Curriculum Traditions" (Stefan Hopmann and Kurt Riquarts), there are 18 chapters in…

Westbury, Ian, Ed.; Hopmann, Stefan, Ed.; Riquarts, Kurt, Ed.

81

A survey of the training, practice and dental health knowledge of traditional dentists practising in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Interviews with 50 traditional dentists practising in Phnom Penh, Cambodia showed that the majority had been trained as an apprentice of either their father or a relative. The most frequently undertaken treatment procedures were tooth coloured fillings, and cast, preformed metal or acrylic crowns and bridges. Knowledge of dental pathology was poor. With the recommencement of dental training in the University of Phnom Penh restriction on the training and practice of traditional dentists needs to be considered, together with the possible retraining of these practitioners as dental technicians. PMID:8044708

Durward, C; Todd, R; So, P K; Phlok, S

1994-06-01

82

The Texas Aggie Bonfire: A Conservative Reading of Regional Narratives, Traditional Practices, and a Paradoxical Place  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concepts of place, narrative, tradition, and identity are employed in a conservative reading of the Texas A&M Bonfire. Texas A&M embodied regional narratives of a dual Southern commitment to economic and technological development and conservation of traditional cultural. Institutionalized at Texas A&M in the late nineteenth century, these narratives made a paradoxical place. Bonfire expressed and obscured this paradox. In

Jonathan M. Smith

2007-01-01

83

The role of the chief nursing officer in leading the practice: lessons from the Benner tradition.  

PubMed

There is a real danger that measurable tasks and procedures can be misconstrued for nursing practice in contemporary healthcare organizations focused on the measurement of quality, safety, and productivity. This study uses the work of Patricia Benner to address the complex nature of nursing practice and discusses why the chief nursing officer must create an environment within the organization for the practice to be fully lived out if he or she is to be successful as the leader of the discipline. PMID:18360204

Cathcart, Eloise Balasco

2008-01-01

84

Eight Barriers to Changing Traditional Behavior: Part One. Insights on Educational Policy and Practice, Number 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementing shared decision making in school-based management requires fundamental changes in traditional behavior. Initiation of restructuring systemic authority and decision-making arrangements requires changing deeply held beliefs and developing new roles and relationships. A recent survey of educational practitioners identified eight major…

Mutchler, Sue E.

1990-01-01

85

Birthing Practices of Traditional Birth Attendants in South Asia in the Context of Training Programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) training has been an important component of public health policy interventions to improve maternal and child health in developing countries since the 1970s. More recently, since the 1990s, the TBA training strategy has been increasingly seen as irrelevant, ineffective or, on the whole, a failure due to evidence that the maternal mortality rate (MMR) in developing

Sheela Saravanan; Gavin Turrell; Helen Johnson; Jennifer Fraser

2010-01-01

86

Traditional Male Circumcision in West Timor, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete description of harmful practices of male circumcision of both Atoni Meto and Belunese in Timor is presented, based\\u000a on my research, Plan Indonesia, and Indonesia HIV\\/AIDS Prevention and Care Project (AusAID), funded by the Ford Foundation.\\u000a After my first research on Traditional Circumcision of Atoni Meto in 1997, I worked with Plan Indonesia to campaign a healthy\\u000a circumcision

Primus Lake

87

Harm Reduction in Community Mental Health Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harm reduction is a conceptual framework and set of practices that focus on the minimization of the physical, social, and legal harms substance users do to themselves and to society as a whole. Its application to community mental health settings is relatively new, and can create controversies and ethical dilemmas if not properly designed, implemented, and evaluated. Building on the

Michael A. Mancini; Donald M. Linhorst

2010-01-01

88

Challenges to Implementing the Harm Reduction Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social work literature recently has supported greater use of the harm reduction approach in professional practice. Implementing this approach, however, presents its challenges. We explore how practitioners in a housing program for people with histories of psychiatric disabilities, substance use disorders, and homelessness perceived the harm reduction approach. Prior to the opening of this new program, agency staff completed

Michael A. Mancini; Donald M. Linhorst; Francie Broderick; Scott Bayliff

2008-01-01

89

Forecasting Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online newsletter gives a brief summary of societal impacts of harmful algal blooms and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) project, a group funded by NOAA to forecast harmful algal blooms (HABs) along the Washington coast. The site includes colorful SeaWiFS (satellite) images of the coast during upwelling events.

Woodruff, Dana; Institute, Battelle M.

90

The Morality of Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the…

Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared

2009-01-01

91

Harmful Algal Blooms  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

You may notice a green, red or brown film on your favorite boating or swimming area in the summer. This coloring could mean that the water is affected by harmful algal blooms. Harmful algal blooms are an accumulation of tiny organisms known as algae and can release harmful toxins into the environmen...

2010-06-30

92

Traditional birth attendants and their practices in the State of Pernambuco rural area, Brazil, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To obtain socioeconomic information about TBAs in the State of Pernambuco and information concerning their practices. Method: Statistical analysis of the answers to structured questionnaires applied to 127 TBAs. Results: The results of a survey with 127 TBAs conducted in the rural area of the State of Pernambuco (Brazil) is presented in this paper. TBAs in rural Pernambuco are

I Carvalho; A. S Chacham; P Viana

1998-01-01

93

Is Constructivism Traditional? Historical and Practical Perspectives on a Popular Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As any glance at contemporary educational literature demonstrates, the concept of "constructivism" carries with it enormous appeal. Contemporary literature also reveals that many current educational reform initiatives encourage teaching practices that many people refer to as constructivist (Brooks and Brooks 1993; Roth 1993; Crawford and Witte…

Null, J. Wesley

2004-01-01

94

Challenging Exclusionary Paradigms in the Traditional Musical Canon: Implications for Music Education Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors propose that best practices in music education require a conceptual understanding of music teaching and learning based on a perspective of social justice and equitable access for all students. Examinations of the relationship between the tenets of culturally-responsive teaching and three dimensions of music teaching and learning…

Kindall-Smith, Marsha; McKoy, Constance L.; Mills, Susan W.

2011-01-01

95

Clearcutting Brazilian caatinga: assessment of a traditional forest grazing management practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clearcutting is a common practice for removing woody vegetation in the semiarid tropics of northeast Brazil. The prevalent belief is that clearing increases carrying capacity for livestock by increasing herbaceous vegetation, yet little empirical evidence exists to support or refute the contention. We investigated the implications to small ruminant nutrition of clearcutting in the semiarid tropics of northeast Brazil. We

R. D. Kirmse; F. D. Provenza; J. C. Malechek

1987-01-01

96

Tradition and Innovation in the Practical Culture of Schools in Franco's Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews school practice in Spain through the long historic period of the dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco between the 1936 Civil War and Franco's death in 1975. For this purpose, an analysis is made of the most relevant documents (school materials, reports, direct testimonies by practising teachers, scientific papers on education…

Calvo, Carmen Benso

2006-01-01

97

Women and Training in Europe. Fifty Projects which Challenge Our Traditions. A Compendium of Good Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of descriptions of 50 projects that were selected as examples of good practice in providing relevant initial and continuing vocational training to women throughout the European Community regardless of their legal status, employment status, and geographic location. The projects are grouped under six key words (motivation,…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

98

Profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in two districts of Eastern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background The WHO estimates that more than 80% of African populations attend traditional healers for health reasons and that 40%–60% of these have some kind of mental illness. However, little is known about the profiles and outcome of this traditional approach to treatment. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in Jinja and Iganga districts in the Busoga region of Eastern Uganda. Methods Four studies were conducted. Study I used focus group discussions (FGDs) with case vignettes with local community members and traditional healers to explore the lay concepts of psychosis. Studies II and III concerned a cross-sectional survey of patients above 18 years at the traditional healer's shrines and study IV was made on a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with psychosis in study III. Manual content analysis was used in study I; quantitative data in studies II, III, and IV were analyzed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels to determine the association between psychological distress and socio-demographic factors; for study IV, factors associated with outcome were analyzed. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was the analysis used in Study IV. Results The community gave indigenous names to psychoses (mania, schizophrenia, and psychotic depression) and had multiple explanatory models for them. Thus multiple solutions for these problems were sought. Of the 387 respondents, the prevalence of psychological distress was 65.1%, where 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness, and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Over 80% of patients with psychosis used both biomedical and traditional healing systems. Those who combined these two systems seemed to have a better outcome. All the symptom scales showed a percentage reduction of more than 20% at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Conclusion Traditional healers shoulder a large burden of care of patients with mental health problems. This calls for all those who share the goal of improving the mental health of individuals to engage with traditional healers. PMID:21845144

Abbo, Catherine

2011-01-01

99

Genital mutilation of young girls traditionally practiced in militarily significant regions of the world.  

PubMed

Very few physicians practicing in the United States have experience in treating female patients who have undergone mutilation of the external genitalia, incorrectly termed female circumcision. This procedure, known as infibulation, consists of removing the clitoris, prepuce, and portions of the labia of young girls, usually younger than 7 years of age. Infibulation has been practiced by lay midwives for centuries in the Horn of Africa and in other African and Middle Eastern countries. This paper discusses infibulation, the techniques, and the recommended medical and obstetric management of patients subjected to genital mutilation. With increased immigration to the United States by Africans and Middle Easterners, and with readily increasing military medical deployments, primary care physicians and specialists can expect to be confronted with patients who have undergone this disfiguring procedure during their youth. PMID:9339081

Wittich, A C; Salminen, E R

1997-10-01

100

Traditional medical practices and medicinal plant usage on a Bahamian island.  

PubMed

The traditional medical system of a small Bahamian island is explored through a health survey of 83% of the population and an analysis of the activities and materials of the two main native health 'professionals'--the healing specialist and the 'herbalist'. The present findings suggest that the Bimini medical system has historically been efficacious in the treatment and management of many health problems on the island. Part of the success may be attributed to the resourceful utilization of indigenous medicinal plant species, several of which contain chemical substances that may be curatively effective against a number of diseases as claimed. In recent years the island has experienced a relatively smooth process of medical modernization including the increased availability of 'westernized' health care and the gradual supplementation of the herbal remedies by imported patent and prescription medications. PMID:710170

Halberstein, R A; Saunders, A B

1978-06-01

101

Moving beyond traditional fire management practices to better minimize community vulnerability to wildfire in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are an important natural process in southern California, but they also present a major hazard for human life and property. The region leads the nation in fire-related losses, and since 2001, wildfires have damaged or destroyed more than 10,000 homes. As human ignitions have increased along with urban development and population growth, fire frequency has also surged, and most home losses occur in large fires when ignitions coincide with Santa Ana windstorms. As the region accommodates more growth in the future, the wildfire threat promises to continue. We will thus explore how a broader, more comprehensive approach to fire management could improve upon traditional approaches for reducing community vulnerability. The traditional approach to mitigating fire risk, in addition to fire suppression, has been to reduce fuel through construction of fuel breaks. Despite increasing expenditure on these treatments, there has been little empirical study of their role in controlling large fires. We will present the results of a study in which we constructed and analyzed a spatial database of fuel breaks in southern California national forests. Our objective was to better understand characteristics of fuel breaks that affect the behavior of large fires and to map where fires and fuel breaks most commonly intersect. We found that fires stopped at fuel breaks 22-47% of the time, depending on the forest, and the reason fires stopped was invariably related to firefighter access and management activities. Fire weather and fuel break condition were also important. The study illustrates the importance of strategic location of fuel breaks because they have been most effective where they provided access for firefighting activities. While fuel breaks have played a role in controlling wildfires at the Wildland Urban Interface, we are evaluating alternative approaches for reducing community vulnerability, including land use planning. Recent research shows that the amount and spatial arrangement of human infrastructure, such as roads and housing developments, strongly influences wildfire patterns. Therefore, we hypothesize that the spatial arrangement and location of housing development is likely to affect the susceptibility of lives and property to fire. In other words, potential for urban loss may be greatest at specific housing densities, spatial patterns of development, and locations of development. If these risk factors can be identified, mapped, and modeled, it is possible that vulnerability to wildfire could be substantially minimized through careful planning for future development - especially because future development will likely increase the region’s fire risk. To address these possibilities, we are evaluating past housing loss in relation to land use planning, in conjunction with other variables that influence fire patterns. We are also exploring alternative future scenarios to identify optimum land use planning strategies for minimizing fire risk.

Syphard, A. D.; Keeley, J. E.; Brennan, T. J.

2010-12-01

102

The Exploration of Disease Pattern, Zheng, for Differentiation of Allergic Rhinitis in Traditional Chinese Medicine Practice  

PubMed Central

Pattern, or “zheng,” differentiation is the essential guide to treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the considerable variability between TCM patterns complicates evaluations of TCM treatment effectiveness. The aim of this study was to explore and characterize the relationship between patterns and the core patterns of allergic rhinitis. We summarized 23 clinical trials of allergic rhinitis with mention of pattern differentiation; association rule mining was used to analyze TCM patterns of allergic rhinitis. A total of 205 allergic rhinitis patients seen at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from March to June 2005 were included for comparison. Among the 23 clinical trials evaluated, lung qi deficiency and spleen qi deficiencies were the core patterns of allergic rhinitis, accounting for 29.50% and 28.98% of all patterns, respectively. A higher prevalence of lung or spleen qi deficiency (93.7%) was found in Taiwan. Additionally, patients with lung or spleen qi deficiency were younger (27.99 ± 12.94 versus 58.54 ± 12.96 years) and the severity of nasal stuffiness was higher than among patients with kidney qi deficiency (1.35 ± 0.89 versus 0.62 ± 0.65; P < 0.05). Lung and spleen qi deficiencies are the core patterns of allergic rhinitis and determining the severity of nasal stuffiness is helpful in differentiating the TCM patterns. PMID:22899954

Yang, Sienhung; Chen, Hsingyu; Lin, Yihsuan; Chen, Yuchun

2012-01-01

103

Theories in medical education: towards creating a union between educational practice and research traditions.  

PubMed

Despite the multiple changes that have happened in medical education over the last three decades, it is often speculated that these changes have been made in the absence of supportive theory, or at least by a poor understanding of educational theory. It is similarly expounded that the continuance of this change is not supported by either initial educational research or research into the effect of educational intervention. This commentary explains the background reasoning and intended structure of the new AMEE Guides in Medical Education Theories Series, in which it is intended to bring together the theories in education with both the practice and research activities, demonstrating the interactivity between the three and providing the reader with a sound theoretical basis for future development. PMID:21345058

Gibbs, Trevor; Durning, Steven; Van Der Vleuten, Cees

2011-01-01

104

A confluence of traditions: Examining teacher practice in the merging of secondary science and environmental education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embedding environmental education within secondary science curriculum presents both philosophical and practical difficulties for teachers. This ethnographic/narrative study, with its methodology grounded in eco-feminism and realism/constructivism, examines the work of six secondary science teachers as they engage in an action research project focused on merging environmental education in their science lessons. Over the course of several months the teachers examine and discuss their views and their professional development related to the project. In the place of definitive conclusions, eight propositions relating the work of secondary science teachers to environmental education, form the basis for a discussion of the implications of the study. The implications are particularly relevant to secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, where the embedding of environmental education in science studies has been mandated.

Astrid, Steele

105

Psychological distress and associated factors among the attendees of traditional healing practices in Jinja and Iganga districts, Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are a major public health concern worldwide. Evidence shows that African communities, including Uganda, use both modern and traditional healing systems. There is limited literature about the magnitude of psychological distress and associated factors among attendees of traditional healing practices. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among attendees of

Catherine Abbo; Solvig Ekblad; Paul Waako; Elialilia Okello; Wilson Muhwezi; Seggane Musisi

2008-01-01

106

Wo'Lakol Kiciyapi: Traditional Philosophies of Helping and Healing among the Lakotas: Toward a Lakota-Centric Practice of Social Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 32 traditional Lakota elders, educators, leaders, and mental-health providers found that prereservation Lakota approaches for ensuring social health and well-being were preventative, holistic, spiritual, and linked to the tribe's ceremonial life. Discusses a resurgence of traditional healing practices among the Lakota and…

Voss, Richard W.; Douville, Victor; Little Soldier, Alex; White Hat, Albert

1999-01-01

107

The Harmful Algae Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Relevant sections in this resource include What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), an Introduction to Algal Blooms and "Red Tide", Algae Species (which algae are responsible for the harmful effects?), Adverse Impacts, Human Illness (food poisoning associated with harmful algal blooms & information on diagnosis and treatment), HAB Distribution Maps, HAB events in the United States and around the world, HAB related articles as printed in the news media, and a photo gallery of visible algal blooms, photomicrographs, and satellite imagery.

Anderson, Donald

2004-06-17

108

Self-harm.  

PubMed

The term self-harm is commonly used to describe a wide range of behaviours and intentions including attempted hanging, impulsive self-poisoning, and superficial cutting in response to intolerable tension. As with suicide, rates of self-harm vary greatly between countries. 5-9% of adolescents in western countries report having self-harmed within the previous year. Risk factors include socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychiatric illness--particularly depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders. Cultural aspects of some societies may protect against suicide and self-harm and explain some of the international variation in rates of these events. Risk of repetition of self-harm and of later suicide is high. More than 5% of people who have been seen at a hospital after self-harm will have committed suicide within 9 years. Assessment after self-harm includes careful consideration of the patient's intent and beliefs about the lethality of the method used. Strong suicidal intent, high lethality, precautions against being discovered, and psychiatric illness are indicators of high suicide risk. Management after self-harm includes forming a trusting relationship with the patient, jointly identifying problems, ensuring support is available in a crisis, and treating psychiatric illness vigorously. Family and friends may also provide support. Large-scale studies of treatments for specific subgroups of people who self-harm might help to identify more effective treatments than are currently available. Although risk factors for self-harm are well established, aspects that protect people from engaging in self-harm need to be further explored. PMID:16243093

Skegg, Keren

109

Benefitting from differences in knowledge, practice and belief: M?ori oral traditions and natural hazards science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper builds upon earlier work that argued the information and experience contained within the knowledge-practice-belief complex of M?tauranga M?ori [M?ori knowledge] is a valuable and neglected area of information and understanding about past catastrophic events in Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ). Here we map M?ori oral traditions (p?r?kau) that relate experience with extreme environmental disturbance (in particular, tsunamis) around the A/NZ coast, compare the findings with geo-archaeological evidence, and discuss the scientific benefits to be gained by considering p?r?kau as legitimate perspectives on history. Not surprisingly, there are both differences and complementarities between traditional M?ori narratives and the available geo-archaeological evidence on extreme coastal disturbances. The findings presented here raise new and important questions about accepted geographies of tsunami risk, the causes and sources of their generation, as well as reasons for the relative paucity and abundance of information in some regions. Ways in which M?tauranga Taiao [M?ori environmental knowledge] and contemporary science can be combined to produce new narratives about extreme environmental disturbance along the A/NZ coastline will require not only acceptance of other ways of knowing but also open engagement with M?ori that respects their rights to tell their own histories. These efforts are encouraged to revitalise and ground-truth the interpretation of traditional stories, corroborate and/or question previous scientific deductions, and improve our collective understanding of the recurring impact of tectonic, geologic and meteorological-based events across A/NZ.

King, D. N.; Goff, J. R.

2010-09-01

110

Insect repellent plants traditional usage practices in the Ethiopian malaria epidemic-prone setting: an ethnobotanical survey  

PubMed Central

Background The usage of insect repellent plants (IRPs) is one of the centuries-old practices in Africa. In Ethiopia, malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, subsequently the majority of people have a tendency to apply various plants as repellents to reduce or interrupt the biting activity of insects. Accordingly, this survey was undertaken to document and evaluate knowledge and usage practices of the local inhabitants on IRPs in the malaria epidemic-prone setting of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical survey was conducted between January and May 2013. Selected 309 household members were interviewed by administering pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge and usage practices of repellent plants, in Bechobore Kebele, Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Results Overall, 70.2% (217/309) and 91.8% (199/217) of the respondents have had ample awareness and usage practices of repellent plants, respectively. Informants cited about twenty-two plant species as repellents and also indicated that these plants are useful(85.5%), accessible(86.8%), and affordable(83.9%) too. Residents mainly applying dried leaves [93.9% (187/199)] by means of burning/smouldering [98.9% (197/199)] with the traditional charcoal stove to repel insects, primarily mosquitoes. About 52.8% (105/199) of the informants using aproximately15g of dried plant-materials every day. A Chi-square analysis shows statistically a significant link between the knowledge on repellent plants and gender as well as average monthly income although not with the age of the respondents. Nevertheless, the repellent plant usage custom was not significantly associated with gender, monthly income, and age of the informants. Conclusion Though most of the people have had an adequate awareness still a sizable faction of society suffers with deprivation of IRPs knowledge and usage practices. Therefore, this study calls for more surveys to conserve the existing indigenous knowledge and cultural practices. It could lay the first stone to develop the next generation cost-effective vector control tools in the near future. PMID:24521138

2014-01-01

111

Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Smithsonian Institution website features the publication "Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates", a fully illustrated identification guide for harmful dinoflagellate taxa. The website reviews general information on dinoflagellate morphology and other criteria used in species identification. Each taxon is presented with a species overview, and a taxonomic description of cell and thecal plate morphology, reproduction, life cycle, ecology, toxicity, species comparison, habitat and locality, and etymology. This is supplemented with a number of high-resolution light and scanning electron photomicrographs and line drawings. Taxonomic treatment of harmful dinoflagellate taxa includes nomenclatural types, type locality, and common synonyms. An extensive glossary of terms and relevant literature citations are also provided.

Faust, Maria A.; Gulledge, Rose A.; Institution, The S.

2009-11-25

112

Avian Influenza Risk Perception and Preventive Behavior among Traditional Market Workers and Shoppers in Taiwan: Practical Implications for Prevention  

PubMed Central

Background Avian influenza (AI) can be highly pathogenic and fatal. Preventive behavior such as handwashing and wearing face masks has been recommended. However, little is known about what psychosocial factors might influence people's decision to adopt such preventive behavior. This study aims to explore risk perception and other factors associated with handwashing and wearing face masks to prevent AI. Methodology/Principal Findings An interviewer-administered survey was conducted among 352 traditional market workers and shoppers in Taiwan between December 2009 and January 2010. Factors associated with the recommended AI preventive behavior (i.e., when in a traditional market, wearing a face mask and also washing hands after any contact with poultry) included: having correct knowledge about the fatality rate of AI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?4.18), knowing of severe cases of AI (AOR?=?2.13), being informed of local AI outbreaks (AOR?=?2.24), living in northeastern Taiwan (AOR?=?6.01), having a senior high-school education (AOR?=?3.33), and having a university or higher education (AOR?=?6.86). Gender interactive effect was also found among participants with a senior high-school education, with males being less likely to engage in the recommended AI preventive behavior than their female counterparts (AOR?=?0.34). Conclusions/Significance Specific information concerning AI risk perception was associated with the recommended AI preventive behavior. In particular, having correct knowledge about the fatality rate of AI and being informed of severe cases and local outbreaks of AI were linked to increased AI preventive behavior. These findings underscore the importance of transparency in dealing with epidemic information. These results also have practical implications for prevention and policy-making to more effectively promote the recommended AI preventive behavior in the public. PMID:21912667

Liu, Ming-Der

2011-01-01

113

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)  

MedlinePLUS

... can produce toxins that may harm or kill fish and marine animals. There are many kinds of ... last for several days after exposure. Ciguatera tides fish poisoning is another disease associated with toxins produced ...

114

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA website features a repository of information about Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). It explains the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act (HABHRCA) and describes the subsequent formation of an Interagency Task Force to develop a national HAB assessment and authorize funding for existing and new research programs on HABs. The site features links to information about current and past research programs, HAB ecological forecasting, related news articles, workshop announcements, and additional HAB information sources.

2009-12-28

115

No-Harm Contracts: A Review of What We Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few events in the practice of a mental health clinician can be as devastating as the suicide of a client. Although suicide is a rare occurrence, clinicians face assessment of clients' risk for harming themselves on a regular basis. One well-accepted and widely practiced intervention for suicidal ideation is the use of no-harm contracts (NHC),…

Lewis, Lisa McConnell

2007-01-01

116

Developing Policy for Integrating Biomedicine and Traditional Chinese Medical Practice Using Focus Groups and the Delphi Technique  

PubMed Central

In Hong Kong, statutory regulation for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners has been implemented in the past decade. Increasing use of TCM on top of biomedicine (BM) services by the population has been followed; but corresponding policy development to integrate their practices has not yet been discussed. Using focus group methodology, we explore policy ideas for integration by collating views from frontline BM (n = 50) and TCM clinicians (n = 50). Qualitative data were analyzed under the guidance of structuration model of collaboration, a theoretical model for understanding interprofessional collaboration. From focus group findings we generated 28 possible approaches, and subsequently their acceptability was assessed by a two round Delphi survey amongst BM and TCM policy stakeholders (n = 12). Consensus was reached only on 13 statements. Stakeholders agreed that clinicians from both paradigms should share common goals of providing patient-centered care, promoting the development of protocols for shared care and information exchange, as well as strengthening interprofessional connectivity and leadership for integration. On the other hand, attitudes amongst policy stakeholders were split on the possibility of fostering trust and mutual learning, as well as on enhancing innovation and governmental support. Future policy initiatives should focus on these controversial areas. PMID:22649469

Chung, Vincent C. H.; Ma, Polly H. X.; Lau, Chun Hong; Griffiths, Sian M.

2012-01-01

117

The effect of health and nutrition education intervention on women's postpartum beliefs and practices: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: 'Sitting month' is the Chinese tradition for postpartum customs. Available studies indicate that some of the traditional postpartum practices are potentially harmful for women's health. However, no intervention study aiming at postpartum practices has been performed. In this paper we evaluated the effect of a health and nutrition education intervention, which focused on improving postpartum dietary quality and optimal

Nian Liu; Limei Mao; Xiufa Sun; Liegang Liu; Ping Yao; Banghua Chen

2009-01-01

118

Harmful Algal Blooms Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the biological and physical conditions that lead to eutrophication of a water system by using real-time data to predict the the growth of harmful algae. They also conduct research on the Internet to learn more about the causes of harmful algal blooms. Students investigate both the position of the Gulf Stream, as well as population and life cycle characteristics of harmful phytoplankton. The activity includes a worksheet and assessment questions. This resource is found in Rising Tides, a journal created for teachers and students reporting on current oceanography research conducted by NASA, NOAA, and university scientists, featuring articles, classroom activities, readings, teacher/student questions, and imagery for student investigation of marine science.

119

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

120

Mentor Profiles -Kevin Harm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Considering his job, Kevin's last name doesn't make sense. Kevin got into nursing because he wants to help, not harm, people. Kevin didn't know what he wanted to do right away; he had another career before nursing. Read about him here.

Gem-Nursing

121

First, do no harm.  

PubMed

In a television news documentary series such as Boston Med, doctors' duty to their patients may be at odds with the duty of TV journalists to their audience. If this happens, who should win out? The patients. If there is any possibility that harm is being done to patients, we must put them first, and turn off the cameras. PMID:23631337

Baer, Neal

2013-01-01

122

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive NOAA pdf file contains in depth information about harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States. The article contains general information about HABs, location-based assessments of HABs, and case studies of the problem. The article features color photographs of affected areas.

