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Sample records for harmful traditional practices

  1. Magnitude and Reasons for Harmful Traditional Practices among Children Less Than 5 Years of Age in Axum Town, North Ethiopia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gebrekirstos, Kahsu; Fantahun, Atsede; Buruh, Gerezgiher

    2014-01-01

    Background. In addition to beneficial traditional practices, there are around 140 harmful traditional practices affecting mothers and children in almost all ethnic groups of Ethiopia. Therefore this study might give a clue about their practice and associated factors. The objective of this study was to assess magnitude of harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years of age in Axum Town, North Ethiopia. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 752 participants who were selected using multistage sampling. Simple random sampling method was used to select ketenas from all kebelles of Axum Town. After proportional allocation of sample size to eachketena, systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participants. Data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaire; it was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 and descriptive statistics was calculated. Results. Majority of the respondents (81.2%) were Orthodox, 78.2% of the mothers had no work, and majority of mothers had no formal education. Among the harmful traditional practices performed on children, uvula cutting alone was performed on 72.8% of children followed by milk teeth extraction and uvula cutting with eyebrow incision. Conclusion. The leading harmful traditional practice performed on children in this study was uvula cutting. PMID:25045359

  2. A cross sectional study on factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years in Axum town, north Ethiopia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Every social grouping in the world has its own cultural practices and beliefs which guide its members on how they should live or behave. Harmful traditional practices that affect children are Female genital mutilation, Milk teeth extraction, Food taboo, Uvula cutting, keeping babies out of exposure to sun, and Feeding fresh butter to new born babies. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years of age in Axum town, North Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted in 752 participants who were selected using multi stage sampling; Simple random sampling method was used to select ketenas from all kebelles of Axum town. After proportional allocation of sample size, systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participants. Data was collected using interviewer administered Tigrigna version questionnaire, it was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics was calculated and logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results Out of the total sample size 50.7% children were females, the mean age of children was 26.28 months and majority of mothers had no formal education. About 87.8% mothers had performed at least one traditional practice to their children; uvula cutting was practiced on 86.9% children followed by milk teeth extraction 12.5% and eye borrows incision 2.4% children. Fear of swelling, pus and rapture of the uvula was the main reason to perform uvula cutting. Conclusion The factors associated with harmful traditional practices were educational status, occupation, religion of mothers and harmful traditional practices performed on the mothers. PMID:24952584

  3. Integrating harm reduction therapy and traditional substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, G A; Blume, A W; Parks, G A

    2001-01-01

    One-size-fits-all therapy has not worked well for a majority of substance users seeking help. New approaches to substance abuse treatment are desperately needed. Traditional models of service delivery offer little, if any, help to people who may not choose abstinence as a goal. To address this concern, the Bridging the Gap Conference was sponsored by the San Francisco Department of Public Health. The overall goals of the conference were to improve standards of care, develop best practice principles for integrating harm reduction approaches into traditional substance abuse services, and increase the accessibility of quality services to people in need of alcohol and drug treatment. G. Alan Marlatt gave a keynote address on the integration of harm reduction therapy into traditional treatment services, an expanded version of which is presented in this article. Such integration would broaden the scope of services available to a larger group of consumers of substance abuse treatment. Furthermore, harm reduction therapy would infuse traditional treatment practices with scientifically-based pragmatism that pays close attention to individual and community public health needs. Because of its tolerance of treatment goals other than abstinence, harm reduction therapy offers the greatest hope to expand the availability of substance abuse services to people who have not benefited from traditional abstinence-based treatment models. PMID:11332996

  4. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

  5. Abuja declaration calls for action against hazardous traditional practices.

    PubMed

    1990-05-01

    The UN Economic Commission for Africa organized a conference in Abuja, Nigeria, last November to review the "Role of Women in Africa in the 1990s" as a follow-up of the "Arusha Strategies" of 1984. Among topics examined were harmful traditional practices, such as early marriage and pregnancy, female circumcision, nutritional taboos, inadequate child spacing and unprotected delivery, which are still found to be current realities in many African countries. These practices often inflict permanent physical, psychological, and emotional damage, even death, and little progress has been achieved in the abolition, the Declaration states. The lives of women in Africa are dominated by traditions. Certain attitudes, structures, and traditional practices, such as female circumcision and nutritional taboos that have harmful effects on the health of women and children, have rarely been officially surveyed. They have not been fully acknowledged by policy makers and opinion leaders, nor have effective steps to stop them been given precedence in health development planning. There is need for action at national as well as subregional and regional levels. Action at the national levels means that: national research institutes should undertake in-depth research on various traditional practices and their effects on women; functional literacy campaigns should sensitize parents and disseminate information on the harmful effects of circumcision, childhood marriage and early pregnancy; guidance and counseling should be provided to adolescent girls as well as to parents to make them understand the harmful physical, social, and mental effects of some traditional practices; religious leaders, traditional rulers, women's organizational, professional bodies and others should act as pressure groups in promoting efforts against harmful practices through traditional and modern means of communication, dissemination of information, and other appropriate ways of communication; and legislative and

  6. Self-immolation, suicide and self-harm in Buddhist and Western traditions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2011-07-01

    There are significant points of similarity between considerations of self-harm and suicide in Buddhist and non-Buddhist traditions, including qualified acceptance of certain forms of self-harm, altruism as a motivation for suicide, and self-immolation as a form of political protest. Differences include specific contexts in which certain forms of self-harm are accepted and the predominant frameworks used to interpret such acts. The integration of Buddhist concepts of dukkha (unsatisfactoriness or suffering) and sati (mindfulness) into Western psychotherapeutic paradigms represents a significant point of convergence between the two traditions, and suggests the possibility of greater dialogue and therapeutic benefit in the future. PMID:21742954

  7. Minimising cornea scarring from the use of harmful traditional eye remedies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Adekoya, B J; Ayanniyi, A A; Adepoju, F G; Omolase, C O; Owoeye, J F

    2012-01-01

    Corneal scarring is the fourth largest cause of blindness globally, and a much more prominent factor in developing countries. Blindness from corneal scarring is largely a preventable phenomenon, and is capable of causing significant morbidity that can last for a lifetime. A significant proportion of these cases are caused by the use of harmful traditional eye medicines/remedies, and are used and prescribed by friends, relatives and traditional healers, with widespread use especially in developing countries. Use of traditional remedies can also cause harm indirectly by causing delays before seeking medical treatment. Reducing corneal scarring from the use of harmful traditional medicine is through a combination of approaches with the key strategies being community diagnosis, education, participation, and intervention, with provision of basic eye care integrated into the primary health care of the community. Collaboration with traditional healers in the community is also another approach that has been found to be useful. PMID:24568063

  8. Practice Location Characteristics of Non-Traditional Dental Practices.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Eric S; Jones, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    Current and future dental school graduates are increasingly likely to choose a non-traditional dental practice-a group practice managed by a dental service organization or a corporate practice with employed dentists-for their initial practice experience. In addition, the growth of non-traditional practices, which are located primarily in major urban areas, could accelerate the movement of dentists to those areas and contribute to geographic disparities in the distribution of dental services. To help the profession understand the implications of these developments, the aim of this study was to compare the location characteristics of non-traditional practices and traditional dental practices. After identifying non-traditional practices across the United States, the authors located those practices and traditional dental practices geographically by zip code. Non-traditional dental practices were found to represent about 3.1% of all dental practices, but they had a greater impact on the marketplace with almost twice the average number of staff and annual revenue. Virtually all non-traditional dental practices were located in zip codes that also had a traditional dental practice. Zip codes with non-traditional practices had significant differences from zip codes with only a traditional dental practice: the populations in areas with non-traditional practices had higher income levels and higher education and were slightly younger and proportionally more Hispanic; those practices also had a much higher likelihood of being located in a major metropolitan area. Dental educators and leaders need to understand the impact of these trends in the practice environment in order to both prepare graduates for practice and make decisions about planning for the workforce of the future. PMID:27037447

  9. Integrating Sociological Practice into Traditional Sociology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basirico, Laurence A.

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a model of instruction that uses Marvin Olsen's reconceptualization of sociology as "sociological practice" to integrate sociological practice into traditional courses. States that this approach helps students gain a critical perspective and overcome personal and cultural ideological constraints in dealing with real issues related to…

  10. Perinatal Practices & Traditions Among Asian Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    As the population in the United States grows more diverse, nurses caring for childbearing women must be aware of the many cultural traditions and customs unique to their patients. This knowledge and insight supports women and their families with the appropriate care, information, and resources. A supportive relationship builds trust, offers guidance, and allows for the new family to integrate information from nurses and other healthcare providers with the practice of certain perinatal cultural traditions. The Asian Indian culture is rich in tradition, specifically during the perinatal period. To support the cultural beliefs and practices of Asian Indian women during this time, nurses need to be aware of and consider multiple factors. Many women are navigating the new role of motherhood while making sense of and incorporating important cultural rituals. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of perinatal cultural practices and traditions specific to the Asian Indian culture that perinatal nurses may observe in the clinical setting. Cultural traditions and practices specific to the pregnancy and postpartum period are described together with symbolism and implications for nursing practice. It is important to note that information regarding perinatal customs is provided in an effort to promote culturally sensitive nursing care and may not pertain to all Asian Indian women living in the United States. PMID:26909722

  11. Harm reduction in Cambodia: a disconnect between policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In 2003 the Government of Cambodia officially began to recognise that harm reduction was an essential approach to preventing HIV among people who use drugs and their sexual partners. Several programs aiming to control and prevent HIV among drug users have been implemented in Cambodia, mostly in the capital, Phnom Penh. However, there have been ongoing tensions between law enforcement and harm reduction actors, despite several advocacy efforts targeting law enforcement. This study attempts to better understand the implementation of harm reduction in Cambodia and how the policy environment and harm reduction program implementation has intersected with the role of law enforcement officials in Cambodia. PMID:22770124

  12. Toxic red tides and harmful algal blooms: A practical challenge in coastal oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.

    1995-07-01

    The debate over the relative value of practical or applied versus fundamental research has heated up considerably in recent years, and oceanography has not been spared this re-evaluation of science funding policy. Some federal agencies with marine interests have always focused their resources on practical problems, but those with a traditional commitment to basic research such as the National Science Foundation have increasingly had to fight to maintain their freedom to fund quality science without regard to practical or commercial applications. Within this context, it is instructive to highlight the extent to which certain scientific programs can satisfy both sides of this policy dilemma—i.e. address important societal issues through advances in fundamental or basic research. One clear oceanographic example of such a program involves the phenomena called "red tides" or "harmful algal blooms". This paper describes the nature and extent of the problems caused by these outbreaks, emphasizing the alarming expansion in their incidence and their impacts in recent years, both in the U.S. and worldwide. The objective is to highlight fundamental physical, biological, and chemical oceanographic question that must be addressed if we are to achieve the practical goal of scientifically based management of fisheries resources, public health, and ecosystem health in regions threatened by toxic and harmful algae.

  13. Developing a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for clinical work with boys and men.

    PubMed

    Mahalik, James R; Good, Glenn E; Tager, David; Levant, Ronald F; Mackowiak, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    This study drew upon the knowledge base of member practitioners of the American Psychological Association (APA) to develop a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for treatment with boys and men. Four hundred seventy-five APA-member practitioners solicited from practice-related divisions provided responses to 4 open-ended questions about helpful and harmful practices in working with boys and men. Ten themes emerged from qualitative analyses. Beneficial and sensitive practices included addressing gender socialization and gender-sensitive issues as they apply to boys and men in psychological practice. Harmful practices included biased practices, stereotypes, and a lack of awareness and training around gender and diversity issues as they apply to boys and men. We discuss the specific themes that emerged from analysis of the responses, how these findings are situated within previous work examining helpful and harmful practices, limitations to the study, suggestions for research, and implications for training psychologists. PMID:23088685

  14. Harm reduction psychotherapy: extending the reach of traditional substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Tatarsky, Andrew

    2003-12-01

    Harm reduction is a paradigm-shifting idea that has the potential to significantly improve the treatment of problem substance users. The essence of harm reduction is the recognition that treatment must start from the client's needs and personal goals and that all change that reduces the harms associated with substance use can be regarded as valuable. The paper presents harm reduction's rationale, principles, treatment implications, and application to psychotherapy. The author describes his model of Integrative Harm Reduction Psychotherapy, an approach that integrates a strategic skills-building focus with an exploration of the multiple meanings of substance use and the importance of the therapeutic alliance. PMID:14693253

  15. Lessons from traditional medical and health practices.

    PubMed

    Oyeka, I C

    1981-01-01

    Unlike hospital-oriented western medical practice, traditional medical science and technology include aspects of botany, anatomy, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Indigenous medical treatment has been successful in extensive comminuted fractures, psychosomatic disorders, and frantic manic psychosis. Traditional practitioners also work to prevent disease. They often advise against marriages that might perpetuate diseases. Traditional birth attendants and doctors in Africa, Asia, and Latin America routinely perform external cephalic versions on women with breach birth presentations thereby avoiding the need for often risky and undesirable cesarean sections. In many cultures, traditional birth attendants and female advisors from within and outside immediate families are among the regular local services available to mothers during gestation and early child care periods. Breastfeeding, which has been discouraged in industrialized countries, is nutritious and partially serves as a form of contraceptive to aid in child spacing, especially if lactation is prolonged. In most hospitals in developing countries, in contrast to western hospitals, the mother is encouraged to stay with her sick child to provide psychological support and assist with feeding and some aspects of care and treatment. Family organizations and extended families help in child bearing, care and nurturing and continues into socialization and adolescence. PMID:12310946

  16. [Childhood diarrhea in rural Nicaragua: beliefs and traditional health practices].

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Sánchez, G; Pauw, J; Pérez, R M; Sandiford, P; Smith, G D

    1995-11-01

    traditional treatments should be studied to evaluate their effectiveness and adapt them, to the extent possible, to "modern" medicine. Health services providers should become familiar with traditional nomenclature and beliefs in order to be able to communicate better with mothers and steer them away from harmful practices toward improved results in infant diarrheal disease prevention programs. PMID:8540993

  17. Harmful microinjecting practices among a cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver Canada

    PubMed Central

    Rachlis, Beth; Lloyd-Smith, Elisa; Small, Will; Tobin, Diane; Stone, Dave; Li, Kathy; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We sought to identify factors associated with harmful microinjecting practices in a longitudinal cohort of IDU. Methods Using data from the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS) between January 2004 and December 2005, generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was performed to examine sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with four harmful microinjecting practices (frequent rushed injecting, frequent syringe borrowing, frequently injecting with a used water capsule, frequently injecting alone). Results In total, 620 participants were included in the present analysis. Our study included 251 (40.5%) women and 203 (32.7%) self-identified Aboriginal participants. The median age was 31.9 (interquartile range: 23.4–39.3). GEE analyses found that each harmful microinjecting practice was associated with a unique profile of sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Discussion We observed high rates of harmful microinjecting practices among IDU. The present study describes the epidemiology of harmful microinjecting practices and points to the need for strategies that target higher risk individuals including the use of peer-driven programs and drug-specific approaches in an effort to promote safer injecting practices. PMID:20509739

  18. School Counselors' Professional Experience and Practices Working with Students Who Self-Harm: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ellen Adams

    2013-01-01

    The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…

  19. Developing a Taxonomy of Helpful and Harmful Practices for Clinical Work with Boys and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalik, James R.; Good, Glenn E.; Tager, David; Levant, Ronald F.; Mackowiak, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study drew upon the knowledge base of member practitioners of the American Psychological Association (APA) to develop a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for treatment with boys and men. Four hundred seventy-five APA-member practitioners solicited from practice-related divisions provided responses to 4 open-ended questions about…

  20. Traditional Practices of Turkish infertile women: an example from a rural county.

    PubMed

    Nazik, Evsen; Apay, Serap; Özdemir, Funda; Nazik, Hakan

    2015-03-01

    Infertility is not only a health problem, but is also a central existential intrapersonal and relational conflict. Infertility treatments are invasive, expensive, time-consuming, emotionally draining. All over the world there are numerous traditional methods used in the treatment of infertility. This investigation was carried out to determine the traditional practices of infertile women in a rural county in Eastern Turkey. This is a descriptive study carried out in 105 primary infertile women. Data were collected between September 2007 and April 2008 by using a questionnaire. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. 55% of the women were in the 25-34 year age range. It was observed that only 17% of the women applied to a gynecologist without using any traditional applications while 83% of the women applied for traditional applications. The most prevalent traditional practices were consulting traditional healers, visiting mausoleums where religious leaders were buried, using traditional drugs, use of written fertility amulets. Various traditional practices against infertility are prevalent rural counties. Some of these practices may be potentially harmful for women. Health professionals should be aware that infertile women may sometimes follow questionable traditional practices and advices. PMID:26040063

  1. The Social Practice of Harm Reduction in Argentina: A “Latin” Kind of Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Harm reduction” is a public health model that places emphasis on reducing the negative effects of drug use rather than on eliminating drug use or ensuring abstinence. Based on sixteen months of ethnographic research, this article examines how harm reduction in Argentina is both envisioned and observed as a social practice by analyzing how local harm reductionists position their work in relation to “social context.” My informants consider this social emphasis to be characteristic of a “Latin” kind of intervention, which they differentiate from an “Anglo-Saxon” approach focused on individual behavior change. Differentiating between these “cultural” models of intervention helps Argentine harm reductionists guide their social orientation to drug use, risk, and harm by situating interventions in the contexts in which users live and operate. It also allows them to distinguish their social form of harm reduction from a neoliberal one that they associate with the global north. The construction of these distinct cultural models of intervention is a means of critiquing neoliberal approaches to health that advocate technical solutions to changing individual behavior. Ultimately, this construct acts as a political commentary on the limits of an individual-oriented harm reduction project when applied to the “Argentine context.” PMID:27182076

  2. Harm reduction and women in the Canadian national prison system: policy or practice?

    PubMed

    Rehman, Laurene; Gahagan, Jacqueline; DiCenso, Anne Marie; Dias, Giselle

    2004-01-01

    Applying the principles of harm reduction within the context of incarcerated populations raises a number of challenges. Although some access to harm reduction strategies has been promoted in general society, a divide between what is available and what is advocated continues to exist within the prison system. This paper explores the perceptions and lived experiences of a sample of nationally incarcerated women in Canada regarding their perceptions and experiences in accessing HIV and Hepatitis C prevention, care, treatment and support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 156 women in Canadian national prisons. Q.S.R. Nudist was used to assist with data management. A constant comparison method was used to derive categories, patterns, and themes. Emergent themes highlighted a gap between access to harm reduction in policy and in practice. Despite the implementation of some harm reduction techniques, women in Canadian prisons reported variable access to both education and methods of reducing HIV/HCV transmission. Concerns were also raised about pre-and post-test counseling for HIV/HCV testing. Best practices are suggested for implementing harm reduction strategies within prisons for women in Canada. PMID:15911510

  3. TRADITIONAL PRACTICES IN A PRAGMATIC INSTITUTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RICHARDSON, RICHARD C.

    WHILE THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE IS ESSENTIALLY PRAGMATIC IN ITS BASIC OUTLOOK, IT IS CLOSELY RELATED TO TRADITIONAL ASPECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION. THESE EXTREME POSITIONS MUST BE AVOIDED AS THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE DEVELOPS A CONSISTENT FRAME OF REFERENCE FOR GUIDING POLICY DECISIONS. THE BASIC CONCEPT OF THE COLLEGE SUFFERS WHEN THE INSTITUTION BECOMES…

  4. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    PubMed Central

    Maghuyop-Butalid, Roselyn; Mayo, Norhanifa A; Polangi, Hania T

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC) Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. PMID:26604828

  5. No evidence that polygynous marriage is a harmful cultural practice in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lawson, David W; James, Susan; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2015-11-10

    Polygyny is cross-culturally common and a topic of considerable academic and policy interest, often deemed a harmful cultural practice serving the interests of men contrary to those of women and children. Supporting this view, large-scale studies of national African demographic surveys consistently demonstrate that poor child health outcomes are concentrated in polygynous households. Negative population-level associations between polygyny and well-being have also been reported, consistent with the hypothesis that modern transitions to socially imposed monogamy are driven by cultural group selection. We challenge the consensus view that polygyny is harmful, drawing on multilevel data from 56 ethnically diverse Tanzanian villages. We first demonstrate the vulnerability of aggregated data to confounding between ecological and individual determinants of health; while across villages polygyny is associated with poor child health and low food security, such relationships are absent or reversed within villages, particularly when children and fathers are coresident. We then provide data indicating that the costs of sharing a husband are offset by greater wealth (land and livestock) of polygynous households. These results are consistent with models of polygyny based on female choice. Finally, we show that village-level negative associations between polygyny prevalence, food security, and child health are fully accounted for by underlying differences in ecological vulnerability (rainfall) and socioeconomic marginalization (access to education). We highlight the need for improved, culturally sensitive measurement tools and appropriate scales of analysis in studies of polygyny and other purportedly harmful practices and discuss the relevance of our results to theoretical accounts of marriage and contemporary population policy. PMID:26504213

  6. No evidence that polygynous marriage is a harmful cultural practice in northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, David W.; James, Susan; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Polygyny is cross-culturally common and a topic of considerable academic and policy interest, often deemed a harmful cultural practice serving the interests of men contrary to those of women and children. Supporting this view, large-scale studies of national African demographic surveys consistently demonstrate that poor child health outcomes are concentrated in polygynous households. Negative population-level associations between polygyny and well-being have also been reported, consistent with the hypothesis that modern transitions to socially imposed monogamy are driven by cultural group selection. We challenge the consensus view that polygyny is harmful, drawing on multilevel data from 56 ethnically diverse Tanzanian villages. We first demonstrate the vulnerability of aggregated data to confounding between ecological and individual determinants of health; while across villages polygyny is associated with poor child health and low food security, such relationships are absent or reversed within villages, particularly when children and fathers are coresident. We then provide data indicating that the costs of sharing a husband are offset by greater wealth (land and livestock) of polygynous households. These results are consistent with models of polygyny based on female choice. Finally, we show that village-level negative associations between polygyny prevalence, food security, and child health are fully accounted for by underlying differences in ecological vulnerability (rainfall) and socioeconomic marginalization (access to education). We highlight the need for improved, culturally sensitive measurement tools and appropriate scales of analysis in studies of polygyny and other purportedly harmful practices and discuss the relevance of our results to theoretical accounts of marriage and contemporary population policy. PMID:26504213

  7. AIDS and traditional health beliefs and practices of black women.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Rush, C E

    1989-01-01

    This study examines whether traditional health beliefs and practices of black Americans reported in the literature were consistent with those of a target population of low-income black women in Los Angeles County and describes how these traditional classifications of illness and healing practices were related to their understanding of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A qualitative approach was used to gather the data in unstructured interviews. Content analysis was used to classify data. Sources of illness and remedies identified by the women were divided into two categories: natural and supernatural. Natural sources included cold, impurities, diet, weakness, lack of moderation, and stress. Supernatural sources included illnesses allowed by God, witchcraft, and evil influences. Remedies included antidotes, food, medicines, prayer, and healing. Analysis of the relationship of AIDS to traditional beliefs revealed that AIDS had been integrated into the traditional conceptualization of illness, health practices, and healing, and was attributed to both natural and supernatural causes. Prevention, prayer, and spiritual healing were recommended as remedies. Implications were that AIDS education, prevention, and treatment programs be within the context of traditional belief system. PMID:2748354

  8. Creating Minimum Harm Practice ( MiHaP): a concept for continuous improvement

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ranjit

    2013-01-01

    The author asks for the attention of leaders and all other stakeholders to calls of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and the UK National Health Service (NHS) to promote continuous learning to reduce harm to patients. This paper presents a concept for structured bottom-up methodology that enables and empowers all stakeholders to identify, prioritize, and address safety challenges. This methodology takes advantage of the memory of the experiences of all persons involved in providing care. It respects and responds to the uniqueness of each setting by empowering and motivating all team members to commit to harm reduction. It is based on previously published work on “Best Practices Research (BPR)” and on “Systematic Appraisal of Risk and Its Management for Error Reduction (SARAIMER)”. The latter approach, has been shown by the author (with Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) support), to reduce adverse events and their severity through empowerment, ownership and work satisfaction. The author puts forward a strategy for leaders to implement, in response to national and international calls for Better health, Better care, and Better value (the 3B’s of healthcare) in the US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.  This is designed to enable and implement “ A promise to learn- a commitment to act”.  AHRQ has recently published “A Toolkit for Rapid-Cycle Patient Safety and Quality Improvement” that includes an adapted version of SARAIMER. PMID:24715965

  9. The human rights of intersex people: addressing harmful practices and rhetoric of change.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Morgan

    2016-05-01

    Intersex people and bodies have been considered incapable of integration into society. Medical interventions on often healthy bodies remain the norm, addressing perceived familial and cultural demands, despite concerns about necessity, outcomes, conduct and consent. A global and decentralised intersex movement pursues simple core goals: the rights to bodily autonomy and self-determination, and an end to stigmatisation. The international human rights system is responding with an array of new policy statements from human rights institutions and a handful of national governments recognising the rights of intersex people. However, major challenges remain to implement those statements. Human rights violations of intersex individuals persist, deeply embedded in a deliberate history of silencing. Rhetoric of change to clinical practices remain unsubstantiated. Policy disjunctions arise in a framing of intersex issues as matters of sexual orientation and gender identity, rather than innate sex characteristics; this has led to a rhetoric of inclusion that is not matched by the reality. This paper provides an overview of harmful practices on intersex bodies, human rights developments, and rhetorics of change and inclusion. PMID:27578341

  10. Clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicines for chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shufei; Zhang, Junhua; Gao, Xiumei; Xia, Ye; Ferrelli, Rita; Fauci, Alice; Guerra, Ranieri; Hu, Limin

    2010-01-01

    Background Chinese medicines have been used for chronic heart failure (CHF) for thousands of years; however, the status of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) used for CHF has not been reported. This review was carried out in the framework of a joint Sino-Italian Laboratory. Objective To investigate the baseline of clinical practice of TCMs for CHF, and to provide valuable information for research and clinical practice. Methods The authors included articles about the use of TCMs for the treatment of CHF by searching the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (1994 to November 2007). Results In all, 1029 papers were included, with 239 herbs retrieved from these. The most commonly used herbs included Huangqi (Radix Astragali), Fuling (Poria), Danshen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae), Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata) and Tinglizi (Semen Lepidii). Modern Chinese patent medicines (produced by pharmaceutical companies) and traditional prescriptions (comprising several herbs) are the application forms of these drugs. Shenmai, Shengmai and Astragalus injections were the most commonly used Chinese patent medicines. Some classic prescriptions (including Zhenwu decoction, Shengmai powder and Lingguizhugan decoction) were also frequently used. The effectiveness and safety of the TCMs were both satisfactory, and the traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine therapy could significantly improve the clinical effectiveness and reduce some of the adverse reactions from western medicines used alone. Conclusion The authors have acquired overall information about the clinical application of TCMs for CHF. Modern pharmacology has provided limited evidence for the rationality of this clinical use. Further research is needed to provide more evidence. PMID:27325938

  11. Preventing HIV transmission among Iranian prisoners: Initial support for providing education on the benefits of harm reduction practices

    PubMed Central

    Eshrati, Babak; Asl, Rahim Taghizadeh; Dell, Colleen Anne; Afshar, Parviz; Millson, Peggy Margaret E; Kamali, Mohammad; Weekes, John

    2008-01-01

    Background Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the association between the beliefs of a group of adult, male prisoners in Iran about the transmission of HIV and their high-risk practices while in prison. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004. The study population was a random selection of 100 men incarcerated at Rajaei-Shahr prison. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group discussions were held at the prison to guide the design of the questionnaire. The relationship between components of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and prisoners' risky HIV-related behaviors was examined. Results Calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, a significant, positive association was found between the benefit component of the HBM and prisoners not engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors. Conclusion Educational harm reduction initiatives that promote the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission may decrease prisoners' high-risk behaviors. This finding provides initial support for the Iran prison system's current offering of HIV/AIDS harm reduction programming and suggests the need to offer increased education about the effectiveness of HIV prevention practices. PMID:18541032

  12. Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Elizabeth

    Abstract words such as "tradition" are like ancient coins whose concrete images have worn away. Traditions can be of two forms--either alive, amendable, and expandable (such as those in a family's annual Christmas celebration), or dead, empty formalities. An example of an empty tradition is the strict rule in freshman composition classes that…

  13. Game-Based Practice versus Traditional Practice in Computer-Based Writing Strategy Training: Effects on Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving sustained student engagement with practice in computer-based writing strategy training can be a challenge. One potential solution is to foster engagement by embedding practice in educational games; yet there is currently little research comparing the effectiveness of game-based practice versus more traditional forms of practice. In this…

  14. Blending Online Learning with Traditional Approaches: Changing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condie, Rae; Livingston, Kay

    2007-01-01

    Considerable claims have been made for the development of e-learning, either as stand-alone programmes or alongside more traditional approaches to teaching and learning, for students across school and tertiary education. National initiatives have improved the position of schools in terms of access to hardware and electronic networking, software…

  15. Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future. PMID:27516674

  16. Traditional practices used by Turkish mothers in the care of their babies.

    PubMed

    Acikgoz, A; Orsal, O; Orsal, O; Balci-Alparslan, G

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study was conducted to determine the traditional practices used by 1410 mothers in the care of their babies in Eskisehir, Turkey. The results of the present study suggest that traditional practices, which sometimes may be hazardous or beneficial, are widely used by Turkish mothers. We recommend that families should be informed about the possible hazardous effects of some traditional practices, however the non-hazardous and beneficial practices providing spiritual well-being may be supported. The optimal strategy is to teach mothers this information during the pregnancy period. PMID:24722615

  17. Traditional birth attendant training and local birthing practices in India.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla

    2011-08-01

    Training birth attendants (TBAs) provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training programmes redirected funds to providing skilled attendants during delivery. This study aimed to assess the ways in which a TBA training programme in India has been successful in disseminating evidence-based knowledge on birthing practices. TBAs practicing within 16 villages targeted by training programme initiatives were administered with structured questionnaires. The post training birthing practices of trained (24) and untrained (14) TBAs was compared and birthing practices adopted by women assisted by trained (16) and untrained (9) TBAs was analysed. Positive post training practices were hand washing, use of a clean blade for cutting the cord, immediate breastfeeding and weighing of babies. Nevertheless, the training could be further improved with up to date and evidence-based information and more comprehensive instructions. The findings suggest an integration of local and evidence-based knowledge is needed to improve the training. Raising community awareness of public health measures related to maternal and child health is also recommended. PMID:21555049

  18. Bapedi traditional healers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Their socio-cultural profile and traditional healing practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bapedi traditional healers play a vital role in the primary health care of rural inhabitants in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. However, literature profiling their social and demographic variables, as well as their traditional healing practices is lacking. Methods Convenience sampling were used to identify and select two traditional healers from 17 municipalities (resulting in 34 healers being used in this pilot survey) of the Limpopo Province in South Africa. Information on the social and demographic variables, and traditional healing practices of these healers was gathered from January 2013 to July 2013, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented by field surveys for plant identification and collection used in the preparation of remedies. Results Males constituted nearly two-thirds of the participants. Forty eight percent of them became healers through the mentoring of another healer, while 38% acquired their traditional healing knowledge from parents and 14% from grandparents. In contrast to this, 62% of the females obtained theirs from their parents, 30% from fellow traditional healers, and 8% from grandparents. A total of 154 plant species were indicated as used by healers in the treatment of 52 health-related problems. A vast majority (89%) of these practitioners reported that prepared herbal remedies do expire, which is a temperature-dependent process. Determinations of the efficacy of remedies by most healers (67%) were via consultation with ancestors (90%). This study also found that none of the interviewees had any knowledge of provincial or national environmental legislation. Conclusions The current study has shown that Bapedi traditional healers could play a leading role in both the preservation of indigenous knowledge and the primary health care sector. However, of concern is the traditional methods (via consulting ancestors) employed by most of these healers in determining efficacy of remedies, thus indicating a need for a

  19. Leadership Practices of Non-Traditional Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, George Milton, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-Self) scores between masters-level seminary students based on the independent variables of student age, class load, gender, marital status, and parental status. The 1,254 masters-level seminary students enrolled on the main campus of Dallas Theological…

  20. Benchmarking clinical practice in surgery: looking beyond traditional mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ricardo A S; Oliveira, Pedro N; Silva Portela, Conceição; Camanho, Ana S; Queiroz e Melo, João

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes two new measures to assess performance of surgical practice based on observed mortality: reliability, measured as the area under the ROC curve and a living score, the sum of individual risk among surviving patients, divided by the total number of patients. A Monte Carlo simulation of surgeons' practice was used for conceptual validation and an analysis of a real-world hospital department was used for managerial validation. We modelled surgical practice as a bivariate distribution function of risk and final state. We sampled 250 distributions, varying the maximum risk each surgeon faced, the distribution of risk among dead patients, the mortality rate and the number of surgeries performed yearly. We applied the measures developed to a Portuguese cardiothoracic department. We found that the joint use of the reliability and living score measures overcomes the limitations of risk adjusted mortality rates, as it enables a different valuation of deaths, according to their risk levels. Reliability favours surgeons with casualties, predominantly, in high values of risk and penalizes surgeons with deaths in relatively low levels of risk. The living score is positively influenced by the maximum risk for which a surgeon yields surviving patients. These measures enable a deeper understanding of surgical practice and, as risk adjusted mortality rates, they rely only on mortality and risk scores data. The case study revealed that the performance of the department analysed could be improved with enhanced policies of risk management, involving the assignment of surgeries based on surgeon's reliability and living score. PMID:24633958

  1. Beyond Tradition: Culture, Symbolism, and Practicality in American Indian Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous people have always created what colonial language labels art. Yet there is no Native word for "art" as defined in a Euro-American sense. Art, as the dominant culture envisions, is mostly ornamental. This is in sharp juxtaposition to a Native perspective, which sees art as integrative, inclusive, practical, and constantly…

  2. Female genital mutilation/cutting--towards abandonment of a harmful cultural practice.

    PubMed

    Varol, Nesrin; Fraser, Ian S; Ng, Cecilia H M; Jaldesa, Guyo; Hall, John

    2014-10-01

    Globally, the prevalence of, and support for, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is declining. However, the entrenched sense of social obligation that propagates the continuation of this practice and the lack of open communication between men and women on this sensitive issue are two important barriers to abandonment. There is limited evidence on the role of men and their experiences in FGM/C. Marriageability of girls is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the continuation of this practice. In some countries, more men than women are advocating to end FGM/C. Moreover, men, as partners to women with FGM/C, also report physical and psychosexual problems. The abandonment process involves expanding a range of successful programs, addressing the human rights priorities of communities and providing power over their own development processes. Anecdotal evidence exists that FGM/C is practised amongst African migrant populations in Australia. The Australian Government supports a taskforce to improve community awareness and education, workforce training and evidence building. Internationally, an African Coordinating Centre for abandonment of FGM/C has been established in Kenya with a major global support group to share research, promote solidarity, advocacy and implement a coordinated and integrated response to abandon FGM/C. PMID:24801568

  3. Exposure To Harmful Workplace Practices Could Account For Inequality In Life Spans Across Different Demographic Groups.

    PubMed

    Goh, Joel; Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Zenios, Stefanos

    2015-10-01

    The existence of important socioeconomic disparities in health and mortality is a well-established fact. Many pathways have been adduced to explain inequality in life spans. In this article we examine one factor that has been somewhat neglected: People with different levels of education get sorted into jobs with different degrees of exposure to workplace attributes that contribute to poor health. We used General Social Survey data to estimate differential exposures to workplace conditions, results from a meta-analysis that estimated the effect of workplace conditions on mortality, and a model that permitted us to estimate the overall effects of workplace practices on health. We conclude that 10-38 percent of the difference in life expectancy across demographic groups can be explained by the different job conditions their members experience. PMID:26438754

  4. Sustaining Educational Innovation: engaging traditional faculty in transformed practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Steven; Finkelstein, Noah

    2007-03-01

    Over the past five years CU Physics has engaged in an experimental study of what it means to transform our introductory physics sequence to employ the tools and practices shown to be productive by physics education research. We have previously reported on the successful transformation of the courses to make them student centered, interactive and post high learning gains on conceptual surveys. [1] In an effort to understand the long-term potential of these course transformations, we now examine what happens when the course is transferred to new faculty. We demonstrate that it is possible to maintain high learning gains with new faculty and find two critical factors that contribute to the sustained success of these course transformations: 1) faculty background and beliefs and 2) particular curricular materials and practices selected to use. We also present a model (the Learning Assistant program) designed for sustaining these reforms and for increasing student interest and retention in teaching. [2] [1] N.D. Finkelstein and S.J. Pollock, ``Replicating and Understanding Successful Innovations: Implementing Tutorials in Introductory Physics'' Physical Review, Spec Top: Physics Education Research, 1, 010101 (2005). [2] V.Otero, N.D. Finkelstein, R. McCray, and S. Pollock, ``Who is Responsible for Preparing Science Teachers?'' Science. 313(5786), 445-446 (2006).

  5. Medical students’ attitudes and perspectives regarding novel computer-based practical spot tests compared to traditional practical spot tests

    PubMed Central

    Wijerathne, Buddhika; Rathnayake, Geetha

    2013-01-01

    Background Most universities currently practice traditional practical spot tests to evaluate students. However, traditional methods have several disadvantages. Computer-based examination techniques are becoming more popular among medical educators worldwide. Therefore incorporating the computer interface in practical spot testing is a novel concept that may minimize the shortcomings of traditional methods. Assessing students’ attitudes and perspectives is vital in understanding how students perceive the novel method. Methods One hundred and sixty medical students were randomly allocated to either a computer-based spot test (n=80) or a traditional spot test (n=80). The students rated their attitudes and perspectives regarding the spot test method soon after the test. The results were described comparatively. Results Students had higher positive attitudes towards the computer-based practical spot test compared to the traditional spot test. Their recommendations to introduce the novel practical spot test method for future exams and to other universities were statistically significantly higher. Conclusions The computer-based practical spot test is viewed as more acceptable to students than the traditional spot test. PMID:26451213

  6. Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices Among Lower Class Black Americans

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Loudell F.

    1983-01-01

    The medical belief system of lower class black Americans reflects their social, political and economic marginality in the larger society. A moderate life-style is regarded as the basis for good health with special emphasis on protecting one's body from cold, keeping it clean inside and out and maintaining a proper diet. Illnesses and other life events are classified as “natural” or “unnatural.” Natural illnesses result from the effects of cold, dirt and improper diet on the body causing changes in the blood. A number of beliefs about blood and its functions have important clinical implications for the treatment of hypertension and venereal disease and for family planning. Natural illnesses also result from divine punishment and serve as an instrument of social control. Unnatural illnesses are the result of witchcraft and reflect conflict in the social network. It is believed that physicians do not understand and cannot effectively treat such illnesses, but a variety of traditional healers offer help to the victims. Physicians must elicit such beliefs if they are to interact effectively and sensitively with black patients. Social change is required, however, to eliminate the feelings of powerlessness at the root of many of the health problems of poor black Americans. PMID:6364570

  7. Household Survey of Pesticide Practice, Deliberate Self-Harm, and Suicide in the Sundarban Region of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sohini; Chowdhury, Arabinda Narayan; Schelling, Esther; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2013-01-01

    The toxicological impact and intentional ingestion of pesticides are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to estimate the extent of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicides (suicidal behaviour) and document pesticide practices in Namkhana block of the Sundarban region, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1680 households (21 villages) following a mixed random and cluster design sampling. The survey questionnaire (Household Information on Pesticide Use and DSH) was developed by the research team to elicit qualitative and quantitative information. The Kappa statistic and McNemar's test were used to assess the level of agreement and association between respondents' and investigators' opinions about safe storage of pesticides. Over five years, 1680 households reported 181 incidents of suicidal behaviour. Conflict with family members was the most frequently reported reason for suicidal behaviour (53.6%). The Kappa statistic indicated poor agreement between respondents and investigators about safe storage of pesticides. The pesticide-related annual DSH rate was 158.1 (95% CI 126.2–195.5), and for suicide it was 73.4 (95% CI 52.2–100.3) per 100,000. Unsafe pesticide practice and psychosocial stressors are related to the high rates of suicidal behaviour. An intersectoral approach involving the local governments, agricultural department and the health sector would help to reduce the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:24224181

  8. Modern and Traditional Medical Practices of Vietnam. Vietnamese Concepts of Illness and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieu, Le Tai

    This paper discusses superstitious, folk, traditional, and modern medical practices of Vietnam. Concepts of illness, somatization, behavior labeling, diagnostic attempts, and attitudes toward treatment among Vietnamese are also reviewed. (APM)

  9. Codes of medical ethics: traditional foundations and contemporary practice.

    PubMed

    Sohl, P; Bassford, H A

    1986-01-01

    The Hippocratic Coprus recognized the interaction of 'business' and patient-health moral considerations, and urged that the former be subordinated to the latter. During the 1800s with the growth of complexity in both scientific knowledge and the organization of health services, the medical ethical codes addressed themselves to elaborate rules of conduct to be followed by the members of the newly emerging national medical associations. After World War II the World Medical Association was established as an international forum where national medical associations could debate the ethical problems presented by modern medicine. The International Code of Medical ethics and the Declaration of Geneva were written as 20th century restatements of the medical profession's commitment to the sovereignty of the patient-care norm. Many ethical statements have been issued by the World Medical Association in the past 35 years; they show the variety and difficulties of contemporary medical practice. The newest revisions were approved by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association in Venice, Italy October 1983. Their content is examined and concern is voiced about the danger of falling into cultural relativism when questions about the methods of financing medical services are the subject of an ethical declaration which is arrived at by consensus in the W.M.A. PMID:3529416

  10. Perspectives and Practices of Xhosa-Speaking African Traditional Healers when Managing Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mzimkulu, Kanyiswa G.; Simbayi, Leickness C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives and practices of Xhosa-speaking African traditional healers, known as "amagqirha", in managing psychosis. Four traditional healers, 3 male and one female, were chosen to take part in the study through their association with psychosis patients undergoing treatment at a South African psychiatric…

  11. Traditional Healing Practices Sought by Muslim Psychiatric Patients in Lahore, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooqi, Yasmin Nilofer

    2006-01-01

    This research explored the type of traditional healing practices sought by Muslim psychiatric patients treated at public hospitals of Lahore city, Pakistan. The sample comprised 87 adult psychiatric patients (38% male and 62% female). The patients self-reported on the Case History Interview Schedule that they had sought diverse traditional healing…

  12. Traditions of Practice in U.S. Preservice Teacher Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how a conceptual framework describing four traditions of practice in U.S. teacher education (academic, social efficacy, developmentalist, and social reconstructionist) can be used to explain approaches in individual teacher education programs. The University of Wisconsin's program illustrates how the traditions illuminate the commitments…

  13. Why "do no harm"?

    PubMed

    Sharpe, V A

    1997-01-01

    Edmund Pellegrino has argued that the dramatic changes in American health care call for critical reflection on the traditional norms governing the therapeutic relationship. This paper offers such reflection on the obligation to "do no harm." Drawing on work by Beauchamp and Childress and Pellegrino and Thomasma, I argue that the libertarian model of medical ethics offered by Engelhardt cannot adequately sustain an obligation to "do no harm." Because the obligation to "do no harm" is not based simply on a negative duty of nonmaleficence but also on a positive duty of beneficence, I argue that it is best understood to derive from the fiduciary nature of the healing relationship. PMID:9129401

  14. Survey of Practices of Community Colleges in Granting Credit for Non-Traditional Learning Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, James; Healy, Therman

    During summer 1975, Cochise College surveyed 150 (96 responded) community colleges in the six regional accrediting associations to determine their practices in granting credit for non-traditional learning experiences. The study had four objectives: to compare the practices of the North Central association, to which Cochise College belongs, with…

  15. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  16. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  17. Traditional practices of women from India: pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn care.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, U K

    1997-01-01

    This article describes maternal and child care practices among women from India. As in all cultures, certain beliefs exist surrounding what facilitates a good pregnancy and its outcome, as well as negative sanctions. These practices continue to influence many immigrant women to whom western practices are either unknown or unacceptable. An understanding of the traditional belief system of such women can case their adaptation into the Canadian and U.S. health care systems. PMID:9313183

  18. Adverse events attributed to traditional Korean medical practices: 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate adverse events attributed to traditional medical treatments in the Republic of Korea. Methods Adverse events recorded in the Republic of Korea between 1999 and 2010 – by the Food and Drug Administration, the Consumer Agency or the Association of Traditional Korean Medicine – were reviewed. Records of adverse events attributed to the use of traditional medical practices, including reports of medicinal accidents and consumers’ complaints, were investigated. Findings Overall, 9624 records of adverse events attributed to traditional medical practices – including 522 linked to herbal treatments – were identified. Liver problems were the most frequently reported adverse events. Only eight of the adverse events were recorded by the pharmacovigilance system run by the Food and Drug Administration. Of the 9624 events, 1389 – mostly infections, cases of pneumothorax and burns – were linked to physical therapy (n = 285) or acupuncture/moxibustion (n = 1104). Conclusion In the Republic of Korea, traditional medical practices often appear to have adverse effects, yet almost all of the adverse events attributed to such practices between 1999 and 2010 were missed by the national pharmacovigilance system. The Consumer Agency and the Association of Traditional Korean Medicine should be included in the national pharmacovigilance system. PMID:23940404

  19. The morality of harm.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the moral/conventional distinction. Mind and Language, 22, 117-131] recent claim that, contrary to Turiel and associates, people do not judge harm to be authority independent and general in scope in the context of complex harmful scenarios (e.g., prisoner interrogation, military training). In a modified replication of their study, we examined participants' judgments of harmful actions in these contexts by taking into account their explanations for their judgments. We claim that both in terms of participants' judgments and rationales, the results largely confirm our hypothesis that actions involving harm andinjustice or rights violation are judged to be authority independent and general in scope, which is a modification of Turiel's traditional hypothesis. PMID:19717146

  20. Delivery and postpartum practices among new mothers in Laputta, Myanmar: intersecting traditional and modern practices and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Thet, May Me; Khaing, Ei Ei; Sudhinaraset, May

    2016-09-01

    Myanmar is witnessing increased access to modern maternity care, along with shifting norms and practices. Past research has documented low rates of facility-based deliveries in the country, along with adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Research has also documented diverse traditional practices in the postpartum period, related to maternity care and maternal food intake. Through 34 qualitative interviews with women who recently gave birth and their mothers-in-law in one township in Myanmar (Laputta), we explore factors influencing decision-making around postpartum care and the practices that women engage in. We find that women use both modern and traditional providers because different types of providers play particular roles in the delivery and postpartum period. Despite knowledge of about healthy foods to eat postpartum, many women restrict the intake of certain foods, and mothers-in-laws' beliefs in these practices are particularly strong. Findings suggest that women and their families are balancing two different sets of practices and beliefs, which at times come in conflict. Educational campaigns and programmes should address both modern and traditional beliefs and practices to help women be better able to access safe care and improve their own and their children's health. PMID:27212423

  1. [The Theory and Practice of Health Cultivation Qigong Exercise in Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Ying

    2015-12-01

    The health cultivation qigong exercise in traditional Chinese medicine refers to a traditional, integrated method of illness prevention and body strengthening, which promotes the functions of qi and the blood, smooths the meridians (energy channels), and balances the viscera and bowels through the regulation of the mind, the breathing, and the body. The concept of using qi to cultivate human life is part of the health cultivation practices of ancient Chinese codes and of Chinese medicine. This concept includes the principles, methods, essences, and clinical applications of the practice. In addition, traditional health cultivation references the concepts of yinyang, viscera and bowels, qi and blood, meridians, and essential energy spirit theory in order to explain the human biological phenomena, the theoretical and practical perspectives of qigong, and the basis of the treatment principle. The health cultivation qigong exercise of Chinese medicine utilizes the concept of the "unity of nature and human beings" in traditional Chinese thinking in its practice, which emphasizes the conformity to nature and seasons. In order to fully leverage the benefits from the purpose of health cultivation in qigong practice, the priority is to understand the health cultivation mechanism, the essentials/matters, and the precautions of qigong practices. Recently, the evidence regarding both the biological and the psychological benefits of qigong practices have been demonstrated in numbers of research articles. In particular, qigong is currently considered to be one of the best mild exercises that is suited to all age groups. Professional nurses are suggested to include the health cultivation qigong exercise as part of activities that target health improvement and illness prevention. Due to the diversity in qigong as practiced by different health cultivation qigong exercise sects, it is essential to accumulate more clinical evidence by conducting greater numbers of rigorous studies

  2. A Study Comparing the Effect of Multiage Education Practices versus Traditional Education Practices on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrell, Janet L.