2009-10-22

123

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage serves as a portal to the CDC's collection of harmful algal bloom (HAB) resources for the general public. Visitors can find general information about HABs, as well as focus areas targeting Cyanobacteria, Ciguatera, red tide, and Pfiesteria piscicida. Links are also provided to publications, CDC activities, and datasets (organized by federal, state, and international levels).

Branch, National C.; Prevention, Centers F.

124

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive NOAA pdf file contains in depth information about harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States. The article contains general information about HABs, location-based assessments of HABs, and case studies of the problem. The article features color photographs of affected areas.

Administration, National O.

125

The Harmful Algae Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the National Office of Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Blooms and housed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, this site covers the dark side of the organisms that provide the foundation for almost all marine life. The site focuses on the small number of algae that produce potent neurotoxins that "can be transferred through the food web where they affect and even kill the higher forms of life such as zooplankton, shellfish, fish, birds, marine mammals, and even humans that feed either directly or indirectly on them." The site is divided into the following sections: photos of "Red Tide" blooms, species responsible for harmful effects, adverse impacts at higher trophic levels, human illness associated with algal blooms, and effects in your region. Researchers, educators, and people with interests in such recent headline topics such as the Pfiesteria scare can all find useful information at this site.

., Woods H.

1997-01-01

126

Harmful Algal Blooms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

Graham, Jennifer L.

2007-01-01

127

Toxic & Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching unit investigates differences between toxic and non-toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs), where they occur in U.S. waters, causative phytoplankton species, technologies for detecting blooms, which organisms in the food web are affected and how, effects of specific toxins on humans. Five lessons contain: background and glossary; instructions for classroom and lab activities; online data; web links for further study. Lessons are aligned to teaching standards.

128

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, contains a brief overview of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and their potential impacts on human health and economics. It also provides information regarding mandates/legislation regarding HABs as well as government-funded organizations dedicated to forecasting and remediating HAB events. The site also features links to related sites as well as color and detailed black and white photographs, drawings, and maps.

2009-06-22

129

Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are frequently reported in many countries around the world. Even though this phenomenon has been\\u000a known for a long time1, the causes of HABs and toxicity releases are still not understood. Effective management of HABs of\\u000a cyanobacteria requires an understanding of both the environmental factors associated with their formation and the effectiveness\\u000a of available management alternatives

Igor Linkov; A. Fristachi; F. K. Satterstrom; A. Shifrin; J. Steevens; G. A. Clyde Jr; G. Rice

130

Self-Harm: Cutting the Bad out of Me  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of self-harm is increasing in the United Kingdom, accounting for the highest number of acute medical admissions for women. The medical and nursing response to repeat- ers, set within a climate of dwindling emergency and accident resources, has been one of impatience, frustration, and hostile care. The author undertook a correspondence study with 6 women who regularly self-harmed.

Jennifer Harris

2000-01-01

131

Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions  

PubMed Central

Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID:25286166

Rhodes, Evelyn L.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

2014-01-01

132

Behavioral attitudes and preferences in cooking practices with traditional open-fire stoves in peru, Nepal, and kenya: implications for improved cookstove interventions.  

PubMed

Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20-49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a "one size fits all" improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID:25286166

Rhodes, Evelyn L; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth M; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M; Miranda, J Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

2014-01-01

133

Approaches to the repair of traditional timber-framed buildings: the application of conservation philosophy into practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers some of the issues that arise when conservation philosophy is put into practice, by examining the repair of protected historic timber-framed buildings. Examines, primarily, the attitudes of key national heritage organisations, a number of prominent individuals and a significant number of conservation officers. Suggests that, while the practical and theoretical role of the repair guidance is acknowledged by practitioners,

Derek Worthing; Nigel Dann

2000-01-01

134

Traditional male circumcision practices among the Kurya of North-eastern Tanzania and implications for national programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS recommend male circumcision (MC) as an additional intervention against HIV infection. Various sub-Saharan African countries are at different stages of rolling out MC programmes. Despite initial fears, studies conducted among traditionally non-circumcising communities in Africa have shown that MC is widely accepted as a biomedical intervention. However, little

Gerry Mshana; Mwita Wambura; Joseph Mwanga; Jacklin Mosha; Frank Mosha; John Changalucha

2011-01-01

135

Storm water quantity control has long been a challenge for highway designers. Traditionally, centralized best management practice designs  

E-print Network

Storm water quantity control has long been a challenge for highway designers. Traditionally applica- tions. The use of existing vegetated rights-of-way as a method of treating storm water, a component of the broader storm water treatment concept more generally referred to as low-impact development

Fiedler, Fritz R.

136

A Comparison between African Traditional and Modern Child Rearing Practice: With Implication to Youth Guidance and Counselling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the traditional African society (TAS), the child is allowed to interact with learning materials and situations. Consequently, learning becomes relevant, meaningful, and purposeful in relation to the individual and the society. In the modern African society (MAS), education has been at best an experiment that is marked with inconsistencies in…

Tumuti, Sammy

137

Cultural practices in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. PMID:12157983

Alabi, E M

1990-05-01

138

Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

2013-01-01

139

Factors affecting missed appointment rates for pediatric patients insured by medicaid in a traditional hospital-based resident clinic and hospital-owned practice settings.  

PubMed

Missed appointment rates (MAR) of pediatric patients insured by Medicaid and seen in a traditional hospital-based continuity (teaching) clinic were compared to the rates for the same patients after their care had been transitioned to a community practice. The hypothesis is that when rewarded with shorter waiting times, a less chaotic environment, and more pediatrician continuity, the MAR for patients insured by Medicaid would be lower in the practice setting than it had been in continuity clinic. The MAR decreased from 33% in the continuity clinic in 1999 to 18% in the community practice in 2001 (p<0.01). It was also hypothesized that the MAR for patients insured by Medicaid would be higher in practices with a higher percentage of Medicaid appointments. Among 15 hospital-owned pediatric practices, the MAR for patients insured by Medicaid was positively correlated with the percentage of total appointments that were made by patients insured by Medicaid (correlation coefficient 0.706 [p<0.01]). PMID:15494883

Specht, Elizabeth M; Powell, Keith R; Dormo, Cynthia A

2004-10-01

140

The meaning and value of traditional occupational practice: a Karen woman's story of weaving in the United States.  

PubMed

This case study sought to understand the meaning of restoring traditional weaving as an occupation among Karen women from Burma who now live in an urban city in the United States and to examine the impact of weaving on their daily lives in terms of identity, empowerment, social support, and opportunities for entrepreneurship. The story of one Karen woman, Paw Law Eh, is described. Her story exemplifies the negative consequences of restricted access to familiar and meaningful daily activities, or "occupations", the relationship between occupation and self-identity, how participation in valued occupations can enhance social networks, and the restorative effects that are possible when engagement in meaningful occupations are maintained or restored. Her story demonstrates that occupational therapists have the skills and opportunity to contribute significantly to the well-being of Karen women by supporting the restoration of the occupation of weaving. PMID:23531562

Smith, Yda J; Stephenson, Stephanie; Gibson-Satterthwaite, Michelle

2013-01-01

141

Does Simulation-based Medical Education with Deliberate Practice Yield Better Results than Traditional Clinical Education? A Meta-Analytic Comparative Review of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

Purpose This article presents a comparison of the effectiveness of traditional clinical education toward skill acquisition goals versus simulation-based medical education (SBME) with deliberate practice (DP). Method This is a quantitative meta-analysis that spans twenty years, 1990 to 2010. A search strategy involving three literature databases, 12 search terms, and four inclusion criteria was used. Four authors independently retrieved and reviewed articles. Main outcome measures were extracted to calculate effect sizes. Results Of 3,742 articles identified, 14 met inclusion criteria. The overall effect size for the 14 studies evaluating the comparative effectiveness of SBME compared to traditional clinical medical education was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.65–0.76; P < .001). Conclusions Although the number of reports analyzed in this meta analysis is small, these results show that SBME with DP is superior to traditional clinical medical education in achieving specific clinical skill acquisition goals. SBME is a complex educational intervention that should be introduced thoughtfully and evaluated rigorously at training sites. Further research on incorporating SBME with DP into medical education is needed to amplify its power, utility, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:21512370

McGaghie, William C.; Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

2011-01-01

142

Nurse practitioners and traditional healers: an alliance of mutual respect in the art and science of health practices.  

PubMed

The indigenous people of Hawaii have had difficulty adapting to the Western diet and stressful lifestyle of today's mixed cultural and economic development. This has left a health toll of high rates of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular problems, asthma, and obesity. To promote a healthy lifestyle and promote the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) goal of 100% access to health care and 0% disparity (no one will be denied health care), nurse practitioner/traditional Hawaiian healing clinics have been placed in community settings, which are known to community people and comfortable to access. These clinics provide health care to uninsured and underinsured people in an atmosphere that assures respect for the culture and the health needs. This pilot study examines the perceptions of 30 residents of Hawaii and the type of provider sought. Seventy-five percent of the respondents were generally satisfied with the health care received from both Hawaiian and Western care providers. Back and neck problems and injuries were associated with the use of Hawaiian therapies and appeared to reflect chronic conditions. Western health care is sought for predominantly acute conditions (infections, allergies, and upper respiratory conditions) and for diabetes and hypertension. PMID:11845767

Broad, Lauriann Mahealani; Allison, Dale M

2002-01-01

143

A Population-Based Study of Help-Seeking for Self-Harm in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine help-seeking for self-harm in a population-based sample of young adults.Method: Nine hundred and sixty-five participants aged 26 years were interviewed about help-seeking and barriers to help-seeking for a range of self-harmful behaviours. Self-harm included the traditional methods of suicide (ICD-9 self-harm) and other self-harmful behaviours such as self-battery and self-biting.Results: Just over half of the 25 in

Shyamala Nada-Raja; Dianne Morrison; Keren Skegg

2003-01-01

144

Helping Self-Harming Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 14 to 17 percent of adolescents today self-harm, deliberately cutting, burning, or bruising themselves. Most self-harming adolescents use the behavior as a coping strategy to get immediate relief from emotional distress or other stressors in their lives. Stressors include fitting in with peers, activity and homework overload, fears…

Selekman, Matthew D.

2009-01-01

145

Models of harmful algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models used to study harmful algal blooms are a subset of those used to examine more general planktonic processes. Most models have been heuristic, examining the likelihood of certain processes generating a harmful algal bloom. Several models have been more closely coupled to field data and have been used to gain insights into the dynamics underlying the observations. As better

Peter J. S. Franks

1997-01-01

146

Thinking and practice of accelerating transformation of traditional Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed

The gradual development of Chinese medicine is based on constant accumulation and summary of experience in clinical practice, but without the benefit of undergoing the experimental medicine stage. Although Chinese medicine has formed a systematic and unique theory system through thousands of years, with the development of evidence-based medicine, the bondage of the research methods of experience medicine to Chinese medicine is appearing. The rapid transition and transformation from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine have become important content in the development of Chinese medicine. According to the features of Chinese medicine, we propose the research idea of "taking two ways simultaneously," which is the study both in the ideal condition and in the real world. Analyzing and constructing the theoretical basis and methodology of clinical research in the real world, and building the stage for research technique is key to the effective clinical research of Chinese medicine. Only by gradually maturing and completing the clinical research methods of the real world could we realize "taking two ways simultaneously" and complementing each other, continuously produce scientific and reliable evidence of Chinese medicine, as well as transform and develop Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine. PMID:21695621

Liu, Baoyan; Zhang, Yanhong; Hu, Jingqing; He, Liyun; Zhou, Xuezhong

2011-06-01

147

Excess risk attributable to traditional cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice settings across Europe - The EURIKA Study  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians involved in primary prevention are key players in CVD risk control strategies, but the expected reduction in CVD risk that would be obtained if all patients attending primary care had their risk factors controlled according to current guidelines is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the excess risk attributable, firstly, to the presence of CVD risk factors and, secondly, to the lack of control of these risk factors in primary prevention care across Europe. Methods Cross-sectional study using data from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Daily Practice (EURIKA), which involved primary care and outpatient clinics involved in primary prevention from 12 European countries between May 2009 and January 2010. We enrolled 7,434 patients over 50 years old with at least one cardiovascular risk factor but without CVD and calculated their 10-year risk of CVD death according to the SCORE equation, modified to take diabetes risk into account. Results The average 10-year risk of CVD death in study participants (N = 7,434) was 8.2%. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and diabetes were responsible for 32.7 (95% confidence interval 32.0-33.4), 15.1 (14.8-15.4), 10.4 (9.9-11.0), and 16.4% (15.6-17.2) of CVD risk, respectively. The four risk factors accounted for 57.7% (57.0-58.4) of CVD risk, representing a 10-year excess risk of CVD death of 5.66% (5.47-5.85). Lack of control of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and diabetes were responsible for 8.8 (8.3-9.3), 10.6 (10.3-10.9), 10.4 (9.9-11.0), and 3.1% (2.8-3.4) of CVD risk, respectively. Lack of control of the four risk factors accounted for 29.2% (28.5-29.8) of CVD risk, representing a 10-year excess risk of CVD death of 3.12% (2.97-3.27). Conclusions Lack of control of CVD risk factors was responsible for almost 30% of the risk of CVD death among patients participating in the EURIKA Study. PMID:21923932

2011-01-01

148

Weathering product-harm crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

To counter the negative effects of a product-harm crisis, brands hope to capitalize on their equity, and often use advertising\\u000a as a communication device to regain customers’ lost trust. We study how consumer characteristics and advertising influence\\u000a consumers’ first-purchase decisions for two affected brands of peanut butter following a severe Australian product-harm crisis.\\u000a Both pre-crisis loyalty and familiarity are found

Kathleen Cleeren; Marnik G. Dekimpe; Kristiaan Helsen

2008-01-01

149

IOC Harmful Algal Bloom Programme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) website aims to foster the effective management of, and scientific research on, harmful algal blooms (HAB) to understand their causes, predict their occurrences, and mitigate their effects. The site includes an overview of the program, introduction to HABs, links to relevant databases and activities, and services provided (including literature grants, an identification service, publications, and training courses). The site also features Harmful Algal News, an IOC-published newsletter on toxic algae and algal blooms.

2010-01-25

150

First, do no harm.  

PubMed

Returning to the concept presented at the beginning of this paper, in an era when for many people the quality and longevity of life have never been better, why are there increasing levels of dissatisfaction with life? According to Thomas (1974), "there is something fundamentally, radically unhealthy about all this. We do not seem to be seeking more exuberance in living as much as staving off failure, putting off dying. We have lost all confidence in the human body. The new consensus is that we are badly designed, intrinsically fallible, vulnerable to a host of hostile influences. We live in danger of falling apart at any moment and are therefore always in need of surveillance and propping up." Certainly health educators cannot accept all the blame for this contemporary fad; however, they may contribute to the phenomenon by implicitly suggesting that people are entitled to some idealized level of health and wellness which includes halcyon days immune from the pain and ravages of life in the real world.2+ Henry David Thoreau offered a perceptive view of how life should be experienced when he wrote: "I did not wish to live what was not life, living is so dear; nor did I wish to practice resignation, unless it was quite necessary.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2516045

Lamarine, R J

1989-01-01

151

Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…

Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

2008-01-01

152

Involving traditional birth attendants in emergency obstetric care in Tanzania: policy implications of a study of their knowledge and practices in Kigoma Rural District  

PubMed Central

Introduction Access to quality maternal health services mainly depends on existing policies, regulations, skills, knowledge, perceptions, and economic power and motivation of service givers and target users. Critics question policy recommending involvement of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in emergency obstetric care (EmoC) services in developing countries. Objectives This paper reports about knowledge and practices of TBAs on EmoC in Kigoma Rural District, Tanzania and discusses policy implications on involving TBAs in maternal health services. Methods 157 TBAs were identified from several villages in 2005, interviewed and observed on their knowledge and practice in relation to EmoC. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection and analysis depending on the nature of the information required. Findings Among all 157 TBAs approached, 57.3% were aged 50+ years while 50% had no formal education. Assisting mothers to deliver without taking their full pregnancy history was confessed by 11% of all respondents. Having been attending pregnant women with complications was experienced by 71.2% of all respondents. Only 58% expressed adequate knowledge on symptoms and signs of pregnancy complications. Lack of knowledge on possible risk of HIV infections while assisting childbirth without taking protective gears was claimed by 5.7% of the respondents. Sharing the same pair of gloves between successful deliveries was reported to be a common practice by 21.1% of the respondents. Use of unsafe delivery materials including local herbs and pieces of cloth for protecting themselves against HIV infections was reported as being commonly practiced among 27.6% of the respondents. Vaginal examination before and during delivery was done by only a few respondents. Conclusion TBAs in Tanzania are still consulted by people living in underserved areas. Unfortunately, TBAs’ inadequate knowledge on EmOC issues seems to have contributed to the rising concerns about their competence to deliver the recommended maternal services. Thus, the authorities seeming to recognize and promote TBAs should provide support to TBAs in relation to necessary training and giving them essential working facilities, routine supportive supervision and rewarding those seeming to comply with the standard guidelines for delivering EmoC services. PMID:24124663

2013-01-01

153

Applied communitarian ethics for harm reduction: promoting a dialogue within the field.  

PubMed

This piece responds to critical points raised in commentaries on our 2005 HRD paper on the topic of harm reduction ethics, and clarifies other aspects of our original arguments that were misinterpreted. In our view, the goal of ethical engagement in harm reduction is not necessarily the production of an agreed moral framework, but instead reflection and awareness raising around the various values and beliefs underlying harm reduction, and consideration of how these influence policy, practice and research decisions and outcomes. This 'discursive authenticity' as Hathaway has called it, can help to define a new territory of authority for drug users as participants in harm reduction policy, practice and research. PMID:17701519

Fry, Craig; Treloar, Carla; Maher, Lisa

2007-09-01

154

Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government  

PubMed Central

Background The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Methods Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Results Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives—for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions—can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. Conclusions By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. PMID:23933915

Martineau, F.P.; Graff, H.; Mitchell, C.; Lock, K.

2014-01-01

155

Curriculum Vitae Kyle E. Harms 1 KYLE EDWARD HARMS  

E-print Network

Advisor ­ Stephen P. Hubbell; Committee ­ Andrew P. Dobson, Henry S. Horn, Stephen W. Pacala & Donald A Navarrete, #12;Curriculum Vitae ­ Kyle E. Harms ­ 2 Stuart J. Davies, Stephen P. Hubbell & James W. Dalling, S. Bunyavejchewin, S. Kiratiprayoon, A. Yaacob, M. N. N. Supardi, S. J. Davies, S. P. Hubbell, G. B

Harms, Kyle E.

156

[Adolescents and violence. Impact of African traditions and customs on the signification of the law to children in familial, social, educative and judicial practices].  

PubMed

Youth-related violence is a frequent topic of press reports and editorial comment. The most disturbing aspects of the phenomenon are the younger and younger age of delinquents and the greater and greater availability of firearms. While the advocates of an American-style approach of absolute repression clash with those of the educative approach to change aggressive attitudes and young people benefit from their "minor" status, the compelling reality is that all preventive programs have failed flatly. This purpose of this study was twofold. The first aim was to highlight the important contribution of tradition and custom to channeling youthful behavior in African society today and yesterday through signification and transmission of law in familial, social, educative and juridical practices. The second goal was to identify and define the psycho-relational elements that can be considered as factors promoting violent and self-destructive tendencies in minors of African origin tempted by migration in a society in which social representations inhibit parents and prevent them from conveying the limits of the law in their children. PMID:15077424

Mbassa Menick, D

2003-01-01

157

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Primarily through the use of engaging graphics, this resource outlines where Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occur in U.S. waters. It also addresses the differences between toxic and non-toxic HABs, which organisms in the food web are affected, how specific toxins work and the symptoms associated with them, and the causative phytoplankton species.

Laboratory, Bigelow

158

ECONOMIC HARM IGNORED: BETAMAX REVISITED  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the economic harm to copyright owners from selected uses of home videocassette recorders. Specifically, we examine the consequences of such household behavior as the copying of prerecorded videocassettes and taping television broadcasts for permanent collections (i.e., \\

F. J. CRONIN; A. R. WUSTERBARTH

1986-01-01

159

Pregnancy policing: Policy of harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who use illicit drugs, particularly those who use them while pregnant, have commonly been characterized as immoral and unfit for parenting. The sharp rise in prenatal drug use during the 1980s, fueled by the conservative political climate in the USA at that time, and the somewhat tenuous data on the harmful effects of drugs on the fetus, provoked an

Denise Paone; Julie Alperen

1998-01-01

160

Hurt, Harm, and School Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nietzsche overlooks some possibilities. Something may not kill us, yet leave us sickly or crippled. But he is right, too. It may make us stronger. It is ancient wisdom that we grow through facing adversity: ad astra per aspera?to the stars through adversity. We know, too, that too much of something good may do us harm. One can overstudy, or…

Rozycki, Edward G.

2004-01-01

161

Reducing harm from tobacco use.  

PubMed

If current trends in smoking prevalence continue, even with the implementation of enhanced tobacco control measures, millions of smokers will continue to fall ill and die as a direct result of their smoking. Many of these will be from the most deprived groups in society - smoking continues to be one of the strongest drivers of health inequalities. The personal costs of this morbidity and mortality, as well as costs to business and the economy, are unequalled and will therefore remain high for several decades to come. However, there is an addition to the tobacco control armoury that could have a marked impact on public health, but it requires radical action to be taken. This would be to embrace harm reduction, but this approach is as controversial in the case of tobacco as it is in the case of illicit drugs from where it derives. However, harm reduction remains the Cinderella of the three major strategies for reducing smoking-related harm, the others being prevention and cessation. Here we make the case that harm reduction has an important role to play in reducing the health burden of tobacco use. PMID:23035032

McNeill, Ann; Munafò, Marcus R

2013-01-01

162

The Challenge of Deliberate Self-Harm by Young Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes model of crisis intervention to families of adolescents who deliberately harm themselves and summarizes premises which guide practice. Views adolescent's "overdose" as attempt to resolve relationship conflicts and works to explore predicament for adolescent and family. Verbatim extracts from one session illustrate the process. (Author/NB)

Reder, Peter; And Others

1991-01-01

163

Use of traditional and complementary health practices in prenatal, delivery and postnatal care in the context of HIV transmission from mother to child (PMTCT) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was as part of a baseline assessment in PMTCT in the traditional health sector: a) to determine the views of women who have used the services of traditional practitioners before, during and/or after pregnancy, and b) to conduct formative research with traditional health practitioners (THPs), i.e. herbalists, diviners and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on HIV, pregnancy care, delivery and infant care. The sample included a) 181 postnatal care clients with a child less than 12 months interviewed at postnatal clinic visits from 20 primary care clinics in the Kouga Local Service Area (LSA), Cacadu district, Eastern Cape, and b) 54 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and 47 herbalists and/or diviners were interviewed from Kouga LSA. Results showed that THP (in particular TBAs and to a certain extend herbalists/diviners) play a significant role in pregnancy and postnatal care, and also with the assistance of delivery. Certain HIV risk practices were reported on the practice of TBAs. THPs also seem to have some role in infant feeding and family planning. THPs should be trained in optimising their services in pregnancy and postnatal care, and preparation for health facility delivery. In addition, they should be trained on HIV risk practices, HIV/AIDS, HIV prevention including PMTCT, infant feeding and family planning. PMID:20209007

Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Treger, Latasha

2009-01-01

164

Traditional media.  

PubMed

Traditional folk media (such as folk theater, dance and textile arts) offer health program managers a potentially powerful method of reaching rural villagers. While modern mass media (such as radio, television, printed matter) may extend messages to larger audiences at lower cost per person reached, their dependence on centralized, urban facilities and staff and their need for uniform, fixed messages often make them less responsive to local situations and specific audience needs. Traditional media use local language and symbols in a format which is familiar, credible and accessible to rural villagers. To be truly appropriate, traditional media (like other technologies) must be adapted to the overall approach, message, and intended audience with which they are used. Integration with modern media may be successful but must be approached cautiously. Evaluation is critical both for adjusting the specific project and for better assessment of the net effectiveness of folk media communication strategies. With appropriate matching of a strategy's central components and thorough consideration of implemenatation and management issues (integration, training, evaluation, funding), traditional fold media can become an extremely effective means of communicating health information. This issue outlines the guidelines for use of traditional media in health communication activities, with special emphasis on live drama puppetry, song and dance, storytelling and proverbs, and pictures, PMID:12268713

1987-01-01

165

The Olympics and harm reduction?  

PubMed Central

The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent. The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping. PMID:22788912

2012-01-01

166

Traditional West Coast Native Medicine  

PubMed Central

An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” plant by the Haida people illustrates that Native medicine has both spiritual and physical properties. Modern family practice shares many important foundations with traditional healing systems. PMID:21253031

Deagle, George

1988-01-01

167

Cannabis and Harm Reduction: A Nursing Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of nursing care is to promote health and reduce harm caused by injury, disease, or poor self-care. Harm reduction is a public health model, which is gaining popularity as an effective modality to help persons reduce the negative consequences associated with their drug use. The harm reduction model blends well with the core principles of nursing. When viewed

Mary Lynn Mathre

2002-01-01

168

Harmful Algal Blooms & Muck What's the Difference?  

E-print Network

Harmful Algal Blooms & Muck What's the Difference? Harmful algal blooms and muck, otherwise known as Cladophora, can be mistaken for each other simply because people may associate an algal bloom with either that photosynthesizes like algae do. Blue-green harmful algal blooms (HABs) and green algae blooms can be found

169

What Are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Harmful algal blooms, sometimes referred to as "red tides,"  

E-print Network

What Are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Harmful algal blooms, sometimes referred to as "red tides the production of potent chemi- cal toxins (algal toxins) or the build up of excess biomass. Harmful algal blooms.noaa.gov/hab/). State of the Science FACT SHEET Harmful Algal Blooms NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION

170

Defining Minimum Standards of Practice for Incorporating African Traditional Medicine into HIV\\/AIDS Prevention, Care, and Support: A Regional Initiative in Eastern and Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many resource-poor settings of Africa, a majority of people living with HIV\\/AIDS depend on and choose traditional healers for psychosocial counseling and health care. If the current pan-African prevention and care efforts spurred by the HIV pandemic do not actively engage African Traditional Medicine, they will effectively miss 80%, the vast majority of the African people who, according to

Jaco Homsy; Rachel King; Joseph Tenywa; Primrose Kyeyune; Alex Opio; Dorothy Balaba

2004-01-01

171

What is the harm in harmful conception? On threshold harms in non-identity cases.  

PubMed

Has the time come to put to bed the concept of a harm threshold when discussing the ethics of reproductive decision making and the legal limits that should be placed upon it? In this commentary, we defend the claim that there exist good moral reasons, despite the conclusions of the non-identity problem, based on the interests of those we might create, to refrain from bringing to birth individuals whose lives are often described in the philosophical literature as 'less than worth living'. PMID:25179120

Williams, Nicola J; Harris, John

2014-10-01

172

Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology.\\u000a Drawing from Agnew’s (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects\\u000a of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation. The data come from a school-based\\u000a survey

Carter Hay; Ryan Meldrum

2010-01-01

173

Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional

Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

2005-01-01

174

Are cultic environments psychologically harmful?  