    This study compared the effects of multi-age classroom strategies to those of traditional classroom strategies on the academic achievement of fourth grade students in reading and math. Standardized test scores from 20 fourth-grade students in two multi-age third- and fourth-grade classrooms were compared to the scores of 20 students from 7…

  3. The Meaning Structures of Muslim Bereavements in Israel: Religious Traditions, Mourning Practices, and Human Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasien-Esmael, Hend; Rubin, Simon Shimshon

    2005-01-01

    The grief and mourning of Muslim citizens in Israel are considered. First, a series of mourning customs spanning the period from notification of death until post-mourning are presented from 3 perspectives: (a) the requirements of the Islamic Sunni tradition; (b) the manner in which Islamic mourning rituals are practiced; and (c) the authors'…

  4. Anatomy Practical Examinations: How Does Student Performance on Computerized Evaluation Compare with the Traditional Format?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Taranikanti, Varna; Al-Rawahy, Maimouna; Habbal, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Practical examinations in anatomy are usually conducted on specimens in the anatomy laboratory (referred to here as the "traditional" method). Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle[TM]. In this study, we compare student scores between two assessment environments viz. online and…

  5. Navigating Two Worlds: Experiences of Counsellors Who Integrate Aboriginal Traditional Healing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oulanova, Olga; Moodley, Roy

    2010-01-01

    There is revival in the use of traditional healing among Canadian Aboriginal communities and the therapeutic benefits of these practices have received much research attention. An argument is repeatedly made for incorporating indigenous healing into clinical interventions, yet recommendations on how this may be accomplished are lacking. The present…

  6. Future visions for traditional and herbal medicinal products--a global practice for evaluation and regulation?

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Jacqueline; Knöss, Werner

    2014-12-01

    Medicinal plants and traditional medicines have been used worldwide since ancient times. Currently, there is neither a globally consented terminology nor a harmonized regulatory approach. Nevertheless, it is common sense that quality, efficacy and safety should be assessed following scientific standards, addressing particulars and considering an adequate level of risk management. A global market for traditional medicines is emerging, if not already existing. Therefore, a constructive communication about regulatory systems for herbal and traditional medicinal products should be enforced. Best practice standards might be developed according to current scientific knowledge in order to improve mutual acceptance of data, sets of monographs and assessments. Overall, a convergence of the diverse regulatory systems might save resources and lead to an adequate availability of herbal and traditional medicinal products to the patients without neglecting public health. PMID:25152297

  7. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

  8. Puttur kattu (bandage) - A traditional bone setting practice in south India.

    PubMed

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Rout, Suvendu

    2011-10-01

    Traditional bone setting practices are quite popular in India and nearly 6000 traditional bone setting Vaidyas (Practisioners) are practicing the same in our country. Puttur kattu is a traditional way of bone setting practice, invented accidentally by K. Kesava Raju in 1881. Now, the fourth generation of his family is practicing this bone setting practice in hospitals at Puttur, Andhra Pradesh, with 200-300 patients per day. A prospective study was undertaken to analyze the techniques in diagnosis, way of management, medicine preparation, plants used and way of applications by traditional bone setter (TBS) Vaidyas, with special reference to Puttur. We also tried to understand the reasons which make lots of people go to Puttur for getting treatment, means of contact for treatment, pathology of fracture and outcome of some treated cases through this study. 54% of the studied patients came to Puttur TBS on the advice of old patients. It is observed that more educated people are patronizing this therapy and 23% patients of the observed cases took discharge from modern hospital voluntarily to receive Puttur kattu treatment. 80% patients believed that this therapy with home remedy would fasten the healing process. 44% patients opted for this therapy due to fear of pain, heavy plaster of Paris bandage, prolonged period of immobilization, surgery and amputation. 71% patients of the followed cases were satisfied with the treatment of TBS of Puttur with minimum complications. The authors also attempted to put forth the legacy of the tradition, the way of management and the plant used for bone setting by the Puttur bone setting Vaidyas. PMID:22253506

  9. Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and

  10. A Gathering of Native American Healers: Exploring the Interface of Indigenous Tradition and Professional Practice.

    PubMed

    Moorehead, Virgil D; Gone, Joseph P; December, Damia

    2015-12-01

    This article reports insights from a 4-day Gathering of Native American Healers at the University of Michigan in October of 2010. This event convened 18 traditional healers, clinically trained service providers, and cross-cultural mental health researchers for a structured group dialogue to advance professional knowledge about the integration of Indigenous healing practices and conventional mental health treatments in community-based mental health services for Native Americans. Our thematic analysis of transcripts from five Roundtable sessions afforded several key insights and understandings pertaining to the integration of Indigenous healing and conventional mental health services. First, with reference to traditional healing, the importance of a rampant relationality, various personal qualities, Indigenous spirituality, and maintenance of traditional life and culture were accentuated by Roundtable participants. Second, for traditional healers to practice effectively, Roundtable participants posited that these individuals must maintain personal wellness, cultivate profound knowledge of healing practices, recognize the intrinsic healing potential within all human beings, and work for the community rather than themselves. In speaking to the possibilities and challenges of collaboration between Indigenous and conventional biomedical therapeutic approaches, Roundtable participants recommended the implementation of cultural programming, the observance of mutuality and respect, the importance of clear and honest communication, and the need for awareness of cultural differences as unique challenges that must be collaboratively overcome. PMID:26351006

  11. Strategies for implementation of harm reduction in treatment settings.

    PubMed

    Denning, P

    2001-01-01

    Harm reduction is a set of strategies that we all use everyday to protect us from the harms of living in a complex world. Central to the principles of harm reduction is the need to respect the client's autonomy and develop a relationship of mutual collaboration with the goal of reducing drug- and alcohol-related harm. Additional principles stress the need to develop a hierarchy of client needs, a list that includes all other services, with the importance for each set by the client. Harm reduction implementation includes a range of interventions including abstinence. Some interventions are controversial, including needle exchange, but most are traditional health promotion activities such as videos, health fairs, and drug education. Essential to implementing harm reduction is a recognition that, even for those who wish to become abstinent, this goal is difficult to achieve and maintain. We must acknowledge this and stop the practice of imposing punitive sanctions on clients who use drugs while in treatment. Exclusion or expulsion from treatment settings does nothing to reduce drug use and greatly increases the harm to the client. In conclusion, just as we need to respect diversity among our clients, staff must find a way to respect each others' ideas and concerns as we develop new ways to implement harm reduction in our work. PMID:11332997

  12. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  13. THE QUEST FOR TRUTH AS THE FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOANALYTIC PRACTICE: A TRADITIONAL FREUDIAN-KLEINIAN PERSPECTIVE.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2016-04-01

    In responding to the question of whether truth in psychoanalysis is relevant today, the author presents what she refers to as a traditional Freudian-Kleinian perspective. According to this perspective, truth is not only relevant, but rather the quest for it is the alpha and omega of psychoanalytic practice. The author reviews Freud's approach to truth and then discusses Klein's essential contribution to its understanding, grounding, and enrichment, highlighting Klein's thinking about phantasy and the life and death instincts. Finally, the author contends with the opposing view that the quest for truth is no longer relevant to contemporary analytic practice. PMID:27112741

  14. Medicinal mushrooms and cancer therapy: translating a traditional practice into Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Smith, John E; Rowan, Neil J

    2006-01-01

    Modern medical practice relies heavily on the use of highly purified pharmaceutical compounds whose purity can be easily assessed and whose pharmaceutical activity and toxicity show clear structure-function relationships. In contrast, many herbal medicines contain mixtures of natural compounds that have not undergone detailed chemical analyses and whose mechanism of action is not known. Traditional folk medicine and ethno-pharmacology coupled to bioprospecting have been an important source of many anticancer agents as well as other medicines. With the current decline in the number of new molecular entities from the pharmaceutical industry, novel anticancer agents are being sought from traditional medicine. As the example of medicinal mushrooms demonstrates, however, translating traditional Eastern practices into acceptable evidence-based Western therapies is difficult. Different manufacturing standards, criteria of purity, and under-powered clinical trials make assessment of efficacy and toxicity by Western standards of clinical evidence difficult. Purified bioactive compounds derived from medicinal mushrooms are a potentially important new source of anticancer agents; their assimilation into Western drug discovery programs and clinical trials also provides a framework for the study and use of other traditional medicines. PMID:16702701

  15. Safe male circumcision in Botswana: Tension between traditional practices and biomedical marketing

    PubMed Central

    Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Botswana has been running Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) since 2009 and has not yet met its target. Donors like the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (funded by the Gates Foundation) in collaboration with Botswana's Ministry of Health have invested much to encourage HIV-negative men to circumcise. Demand creation strategies make use of media and celebrities. The objective of this paper is to explore responses to SMC in relation to circumcision as part of traditional initiation practices. More specifically, we present the views of two communities in Botswana on SMC consultation processes, implementation procedures and campaign strategies. The methods used include participant observation, in-depth interviews with key stakeholders (donors, implementers and Ministry officials), community leaders and men in the community. We observe that consultation with traditional leaders was done in a seemingly superficial, non-participatory manner. While SMC implementers reported pressure to deliver numbers to the World Health Organization, traditional leaders promoted circumcision through their routine traditional initiation ceremonies at breaks of two-year intervals. There were conflicting views on public SMC demand creation campaigns in relation to the traditional secrecy of circumcision. In conclusion, initial cooperation of local chiefs and elders turned into resistance. PMID:25866013

  16. Safe male circumcision in Botswana: tension between traditional practices and biomedical marketing.

    PubMed

    Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Botswana has been running Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) since 2009 and has not yet met its target. Donors like the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (funded by the Gates Foundation) in collaboration with Botswana's Ministry of Health have invested much to encourage HIV-negative men to circumcise. Demand creation strategies make use of media and celebrities. The objective of this paper is to explore responses to SMC in relation to circumcision as part of traditional initiation practices. More specifically, we present the views of two communities in Botswana on SMC consultation processes, implementation procedures and campaign strategies. The methods used include participant observation, in-depth interviews with key stakeholders (donors, implementers and Ministry officials), community leaders and men in the community. We observe that consultation with traditional leaders was done in a seemingly superficial, non-participatory manner. While SMC implementers reported pressure to deliver numbers to the World Health Organization, traditional leaders promoted circumcision through their routine traditional initiation ceremonies at breaks of two-year intervals. There were conflicting views on public SMC demand creation campaigns in relation to the traditional secrecy of circumcision. In conclusion, initial cooperation of local chiefs and elders turned into resistance. PMID:25866013

  17. Female circumcision: Limiting the harm

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the strength of evidence that links many health hazards to female genital cutting. Material and methods: Literature search in Medline/Pubmed and Google scholar. Results: Female genital cutting is still practiced secretly in both underdeveloped and developed countries due to prevailing strong traditional beliefs. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that genital cutting is a harmful procedure if performed by experienced personnel in a suitable theatre with facilities for pain control and anesthesia. Cutting, however, is advised not to go beyond type I. Conclusion: Law makers around the globe are invited to review the legal situation in relation to female genital cutting. Proper counseling of parents about possible risks is a must in order to make informed decision about circumcising their daughters. The procedure should be offered to parents who insist on it; otherwise, they will do it illegally, exposing their daughters to possible complications. PMID:24627762

  18. Is prostitution harmful?

    PubMed

    Moen, Ole Martin

    2014-02-01

    A common argument against prostitution states that selling sex is harmful because it involves selling something deeply personal and emotional. More and more of us, however, believe that sexual encounters need not be deeply personal and emotional in order to be acceptable--we believe in the acceptability of casual sex. In this paper I argue that if casual sex is acceptable, then we have few or no reasons to reject prostitution. I do so by first examining nine influential arguments to the contrary. These arguments purport to pin down the alleged additional harm brought about by prostitution (compared to just casual sex) by appealing to various aspects of its practice, such as its psychology, physiology, economics and social meaning. For each argument I explain why it is unconvincing. I then weight the costs against the benefits of prostitution, and argue that, in sum, prostitution is no more harmful than a long line of occupations that we commonly accept without hesitation. PMID:22930676

  19. The social meanings of traditional Chinese medicine: elderly Chinese immigrants' health practice in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kong, Haiying; Hsieh, Elaine

    2012-10-01

    We situate elderly Chinese immigrants' utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in social contexts (e.g., family and social networks), exploring how TCM is used as a tool, a resource, and a product of meaning-construction in their everyday life. We conducted in in-depth interviews with 20 elderly Chinese immigrants in the United State, exploring the complexity of their understanding and practice of TCM. We used grounded theory to identify the set of meanings that are particular to elderly Chinese immigrants' use of TCM as a part of their health practice. For our participants, TCM is not just a resource for illness management. Instead, incorporating TCM in their health practice allows them to: (a) perform and reaffirm their cultural identity as Chinese, (b) maintain their moral status and fulfill their social roles, and (c) pass down health knowledge and cultural heritage. Clinical implications were discussed. PMID:22160808

  20. Traditional massage of newborns in Nepal: implications for trials of improved practice.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Luke C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Khatry, Subarna K; Tielsch, James M

    2005-04-01

    Mustard oil massage of newborns is an integral component of traditional care practices in many communities. Recent evidence suggests that this practice may have detrimental effects, particularly for preterm infants or for those whose skin barrier function is otherwise sub-optimal. Other natural oils such as sunflower, sesame or safflower seed oil may have a beneficial impact on newborn health and survival. Little is known, however, about cultural and other factors related to the acceptance and uptake of alternative, more beneficial oils for massage of the newborn. A questionnaire concerning the usage and reasons for application of mustard and other oils to newborn skin was administered to the caretakers of 8580 newborns in Sarlahi district of rural Nepal. Four focus group discussions among representative groups were conducted to describe the perceived benefits of oil massage and the factors involved in the decision to apply oil. The potential for the introduction of alternative natural oils was explored. Approximately 99 per cent of newborns were massaged at least once with mustard oil in the 2 weeks after birth, and 80 per cent were massaged at least twice daily. Promotion of strength, maintenance of health, and provision of warmth were the most commonly cited reasons for application of mustard oil. Focus group discussion participants noted that smell, oiliness, mode of pre-massage preparation, and perceived absorptive potential on the skin are important contextual factors involved in the practice. Caretakers are willing to consider adaptation of established traditions for the promotion of positive health outcomes if essential contextual criteria are met. An understanding of cultural, social, and economic factors that shape the context of traditional healthcare practices is essential to the design and implementation of intervention trials examining the relative efficacy of application of oils in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity. PMID:15677372

  1. Traditional birth attendants in rural Nepal: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices about maternal and newborn health

    PubMed Central

    THATTE, N.; MULLANY, L.C.; KHATRY, S.K.; KATZ, J.; TIELSCH, J.M.; DARMSTADT, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to formalize the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and neonatal health programs have had limited success. TBAs’ continued attendance at home deliveries suggests potential to influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of TBAs in rural Nepal. Twenty one trained and untrained TBAs participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews about antenatal care, delivery practices, maternal complications, and newborn care. Antenatal care included advice about nutrition and tetanus toxic (TT) immunization but did not include planning ahead for transport in cases of complications. Clean delivery practices were observed by most TBAs though hand washing practices differed by training status. There was no standard practice to identify maternal complications such as excessive bleeding, prolonged labour, or retained placenta, and most referred outside in the event of such complications. Newborn care practices included breastfeeding with supplemental feeds, thermal care after bathing and mustard seed oil massage. TBAs reported high job satisfaction and desire to improve their skills. Despite uncertainty regarding the role of TBAs to manage maternal complications, TBAs may be strategically placed to make potential contributions to newborn survival. PMID:19431006

  2. Practices of US health insurance companies concerning MS therapies interfere with shared decision-making and harm patients

    PubMed Central

    Bourdette, Dennis N.; Hartung, Daniel M.; Whitham, Ruth H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The US Food and Drug Administration has registered 13 multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The medications are not interchangeable as they vary in route of administration, efficacy, and safety profile. Selecting the appropriate MS DMT for individual patients requires shared decision-making between patients and neurologists. To reduce costs, insurance companies acting through pharmacy benefit companies restrict access to MS DMTs through tiered coverage and other regulations. We discuss how policies established by insurance companies that limit access to MS DMTs interfere with the process of shared decision-making and harm patients. We present potential actions that neurologists can take to change how insurance companies manage MS DMTs. PMID:27104069

  3. Traditional healing practice and folk medicines used by Mishing community of North East India

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Lavekar, G. S.; Deb, S.; Sharma, B. K.

    2012-01-01

    Assam and Arunachal Pradesh have very rich tradition of herbal medicines used in the treatment of various ailments. Tribal communities practice different types of traditional healing practices. Enough documentation is available on the healing practices in other tribal communities except Mishing community of Assam and foot hill of East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh hence the attempt was made for the same. A survey on folk medicinal plants and folk healers of Mishing tribe was conducted in few places of Lakhimpur and Dhemaji district of Assam and East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, where this ethnic group is living since time immemorial. All information was collected based on interview and field studies with local healers within the community. The identification of medicinal plants collected with help of indigenous healers was done. Such medicines have been shown to have significant healing power, either in their natural state or as the source of new products processed by them. This study is mainly concentrated with plants used to cure diseases and to enquire about different healing systems. Detail note on the method of preparation of precise dose, the part/parts of plants used and method of application is given. PMID:23125508

  4. Contemporary Traditional Pottery Practices at Archaeo-Historically Important Sites, District Khargone, Madhya Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geedh, Smita; Nadgauda, Tejaswini

    Khargone district is located at the southwest border of Madhya Pradesh. The district comprises of many archaeological and historical sites viz. Navdatoli, Maheshwar, Kasrawad, Mandleshwar. Archaeological excavations at these sites revealed vast cultural assemblage from Lower Paleolithic to Medieval Period. Pottery plays significant role in the reconstruction and understanding of past technologies and socio-economic-religious life. Present paper endeavors to understand contemporary traditional pottery practices at these sites. Besides documentation of degeneration of technology, authors aim to put forth the survival problems of the potters. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to examine the possible reasons behind their present socio-economic conditions.

  5. Self-Harm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health Conditions Related Conditions Self-harm Self-harm People often keep their habit a secret, but ... your behavior and finding relief. What is Self-harm? Self-harm or self-injury means hurting yourself ...

  6. Ethical practice in internet research involving vulnerable people: lessons from a self-harm discussion forum study (SharpTalk).

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Siobhan; Jones, Ray; Smithson, Janet; Hewis, Elaine; Emmens, Tobit; Ford, Tamsin; Owens, Christabel

    2011-12-01

    The internet is widely used for health information and support, often by vulnerable people. Internet-based research raises both familiar and new ethical problems for researchers and ethics committees. While guidelines for internet-based research are available, it is unclear to what extent ethics committees use these. Experience of gaining research ethics approval for a UK study (SharpTalk), involving internet-based discussion groups with young people who self-harm and health professionals is described. During ethical review, unsurprisingly, concerns were raised about the vulnerability of potential participants. These were dominated by the issue of anonymity, which also affected participant safety and consent. These ethical problems are discussed, and our solutions, which included: participant usernames specific to the study, a closed website, private messaging facilities, a direct contact email to researchers, information about forum rules displayed on the website, a 'report' button for participants, links to online support, and a discussion room for forum moderators. This experience with SharpTalk suggests that an approach to ethics, which recognises the relational aspects of research with vulnerable people, is particularly useful for internet-based health research. The solutions presented here can act as guidance for researchers developing proposals and for ethics committees reviewing them. PMID:21947802

  7. Traditional and western healing practices for alcoholism in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P J

    1998-11-01

    The American Indian and Alaska Native population is a culturally diverse population with a current census of 1,959,000. Prior to White contact, there was historically little use of alcoholic beverages except for American Indians in the Southwest. After White contact, use and misuse of alcohol escalated rapidly; however, the prevalence, patterns, and problems of drinking alcoholic beverages vary enormously even in tribes closely linked geographically. American Indians and Alaska Natives have preserved and revitalized a number of traditional healing practices and applied these to the treatment of alcohol-related problems. These healing practices include the following: nativistic movements, sacred dances, sweat lodges, talking circle, four circles, and cultural enhancement programs. Additionally, Western treatment approaches have been applied in the treatment of problems related to alcohol, such as medication for detoxification, disulfiram (Antabuse), Alcoholics Anonymous, and behavioral interventions. Several investigators have completed a small number of naturalistic follow-up studies, but no one has undertaken a randomized controlled trial looking at specific methods of alcohol treatment in American Indians or Alaska Natives. American Indian and Alaska Native communities have adapted and integrated both Traditional and Western approaches to fit their own unique sociocultural needs. PMID:9818991

  8. [Establishment and practice of traditional Chinese medicine property cognitive model based on three elements].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Jin, Rui; Huang, Jianmei; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xue, Chunmiao; Lin, Zhijian

    2012-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) property theory is believed to be a key and difficult point of basic theory studies of TCM. Complex concepts, components and characteristics of TCM property have long puzzled researchers and urged them to develop new angles and approaches. In the view of cognitive science, TCM property theory is a cognitive process of storing, extracting, rebuilding and summarizing the sensory information about TCMs and their effects during the medical practice struggling against diseases under the guidance of traditional Chinese philosophical thinking. The cognitive process of TCM property has particular cognitive elements and strategies. Taking into account clinical application characteristics of TCMs, this study defines the particular cognitive elements. In the combination of research methods of modern chemistry, biology and mathematics, and on the basis early-stage work for five years, we have built a TCM property cognition model based on three elements and practiced with drugs with pungent and hot properties as example, in the hope of interpreting TCM properties with modern science and providing thoughts for the nature of medical properties and instruction for rational clinical prescription. PMID:23189745

  9. Knowledge and practice of traditional healers in oral health in the Bui Division, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of Cameroonians depend on traditional medicines for their health care needs and about seven per cent of the average household health budget is spent on traditional medicines irrespective of their incomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral care knowledge and practices of Traditional Healers (TH) on oral health delivery in the urban and rural areas of Bui Division of Cameroon and the objectives to determine the cost of treatment and reasons why people visit TH. Methods The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data. Results The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years). Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5) is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50). Conclusions Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care seeking attitudes in this

  10. Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Eliana; Hadzich, Antonella; Kofer, Waltraud; Mithöfer, Axel; Cosio, Eric G

    2015-08-01

    Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae), is an annual herbaceous plant native to the high plateaus of the Peruvian central Andes. Its underground storage hypocotyls have been a traditional medicinal agent and dietary staple since pre-Columbian times. Reported properties include energizing and fertility-enhancing effects. Published reports have focused on the benzylalkamides (macamides) present in dry hypocotyls as one of the main bioactive components. Macamides are secondary amides formed by benzylamine and a fatty acid moiety, with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and degree of unsaturation. Although it has been assumed that they are usually present in fresh undamaged tissues, analyses show them to be essentially absent from them. However, hypocotyls dried by traditional Andean postharvest practices or industrial oven drying contain up to 800μgg(-1) dry wt (2.3μmolg(-1) dry wt) of macamides. In this study, the generation of macamides and their putative precursors were studied during nine-week traditional drying trials at 4200m altitude and in ovens under laboratory conditions. Freeze-thaw cycles in the open field during drying result in tissue maceration and release of free fatty acids from storage and membrane lipids up to levels of 1200μgg(-1) dry wt (4.3μmolg(-1) dry wt). Endogenous metabolism of the isothiocyanates generated from glucosinolate hydrolysis during drying results in maximal benzylamine values of 4300μgg(-1) dry wt (40.2μmolg(-1) dry wt). Pearson correlation coefficients of the accumulation profiles of benzylamine and free fatty acid to that of macamides showed good values of 0.898 and 0.934, respectively, suggesting that both provide sufficient substrate for amide synthesis during the drying process. PMID:25817836

  11. Finding the Written in Unexpected Places: Literacy in the Maintenance and Practice of Lukumí Rituals and Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogue, Tiffany D.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the use of literacy--including the written word--in the maintenance and practice of Lukumí, a Diasporic African spiritual tradition. While Lukumí is decidedly orally transmitted, the written word is still a critical part of its contemporary practice. Relying on data collected during participant observation of ceremonies and…

  12. Factors Influencing Choices of Contextualized versus Traditional Practices with Children and Adolescents Who Have Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koole, Heather; Nelson, Nickola W.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') use of contextualized practices (i.e., functional, personally relevant, nonhierarchical, and collaborative) compared with traditional practices (i.e., clinical, generic, hierarchical, and expert driven) with school-age children and adolescents with traumatic…

  13. Tobacco Harm to Kids

    MedlinePlus

    TOBACCO HARM TO KIDS Over 1.8 million high school students still smoke . 1 Nationwide, about one in ten ... women are exposed to secondhand smoke – causing enormous harms to newborn babies. 11 Tobacco Use Harms At ...