PubMed

This article is the first critical review of research that addresses the question of whether cult membership is psychologically harmful. The available evidence warrants three conclusions: (a) persons entering cults do not necessarily exhibit psychopathology; (b) current cult members appear psychologically well-adjusted generally, and demonstrate few conspicuous symptoms of psychopathology. However, pathology may be masked by conformity pressures and demand characteristics associated with the cultic environment; (c) a small but growing body of research indicates that at least a substantial minority of former cult members experience significant adjustment difficulties. There also are indications that these difficulties cannot be ascribed to demand characteristics. Although the review highlights definitional and methodological issues and problems that temper conclusions that can be drawn from the literature, no evidence indicates that cults improve adjustment after members leave the cultic environment. PMID:10660830

Aronoff, J; Lynn, S J; Malinoski, P

2000-01-01

175

COMPARISONS BETWEEN CAUCASIAN STUDENTS, STUDENTS OF COLOR, AND AMERICAN INDIAN STUDENTS ON THEIR VIEWS ON SOCIAL WORK'S TRADITIONAL MISSION, CAREER MOTIVATIONS, AND PRACTICE PREFERENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary data analysis of a California statewide sample of nearly 7,000 entering MSW students between 1991 and 1999 sought to find out whether MSW students are less motivated by social work's traditional mission of serving the poor and whether students of color are more motivated than Caucasian students by this mission. Results indicate that (1) MSW students are highly attracted

Gordon E. Limb; Kurt C. Organista

2003-01-01

176

A Comparison of Preservice Teachers' Responses to Cyber versus Traditional Bullying Scenarios: Similarities and Differences and Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior studies indicate that teachers differ in how they respond to different kinds of traditional bullying, and that their beliefs predict their intervention intentions. The current study provided the first extension of this work into the realm of cyber bullying. Preservice teachers in the United Kingdom ("N" = 222) were presented with…

Boulton, Michael J.; Hardcastle, Katryna; Down, James; Fowles, John; Simmonds, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

177

Native voices on Native science: Mohawk perspectives on the concept, practice, and meaning of a knowledge production system rooted in traditional Native thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community psychology is strongly committed to the value of cultural relativity and diversity. Acquiring knowledge regarding cultural differences is essential if community psychology is to realize this value. This paper provides a culture specific perspective on the form and meaning of a knowledge system rooted in traditional Mohawk thought. The academic literature regarding research on Native people reveals an ethnocentric

Pamela Esther Johnson

1996-01-01

178

A Research Framework for Reducing Preventable Patient Harm  

PubMed Central

Programs to reduce central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) have improved the safety of hospitalized patients. Efforts are underway to disseminate these successes broadly to reduce other types of hospital-acquired infectious and noninfectious preventable harms. Unfortunately, the ability to broadly measure and prevent other types of preventable harms, especially infectious harms, needs enhancement. Moreover, an overarching research framework for creating and integrating evidence will help expedite the development of national prevention programs. This article outlines a 5-phase translational (T) framework to develop robust research programs that reduce preventable harm, as follows: phase T0, discover opportunities and approaches to prevent adverse health care events; phase T1, use T0 discoveries to develop and test interventions on a small scale; phase T2, broaden and strengthen the evidence base for promising interventions to develop evidence-based guidelines; phase T3, translate guidelines into clinical practice; and phase T4, implement and evaluate T3 work on a national and international scale. Policy makers should use this framework to fill in the knowledge gaps, coordinate efforts among federal agencies, and prioritize research funding. PMID:21258104

Weinstein, Robert; Cardo, Denise M.; Goeschel, Christine A.; Berenholtz, Sean M.; Saint, Sanjay; Jernigan, John A.

2011-01-01

179

Rationalising circumcision: from tradition to fashion, from public health to individual freedom--critical notes on cultural persistence of the practice of genital mutilation.  

PubMed

Despite global and local attempts to end genital mutilation, in their various forms, whether of males or females, the practice has persisted throughout human history in most parts of the world. Various medical, scientific, hygienic, aesthetic, religious, and cultural reasons have been used to justify it. In this symposium on circumcision, against the background of the other articles by Hutson, Short, and Viens, the practice is set by the author within a wider, global context by discussing a range of rationalisations used to support different types of genital mutilation throughout time and across the globe. It is argued that in most cases the rationalisations invented to provide support for continuing the practice of genital mutilation--whether male or female--within various cultural and religious settings have very little to do with finding a critical and reflective moral justification for these practices. In order to question the ethical acceptability of the practice in its non-therapeutic forms, we need to focus on child rights protection. PMID:15173357

Hellsten, S K

2004-06-01

180

Online drug user-led harm reduction in Hungary: a review of "Daath"  

PubMed Central

Harm reduction has been increasingly finding its way into public drug policies and healthcare practices worldwide, with successful intervention measures justifiably focussing on the highest-risk groups, such as injecting drug users. However, there are also other types of drug users in need for harm reduction, even though they pose less, low, or no public health risk. Occasionally, drug users may autonomously organise themselves into groups to provide advocacy, harm reduction, and peer-help services, sometimes online. The http://www.daath.hu website has been operated since 2001 by the “Hungarian Psychedelic Community”, an unorganised drug user group with a special interest in hallucinogenic and related substances. As of today, the website serves about 1200 visitors daily, and the online community comprises of more than 8000 registered members. The Daath community is driven by a strong commitment to the policy of harm reduction in the form of various peer-help activities that aim to expand harm reduction without promoting drug use. Our review comprehensively summarises Daath’s user-led harm reduction services and activities from the last ten years, firstly outlining the history and growth phases of Daath, along with its self-set guidelines and policies. Online services (such as a discussion board, and an Ecstasy pill database) and offline activities (such as Ecstasy pill field testing, and a documentary film about psychedelics) are described. In order to extend its harm reduction services and activities in the future, Daath has several social, commercial, and legislative challenges to face. Starting with a need to realign its focus, outlooks for the upcoming operation of Daath are pondered. Future trends in harm reduction, such as separating harm-decreasing from benefit-increasing, are also discussed. We aim to share these innovative harm reduction measures and good practices in order to be critically assessed, and – if found useful – adapted and applied elsewhere. PMID:24088321

2013-01-01

181

Traditional gender role beliefs and individual outcomes: An exploratory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey administered to 806 undergraduate students serve as the basis for analyzing the relationships among traditional gender roles, same-sex intimacy, and homophobia. High levels of homophobia and low levels of intimacy were found among those who believe strongly in the traditional roles. Previous research has shown both homophobia and a lack of intimacy to be harmful

Leonard P. Stark

1991-01-01

182

"Cloning Considered Harmful" Considered Harmful Cory Kapser and Michael W. Godfrey  

E-print Network

duplication harmful to the system quality and the reasons commonly cited for duplicating code often have"Cloning Considered Harmful" Considered Harmful Cory Kapser and Michael W. Godfrey Software beneficial design option. For example, a method of introducing experimental changes to core subsystems

Godfrey, Michael W.

183

Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

Eversman, Michael H.

2012-01-01

184

Practitioner Review: Self-Harm in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Repeated self-harm in adolescents is common and associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm there have been few systematic reviews of the topic. Aims: The main aim of this article is to review randomised controlled…

Ougrin, Dennis; Tranah, Troy; Leigh, Eleanor; Taylor, Lucy; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum

2012-01-01

185

The Harm Principle and Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewedas the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food iscurrently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept ofharm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the HarmPrinciple a plausible political principle, so this principlecannot be used to justify existing regulation; and (b) that evenif the

Nils Holtug

2001-01-01

186

Toward a psychology of harm reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses 3 different strategies for dealing with the harmful consequences of drug use and other risky behaviors: We can discourage people from engag- ing in the behavior (prevalence reduction), we can en- courage people to reduce the frequency or extent of the behavior (quantity reduction), or we can try to reduce the harmful consequences of the behavior when

Robert J. MacCoun

1998-01-01

187

Harris, harmed states, and sexed bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper criticises John Harris's attempts to defend an account of a ‘harmed condition’ that can stand independently of intuitions about what is ‘normal’. I argue that because Homo sapiens is a sexually dimorphic species, determining whether a particular individual is in a harmed condition or not will sometimes require making reference to the normal capacities of their sex. Consequently,

Robert Sparrow

2011-01-01

188

Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

2006-01-01

189

Off-Campus, Harmful Online Student Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses issues related to off-campus, harmful student speech on the Internet. The article explores the characteristics of this harmful speech, including (a) the speech originates off-campus. It has been created and disseminated without the use of school computers or Internet capabilities; (b) the speech has a school nexus. The speech relates to the district, the school, board members,

Nancy Willard

2003-01-01

190

TEXAS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM COORDINATION MX964014  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly ¿ of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...

191

Alcohol policy and harm reduction in Australia.  

PubMed

With consultations having been held across Australia this year as part of the process of developing a new National Alcohol Strategy, it seemed timely to invite my colleagues from the National Drug Research Institute who are experts in the alcohol field to write this Harm Reduction Digest. The authors have canvassed a range of alcohol policy options and discussed their effectiveness in reducing harm for what is arguably Australia's number one drug problem. Australia's response to alcohol and other drug problems has, historically, been based on 'harm minimization--incorporating supply reduction, demand reduction and harm reduction'. At this time where the policy options for alcohol are being set for the next 5 years in a climate of 'small government', removing restrictions of 'fair competition' in business and a belief in the free market, what does the research have to say about recommended policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm? PMID:16361215

Loxley, Wendy; Gray, Dennis; Wilkinson, Celia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Midford, Richard; Moore, David

2005-11-01

192

The role of traditional confinement practices in determining postpartum depression in women in Chinese cultures: A systematic review of the English language evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Chinese postpartum custom of “confinement” or “doing-the-month” involves formalised social support and recognition of the status of motherhood and has been presumed in anthropological literature to protect mothers of newborns from postpartum depression. The aim of this review was to examine systematically the evidence about the relationship between confinement practices and postpartum depression in Chinese cultures.

Josephine Wong; Jane Fisher

2009-01-01

193

Learning a New Approach to Teach in a Traditional Context: A Case of Thai Primary School Teachers Making Fundamental Changes in Their Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined a unique professional development model and its contribution to teachers' practice. The study also sought to understand the process of teacher learning as teachers made fundamental changes in their teaching. The new model of professional development was implemented in the context of the Social Forestry, Education and…

Namfa, Benjalug

2012-01-01

194

Traditional Chinese drug therapy.  

PubMed

More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. PMID:14747850

Borchardt, John K

2003-12-01

195

Consumer and practitioner perceptions of the harm reduction approach in a community mental health setting.  

PubMed

Harm reduction in community mental health settings can be effective in engaging persons with co-occurring disorders in services. In this qualitative study, personal interviews and grounded theory methods were used to explore the experiences of 21 mental health practitioners and 15 consumers with co-occurring disorders at a community mental health housing program that uses harm reduction. Results indicate that while harm reduction enhanced therapeutic alliances, ethical and emotional tensions between practitioners and consumers regarding their views on self-determination and tolerance of drug-related behaviors were also evident. These tensions are explored and implications for practice and education are provided. PMID:22009266

Mancini, Michael A; Wyrick-Waugh, Wynter

2013-02-01

196

Runoff and soil loss under different land management practices in vineyards: grass cover treatments and traditional tillage. Results from simulated rainfall.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land degradation control is crucial in croplands located in semiarid lands, due to its low soil formation rate, above all in slope fields. This study is located in the South East of Madrid (Spain), in a vineyard at 800 masl under Mediterranean semiarid climatic conditions, with an average slope of 14%. We studied the impact of traditional tillage measuring runoff and soil loss in plots in two critical moments of the vineyard crop: summer with dry soil, and fall when tillage is done in order to facilitate the infiltration of winter rainfal?s water. Three treatments were tested in nine erosion plots (4m x 0,5m): traditional tillage ("till"); Brachypodium distachyon (L.) ("bra") allowing self-sowing; Secale cereale ("sec"), mown in early spring. Short (15 minutes) but intense (2,16 mm/min) simulated rainfalls were carried out at each plot: The simulated rainfalls made in summer over the vineyard tilled in spring ("till") produced little runoff (41 ml min-1; erosion rate of 0.24 g m-2) and it lasted 6 min from the start of the shower, it was due to the roughness and because the soil was near its wilting point. The low erosion rate is attributable to the sealing of soil after the rains occurred in spring. In treatments with plant cover runoff began earlier, at the 3rd minute. The average runoff was 516 and 730 ml min-1 and erosion rates were 3.04 g m-2 and 1.41 g m-2 in "bra" and "sec" respectively. There were significant differences (F = 31.6, P <0.001) in runoff coefficient between the three treatments with the highest ratio shown in "sec". The average runoff coefficients obtained were 16% in "sec", 13% in "bra" and 1.4% in "till". Moreover two simulated rainfalls were carried out in autumn in order to test the effect of the autumnal traditional tillage. The plant cover treatments were efficient controlling the erosion (sediment yield were in "till"; "sec" and "bra" respectively 2.66, 0. 29, 0. 11 g m-2 in the first simulation, and 11.67, 0.66, 0.14 g m-2 in the second simulation). Before tillage the average runoff coefficient in "till" was 19% (six times higher than in plant cover treatments) probably because of its sealing and compaction due to the lack of plants. After tillage, in spite of the increase of roughness, and on the contrary to obtained in summer, the runoff increases. It is explained by the soil moisture: In the first simulated rainfall, the soil was 72% of its water holding capacity at 10 cm, and 44% at 35 cm soil depth. However, in the second simulated rainfall the surface was completely wet, and at 35 cm it reached the 85% of water holding capacity. Comparing the runoff and erosion behavior in each treatment for both seasons, it is shown that in summer a shallow tillage increases the infiltration significantly. However in autumn, when the soil is wetter, the tillage increases runoff and erosion significantly. This has to be taken into account in order to change traditional uses in steep crops. Keywords: erosion, runoff, simulated rainfall, vineyard, tillage, vegetable cover Aknowledgements: Projects FP06-DR3 IMIDRA and RTA2007-0086 INIA. Predoctoral grant from INIA. Bodegas and Viñedos Gosálbez-Ortí.

Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramon; Marques, Maria-Jose

2010-05-01

197

Physical harm due to chronic substance use.  

PubMed

Chronic use at high dose of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco is associated with physical disease. The relative physical harm of these substances has not been described before, but will benefit the guiding of policy measures about licit and illicit substances. The physical harm of 19 addictive substances (including alcohol and tobacco), consisting of toxicity and the risk and severity of somatic disease (not psychiatric disease) was assessed based on literature data and the professional opinion of experts using scores ranging from 0 (no physical harm) to 3 (very serious physical harm). For alcohol, tobacco and some illicit drugs strong associations between long-term use or use in high dose versus the risk of somatic disease have been described, whereas for other substances such data are not available. Magic mushrooms, LSD and methylphenidate obtained relatively low scores (0.45-0.65) for physical harm, whereas relatively high scores were given for heroin (2.09), crack (2.32), alcohol (2.13) and tobacco (2.10). For cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol the estimated societal disease burden was higher than at individual level. The present ranking solely based on their physical harm was very similar to a previous ranking based on a combination of dependence liability, physical harm and social impairments. PMID:23542091

van Amsterdam, Jan; Pennings, Ed; Brunt, Tibor; van den Brink, Wim

2013-06-01

198

Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.  

PubMed

This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems. PMID:23740348

Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

2014-09-01

199

Self-harm in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Rates of self-harm appear high in South Asian young women in the United Kingdom (UK) although previous studies were mostly\\u000a small. Data on treatment and outcomes for South Asians are lacking. This study compared rates of self-harm, socio-demographic\\u000a and clinical characteristics, provision of services and risk of repetition by ethnicity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A prospective cohort of adult self-harm attendees (n = 7185), aged 15

Jayne Cooper; Nusrat Husain; Roger Webb; Waquas Waheed; Navneet Kapur; Else Guthrie; Louis Appleby

2006-01-01

200

Is harm reduction profitable? An analytical framework for corporate social responsibility based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption.  

PubMed

This article aims to help resolve the apparent paradox of producers of addictive goods who claim to be socially responsible while marketing a product clearly identified as harmful. It advances that reputation effects are crucial in this issue and that determining whether harm reduction practices are costly or profitable for the producers can help to assess the sincerity of their discourse. An analytical framework based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption that includes a deterrent effect of heavy use on initiation is developed. This framework enables us to establish a clear distinction between a simple responsible discourse and genuine harm reduction practices and, among harm reduction practices, between use reduction practices and micro harm reduction practices. Using simulations based on tobacco sales in France from 1950 to 2008, we explore the impact of three corresponding types of actions: communication on damage, restraining selling practices and development of safer products on total sales and on the social cost. We notably find that restraining selling practices toward light users, that is, preventing light users from escalating to heavy use, can be profitable for the producer, especially at early stages of the epidemic, but that such practices also contribute to increase the social cost. These results suggest that the existence of a deterrent effect of heavy use on the initiation of the consumption of an addictive good can shed new light on important issues, such as the motivations for corporate social responsibility and the definition of responsible actions in the particular case of harm reduction. PMID:22475402

Massin, Sophie

2012-06-01

201

Assessment of genetic variability in a traditional cassava (Manihot esculenta  

E-print Network

Assessment of genetic variability in a traditional cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) farming `on farm' strategies of conservation, the impact of traditional farming practices of cassava (M. esculenta Crantz) traditionally grown by Makushi Amerindians from Guyana, using AFLP markers

202

Comparison of an effect-model-law-based method versus traditional clinical practice guidelines for optimal treatment decision-making: application to statin treatment in the French population.  

PubMed

Healthcare authorities make difficult decisions about how to spend limited budgets for interventions that guarantee the best cost-efficacy ratio. We propose a novel approach for treatment decision-making, OMES-in French: Objectif thérapeutique Modèle Effet Seuil (in English: Therapeutic Objective-Threshold-Effect Model; TOTEM). This approach takes into consideration results from clinical trials, adjusted for the patients' characteristics in treatment decision-making. We compared OMES with the French clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the management of dyslipidemia with statin in a computer-generated realistic virtual population, representing the adult French population, in terms of the number of all-cause deaths avoided (number of avoided events: NAEs) under treatment and the individual absolute benefit. The total budget was fixed at the annual amount reimbursed by the French social security for statins. With the CPGs, the NAEs was 292 for an annual cost of 122.54 M€ compared with 443 with OMES. For a fixed NAEs, OMES reduced costs by 50% (60.53 M€ yr(-1)). The results demonstrate that OMES is at least as good as, and even better than, the standard CPGs when applied to the same population. Hence the OMES approach is a practical, useful alternative which will help to overcome the limitations of treatment decision-making based uniquely on CPGs. PMID:25209407

Kahoul, Riad; Gueyffier, François; Amsallem, Emmanuel; Haugh, Margaret; Marchant, Ivanny; Boissel, François-Henri; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

2014-11-01

203

Moral Outrage and Opposition to Harm Reduction  

E-print Network

illegal immigration, air pollution, and fast food). ‘‘MoralTeenage Sex, Air Pollution, and Fast Food. Each respondentfood—are fairly obvious exemplars of the harm reduction debate. In contrast, illegal immigration and air pollution

MacCoun, Robert J

2012-01-01

204

High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

205

Self-harm in young people.  

PubMed

Self-harm is a common problem among young people with many presenting to clinical services via general hospitals, but many more do not come to the attention of clinical services at all. Self-harm is strongly associated with completed suicide so it is extremely important that patients are assessed and treated for this problem effectively. Despite the scale of the problem in young people, there is a very limited evidence base on what interventions may help them to recover from self-harm. The evidence is discussed here and some recommendations are made about how to engage clinically with young people who self-harm from assessment to therapeutic intervention. PMID:25114299

Townsend, Ellen

2014-11-01

206

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms Educational Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four lesson plans focus on understanding toxic and harmful algal blooms. Designed for use in conjunction with Bigelow Laboratory's "Toxic and Harmful Algal Bloom" web site. Each module includes background, learning objectives, student preparation, and standards-related classroom or lab activity. Topics cover: role of algae in the food web; development of algal blooms; impacts and bioaccumulation of bloom-related toxins; control of blooms and role playing a community response.

207

Self-harm and suicide in adolescents.  

PubMed

Self-harm and suicide are major public health problems in adolescents, with rates of self-harm being high in the teenage years and suicide being the second most common cause of death in young people worldwide. Important contributors to self-harm and suicide include genetic vulnerability and psychiatric, psychological, familial, social, and cultural factors. The effects of media and contagion are also important, with the internet having an important contemporary role. Prevention of self-harm and suicide needs both universal measures aimed at young people in general and targeted initiatives focused on high-risk groups. There is little evidence of effectiveness of either psychosocial or pharmacological treatment, with particular controversy surrounding the usefulness of antidepressants. Restriction of access to means for suicide is important. Major challenges include the development of greater understanding of the factors that contribute to self-harm and suicide in young people, especially mechanisms underlying contagion and the effect of new media. The identification of successful prevention initiatives aimed at young people and those at especially high risk, and the establishment of effective treatments for those who self-harm, are paramount needs. PMID:22726518

Hawton, Keith; Saunders, Kate E A; O'Connor, Rory C

2012-06-23

208

Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing  

PubMed Central

Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres) which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included in harm reduction advocacy or training strategies to support or operationalise legalised harm reduction interventions. The practices of street police challenge harm reduction policies, entirely understandably given the competing pressures on them. For harm reduction to be effective in Vietnam, it is essential that the ambiguities and contradictions between laws to control HIV and to control drugs be resolved for the street-level police. PMID:22769590

2012-01-01

209

Assessing the likely harms to kidney vendors in regulated organ markets.  

PubMed

Advocates of paid living kidney donation frequently argue that kidney sellers would benefit from paid donation under a properly regulated kidney market. The poor outcomes experienced by participants in existing markets are often entirely attributed to harmful black-market practices. This article reviews the medical and anthropological literature on the physical, psychological, social, and financial harms experienced by vendors under Iran's regulated system of donor compensation and black markets throughout the world and argues that this body of research not only documents significant harms to vendors, but also provides reasons to believe that such harms would persist under a regulated system. This does not settle the question of whether or not a regulated market should be introduced, but it does strengthen the case against markets in kidneys while suggesting that those advocating such a system cannot appeal to the purported benefits to vendors to support their case. PMID:25229573

Koplin, Julian

2014-10-01

210

Harm Avoidance and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that harm avoidance, a trait associated with behavioral inhibition, is associated with risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Methods A total of 791 adults aged 55 years and older without dementia completed a standard self report measure of harm avoidance. They then underwent annual evaluations that included detailed cognitive testing and clinical classification of mild cognitive impairment, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. In a uniform neuropathologic examination of those who died, counts of neuritic plaques diffuse plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles were standardized and combined to yield a pathologic measure of disease. The relation of harm avoidance to incidence of Alzheimer’s disease and related outcomes was estimated in analyses adjusted for age, sex, and education. Results During a mean of 3.5 years of annual observation, 98 people (12.4%) developed incident Alzheimer’s disease. High level of harm avoidance (90th percentile) was associated with a more than twofold increase in risk of Alzheimer’s disease compared to a low score (10th percentile). Higher harm avoidance was also associated with increased incidence of mild cognitive impairment and more rapid decline in episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed (but not semantic memory or visuospatial ability). In 116 participants who died and underwent brain autopsy, harm avoidance was not related to a composite measure of plaques and tangles. Conclusion High level of the harm avoidance trait, indicating a tendency toward behavioral inhibition, is related to risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and its precursor, mild cognitive impairment. PMID:21949425

Wilson, Robert S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Yu, Lei; Arnold, Steven E.; Bennett, David A.

2011-01-01

211

The Integration of Harm Reduction into Abstinence-based Therapeutic Communities: A Case Study of We Help Ourselves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, therapeutic communities (TCs) have focused on providing abstinence-based treatment. However, with the emergence of HIV among injecting drug users, some TCs have evolved to include risk management or harm reduction strategies into their previously abstinence-based programs. We Help Ourselves (WHOS), a group of TCs in Australia, integrated harm reduction into their services in the 1980s. WHOS passed through a

Kate Dolan; Sarah Larney; Alex Wodak

2007-01-01

212

Traditional Pricing or Something Else?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued tha alternate pricing methods for college textbooks--including net pricing, net billing, and single copy order pricing--would be detrimental to college bookstores. Publishers are urged to continue with the traditional method, and other publisher practices that could help bookstore managers are suggested. (JMD)

Epple, John H.

1980-01-01

213

The Scottish Political Economy Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political economy is attracting renewed interest, given the crisis in orthodox economics. This artic le focuses on the Scottish tradition in political economy, which took its character from the style of reasoning engendered by the Enlighte nment, and the issues, moral and practical, to which that reasoning w as addressed. It is style of reasoning and method of enquiry which

Sheila C. Dow

1987-01-01

214

Traditional Teacher Education Still Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fresh from teaching his first full school year the author reflects on his traditional teacher preparation path into the classroom and finds he was instilled with a common sense of ethics, compassion, a demand for reflective practice, and a robust guiding philosophy. As a college student, he learned theory and was able to augment that with…

Jacobs, Nick

2013-01-01

215

Update on Harm-Reduction Policy and Intervention Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harm reduction is a pragmatic approach to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol and drug use or other high-risk activities by incorporating several strategies that cut across the spectrum from safer use to managed use to abstinence. The primary goal of most harm-reduction approaches is to meet individuals “where they are at?? and not to ignore or condemn the harmful

G. Alan Marlatt; Katie Witkiewitz

2010-01-01

216

Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia & Climate Change: West Coast Region Introduction  

E-print Network

Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia & Climate Change: West Coast Region Introduction Harmful algal blooms species, and serious threats to human health posed by algal toxins. Just one harmful algal bloom event can and harmful algal blooms is a possibility under some West Coast climate change forecasts. The Problem

217

Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation  

E-print Network

Animation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics #12;Overview · Animation techniques ­Performance-based (motion capture) ­Traditional animation (frame

Treuille, Adrien

218

THIS MONTHS TOPIC: TRADITIONAL  

E-print Network

THIS MONTHS TOPIC: TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE The Inuit view of how the Arctic is changing WITH SPECIAL GUESTS: Tusaqtuut Traditional Inuit Knowledge Initiative Elders Chairperson Jamesie Mike, Pangnirtung Tusaqtuut Traditional Knowledge Initiative Directors Project Director Meeka Mike, Iqaluit, Nunavut Southern

Garousi, Vahid

219

Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Operational Forecast System provided by NOAA supplies information on the location, extent, and potential for development or movement of harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico. The forecasting system relies on satellite imagery, field observations, and buoy data to provide the large spatial scale and high frequency of observations required to assess bloom location and movements. Conditions are posted to this web page twice a week during the HAB season. Additional analysis is included in the HAB Bulletin that is provided to state and local resource managers in the region. The web page includes links to the HAB bulletin, available mapping systems, contributors, and other HAB resources.