  14. Self-harm

    MedlinePlus

    Self-harm refers to a person's harming their own body on purpose. About 1 in 100 people hurts himself ... hurt themselves than males. A person who self-harms usually does not mean to kill himself or ...

  15. Analysis of Thrombophilia Test Ordering Practices at an Academic Center: A Proposal for Appropriate Testing to Reduce Harm and Cost

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yu-Min; Yates, Sean G.; Patel, Vivek; Frenkel, Eugene; Sarode, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Ideally, thrombophilia testing should be tailored to the type of thrombotic event without the influence of anticoagulation therapy or acute phase effects which can give false positive results that may result in long term anticoagulation. However, thrombophilia testing is often performed routinely in unselected patients. We analyzed all consecutive thrombophilia testing orders during the months of October and November 2009 at an academic teaching institution. Information was extracted from electronic medical records for the following: indication, timing, comprehensiveness of tests, anticoagulation therapy at the time of testing, and confirmatory repeat testing, if any. Based on the findings of this analysis, we established local guidelines in May 2013 for appropriate thrombophilia testing, primarily to prevent testing during the acute thrombotic event or while the patient is on anticoagulation. We then evaluated ordering practices 22 months after guideline implementation. One hundred seventy-three patients were included in the study. Only 34% (58/173) had appropriate indications (unprovoked venous or arterial thrombosis or pregnancy losses). 51% (61/119) with an index clinical event were tested within one week of the event. Although 46% (79/173) were found to have abnormal results, only 46% of these had the abnormal tests repeated for confirmation with 54% potentially carrying a wrong diagnosis with long term anticoagulation. Twenty-two months after guideline implementation, there was an 84% reduction in ordered tests. Thus, this study revealed that a significant proportion of thrombophilia testing was inappropriately performed. We implemented local guidelines for thrombophilia testing for clinicians, resulting in a reduction in healthcare costs and improved patient care. PMID:27176603

  16. Optimal water allocation in small hydropower plants between traditional and non-traditional water users: merging theory and existing practices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Crouzy, Benoît; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Water demand for hydropower production is increasing together with the consciousness of the importance of riparian ecosystems and biodiversity. Some Cantons in Switzerland and other alpine regions in Austria and in Süd Tiröl (Italy) started replacing the inadequate concept of Minimum Flow Requirement (MFR) with a dynamic one, by releasing a fix percentage of the total inflow (e.g. 25 %) to the environment. Starting from a model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) and the need of including the environment as an actual water user, we arrived to similar qualitative results, and better quantitative performances. In this paper we explore the space of non-proportional water repartition rules analysed by Gorla and Perona (2013), and we propose new ecological indicators which are directly derived from current ecologic evaluation practices (fish habitat modelling and hydrological alteration). We demonstrate that both MFR water redistribution policy and also proportional repartition rules can be improved using nothing but available information. Furthermore, all water redistribution policies can be described by the model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) in terms of the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU) and a suitable class of nonlinear functions. This is particularly useful to highlights implicit assumptions and choosing best-compromise solutions, providing analytical reasons explaining why efficiency cannot be attained by classic repartition rules. Each water repartition policy underlies an ecosystem monetization and a political choice always has to be taken. We explicit the value of the ecosystem health underlying each policy by means of the PEMU under a few assumptions, and discuss how the theoretic efficient redistribution law obtained by our approach is feasible and doesn't imply high costs or advanced management tools. For small run-of-river power plants, this methodology answers the question "how much water should be left to the river?" and is therefore a

  17. Traditional oral health practices among Kanuri women of Borno State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bukar, A; Danfillo, I S; Adeleke, O A; Ogunbodede, E O

    2004-09-01

    A structured questionnaire was administered on 495 women (urban 339, rural 156) from two LGAs of Borno State, Nigeria, using the interviewer method. The age range of the subjects was 12 to 80 years with a mean age (+/- SD) of 35.7 +/- 13.44 years. Majority (83.5%) did not have any formal education. Oral hygiene tools used by the respondents included toothbrush/paste 36 (7.9%), chewing stick 250 (54.9%), charcoal 159 (34.9%) and ordinary water 10 (2.2%). Of those using chewing sticks; 168 (67.2%) use Salvadora persica, 36 (14.4%) use Azadirachta indica and 46 (18.4%) use Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Forty (8.1%) of the respondents do not clean their teeth at all. Strong association was found between choice of teeth cleaning material and educational level (P=0.000). Three hundred and one (60.8%) of the respondents stain their teeth with flowers of Solanum incanum or Nicotania tabacum while, 218 (44.0%) perform tattooing of lip or gingivae and of this number 213 (97.7%) performed tattooing before marriage. Tattooing is usually performed without local anaesthesia with thorns of Balanites aegyptiaca and a mixture of charcoal & seeds of Acacia nilotica var. tomentosa as pigments. It is concluded that traditional oral health practices still constitute important part of the lifestyle in the study population. PMID:15900821

  18. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  19. Parasite management extension - challenging traditional practice through adoption of a systems approach.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L; Rhodes, A P; Dodunski, G

    2015-11-01

    The drivers for anthelmintic use today are substantial and anthelmintic use has become an embedded normalised behaviour. The cheapness and easy availability of anthelmintic products has meant that New Zealand farmers have had access to easy "solutions" for dealing with parasites and minimal forward planning or system redesign has been required. Despite 30 years of messaging about the emerging issue of anthelmintic resistance, management to reduce parasitism and the need to change behaviour, farmer practice has largely remained unchanged. Traditional approaches to extension, particularly around parasite management, appear to have been quite ineffective, apart from encouraging change in anthelmintic products and a switch to use of anthelmintics in combination. More effective approaches are required. The evolving nature of anthelmintic resistance and sustainable management of parasitism require attitudes, knowledge and behaviour to change. This is a challenge for all players in the industry; researchers, manufacturers and sellers, advisors and farmers. Looking beyond agriculture to the health sector provides some insight into models of decision making and behaviour change that can inform future strategies. Features in the health belief model including concepts of self-efficacy and cues to action appear to align with the issues, challenges and culture prevailing in farming, and parasite management in particular. Programmes through which farmers have made substantial beneficial behaviour change and the lessons learnt are discussed. Effecting consistent behaviour change around parasite management will involve new approaches by all participants in the process. And the process itself also needs to change. It requires an understanding of whole-farm systems, and the consideration of all the sources of influence on the farmer and the other participants in the process. The process of knowledge sharing involving the farmer should be based on equality; each person in the process

  20. Is traditional Chinese medicine recommended in Western medicine clinical practice guidelines in China? A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Li, Xun; Sun, Jin; Han, Mei; Yang, Guo-Yan; Li, Wen-Yuan; Robinson, Nicola; Lewith, George; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine promotes and relies on the use of evidence in developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The Chinese healthcare system includes both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine, which are expected to be equally reflected in Chinese CPGs. Objective To evaluate the inclusion of TCM-related information in Western medicine CPGs developed in China and the adoption of high level evidence. Methods All CPGs were identified from the China Guideline Clearinghouse (CGC), which is the main Chinese organisation maintaining the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health of China, the Chinese Medical Association and the Chinese Medical Doctors’ Association. TCM-related contents were extracted from all the CPGs identified. Extracted information comprised the institution issuing the guideline, date of issue, disease, recommendations relating to TCM, evidence level of the recommended content and references supporting the recommendations. Results A total of 604 CPGs were identified, only a small number of which (74/604; 12%) recommended TCM therapy and only five guidelines (7%) had applied evidence grading. The 74 CPGs involved 13 disease systems according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition. TCM was mainly recommended in the treatment part of the guidelines (73/74, 99%), and more than half of the recommendations (43/74, 58%) were related to Chinese herbal medicine (single herbs or herbal treatment based on syndrome differentiation). Conclusions Few Chinese Western medicine CPGs recommend TCM therapies and very few provide evidence grading for the TCM recommendation. We suggest that future guideline development should be based on systematic searches for evidence to support CPG recommendations and involve a multidisciplinary approach including TCM expertise. PMID:26041487

  1. Comparison of a Computer Simulation Program and a Traditional Laboratory Practical Class for Teaching the Principles of Intestinal Absorption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of an interactive computer-assisted learning program for undergraduate students that simulates experiments performed using isolated, everted sacs of rat small intestine. The program is designed to offer an alternative student-centered approach to traditional laboratory-based practical classes. Knowledge gain of students…

  2. After Eric Garner: Invoking the Black Radical Tradition in Practice and in Theory #BlackLivesMatter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I document a series of pedagogical responses in my high school instrumental music classroom following the events of Eric Garner's murder in New York City. Foregrounding traditions of black radical politics and aesthetics originating with the Black Power Movement in the 1960s, I explore their implications for classroom practice in…

  3. The Validity of Multiple Choice Practical Examinations as an Alternative to Traditional Free Response Examination Formats in Gross Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaibah, Hassan Sami; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, an anatomy practical examination is conducted using a free response format (FRF). However, this format is resource-intensive, as it requires a relatively large time investment from anatomy course faculty in preparation and grading. Thus, several interventions have been reported where the response format was changed to a selected…

  4. Non-Western Educational Traditions: Alternative Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Timothy

    The history of education, as taught in the United States and in the West generally, has focused primarily on how Western educational tradition emerged. This book provides a brief overview of several non-Western approaches to educational thought and practice. An understanding of how other peoples have educated their children, as well as what…

  5. When the New Application Smell Is Gone: Traditional Intranet Best Practices and Existing Web 2.0 Intranet Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoose, Becky

    2010-01-01

    With the growth of Web 2.0 library intranets in recent years, many libraries are leaving behind legacy, first-generation intranets. As Web 2.0 intranets multiply and mature, how will traditional intranet best practices--especially in the areas of planning, implementation, and evaluation--translate into an existing Web 2.0 intranet infrastructure?…

  6. The Clinical Practice of Traditional and Nontraditional Dental Hygienists. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, E. Marcia

    Information is presented on a study designed to gather details about the services provided by clinical dental hygienists in traditional and nontraditional settings. The 10 research topics addressed include: services provided by the clinical RDH in the traditional and nontraditional setting; time allocated for such services; how patients are…

  7. Teaching as a Reflective Practice: The German Didaktik Tradition. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbury, Ian, Ed.; Hopmann, Stefan, Ed.; Riquarts, Kurt, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents essays by German scholars and practitioners writing from within the German Didaktik tradition and interpretive essays by U.S. scholars. After an introduction, "Starting a Dialogue: A Beginning Conversation between Didaktik and the Curriculum Traditions" (Stefan Hopmann and Kurt Riquarts), there are 18 chapters in…

  8. Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint.

    PubMed Central

    Farfel, M R; Chisolm, J J

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol/L (greater than 29 micrograms/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: 1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and 2) the PbBs of nearly half of the occupant children. Modified practices represented modest short-term improvement compared to traditional practices but were also inadequate. By six months, it was clear that neither form of abatement resulted in long-term reductions of PbB or house dust lead levels, leaving children at continued risk of excessive exposure to lead and permanent adverse neurobehavioral effects. Windows were found to be high sources of lead contaminated house dust. Recommendations are made for improved abatement practices including more complete abatement of window units and more effective clean-up to remove lead-bearing dust. Thirteen million US children live in lead-painted dwellings. Research is needed to identify abatement strategies that will be practical and well suited to the current understanding of low-level lead toxicity. PMID:2136329

  9. Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint

    SciTech Connect

    Farfel, M.R.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr. )

    1990-10-01

    We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol/L (greater than 29 micrograms/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: (1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and (2) the PbBs of nearly half of the occupant children. Modified practices represented modest short-term improvement compared to traditional practices but were also inadequate. By six months, it was clear that neither form of abatement resulted in long-term reductions of PbB or house dust lead levels, leaving children at continued risk of excessive exposure to lead and permanent adverse neurobehavioral effects. Windows were found to be high sources of lead contaminated house dust. Recommendations are made for improved abatement practices including more complete abatement of window units and more effective clean-up to remove lead-bearing dust. Thirteen million US children live in lead-painted dwellings. Research is needed to identify abatement strategies that will be practical and well suited to the current understanding of low-level lead toxicity.

  10. The balance sheet of benefits and harms of breast cancer population-based screening in Europe: outcome research, practice and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Broeders, Mireille; Paci, Eugenio

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer screening programs are still object of harsh debate. In 2012, the Independent UK Panel reviewed the benefits and harms of mammography screening based on randomized trials and the EUROSCREEN Working Group reviewed European observational outcome studies. The conclusion was that screening programs should continue, while acknowledging that harms, such as the occurrence of false-positive results and overdiagnosis, can have a negative impact on a woman's life. Information on the balance sheet of the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening should help women and their physicians to make an informed choice. The future challenge for breast screening programs is to assess the feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness and impact of risk-based screening in order to maximize benefit-to-harm ratios. PMID:26619214

  11. From Mexico to Here: An Observational Study of Traditional Dietary Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As Mexican-Americans acculturate to the American diet and lifestyle they have increased risk of developing many chronic diseases. An understanding of traditional environment and behavior is needed to address this phenomenon. Transnational qualitative research (participant observation, photography, a...

  12. Fostering traditional health systems and ethnomedicine practices through a holistic approach: a pioneering community strategy from Southern India.

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    The ever-presence of traditional medicine and of medical practitioners in remote areas of the world is well documented by anthropological studies. However, the social, cultural, and environmental factors influencing health and traditional health systems have been analyzed separately, ignoring the interlinkages existing between them and the resulting synergies as well as the impact these will have on the multiple aspects of local communities. This case study attempts to overcome this shortcoming, by investigating the interrelationships between biodiversity conservation and the practice of ethnomedicine in Southern India as a basis to implement primary health care, enhance local livelihoods, and contribute to poverty alleviation through community-based entrepreneurial activities. PMID:20353924

  13. The Morality of Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the…

  14. [Harmful algae and health].

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Harri T

    2011-01-01

    Harmful algae are a worldwide problem. Phycotoxins is a general term for toxic compounds produced by harmful species of the phytoplankton. This review deals with the occurrence of harmful algae and phycotoxins in the Baltic Sea and other domestic waters, the ways of getting exposed to them, and their effects. Advice on how to avoid the exposure is provided. PMID:21834336

  15. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF... harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to... practicable, notify the customer that temporary discontinuance of service may be required; however,...

  16. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF... harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to... practicable, notify the customer that temporary discontinuance of service may be required; however,...

  17. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF... harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to... practicable, notify the customer that temporary discontinuance of service may be required; however,...

  18. Scope creep: when nursing practice moves beyond traditional boundaries: an evidence-based example using procedural sedation.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Judy E; Bloomberg, Dianne; Burnell, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The finite boundaries of the scope of nursing practice are constantly changing. One could expect that with new technology and advances in science, the interventions and assessments nurses perform will change over time. The practice of nursing is governed by nursing, however, it is often challenged by our partners in medicine, and frequently driven by time constraints or reimbursement issues. This article reviews a case example in which nurses were asked to expand their practice to assume responsibility for duties that were once traditionally performed by physicians. An evaluation of a practice problem using an evidence-based approach applying the PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) method is explored. Proposed steps to minimize risk and staff moral distress are also described. PMID:17579305

  19. Harm, change, and time.

    PubMed

    Belshaw, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    What is harm? I offer an account that involves the victim's either suffering some adverse intrinsic change or being prevented from enjoying some beneficial intrinsic change. No one is harmed, I claim, in virtue of relational changes alone. Thus (excepting for contrived cases), there are neither posthumous harms nor, in life, harms of the undiscovered betrayal, slander, reputation-damaging variety. Further, two widespread moves in the philosophy of death are rejected. First, death and posthumous are not to be assimilated--death does bring about adverse internal change and harms us straightforwardly. Second, Pitcher-type accounts of posthumous harm are criticized--posthumous events can thwart the satisfaction of my interests, but I am not harmed either just when this occurs or, earlier, when I first acquire or invest in those interests. We have other ways of describing what is going on. PMID:23108172

  20. Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors Influencing Middle Level Students' Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…

  1. Journal Clubs and Case Conferences: From Academic Tradition to Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, David W.; Felix, Kate G.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: As small group learning sessions, Journal Clubs (JCs) and Case Conferences (CCs), if structured interactively, have potential as educational formats that can change practice. However, the degree to which these formats, as currently typically structured, lead to practice change is unknown. Methods: We used concepts of communities of…

  2. Effective Educational Practice: A Crucial First Step in Addressing the Needs of Traditionally Overlooked Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeo, Jennifer Kumpost

    2013-01-01

    Students who are traditionally overlooked in academic settings (e.g. poor, Black, Hispanic American, Latino/Latina) are not likely to have educational experiences that reflect equity in access to excellence in education. These students regularly encounter challenges that reflect a poor educational fit and their key needs are often overlooked in…

  3. Mothers Roles in Traditional and Modern Korean Families: The Consequences for Parental Practices and Adolescent Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hye-On; Hoppe-Graff, Siegfried

    2001-01-01

    Compares mothers' roles in socializing their children in traditional South Korean families with that of mothers' in modern families. While Confusion influence remains strong, significant changes in South Korean culture often create complex, ambiguous, and emotionally unstable relationships between mothers and their adolescent children. Discusses…

  4. Practical Skills Training in Agricultural Education--A Comparison between Traditional and Blended Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deegan, Donna; Wims, Padraig; Pettit, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article the use of blended learning multimedia materials as an education tool was compared with the traditional approach for skills training. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was conducted in Ireland using a pre-test, post-test experimental design. All students were instructed on how to complete two skills using either a…

  5. Eight Barriers to Changing Traditional Behavior: Part One. Insights on Educational Policy and Practice, Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Sue E.

    1990-01-01

    Implementing shared decision making in school-based management requires fundamental changes in traditional behavior. Initiation of restructuring systemic authority and decision-making arrangements requires changing deeply held beliefs and developing new roles and relationships. A recent survey of educational practitioners identified eight major…

  6. Eight Barriers to Changing Traditional Behavior: Part Two. Insights on Educational Policy and Practice, Number 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Sue E.

    1990-01-01

    Findings of a survey conducted in 1989 to identify the difficulties facing educational practitioners when initiating shared decision making in school-based management are presented in this educational policy bulletin. The first of a two-issue report examined five of the eight major barriers to changing traditional behavior: fear of taking risks,…

  7. Evaluating Emotional Well-Being after a Short-Term Traditional Yoga Practice Approach in Yoga Practitioners with an Existing Western-Type Yoga Practice

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of a traditional yoga practice approach (morning daily practice, TY) compared to that of a Western yoga practice approach (once-twice weekly, evening practice, WY) on determinants of emotional well-being. To that end, in a pre/posttest between-subject design, measures of positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), mindfulness, perceived stress, and arousal states were taken in 24 healthy participants (20 women; mean age: 30.5, SD = 8.1 years) with an already existing WY practice, who either maintained WY or underwent a 2-week, five-times-per-week morning practice (TY). While WY participants maintained baseline values for all measures taken, TY participants showed significant beneficial changes for PA, NA, and mindfulness and a trend for improved ability to cope with stress at the completion of the intervention. Furthermore, TY participants displayed decreased subjective energy and energetic arousal. Altogether, findings indicate that the 2-week TY is beneficial over WY for improving perceived emotional well-being. The present findings (1) undermine and inspire a careful consideration and utilization of yoga practice approach to elicit the best benefits for emotional well-being and (2) support yoga as an evidence-based practice among healthy yoga practitioners. PMID:27123033

  8. Evaluating Emotional Well-Being after a Short-Term Traditional Yoga Practice Approach in Yoga Practitioners with an Existing Western-Type Yoga Practice.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Maxi; Cantell, Marja H; Steiner, Ronald; Sanchez, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of a traditional yoga practice approach (morning daily practice, TY) compared to that of a Western yoga practice approach (once-twice weekly, evening practice, WY) on determinants of emotional well-being. To that end, in a pre/posttest between-subject design, measures of positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), mindfulness, perceived stress, and arousal states were taken in 24 healthy participants (20 women; mean age: 30.5, SD = 8.1 years) with an already existing WY practice, who either maintained WY or underwent a 2-week, five-times-per-week morning practice (TY). While WY participants maintained baseline values for all measures taken, TY participants showed significant beneficial changes for PA, NA, and mindfulness and a trend for improved ability to cope with stress at the completion of the intervention. Furthermore, TY participants displayed decreased subjective energy and energetic arousal. Altogether, findings indicate that the 2-week TY is beneficial over WY for improving perceived emotional well-being. The present findings (1) undermine and inspire a careful consideration and utilization of yoga practice approach to elicit the best benefits for emotional well-being and (2) support yoga as an evidence-based practice among healthy yoga practitioners. PMID:27123033

  9. Best Practices Case Study: New Tradition Homes - Landover Commons, Vancouver, WA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    Case study of New Tradition Homes who saved 26% over Washington state’s energy code by moving ducts inside conditioned space, upgrading the furnace, increasing attic insulation to R-49, and improving air sealing. This added $3,600 to the initial cost or $290 in increased annual mortgage costs but saved $991 per year for an annual net cash back to the homeowner of $700.

  10. Recasting a traditional laboratory practical as a "Design-your-own protocol" to teach a universal research skill.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, David E

    2016-07-01

    Laboratory-based practical classes are a common feature of life science teaching, during which students learn how to perform experiments and generate/interpret data. Practical classes are typically instructional, concentrating on providing topic- and technique-specific skills, however to produce research-capable graduates it is also important to develop generic practical skills. To provide an opportunity for students to develop the skills needed to create bespoke protocols for experimental benchwork, a traditional practical was repurposed. Students were given a list of available resources and an experimental goal, and directed to create a bench protocol to achieve the aim (measuring the iron in hemoglobin). In a series of teaching events students received feedback from staff, and peers prototyped the protocols, before protocols were finally implemented. Graduates highlighted this exercise as one of the most important of their degrees, primarily because of the clear relevance of the skills acquired to professional practice. The exercise exemplifies a range of pedagogic principles, but arguably its most important innovation is that it repurposed a pre-existing practical. This had the benefits of automatically providing scaffolding to direct the students' thought processes, while retaining the advantages of a "discovery learning" exercise, and allowing facile adoption of the approach across the sector. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):377-380, 2016. PMID:26864650

  11. Definitions of suicide and self-harm behavior in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-04-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way such behavior is defined in an Aboriginal context. A continuation of certain "traditional" cultural forms of self-harm behavior was evident in participant definitions, notably the practice of female hair cutting, also described as a mourning ritual, which appears to serve as a marker both to the individual and others. PMID:19527158

  12. Challenging Exclusionary Paradigms in the Traditional Musical Canon: Implications for Music Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindall-Smith, Marsha; McKoy, Constance L.; Mills, Susan W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose that best practices in music education require a conceptual understanding of music teaching and learning based on a perspective of social justice and equitable access for all students. Examinations of the relationship between the tenets of culturally-responsive teaching and three dimensions of music teaching and learning…

  13. Is This the End of the English Tradition of Practical A-Level Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ian

    2014-01-01

    From September 2015, schools in England will be teaching new A-level science specifications that have been developed by examination boards to encompass new higher levels of demand developed by the Department for Education. Integral to these new specifications is a radical change to the contribution of practical science to the A-level grade of the…

  14. Tradition and Innovation in the Practical Culture of Schools in Franco's Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Carmen Benso

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews school practice in Spain through the long historic period of the dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco between the 1936 Civil War and Franco's death in 1975. For this purpose, an analysis is made of the most relevant documents (school materials, reports, direct testimonies by practising teachers, scientific papers on education…

  15. Construction of Life-Practice Moral Education Based on Traditional Chinese Morality with Life Connotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Lian-yun; Peng, Jing

    2006-01-01

    The actual effect is a big problem in current school moral education. By analyzing the problems in the theory and practice of the current school moral education, the author points out that the reason is that, for a long time, the meaning of morality has been dissimilated, and moral education is considered as a kind of knowledge input and…

  16. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  17. Best Practices for Fatigue Risk Management in Non-Traditional Shiftwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin E.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue risk management programs provide effective tools to mitigate fatigue among shift workers. Although such programs are effective for typical shiftwork scenarios, where individuals of equal skill level can be divided into shifts to cover 24 hour operations, traditional programs are not sufficient for managing sleep loss among individuals with unique skill sets, in occupations where non-traditional schedules are required. Such operations are prevalent at NASA and in other high stress occupations, including among airline pilots, military personnel, and expeditioners. These types of operations require fatigue risk management programs tailored to the specific requirements of the mission. Without appropriately tailored fatigue risk management, such operations can lead to an elevated risk of operational failure, disintegration of teamwork, and increased risk of accidents and incidents. In order to design schedules for such operations, schedule planners must evaluate the impact of a given operation on circadian misalignment, acute sleep loss, chronic sleep loss and sleep inertia. In addition, individual-level factors such as morningness-eveningness preference and sleep disorders should be considered. After the impact of each of these factors has been identified, scheduling teams can design schedules that meet operational requirements, while also minimizing fatigue.