2009-06-26

220

Are traditional birth attendants good for improving maternal and perinatal health? Yes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joseph Ana argues that the shortage of skilled health workers means traditional birth attendants have a valuable place, but Kelsey A Harrison (doi:10.1136\\/bmj.d3308) believes they do more harm than good

Joseph Ana

2011-01-01

221

Engaging staff to deliver compassionate care and reduce harm.  

PubMed

The delivery of compassionate care leads to safer care but this will only occur with an engaged workforce under effective leadership. In addition, there is a need to understand the behaviours that drive nurses to make particular decisions about care. This article describes the pilot of a simple survey tool (ENGAGE) to ascertain levels of staff engagement to use as an enabler of effective change. It also describes a unique pilot initiative of focus group work, quality improvements and leadership coaching on two hospital wards. This work centred on the patient-nurse relationship and challenged the traditional teaching of preventing harm. Initial results were promising: while many staff did not feel nurtured or guided by their manager or acknowledged by the senior team, they did feel glad to come to work and empowered to improve patient care. Three months after the first ENGAGE survey, a repeat found significantly improved levels of engagement. Alongside this were improvements in avoidable harms and patient experience. Staff were motivated to improve care and admitted they did not really see their patients as individuals with identity and personality. Managers were motivated to improve engagement and take their wards forward. PMID:25302836

Day, Helen

2014-10-01

222

Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

2004-01-01

223

Mitigating the harmful effects of violent television  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's viewing of violent TV as well

Lawrence I. Rosenkoetter; Sharon E. Rosenkoetter; Rachel A. Ozretich; Alan C. Acock

2004-01-01

224

MFR PAPER 1128 Tires have no harmful  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1128 Tires have no harmful effects on black sea bass and pinfish. Experiments on Some Possible Effects of Tire Reefs on Pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides) and Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata) R and affect pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides) or black sea bass (Centropristis striata), two fishes commonly

225

ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms represent one of the most serious ecological stressors in lakes, rivers, estuaries and marine environments. When there are persistent or frequent blooms with high biomass of cyanobacterial cells, colonies or filaments in the water, a wide range of i...

226

Harmful Interactions: Mixing Alcohol with Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

Harmful Interactions Mixing Alcohol With Medicines You’ve probably seen this warning on medicines you’ve taken. The danger is real. Mixing alcohol ... a drug you are taking. Some medicines contain alcohol Certain medicines contain up to 10 percent alcohol. ...

227

Mayan Morality: An Exploration of Permissible Harms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anthropologists have provided rich field descriptions of the norms and conventions governing behavior and interactions in small-scale societies. Here, we add a further dimension to this work by presenting hypothetical moral dilemmas involving harm, to a small-scale, agrarian Mayan population, with the specific goal of exploring the hypothesis that…

Abarbanell, Linda; Hauser, Marc D.

2010-01-01

228

Harmful algal blooms: causes, impacts and detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blooms of autotrophic algae and some heterotrophic protists are increasingly frequent in coastal waters around the world and are collectively grouped as harmful algal blooms (HABs). Blooms of these organisms are attributed to two primary factors: natural processes such as circulation, upwelling relaxation, and river flow; and, anthropogenic loadings leading to eutrophication. Unfortunately, the latter is commonly assumed to be

Kevin G. Sellner; Gregory J. Doucette; Gary J. Kirkpatrick

2003-01-01

229

AL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) INFORMATION EXCHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project proposes to implement an integrated web site that will serve as an Alabama Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Information Exchange Network. This network will be a stand-alone site where HAB data from all agencies and research efforts in the State of Alabama will be integrate...

230

IPv6 Source Addresses Considered Harmful  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this deliberately preposterous paper, we show that the inclusion of the source IP addresses in the IPv6 header is completely unnecessary and usually harmful. In particular, we show that whenever IPsec is used in conjunction with IPv6, we would do much better using the 128 bits that are currently wasted for the source address with something much more useful,

Catharina Candolin; Pekka Nikander

2001-01-01

231

Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers  

PubMed Central

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

2006-01-01

232

Navajo Pawn: A Misunderstood Traditional Trading Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Navajo trading has been a crucial component of that tribe's localized economy for generations and has been the subject of much scholarship over the years. The role of the Navajo trader in influencing the types and styles of crafts that Navajos created as well as providing tribal members with an outlet for those items remains important to their…

Kiser, William S.

2012-01-01

233

Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya  

PubMed Central

Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession. PMID:21547046

Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

2010-01-01

234

Security impact ratings considered harmful Jeff Arnold, Tim Abbott, Waseem Daher, Gregory Price,  

E-print Network

Security impact ratings considered harmful Jeff Arnold, Tim Abbott, Waseem Daher, Gregory Price In this paper, we question the common practice of as- signing security impact ratings to OS updates. Specifi easily elude developers, so that the true security implications of bugs are commonly not discovered un

235

Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice.  

PubMed

The rationale for breast cancer screening with mammography is deceptively simple: catch it early and reduce mortality from the disease and the need for mastectomies. But breast cancer is a complex problem, and complex problems rarely have simple solutions. Breast screening brings forward the time of diagnosis only slightly compared to the lifetime of a tumour, and screen-detected tumours have a size where metastases are possible. A key question is if screening can prevent metastases, and if the screen-detected tumours are small enough to allow breast conserving surgery rather than mastectomy. A mortality reduction can never justify a medical intervention in its own right, but must be weighed against the harms. Overdiagnosis is the most important harm of breast screening, but has gained wider recognition only in recent years. Screening leads to the detection and treatment of breast cancers that would otherwise never have been detected because they grow very slowly or not at all and would not have been detected in the woman's lifetime in the absence of screening. Screening therefore turns women into cancer patients unnecessarily, with life-long physical and psychological harms. The debate about the justification of breast screening is therefore not a simple question of whether screening reduces breast cancer mortality. This dissertation quantifies the primary benefits and harms of screening mammography. Denmark has an unscreened "control group" because only two geographical regions offered screening over a long time-period, which is unique in an international context. This was used to study breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, and the use of mastectomies. Also, a systematic review of overdiagnosis in five other countries allowed us to show that about half of the screen-detected breast cancers are overdiagnosed. An effect on breast cancer mortality is doubtful in today's setting, and overdiagnosis causes an increase in the use of mastectomies. These findings are discussed in the context of tumour biology and stage at diagnosis. The information provided to women in invitations and on the Internet exaggerates benefits, participation is directly recommended, and the harms are downplayed or left out, despite agreement that the objective is informed choice. This raises an ethical discussion concerning autonomy versus paternalism, and the difficulty in weighing benefits against harms. Finally, financial, political, and professional conflicts of interest are discussed, as well as health economics. PMID:23651722

Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

2013-04-01

236

Year-Round versus Traditional Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document serves as a literature review for the practicality and cost effectiveness of traditional versus year-round school systems. The differences in year-round and traditional schools are many, as the debate lingers on which type is best for students' learning. Generally conclusive, the literature indicates that year-round schools' benefits…

Lyttle, LeighAnne

2011-01-01

237

The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder.  

PubMed

A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as "tailor-made medicine" and has properties similar to "mind and body" or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients' lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans.There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms. PMID:24148283

Ushiroyama, Takahisa

2013-01-01

238

The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder  

PubMed Central

A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as “tailor-made medicine” and has properties similar to “mind and body” or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients’ lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans. There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms. PMID:24148283

2013-01-01

239

The benefits and harms of deprescribing.  

PubMed

Deprescribing is the process of trial withdrawal of inappropriate medications. Currently, the strongest evidence for benefit of deprescribing is from cohort and observational studies of withdrawal of specific medication classes that have shown better patient outcomes, mainly through resolution of adverse drug reactions. Additional potential benefits of deprescribing include reduced financial costs and improved adherence with other medications. The harms of ceasing medication use include adverse drug withdrawal reactions, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes and return of the medical condition. These can be minimised with proper planning (ie, tapering), monitoring after withdrawal, and reinitiation of the medication if the condition returns. More evidence is needed regarding negative, non-reversible effects of ceasing use of certain classes of medication, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Cessation of use has not been studied for many medication classes, and large-scale randomised controlled trials of systematic deprescribing are required before the true benefits and harms can be known. PMID:25296058

Reeve, Emily; Shakib, Sepehr; Hendrix, Ivanka; Roberts, Michael S; Wiese, Michael D

2014-10-01

240

CSCOR Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features the Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Team. Over the past decade harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased along U.S. coasts causing major resource, economic, and health impacts. State and Federal managers responding to blooms often lack timely access to cutting-edge science useful in minimizing HAB impacts on coastal communities. The NCCOS Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) HAB Event Response program addresses the need to inject science into management by supporting coastal managers faced with responding to unusual or unexpected HABs. This page describes how to apply for funding and accomplishments achieved by the program. Links are provided to CSCOR Event Responses.

2010-01-14

241

Electrofishing and its harmful effects on fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electrofishing, a valuable sampling technique in North America for over half a century, involves a very dynamic and complex mix of physics, physiology, and behavior that remains poorly understood. New hypotheses have been advanced regarding "power transfer" to fish and the epileptic nature of their responses to electric fields, but these too need to be more fully explored and validated. Fishery researchers and managers in the Colorado River Basin, and elsewhere, are particularly concerned about the harmful effects of electrofishing on fish, especially endangered species. Although often not externally obvious or fatal, spinal injuries and associated hemorrhages sometimes have been documented in over 50% of fish examined internally. Such injuries can occur anywhere in the electrofishing field at or above the intensity threshold for twitch. These injuries are believed to result from powerful convulsions of body musculature (possibly epileptic seizures) caused mostly by sudden changes in voltage as when electricity is pulsed or switched on or off. Significantly fewer spinal injuries are reported when direct current, low-frequency pulsed direct current (<30 Hz), or specially designed pulse trains are used. Salmoniae are especially susceptible. Endangered cyprinids of the Colorado River Basin are generally much less susceptible, enough so to allow cautious use of less harmful currents for most recovery monitoring and research. However, the endangered catostomid Xyrauchen texanus appears sufficiently susceptible to warrant a continued minimal-use policy. Other harmful effects, such as bleeding at gills or vent and excessive physiological stress, are also of concern. Mortality, usually by asphyxiation, is a common result of excessive exposure to tetanizing intensities near electrodes or poor handling of captured specimens. Reported effects on reproduction are contradictory, but electrofishing over spawning grounds can harm embryos. Electrofishing is often considered the most effective and benign technique for capturing moderate- to large-size fish, but when adverse effects are problematic and cannot be sufficiently reduced, its use should be severely restricted.

Snyder, Darrel E.

2003-01-01

242

Adverse Events in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Development, Testing, and Findings of an NICU- Focused Trigger Tool to Identify Harm in North American NICUs  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES.Currently there are few practical methods to identify and measure harm to hospitalized children. Patients in NICUs are at high risk and warrant a detailed assessment of harm to guide patient safety efforts. The purpose of this work was to develop a NICU-focused tool for adverse event detection and to describe the incidence of adverse events in NICUs identified by

Paul J. Sharek; Jeffrey D. Horbar; Wilbert Mason; Hema Bisarya; Cary W. Thurm; Gautham Suresh; James E. Gray; William H. Edwards; Donald Goldmann; David Classen; Vermont Burlington

2010-01-01

243

Family Traits and Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

244

16 CFR 1102.10 - Reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.10...submission. To be entered into the Database, reports of harm must be submitted to...Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database reports of harm containing all of...

2012-01-01

245

16 CFR 1102.10 - Reports of harm.  

...AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.10...submission. To be entered into the Database, reports of harm must be submitted to...Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database reports of harm containing all of...

2014-01-01

246

16 CFR 1102.10 - Reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.10...submission. To be entered into the Database, reports of harm must be submitted to...Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database reports of harm containing all of...

2013-01-01

247

16 CFR 1102.10 - Reports of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements...submission. To be entered into the Database, reports of harm must be submitted to...Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database reports of harm containing all of...

2011-01-01

248

30 CFR 722.11 - Imminent dangers and harms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Imminent dangers and harms. 722.11 Section 722.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.11 Imminent dangers and harms....

2010-07-01

249

Freshwater harmful algal blooms: toxins and children's health.  

PubMed

Massive accumulations of cyanobacteria (a.k.a. "blue-green algae"), known as freshwater harmful algal blooms (FHABs), are a common global occurrence in water bodies used for recreational purposes and drinking water purification. Bloom prevalence is increased due to anthropogenic changes in land use, agricultural activity, and climate change. These photosynthetic bacteria produce a range of toxic secondary metabolites that affect animals and humans at both chronic and acute dosages. Children are especially at risk because of their lower body weight, behavior, and toxic effects on development. Here we review common FHAB toxins, related clinical symptoms, acceptable concentrations in drinking water, case studies of children's and young adults' exposures to FHAB toxins through drinking water and food, methods of environmental and clinical detection in potential cases of intoxication, and best practices for FHAB prevention. PMID:24439026

Weirich, Chelsea A; Miller, Todd R

2014-01-01

250

Harm reduction and equity of access to care for French prisoners: a review  

PubMed Central

Background Despite France being regarded as a model of efficient harm reduction policy and equity of access to care in the general community, the health of French inmates is a critical issue, as harm reduction measures are either inaccessible or only partially implemented in French prisons. Method Using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, information was collected and analyzed about HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence, risk practices, mortality, access to harm reduction measures and care for French prison inmates. Results Data about the occurrence of bloodborne diseases, drug use and access to care in prisons remain limited and need urgent updating. Needle exchange programs are not yet available in French prisons and harm reduction interventions and access to OST remain limited or are heterogeneous across prisons. The continuity of care at prison entry and after release remains problematic and should be among the primary public health priorities for French prisoners. Conclusion Preventive and harm reduction measures should be urgently introduced at least as pilot programs. The implementation of such measures, not yet available in French prisons, is not only a human right for prison inmates but can also provide important public health benefits for the general population. PMID:18495018

Michel, Laurent; Carrieri, M Patrizia; Wodak, Alex

2008-01-01

251

HARMFUL ALGAE POSE ADDITIONAL CHALLENGES FOR OYSTER RESTORATION: IMPACTS OF THE HARMFUL ALGAE KARLODINIUM VENEFICUM AND PROROCENTRUM  

E-print Network

HARMFUL ALGAE POSE ADDITIONAL CHALLENGES FOR OYSTER RESTORATION: IMPACTS OF THE HARMFUL ALGAE KARLODINIUM VENEFICUM AND PROROCENTRUM MINIMUM ON EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE OYSTERS CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA 775, Cambridge, Maryland 21613 ABSTRACT The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) has

North, Elizabeth W.

252

Harming high performers: a social comparison perspective on interpersonal harming in work teams.  

PubMed

This study developed a multilevel model of the interpersonal harming behavior associated with social comparison processes in work teams. We tested this model using temporally lagged data from a sample of student teams (Study 1) and cross-sectional data from a sample of work teams in a telecommunication services company (Study 2). In both studies, social relations analyses revealed that in teams with less cooperative goals, comparison to a higher performing team member was positively associated with interpersonal harming behavior, but only when expectations of future performance similarity to that member were low. The interactive relationship of social comparison and expected future performance similarity with interpersonal harming was buffered, however, in teams with more cooperative goals. PMID:21171734

Lam, Catherine K; Van der Vegt, Gerben S; Walter, Frank; Huang, Xu

2011-05-01

253

[Self-harm in children and adolescents].  

PubMed

The present paper is a review of recent research on the prevalence of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in a non-clinical background population of adolescents during the period 2002-2008. Cutting and overdosing are the most common methods used, and the majority of adolescents engaging in DSH are girls. A problem in DSH is the fact that there is no well-established definition, which is necessary to ensure comparable prevalence estimates across cultures and to evaluate any changes over time. PMID:19732503

Søgaard, Lisa Eilenberg; Christensen, Cathrine Lundgaard; Bilenberg, Niels

2009-08-10

254

Harmful effect of detergents on lipase.  

PubMed

In order to study effects of detergents at molecular level, we have done activity measurements of wheat germ lipase in increasing concentration of some commercial detergents. Conformational changes in protein structure using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy were studied in increasing concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Our study proves that detergents may lead to loss of enzymatic activity and structure of plant enzymes. Since detergents are common source of pollution in water bodies and the water from these resources can be used in fields, our study may prove helpful in creating awareness about harmful action of detergents. PMID:24807844

Fatima, Sadaf; Ajmal, Rehan; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan H

2014-11-01

255

Perceived Harmfulness of Substance Use: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Harm ratings of substances help in understanding the perception toward substance use and formulating policies. Evidence of such harm ratings by substance users and their caregivers provides a clearer perspective of those who experience and observe such harm closely. Materials and Methods: Substance users and their caregivers were recruited from the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. Sociodemographic details of the subjects were noted. The subjects were then asked to rate a list of psychoactive preparations according to the harms they thought the preparation caused. The list of substances was developed taking into consideration substance commonly encountered in the geographical area. The harm ratings were transformed on a scale of 0-100. Results: All subjects were males and majority of them were educated above 10th standard, were not employed and belonged to urban background. Most of them had taken psychoactive substances in their lifetimes but were currently abstinent. Most of the subjects endorsed intravenous drugs as the most harmful, followed by heroin. Beer and chewable tobacco considered the least harmful substances. Greater degree of education was associated with lower harm rankings for heroin, cannabis, dextropropoxyphene, and raw opium; while urban residence was associated with greater harm ratings for cannabis and raw opium. Differences in the harms were perceived for different preparations of the same active compound for alcohol and nicotine. Conclusion: Harm ratings of substances can be a useful guide while formulating policies and allocating resources. Need for further research extending this pilot study is emphasized. PMID:24696536

Sarkar, Siddharth; Balachander, Srinivas; Basu, Debasish

2014-01-01

256

Best Practices in Grading. Research into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…

Johnston, Howard

2011-01-01

257

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms: causes, consequences, and controls.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest oxygenic photoautotrophs and have had major impacts on shaping its biosphere. Their long evolutionary history (? 3.5 by) has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recently anthropogenic modifications of aquatic environments, including nutrient over-enrichment (eutrophication), water diversions, withdrawals, and salinization. Many cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. Bloom-forming cyanobacterial taxa can be harmful from environmental, organismal, and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, depleting oxygen upon bloom senescence, and producing a variety of toxic secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanotoxins). How environmental factors impact cyanotoxin production is the subject of ongoing research, but nutrient (N, P and trace metals) supply rates, light, temperature, oxidative stressors, interactions with other biota (bacteria, viruses and animal grazers), and most likely, the combined effects of these factors are all involved. Accordingly, strategies aimed at controlling and mitigating harmful blooms have focused on manipulating these dynamic factors. The applicability and feasibility of various controls and management approaches is discussed for natural waters and drinking water supplies. Strategies based on physical, chemical, and biological manipulations of specific factors show promise; however, a key underlying approach that should be considered in almost all instances is nutrient (both N and P) input reductions; which have been shown to effectively reduce cyanobacterial biomass, and therefore limit health risks and frequencies of hypoxic events. PMID:23314096

Paerl, Hans W; Otten, Timothy G

2013-05-01

258

Pordi, L. (2008). Tibetan medicine today. Neo-traditionalism as an analytical lens and a political tool, in L. Pordi (ed.), Tibetan Medicine in the Contemporary World. Global Politics of Medical Knowledge and Practice, London & New  

E-print Network

Pordié, L. (2008). Tibetan medicine today. Neo-traditionalism as an analytical lens and a political tool, in L. Pordié (ed.), Tibetan Medicine in the Contemporary World. Global Politics of Medical-32. Tibetan medicine today. Neo-traditionalism as an analytical lens and a political tool Laurent Pordié p3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

259

When Traditions Become Innovations and Innovations Become Traditions in Everyday Food Pedagogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the way learning to cook remains important for the maintenance of "ethnic" food traditions and how sharing food knowledge plays a role in intercultural exchanges. Ethnographic data from an ongoing study in Melbourne is presented to highlight how, in everyday practices, both tradition and innovation are involved in learning…

Benny, Helen

2012-01-01

260

No harm done? Assessing risk of harm under the federal breach notification rule.  

PubMed

Provisions within the HITECH Act require that covered entities notify individuals if their protected health information is breached. However, the current regulation allows an exemption if the risk of harm is slight. Assessing risk can be subjective, and privacy officers have been working to create methods to conduct and document their analyses. PMID:20795525

Dimick, Chris

2010-08-01

261

"Who" Helps and Harms "Whom"? Relational Antecedents of Interpersonal Helping and Harming in Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Antecedents of interpersonally directed forms of citizenship and counterproductive behaviors (i.e., interpersonal helping and harming, respectively) have been studied most often under the broad categories of individual differences and job attitudes. Although these behaviors often are exhibited within the confines of interpersonal relationships,…

Venkataramani, Vijaya; Dalal, Reeshad S.

2007-01-01

262

Algicidal activity of thiazolidinedione derivatives against harmful algal blooming species.  

PubMed

Thiazolidinedione (TD) derivatives exhibit algicidal activity against harmful algal blooming species such as Chattonella marina, Heterosigma akashiwo, and Cochlodinium polykrikoides, as reported previously. In this study, the efficacies and selectivities of TD derivatives were tested by analyzing the structure-activity relationships of various TD derivatives. To investigate structure-activity relationships for growth inhibition of harmful algae, we added a methylene group between the cyclohexyl ring and oxygen of 5-(3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-TD, which decreased the inhibitory potency of compound 17. Interestingly, another addition of a methylene group significantly increased the inhibitory potency against C. polykrikoides. The addition of 1 ?M compound 17 resulted in the cell rupture of harmful algae after less than 10 h incubation at 20 °C. Compound 17 was applied to both harmful and non-harmful algae and showed a drastic reduction in the efficiency of photosystem II, resulting in reduced photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Compound 17 at a 5 ?M concentration destroyed all of the harmful algae, while algicidal activity against non-harmful algae did not exceed 30% of the control within the concentration range tested. In contrast, a herbicide, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, tested at a 5 ?M concentration, exhibited 40-70% algicidal activity relative to that of the control against both harmful and non-harmful algae. Compound 17 is a promising lead compound for the development of algicides to control harmful algal blooming species. PMID:22080145

Kim, Yeon-Mi; Wu, Ying; Duong, Thi Uyen; Jung, Seul-Gi; Kim, Si Wouk; Cho, Hoon; Jin, Eonseon

2012-06-01

263

African Traditional Religion (ATR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The African Traditional Religion (ATR) site which hosts the on Bibliography on African Traditional Religion contains several more items of interest, including articles and documents exploring the contact points of ATR with Islam and Christianity, country-by-country statistics on adherents of ATR, and a number of related links.

Isizoh, Chidi D.

1998-01-01

264

Non-Traditional Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this paper is to present non-traditional or alternate instructional methods in remedial mathematics education at the community college level. However, these methods will apply to credit math courses as well as courses from other disciplines. With the large number of students needing remediation and the United States traditionally

O'Rourke, Jeannette

265

Traditional Native Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

Grant, Agnes

1985-01-01

266

Family Customs and Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

MacGregor, Cynthia

267

Ecological Education in Rural China: Rediscovering Traditional Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article has implications for the ecological sustainability crisis now looming in China and what this portends for the practice of education. Chemical agriculture, although improving agricultural production, harms ecological systems in rural communities. The author presents research on a group of intellectuals and social activists in 1…

Liu, Yan

2008-01-01

268

Lead encephalopathy due to traditional medicines.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine use is common in developing countries and increasingly popular in the western world. Despite the popularity of traditional medicines, scientific research on safety and efficacy is limited. However documented fatalities and severe illness due to lead poisoning are increasingly recognized to be associated with traditional medicine use. As society becomes more globalized, it is imperative for pharmacists and health care providers to learn about the safety of traditional medical practices. The information presented educates and alerts pharmacists and health care providers about the potential of traditional medicines to cause lead encephalopathy. Case reports were located through systematic literature searches using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE and The Cochrane library from 1966 to the February 2007. Reference lists of identified articles and the authors' own files were also searched. Inclusion criteria were cases of human lead encephalopathy associated with traditional medical practices. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. Data were subsequently extracted and summarized in narrative and tabular form. We found 76 cases of lead encephalopathy potentially associated with traditional medicine. Ayurvedic medicines were associated with 5 cases (7%), Middle eastern traditional medicines with 66 cases (87%) and 5 cases (7%) with other traditional medicines. Of the 76 cases, 5% were in adults and 95% were in infants and young children. Of the 4 adult cases, at least one was left with residual neurological impairment. In infants and young children, among 72 cases 8 (11%) were fatal, and at least 15 (21%) had residual neurological deficits. Traditional medicine users should be screened for lead exposure and strongly encouraged to discontinue metal-containing remedies. Therefore, the United States Food and Drug Administration and corresponding agencies in other countries should require and enforce heavy metal testing for all imported traditional medicines and "dietary supplements". PMID:18690981

Karri, Surya K; Saper, Robert B; Kales, Stefanos N

2008-01-01

269

Harm reduction, methadone maintenance treatment and the root causes of health and social inequities: An intersectional lens in the Canadian context  

PubMed Central

Background Using our research findings, we explore Harm Reduction and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) using an intersectional lens to provide a more complex understanding of Harm Reduction and MMT, particularly how Harm Reduction and MMT are experienced differently by people dependent on how they are positioned. Using the lens of intersectionality, we refine the notion of Harm Reduction by specifying the conditions in which both harm and benefit arise and how experiences of harm are continuous with wider experiences of domination and oppression; Methods A qualitative design that uses ethnographic methods of in-depth individual and focus group interviews and naturalistic observation was conducted in a large city in Canada. Participants included Aboriginal clients accessing mainstream mental health and addictions care and primary health care settings and healthcare providers; Results All client-participants had profound histories of abuse and violence, most often connected to the legacy of colonialism (e.g., residential schooling) and ongoing colonial practices (e.g., stigma & everyday racism). Participants lived with co-occurring illness (e.g., HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C, PTSD, depression, diabetes and substance use) and most lived in poverty. Many participants expressed mistrust with the healthcare system due to everyday experiences both within and outside the system that further marginalize them. In this paper, we focus on three intersecting issues that impact access to MMT: stigma and prejudice, social and structural constraints influencing enactment of peoples' agency, and homelessness; Conclusions Harm reduction must move beyond a narrow concern with the harms directly related to drugs and drug use practices to address the harms associated with the determinants of drug use and drug and health policy. An intersectional lens elucidates the need for harm reduction approaches that reflect an understanding of and commitment to addressing the historical, socio-cultural and political forces that shape responses to mental illness/health, addictions, including harm reduction and methadone maintenance treatment. PMID:21718531

2011-01-01

270

Geriatric gynecology: promoting health and avoiding harm.  