  18. Profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in two districts of Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background The WHO estimates that more than 80% of African populations attend traditional healers for health reasons and that 40%–60% of these have some kind of mental illness. However, little is known about the profiles and outcome of this traditional approach to treatment. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in Jinja and Iganga districts in the Busoga region of Eastern Uganda. Methods Four studies were conducted. Study I used focus group discussions (FGDs) with case vignettes with local community members and traditional healers to explore the lay concepts of psychosis. Studies II and III concerned a cross-sectional survey of patients above 18 years at the traditional healer's shrines and study IV was made on a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with psychosis in study III. Manual content analysis was used in study I; quantitative data in studies II, III, and IV were analyzed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels to determine the association between psychological distress and socio-demographic factors; for study IV, factors associated with outcome were analyzed. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was the analysis used in Study IV. Results The community gave indigenous names to psychoses (mania, schizophrenia, and psychotic depression) and had multiple explanatory models for them. Thus multiple solutions for these problems were sought. Of the 387 respondents, the prevalence of psychological distress was 65.1%, where 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness, and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Over 80% of patients with psychosis used both biomedical and traditional healing systems. Those who combined these two systems seemed to have a better outcome. All the symptom scales showed a percentage reduction of more than 20% at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Conclusion Traditional healers shoulder a large burden of care of patients

  19. Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in traditional and dairy cattle farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Kassuku, A A; Willingham, A L

    2003-05-15

    Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in 177 cattle farms in Iringa district in the southern highlands of Tanzania was determined through a questionnaire survey. A total of 76 traditional, 92 small-scale dairy and 9 large-scale dairy cattle farms were included in the survey. Results indicated that 87.7% traditional, 97.8% small-scale dairy and 100% large-scale farmers relied solely on the use of anthelmintics, 2.7% traditional farmers used traditional medicines while 9.6% traditional farmers had not any form of worm control practice. Worm infection was ranked the second most important constraint of productivity in cattle in the three production systems. Most farms (57.6% traditional, 35.8% small-scale dairy, 66.7% large-scale dairy) used anthelmintics with a combination of levamisole and oxyclozanide. Benzimidazoles were used only in traditional (25.4%) and small-scale dairy (32.1%) farms while nitroxynil (Trodax) was mostly used in large-scale dairy farms (33.3%). Generally, 40% of farmers treated three or four times a year and the frequency in some farms was surprisingly high for resource poor small-scale farmers. The frequency of anthelmintic treatment was mostly the same regardless of the management system. Treatments in most farms depended on availability of money and drugs and not the epidemiology of parasites. A significant proportion (46.3%, P=0.007) of farmers especially in rural areas failed to follow their pre-planned treatment schedules due to lack of money (86%) and unavailability of drugs (6.6%). Many farmers (58.9%) had used the same type of anthelmintic for four or more consecutive years and 85.3% of them would continue with the same anthelmintic. Farmers in all management systems mostly purchased anthelmintics from private veterinary drug shops and about 43% traditional and 33.3% small-scale dairy farmers mostly in rural areas obtained anthelmintics from village extension officers. Despite the fact that all farmers were aware of worm

  20. Impact of HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) Knowledge on HIV Prevention Practices Among Traditional Birth Attendants in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R.; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p < 0.01), sterilization of delivery equipment (p < 0.01), participation in blood safety training (p < 0.01), and disposal of sharps (p < 0.01). As long as a high percent of births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health. PMID:25674783

  1. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Traditional Practices to Address Alcohol and Drug Use Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Brown, Ryan A; Johnson, Carrie L; Schweigman, Kurt; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) exhibit high levels of alcohol and drug (AOD) use and problems. Although approximately 70% of AI/ANs reside in urban areas, few culturally relevant AOD use programs targeting urban AI/AN youth exist. Furthermore, federally-funded studies focused on the integration of evidence-based treatments with AI/AN traditional practices are limited. The current study addresses a critical gap in the delivery of culturally appropriate AOD use programs for urban AI/AN youth, and outlines the development of a culturally tailored AOD program for urban AI/AN youth called Motivational Interviewing and Culture for Urban Native American Youth (MICUNAY). We conducted focus groups among urban AI/AN youth, providers, parents, and elders in two urban communities in northern and southern California aimed at 1) identifying challenges confronting urban AI/AN youth and 2) obtaining feedback on MICUNAY program content. Qualitative data were analyzed using Dedoose, a team-based qualitative and mixed methods analysis software platform. Findings highlight various challenges, including community stressors (e.g., gangs, violence), shortage of resources, cultural identity issues, and a high prevalence of AOD use within these urban communities. Regarding MICUNAY, urban AI/AN youth liked the collaborative nature of the motivational interviewing (MI) approach, especially with regard to eliciting their opinions and expressing their thoughts. Based on feedback from the youth, three AI/AN traditional practices (beading, AI/AN cooking, and prayer/sage ceremony) were chosen for the workshops. To our knowledge, MICUNAY is the first AOD use prevention intervention program for urban AI/AN youth that integrates evidence-based treatment with traditional practices. This program addresses an important gap in services for this underserved population. PMID:26306776

  2. Harm Reduction: A New Perspective on Substance Abuse Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides information on harm reduction, a recent development in substance abuse services in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The author outlines abstinence and harm reduction perspectives and the stages of change model and discusses how these perspectives can be integrated in social work practice. He proposes using harm reduction…

  3. Denying Social Harm: Students' Resistance to Lessons about Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Sherryl; Copp, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Students share folk beliefs that make it difficult for them to understand inequality, especially the harmful consequences of social practices they routinely engage in, are attached to, and take for granted. Four of these beliefs include: (a) harm is direct, extreme, and the product of an individual's intentions; (2) harm is the product of the…

  4. Moving beyond traditional fire management practices to better minimize community vulnerability to wildfire in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syphard, A. D.; Keeley, J. E.; Brennan, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfires are an important natural process in southern California, but they also present a major hazard for human life and property. The region leads the nation in fire-related losses, and since 2001, wildfires have damaged or destroyed more than 10,000 homes. As human ignitions have increased along with urban development and population growth, fire frequency has also surged, and most home losses occur in large fires when ignitions coincide with Santa Ana windstorms. As the region accommodates more growth in the future, the wildfire threat promises to continue. We will thus explore how a broader, more comprehensive approach to fire management could improve upon traditional approaches for reducing community vulnerability. The traditional approach to mitigating fire risk, in addition to fire suppression, has been to reduce fuel through construction of fuel breaks. Despite increasing expenditure on these treatments, there has been little empirical study of their role in controlling large fires. We will present the results of a study in which we constructed and analyzed a spatial database of fuel breaks in southern California national forests. Our objective was to better understand characteristics of fuel breaks that affect the behavior of large fires and to map where fires and fuel breaks most commonly intersect. We found that fires stopped at fuel breaks 22-47% of the time, depending on the forest, and the reason fires stopped was invariably related to firefighter access and management activities. Fire weather and fuel break condition were also important. The study illustrates the importance of strategic location of fuel breaks because they have been most effective where they provided access for firefighting activities. While fuel breaks have played a role in controlling wildfires at the Wildland Urban Interface, we are evaluating alternative approaches for reducing community vulnerability, including land use planning. Recent research shows that the amount and

  5. 'Let the heart speak out'--interviewing practices by psychiatrists from two different traditions.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Diana; Ribeiro, Branca Telles; Lopes Dantas, Maria Tereza

    2005-01-01

    In the present article, we investigate the extent to which professional theories that underlie, inform, and guide the interviewing practices of two psychiatrists (a neuropsychiatrist and a psychoanalyst) are discursively displayed in their ways of conducting a psychiatric interview. This study analyses excerpts from two audio-recorded psychiatric interviews held at the Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. It follows theoretical and methodological frameworks derived from interactional sociolinguistics. Ethnographic data and research interviews with both clinicians also ground our discussion. Using frame analysis as a central tool, we found that the psychiatrist who subscribes to a neuropsychiatric orientation displays a concern on assessing the patient's cognitive processes, and shifts topics away from the patient's delusions to (re)introduce the institutional frame of the psychiatric interview. By contrast, the psychiatrist who holds a psychoanalytic orientation towards interviewing not only listens attentively to very personal topics introduced by the patient, but also sustains and develops these topics. Most of all, she proposes and stays within conversational frames. In keeping a dual understanding about their practices in the interview situation, both doctors balance the need to follow the institutional agenda and the need to listen to the patient, despite their different theoretical orientations. PMID:16808722

  6. Characteristics of traditional birth attendants and their beliefs and practices in the Offot Clan, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Itina, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey of a group of 52 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in a clan in south-eastern Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to develop a database from which to design an effective programme for TBAs in the safe delivery and early referral of women with complications to hospital. The study showed that the majority of TBAs were illiterate and had no previous experience or training, even informal training, when they took on the TBA role. Ignorance about maternal complications during childbirth and the appropriate treatment was evident for most of the group. A small number of the group relied solely on divine revelation for guidance in the management of child-bearing women. The results of the survey clearly showed that educational programmes for TBAs and better integration into the health care system are essential for lowering maternal mortality and morbidity rates in areas where most mothers are not open to nor have access to professional care in childbirth. PMID:9509629

  7. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L.; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-01-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital. PMID:26526638

  8. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers.

    PubMed

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-08-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital. PMID:26526638

  9. Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking Latina mothers influence the home food environment: implications for future interventions.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Jennings, Rose; Dave, Jayna; Scoblick, Kathryn; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Loyo, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four Latino parents (33 women; 27 born in Mexico; 21 food-insecure) of preschool-aged children participated in four focus group discussions conducted in Spanish by a trained moderator. The focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded by independent raters. Results suggest that in general, parents were very knowledgeable about healthful eating and cited both parents and school as significant factors influencing children's eating habits; at home, most families had more traditional Mexican foods available than American foods; cost and familiarity with foods were the most influential factors affecting food purchasing; many parents had rules regarding sugar intake; and parents cited role modeling, reinforcement, and creative food preparation as ways to encourage children's healthful eating habits. Finally, parents generated ideas on how to best assist Latino families through interventions. Parents indicated that future interventions should be community based and teach skills to purchase and prepare meals that include low-cost and traditional Mexican ingredients, using hands-on activities. In addition, interventions could encourage and reinforce healthy food-related practices that Latino families bring from their native countries. PMID:21703381

  10. Multivariate analysis of traditional pig management practices and their potential impact on the spread of infectious diseases in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Relun, A; Charrier, F; Trabucco, B; Maestrini, O; Molia, S; Chavernac, D; Grosbois, V; Casabianca, F; Etter, E; Jori, F

    2015-10-01

    Corsica is a French Mediterranean island with traditional extensive pig farming oriented towards the production of high quality cured meat products. The increasing success of these cured products in continental Europe has triggered the development and organisation of an extensive pig farming industry. However, these pig farming practices have seldom been described and analysed to understand the potential risk of introduction and spread of infectious diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Corsica in 2013 to characterise the main pig management practices and to identify groups of farms with similar practices and therefore homogeneous risk of introduction and spread of infectious diseases. We interviewed 68 pig farmers and investigated different farm management practices which could lead to contact between herds, such as trading animals, sharing pastures, feed and reproduction management (direct contacts), slaughtering and carcass waste management, and contacts with people and vehicles (indirect contacts). The practices were described and the farms grouped by multiple factor and hierarchical clustering analyses. Results revealed interesting patterns in the introduction and spread of infectious disease, such as the seasonality of pig production, the potential local spread of diseases in pastures due to the presence of free-ranging boars, carcasses, and animal waste. Multivariate analyses identified four groups of farms with different levels of risk of the spread of infectious disease, illustrating changes in farmers' customs from free-range uncontrolled farming systems to more controlled systems aimed at the production of high quality pork products. These results will be useful to more realistically simulate the spread of infectious diseases among Corsican pig farms and highlight the need for awareness raising campaigns among the stakeholders to reduce risky practices. PMID:26216476

  11. A confluence of traditions: Examining teacher practice in the merging of secondary science and environmental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrid, Steele

    Embedding environmental education within secondary science curriculum presents both philosophical and practical difficulties for teachers. This ethnographic/narrative study, with its methodology grounded in eco-feminism and realism/constructivism, examines the work of six secondary science teachers as they engage in an action research project focused on merging environmental education in their science lessons. Over the course of several months the teachers examine and discuss their views and their professional development related to the project. In the place of definitive conclusions, eight propositions relating the work of secondary science teachers to environmental education, form the basis for a discussion of the implications of the study. The implications are particularly relevant to secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, where the embedding of environmental education in science studies has been mandated.

  12. Water Management: Sacrificing Normative Practice Subverting the Traditions of Water Apportionment-'Whose Justice? Which Rationality?'.

    PubMed

    Harandi, Mehdi F; Nia, Mahdi G; de Vries, Marc J

    2015-10-01

    Since current water governance patterns mandate cooperation and partnership within and between the actors in the hydrosystems, supplementary models are necessary to distinguish the roles and the rules of indoor actions which is why we extend a theory in the frameworks of philosophy of technology. This analysis is empirically grounded on the problematic hydrosystems of a river in central Iran, Zayandehrud. Following a modernist-holistic-based analysis, it illustrates how values in the water apportionment mechanisms are being reshaped. The article by using the theory of normative practice has scrutinised the tasks and the rules of the old and new water-management systems, Mirab. Subsequently according to such philosophical theory, it has argued that the conflicts over the cases are due to interference of structural and directional norms within them. PMID:25300408

  13. Practical implications of procedures developed in IDEA project--comparison with traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Andrasi, A; Bouvier, C; Brandl, A; de Carlan, L; Fischer, H; Franck, D; Höllriegl, V; Li, W B; Oeh, U; Ritt, J; Roth, P; Schlagbauer, M; Schmitzer, Ch; Wahl, W; Zombori, P

    2007-01-01

    The idea of the IDEA project aimed to improve assessment of incorporated radionuclides through developments of more reliable and possibly faster in vivo and bioassay monitoring techniques and making use of such enhancements for improvements in routine monitoring. In direct in vivo monitoring technique the optimum choice of the detectors to be applied for different monitoring tasks has been investigated in terms of material, size and background in order to improve conditions namely to increase counting efficiency and reduce background. Detailed studies have been performed to investigate the manifold advantageous applications and capabilities of numerical simulation method for the calibration and optimisation of in vivo counting systems. This calibration method can be advantageously applied especially in the measurement of low-energy photon emitting radionuclides, where individual variability is a significant source of uncertainty. In bioassay measurements the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can improve considerably both the measurement speed and the lower limit of detection currently achievable with alpha spectrometry for long-lived radionuclides. The work carried out in this project provided detailed guidelines for optimum performance of the technique of ICP-MS applied mainly for the determination of uranium and thorium nuclides in the urine including sampling procedure, operational parameters of the instruments and interpretation of the measured data. The paper demonstrates the main advantages of investigated techniques in comparison with the performances of methods commonly applied in routine monitoring practice. PMID:17314089

  14. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Eighth Annual National Conference on Health Communication, Marketing & Media August 19-21, 2014 Atlanta, GA Harmful Algal Blooms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page What's the ...

  15. Benefitting from differences in knowledge, practice and belief: Māori oral traditions and natural hazards science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. N.; Goff, J. R.

    2010-09-01

    This paper builds upon earlier work that argued the information and experience contained within the knowledge-practice-belief complex of Mātauranga Māori [Māori knowledge] is a valuable and neglected area of information and understanding about past catastrophic events in Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ). Here we map Māori oral traditions (pūrākau) that relate experience with extreme environmental disturbance (in particular, tsunamis) around the A/NZ coast, compare the findings with geo-archaeological evidence, and discuss the scientific benefits to be gained by considering pūrākau as legitimate perspectives on history. Not surprisingly, there are both differences and complementarities between traditional Māori narratives and the available geo-archaeological evidence on extreme coastal disturbances. The findings presented here raise new and important questions about accepted geographies of tsunami risk, the causes and sources of their generation, as well as reasons for the relative paucity and abundance of information in some regions. Ways in which Mātauranga Taiao [Māori environmental knowledge] and contemporary science can be combined to produce new narratives about extreme environmental disturbance along the A/NZ coastline will require not only acceptance of other ways of knowing but also open engagement with Māori that respects their rights to tell their own histories. These efforts are encouraged to revitalise and ground-truth the interpretation of traditional stories, corroborate and/or question previous scientific deductions, and improve our collective understanding of the recurring impact of tectonic, geologic and meteorological-based events across A/NZ.

  16. Practices associated with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza spread in traditional poultry marketing chains: Social and economic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mathilde; Baritaux, Virginie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François; Bonnet, Pascal; Ducrot, Christian

    2013-04-01

    In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus. The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities. PMID:23337390

  17. Perceptions, practices, and traditional beliefs related to neonatal jaundice among Egyptian mothers: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Abdallah, Enas Abdallah Ali; Ali, Yahia Zakaria Abdelalim

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is one of the most common neonatal disorders worldwide. It is still a main cause of avoidable brain damage, physical and mental impairment, and probable death in newborns.We aimed to assess perceptions, practices, and traditional beliefs among Egyptian mothers toward NNJ that may contribute to delayed presentation and inappropriate management of hyperbilirubinemia.This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted from January to May 2015. We interviewed 400 Egyptian mothers who gave birth in <1 month before the study using a structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited from outpatients of Cairo University Teaching Hospital.This study revealed unexpected moderate knowledge and attitude scores of Egyptian mothers in most domains with a mean of 6.6 and 20.6, respectively, although the majority of them were illiterate or had low educational attainment. In terms of knowledge, 52.3% of participants had adequate knowledge about NNJ in the aspects of awareness, risk factors, management, and complications. Almost all participants exhibited moderate (89.8%) and high levels (10%) of positive attitudes toward NNJ. Maternal sociodemographic factors influenced knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors related to NNJ in Egypt. Working mothers and those residing in urban areas were significantly more knowledgeable (P = 0.023 and 0.021, respectively), and attained higher attitude scores (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) than housewives and rural ones. Moreover, significantly higher attitude scores (P < 0.001) were attained by those who had completed their university [22.3 (SD = 3.1)] or postgraduate education [22.2 (SD = 3.6)].The majority of Egyptian mothers have a satisfactory level of knowledge and attitudes related to NNJ. However, cultural beliefs and traditional infant care practices still have an impact on mothers regardless of their educational level. PMID:27603393

  18. Nurses' attitudes towards patients hospitalised for self-harm.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Kimberley

    2016-03-30

    Self-harm is a public health issue that accounts for thousands of presentations at hospital each year. Self-harm commonly involves self-injury by cutting, burning or poisoning. The incidence of self-harm is increasing in the UK, particularly in young people. Research suggests that people who self-harm experience negative attitudes from healthcare staff, including nurses, on presentation to healthcare services. This is an ethical issue in nursing practice that has implications for the quality of care provided. Nurses with a lack of mental health training provide care for patients who self-harm in emergency departments and acute medical settings. This article presents a literature review exploring the factors affecting nurses' attitudes towards patients hospitalised for self-harm and makes recommendations for improving practice. The article identifies requirements for nurse education and training in mental health and effective provision of care for patients who self-harm and present at the emergency department. PMID:27027196

  19. A Comparative Study of Verbal Discourse Practices in Traditional and Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Biology Labs for Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayan, Ratna

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative interpretative study serves to identify and compare the verbal discourse practices exhibited by students in traditional and inquiry-based undergraduate labs for non-science majors and to identify factors in both lab contexts that would facilitate and / or inhibit student participation in the discourse practices of the labs.…

  20. Insect repellent plants traditional usage practices in the Ethiopian malaria epidemic-prone setting: an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The usage of insect repellent plants (IRPs) is one of the centuries-old practices in Africa. In Ethiopia, malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, subsequently the majority of people have a tendency to apply various plants as repellents to reduce or interrupt the biting activity of insects. Accordingly, this survey was undertaken to document and evaluate knowledge and usage practices of the local inhabitants on IRPs in the malaria epidemic-prone setting of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical survey was conducted between January and May 2013. Selected 309 household members were interviewed by administering pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge and usage practices of repellent plants, in Bechobore Kebele, Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Results Overall, 70.2% (217/309) and 91.8% (199/217) of the respondents have had ample awareness and usage practices of repellent plants, respectively. Informants cited about twenty-two plant species as repellents and also indicated that these plants are useful(85.5%), accessible(86.8%), and affordable(83.9%) too. Residents mainly applying dried leaves [93.9% (187/199)] by means of burning/smouldering [98.9% (197/199)] with the traditional charcoal stove to repel insects, primarily mosquitoes. About 52.8% (105/199) of the informants using aproximately15g of dried plant-materials every day. A Chi-square analysis shows statistically a significant link between the knowledge on repellent plants and gender as well as average monthly income although not with the age of the respondents. Nevertheless, the repellent plant usage custom was not significantly associated with gender, monthly income, and age of the informants. Conclusion Though most of the people have had an adequate awareness still a sizable faction of society suffers with deprivation of IRPs knowledge and usage practices. Therefore, this study calls for more surveys to conserve the existing indigenous knowledge and cultural practices. It could lay the first stone

  1. Cutting and Self-Harm

    MedlinePlus

    ... sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self-injury, is when a person ... about how one girl helps herself not self-harm. What are signs of self-injury in others? ...

  2. [Newborn and infant fractures secondary to traditional massage].

    PubMed

    Mboutol-Mandavo, C; N'dour, O; Ouedraogo, S F; Missengue-Bosseba, R; Ndiaye, D; Ngom, G

    2016-09-01

    The traditional massage of the newborn and young infant is an ancient practice in Africa and other regions. It has many benefits that are currently recognized, even in Western societies. However, it can be dangerous. We report two cases of fractures of the femur and clavicle that occurred in a 17-day-old newborn and a 1-month-old infant secondary to a traditional massage. In both cases, there was no concept of trauma or a history of osteogenesis imperfecta in the family or the presence of other fractures suggesting abuse. We concluded in a fracture caused by traditional massage in both cases. Given its many benefits as described in the literature, the traditional massage of young infants cannot be considered a harmful practice. However, it should be practiced with care to prevent the occurrence of such complications. PMID:27364938

  3. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  4. Traditional beliefs part of people's lives.

    PubMed

    Keller, S

    1996-01-01

    Many couples worldwide practice rituals, herbal approaches, and similar traditional approaches to regulate fertility, but many of them are ineffective at preventing pregnancy and some may even be harmful. Health providers who are familiar with cultural beliefs about fertility may use nonharmful practices (e.g., rituals or storytelling) to teach couples about the fertile period or modern contraception. In fact, providers gain credibility when they teach family planning in ways that include traditional beliefs. In Nigeria, fertility regulation methods were used before modern contraception was introduced. In both Nigeria and Niger, some customs prohibit premarital sexual intercourse. Others promote sexual abstinence for up to three years to promote proper birth spacing. Even though many beliefs do not prevent pregnancy and cause no harm, they can be used to assure women that they are in control of their own fertility. Such beliefs include avoiding the sun or moon at certain times or wearing charms (e.g., dead spiders, children's teeth, or leopard skin bracelets). Providers should discourage dangerous or counterproductive beliefs, however. For example, the Nigerian belief that intercourse during menstruation turns people into albinos (although it is not harmful) may encourage sex during the fertile period. Some harmful beliefs or practices include douching with hot water, salt, vinegar, lemon, or potassium after sex; eating arsenic or castor oil seeds; and drinking water used to wash dead bodies. A 28-bead necklace is being used to help women keep track of their menstrual cycle and know when the risk of pregnancy is greatest. 11 white beads designate the fertile period, with fluorescent beads indicating the peak days of ovulation. In Brazil, the third most popular family planning method is natural family planning (NFP), indicating a clear demand for NFP; yet many couples use NFP incorrectly. In the Philippines, lime juice is used to prevent bean pods from opening and

  5. Provider views of harm reduction versus abstinence policies within homeless services for dually diagnosed adults

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Tiderington, Emmy

    2013-01-01

    Harm reduction is considered by many to be a legitimate alternative to abstinence-based services for dually diagnosed individuals, yet there is limited understanding of how varying approaches affect front-line practice within supportive housing services for homeless adults. This paper examines how front-line providers working with individuals who have experienced homelessness, serious mental illness, and addiction view policies of harm reduction versus abstinence within two distinctly different approaches to homeless services: the traditional or ‘treatment first’ (TF) approach that requires abstinence and the more recent Housing First (HF) approach that incorporates harm reduction. As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 129 in-depth interviews conducted with 41 providers were thematically analyzed to understand how providers view a harm reduction versus abstinence approach. Themes included: (a) harm reduction as a welcomed alternative; (b) working with ambiguity; and (c) accommodating abstinence. Drawing on recovery principles, we consider the broader implications of the findings for behavioral health care with this population. PMID:23404076

  6. Concoction of harmful substances in homemade alcoholic beverages in rural areas of Mopani district in Limpopo province-RSA: implications for social work practice.