PubMed

Age increases vulnerability, commonly accompanied by greater reliance on others and susceptibility to maltreatment. Physiologic processes become less resilient; the potential for harm from medical care increases. Awareness of frailty, functional, social, and potential maltreatment issues enables early referrals to help the patient maintain her independence. Health issues that may impede both gynecologic care and self-sufficiency include sensory deficits, physical disability, and cognitive impairment. Speaking slowly and providing contextual information enhance patient comprehension. Cancer screening depends on life expectancy. Osteoporosis treatment requires managing fall risk. Gynecologic symptoms more likely have multiple contributing factors than one etiology. Incontinence is a particularly complex issue, but invariably includes bladder diary assessment and pelvic floor muscle training. Function and frailty measures best predict perioperative morbidity. Communication with the patient, her family, other providers, and health care organizations is an important frontier in avoiding errors and adverse outcomes. PMID:22607665

Miller, Karen L; Baraldi, Carole A

2012-11-01

271

Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks  

PubMed Central

Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly linked to older people in rural areas. In the rural areas surveyed, significant economic and social benefits are derived from traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use. Policy makers designing ways to reduce alcohol-related risks and harms need to give thoughtful consideration to the role traditional alcohol plays in the local society and to suggest changes that do not create unintended problems. PMID:25037953

2014-01-01

272

Sy34-1definition and evidence for harm reduction.  

PubMed

'Harm reduction' aims to reduce the health, social and economic costs of legal and illegal psychoactive drugs without necessarily reducing their consumption. For many decades the conventional approach to illicit drugs emphasized the elimination of consumption regardless of consequences. But the global drug market still continued to grow and become more dangerous. In many countries, deaths, disease, crime, corruption and violence soared. Harm reduction, for long a standard approach in public health and many other fields, attracted increasing interest in the 1980s after the recognition that HIV spreading among people who inject drugs represented a severe threat to the general population. Harm reduction measures in many countries easily controlled this problem. In contrast to supply control dominated approaches, many harm reduction interventions have been shown to be effective, safe and cost-effective. Harm reduction approaches to alcohol in licensed premises include the replacement of glass with shatterproof plastic drinking vessels and the use of furniture too heavy to lift. Harm reduction approaches to tobacco include nicotine replacement and e-cigarettes. The academic debate over harm reduction is now over. By 2012, 93 countries had accepted harm reduction. Japan remains one of the diminishing few countries still resistant to harm reduction. PMID:25221104

Wodak, A

2014-09-01

273

Mambila traditional religion : Sua in Somie  

E-print Network

-owning FulBe onto the Mambila Plateau in Nigeria, and since the end of the 1950’s some Mambila have owned cattle (Crowder 1960). In this environment large numbers of Nigerian Mambila have converted to Islam. In the past this has not been the case... is followed by an account of their religious concepts. It is argued that, despite their adherence to Christianity (and to Islam), traditional practices continue to be of great importance in everyday life. In order to examine traditional practice...

Zeitlyn, David

1990-01-30

274

Poor communication on patients' medication across health care levels leads to potentially harmful medication errors  

PubMed Central

Objective General practitioners have a key role in updating their patients’ medication. Poor communication regarding patients’ drug use may easily occur when patients cross health care levels. We wanted to explore whether such inadequate communication leads to errors in patients’ medication on admission, during hospital stay, and after discharge, and whether these errors were potentially harmful. Design Exploratory case study of 30 patients. Setting General practices in central Norway and medical ward of Innlandet Hospital Trust Gjøvik, Norway. Subjects 30 patients urgently admitted to the medical ward, and using three or more drugs on admission. Main outcome measures Discrepancies between the patients’ actual drugs taken and what was recorded on admission to hospital, during hospitalization, at discharge, and five weeks after hospital stay. The discrepancies were grouped according to the NCC Merp Index for Categorizing Medication Errors to assess their potential harm. Results The 30 patients used a total of 250 drugs, and 50 medication errors were found, affecting 18 of the patients; 27 errors were potentially harmful, according to NCC Merp Index: 23 in category E, four in category F. Half of the errors originated from an incomplete medication list in the referral letter. Conclusion The majority of the medication errors were made when the patients were admitted to hospital, and a substantial proportion were potentially harmful. The medication list should be reviewed together with the patient on admission, and each patient should carry an updated medication list provided by his or her general practitioner. PMID:23050954

Frydenberg, Karin; Brekke, Mette

2012-01-01

275

Traditional Housing Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use of timber for housing construction in developing countries, with special reference to traditional building design - covers (1) the critical shortage of adequate dwellings; problems of providing appropriate building materials; need for use of available...

1986-01-01

276

Titration vs. Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way titration curves are traditionally taught in the undergraduate curriculum is reviewed, and a more rational approach is advocated. A spreadsheet is then used to illustrate the various properties of titration curves and to fit titration data.

Robert de Levie

1996-01-01

277

Interprofessional and Interagency Training for Working with Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: An Evaluation of Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the outcomes of short interagency training courses provided by six Local Safeguarding Children Boards in England. The aim was to develop practical skills in recognising and responding to the needs of children with harmful sexual behaviour in an interagency context. The courses all employed interactive learning and teaching…

Hackett, Simon; Carpenter, John; Patsios, Demi; Szilassy, Eszter

2013-01-01

278

DDT, epigenetic harm, and transgenerational environmental justice.  

PubMed

Although the environmentally harmful effects of widespread dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) use became well-known following Rachel Carson's Silent Spring (1962), its human health effects have more recently become clearer. A ban on the use of DDT has been in place for over 30 years, but recently DDT has been used for malaria control in areas such as Africa. Recent work shows that DDT has transgenerational effects in progeny and generations never directly exposed to DDT. These effects have health implications for individuals who are not able to have any voice in the decision to use the pesticide. The transgenerational effects of DDT are considered in light of some widely accepted ethical principles. We argue that this reframes the decision to use DDT, requiring us to incorporate new considerations, and new kinds of decision making, into the deliberative process that determines its ongoing use. Ethical considerations for intergenerational environmental justice are presented that include concern and respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, and justice. Here, we offer a characterization of the kinds of ethical considerations that must be taken into account in any satisfactory decisions to use DDT. PMID:25086599

Kabasenche, William P; Skinner, Michael K

2014-01-01

279

Will harmful dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi grow phagotrophically?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the phagotrophic ability of dinoflagellate strain Karenia mikimotoi KM-Lü (isolated from the South China Sea), using fluorescent microspheres, bacteria isolated from the culture of K. mikimotoi and a marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana. We found that K. mikimotoi cultured under conditions of high light intensity could ingest fluorescent microspheres (diameters 0.5 and 2.0 ?m) and fluorescence-labeled bacteria and microalgae. Under a low light intensity, however, only fluorescent microspheres (diameter 0.5 ?m) and fluorescence-labeled microalgae were ingested. K. mikimotoi showed better growth by ingesting living marine bacteria or microalgae I. galbana than the controls, either in nutrient-depleted or nutrient-replete conditions. In nutrient-depleted conditions, the growth of K. mikimotoi was more significant with I. galbana as the prey item. In conclusion, the harmful dinoflagellate K. mikimotoi from the South China Sea has apparent phagotrophic ability, and some marine bacteria and microalgae may promote the growth of K. mikimotoi.

Zhang, Qingchun; Yu, Rencheng; Song, Jingjing; Yan, Tian; Wang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Mingjiang

2011-07-01

280

Optimal redesign study of the harm wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project was to investigate the use of optimization techniques to improve the flutter margins of the HARM AGM-88A wing. The missile has four cruciform wings, located near mid-fuselage, that are actuated in pairs symmetrically and antisymmetrically to provide pitch, yaw, and roll control. The wings have a solid stainless steel forward section and a stainless steel crushed-honeycomb aft section. The wing restraint stiffness is dependent upon wing pitch amplitude and varies from a low value near neutral pitch attitude to a much higher value at off-neutral pitch attitudes, where aerodynamic loads lock out any free play in the control system. The most critical condition for flutter is the low-stiffness condition in which the wings are moved symmetrically. Although a tendency toward limit-cycle flutter is controlled in the current design by controller logic, wing redesign to improve this situation is attractive because it can be accomplished as a retrofit. In view of the exploratory nature of the study, it was decided to apply the optimization to a wing-only model, validated by comparison with results obtained by Texas Instruments (TI). Any wing designs that looked promising were to be evaluated at TI with more complicated models, including body modes. The optimization work was performed by McIntosh Structural Dynamics, Inc. (MSD) under a contract from TI.

Mcintosh, S. C., Jr.; Weynand, M. E.

1984-01-01

281

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash  

E-print Network

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

Short, Daniel

282

Optical methods for monitoring harmful gas in animal facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal facilities produce large amounts of harmful gases such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and methane, many of which have a pungent odor. The harmful gases produced by animal housing not only affect the health of people and livestock but also pollute the air. The detection of the harmful gases can effectively improve efficiency of livestock production and reduce environmental pollution. More and more optical detection methods are applied to the detection of the harmful gases produced by animal housing. This summarizes optical detection methods for monitoring the harmful gases in animal housing recently, including nondispersive infrared gas analyzer, ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The basic principle and the characteristics of these methods are illustrated and the applications on the detection of harmful gases in animal housing are described. Meanwhile, the research of harmful gases monitoring for livestock production based on these methods were listed. The current situation and future development of the detection methods for harmful gases generated by animal housing were summarized by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Zhang, Shirui; Dong, Daming; Zheng, Wengang; Wang, Jihua

2014-06-01

283

Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the variations in behaviour displayed by young people who sexually harm, as previous research has shown that they are not a homogeneous sample. Three conceptually distinct sets of behaviour were hypothesized, relating to various modes of interaction between the young people with harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) and their…

Almond, Louise; Canter, David

2007-01-01

284

Self-Harm and Conventional Gender Roles in Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women.…

Straiton, Melanie L.; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Grimholt, Tine K.; Dieserud, Gudrun

2013-01-01

285

Moral complexity in middle childhood: children's evaluations of necessary harm.  

PubMed

We assessed 5- to 11-year-olds' (N = 76) judgments of straightforward moral transgressions (prototypical harm) as well as their evaluations of complex, hypothetical scenarios in which an actor transgresses in order to prevent injury (necessary harm). The nature of the actor's transgression (psychological or physical harm) varied across participants. Moral judgments and justifications, knowledge of the actor's psychological experience, and their associations were examined. At all ages, children negatively evaluated prototypical harm; judgments of necessary harm became increasingly more forgiving with age as justifications pertaining to the actor's harm decreased. References to the actor's positive actions and children's tendency to coordinate conflicting concerns increased with age, but only when evaluating psychological harm. Across conditions, older children viewed transgressors as holding increasingly more positive attitudes toward their own actions, and this was uniquely associated with more forgiving moral judgments and justifications of necessary but not prototypical harm. Findings are discussed in relation to the emergence of more flexible and nuanced moral evaluations during middle childhood. PMID:23647415

Jambon, Marc; Smetana, Judith G

2014-01-01

286

Harmful effects of dietary salt in addition to hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to raising the blood pressure dietary salt is responsible for several other harmful effects. The most important are a number which, though independent of the arterial pressure, also harm the cardiovascular system. A high salt intake increases the mass of the left ventricle, thickens and stiffens conduit arteries and thickens and narrows resistance arteries, including the coronary and

H E de Wardener; G A MacGregor; HE de Wardener

2002-01-01

287

Hate Speech and Its Harms: A Communication Theory Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses J.W. Carey's transmission and ritual communication models to illustrate harms caused by hate speech. Examines legal precedent for the ritual model, but suggests that courts more often adopt the transmission model. Argues that, although the ritual model points to a different, long-term harm caused by hate speech, its adoption raises troubling…

Calvert, Clay

1997-01-01

288

Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats  

E-print Network

Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats Sze-Bi Hsu Feng-Bin Wang Xiao from the dynamics of harmful algae and zooplankton in flowing- water habitats where a main channel. For the system modeling the dynamics of algae and their toxin that contains little limiting nutrient, we

Hsu, Sze-Bi

289

Vasoconstrictor infiltration in breast reduction surgery: is it harmful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of vasoconstrictor infiltration in reducing blood loss is well known. However, adrenaline infiltration is potentially harmful to tissues. The question of whether or not adrenaline infiltration is harmful in breast reduction surgery remains unanswered.We retrospectively reviewed the notes of 100 consecutive cases after bilateral breast reduction (n = 200 breasts) with preoperative infiltration of a vasconstrictor solution (10

R. DeBono; G. S. Rao

1997-01-01

290

Overview of harm reduction treatments for alcohol problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As evidenced by the tremendous range of scholarly articles included in this special issue, it is readily apparent that harm reduction is more than a theory, treatment approach, or policy. Rather, harm reduction is an orientation and belief system that has widespread empirical support as a means to improve the lives and functioning of individuals who use and abuse alcohol.

Katie Witkiewitz; G. Alan Marlatt

2006-01-01

291

Ohio Sea Grant Fact Sheets Harmful Algal Blooms  

E-print Network

Ohio Sea Grant Fact Sheets Harmful Algal Blooms in Ohio Waters this stuff? What isEugene C. Braig AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S.D EPARTMENT OF COM M ERCE OHSU­FS-091­©2011 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are so death--in pets, livestock, and humans. An algal bloom is an abundant or excessive growth of algae. Most

292

Disclosing harmful medical errors to patients: tackling three tough cases.  

PubMed

A gap exists between recommendations to disclose errors to patients and current practice. This gap may reflect important, yet unanswered questions about implementing disclosure principles. We explore some of these unanswered questions by presenting three real cases that pose challenging disclosure dilemmas. The first case involves a pancreas transplant that failed due to the pancreas graft being discarded, an error that was not disclosed partly because the family did not ask clarifying questions. Relying on patient or family questions to determine the content of disclosure is problematic. We propose a standard of materiality that can help clinicians to decide what information to disclose. The second case involves a fatal diagnostic error that the patient's widower was unaware had happened. The error was not disclosed out of concern that disclosure would cause the widower more harm than good. This case highlights how institutions can overlook patients' and families' needs following errors and emphasizes that benevolent deception has little role in disclosure. Institutions should consider whether involving neutral third parties could make disclosures more patient centered. The third case presents an intraoperative cardiac arrest due to a large air embolism where uncertainty around the clinical event was high and complicated the disclosure. Uncertainty is common to many medical errors but should not deter open conversations with patients and families about what is and is not known about the event. Continued discussion within the medical profession about applying disclosure principles to real-world cases can help to better meet patients' and families' needs following medical errors. PMID:19736193

Gallagher, Thomas H; Bell, Sigall K; Smith, Kelly M; Mello, Michelle M; McDonald, Timothy B

2009-09-01

293

Dealing with Alcohol-related problems in the Night-Time Economy: A Study Protocol for Mapping trends in harm and stakeholder views surrounding local community level interventions  

PubMed Central

Background This project will provide a comprehensive investigation into the prevalence of alcohol-related harms and community attitudes in the context of community-based interventions being implemented to reduce harm in two regional centres of Australia. While considerable experimentation and innovation to address these harms has occurred in both Geelong and Newcastle, only limited ad-hoc documentation and analysis has been conducted on changes in the prevalence of harm as a consequence, leaving a considerable gap in terms of a systematic, evidence-based analysis of changes in harm over time and the need for further intervention. Similarly, little evidence has been reported regarding the views of key stakeholder groups, industry, government agencies, patrons or community regarding the need for, and the acceptability of, interventions to reduce harms. This project will aim to provide evidence regarding the impact and acceptability of local initiatives aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Methods/Design This study will gather existing police data (assault, property damage and drink driving offences), Emergency Department presentations and Ambulance attendance data. Further, the research team will conduct interviews with licensed venue patrons and collect observational data of licensed venues. Key informant interviews will assess expert knowledge from key industry and government stakeholders, and a community survey will assess community experiences and attitudes towards alcohol-related harm and harm-reduction strategies. Overall, the project will assess: the extent of alcohol-related harm in the context of harm-reduction interventions, and the need for and acceptability of further intervention. Discussion These findings will be used to improve evidence-based practice both nationally and internationally. Ethical Approval This project has been approved by Deakin University HREC. PMID:21682908

2011-01-01

294

Traditional Chinese Biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

295

Traditional Asian Martial Arts Training: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Martial arts have become increasingly popular in the West, where they are practiced for self-defense, mental discipline, harmony of body and mind, physical fitness, and sport. It is estimated that 2–10 million Americans actively train. The literature pertaining to traditional martial arts training indicates that black belts do not conform to the violent, aggressive stereotypes portrayed in popular martial arts

John C. Cox

1993-01-01

296

Traditional Field Crops. Appropriate Technologies for Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, primarily designed to help Peace Corps volunteers develop and strengthen their agricultural skills, deals with traditional field crops. The focus of the manual is on surveying and interpreting local agricultural environment and individual farm units, developing agricultural extension techniques and practices, and providing basic…

Leonard, David

297

Policies for traditional medicine in peripheral China.  

PubMed

This paper examines the management and practice of traditional medicine in three autonomous regions of the People's Republic of China: Inner Mongolia; Tibet; and Xinjiang. On this basis, the paper considers how established medical traditions might best be integrated into modern health care systems. It holds that indigenous forms of medicine that have been practiced successfully across many generations should be treated as different but equal within wider health care systems. China has made important progress toward this ideal but, at the same time, has quite a long way to go. It is highly recommended that Chinese policymakers increase their efforts to give all established traditional medicines different but equal status within regional health care systems. PMID:16813513

Fan, Ruiping; Holliday, Ian

2006-06-01

298

INTEGRATING TRADITIONS COMMUNICATION REVISITED  

E-print Network

research interest, (silent reading and writing) shed further light on Palágyi's latter remark. That is of the printing press. When only manuscripts were available, reading was practiced aloud and others participated. It was not a solitary activity. The practice of reading and writing was accompanied by the conviction that the activity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Native American Healing Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

2006-01-01

300

[Health and social harm related alcohol].  

PubMed

Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources. PMID:25090405

Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

2014-08-01

301

[The place of syringe exchange programs in reducing harm in Canadian prisoners].  

PubMed

The prevalence rates of illicit drug consumption within the prison system are much higher than those in the Canadian population in general. Of the substances used in detention, those of most concern to prison and public health authorities are injection drugs, as the sharing of injection drug equipment may be responsible for the high prevalence of blood-borne diseases in prison facilities. Faced with this situation, the Correctional Service of Canada put in practice a number of harm reduction strategies targeting injection drug users, such as methadone maintenance programs and access to bleach. However, despite their use in the community, needle-exchange programs are not yet allowed in penitentiaries. This article analyzes the limits of harm reduction strategies approved by the prison authorities and discusses the sources of resistance that continue to impede the realization of a pilot project to assess the feasibility of needle-exchange programs in detention in Canada. PMID:19263972

Orsi, Mylène M; Brochu, Serge

2009-01-01

302

Protecting children from harmful food marketing: options for local government to make a difference.  

PubMed

The obesity epidemic cannot be reversed without substantial improvements in the food marketing environment that surrounds children. Food marketing targeted to children almost exclusively promotes calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and takes advantage of children's vulnerability to persuasive messages. Increasing scientific evidence reveals potentially profound effects of food marketing on children's lifelong eating behaviors and health. Much of this marketing occurs in nationwide media (eg, television, the Internet), but companies also directly target children in their own communities through the use of billboards and through local environments such as stores, restaurants, and schools. Given the harmful effect of this marketing environment on children's health and the industry's reluctance to make necessary changes to its food marketing practices, government at all levels has an obligation to act. This article focuses on policy options for municipalities that are seeking ways to limit harmful food marketing at the community level. PMID:21843422

Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

2011-09-01

303

iDetect: An immunity based algorithm to detect harmful content shared in Peer-to-Peer networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A huge amount of harmful and illegal contents such as child pornography and abuse vid eo are shared in Peer- to-Peer (P2P) network and have brought some se­ rious social problems. Traditional detection algorithm­ s monitor and analyze the content of the P2P traffic by deploying centralized powerful servers. The im­ mense amount of sharing, transferring and frequent­ ly updating

JIAN-MING LVI; ZHI-WEN YUI; Tie-Ying Zhang

2011-01-01

304

Women, ‘tradition’ and reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the tension between the ANC's commitment to gender equality and its engagement within the new government with what I term ‘the politics of traditionalism’. These politics have been most evident in the deadly struggle to out?manoeuvre the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), while convincing it to participate in the elections, a struggle in which the Zulu king has

Cherryl Walker

1994-01-01

305

In Defense of Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A disturbing trend is developing in higher education which may jeopardize the quality and importance of the classical tradition in education. This trend is exemplified by demands that the liberal arts be made relevant and comprehensible to the student and that they be related in some way to the search for a good job. The great classical…

Pekich, John

306

Modern vs. Traditional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

Zhenhui, Rao

1999-01-01

307

Child Psychotherapy: Converging Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I outline some of the ways in which I believe the psychoanalytic traditions in North America and in Great Britain are influencing each other. I identify points of convergence and divergence at this moment in the evolution of psychoanalytic theory and technique. I then point out some of the implications of relational perspectives in…

Altman, Neil

2004-01-01

308

Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs. PMID:21477299

2011-01-01

309

Traditional Grammar: An Interactive Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is traditional grammar dead? Donald Hardy, a professor of English at Northern Illinois University, doesn't think so. He recently posted this "e-grammar" on the Web to help teach users how to distinguish their nouns from their verbs, their nominative cases from their subjunctives, and their present perfect from their past. The descriptions are clear and concise, while quizzes at the end of each chapter as well as five practice exams allow readers to test their retention and keep track electronically of their score. (We were not convinced, however, that the typical exemplifications of the rules that are the core of each chapter truly constitute an "interactive" aspect of the text as the introduction claims.)

310

An Agent Harms a Victim: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study on Specific Moral Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statement: An agent harms a victim, depicts a situation that triggers moral emotions. Depending on whether the agent and the victim are the self or someone else, it can lead to four different moral emotions: self-anger (I harm myself), guilt (I harm someone), other-anger (someone harms me), and compassion (someone harms someone). In order to investigate the neural correlates

Gayannée Kédia; Sylvie Berthoz; Michele Wessa; Denis Hilton; Jean-luc Martinot

2008-01-01

311

Ethnic Label Use in Adolescents from Traditional and NonTraditional Immigrant Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding adolescents’ use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance\\u000a of identity and self-definition in adolescents’ lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant\\u000a receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional immigrant receiving area of North Carolina (Asian n = 165, Latino n = 239). Logistic regressions showed that adolescents

Lisa KiangKrista; Krista M. Perreira; Andrew J. Fuligni

2011-01-01

312

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Community in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will allow students to apply their understanding of the role of algae in the food web, the general impacts of harmful algal blooms, and ways that our societies deal with blooms in a simulated situation. Students are presented with a scenario of a recent harmful algal bloom in the fictional town of Habport. They are assigned roles and are asked to prepare for and participate in a Habport town meeting called to discuss the bloom. As the students are allowed time to discuss what occurred during their town meeting, they will better understand the broader ecological, social, and economic impact of a harmful algal bloom.

313

Supply-side harm reduction strategies: Bolivia's experiment with social control.  

PubMed

Harm reduction approaches to drug control have almost exclusively focussed on consumers in northern countries. This article supports recent analysis that indicates that such policies also hold relevance for producer countries by drawing on recent policy innovations in Bolivia. When Evo Morales, the president of the national coca grower confederation, was elected the country's first indigenous president in 2005, he promised to fundamentally change 25 years of the U.S.-funded "drug war" that had generated repeated human rights violations. The new policy, which implicitly incorporates harm reduction principles combined with respect for human rights, recognizes coca leaf's traditional use and cultural importance and relies on vigorous local organizations to implement a community-based programme called social control. Results to date indicate that Bolivia's social control experience has reduced violence in coca growing communities, ensured small farmers a subsistence income from coca and increased sovereignty, while making a modest contribution to containing expansion of coca cultivation. The programme has registered 50,000 farmers who are allowed to cultivate limited quantities of coca to supply traditional users and helped them gain secure title to their land. This registration is combined with satellite surveillance to guarantee that farmers do not exceed limits established by law. To date, the programme's reach is incomplete and coca is still diverted to the drug trade. Nonetheless, the approach may offer lessons for other drug producer countries, particularly where strong socio-political organizations are found in combination with closeknit communities holding shared cultural values. PMID:22818891

Farthing, Linda; Kohl, Benjamin

2012-11-01

314

The traditional sampling approach The traditional approach is defined as  

E-print Network

The traditional sampling approach The traditional approach is defined as the types of activities on the traditional approach is a foray, or blitz, in which groups of experts and dedicated vol- unteers conduct of the scientists interested in participating. The Smokies ATBI Science Plan calls for a traditional sampling

Bernard, Ernest

315

Traditional Ideologies, Nontraditional Lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how blue-collar couples whoalternate work shifts and share the care of theirchildren reconcile their traditional gender ideologieswith their nontraditional lives. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty-three alternatingshift couples in which the husband was a blue-collarworker. Ninety-six per cent of the participants wereWhite, and the remainder were Hispanic. The results suggested that despite their nontraditionalbehavior, these couples maintained

Francine M. Deutsch; Susan E. Saxon

1998-01-01

316

Efficacy of quality criteria to identify potentially harmful information: a cross-sectional survey of complementary and alternative medicine web sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information.

Muhammad Walji; Smitha Sagaram; Deepak Sagaram; Funda Meric-Bernstam; Craig Johnson; Nadeem Q Mirza; Elmer V Bernstam

2004-01-01

317

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2012-10-01

318

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2011-10-01

319

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2010-10-01

320

47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation...Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A multichannel video programming distributor may restrict the attachment or use of...

2013-10-01

321

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

E-print Network

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the ...

Bertrand, Erin Marie

322

Molecular insights into the niche of harmful brown tides  

E-print Network

Recurrent brown tide blooms caused by the harmful alga Alureococcus anophagefferens have decimated coastal ecosystems and shellfisheries along the Eastern U.S and South Africa. The exact mechanisms controlling bloom ...

Wurch, Louie L. (Louie Lorne)

2011-01-01

323

Single-Load Liquid Laundry Packets: Harmful to Children  

MedlinePLUS

... let children handle laundry packets. 2. Keep the liquid laundry packets sealed in their original packaging, and make ... Help at 1-800-222-1222. Single-Load Liquid Laundry Packets: Harmful to Children Do NOT Let Children ...

324

Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John

2013-01-01

325

Parental Detection of Youth's Self-Harm Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rate and predictors of parental detection of youth self-harm behavior and relationship with help-seeking were examined in 7,036 parent-child dyads from the 1999 and 2004 surveys of Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain. Youth self-harm behavior was reported by 463 (6.6%) children and adolescents but only 190 (2.7%) of the…

Mojtabai, Ramin; Olfson, Mark

2008-01-01

326

Harm reduction and "Clean" community: can Viet Nam have both?  