    PubMed

    Makhubele, J C

    2013-10-01

    The primary aim of this article is to explore and describe the production and consumption of homemade alcohol and its associated challenges in relation to implications for social work practice. Qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was ideal and purposive and snowball sampling methods were used in this research. Data was collected through interviews with brewers and consumers of homemade alcoholic beverages. It was found that foreign substances are put into homemade alcoholic beverages for commercial reasons in an attempt to address social exclusion. PMID:24066633

  7. Branding in children: a barbaric practice still exists in India

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Branding is an inhuman traditional practice most commonly employed to treat various disorders in neonates and children in certain community in India. Though stringent law exists to prevent such harmful practices, cases of branding is not uncommon in current era. PMID:27217887

  8. Branding in children: a barbaric practice still exists in India.

    PubMed

    Patra, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Branding is an inhuman traditional practice most commonly employed to treat various disorders in neonates and children in certain community in India. Though stringent law exists to prevent such harmful practices, cases of branding is not uncommon in current era. PMID:27217887

  9. The Role of Local Knowledge and Traditional Extraction Practices in the Management of Giant Earthworms in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The giant earthworm, Rhinodrilus alatus (Righi 1971), has been captured in the southeastern Brazilian Cerrado biome for approximately 80 years and used as bait for amateur fishing throughout Brazil. Local knowledge and traditional extraction practices are crucial for the establishment of management strategies for the species because, although its extraction involves conflicts and social and environmental impacts, the species is one of the major sources of income for approximately 3,000 people, especially for members of an Afro-descendant community that has approximately 2,000 inhabitants. Participatory tools, such as seasonal calendar, transect walks and participatory maps, were individually or collectively used with extractors and traders (former extractors), and 129 semi-structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with the same individuals between 2005 and 2012. The capture of Rhinodrilus alatus was observed in different seasons and areas of occurrence of the species in 17 municipalities, where this giant earthworm is the only species extracted for trade. All information obtained was verified by community members in 17 meetings. The extractors have an extensive knowledge of the life history, behavior, distribution, and possible impacts of climate change on the species. Different capture techniques, which have different impacts, are used during the dry and rainy seasons and are passed by the extractors through the generations. Local knowledge contributed to the establishment of agreements for the use of capture techniques that have less impact, to the expansion of scientific knowledge and the reassessment of the conservation status of Rhinodrilus alatus. The present study may serve as an example for management projects for other giant earthworm species in other regions of Brazil and in other countries. PMID:25874618

  10. The role of local knowledge and traditional extraction practices in the management of giant earthworms in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drumond, Maria Auxiliadora; Guimarães, Artur Queiroz; da Silva, Raquel Hosken Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The giant earthworm, Rhinodrilus alatus (Righi 1971), has been captured in the southeastern Brazilian Cerrado biome for approximately 80 years and used as bait for amateur fishing throughout Brazil. Local knowledge and traditional extraction practices are crucial for the establishment of management strategies for the species because, although its extraction involves conflicts and social and environmental impacts, the species is one of the major sources of income for approximately 3,000 people, especially for members of an Afro-descendant community that has approximately 2,000 inhabitants. Participatory tools, such as seasonal calendar, transect walks and participatory maps, were individually or collectively used with extractors and traders (former extractors), and 129 semi-structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with the same individuals between 2005 and 2012. The capture of Rhinodrilus alatus was observed in different seasons and areas of occurrence of the species in 17 municipalities, where this giant earthworm is the only species extracted for trade. All information obtained was verified by community members in 17 meetings. The extractors have an extensive knowledge of the life history, behavior, distribution, and possible impacts of climate change on the species. Different capture techniques, which have different impacts, are used during the dry and rainy seasons and are passed by the extractors through the generations. Local knowledge contributed to the establishment of agreements for the use of capture techniques that have less impact, to the expansion of scientific knowledge and the reassessment of the conservation status of Rhinodrilus alatus. The present study may serve as an example for management projects for other giant earthworm species in other regions of Brazil and in other countries. PMID:25874618

  11. Changing Mindsets: A Case Study of a Community of Practice between Charter and Traditional Public School Leaders in the School Leaders Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Manuel N., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the essential elements of a community of practice intended to increase communication and collaboration between traditional public and charter school leaders. Members of the Los Angeles Cohort of the School Leaders Network participated in this study. This case study triangulated observation, interview, and…

  12. Use of Information-Seeking Strategies for Developing Systematic Reviews and Engaging in Evidence-Based Practice: The Application of Traditional and Comprehensive Pearl Growing--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Wendt, Oliver; Bhavnani, Suresh; Nail-Chiwetalu, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Background: Efficient library searches for research evidence are critical to practitioners who wish to engage in evidence-based practice (EBP) as well as researchers who seek to develop systematic reviews. Aims: This review will propose the benefits of the search technique "Pearl Growing" ("Traditional Pearl Growing") as well as an adaptation of…

  13. Health Harms from Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    HEALTH HARMS FROM SECONDHAND SMOKE The scientific evidence on the health risks associated with exposure to secondhand smoke is ... implicated in heart attacks and stroke. 3 Health Harms From Secondhand Smoke / 2  U.S. Surgeon General (2006) – ...

  14. 'Becoming accepted': The complementary and alternative medicine practitioners' response to the uptake and practice of traditional medicine therapies by the mainstream health sector.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Marlene; Oster, Candice

    2010-07-01

    This Australian study sought to understand how practitioners of the traditional systems of what is now termed complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are responding to the adoption of their traditional medicine therapies by the mainstream health care system, and the practice of these therapies by mainstream health care practitioners. A grounded theory approach was used for this study. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 participants who were non-mainstream practitioners from five traditional systems of medicine - Traditional Chinese Medicine,Ayurveda, Naturopathy, Homeopathy and Western Herbal Medicine. Four main conceptual categories were identified: Losing Control of the CAM Occupational Domain (the participants' main concern); Personal Positioning; Professional Positioning (the core category); and Legitimacy.These categories formed the elements of the substantive theory of 'becoming accepted' as a legitimate health care provider in the mainstream health system, which explained the basic social process that the study's participants were using to resolve their main concern. PMID:20603310

  15. Doing Harm: An Unintended Consequence of Qualitative Inquiry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magolda, Peter; Weems, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Explores ethical issues related to doing qualitative research and examines harm as it is conceptualized within the qualitative inquiry literature. Serves as an examination of professional standards, administrative practices, and methodological procedures that reveal the different kinds of harm that are inevitable outcomes of qualitative inquiry.…

  16. How Current Clinical Practice Guidelines for Low Back Pain Reflect Traditional Medicine in East Asian Countries: A Systematic Review of Clinical Practice Guidelines and Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Lim, Byungmook; Heo, Kwang-Ho; Liu, Jian-Ping; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to investigate whether there is a gap between evidence of traditional medicine (TM) interventions in East-Asian countries from the current Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) and evidence from current systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR-MAs) and to analyze the impact of this gap on present CPGs. Methods We examined 5 representative TM interventions in the health care systems of East-Asian countries. We searched seven relevant databases for CPGs to identify whether core CPGs included evidence of TM interventions, and we searched 11 databases for SR-MAs to re-evaluate current evidence on TM interventions. We then compared the gap between the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs. Results Thirteen CPGs and 22 SR-MAs met our inclusion criteria. Of the 13 CPGs, 7 CPGs (54%) mentioned TM interventions, and all were for acupuncture (only one was for both acupuncture and acupressure). However, the CPGs did not recommend acupuncture (or acupressure). Of 22 SR-MAs, 16 were for acupuncture, 5 for manual therapy, 1 for cupping, and none for moxibustion and herbal medicine. Comparing the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs, an underestimation or omission of evidence for acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy in current CPGs was detected. Thus, applying the results from the SR-MAs, we moderately recommend acupuncture for chronic LBP, but we inconclusively recommend acupuncture for (sub)acute LBP due to the limited current evidence. Furthermore, we weakly recommend cupping and manual therapy for both (sub)acute and chronic LBP. We cannot provide recommendations for moxibustion and herbal medicine due to a lack of evidence. Conclusions The current CPGs did not fully reflect the evidence for TM interventions. As relevant studies such as SR-MAs are conducted and evidence increases, the current evidence on acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy should be rigorously considered in the process of developing or updating the CPG system. PMID:24505363

  17. Self-Harmful Behaviors in a Population-Based Sample of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Skegg, Keren; Langley, John; Morrison, Dianne; Sowerby, Paula

    2004-01-01

    A birth cohort of 472 women and 494 men aged 26 years was interviewed about a range of self-harmful behaviors first and then asked about suicidal intent.- Lifetime prevalence of self-harm using traditional methods of suicide (ICD [International Classification of Diseases] self-harm) was 13%, with 9% of the sample describing at least one such…

  18. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  19. Traditional and alternative community food security interventions in Montréal, Québec: different practices, different people.

    PubMed

    Roncarolo, Federico; Adam, Caroline; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Food insecurity is steadily increasing in developed countries. Traditional interventions adopted to tackle food insecurity, like food banks, address the urgent need for food. By contrast, alternative interventions, such as community gardens and kitchens, are oriented towards social integration and the development of mutual aid networks. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the populations served by traditional and alternative interventions in food security differ according to measures of vulnerability. We studied newly registered participants to food security interventions. Participants were selected from a random sample of food security community organizations in a two-stage cluster sampling frame. The categorizing variable was participation in a community organization providing either traditional interventions or alternative interventions. Seven measures of vulnerability were used: food security; perceived health; civic participation; perceived social support of the primary network, social isolation, income and education. Regression multilevel models were used to assess associations. 711 participants in traditional interventions and 113 in alternative interventions were enrolled in the study. Between group differences were found with respect to food insecurity, health status perception, civic participation, education and income, but not with respect to social isolation or perceived social support from primary social network. Traditional and alternative food security interventions seem to reach different populations. Participants in traditional interventions were found to have less access to resources, compared to those in alternative interventions. Thus, new participants in traditional interventions may have higher levers of vulnerability than those in alternative interventions. PMID:25012098

  20. The creation of new traditions: Discussion of relationship between architectural rural practice and local features' inheriting from a heritage conservation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, M.; Sun, M.

    2015-08-01

    The traditional features of Chinese villages are facing a crisis of discontinuity. In the meantime, there exists a problem in architectural heritage conservation that while preservation and renovation is being done, local self-help construction still proceeds out of control. Nowadays, an increasing number of architects have noticed these phenomena and participate in the evolution of villages carrying various architectural practices in the countryside, which has certain influence at the place, whether during or after the construction. In many well-evaluated rural practice cases in the world, architects not only choose appropriate materials and crafts for natives, but also renew local traditions by offering skill training to craftsmen. However, in Chinese villages, similar practices do not seem to be that effective. Therefore, through field research and interviews, this article discusses the reasons that relatively successful architectural practices in Chinese villages fail to exert a positive influence to the inheriting and update of local traditions. These causes include the increase of information sources, the different aesthetic manner, the conception differences, the influence of constructors, and the instructor role that architects play.

  1. Ecology of Harmful Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelke, Daniel L.

    2007-07-01

    Edna Graneli and Jefferson T. Turner, Editors;Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 189; Springer; ISBN 3540322094; 413 pp.; 2006; $195 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) affect commercially and recreationally important species, human health, and ecosystem functioning. Hallmark events are the visually stunning blooms where waters are discolored and filled with ichthyotoxin-producing algae that lead to large fish kills. Of most concern, however, are HABs that pose a threat to human health. For example, some phycotoxins bioaccumulate in the guts and tissues of commercially and recreationally important species that when consumed by humans, may result in nausea, paralysis, memory loss, and even death. In addition to the deleterious impacts of phycotoxins, HABs can be problematic in other ways. For example, the decay of blooms often leads to low dissolved oxygen in subsurface waters. Blooms also reduce light penetration into the water column. Both processes disrupt ecosystems and in some cases have completely destroyed benthic communities.

  2. [THE ART OF DOING MINIMAL HARM IN MENTAL HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Lobo, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    There are socio-cultural and political-economic conditions that favor interventionism in mental health and iatrogenesis. However, the professional, in relationship with the patient, has the ability to reduce harm in clinical practice. This article, briefly, reviews the damage of work in mental health and arises, from the recognition of professional intellectual and personal conflicts, the foundation for a practice that causes the least harm to patients PMID:26966753

  3. Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Evelyn L.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID

  4. Behavioral attitudes and preferences in cooking practices with traditional open-fire stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: implications for improved cookstove interventions.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Evelyn L; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth M; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M; Miranda, J Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20-49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a "one size fits all" improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID:25286166

  5. Recasting a Traditional Laboratory Practical as a "Design-Your-Own Protocol" to Teach a Universal Research Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory-based practical classes are a common feature of life science teaching, during which students learn how to perform experiments and generate/interpret data. Practical classes are typically instructional, concentrating on providing topic- and technique-specific skills, however to produce research-capable graduates it is also important to…

  6. Traditional healing practices originating in Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao: A review of the literature on psychiatry and Brua.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Poulina, Igmar T; van Gellecum, Trevor L; Hoek, Hans W

    2015-12-01

    Brua is an Afro-Caribbean religion and healing tradition from the southern part of the former Netherlands Antilles. Like other Caribbean healing traditions, it plays a significant role in shaping how individuals experience and express disorders which Western health professionals consider to require psychiatric care. Because little has been published on Brua, and because patients from Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao are often reluctant to discuss their commitment to this tradition, they are often misdiagnosed and either over- or undertreated by biomedically trained health professionals. The present paper provides a review of the literature on Brua and its relation to psychiatry. A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, the Ovid database, Google Scholar, and the historical literature. Our search yielded 35 texts on Brua, including three peer-reviewed scientific papers and eight academic theses. From those texts Brua emerges as a holistic patchwork of creolized beliefs and practices which are considered to be both cause and remedy for a wide variety of ailments. Despite the fact that tension between the Brua discourse and Western-oriented psychiatric practice is significant, adherence to Brua does not seem to cause much patient delay in help-seeking. However, belief in Brua as a possible source of mental and physical complaints, as well as patients' frequent recourse to Brua practices, including the use of hallucinogens, may affect the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. PMID:26062555

  7. Risky traditional practices and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: the case of Chiota community in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyati-Jokomo, Zibusiso; January, James; Ruparanganda, Watch; Chitsike, Inam

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore cultural practices that could expose babies to HIV infection during the postnatal period in Chiota community in Zimbabwe. Purposively selected and gender disaggregated members of the community (n = 231) were informants to 23 focus group discussions and 8 semi-structured key-informant interviews. Data were analysed thematically. Emerging themes relating to risky practices were rituals surrounding open fontanelle, toning of child's sexual libido, initiation of sex after childbirth, treatment of eye and ear infections, tongue-tie and pre-mastication. These practices exposed babies to bodily fluids such as saliva, breast milk, vaginal fluids, pre-cum and semen which in turn put the babies at low to high risk of contracting HIV. This paper discusses implications for these risky practices in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. There is, therefore, need for studies to establish the prevalence of these practices. PMID:26272627

  8. The Superintendent Beliefs and Leadership Practices in a School District that Has Successfully Increased the Achievement of Traditionally Marginalized Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks-Schutz, Jo-Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Superintendent leadership can influence student achievement and with the alarming gap between the academic achievement of traditionally marginalized students and their peers, superintendents have an ethical duty to lead their districts in closing these achievement gaps. Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2001) suggested that to have a more complete…

  9. A Comparison between African Traditional and Modern Child Rearing Practice: With Implication to Youth Guidance and Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumuti, Sammy

    In the traditional African society (TAS), the child is allowed to interact with learning materials and situations. Consequently, learning becomes relevant, meaningful, and purposeful in relation to the individual and the society. In the modern African society (MAS), education has been at best an experiment that is marked with inconsistencies in…

  10. Cultural practices in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alabi, E M

    1990-05-01

    Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. PMID:12157983

  11. Perceptions and practices of U.S. dental schools regarding curriculum integrated format and traditional format licensure exams.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shamik; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Donoff, R Bruce; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2013-08-01

    The dental licensure exam in the United States has evolved over the past ten years, and two formats-the traditional format and curriculum integrated format-are now available for students to satisfy licensure requirements. The objective of this study was to examine the differences and relative merits of the two formats. A twenty-five-question survey was distributed to the fifty-seven U.S. dental schools at the time. The survey included both quantitative and discrete variables and followed a strategic sequential order. The first set of questions sought to determine what type of board preparatory/mock exam each dental school offered, and the next set of questions asked which licensure exam each school formally offered. The final questions were qualitative in nature and aimed to determine the school representatives' opinions about the curriculum integrated format versus traditional format. Of the fifty-seven schools contacted, thirty-seven agreed to participate (response rate=64.9 percent). Fourteen schools reported that they administer the traditional format only and twelve administer the curriculum integrated format only, while eleven offer both. Thirty-two schools offered mock board exams to their graduating students, and twenty-four of those said their mock exams were identical in format to the actual qualifying clinical exams offered at their institution. The respondents reported no significant advantage to preparing for the curriculum integrated format examination as compared to the traditional format examination with regards to number of clock hours taken from regular curriculum time. In reporting on this study, this article provides an overview of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two examination formats used for the dental licensure process in the United States. PMID:23929575

  12. Helping Self-Harming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selekman, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 14 to 17 percent of adolescents today self-harm, deliberately cutting, burning, or bruising themselves. Most self-harming adolescents use the behavior as a coping strategy to get immediate relief from emotional distress or other stressors in their lives. Stressors include fitting in with peers, activity and homework overload, fears…

  13. Investigating the Influence of Hand Dominance on Postural Sway During Traditional and Simulated Laparoscopic Surgical Skills Practice.

    PubMed

    White, Anthony; Huang, Chun-Kai; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how hand dominance could influence postural sway during laparoscopic skills practice. Ten inexperienced medical trainees performed a peg transfer task using the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) training box and the virtual reality (VR) trainer. Surface electromyographic recordings of upper and lower limb muscles were taken, while the postural sway was measured by a pressure mapping system. Skills performance using the non-dominant hand required more muscle effort and increased more postural sway. Compared with the FLS training box, training with VR decreased the use of muscle effort and could reduce the influence of hand dominance on the overall postural sway during laparoscopic surgical skills practice. PMID:27046621

  14. Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

  15. Emotionally Harmful Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaniec, Dorota; Larkin, Emma; McSherry, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment tends to be overshadowed in research and in practice by other forms of maltreatment that present more obvious and explicit evidence and appear to require a more urgent response. This article aims to explore a growing body of research pointing to: (a) ways in which emotional maltreatment may adversely impact upon a child's…

  16. The Educational Approaches of Turkish Pre-Service Elementary Mathematics Teachers in Their First Teaching Practices: Traditional or Constructivist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the educational approaches that pre-service elementary mathematics teachers adopt for their first teaching practice (TP) and the reasons for their choices. It was carried out with thirteen pre-service teachers (PTs). These PTs were observed during their first TP in a real school setting, and interviews were…

  17. Understanding Faculty and Non-Traditional Student Perceptions of Self-Directed Learning in a Practical Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and investigate nursing faculty and student perspectives of self-directed learning in a practical nursing program. It also explored the degree to which student's perceptions of self-directed learning exhibited factors consistent with that of critical thinking. This study is important because self-directed…

  18. How Educational Practices Affect the Development of Life-Long Learning Orientations in Traditionally-Aged Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Wolniak, Gregory C.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated curricular conditions and educational practices that influenced the development of life-long learning orientations among 405 undergraduate students. Results suggest that growth in life-long learning orientations was facilitated by instruction that included opportunities for reflection, active learning, and perspective-taking and…

  19. What Confucius practiced is good for your mind: Examining the effect of a contemplative practice in Confucian tradition on executive functions.

    PubMed

    Teng, Shan-Chuan; Lien, Yunn-Wen

    2016-05-01

    The short-term training effects on various executive functions (EFs) by a movement-based contemplative practice (MBCP) are examined. Three aspects of EFs (working memory capacity, inhibition, switching) are assessed before and after a month-long 12-h training period using Body-Mind Axial Awareness (BMAA) principles that Confucius followers have practiced for more than 2000years. A mindfulness-based practice (Chan-meditation) and a waiting-list control group served as contrast groups. Our results showed that the BMAA group performed better on the task that measured working memory capacity than did the Chan-meditation and the waiting-list groups after training. In addition, the Chan-meditation groups outperformed the control group on attentional switching, a novel finding for this kind of practice. Our findings not only show a new effect of short-term MBCPs on EFs, but also indicate movement-based and mindfulness-based contemplative practices might benefit development of various aspects of EFs in different ways. PMID:27038245

  20. Cultural behaviour and the invention of traditions: music and musical practices in the early concentration camps, 1933-6/7.

    PubMed

    Fackler, Guido

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates music in the concentration camps before the second world war. For the camp authorities, ordering prisoners to sing songs or play in orchestras was an instrument of domination. But for the prisoners, music could also be an expression of solidarity and survival: inmates could retain a degree of their own agency in the pre-war camps, despite the often unbearable living conditions and harsh treatment by guards. The present article emphasizes this ambiguity of music in the early camps. It illustrates the emergence of musical traditions in the pre-war camps which came to have a significant impact on everyday life in the camps. It helps to overcome the view that concentration camp prisoners were simply passive victims. PMID:20845575

  1. The meaning and value of traditional occupational practice: a Karen woman's story of weaving in the United States.

    PubMed

    Smith, Yda J; Stephenson, Stephanie; Gibson-Satterthwaite, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This case study sought to understand the meaning of restoring traditional weaving as an occupation among Karen women from Burma who now live in an urban city in the United States and to examine the impact of weaving on their daily lives in terms of identity, empowerment, social support, and opportunities for entrepreneurship. The story of one Karen woman, Paw Law Eh, is described. Her story exemplifies the negative consequences of restricted access to familiar and meaningful daily activities, or "occupations", the relationship between occupation and self-identity, how participation in valued occupations can enhance social networks, and the restorative effects that are possible when engagement in meaningful occupations are maintained or restored. Her story demonstrates that occupational therapists have the skills and opportunity to contribute significantly to the well-being of Karen women by supporting the restoration of the occupation of weaving. PMID:23531562

  2. Health, Healthcare Access, and Use of Traditional Versus Modern Medicine in Remote Peruvian Amazon Communities: A Descriptive Study of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. PMID:25688165

  3. Health, healthcare access, and use of traditional versus modern medicine in remote Peruvian Amazon communities: a descriptive study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. PMID:25688165

  4. Does Simulation-based Medical Education with Deliberate Practice Yield Better Results than Traditional Clinical Education? A Meta-Analytic Comparative Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    McGaghie, William C.; Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This article presents a comparison of the effectiveness of traditional clinical education toward skill acquisition goals versus simulation-based medical education (SBME) with deliberate practice (DP). Method This is a quantitative meta-analysis that spans twenty years, 1990 to 2010. A search strategy involving three literature databases, 12 search terms, and four inclusion criteria was used. Four authors independently retrieved and reviewed articles. Main outcome measures were extracted to calculate effect sizes. Results Of 3,742 articles identified, 14 met inclusion criteria. The overall effect size for the 14 studies evaluating the comparative effectiveness of SBME compared to traditional clinical medical education was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.65–0.76; P < .001). Conclusions Although the number of reports analyzed in this meta analysis is small, these results show that SBME with DP is superior to traditional clinical medical education in achieving specific clinical skill acquisition goals. SBME is a complex educational intervention that should be introduced thoughtfully and evaluated rigorously at training sites. Further research on incorporating SBME with DP into medical education is needed to amplify its power, utility, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:21512370

  5. Attitude, Knowledge, and Practice on Evidence-Based Nursing among Registered Nurses in Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals: A Multiple Center Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yufang; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study was to describe RNs' attitude, knowledge, and practice on evidence-based practice (EBP) in traditional Chinese nursing field and to estimate the related sociodemographic and professional factors. Methods. A multiple institutional cross-sectional survey design with self-reported EBP Questionnaire (EBPQ) and self-designed questionnaires were used. Results. The average scores of the total EBPQ were with a mean of 4.24 (SD = 0.79). The score of attitude was the highest one, followed by the knowledge score, and the lowest one is practice. RNs with longer experience reported stronger EBP knowledge (H = 6.64, P < 0.05). And RNs under higher working pressure reported less positive attitudes (ρ = 0.17, P < 0.001), whereas RNs holding negative professional attitude reported lower scores (Spearman's ρ: 0.12 to 0.15, P < 0.001). Significant statistics were found between RNs with research experience and without in attitude (t = −2.40, P < 0.05) and knowledge (t = −2.43, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Respondents generally viewed EBP positively and their attitudes towards EBP tended to be more positive than knowledge and practice of EBP. Data also showed that longer working experience, having administrative position, research experience, lighter working load, and better professional attitude might facilitate EBP. PMID:27528882

  6. Attitude, Knowledge, and Practice on Evidence-Based Nursing among Registered Nurses in Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals: A Multiple Center Cross-Sectional Survey in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fen; Hao, Yufang; Guo, Hong; Liu, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study was to describe RNs' attitude, knowledge, and practice on evidence-based practice (EBP) in traditional Chinese nursing field and to estimate the related sociodemographic and professional factors. Methods. A multiple institutional cross-sectional survey design with self-reported EBP Questionnaire (EBPQ) and self-designed questionnaires were used. Results. The average scores of the total EBPQ were with a mean of 4.24 (SD = 0.79). The score of attitude was the highest one, followed by the knowledge score, and the lowest one is practice. RNs with longer experience reported stronger EBP knowledge (H = 6.64, P < 0.05). And RNs under higher working pressure reported less positive attitudes (ρ = 0.17, P < 0.001), whereas RNs holding negative professional attitude reported lower scores (Spearman's ρ: 0.12 to 0.15, P < 0.001). Significant statistics were found between RNs with research experience and without in attitude (t = -2.40, P < 0.05) and knowledge (t = -2.43, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Respondents generally viewed EBP positively and their attitudes towards EBP tended to be more positive than knowledge and practice of EBP. Data also showed that longer working experience, having administrative position, research experience, lighter working load, and better professional attitude might facilitate EBP. PMID:27528882

  7. Impacts of traditional land use practices on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools of mountain ecosystems in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Anjana; Katzensteiner, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Crop production, animal husbandry and forestry are three closely interlinked components of land use systems in the mountains of Nepal. Forests are the major source of fuel wood, construction materials, fodder and litter. The latter is used as a bedding material for livestock and forms an important component of farmyard manure. In addition forest grazing by cattle is a common practice. Excessive extraction of biomass from the forest leads to a decline of soil organic matter and nutrient contents. On the landscape scale these negative effects will partly be compensated by positive effects on soil organic matter and nutrient stocks of arable soils. The experimental data base for a quantification of such effects at the scale of communities is however poor, in particular for Nepal. Understanding the impact of subsistence farming on ecosystems is imperative in order to recommend successful and sustainable land management practices. The aim of our study is to quantify effects of land use on carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes for mountain communities in Nepal. Results of a case study in the buffer zone area of the Sagarmatha National Park are presented. The potential vegetation comprises mixed forests of Quercus semicarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Tsuga dumosa. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil and vegetation were quantified for three different land use types, namely: forest with low human impact, forests with high human impact and agricultural land. The scale of disturbance of the forests has been classified by visual estimation considering the percentage of litter raked, number of lopped trees, and grazing intensity assessed by signs of trampling and the number of trails. After stratification of the community area, 20 plots of 10 m radius were established (17 forest plots, 3 plots for arable land) where biometric data of the vegetation were determined and sub-samples were taken for chemical analyses. Organic layers (litter remaining after litter raking) and soil

  8. [Overmedicalization: When too much medicine harms].

    PubMed

    Hanslik, T; Flahault, A

    2016-03-01

    Overmedicalization refers to non-validated medical practices, with no clear benefits, potentially harmful and therefore unnecessarily costly. Awareness is growing with respect to this serious public health problem. Permanent expansion of diagnostic or therapeutic interventions, disease mongering, inadequate management of diagnostic uncertainty, conflict of interest or lack of commitment by physicians and patients in shared decision making. Overmedicalization is made possible by a lack of training of health professionals and users on medical decision process. Only a multidisciplinary research program, involving medical and non-medical worlds, will allow the implementation of corrective actions. PMID:26586148

  9. Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

    2014-04-01

    A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety. PMID:24680078

  10. GDSII considered harmful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Alfred J.; Boone, Robert E.; Grobman, Warren D.; Browning, Clyde

    2002-03-01

    In recent years mask data preparation (MDP) has been complicated by a number of factors, including the introduction of resolution enhancement technologies such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase shift masks. These complications not only have led to significant increases in file sizes and computer runtimes, but they have also created an urgent need for data management tools -- MDP automation. Current practices rely on point solutions to specific problems, such as OPC; use outdated, proprietary, non-standard, informal or inefficient data formats; and just barely manage portions of the data flow via low-level scripting. Without automation, MDP requires human intervention, which leads to longer cycle times and more errors. Without adequate data interchange formats, automation cannot succeed. This paper examines MDP processes and data formats, and suggests opportunities for improvement. Within the context of existing data formats, we examine the effect of inadequate (e.g., proprietary) data formats on MDP flow. We also examine the closest thing to an open, formal, standard data format--GDSII--and suggest improvements and even a replacement based on the extensible markup language (XML).

  11. Thinking and practice of accelerating transformation of traditional Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoyan; Zhang, Yanhong; Hu, Jingqing; He, Liyun; Zhou, Xuezhong

    2011-06-01

    The gradual development of Chinese medicine is based on constant accumulation and summary of experience in clinical practice, but without the benefit of undergoing the experimental medicine stage. Although Chinese medicine has formed a systematic and unique theory system through thousands of years, with the development of evidence-based medicine, the bondage of the research methods of experience medicine to Chinese medicine is appearing. The rapid transition and transformation from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine have become important content in the development of Chinese medicine. According to the features of Chinese medicine, we propose the research idea of "taking two ways simultaneously," which is the study both in the ideal condition and in the real world. Analyzing and constructing the theoretical basis and methodology of clinical research in the real world, and building the stage for research technique is key to the effective clinical research of Chinese medicine. Only by gradually maturing and completing the clinical research methods of the real world could we realize "taking two ways simultaneously" and complementing each other, continuously produce scientific and reliable evidence of Chinese medicine, as well as transform and develop Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine. PMID:21695621

  12. Harm reduction: what it is and is not.

    PubMed

    Erickson, P G

    1995-01-01

    The meaning of the term "harm reduction" has changed over the decades of its existence but it is now increasingly being aligned with public health approaches. An agreed meaning for the term would be helpful and should be sought. Antecedents are easy to find. Emphasis on small achievable steps is an important element; neither inherently supportive of prohibition nor of legalization, harm reduction is essentially pragmatic and tends to favour regulatory approaches. HIV has focused attention on harm reduction but even in the illicit drug field, a strong tradition of research and policy with an identical philosophical framework can be traced back well before the AIDS era. Harm reduction primary prevention educational approaches are more open, honest and respectful of responsible decision making processes. With current illicit drug users, harm reduction emphasizes the need to understand existing individual control mechanisms. The concept can be well understood if contrasted with prevailing approaches to drugs which generally emphasize punishment, lack of regulation and often augment harm. PMID:16203322

  13. To Cause Harm and to be Harmed by Others: New Perspectives on Alcohol’s Harms to Others

    PubMed Central

    Seid, Abdu K.; Grittner, Ulrike; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bloomfield, Kim

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine how sociodemographic factors and alcohol consumption are related to a four-way typology of causing harm to others and/or being harmed by others’ and one’s own drinking. DATA AND METHODS Data from the 2011 Danish national survey (n = 2,569) were analyzed with multi nomial logistic regression. RESULTS Younger age and heavy drinking were significant correlates of both causing harm and being harmed. Women and better educated respondents were more likely to report negative effects on relationship and family from another’s drinking. Better educated respondents had higher risks for work, financial, or injury harms from another’s drinking. Mean alcohol consumption and risky single occasion drinking were related to both causing harm and being harmed from one’s own drinking. CONCLUSIONS Drinking variables were the strongest correlates of causing harm and being harmed. Efforts to reduce risky drinking may also help reduce exposures to collateral harm. PMID:26512203

  14. Ecstasy: as harmful as heroin?

    PubMed

    Scott, Russ

    2009-12-01

    There is evidence that the use of MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine), colloquially known as "ecstasy" particularly among late adolescents and young adults is increasing in Australia. Despite recent government-sponsored public education programs, there is a perception that recreational use of MDMA is much less harmful than other illicit substances like heroin. Recent seizures by police in Australia underline the extent of the demand for MDMA and how lucrative trafficking in MDMA has become. In two recent Australian cases, appellate courts considered the legislative intent of both State and Commonwealth legislation and held that a quantity-based penalty regime applied which distinguished between "traffickable" and "commercial" quantities of illicit drugs and that no distinction turned on the relative "harmfulness" of MDMA. In examining the question of harmfulness, this column summarises the pharmacology and morbidity of MDMA and considers the links between MDMA and other substances of abuse and the implications for further prevention programs. PMID:20169795

  15. Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.

    PubMed

    Ejlertsen, Maria; Poole, Jane; Marshall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention. PMID:22706889

  16. Responsible and controlled use: Older cannabis users and harm reduction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis use is becoming more accepted in mainstream society. In this paper, we use Zinberg’s classic theoretical framework of drug, set, and setting to elucidate how older adult cannabis users managed health, social and legal risks in a context of normalized cannabis use. Methods We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946–1964) cannabis users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data collection consisted of a recorded, in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analyzed to discover the factors of cannabis harm reduction from the users’ perspectives. Results Interviewees made harm reduction choices based on preferred cannabis derivatives and routes of administration, as well as why, when, where, and with whom to use. Most interviewees minimized cannabis-related harms so they could maintain social functioning in their everyday lives. Responsible and controlled use was described as moderation of quantity and frequency of cannabis used, using in appropriate settings, and respect for non-users. Users contributed to the normalization of cannabis use through normification. Conclusion Participants followed rituals or cultural practices, characterized by sanctions that helped define “normal” or “acceptable” cannabis use. Users contributed to cannabis normalization through their harm reduction methods. These cultural practices may prove to be more effective than formal legal prohibitions in reducing cannabis-related harms. Findings also suggest that users with access to a regulated market (medical cannabis dispensaries) were better equipped to practice harm reduction. More research is needed on both cannabis culture and alternative routes of administration as harm reduction methods. PMID:25911027

  17. Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…

  18. Western health practitioners' view about African traditional health practitioners' treatment and care of people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Summerton, J V

    2006-08-01

    African traditional health practitioners are an important source of health care for many South Africans. Thus, they are a health resource in this society. However, the integration of traditional health practitioners into the mainstream of health care is a complex process. Various factors contribute to this complexity, including the skepticism and reservation with which some western health practitioners view traditional health practitioners. This paper highlights the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the traditional healing system for people living with HIV/AIDS, as perceived by western health practitioners. The use of traditional practitioners as a choice of health care is attributed to both the strengths and weaknesses of this system of health care. The strength of the traditional healing system is in its sharing of the worldview and belief system of its users, it being an alternative to an inefficient western health care system (official system), privacy and absence of time limitations per consultation, treating patients psychologically, and scientifically unexplained physiological relief of the symptoms of specific illnesses. The perceived weaknesses of the traditional healing system include harmful treatment regimens, especially for people living with HIV/AIDS; prolonging the seeking of appropriate health care when traditional remedies fail to produce the desired effect; destroying interpersonal relationships of people living with HIV/AIDS through witchcraft accusations; psychological torment caused by the belief that HIV/AIDS can be cured by traditional remedies/intervention; and increasing the workload of western practitioners who are requested by patients to conduct multiple HIV tests after undergoing various traditional treatment regimens to cure HIV/AIDS. It is recommended that traditional practitioners be encouraged to adapt harmful traditional healing practices to the benefit of their patients in a non-judgemental and non-critical manner. In addition

  19. Women, harm reduction and HIV.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Sophie; Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2008-05-01

    Gender shapes the experience of drug use and its associated risks. In most parts of the world, however, harm reduction and drug treatment programmes that tailor their services to meet women's needs are rare or nonexistent. Many existing services inadvertently exclude women, and discriminatory policies and social stigma drive women drug users from care and expose them to human rights abuses. Women drug users often provide sex in exchange for housing, sustenance and protection, suffer violence from sexual partners and practise unsafe sex. This paper, drawing upon evidence from existing studies, examines ways in which gender-related factors can increase women drug users' vulnerability and decrease their access to harm reduction, drug treatment and sexual and reproductive health services. It recommends designing services with low-threshold access for women drug users that help them to become more independent, involving the women in designing services and policies, making programmes available for mothers, incorporating sexual and reproductive health into harm reduction services, providing gender-sensitive drug treatment and integrated harm reduction programmes for drug-using sex workers, connecting with domestic violence and rape prevention services and educating mainstream providers. Overall, investigating the circumstances women drug users face will help to formulate policies and programmes that better serve women who use drugs. PMID:18513618

  20. Hurt, Harm, and School Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozycki, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Nietzsche overlooks some possibilities. Something may not kill us, yet leave us sickly or crippled. But he is right, too. It may make us stronger. It is ancient wisdom that we grow through facing adversity: ad astra per aspera?to the stars through adversity. We know, too, that too much of something good may do us harm. One can overstudy, or…

  1. Self-harmful sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Hucker, S J

    1985-06-01

    This article reviews the types of sexual anomaly that are especially likely to result in the physical harm or even death of the affected individual. Detailed descriptions based on the literature and the author's clinical material are given. Despite widespread awareness of masochistic behavior, our knowledge of its causation and the most effective method of treatment are still incomplete. PMID:3895195

  2. Reducing Harm in Healthcare Systems.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Tim

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the importance of causation of medical errors is important for determining strategies to reduce the harm that they can cause to patients. This paper discusses how dentistry can learn from medicine as well as other industries when developing approaches designed to deal with the causes of errors, rather than their outcomes. PMID:26556517

  3. Delusions as harmful malfunctioning beliefs.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Kengo

    2015-05-01

    Delusional beliefs are typically pathological. Being pathological is clearly distinguished from being false or being irrational. Anna might falsely believe that his husband is having an affair but it might just be a simple mistake. Again, Sam might irrationally believe, without good evidence, that he is smarter than his colleagues, but it might just be a healthy self-deceptive belief. On the other hand, when a patient with brain damage caused by a car accident believes that his father was replaced by an imposter or another patient with schizophrenia believes that "The Organization" painted the shops on a street in red and green to convey a message, these beliefs are not merely false or irrational. They are pathological. What makes delusions pathological? This paper explores the negative features because of which delusional beliefs are pathological. First, I critically examine the proposals according to which delusional beliefs are pathological because of (1) their strangeness, (2) their extreme irrationality, (3) their resistance to folk psychological explanations or (4) impaired responsibility-grounding capacities of people with them. I present some counterexamples as well as theoretical problems for these proposals. Then, I argue, following Wakefield's harmful dysfunction analysis of disorder, that delusional beliefs are pathological because they involve some sorts of harmful malfunctions. In other words, they have a significant negative impact on wellbeing (=harmful) and, in addition, some psychological mechanisms, directly or indirectly related to them, fail to perform the jobs for which they were selected in the past (=malfunctioning). An objection to the proposal is that delusional beliefs might not involve any malfunctions. For example, they might be playing psychological defence functions properly. Another objection is that a harmful malfunction is not sufficient for something to be pathological. For example, false beliefs might involve some malfunctions

  4. Do no harm: a defense of markets in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kline, William

    2010-09-01

    This paper argues that the rules that constitute a market protect autonomy and increase welfare in healthcare. Markets do the former through protecting rights to self-ownership and a cluster of rights that protect its exercise. Markets protect welfare by organizing and protecting trades. In contrast, prohibition destroys legitimate markets, giving rise to so-called black markets that harm both the autonomy and well-being of agents. For example, a fee-for-service medical system is a highly developed and specialized market. It is individuals working together, through the division of labor, to provide mutual insurance. This coordination, and the benefits it makes possible, is not possible without injunctions against harm. Prohibitions on harm are not mere ethical niceties, they are practice rules for both healthcare and markets. Placing the doctor within a healthcare market actually reinforces the doctor's moral obligation, and the legal enforcement of that obligation, not to harm. Similarly, markets reinforce patient rights to self-determination through legal and institutional enforcement of the harm principle in the form of the protection of certain basic welfare rights to life, bodily integrity, property, trade, and contract. Since the establishment of markets protects agent autonomy and welfare, and prohibition directly harms the same, there are strong reasons for establishing markets to protect trade in precisely those areas where autonomy and well-being are most vulnerable to exploitation, for example, the trade in human kidneys. PMID:20799051

  5. The right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health care

    PubMed Central

    Stuttaford, Maria; Al Makhamreh, Sahar; Coomans, Fons; Harrington, John; Himonga, Chuma; Hundt, Gillian Lewando

    2014-01-01

    Background State parties to human rights conventions and declarations are often faced with the seemingly contradictory problem of having an obligation to protect people from harmful practices while also having an obligation to enable access to culturally appropriate effective healing. As people increasingly migrate across the globe, previous distinctions between ‘traditional’ and ‘complementary and alternative medicine’ practices are being transcended. There are connections across transnational healing pathways that link local, national, and global movements of people and knowledge. Objective This paper contributes to the development of the concept and practice of the right to health in all its forms, exploring the right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health (R2TCAH) across different contexts. Design The paper draws on four settings – England, South Africa, Kenya, and Jordan – and is based on key informant interviews and a literature review undertaken in 2010, and updated in 2013. The paper begins by reviewing the international legal context for the right to health. It then considers legal and professional regulations from the global north and south. Results Additional research is needed to establish the legal basis, compare regulatory frameworks, and explore patient and provider perspectives of regulation. This leads to being able to make recommendations on how to balance protection from harm and the obligation to ensure culturally appropriate services. Such an exploration must also challenge Western theories of human rights. Key concepts, such as individual harm, consent, and respect of the autonomy of the individual already established and recognised in international health law, could be adopted in the development of a template for future comparative research. Conclusions Exploration of the normative content of the right to health in all its forms will contribute to supporting traditional, complementary, and alternative health service

  6. Veterinarians and public practice at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine: building on a tradition of expertise and partnership.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Katherine A; Walters, Bettye K

    2008-01-01

    The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM), a regional veterinary college for Maryland and Virginia, has a long and unique tradition of encouraging careers in public and corporate veterinary medicine. The VMRCVM is home to the Center for Public and Corporate Veterinary Medicine (CPCVM), and each year approximately 10% of the veterinary students choose the public/corporate veterinary medicine track. The faculty of the CPCVM, and their many partners from the veterinary public practice community, teach in the veterinary curriculum and provide opportunities for students locally, nationally, and internationally during summers and the final clinical year. Graduates of the program work for government organizations, including the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as in research, in industry, and for non-governmental organizations. Recent activities include securing opportunities for students, providing career counseling for graduate veterinarians interested in making a career transition, delivering continuing education, and offering a preparatory course for veterinarians sitting the board examination for the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. As the VMRCVM moves forward in recognition of the changing needs of the veterinary profession, it draws on its tradition of partnership and capitalizes on the excellence of its existing program. Future plans for the CPCVM include possible expansion in the fields of public health, public policy, international veterinary medicine, organizational leadership, and the One Health initiative. Quality assurance and evaluation of the program is ongoing, with recognition that novel evaluation approaches will be useful and informative. PMID:18723808

  7. Palliative Care and Traditional Practices of Death and Dying in Wa'ab (Yap Proper) and in the Outer Islands of Yap

    PubMed Central

    Yalmadau, Kelly; Maluchmai, Maryann R; Tun, Petra; Yinnifel, Cyril; Hancock, W Thane

    2011-01-01

    Background Death remains one of the most important and significant activities in Yap, an event that involves the entire island. A death of a Yapese not only unites the family, it initiates a complex series of reaffirmed kinship ties, rituals and exchanges that refocus the entire community and create new social identities for the participants. How these ties, exchanges, and identities are changing due to new economic challenges and new social pressures were the focus of this preliminary study, which sought to document the resiliency or fragility of traditional structures, measured in the efforts around death and dying in Yap and to identify ways that the health care system can intervene to improve palliative care. Methods 226 persons (49 on Wa'ab - Yap Proper - and 177 on the Outer Islands) participated in 16 focus groups, of which eight were on Wa'ab and eight on four Outer Islands: Fais, Falalop, Fetherai, and Mogmog. We additionally conducted 6 semi-structured open-ended key informant interviews, added to capture more of Yap's enormous sociocultural diversity. Results The islands of Yap, particularly the Outer Islands, continue to support one of the world's best traditional palliative care involving the immediate family, more distant relatives and in many cases the entire community. However, participants showed considerable concern for ways that this system is weakening and offered numerous suggestions for improving and strengthening palliative care in Yap. Discussion Although caution must be exercised not to undermine the existing system, six recommendations on how the health system can intervene can be identified. These involve identifying a key resource person on each island; supplying small, practical “comfort care” kits; making more pain medication available; conducting regular home visits; improving patient-physician and physician-family communication; designing a suicide intervention strategy; and documenting existing variations of how the dying are

  8. Harm is all you need? Best interests and disputes about parental decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Birchley, Giles

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of bioethics papers endorse the harm threshold when judging whether to override parental decisions. Among other claims, these papers argue that the harm threshold is easily understood by lay and professional audiences and correctly conforms to societal expectations of parents in regard to their children. English law contains a harm threshold which mediates the use of the best interests test in cases where a child may be removed from her parents. Using Diekema's seminal paper as an example, this paper explores the proposed workings of the harm threshold. I use examples from the practical use of the harm threshold in English law to argue that the harm threshold is an inadequate answer to the indeterminacy of the best interests test. I detail two criticisms: First, the harm standard has evaluative overtones and judges are loath to employ it where parental behaviour is misguided but they wish to treat parents sympathetically. Thus, by focusing only on ‘substandard’ parenting, harm is problematic where the parental attempts to benefit their child are misguided or wrong, such as in disputes about withdrawal of medical treatment. Second, when harm is used in genuine dilemmas, court judgments offer different answers to similar cases. This level of indeterminacy suggests that, in practice, the operation of the harm threshold would be indistinguishable from best interests. Since indeterminacy appears to be the greatest problem in elucidating what is best, bioethicists should concentrate on discovering the values that inform best interests. PMID:26401048

  9. The Olympics and harm reduction?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent. The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping. PMID:22788912

  10. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  11. Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160387.html Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms? Researchers say drinkers wouldn' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lowering the alcohol content in beer and other drinks may help reduce their harmful ...

  12. Characteristics of commercial and traditional village poultry farming in Mali with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of avian influenza and Newcastle disease.