PubMed Central

The findings of our research show that while police play multiple roles in the fight against drug-related crime, they often perceived their tasks – especially preventing and controlling drug use on the one hand, and supporting harm reduction on the other – as contradictory, and this creates tensions in their work and relations with their communities. Although they are leaders and implementers of harm reduction, not all police know about it, and some remain skeptical or perceive it as contradictory to their main task of fighting drugs. Methadone treatment is seen by some as in competition with their main task of coordinating conventional drug treatment in the rehabilitation center. The history of drug use and the evolution of discourses on drug use in Viet Nam have created these conflicting pressures on police, and thus created contradictory expectations and led to different views and attitudes of police regarding various harm reduction measures. This might aid understanding why, despite the comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Viet Nam, it is not easy for police to actively and effectively support and be involved in harm reduction at the ground level. To promote the wider acceptance of harm reduction the concept of community safety must be expanded to include community health; harm reduction must be integrated into the “new society” movement; and laws and policies need further revision to reduce contradiction between current drug laws and HIV laws. Harm reduction guidelines for police and other actors need to be disseminated and supported, embodying better ways of working between sectors, and all sectors in the partnership require support for building capacity to contribute to the overall goal. PMID:22769430

2012-01-01

327

Harm or Mere Inconvenience? Denying Women Emergency Contraception  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the likely impact on women of being denied emergency contraception (EC) by pharmacists who conscientiously refuse to provide it. A common view—defended by Elizabeth Fenton and Loren Lomasky, among others—is that these refusals inconvenience rather than harm women so long as the women can easily get EC somewhere else close by. I argue from a feminist perspective that the refusals harm women even when they can easily get EC somewhere else close by. PMID:20706565

McLeod, Carolyn

2010-01-01

328

Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Nutrient sources, composition, and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although algal blooms, including those considered toxic or harmful, can be natural phenomena, the nature of the global problem\\u000a of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has expanded both in extent and its public perception over the last several decades. Of concern,\\u000a especially for resource managers, is the potential relationship between HABs and the accelerated eutrophication of coastal\\u000a waters from human activities.

Donald M. Anderson; Patricia M. Glibert; Joann M. Burkholder

2002-01-01

329

Harm reduction history, response, and current trends in Asia  

PubMed Central

HIV epidemics in Asia have been initially driven through injecting drug use and the use of shared needles and syringes. Molecular epidemiological work has shown that where there is heroin trafficking and use, so too is there HIV. Given the often strict enforcement of national anti-narcotic laws, harm reduction responses to HIV infections driven by injecting drug use have been historically slow. As it became clear that preventing HIV meant embracing harm reduction, many countries in the region have adopted harm reduction as part of their national AIDS strategy and increasingly as part of their national drug strategy. Initial successes have proven that harm reduction, as it pertains to HIV among IDUs, can and does work in Asia. These initial successes have led to more comprehensive scale-up of other essential components of HIV prevention among IDUs, including increased availability of opiate substitution programs. Still, multiple challenges remain as overall coverage of services in the region remains poor. Changes in the availability and patterns of use of drugs, including the exponential increase in the use of amphetamine-type stimulants, is providing ongoing challenges to both the law enforcement and public health sectors. This paper reflects on the history of harm reduction in Asia and the shifting trends forcing policy makers to adapt and expand harm reduction strategies to include an ever widening approach to criminal justice, policing, public health, and human rights.

Thomson, Nicholas

2014-01-01

330

Sustainable Traditional Medicine: Taking the Inspirations from Ancient Veterinary Science  

PubMed Central

Rapid reduction in natural resources as a consequence to the expanded urbanization, global warming and reduced natural habitat posed a considerable threat to the sustainability of traditional medicine. Being completely dependent upon natural resources like herbs, minerals and animal products, traditional medicine would possibly rank first in order of extinction of heritage if an alternative way is not considered well in time. In reference to the use of animal products, Ayurveda presents some unique examples where animals are used without causing harm to them and so without posing a threat to their existence. In the current context, when natural resources are facing a threat to their existence, a revisit to these ideas may give us a new insight to refine our look at natural resources used in traditional medicine. PMID:18980947

Rastogi, Sanjeev; Kaphle, Krishna

2011-01-01

331

Evaluating Retailer Behavior in Preventing Youth Access to Harmful Legal Products: A Feasibility Test*  

PubMed Central

This paper reports results from a feasibility study of a community effort to reduce the availability of legal products that youth can use to get “high”. The study evaluated the potential of youth purchase attempts to detect actual changes in retail availability of harmful legal products. These results were triangulated with self-reports from retailers themselves about their own policies and practices. Before the intervention less than half of retailers reported using any of six possible strategies identified as ways to reduce youth access to harmful products and less than 7% of baseline youth attempts to purchase potentially harmful legal products were refused or questioned. After the low dosage intervention, retailers reported increased use of three strategies and a statistically significant increase in the percentage of purchase attempts that were either questioned or refused by retail clerks. These findings (1) demonstrate the potential feasibility of retailer focused environmental strategies and (2) support continued use of youth purchase attempts as a measure of actual retailer behavior. PMID:18660467

Courser, Matthew W.; Holder, Harold D.; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen A.

2008-01-01

332

Victims’ perceptions of traditional and cyberbullying, and the psychosocial correlates of their victimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well recognised that there are serious correlates for victims of traditional bullying. These have been shown to include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms, in addition to often severe physical harm and even suicide. Bullied students also feel more socially ineffective and have greater interpersonal difficulties, together with higher absenteeism from school and lower academic competence.

Marilyn Campbell; Barbara Spears; Phillip Slee; Des Butler; Sally Kift

2012-01-01

333

Victims' Perceptions of Traditional and Cyberbullying, and the Psychosocial Correlates of Their Victimisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well recognised that there are serious correlates for victims of traditional bullying. These have been shown to include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms, in addition to often severe physical harm and even suicide. Bullied students also feel more socially ineffective and have greater interpersonal…

Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally

2012-01-01

334

Modeling of underground thermal behavior of solar hot water during treatment of harmful plants  

SciTech Connect

Annihilation of harmful plants among vegetables by solar hot-water injection into the roots is an alternative to chemical treatment methods. A three-dimensional solution of the heat diffusion equation between the treated region and the vegetable root is presented with related boundary conditions. Soil properties and dimensional characteristics are important for obtaining safety limitations of the treatment. A mathematical model with suitable outputs gives practical results for correct application of solar hot water. Critical distances between overheating of vegetable roots and useful irrigation water effects are distinguished.

Eltez, M. [Ege Univ., Bornova-Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.

1998-04-01

335

Hybrid re Assembage : bridging traditional craft and digital design  

E-print Network

Hybrid reAssemblage is a design gestalt that lies at the cross-section of digital design practice and the tactile qualities of traditional craft. It spans a territory in which the value of artifacts is produced through ...

Zoran, Amit (Amit Shlomo)

2013-01-01

336

Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Adaptive Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous groups offer alternative knowledge and perspectives based on their own locally developed practices of resource use. We surveyed the international lit- erature to focus on the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in monitoring, responding to, and managing ecosystem processes and functions, with special attention to ecological resilience. Case studies revealed that there exists a diversity of local or traditional

Fikret Berkes; Johan Colding; Carl Folke

2000-01-01

337

Traditional medicine in contemporary Ghana: A public policy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discourses on the future of traditional medicine in Africa and other indigenous societies often assume government recognition and integration into the formal health care systems. There is very little attempt, however, to understand the contexts in which the knowledge and practice of traditional medicine are currently reproduced, let alone the social, economic and cultural factors that determine consumer choices. Based

Komla Tsey

1997-01-01

338

Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article…

Freudenberg, Nicholas

2005-01-01

339

Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article describes how corporate policies influence health and reviews recent health

Nicholas Freudenberg

2005-01-01

340

Climate change and harmful algal blooms in the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projected effect of climate change for the year 2100 in the coastal zone of The Netherlands, a 4 °C temperature rise and increased salinity stratification, on the growth rates of six harmful and two non-harmful phytoplankton species was investigated in batch laboratory cultures. Stratification can split the mixed water column (18 °C, 150 W h m -2 per day) into a bottom (18 °C, 10 W h m -2 per day) and surface layer (22 °C, 600 W h m -2 per day); these three conditions (the present scenario) were compared to a 2100 scenario in which temperatures were increased by 4 °C. The growth rates of the two non-harmful species, the diatom Skeletonema costatum and the cryptophyte Rhodomonas sp. did not significantly change from present-mixed to 2100-surface conditions. Two harmful species, the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa and the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, died rapidly at the 2100-surface conditions. On the other hand, two dinoflagellates ( Prorocentrum micans and Prorocentrum minimum) and two raphidophytes ( Fibrocapsa japonica and Chattonella antiqua) doubled their growth rates at 2100-surface conditions compared to present-mixed conditions. Given the restrictions set by the experiment, the uncertainties in climate change projections as well as the effects of climate change on the marine ecosystem, the qualitative conclusion from this investigation is that the risk of harmful dinoflagellate and raphidophyte blooms will increase rather than decrease due to climate change.

Peperzak, Louis

341

Self-harm and conventional gender roles in women.  

PubMed

A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that those with lower scores on Instrumentality and Unmitigated Agency (positive and negative masculinity) and higher scores on Insecurity (negative femininity) had greater odds of self-harming. Relationships were weaker after accounting for generalized self-efficacy. Results are discussed in relation to previous findings and suggestions for prevention are made. PMID:23293983

Straiton, Melanie L; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Grimholt, Tine K; Dieserud, Gudrun

2013-04-01

342

Harmful gas recognition exploiting a CTL sensor array.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel cataluminescence (CTL)-based sensor array consisting of nine types of catalytic materials is developed for the recognition of several harmful gases, namely carbon monoxide, acetone, chloroform and toluene. First, the experimental setup is constructed by using sensing nanomaterials, a heating plate, a pneumatic pump, a gas flow meter, a digital temperature device, a camera and a BPCL Ultra Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer. Then, unique CTL patterns for the four types of harmful gas are obtained from the sensor array. The harmful gases are successful recognized by the PCA method. The optimal conditions are also investigated. Finally, experimental results show high sensitivity, long-term stability and good linearity of the sensor array, which combined with simplicity, make our system a promising application in this field. PMID:24113681

Wang, Qihui; Xie, Lijun; Zhu, Bo; Zheng, Yao; Cao, Shihua

2013-01-01

343

On the supposed moral harm of selecting for deafness.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates that accounting for the moral harm of selecting for deafness is not as simple or obvious as the widespread negative response from the hearing community would suggest. The central questions addressed by the paper are whether our moral disquiet with regard to selecting for deafness can be adequately defended, and if so, what this might entail. The paper considers several different strategies for accounting for the supposed moral harm of selecting for deafness and concludes that the deaf case cannot be treated in isolation. Accounting for the moral harm of selecting for deafness necessarily entails moral implications for other cases of procreation and procreative decision-making, including unassisted coital reproduction. The lesson to be learned from the deaf case is that we need norms that govern not just the use of reproductive technology, but procreation and procreative decision-making in all of its various forms. PMID:19622082

Fahmy, Melissa Seymour

2011-03-01

344

Childbirth customs in Vietnamese traditions.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine and understand how differences in the cultural backgrounds of Canadian physicians and their Vietnamese patients can affect the quality and efficacy of prenatal and postnatal treatment. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information in this paper is based on a review of the literature, supplemented by interviews with members of the Vietnamese community in Edmonton, Alta. The literature was searched with MEDLINE (1966 to present), HEALTHSTAR (1975 to present), EMBASE (1988 to present), and Social Sciences Abstracts (1984 to present). Emphasis was placed on articles and other texts that dealt with Vietnamese customs surrounding childbirth, but information on health and health care customs was also considered. Interviews focused on the accuracy of information obtained from the research and the correlation of those data with personal experiences of Vietnamese community members. MAIN MESSAGE: Information in the texts used to research this paper suggests that traditional Vietnamese beliefs and practices surrounding birth are very different from the biomedical view of the Canadian medical system. The experiences and beliefs of the members of the Vietnamese community support this finding. Such cultural differences could contribute to misunderstandings between physicians and patients and could affect the quality and efficacy of health care provided. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive and open approach to the patient's belief system and open and frank communication are necessary to ensure effective prenatal and postnatal treatment for recent Vietnamese immigrants and refugees. Education and awareness of cultural differences are necessary for physicians to provide the best and most effective health care possible. Images p692-a PMID:10099808

Bodo, K.; Gibson, N.

1999-01-01

345

Mayo Clinic: Tradition and Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heeding the words of their father, one Dr. W.W. Mayo, âÂÂNo one is big enough to be independent of othersâÂÂ, Dr. William J. Mayo and Dr. Charles H. Mayo helped create one of the worldâÂÂs first private integrated group practices of medicine. Now known as the Mayo Clinic, the story of their work is closely intertwined with the story of American medical history. As an attempt to bring this story to the web-browsing public, staff members at the Clinic recently created this historical timeline that offers some perspective on their institutional history. With their mouse in hand, visitors can move across the interactive timeline, which deploys high-quality photographs and short descriptions in its quest to document the ClinicâÂÂs various achievements, such as the creation of the first heart bypass machine in 1955. Finally, online visitors can get up close and personal to some of the artifacts that are close to the Mayo Clinic traditions, including a 1904 photograph of some of the medical staff at the Clinic.

2006-01-01

346

Widening the harm reduction agenda: From drug use to sex work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harm reduction emerged in the 1980s as a public health response to HIV and injecting drug use. This paper reviews the literature to structure the harms associated with sex work and expand the domains of harm reduction. Sex work-related harms are often rooted in debates where moral arguments and health and criminal justice policies compete for priority. Like drug users,

Linda Cusick

2006-01-01

347

Do smokers in Europe think all cigarettes are equally harmful?  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the ban on misleading descriptors such as light or mild cigarettes in Europe, there are still widespread misperceptions of the relative harmfulness of different brands of cigarettes among smokers. This study examined the extent to which smokers in three European countries believed that some cigarette brands are less harmful and why, using data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe surveys. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were completed among nationally representative samples of 4,956 current smokers (aged ? 18) from Germany (n = 1,515), France (n = 1,735) and the United Kingdom (n = 1,706) conducted between September 2006 and November 2007. Logistic regression models examined whether outcomes, including beliefs that some cigarettes could be less harmful than others, varied by socio-demographic and country of residence. Findings: Around a quarter of smokers in the UK and France, and a third in Germany believed some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Overall, of smokers who falsely believed that some cigarettes are less harmful, 86.3% thought that tar/nicotine yields, 48.7% taste, and 40.4% terms on packs such as ‘smooth’ or ‘ultra’ indicated less harmful brands. About a fifth of smokers across all countries chose their brand based on health reasons, and a similar proportion gave tar yields as a reason for choosing brands. Conclusions: Our research suggests that the current European Tobacco Products Directive is inadequate in eliminating misperceptions about the relative risk of brand descriptors on cigarettes. There is therefore an urgent need to protect smokers in Europe from these misperceptions via stronger measures such as plain packaging regulations. PMID:22294783

McNeill, Ann; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain

2012-01-01

348

Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Harm Reduction in Muslim Countries  

PubMed Central

Muslim countries, previously considered protected from HIV/AIDS due to religious and cultural norms, are facing a rapidly rising threat. Despite the evidence of an advancing epidemic, the usual response from the policy makers in Muslim countries, for protection against HIV infection, is a major focus on propagating abstention from illicit drug and sexual practices. Sexuality, considered a private matter, is a taboo topic for discussion. Harm reduction, a pragmatic approach for HIV prevention, is underutilized. The social stigma attached to HIV/AIDS, that exists in all societies is much more pronounced in Muslim cultures. This stigma prevents those at risk from coming forward for appropriate counseling, testing, and treatment, as it involves disclosure of risky practices. The purpose of this paper is to define the extent of the HIV/AIDS problem in Muslim countries, outline the major challenges to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, and discuss the concept of harm reduction, with a cultural approach, as a strategy to prevent further spread of the disease. Recommendations include integrating HIV prevention and treatment strategies within existing social, cultural and religious frameworks, working with religious leaders as key collaborators, and provision of appropriate healthcare resources and infrastructure for successful HIV prevention and treatment programs in Muslim countries. PMID:16253145

Hasnain, Memoona

2005-01-01

349

Mexico-U.S. Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workshop on Taxonomy of Harmful Algal Blooms; Veracruz, Mexico, 18-22 February 2008; A workshop on harmful algal bloom (HAB) taxonomy, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Health of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, was held at the Aquarium of Veracruz and focused on standardizing methods to detect HABs that affect coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico. This binational effort was established under the umbrella of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA), initially formed in 2004 by the five U.S. Gulf states (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) with participation from U.S. federal agencies and other stakeholders.

Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

2008-06-01

350

Between harm reduction, loss and wellness: on the occupational hazards of work  

PubMed Central

Those working in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services must cope with a range of stresses, including post traumatic stress and vicarious trauma. Pain and loss are just a part of the job. So is dealing with premature death as a result of HIV, hypertension, and even overdose. Faced with a range of challenges, some workers in the field even turn to self-medication. For some, it is about pleasure; for others it is about alleviating suffering. In recent years, several leaders in the AIDS and harm reduction fields have died ahead of their time. Some stopped taking their medications; others overdosed. Rather than weakness or pathology, French sociologist Emile Durkheim saw self-destructive behavior as a byproduct of social disorganization and isolation, as a way of contending with a breakdown of social bonds and alienation. There are any number of reasons why such behavior becomes part of work for those involved with battling the dueling epidemics of Hepatitis C, HIV, and related concerns. Forms of stress related to this work include secondary trauma, compassion fatigue, organizational conflict, burnout, complications of direct services, and lack of funding. Faced with day-to- day struggles over poverty, punitive welfare systems, drug use, the war on drugs, high risk behavior, structural violence, and illness, many in the field are left to wonder how to strive for wellness when taking on so much pain. For some, self-injury and self-medication are ways of responding. Building on ethnographic methods, this reflective analysis considers the stories of those who have suffered, as well as a few of the ways those in the field cope with harm and pain. The work considers the moral questions we face when we see our friends and colleagues suffer. It asks how we as practitioners strive to create a culture of wellness and support in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services. Through a brief review of losses and literature thereof, the essay considers models of harm reduction practice that emphasize health, pleasure and sustainability for practitioners. PMID:23548032

2013-01-01

351

Beyond sun, sand, and stitches: assigning responsibility for the harms of medical tourism.  

PubMed

Medical tourism (MT) can be conceptualized as the intentional pursuit of non-emergency surgical interventions by patients outside their nation of residence. Despite increasing popular interest in MT, the ethical issues associated with the practice have thus far been under-examined. MT has been associated with a range of both positive and negative effects for medical tourists’ home and host countries, and for the medical tourists themselves. Absent from previous explorations of MT is a clear argument of how responsibility for the harms of this practice should be assigned. This paper addresses this gap by describing both backward looking liability and forward looking political responsibility for stakeholders in MT. We use a political responsibility model to develop a decision-making process for individual medical tourists and conclude that more information on the effects of MT must be developed to help patients engage in ethical MT. PMID:23814800

Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie; Johnston, Rory; Kingsbury, Paul

2013-06-01

352

The traditional treatment of AIDS in Uganda: benefits and problems. Key issues and debates: traditional healers.  

PubMed

Many Ugandans turn to the traditional healing system for help in dealing with the psychosocial stress associated with HIV infection as well as for herbal treatments. Use of traditional healers for this purpose is encouraged by social and cultural beliefs that posit AIDS is a result of witchcraft or a curse from God. It is believed that if a sick person does not obtain treatment and dies, his spirit will cause further disease. Of concern is a tendency for people with AIDS to travel from one part of the country to another, seeking a cure from spiritualists, pure herbalists, and visionaries. Moreover, the intensified emergence of cults in response to the AIDS crisis creates potential for serious exploitation and further spread of the AIDS virus. Not only do these groups drain a family's financial resources, some practice unsafe practices such as intergroup sex or contact with unscreened blood. The estimated 6000-120,000 traditional healers in Uganda have the potential to provide a structure through which AIDS-related psychosocial problems are managed ("psychohealing"). Steps should be taken to understand the conditions that facilitate the emergence of healers purporting to be able to cure AIDS, the type of clients attracted to these services, and the costs and benefits of traditional medicine, with the ultimate goal of involving traditional healers in ongoing AIDS information, education, and counseling programs. PMID:12179373

Baguma, P

1996-07-01

353

Primary School Children and Self Harm: The Emotional Impact upon Education Professionals, and Their Understandings of Why Children Self Harm and How This Is Managed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence suggesting that self harm among young people is beginning earlier, in childhood and adolescent years. This paper reports on a qualitative study of primary school staff responses to self harm among children. Some studies with adolescents show self harm presents challenges to education professionals who may lack training or…

Simm, Rebecca; Roen, Katrina; Daiches, Anna

2010-01-01

354

Models of harmful algal blooms: Conceptual, empirical, and numerical approaches Now is a historic time in the field of harmful algal bloom (HAB)  

E-print Network

Preface Models of harmful algal blooms: Conceptual, empirical, and numerical approaches Now is a historic time in the field of harmful algal bloom (HAB) science. HAB problems are growing worldwide under the auspices of the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB) program

McGillicuddy Jr., Dennis J.

355

Violence and suffering in television news: toward a broader conception of harmful television content for children.  

PubMed

Traditionally, the public and professional debate about the inappropriateness of media violence for children focuses mainly on the negative effects of violence in entertainment programming. However, since the terrorist attacks on September 11th and the recent coverage of the war in Iraq, the suitability of real-life news violence for children may be doubted more than ever. To draw attention to the potential harmful effects of violence presented in news programs, it is argued in the present article that health care professionals should advocate a broader conception of media violence than thus far has been used. On the basis of recent research, potential effects of violent news content, such as fear, aggression, and desensitization, are discussed and recommendations are provided on how to abate these outcomes. PMID:15173505

Walma van der Molen, Juliette H

2004-06-01

356

Exploring Parents' Responses to Their Child's Deliberate Self-Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a serious public health problem and, although in the past research has focused mainly on the DSH patient, it is now recognised that parental involvement in the therapeutic process is beneficial. This study aimed to understand parents' concerns, expectations and experiences following an episode of deliberate…

Raphael, H.; Clarke, G.; Kumar, S.

2006-01-01

357

Building Face Composites Can Harm Lineup Identification Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Face composite programs permit eyewitnesses to build likenesses of target faces by selecting facial features and combining them into an intact face. Research has shown that these composites are generally poor likenesses of the target face. Two experiments tested the proposition that this composite-building process could harm the builder's memory…

Wells, Gary L.; Charman, Steve D.; Olson, Elizabeth A.

2005-01-01

358

Mental Health Status Among the Staff of Harm Reduction Centers  

PubMed Central

Background: Creating a supportive environment encourages charity services to help risk groups and individuals which has magnificent impacts on reducing their harm. Objectives: According to this plan, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health status in the staff of harm reduction centers. Materials and Methods: The clustered sample of this comparative study consisted of 49 staff of harm reduction centers. The study was supported by the United Nations Development Program in Tehran, Iran. The participants completed GHQ-28 and DASS-21 questionnaires along with sociologic forms and the results were evaluated by descriptive statistics indexes and independent sample t-test. Results: One-hundred percent of the participants in this study showed the symptoms of psychological disorders, and approximately 16 percent suffered from moderate to high degree of anxiety, depression and stress. The level of anxiety (P ? 0.04) and stress (P ? 0.01) in the younger staff (less than 40 years) was significantly higher than older staff (more than 40 years old). In addition, somatic symptoms (P ? 0.05) and social withdrawal (P ? 0.01) were significantly higher in women than men. Conclusions: Accordingly, major mental disorders in the staff of harm reduction centers, especially women and younger people need to be considered more than before. PMID:24971296

Rezazade, Majid; Lashani, Zeynab; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

2014-01-01

359

Harming ourselves and defiling others: what determines a moral domain?  

PubMed

Recent work has distinguished "harm" from "purity" violations, but how does an act get classified as belonging to a domain in the first place? We demonstrate the impact of not only the kind of action (e.g., harmful versus impure) but also its target (e.g., oneself versus another). Across two experiments, common signatures of harm and purity tracked with other-directed and self-directed actions, respectively. First, participants judged self-directed acts as primarily impure and other-directed acts as primarily harmful. Second, conservatism predicted harsher judgments of self-directed but not other-directed acts. Third, while participants delivered harsher judgments of intentional versus accidental acts, this effect was smaller for self-directed than other-directed acts. Finally, participants judged self-directed acts more harshly when focusing on the actor's character versus the action itself; other-directed acts elicited the opposite pattern. These findings suggest that moral domains are defined not only by the kind of action but also by the target of the action. PMID:24040245

Chakroff, Alek; Dungan, James; Young, Liane

2013-01-01

360

Development and Validation of the Self-Harm Reasons Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the reasons for self-harm (SH) may be paramount for the identification and treatment of SH behavior. Presently, the psychometric properties for SH reason questionnaires are generally unknown or tested only in non-inpatient samples. Existing inpatient measures may have limited generalizability and do not examine SH apart from an…

Lewis, Stephen P.; Santor, Darcy A.

2008-01-01

361

Sy09-2harm reduction in substance related addictions.  

PubMed

The concept of harm reduction has for a long time been discussed mainly related to opiate injection. The objective of the present paper is to review the application of the concept regarding several other substances: alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and party drugs. PMID:25220992

Zullino, D F; Khan, R; Thorens, G; Achab, S; Khazaal, Y; Calzada, G; Manghi, R

2014-09-01

362

Bacillus insecticides are not acutely harmful to corals and sponges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that produces crystalline endotoxins and is widely considered an environmentally safe insecticide to control mosquitoes and a number of agriculture pests. Bacteria closely related to B. thuringiensis have recently been discovered in association with diseased sponges, which has raised concerns that Bacillus insecticides may be harm- ful to tropical marine invertebrates. We exposed coral

Andrew P. Negri; Rochelle M. Soo; Florita Flores; Nicole S. Webster

2009-01-01

363

Does Income Inequality Harm Health? New Cross-National Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The provocative hypothesis that income inequality harms population health has sparked a large body of research, some of which has reported strong associations between income inequality and population health. Cross-national evidence is frequently cited in support of this important hypothesis, but the hypothesis remains controversial, and the…

Beckfield, Jason

2004-01-01

364

HARM J.A. VAN AVENDONK Jackson School of Geosciences  

E-print Network

investigator Lawrence Lawver. 2008 (Jan-Mar): Co-chief scientist during first R/V Marcus Langseth seismic1 HARM J.A. VAN AVENDONK Jackson School of Geosciences University of Texas at Austin , Institute-2008: Research Associate, University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Geophysics 2008-present: Research

Yang, Zong-Liang

365

Faster than Nyquist, Slower than Tropp Andrew Harms1  

E-print Network

Faster than Nyquist, Slower than Tropp Andrew Harms1 , Waheed U. Bajwa2 , Robert Calderbank3 Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA 1 hharms@princeton.edu 2 waheed.bajwa@rutgers.edu 3 robert emphasize two contributions to the RD architec- ture. Both relate to a white-noise-like b

Bajwa, Waheed U.

366

Domestic violence, child abuse and companion animal harm: Service provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the link between domestic violence, child abuse and companion animal harm by firstly presenting the results of a study that investigated family service provider perspectives on this link. The results showed that there is a general awareness of this link amongst family service providers and, furthermore, that there is general support amongst this community for a service

Nicola Taylor; Tania Signal; Tanja Stark

367

The Harmful Algal Bloom: Simple Plants With Toxic Implications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides scientific understanding, detection, monitoring, assessment, and prediction of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxia (low oxygen). Specifics are given on understanding HABs (red tide) where they occur, the climate and economic impact on the environment as well as a framework of response options.

2003-07-27

368

Young Children in Institutional Care at Risk of Harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey has revealed a large number of young children in institutional care across Europe. Young children placed in institutional care without parents may be at risk of harm. This review considers systematically the research evidence on the impact of institutional care on brain growth, attachment, social behavior, and cog- nitive development. Analytical epidemiological study designs (i.e., including a

REBECCA JOHNSON; KEVIN BROWNE; CATHERINE HAMILTON-GIACHRITSIS

2006-01-01

369

Iatrogenic Harm Caused by Diagnostic Errors in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Little is known about diag- nostic errors for a disease worldwide. Such errors could alter the disease's natural history, especially if unwar- ranted interventions cause irreversible harm. Fibrodys- plasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a rare, autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by episodes of permanent heterotopic ossification of soft tissues, occurs worldwide without racial, ethnic, or geographic predilec- tion. There is

Joseph A. Kitterman; Sharon Kantanie; David M. Rocke; Frederick S. Kaplan

2005-01-01

370

Does Banning Armative Action Harm College Student Quality?  

E-print Network

, including candidates' high-school records, standardized-test scores, non-academic achievements, socio as a group have lower average standardized-test scores than whites and Asians, and are more likely to comeDoes Banning A¢rmative Action Harm College Student Quality? Jimmy Chan Department of Economics

Niebur, Ernst

371

Harming Ourselves and Defiling Others: What Determines a Moral Domain?  

PubMed Central

Recent work has distinguished “harm” from “purity” violations, but how does an act get classified as belonging to a domain in the first place? We demonstrate the impact of not only the kind of action (e.g., harmful versus impure) but also its target (e.g., oneself versus another). Across two experiments, common signatures of harm and purity tracked with other-directed and self-directed actions, respectively. First, participants judged self-directed acts as primarily impure and other-directed acts as primarily harmful. Second, conservatism predicted harsher judgments of self-directed but not other-directed acts. Third, while participants delivered harsher judgments of intentional versus accidental acts, this effect was smaller for self-directed than other-directed acts. Finally, participants judged self-directed acts more harshly when focusing on the actor’s character versus the action itself; other-directed acts elicited the opposite pattern. These findings suggest that moral domains are defined not only by the kind of action but also by the target of the action. PMID:24040245

Chakroff, Alek; Dungan, James; Young, Liane

2013-01-01

372

Seuss's Butter Battle Book: Is There Hidden Harm?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether elementary school children relate to the "harmful hidden message" about nuclear war in Dr. Seuss's THE BUTTER BATTLE BOOK. After ascertaining the children's cognitive level, they participated in activities to find hidden meanings in stories, including Seuss's book. Students failed to identify the nuclear war message in Seuss's…

Van Cleaf, David W.; Martin, Rita J.

1986-01-01

373

Harm and Repair: Observing restorative justice in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the decision-making process for negotiating reparative contracts with offenders in a restorative justice model. Based on a content analysis of videotaped Community Reparative Board meetings with probationers in Vermont, this paper defines restoration as a core concept in restorative justice; examines how boards identify harm to victims and community; discusses how boards identify strategies to repair identified

David R. Karp

2001-01-01

374

Resolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders  

E-print Network

disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder? We assess three leading explanations for this apparentResolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders: Which evolutionary genetic), and (3) polygenic mutation-selection balance (mental disorders reflect the inevitable mutational load

Miller, Geoffrey

375

Strength-Based Efforts for Promoting Recovery from Psychological Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much resilience research highlights protective factors that prevent risk. Here the author focuses on resilience as the ability to recover from psychological harm. The strength-based view sees resilience as a transformational experience. One applicant of this approach is the Phoenix Intervention Program for Children (PIPC) which combines concepts…

De Civita, Mirella

2006-01-01

376

Is Obesity Harmful If Metabolic Factors Are Normal?  

MedlinePLUS

Is Obesity Harmful If Metabolic Factors Are Normal? The full report is titled “Are Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Benign Conditions? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” It is in the 3 December 2013 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine (volume 159, pages 758-769). The authors are ...

377

In Harm's Way? Payday Loan Access and Military Personnel Performance*  

E-print Network

and NBER Jonathan Zinman Dartmouth College August 2008 Abstract Does borrowing at 400% APR do more harm). But existing evidence on how access to high-interest debt affects borrower behavior is inconclusive. We use assigned to the USAF Academy Department of Economics and Geosciences. Zinman: Dartmouth College, Department

Lotko, William

378

Smokeless tobacco use: harm reduction or induction approach?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Smokeless tobacco (ST) substitution for cigarettes as a method to reduce harm has been actively debated. Use of ST as a smoking cessation method or as a means to reduce cigarettes has been proposed. The impact of using ST in these ways is relatively unknown.Method: A review of the different issues and studies related to using smokeless tobacco as

Dorothy K Hatsukami; Charlotte Lemmonds; Scott L Tomar

2004-01-01

379

Protecting Patients from Harm: Terfenadine and Potential Drug Therapy Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication of drug interactions has been the focus of reports surrounding the use of terfenadine. Two studies reported in the literature indicated that coprescription events between terfenadine and contraindicated drugs occurred despite communications to health professionals regarding potential harm. Recent studies have found that pharmacists frequently dispense such drug combinations without concern or appropriate counseling. Throughout 1996, reports in journals

Lisa Stockwell Morris; Angeline Carlson

1998-01-01

380

Forced Marriage as a Harm in Domestic and International Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on our analysis of 120 refugee cases from Australia, Canada, and Britain where an actual or threatened forced marriage was part of the claim for protection. We found that forced marriage was rarely considered by refugee decision makers to be a harm in and of itself. This finding contributes to understanding how gender and sexuality are analysed

Catherine Dauvergne; Jenni Millbank

2010-01-01

381

Antenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18, harm and parental choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this commentary I assess the possible harms to a fetus with trisomy 18 of continued life. I argue that, although there is good reason to avoid subjecting infants to major surgery and prolonged intensive care where there is little chance of benefit, doctors should support and engage honestly with parents who decide to continue their pregnancies. We should ensure

Dominic J C Wilkinson

2010-01-01

382

Biological control of harmful algal blooms: A modelling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multispecies dynamic simulation model (ERSEM) was used to examine the influence of allelopathic and trophic interactions causing feeding avoidance by predators, on the formation of harmful algal blooms, under environmental scenarios typical of a Mediterranean harbour (Barcelona). The biological state variables of the model included four functional groups of phytoplankton (diatoms, toxic and non-toxic flagellates and picophytoplankton), heterotrophic flagellates,

Jordi Solé; Marta Estrada; Emilio Garcia-Ladona

2006-01-01

383

Physical Mechanisms Driving Harmful Algal Blooms Along the Texas Coast  

E-print Network

Commonly referred to as “red tide”, harmful algal blooms (HABs) formed by Karenia brevis occur frequently in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). A bloom is defined as cell abundances >105 cells L-1. This thesis will focus primarily on Karenia brevis...

Ogle, Marcus 1982-

2012-12-12

384

Protecting Prisoners from Harmful Research: Is "Being Heard" Enough?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving the conditions under which incarcerated populations give "informed consent" is a desirable goal given prisoners' lack of autonomy; part of the Institutional Review Board's (IRB) procedures is the inclusion of representative voices from the prisoner population as a mechanism to reduce harms. The most recent review of the ethics of…

Mobley, Alan; Henry, Stuart; Plemmons, Dena

2007-01-01

385

2Way Text Classification for Harmful Web Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The openness of the Web allows any user to access almost any type of information. However, some information, such as adult con- tent, is not appropriate for all users, notably children. Additionally for adults, some contents included in abnormal porn sites can do ordinary people's mental health harm. In this paper, we propose an e-cient 2-way text fllter for blocking

Youngsoo Kim; Taekyong Nam; Dongho Won

2006-01-01

386

School Bullying: Tools for Avoiding Harm and Liability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every hour of every day, students experience bullying and harassment at school by their peers. The immediate and long-term impact on the victims' learning capabilities, emotional health, and self-esteem is staggering. " School Bullying: Tools for Avoiding Harm and Liability" tackles this critical problem with an easy-to-use framework that guides…

McGrath, Mary Jo

2006-01-01

387

Harm, Affect, and the Moral\\/Conventional Distinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moral\\/conventional task has been widely used to study the emergence of moral understanding in children and to explore the defi cits in moral understanding in clinical populations. Previous studies have indicated that moral transgressions, particularly those in which a victim is harmed, evoke a signature pattern of responses in the moral\\/conventional task: they are judged to be serious, generalizable

DANIEL KELLY; STEPHEN STICH; KEVIN J. HALEY; SERENA J. ENG; DANIEL M. T. FESSLER

2007-01-01

388

Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2003, the US Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a “roundtable discussion” to develop a consensus on the relationship between eutrophication and harmful algal blooms (HABs), specifically targeting those relationships for which management actions may be appropriate. Academic, federal, and state agency representatives were in attendance. The following seven statements were unanimously adopted by attendees based on review and analysis

J. Heisler; P. M. Glibert; J. M. Burkholder; D. M. Anderson; W. Cochlan; W. C. Dennison; Q. Dortch; C. J. Gobler; C. A. Heil; E. Humphries; A. Lewitus; R. Magnien; H. G. Marshall; K. Sellner; D. A. Stockwell; D. K. Stoecker; M. Suddleson

2008-01-01

389

Controlling Harmful Algal Blooms Through Clay Flocculation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. The potential use of clays to control harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been explored in East Asia, Australia, the United States, and Sweden. In Japan and South Korea, minerals such as montmorillonite, kaolinite, and yellow loess, have already been used in the field effectively, to protect fish mariculture fromCochlodiniumspp. and other blooms. Cell removal occurs through the flocculation of

MARIO R. SENGCO; DONALD M. ANDERSON

2004-01-01

390

Ecstasy use in Australia: patterns of use and associated harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored patterns of ecstasy use and associated harm through the administration of a structured interview schedule to 329 ecstasy users, recruited from three Australian cities. A broad range of ecstasy users were interviewed, but on the whole, the sample was young, relatively well educated and most were employed or students. Patterns of use were varied, although extensive polydrug

Libby Topp; Julie Hando; Paul Dillon; Ann Roche; Nadia Solowij

1999-01-01

391

If supply-oriented drug policy is broken, can harm reduction help fix it? Melding disciplines and methods to advance international drug-control policy.  

PubMed

Critics of the international drug-control regime contend that supply-oriented policy interventions are not just ineffective, but, in focusing almost exclusively on supply reduction, they also produce unintended adverse consequences. Evidence from the world heroin market supports their claims. The balance of the effects of policy is yet unknown, but the prospect of adverse consequences underlies a central paradox of contemporary supply-oriented policy. In this paper, we evaluate whether harm reduction, a subject of intense debate in the demand-oriented drug-policy community, can provide a unifying foundation for supply-oriented drug policy and speak more directly to policy goals. Our analysis rests on an extensive review of the literature on harm reduction and draws insight from other policy communities' disciplines and methods. First, we explore the paradoxes of supply-oriented policy that initially motivated our interest in harm reduction; second, we consider the conceptual and technical challenges that have contributed to the debate on harm reduction and assess their relevance to a supply-oriented application; third, we examine responses to those challenges, i.e., various tools (taxonomies, models, and measurement strategies), that can be used to identify, categorize, and assess harms. Despite substantial conceptual and technical challenges, we find that harm reduction can provide a basis for assessing the net consequences of supply-oriented drug policy, choosing more rigorously amongst policy options, and identifying new options. In addition, we outline a practical path forward for assessing harms and policy options. On the basis of our analysis, we suggest pursuing a harm-based approach and making a clearer distinction between supply-oriented and supply-reduction policy. PMID:21689918

Greenfield, Victoria A; Paoli, Letizia

2012-01-01

392

Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients  

PubMed Central

Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28?days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83%) prescriptions and 93 (87%) medicines. 47 (38%) of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97%) received at least one medicine (median number 2) with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99%) and 297 (85%) of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable. PMID:22931304

2012-01-01

393

The Harmful Plankton Project on the Internet: The User-Friendly Guide to Harmful Phytoplankton in UK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains an online guide for identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates and diatoms (primarily from UK waters). The guide is divided into several sections: contents (species list); schematic drawings (including characteristic features); illustrative data sheets (including key features, measurements, ecological data, references, a detailed taxonomic description, and lists of similar species and/or synonyms); methods of sampling, fixation, and staining; glossary; and references.

Minter, Evan; Montagnes, David

2010-05-07

394

Reading Gains of Traditional and Non-Traditional Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with how effectively nontraditional students (defined as older than average students with goals, motivations, and learning needs that differ from traditional-age students) function in an off-campus setting, a series of studies examined traditional and nontraditional students' performance in on-campus and off-campus reading programs. Two…

Heerman, Charles E.; Sheen, Sy-yng Violet

395

A Comparison of Montessori With Traditional Pre-School Education in Melbourne.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly compares the actual practice of five Melbourne Montessori preschools with the practice of four Melbourne traditional kindergartens, in an effort to identify discrete and common philosophical and applied elements of the two kinds of programs. (Author/CM)

Wiley, Karin; Langford, Peter

1981-01-01

396

Cost-Effectiveness and Harm-Benefit Analyses of Risk-Based Screening Strategies for Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

The one-size-fits-all paradigm in organized screening of breast cancer is shifting towards a personalized approach. The present study has two objectives: 1) To perform an economic evaluation and to assess the harm-benefit ratios of screening strategies that vary in their intensity and interval ages based on breast cancer risk; and 2) To estimate the gain in terms of cost and harm reductions using risk-based screening with respect to the usual practice. We used a probabilistic model and input data from Spanish population registries and screening programs, as well as from clinical studies, to estimate the benefit, harm, and costs over time of 2,624 screening strategies, uniform or risk-based. We defined four risk groups, low, moderate-low, moderate-high and high, based on breast density, family history of breast cancer and personal history of breast biopsy. The risk-based strategies were obtained combining the exam periodicity (annual, biennial, triennial and quinquennial), the starting ages (40, 45 and 50 years) and the ending ages (69 and 74 years) in the four risk groups. Incremental cost-effectiveness and harm-benefit ratios were used to select the optimal strategies. Compared to risk-based strategies, the uniform ones result in a much lower benefit for a specific cost. Reductions close to 10% in costs and higher than 20% in false-positive results and overdiagnosed cases were obtained for risk-based strategies. Optimal screening is characterized by quinquennial or triennial periodicities for the low or moderate risk-groups and annual periodicity for the high-risk group. Risk-based strategies can reduce harm and costs. It is necessary to develop accurate measures of individual risk and to work on how to implement risk-based screening strategies. PMID:24498285

Carles, Misericordia; Sala, Maria; Pla, Roger; Castells, Xavier; Domingo, Laia; Rue, Montserrat

2014-01-01

397

Pan-Hispanic Oral Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are concerned here with the oral traditions of Hispanic or Iberian peoples: speakers of Spanish (Castilian), Portuguese, Catalan, and Judeo- Spanish, and also various Spanish and Portuguese creoles in South America, Africa, and Asia. Basque, as an indigenous language of the Iberian Peninsula, should also definitely be counted as part of the Hispanic world. Oral tradition involves any manifestation

Samuel G. Armistead

2004-01-01

398

Traditional Irrigated Agriculture in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional methods were developed to allow farmers to live in harmony with a harsh environment. The farming techniques employed required only limited inputs of capital and caused minimal disturbance to the environment. The patterns of production were truly sustainable and skills were passed from generation to generation. Traditional surface irrigation systems of aflaj provide more than 60 percent of the

Ahmed Salim Al-Marshudi

2001-01-01

399

Research: Traditional vs. Electronic Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to compare electronic and traditional versions of a graduate-level introductory research class. Students were permitted to select the instructional delivery type they wanted, with the traditional option offered by one instructor and the electronic option offered by a second instructor. There were 71 participants in the…

Kennedy, Robert L.; Suter, W. Newton

400

Rigor in Traditional Quantitative Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers reasons for using traditional quantitative research methods and illustrates some of the considerations demanding rigor in a study on gender discrimination in school-administrator salaries. Traditional quantitative methods provide a meaningful language based on numbers and objectivity, and they are less time-consuming and complex…

Pounder, Diana G.

401

Cherokee Stickball: A Changing Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history of Cherokee stickball, a ball game dating back at least to the 1500s that was once used (as an alternative to war) for resolving grievances between tribes and townships. Describes traditional aspects of Cherokee stickball and notes the steady decline of the game and its traditional rules and ceremonies. (LP)

Olson, Ted

1993-01-01

402

The Non-Traditional Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The non-traditional student, or adult learner, is making up the new majority in secondary education, creating several implications for community colleges. The average non-traditional student is an adult, age 25 or older, who has returned to school either full-time or part-time. The student must balance school with employment, family, and financial…

Ely, Eileen E.

403

Georgia, country of ancient medical traditions.  

PubMed

Georgian medicine as well as the whole culture of Georgia, is one of the oldest in the world. In more than the 500 medical manuscripts preserved and since described, there are traces of Sumerian medicine. Examples of Chinese, Indian and especially Arabic medicine are also clearly seen. At the same time close relationships with Graeco-Roman medical traditions are beyond doubt. Nursing homes established by Georgian healers, many of whom were canonized by the Orthodox Church are to be found in many churches and monasteries all over the world. They gave fruitful scientific research and practical help. PMID:11624591

Shengelia, R

2000-06-01

404

Problems associated with hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in Mexico.  

PubMed

This chapter presents research findings from a collaborative project between Mexican investigators from the Mexican Institute of Psychiatry and the World Health Organization on the identification and treatment of harmful and hazardous drinking. A sample of 189 individuals who met criteria for hazardous drinking was selected for the study after screening 2319 outpatients attending clinics in two general hospitals in Mexico City. We present here the characteristics of this sample along dimensions that include alcohol related problems, history of trauma, alcohol dependence scores and family history of alcoholism. We rated, utilizing structures interviews, situations that place these individuals at risk of drinking. The possibility of constructing a typology of harmful and hazardous drinking was also explored. The significance of the findings of this investigation for health care clinicians is discussed. PMID:9751956

Campillo, C; Romero, M; Saldivar, G; Ramos, L

1998-01-01

405

How MDMA's pharmacology and pharmacokinetics drive desired effects and harms.  

PubMed

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an agent of abuse that has been used by over 16 million Americans. Increased energy, elevated mood, bonding with others, and psychedelic effects are desired effects while liver damage, extended depressed mood, sexual assault, rhabdomyolysis, serotonin syndrome, multiorgan failure, cardiovascular events, arrhythmias, and death are possible adverse effects. These desirable and adverse effects of MDMA are extensions of its fascinating pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic profile. In addition to methamphatemine like effects, MDMA also has mescaline like effects and increases the release of cortisol, oxytocin, and antidiuretic hormone. The desirable effects of MDMA are accentuated by the rave or electronic dance music scene where warm temperatures, vigorous dancing, loud music, and light shows accentuate some of the responses. However, the same environment increases the risk of certain harms. Knowledge of the constellation of these factors is needed for education, prevention of harm, and treatment. PMID:24431106

Michael White, C

2014-03-01

406

Tobacco Harm Reduction and the Evolution of Nicotine Dependence  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a renewed debate has developed around the potential for modified tobacco products to play a role in reducing tobacco-related harm. During the 1960s and 1970s medical experts recommended to smokers who could not quit that they switch to cigarettes with lower tar and nicotine content. At the time, survey data suggested that smokers who switched did not compensate for the reduction in nicotine by increasing their intake. However, public health scientists were hindered in their ability to evaluate the population impact of the reduced tar strategy by a limited understanding of nicotine addiction. Smoking dependence was seen as primarily psychological and social, rather than pharmacological or biological, until the late 1970s, when addiction researchers began to apply experimental techniques from other forms of drug abuse to study smoking behavior. This history has important lessons for current discussions about tobacco harm reduction and regulation of nicotine delivery. PMID:21330596

2011-01-01

407

Informed choice requires information about both benefits and harms.  

PubMed

A study found that women participating in mammography screening were content with the programme and the paternalistic invitations that directly encourage participation and include a pre-specified time of appointment. We argue that this merely reflects that the information presented to the invited women is seriously biased in favour of participation. Women are not informed about the major harms of screening, and the decision to attend has already been made for them by a public authority. This short-circuits informed decision-making and the legislation on informed consent, and violates the autonomy of the women. Screening invitations must present both benefits and harms in a balanced fashion, and should offer, not encourage, participation. It should be stated clearly that the choice not to participate is as sensible as the choice to do so. To allow this to happen, the responsibility for the screening programmes must be separated from the responsibility for the information material. PMID:19332586

Jørgensen, K J; Brodersen, J; Hartling, O J; Nielsen, M; Gøtzsche, P C

2009-04-01

408

Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?  

PubMed Central

A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners’ (GPs’) advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service’s National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are reviewed, including their political acceptability. It is tentatively concluded that widespread dissemination of SBI, without the implementation of alcohol control measures, might have indirect influences on levels of consumption and harm but would be unlikely on its own to result in public health benefits. However, if and when alcohol control measures were introduced, SBI would still have an important role in the battle against alcohol-related harm. PMID:23186309

2012-01-01

409

Practical leadership  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines conceptions of leadership and leadership enactment by teachers to develop a conceptual foundation for teacher leadership. The research question driving this study was: How do elementary school teacher leaders within a curricular and instructional reform effort describe their conceptions and enactment of leadership within their school and district contexts? Two program sites for elementary school science reform were selected, and six teachers from each program were invited to participate in the study. First-hand reports of conceptions of leadership and stories of enactment, collected through individual and focus group interviews with the teachers, served as the primary data for the study. A case for each of the twelve teachers is presented and analyzed. The outcome of the study is a theory of practical leadership. This conception draws upon the intellectual tradition of practical reasoning, which emphasizes deliberation and action of the individual when faced with a decision or a problematic situation. Practical leadership draws primarily from three dimensions: the self of the leader; the contexts in which the leader is acting; and the purposes that drive the leader's actions. Examples of leadership enactment from the cases are presented with attention to how these enactment stories demonstrate the teachers' use of practical reasoning in the situations described. The final analysis looks more specifically at the idea of practical leadership using a dynamic model called "leadership space" to demonstrate interactions among self, contexts, and purposes over time. The dissertation highlights three conclusions: (1) practical reasoning as the theoretical foundation for analyzing leadership provides a useful and valid analytical framework since it locates the leadership enactment in the deliberation and actions of the leader rather than understanding leadership as the application of a generalized set of principles about how to lead; (2) conceptions of leadership influence leadership enactment; and (3) teacher leadership roles are crafted, not filled.

Sato, Mistilina Dawn

410

Toxicities by herbal medicines with emphasis to traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

It is estimated that three quarters of the world population rely on herbal and traditional medicine as a basis for primary health care. Therefore, it is one of the most important and challenging tasks for scientists working in drug research to investigate the efficacy of herbal medicine, to dissect favorable from adverse effects, to identify active principles in medicinal plants and to ban poisonous plants or contaminations from herbal mixtures. In the present review, some problems are critically discussed. Botanical misidentification or mislabeling of plant material can play a role for toxic reactions in humans. Some plant descriptions in traditional herbal medicine (e.g. traditional Chinese medicine) have changed over time, which may lead to unintended intoxication by using wrong plants. A problem is also the contamination of herbals with microorganisms, fungal toxins such as aflatoxin, with pesticides and heavy metals. Unprofessional processing, which differs from safe traditional preparation represents another potential source for herbal poisoning. Unwanted effects of herbal products may also develop by the interaction of herbs with conventional drugs upon concomitant intake. The art of herbal medicine is to dissect pharmacologically and therapeutically valuable herbal drugs from harmful and toxic ones and to develop combinations of medicinal plants as safe and efficient herbal remedies. Standardization and strict control measures are necessary to monitor sustainable high quality of herbal products and to exclude contaminations that badly affect patients consuming herbal medicine. PMID:21892916

Efferth, Thomas; Kaina, Bernd

2011-12-01

411

Harmful plant species entering New Zealand 1963–1967  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potentially harmful plant species, mainly as seed, are continually entering New Zealand from many parts of the world. During 1963–67 over 1,500 items of botanical interest have been intercepted by the Department of Agriculture§ Port Agriculture Inspection Service and identified to specific or generic level at the Levin Horticultural Laboratory.Of significant interest were 116 interceptions which included propagules of 65

Richard H. Powell

1968-01-01

412

Alcohol dependence, excessive drinking and deliberate self-harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Problems relating to alcohol use are very common among deliberate self-harm (DSH) patients, and alcohol abuse increases the\\u000a risk of both DSH and suicide. In the UK, per capita consumption of alcohol has risen by 50% since 1970. The proportion of\\u000a women (but not men) drinking in excess of government-recommended limits has also increased. We investigate trends, by gender\\u000a and

Camilla Haw; Keith Hawton; Deborah Casey; Elizabeth Bale; Anna Shepherd

2005-01-01

413

Deliberate self-harm and suicide: a review from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide is now considered a major public health problem, especially in low income countries. A systematic review was conducted to identify risk factors and causes of deliberate self-harm and suicide in Pakistan – a Muslim, South Asian nation. In addition, the role of emergency department-based surveillance is explored. Four electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL Plus, MDConsult, PakMediNet) were searched and 23

Muhammad Shahid; Adnan A. Hyder

2008-01-01

414

Metalorganic frameworks with high capacity and selectivity for harmful gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benchmarks have been established for the performance of six metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and isoreticular MOFs (IRMOFs, which have the same underlying topology as MOF-5), MOF-5, IRMOF-3, MOF-74, MOF-177, MOF-199, and IRMOF-62, as selective adsorbents for eight harmful gases: sulfur dioxide, ammonia, chlorine, tetrahydrothiophene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethylene oxide, and carbon monoxide. Kinetic breakthrough measurements are used to determine the calculated dynamic

David Britt; David Tranchemontagne; Omar M. Yaghi

2008-01-01

415

What's in my buckets today? Foreseeing and forestalling patient harm.  

PubMed

Operating theatre teams work in an imperfect system characterised by time pressure, goal conflicts, lack of team stability and steep authority gradients between consultants and other team members. Despite this, they often foresee and forestall errors that could harm patients. The paper discusses the strengths and limitations of using Reason's three buckets model of error prevention as a framework for training operating theatre staff how to foresee and forestall incidents. PMID:24720055

Carthey, Jane

2014-03-01

416

Electrosurgical smoke plume. Is it harmful to staff?  

PubMed

When a potential problem was identified by several staff regarding electrosurgical smoke plume, Angharad Hughes and Jonathan Hughes decided to look into the situation using an evidence-based approach. What follows is a precis of literature found, and information about how this approach was carried out. It shows that there is some evidence that particles present in smoke plume are potentially harmful to health, but that the extent of the risk is as yet unknown. PMID:11892590

Hughes, A; Hughes, J

2001-06-01

417

Essays on competitive structure and product-harm crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is a collection of three empirical essays focusing on two important research topics, i.e. (i) competitive structure and (ii) product-harm crises. Competitive structure In the first two empirical essays, we study store competition in two local-service sectors, i.e. the video-rental and the grocery industry. In the considered sectors, collecting data on different marketing and\\/or performance variables for all

Kathleen Cleeren

418

Harmful algal bloom causative collected from Hong Kong waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased globally in recent years. In Hong Kong, a record algal bloom, caused by Gymnodinium mikimotoi and Gyrodiniumsp. HK'98 (subsequently described as Karenia digitata) occurred in March and April 1998. Almost all fishes died in the affected cages, and the estimated economic loss caused by the HAB was HK$$315?000?000 (equivalent to US $$40?000?000). Most of

Songhui Lu; I. J. Hodgkiss

2004-01-01

419

Clandestine drug laboratories in Australia and the potential for harm.  

PubMed

The emphasis in the literature regarding illicit drugs has been overwhelmingly on the subject of harm caused by their ingestion. Little has been reported on the potential and real harm associated with the illicit manufacture of drugs. This paper describes the increasing prevalence of clandestine drug laboratories in Australia, overwhelmingly devoted to the manufacture of methamphetamine. The nature of the illicit synthetic process is reviewed together with its inherent dangers for the 'cook', first responders and bystanders including children, and the environment. We have analysed the emerging trends in manufacture and seizure in Australia, and offer suggestions to remedy significant deficiencies in knowledge and policy in the management of clandestine drug laboratories, especially with reference to clinical management issues, data collection, environmental contaminants and remediation, legislation and research. In particular, we conclude that: The problem of clandestine drug laboratories is growing in Australia, reflecting patterns world-wide. There are significant health and environmental implications of this growth. First responders should ensure that specialised expertise is available when decommissioning detected laboratories. Clinicians should familiarise themselves with the types of injuries associated with clandestine drug manufacture. Legislatures without a clandestine drug laboratory registry should establish one. Where it doesn't exist, legislation should be sought to curb the spread of this unwanted phenomenon. Significant opportunities exist for further research into the harm caused to first responders, the community, and the environment by clandestine laboratories. PMID:15915620

Caldicott, David G E; Pigou, Paul E; Beattie, Robert; Edwards, John W

2005-04-01

420

Prediction of Harmful Human Health Effects of Chemicals from Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a great need to assess the harmful effects of chemicals to which man is exposed. Various in silico techniques including chemical grouping and category formation, as well as the use of (Q)SARs can be applied to predict the toxicity of chemicals for a number of toxicological effects. This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art of the prediction of the harmful effects of chemicals to human health. A variety of existing data can be used to obtain information; many such data are formalized into freely available and commercial databases. (Q)SARs can be developed (as illustrated with reference to skin sensitization) for local and global data sets. In addition, chemical grouping techniques can be applied on "similar" chemicals to allow for read-across predictions. Many "expert systems" are now available that incorporate these approaches. With these in silico approaches available, the techniques to apply them successfully have become essential. Integration of different in silico approaches with each other, as well as with other alternative approaches, e.g., in vitro and -omics through the development of integrated testing strategies, will assist in the more efficient prediction of the harmful health effects of chemicals

Cronin, Mark T. D.

421

Anthropogenic nutrients and harmful algae in coastal waters.  

PubMed

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are thought to be increasing in coastal waters worldwide. Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment has been proposed as a principal causative factor of this increase through elevated inorganic and/or organic nutrient concentrations and modified nutrient ratios. We assess: 1) the level of understanding of the link between the amount, form and ratio of anthropogenic nutrients and HABs; 2) the evidence for a link between anthropogenically generated HABs and negative impacts on human health; and 3) the economic implications of anthropogenic nutrient/HAB interactions. We demonstrate that an anthropogenic nutrient-HAB link is far from universal, and where it has been demonstrated, it is most frequently associated with high biomass rather than low biomass (biotoxin producing) HABs. While organic nutrients have been shown to support the growth of a range of HAB species, insufficient evidence exists to clearly establish if these nutrients specifically promote the growth of harmful species in preference to benign ones, or if/how they influence toxicity of harmful species. We conclude that the role of anthropogenic nutrients in promoting HABs is site-specific, with hydrodynamic processes often determining whether blooms occur. We also find a lack of evidence of widespread significant adverse health impacts from anthropogenic nutrient-generated HABs, although this may be partly due to a lack of human/animal health and HAB monitoring. Detailed economic evaluation and cost/benefit analysis of the impact of anthropogenically generated HABs, or nutrient reduction schemes to alleviate them, is also frequently lacking. PMID:25173729

Davidson, Keith; Gowen, Richard J; Harrison, Paul J; Fleming, Lora E; Hoagland, Porter; Moschonas, Grigorios

2014-12-15

422

[Research methods on alcohol-related harm in the population].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to describe the available methods to quantify the main health and social harms related to alcohol consumption in the population and to provide recommendations to improve research on these issues. Methods using individual and aggregate level data for the study of the relationship between alcohol consumption and related harms are taken into account, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Methodological aspects to quantify the magnitude and trends of alcohol-related and alcohol-attributable mortality, including alcohol dependence, acute intoxication, injury, violent behavior, disease burden and social costs are widely considered. There are often discrepancies between the study results mainly due to the difficulty of adequately measuring alcohol consumption and its relationship to health conditions. In the future we must strengthen research on the effect of drinking patterns and context in chronic diseases using appropriate controls, clarify the relationship of alcohol use disorders and other mental disorders , improve the measurement of alcohol intoxication when acute problems occurs, periodically quantify the disease burden and social costs attributable to alcohol (using country- specific attributable fractions) and develop valid and comparable methods and indicators for monitoring alcohol-related harm. PMID:25090404

Indave, B Iciar; Sordo, Luis; Pulido, José; Vallejo, Fernando; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Bravo, María J

2014-08-01

423

Payment Source and Emergency Management of Deliberate Self-Harm  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated whether health insurance type (private vs Medicaid) influences the delivery of acute mental health care to patients with deliberate self-harm. Methods. Using National Medicaid Analytic Extract Files (2006) and MarketScan Research Databases (2005–2007), we analyzed claims focusing on emergency episodes of deliberate self-harm of Medicaid- (n?=?8228) and privately (n?=?2352) insured adults. We analyzed emergency department mental health assessments and outpatient mental health visits in the 30 days following the emergency visit for discharged patients. Results. Medicaid-insured patients were more likely to be discharged (62.7%), and among discharged patients they were less likely to receive a mental health assessment in the emergency department (47.8%) and more likely to receive follow-up outpatient mental health care (52.9%) than were privately insured patients (46.9%, 57.3%, and 41.2%, respectively). Conclusions. Acute emergency management of deliberate self-harm is less intensive for Medicaid- than for privately insured patients, although discharged Medicaid-insured patients are more likely to receive follow-up care. Programmatic reforms are needed to improve access to emergency mental health services, especially in hospitals that serve substantial numbers of Medicaid-insured patients. PMID:22515853

Marcus, Steven C.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Olfson, Mark

2012-01-01

424

The Role of Traditional Healers and Traditional Medicine in Bali  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I will explore the various types of traditional healers (balian) of contemporary Bali, and the roles that they play, as well as how traditional medicines are used as one of the alternative forms of supporting the healing process.\\u000aIn Bali, we believe in two different worlds: the visible world (sekala) and the invisible world (niskala). We, the

AryatiNiWayanPasek

2010-01-01

425

Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

426

Exploring the Past, Present and Future of Traditional Native Healing In Southwestern And South-Central Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respect and acceptance for Native people's traditions including their traditional healing knowledge and practices is growing in both Native and non·Native medical circles. Impressive changes are occurring in the field of Native health care, as traditional healing philosophies and practices take up residence in the mandates and programs of many Native health centres across Canada. This applied anthropology study documents

Jennifer Robin Ranford

1998-01-01

427

19 (3): 225-237 (2012) Traditional people around the world possess consider-  

E-print Network

19 (3): 225-237 (2012) Traditional people around the world possess consider- able knowledge to Berkes, Colding, and Folke (2000), the integration of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and science with environmental issues Review article Contribution of traditional knowledge to ecological restoration: Practices

Asselin, Hugo

428

Augmenting Traditional Books with Context-Aware Learning Supports from Online Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in ubiquitous computing technologies have brought reality augmentation of traditional objects to context-aware and social supports. Although a significant proportion of students prefer poring over traditional paper textbooks over electronic books, few studies have enhanced reading practice of traditional books with ubiquitous…

Chen, Gwo-Dong; Chao, Po-Yao

2008-01-01

429

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2013-10-01

430

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2011-10-01

431

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2012-10-01

432

30 CFR 722.12 - Non-imminent dangers or harms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Non-imminent dangers or harms. 722.12 Section 722.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.12 Non-imminent dangers or harms....

2010-07-01

433

Please Don't Eat the Daisies (A Guide to Harmful Plants).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews common wild, cultivated, and household plants which may be harmful to humans by causing allergic reactions, dermatitis, physical injury, or internal poisoning. Includes brief descriptions of plants, their potential harm, and some illustrations. (DC)

Manor, C. Robert

1982-01-01

434

Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates  

PubMed Central

The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783

Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

2012-01-01

435

Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine  

PubMed Central

Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

Dorai, Ananda A.

2012-01-01

436

Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2013-07-01

437

Self-harm in British South Asian women: psychosocial correlates and strategies for prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To review the rates of self-harm in British South Asian women, look into the factors that contribute to these high rates of self-harm and discuss possible strategies for prevention and provision of culturally sensitive service for South Asian women who harm themselves. METHOD: Review. RESULTS: South Asian women are significantly more likely to self harm between ages 16–24 years

MI Husain; W Waheed; Nusrat Husain

2006-01-01

438

Self-Harm Experiences Among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little research exists on self-harm in Hispanic populations, although there is a strong literature that addresses suicidality in Hispanics. This study compares self-reported rates of self-harm in 255 non-Hispanic White (NHW) and 187 Hispanic (predominantly Mexican American) undergraduate students. Results indicated that self-harm is relatively common, with 31% of the sample reporting some history of self-harm. Rates and specific

Kristin L. Croyle

2007-01-01

439

Traditional Native healing. Alternative or adjunct to modern medicine?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the extent to which family physicians in British Columbia agree with First Nations patients' using traditional Native medicines. DESIGN: Randomized cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Family medicine practices in British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A randomized volunteer sample of 79 physicians from the registry of the BC Chapter of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Of 125 physicians contacted, 46 did not reply. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physicians' demographic variables and attitudes toward patients' use of traditional Native medicines. RESULTS: Respondents generally accepted the use of traditional Native medicines for health maintenance, palliative care, and the treatment of benign illness. More disagreement was found with its use for serious illnesses, both for outpatients and in hospital, and especially in intensive care. Many physicians had difficulty forming a definition of traditional Native medicine, and were unable to give an opinion on its health risks or benefits. A significant positive correlation appeared between agreement with the use of traditional Native medicines and physicians' current practice serving a large First Nations population, as well as with physicians' knowing more than five patients using traditional medicine. CONCLUSIONS: Cooperation between traditional Native and modern health care systems requires greater awareness of different healing strategies, governmental support, and research to determine views of Native patients and healers. PMID:7841824

Zubek, E. M.

1994-01-01

440

Proton pump inhibitors in cirrhosis: Tradition or evidence based practice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI) are very effective in inhibiting acid secretion and are extensively used in many acid related diseases. They are also often used in patients with cirrhosis sometimes in the absence of a specific acid related disease, with the aim of preventing peptic complications in patients with variceal or hypertensive gastropathic bleeding receiving multidrug treatment. Contradicting reports support

Francesca Lodato; Francesco Azzaroli; Maria Di Girolamo; Valentina Feletti; Paolo Cecinato; Andrea Lisotti; Davide Festi; Enrico Roda; Giuseppe Mazzella; Di Girolamo M

2008-01-01

441

Traditional birth attendant training and local birthing practices in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training birth attendants (TBAs) provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training programmes redirected funds to providing skilled attendants during delivery. This study

Sheela Saravanan; Gavin Turrell; Helen Johnson; Jenny Fraser; Carla Patterson

2011-01-01

442

Aesthetic Practice and Spirituality: Chi in Traditional East Asian Brushwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of multicultural art education has been addressed by art educators over the past 15 years. Art educators maintain that art is capable of empowering mutual respect and appreciation for people, objects, and ideas among diverse groups. Although many educators/teachers use non-Western artworks or artifacts to enrich their art programs,…

Chung, Sheng Kuan

2006-01-01

443

Traditional Birth Attendant Training and Local Birthing Practices in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…

Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla

2011-01-01

444

Reports of Self-Harm and Social Stressors among Early Adolescents: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined reports of self-harm by early adolescents as well as associations between salient interpersonal stressors and self-harm. While attending health education centers located in Illinois, Indiana, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania, early adolescents (n = 737) responded to a questionnaire measuring stressors, coping, and self-harm.…

Teufel, James A.; Brown, Stephen L.; Birch, David A.

2007-01-01

445

Staff knowledge and attitudes towards deliberate self-harm in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates knowledge, attitudes and training needs concerning deliberate self-harm (DSH) in adolescents, amongst a variety of professionals involved in the assessment and management of adolescence who self-harm. A questionnaire survey was completed by 126 health professionals working with adolescents who harm themselves. The main outcome measures were a knowledge measure and three attitude measures (generated using factor analysis).

Tanya Crawford; Wendy Geraghty; Emily Simonoff

2003-01-01

446

Attempted Suicide, Self-Harm, and Violent Victimization among Regular Illicit Drug Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships among attempted suicide, nonsuicidal self-harm, and physical assault were examined in 400 regular users of heroin and/or psychostimulants. Twenty-eight percent had episodes of nonsuicidal self-harm, 32% had attempted suicide, and 95% had been violently assaulted. The number of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents were…

Darke, Shane; McCrim, Michelle Torok; Kaye, Sharlene; Ross, Joanne

2010-01-01

447

Deliberate self harm in adolescents: self report survey in schools in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the factors associated with it. Design Cross sectional survey using anonymous self report questionnaire. Setting 41 schools in England. Participants 6020 pupils aged 15 and 16 years. Main outcome measure Deliberate self harm. Results 398 (6.9%) participants reported an act of deliberate self harm in the previous year

Keith Hawton; Karen Rodham; Emma Evans; Rosamund Weatherall

2002-01-01

448

Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus J. Heisler a,3  

E-print Network

Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus J. Heisler a,3 , P.M. Glibert b between water quality and eutrophication and the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). This meeting in revised form 21 January 2008 Accepted 1 August 2008 Keywords: Eutrophication Harmful algal blooms HABs

Cochlan, William P.

449

Harmful algal bloom species and phosphate-processing effluent: Field and laboratory studies  

E-print Network

Harmful algal bloom species and phosphate-processing effluent: Field and laboratory studies Matthew, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Harmful algal blooms Karenia brevis Phosphate-processing effluent monitoring program was established and laboratory bioassays were conducted. Several harmful algal bloom (HAB

Meyers, Steven D.

450

0 20 4010 Miles NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System  

E-print Network

0 20 4010 Miles NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Texas Forecast Region Maps to Sargent BCH NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Texas Forecast Region Maps 0 5 102 Matagorda Is. San Jose Is. Aransas Pass to PINS Matagorda Peninsula NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational

451

NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Southwest Florida Forecast Region Maps  

E-print Network

COLLIER LEE PASCO MONROE MANATEE CHARLOTTE SARASOTA PINELLAS NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Southwest Florida Forecast Region Maps 0 5 102.5 Miles #12 N Collier N Charlotte S Charlotte NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Southwest

452

The role of nutrients in regulation and promotion of harmful algal blooms in upwelling systems  

E-print Network

The role of nutrients in regulation and promotion of harmful algal blooms in upwelling systems R on the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB), pro- motes a comparative approach. 1. Introduction and background Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a global phenomenon that im- pacts

Cochlan, William P.

453

How useful is the concept of the 'harm threshold' in reproductive ethics and law?  

PubMed

In his book Reasons and Persons, Derek Parfit suggests that people are not harmed by being conceived with a disease or disability if they could not have existed without suffering that particular condition. He nevertheless contends that entities can be harmed if the suffering they experience is sufficiently severe. By implication, there is a threshold which divides harmful from non-harmful conceptions. The assumption that such a threshold exists has come to play a part in UK policy making. I argue that Parfit's distinction between harmful and non-harmful conceptions is untenable. Drawing on Kant's refutation of the ontological argument for God's existence, I suggest that the act of creation cannot be identical with the act of harming-nor indeed of benefiting-however great the offspring's suffering may be. I suggest that Parfit is right that bringing children into existence does not usually harm them, but I argue that this must be applied to all conceptions, since Parfit cannot show how the harm threshold can be operationalised. If we think certain conceptions are unethical or should be illegal, this must be on other grounds than that the child is harmed by them. I show that a Millian approach in this context fails to exemplify the empirical and epistemological advantages which are commonly associated with it, and that harm-based legislation would need to be based on broader harm considerations than those relating to the child who is conceived. PMID:25106477

Smajdor, Anna

2014-10-01

454

Trojan War and Cultural Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the western cultural tradition no story, exempting the Bible, has inspired more artists, writers, painters, sculptors and\\u000a so on, than the Trojan War. This is evident from the masterpieces of paintings and sculptures already presented in the previous\\u000a chapters, representing a small part only of the tradition developed through the centuries. It is remarkable that various artists\\u000a place the

S. A. Paipetis

455

Classifying traditional Chinese painting images  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more traditional Chinese painting art images are digitalized and exhibited on the Internet. Effective browsing and retrieving them is an imperative problem need to be addressed. This paper proposes a scheme to classify traditional Chinese paintings. The algorithm uses three low-level features to achieve such a high-level classification: Ohta histogram, color coherence vector and auto-correlation. An accuracy of

Shuqiang Jiang; Wen GaolZ; Weiqiang Wang

2003-01-01

456

Traditional occupations in a modern world: implications for career guidance and livelihood planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an attempt to examine the place and significance of traditional occupations as careers in today’s world. The\\u000a areas of tension and compatibility between ideas and values that signify modernity and the practice of traditional occupations\\u000a are reviewed. The meaning of “traditional occupations” is unravelled, the potential that traditional occupations in agriculture\\u000a and crafts offer for building inclusive

Anita Ratnam

2011-01-01

457

[First trimester miscarriages: benefits and harms of different management options].  

PubMed

The objective of this review was to assess early and late benefits and harms of different management options for first-trimester miscarriage. Surgical uterine evacuation remains the most effective and the quickest method of treatment. Depending on the clinical situation, medical treatment using misoprostol (missed miscarriage) or expectative attitude (incomplete miscarriage) does not increase the risk of complications, neither haemorrhagic nor infectious. However, these alternatives generally require longer outpatient follow-up, which leads to more prolonged bleeding and not planned surgical procedures. PMID:25153436

Beucher, G; Dolley, P; Stewart, Z; Carles, G; Dreyfus, M

2014-09-01

458

Method for controlling harmful organisms in crops of useful plants  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Method for controlling harmful organisms in genetically modified cotton plants which contain a gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis which encodes and expresses an insecticidally active protein, which comprises applying an insecticisally effective amount of one or more compounds from the following groups and a-f, described herein, to the plants, to their seeds or propagation stock and/or to the area in which they are cultivated. The method according to the invention makes it possible to reduce the application rate of crop protection agents which act synergistically with the transgenic plants, and also to increase and widen the efficacy of the transgenic plants, and therefore offers both economical and ecological advantages.

2001-12-18

459

Harm, hype and evidence: ELSI research and policy guidance  

PubMed Central

There has been much investment in research on the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) associated with genetic and genomic research. This research should inform the development of the relevant policy. So far, much of the relevant policy - such as in the areas of patents, genetic testing and genetic discrimination - seems to be informed more by speculation of harm and anecdote than by available evidence. Although a quest for evidence cannot always be allowed to delay policy choice, it seems axiomatic to us that policy options are improved by the incorporation of evidence. PMID:23534337

2013-01-01

460

Study of harmful algal blooms in a eutrophic pond, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to analyze the underlying mechanisms and contributing factors related to the seasonal dynamic\\u000a of harmful algal blooms in a shallow eutrophic pond, Bangladesh during September 2005–July 2006. Two conspicuous events were\\u000a noted simultaneously throughout the study period: high concentration of phosphate–phosphorus (>3.03; SD 1.29 mg l???1) and permanent cyanobacterial blooms {>3,981.88 × 103 cells l???1 (SD 508.73)}. Cyanobacterial

Roksana Jahan; Saleha Khan; Joong Ki Choi

2010-01-01

461

Traditional Knowledge Strengthens NOAA's Environmental Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.

Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

2010-12-01

462

The Responsibility of the Institutional Review Board in Good Clinical Practice: First, Do No Harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

I read with interest the article on outpatient management of burn wounds published in a recent issue of the IJMS. 1 There are many questions that arise which are worth mentioning. Under the methodology section, no description was provided on how patients were randomized into the two treatment arms and, therefore, it is not possible to assess how confounding variables

2010-01-01

463

The association of ADHD symptoms to self-harm behaviours: a systematic PRISMA review  

PubMed Central

Background Self-harm is a major public health issue in young people worldwide and there are many challenges to its management and prevention. Numerous studies have indicated that ADHD is associated with completed suicides and other suicidal behaviours (i.e., suicidal attempt and ideation). However, significantly less is known about the association between ADHD and self-harm. Method This is the first review of the association between ADHD and self-harm. A systematic PRISMA review was conducted. Two internet-based bibliographic databases (Medline and CINAHL) were searched to access studies which examined to any degree the association between, specifically, ADHD and self-harm. Results Only 15 studies were identified which investigated the association between ADHD and self-harm and found evidence to support that ADHD is a potential risk factor for self-harm. Conclusion This association raises the need for more awareness of self-harm in individuals with symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24884622

2014-01-01

464

Genderedness of bar drinking culture and alcohol-related harms: A multi-country study  

PubMed Central

This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in predominantly male bar-drinking countries. Multilevel analysis was used to analyze survey data from 21 countries representing five continents from Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Bar frequency was positively associated with harms overall. Relationships between bar frequency and harms varied across country. Genderedness modified associations between bar frequency and odds of fights, marriage/relationship harms, and work harms. Findings were significant only for men. Contrary to our hypothesis, odds of harms associated with bar drinking increased less rapidly in countries where bar drinking is predominantly male. This suggests predominantly male bar drinking cultures may be protective for males who more frequently drink in bars. PMID:23710158

Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

2012-01-01

465

Practicing chemical process safety: a look at the layers of protection.  

PubMed

This presentation will review a few public perceptions of safety in chemical plants and refineries, and will compare these plant workplace risks to some of the more traditional occupations. The central theme of this paper is to provide a "within-the-fence" view of many of the process safety practices that world class plants perform to pro-actively protect people, property, profits as well as the environment. It behooves each chemical plant and refinery to have their story on an image-rich presentation to stress stewardship and process safety. Such a program can assure the company's employees and help convince the community that many layers of safety protection within our plants are effective, and protect all from harm. PMID:15518976

Sanders, Roy E

2004-11-11

466

[Policies to prevent the harm caused by alcohol].  

PubMed

The impact on health of alcohol in a given society is mainly related with the volume and pattern of drinking, and these are related with individual factors, but also with environmental factors, among which public policies are important determinants. Public policies may favour or reduce alcohol use, and thus have a substantial preventive capacity. The effectiveness of policies to prevent the harm caused by alcohol has been reviewed in recent documents, which provide evidence to extract recommendations. This paper reviews the most effective policies to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, with an emphasis in the use of taxes to increase its cost, availability regulation, and policies on drinking and driving. The regulation of alcohol promotion and publicity is also assessed, as well as the detection and treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence. The state of alcohol related policies in Spain is analysed, as well as the obstacles, for the adoption of policies more prone to prevention, and recommendations for the future are made. PMID:25090407

Villalbí, Joan R; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Gili-Miner, Miquel; Espelt, Albert; Brugal, M Teresa

2014-08-01

467

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

PubMed Central

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs. PMID:21368207

Gobler, Christopher J.; Berry, Dianna L.; Dyhrman, Sonya T.; Wilhelm, Steven W.; Salamov, Asaf; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Zhang, Yan; Collier, Jackie L.; Wurch, Louie L.; Kustka, Adam B.; Dill, Brian D.; Shah, Manesh; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Kuo, Alan; Terry, Astrid; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Paulsen, Ian T.; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K.; Talmage, Stephanie C.; Walker, Elyse A.; Koch, Florian; Burson, Amanda M.; Marcoval, Maria Alejandra; Tang, Ying-Zhong; LeCleir, Gary R.; Coyne, Kathryn J.; Berg, Gry M.; Bertrand, Erin M.; Saito, Mak A.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

2011-01-01

468

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

SciTech Connect

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

Gobler, Christopher J. [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Berry, Dianna L. [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Dyhrman, Sonya T. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Wilhelm, Steven W [ORNL; Salamov, Asaf [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lobanov, Alexei V. [Brigham and Women's Hospital; Zhang, Yan [Brigham and Women's Hospital; Collier, Jackie L. [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Wurch, Louie L. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Kustka, Adam B. [Rutgers University; Dill, Brian [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL

2011-01-01

469

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

SciTech Connect

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

Grigoriev, Igor; Gobler, Christopher; Salamov, Asaf; Kuo, Alan; Terry, Astrid; Pangillian, Jasmyn; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Berry, Dianna; Dyhrman, Sonya; Wilhelm, Steven; Lobanov, Alexei; Zhang, Yan; Collier, Jackie; Wurch, Louie; Kusta, Adam; Dill, Brian; Shsh, Manesh; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Paulsen, Ian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa; Talmage, Stephanie; Walker, Elyse; Koch, Florian; Burson, Amanda; Marcoval, Maria; Tang, Yin-Zhong; LeCleir, Gary; Coyne, Kathyrn; Berg, Gry; Bertrand, Erin; Saito, Mak; Gladyshev, Vadim

2011-02-18

470

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

SciTech Connect

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements demonstrated that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the first HAB genome (A. anophagefferens) and compared its gene complement to those of six competing phytoplankton species identified via metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on the gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 mbp) and more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen utilization, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

Gobler, C J; Grigoriev, I V; Berry, D L; Dyhrman, S T; Wilhelm, S W; Salamov, A; Lobanov, A V; Zhang, Y; Collier, J L; Wurch, L L; Kustka, A B; Dill, B D; Shah, M; VerBerkomes, N C; Kuo, A; Terry, A; Pangilinan, J; Lindquist, E A; Lucas, S; Paulsen, I; Hattenrath-Lehmann, T K; Talmage, S; Walker, E A; Koch, F; Burson, A M; Marcoval, M A; Tang, Y; LeCleir, G R; Coyne, K J; Berg, G M; Bertrand, E M; Saito, M A; Gladyshev, V N

2011-03-02

471

Rapid scale up of harm reduction in China.  

PubMed

In the last 20 years, China has seen a resurgence in drug use, particularly heroin, and with it a growing epidemic of HIV/AIDS. Faced with this dual epidemic, the government has begun testing harm reduction strategies in recent years. These have included methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programmes, needle-syringe programmes (NSP), outreach, and increasing access to HIV testing. MMT and NSP have moved from the pilot stage to scale-up, with 320 MMT clinics and 93 NSPs now open. Both will number more than 1000 by the end of 2008. There are some good examples of outreach programmes in some areas, however more needs to be done to facilitate greater involvement from non-government organizations. Similarly, HIV testing for drug