    PubMed

    Molia, Sophie; Traoré, Idrissa; Kamissoko, Badian; Diakité, Adama; Sidibé, Maimouna Sanogo; Sissoko, Kadiatou Diarra; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2015-10-01

    We aimed at characterizing commercial and traditional village poultry farming in Mali, with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Surveys were conducted in 2009-2011 in a study area covering approximately 98% of the Malian poultry population. Among the 282 commercial farms investigated, of which 64 had not been known by the government authorities, 83% were located within a 50km radius from the capitals of the country and regions and 54% had low biosecurity standard. Among the 152 randomly selected village household flocks investigated, characteristics were overall similar to those in other African countries but some differences were notable including a large flock size (median 44 poultry), a low presence of ducks and geese (11% and 1.1% of flocks, respectively), vaccination against Newcastle disease being common (49% of flocks), a low proportion of households selling sick and dead birds (0.7% and 0%, respectively) and limited cohabitation between poultry and humans at night. Our recommendations to limit the risk of disease transmission include (1) for commercial farms, to introduce compulsory farm registration and accreditation, to increase technical proficiency and access to credit for farms with low biosecurity, and to support poultry producer associations; (2) for village poultry, to promote better quarantine and management of sick and dead birds. Such detailed knowledge of country-specific characteristics of poultry production systems is essential to be able to develop more efficient disease risk management policies. PMID:26113175

  13. Will Large DSO-Managed Group Practices Be the Predominant Setting for Oral Health Care by 2025? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Large DSO-Managed Group Practices Will Be the Setting in Which the Majority of Oral Health Care Is Delivered by 2025 and Viewpoint 2: Increases in DSO-Managed Group Practices Will Be Offset by Models Allowing Dentists to Retain the Independence and Freedom of a Traditional Practice.

    PubMed

    Cole, James R; Dodge, William W; Findley, John S; Young, Stephen K; Horn, Bruce D; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L; Martin, Max M; Winder, Ronald L

    2015-05-01

    This Point/Counterpoint article discusses the transformation of dental practice from the traditional solo/small-group (partnership) model of the 1900s to large Dental Support Organizations (DSO) that support affiliated dental practices by providing nonclinical functions such as, but not limited to, accounting, human resources, marketing, and legal and practice management. Many feel that DSO-managed group practices (DMGPs) with employed providers will become the setting in which the majority of oral health care will be delivered in the future. Viewpoint 1 asserts that the traditional dental practice patterns of the past are shifting as many younger dentists gravitate toward employed positions in large group practices or the public sector. Although educational debt is relevant in predicting graduates' practice choices, other variables such as gender, race, and work-life balance play critical roles as well. Societal characteristics demonstrated by aging Gen Xers and those in the Millennial generation blend seamlessly with the opportunities DMGPs offer their employees. Viewpoint 2 contends the traditional model of dental care delivery-allowing entrepreneurial practitioners to make decisions in an autonomous setting-is changing but not to the degree nor as rapidly as Viewpoint 1 professes. Millennials entering the dental profession, with characteristics universally attributed to their generation, see value in the independence and flexibility that a traditional practice allows. Although DMGPs provide dentists one option for practice, several alternative delivery models offer current dentists and future dental school graduates many of the advantages of DMGPs while allowing them to maintain the independence and freedom a traditional practice provides. PMID:25941139

  14. Harms and deprivation of benefits for nonhuman primates in research.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope; Fuentes, Agustín

    2014-04-01

    The risks of harm to nonhuman primates, and the absence of benefits for them, are critically important to decisions about nonhuman primate research. Current guidelines for review and practice tend to be permissive for nonhuman primate research as long as minimal welfare requirements are fulfilled and human medical advances are anticipated. This situation is substantially different from human research, in which risks of harms to the individual subject are typically reduced to the extent feasible. A risk threshold is needed for the justification of research on nonhuman primates, comparable to the way risk thresholds are set for vulnerable human subjects who cannot provide informed consent. Much of the laboratory research conducted today has inadequate standards, leading to common physical, psychological, and social harms. PMID:24627264

  15. [Dutch parliament legitimizes harmful quackery].

    PubMed

    van Dam, Frits S A M; Renckens, Cees N M

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch parliament has recently accepted a tax law in which certain groups of alternative therapists can be exempt from VAT. To be eligible for this VAT exemption, the disciplines to which the therapists belong have to meet certain training requirements. In this article it is contended, in agreement with the Royal College of Physicians in the UK, that statutory regulation is inappropriate for disciplines whose therapies are neither of proved benefit nor appropriately tested. It legitimizes harmful therapies. This is illustrated by two serious accidents, previously described in this journal, caused by a chiropractor and a craniosacral therapist. PMID:20298623

  16. Harms titanium mesh cage fracture

    PubMed Central

    Klezl, Zdenek; Bookland, Markus J.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Rezek, Zdenek; Gokaslan, Ziya L.

    2007-01-01

    Interbody fusion has become a mainstay of surgical management for lumbar fractures, tumors, spondylosis, spondylolisthesis and deformities. Over the years, it has undergone a number of metamorphoses, as novel instrumentation and approaches have arisen to reduce complications and enhance outcomes. Interbody fusion procedures are common and successful, complications are rare and most often do not involve the interbody device itself. We present here a patient who underwent an anterior L4 corpectomy with Harms cage placement and who later developed a fracture of the lumbar titanium mesh cage (TMC). This report details the presentation and management of this rare complication, as well as discusses the biomechanics underlying this rare instrumentation failure. PMID:17497187

  17. Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

  18. Traditional Practicing with Arsenic Rich Water in Fish Industries Leads to Health Hazards in West Bengal and North-Eastern States of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 μg/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.

  19. Traditional African Dance Education as Curriculum Reimagination in Postcolonial Zimbabwe: A Rethink of Policy and Practice of Dance Education in the Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonye, Jairos; Moyo, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the teaching and learning of traditional dance at primary school level in Zimbabwe as a key aspect of postcolonial curriculum reimagination within the broader project of reclaiming a nation's heritage. The paper used the survey design to determine how a cohort of primary school teachers understood traditional dance and how they…

  20. Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

    The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

  1. Are cultic environments psychologically harmful?

    PubMed

    Aronoff, J; Lynn, S J; Malinoski, P

    2000-01-01

    This article is the first critical review of research that addresses the question of whether cult membership is psychologically harmful. The available evidence warrants three conclusions: (a) persons entering cults do not necessarily exhibit psychopathology; (b) current cult members appear psychologically well-adjusted generally, and demonstrate few conspicuous symptoms of psychopathology. However, pathology may be masked by conformity pressures and demand characteristics associated with the cultic environment; (c) a small but growing body of research indicates that at least a substantial minority of former cult members experience significant adjustment difficulties. There also are indications that these difficulties cannot be ascribed to demand characteristics. Although the review highlights definitional and methodological issues and problems that temper conclusions that can be drawn from the literature, no evidence indicates that cults improve adjustment after members leave the cultic environment. PMID:10660830

  2. Environments, risk and health harms: a qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Kimergård, Andreas; McVeigh, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The illicit use of anabolic steroids among the gym population continues to rise, along with the number of steroid using clients attending harm reduction services in the UK. This presents serious challenges to public health. Study objectives were to account for the experiences of anabolic steroid users and investigate how ‘risk environments’ produce harm. Methods Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 24 users of anabolic steroids engaged with harm reduction services in the UK. Results Body satisfaction was an important factor when deciding to start the use of anabolic steroids. Many users were unaware of the potential dangers of using drugs from the illicit market, whereas some had adopted a range of strategies to negotiate the hazards relating to the use of adulterated products, including self-experimentation to gauge the perceived efficacy and unwanted effects of these drugs. Viewpoints, first-hand anecdotes, norms and practices among groups of steroid users created boundaries of ‘sensible’ drug use, but also promoted practices that may increase the chance of harms occurring. Established users encouraged young users to go to harm reduction services but, at the same time, promoted risky injecting practices in the belief that this would enhance the efficacy of anabolic steroids. Conclusions Current steroid-related viewpoints and practices contribute to the risk environment surrounding the use of these drugs and may undermine the goal of current public health strategies including harm reduction interventions. The level of harms among anabolic steroid users are determined by multiple and intertwining factors, in addition to the harms caused by the pharmacological action or injury and illness associated with incorrect injecting techniques. PMID:24898090

  3. Monitoring Indicators of Harmful Cyanobacteria in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiesling, Richard L.; Gary, Robin H.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2008-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms can occur when certain types of microscopic algae grow quickly in water, forming visible patches that might harm the health of the environment, plants, or animals. In freshwater, species of Cyanobacteria (also known as bluegreen algae) are the dominant group of harmful, bloom-forming algae. When Cyanobacteria form a harmful algal bloom, potential impairments include restricted recreational activities because of algal scums or algal mats, potential loss of public water supply because of taste and odor compounds (for example, geosmin), and the production of toxins (for example, microcystin) in amounts capable of threatening human health and wildlife.

  4. Monitoring indicators of harmful cyanobacteria in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiesling, Richard L.; Gary, Robin H.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2008-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms can occur when certain types of microscopic algae grow quickly in water, forming visible patches that might harm the health of the environment, plants, or animals. In freshwater, species of Cyanobacteria (also known as bluegreen algae) are the dominant group of harmful, bloom-forming algae. When Cyanobacteria form a harmful algal bloom, potential impairments include restricted recreational activities because of algal scums or algal mats, potential loss of public water supply because of taste and odor compounds (for example, geosmin), and the production of toxins (for example, microcystin) in amounts capable of threatening human health and wildlife.

  5. Newborn cord care practices in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Susan; Norr, Kathleen; Sankar, Girija; Sipsma, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Newborn cord infections commonly lead to neonatal sepsis and death, particularly in low-resource countries where newborns may receive unhygienic cord care. Topical application of chlorhexidine to the newborn's cord has been shown to prevent infection. Such benefits may be particularly important in Haiti. We explored current cord care practices by conducting a qualitative study using five focus groups among key community stakeholders (mothers of newborns/children under age two years, pregnant women, traditional birth attendants, community health workers, traditional healers) in Petit-Goâve, Haiti. Data collection was guided by the Health Belief Model. Results suggest community stakeholders recognise that infants are susceptible to cord infection and that cord infection is a serious threat to newborns. Long-held traditional cord care practices are potential barriers to adopting a new cord care intervention. However, all groups acknowledged that traditional practices could be harmful to the newborn while expressing a willingness to adopt practices that would protect the newborn. Results demonstrate potential acceptability for altering traditional cord care practices among neonatal caretakers in Haiti. An informational campaign designed to educate local health workers and new mothers to eliminate unhygienic cord applications while promoting chlorhexidine application may be a strong approach for preventing neonatal cord infections. PMID:25727359

  6. The Scientometric Bubble Considered Harmful.

    PubMed

    Génova, Gonzalo; Astudillo, Hernán; Fraga, Anabel

    2016-02-01

    This article deals with a modern disease of academic science that consists of an enormous increase in the number of scientific publications without a corresponding advance of knowledge. Findings are sliced as thin as salami and submitted to different journals to produce more papers. If we consider academic papers as a kind of scientific 'currency' that is backed by gold bullion in the central bank of 'true' science, then we are witnessing an article-inflation phenomenon, a scientometric bubble that is most harmful for science and promotes an unethical and antiscientific culture among researchers. The main problem behind the scenes is that the impact factor is used as a proxy for quality. Therefore, not only for convenience, but also based on ethical principles of scientific research, we adhere to the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment when it emphasizes "the need to eliminate the use of journal-based metrics in funding, appointment and promotion considerations; and the need to assess research on its own merits rather on the journal in which the research is published". Our message is mainly addressed to the funding agencies and universities that award tenures or grants and manage research programmes, especially in developing countries. The message is also addressed to well-established scientists who have the power to change things when they participate in committees for grants and jobs. PMID:25689931

  7. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-21

    Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children.

  8. Practice.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    Practice refers to a characteristic way professionals use common standards to customize solutions to a range of problems. Practice includes (a) standards for outcomes and processes that are shared with one's colleagues, (b) a rich repertoire of skills grounded in diagnostic acumen, (c) an ability to see the actual and the ideal and work back and forth between them, (d) functional artistry, and (e) learning by doing that transcends scientific rationality. Communities of practice, such as dental offices, are small groups that work together in interlocking roles to achieve these ends. PMID:19413050

  9. The Efficacy of Three Learning Methods Collaborative, Context-Based Learning and Traditional, on Learning, Attitude and Behaviour of Undergraduate Nursing Students: Integrating Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Communication skills training, responsibility, respect, and self-awareness are important indexes of changing learning behaviours in modern approaches. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of three learning approaches, collaborative, context-based learning (CBL), and traditional, on learning, attitude, and behaviour of undergraduate nursing students. Materials and Methods This study was a clinical trial with pretest and post-test of control group. The participants were senior nursing students. The samples were randomly assigned to three groups; CBL, collaborative, and traditional. To gather data a standard questionnaire of students’ behaviour and attitude was administered prior to and after the intervention. Also, the rate of learning was investigated by a researcher-developed questionnaire prior to and after the intervention in the three groups. Results In CBL and collaborative training groups, the mean score of behaviour and attitude increased after the intervention. But no significant association was obtained between the mean scores of behaviour and attitude prior to and after the intervention in the traditional group. However, the mean learning score increased significantly in the CBL, collaborative, and traditional groups after the study in comparison to before the study. Conclusion Both CBL and collaborative approaches were useful in terms of increased respect, self-awareness, self-evaluation, communication skills and responsibility as well as increased motivation and learning score in comparison to traditional method. PMID:27190926

  10. Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

  11. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  12. Practitioner Review: Self-Harm in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ougrin, Dennis; Tranah, Troy; Leigh, Eleanor; Taylor, Lucy; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum

    2012-01-01

    Background: Repeated self-harm in adolescents is common and associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm there have been few systematic reviews of the topic. Aims: The main aim of this article is to review randomised controlled…

  13. TEXAS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM COORDINATION MX964014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly � of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...

  14. Alcohol policy and harm reduction in Australia.

    PubMed

    Loxley, Wendy; Gray, Dennis; Wilkinson, Celia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Midford, Richard; Moore, David

    2005-11-01

    With consultations having been held across Australia this year as part of the process of developing a new National Alcohol Strategy, it seemed timely to invite my colleagues from the National Drug Research Institute who are experts in the alcohol field to write this Harm Reduction Digest. The authors have canvassed a range of alcohol policy options and discussed their effectiveness in reducing harm for what is arguably Australia's number one drug problem. Australia's response to alcohol and other drug problems has, historically, been based on 'harm minimization--incorporating supply reduction, demand reduction and harm reduction'. At this time where the policy options for alcohol are being set for the next 5 years in a climate of 'small government', removing restrictions of 'fair competition' in business and a belief in the free market, what does the research have to say about recommended policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm? PMID:16361215

  15. Online drug user-led harm reduction in Hungary: a review of “Daath”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Harm reduction has been increasingly finding its way into public drug policies and healthcare practices worldwide, with successful intervention measures justifiably focussing on the highest-risk groups, such as injecting drug users. However, there are also other types of drug users in need for harm reduction, even though they pose less, low, or no public health risk. Occasionally, drug users may autonomously organise themselves into groups to provide advocacy, harm reduction, and peer-help services, sometimes online. The http://www.daath.hu website has been operated since 2001 by the “Hungarian Psychedelic Community”, an unorganised drug user group with a special interest in hallucinogenic and related substances. As of today, the website serves about 1200 visitors daily, and the online community comprises of more than 8000 registered members. The Daath community is driven by a strong commitment to the policy of harm reduction in the form of various peer-help activities that aim to expand harm reduction without promoting drug use. Our review comprehensively summarises Daath’s user-led harm reduction services and activities from the last ten years, firstly outlining the history and growth phases of Daath, along with its self-set guidelines and policies. Online services (such as a discussion board, and an Ecstasy pill database) and offline activities (such as Ecstasy pill field testing, and a documentary film about psychedelics) are described. In order to extend its harm reduction services and activities in the future, Daath has several social, commercial, and legislative challenges to face. Starting with a need to realign its focus, outlooks for the upcoming operation of Daath are pondered. Future trends in harm reduction, such as separating harm-decreasing from benefit-increasing, are also discussed. We aim to share these innovative harm reduction measures and good practices in order to be critically assessed, and – if found useful – adapted and applied

  16. Online drug user-led harm reduction in Hungary: a review of "Daath".

    PubMed

    Móró, Levente; Rácz, József

    2013-01-01

    Harm reduction has been increasingly finding its way into public drug policies and healthcare practices worldwide, with successful intervention measures justifiably focussing on the highest-risk groups, such as injecting drug users. However, there are also other types of drug users in need for harm reduction, even though they pose less, low, or no public health risk. Occasionally, drug users may autonomously organise themselves into groups to provide advocacy, harm reduction, and peer-help services, sometimes online. The http://www.daath.hu website has been operated since 2001 by the "Hungarian Psychedelic Community", an unorganised drug user group with a special interest in hallucinogenic and related substances. As of today, the website serves about 1200 visitors daily, and the online community comprises of more than 8000 registered members. The Daath community is driven by a strong commitment to the policy of harm reduction in the form of various peer-help activities that aim to expand harm reduction without promoting drug use. Our review comprehensively summarises Daath's user-led harm reduction services and activities from the last ten years, firstly outlining the history and growth phases of Daath, along with its self-set guidelines and policies. Online services (such as a discussion board, and an Ecstasy pill database) and offline activities (such as Ecstasy pill field testing, and a documentary film about psychedelics) are described. In order to extend its harm reduction services and activities in the future, Daath has several social, commercial, and legislative challenges to face. Starting with a need to realign its focus, outlooks for the upcoming operation of Daath are pondered. Future trends in harm reduction, such as separating harm-decreasing from benefit-increasing, are also discussed. We aim to share these innovative harm reduction measures and good practices in order to be critically assessed, and--if found useful--adapted and applied elsewhere

  17. Developing a Community of Inquiry in a Face-to-Face Class: How an Online Learning Framework Can Enrich Traditional Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Alfred G.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional classes are typically bound both in the classroom space and scheduled time. In this article, I show how applying an online learning framework called the Community of Inquiry and an organizational architecture of matrixed teams has worked in a face-to-face capstone class and extended those boundaries. These were introduced as an…

  18. Traditional/Alternative Medicine: An Investigation into Identification, Knowledge and Consumption Practices of Herbal Medicine among Students with Hearing Impairment in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniyi, Samuel O.; Olufemi-Adeniyi, Olubukola A.; Erinoso, Sakiru M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of traditional medicine as alternative or complimentary therapy is gaining prominence in primary health care worldwide. This is because of the efficacy in the management of mild, chronic seemingly incurable ailments/diseases. Though the publicity is on the increase from country to country in the world, however, one cannot conclude that the…

  19. A Comparison of Preservice Teachers' Responses to Cyber versus Traditional Bullying Scenarios: Similarities and Differences and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Michael J.; Hardcastle, Katryna; Down, James; Fowles, John; Simmonds, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies indicate that teachers differ in how they respond to different kinds of traditional bullying, and that their beliefs predict their intervention intentions. The current study provided the first extension of this work into the realm of cyber bullying. Preservice teachers in the United Kingdom ("N" = 222) were presented with…

  20. GPs role identifying young people who self-harm: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Fiona; Stallard, Paul; Cooney, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-harm is common among young people and is evident in increasingly younger age groups. Many young people who self-harm do visit their GP but do not access specialist support. GP’s can find it challenging to raise and discuss this sensitive subject with young people during short consultations. Objective: To explore GP’s capabilities, motivations and opportunities for discussing self-harm and to identify barriers to and enablers for proactively discussing self-harm with young people. Design and setting: An exploratory, mixed methods study was designed comprising an online survey and a qualitative interview study with GPs in the South West of England. Methods: An online survey was completed by 28 GPs. Ten GPs took part by telephone, in semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques and thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. Findings from the quantitative and qualitative analysis are synthesized to illustrate GPs’ skills, knowledge and perceptions about young people who self-harm. Results: Experienced GPs may underestimate the prevalence of self-harm in young people, particularly in the 11–14 age range. While consultations with young people and their carers can be challenging, GPs acknowledge that it is their role to provide support for young people who self-harm. GPs would welcome training for themselves and other practice staff in talking to young people and practical information about self-harm. Conclusion: All primary care staff who provide frontline support to young people should receive education and practical training in talking about self-harm. PMID:25957173

  1. Esoteric healing traditions: a conceptual overview.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, a comprehensive scholarly examination of the history and principles of major traditions of esoteric healing. After a brief conceptual overview of esoteric religion and healing, summaries are provided of eight major esoteric traditions, including descriptions of beliefs and practices related to health, healing, and medicine. These include what are termed the kabbalistic tradition, the mystery school tradition, the gnostic tradition, the brotherhoods tradition, the Eastern mystical tradition, the Western mystical tradition, the shamanic tradition, and the new age tradition. Next, commonalities across these traditions are summarized with respect to beliefs and practices related to anatomy and physiology; nosology and etiology; pathophysiology; and therapeutic modalities. Finally, the implications of this survey of esoteric healing are discussed for clinicians, biomedical researchers, and medical educators. PMID:18316053

  2. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods. PMID:26364776

  3. [Self-harm in fiction literature].

    PubMed

    Skårderud, Finn

    2009-04-16

    European literature contains fictional descriptions of self-harm and self-punishment over a time span of almost 2 500 years. This article presents such descriptions, from Sofocles' tragedy about King Oedipus to contemporary literature. Particular interest is dedicated to the Austrian Nobel prize laureate Elfriede Jelinek and the Norwegian author Karl Ove Knausgård. In Jelinek's fictional universe, self-harm is particularly related to the topic of autonomy in a family context; while Knausgård describes the role of shame in triggering and sustaining self-harming behaviour. PMID:19373315

  4. Deliberate self-harm in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lauw, Michelle; How, Choon How; Loh, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm refers to an intentional act of causing physical injury to oneself without wanting to die. It is frequently encountered in adolescents who have mental health problems. Primary care physicians play an important role in the early detection and timely intervention of deliberate self-harm in adolescents. This article aims to outline the associated risk factors and possible aetiologies of deliberate self-harm in adolescents, as well as provide suggestions for clinical assessment and appropriate management within the primary care setting. PMID:26106236

  5. The use of video conferencing to develop a community of practice for preceptors located in rural and non traditional placement settings: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Zournazis, Helen E; Marlow, Annette H

    2015-03-01

    Support for nursing students in rural and non-traditional health environments within Tasmania is predominately undertaken by preceptors. It is recognised that preceptors who work within these environments, require support in their role and opportunities to communicate with academic staff within universities. Multiple methods of information distribution support and networking opportunities provide preceptors with flexible options to keep them abreast of the student learning process. This paper presents survey findings from preceptors in rural and non-traditional professional experience placement environments taken from a pilot project regarding the implementation of video conferencing forums for education and peer networking in Tasmania. The purpose of the evaluation was to establish whether video conferencing met the requirements of preceptors' understanding of learning and teaching requirements during students' professional experience placement. The findings reveal preceptors' workload pressures and the need for organisational support were key barriers that prevented preceptor participation. PMID:25434830

  6. Practice of traditional Chinese medicine for psycho-behavioral intervention improves quality of life in cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dapeng; Wang, Chunli; Duan, Yangyang; Li, Xiaofen; Zhou, Shiyu; Zhao, Mingjie; Li, Yi; He, Yumin; Wang, Shaowu; Kelley, Keith W.; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer patients suffer from diverse symptoms, including depression, anxiety, pain, and fatigue and lower quality of life (QoL) during disease progression. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of Traditional Chinese Medicine psycho-behavioral interventions (TCM PBIs) on improving QoL by meta-analysis. Methods Electronic literature databases (PubMed, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang) were searched for randomized, controlled trials conducted in China. The primary intervention was TCM PBIs. The main outcome was health-related QoL (HR QoL) post-treatment. We applied standard meta analytic techniques to analyze data from papers that reached acceptable criteria. Results The six TCM PBIs analyzed were acupuncture, Chinese massage, Traditional Chinese Medicine five elements musical intervention (TCM FEMI), Traditional Chinese Medicine dietary supplement (TCM DS), Qigong and Tai Chi. Although both TCM PBIs and non-TCM PBIs reduced functional impairments in cancer patients and led to pain relief, depression remission, reduced time to flatulence following surgery and sleep improvement, TCM PBIs showed more beneficial effects as assessed by reducing both fatigue and gastrointestinal distress. In particular, acupuncture relieved fatigue, reduced diarrhea and decreased time to flatulence after surgery in cancer patients, while therapeutic Chinese massage reduced time to flatulence and time to peristaltic sound. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the efficacy of TCM PBIs in improving QoL in cancer patients and establish that TCM PBIs represent beneficial adjunctive therapies for cancer patients. PMID:26498685

  7. Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems. PMID:23740348

  8. Panel Reviews Benefits and Harms of CT Scans for Lung Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    A panel of experts has reviewed the evidence regarding the benefits and harms of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (CT) and concluded that the technology may benefit some individuals at high risk for lung cancer. But the panel cautioned that many questions remain about the potential harms of screening and how to translate screening into clinical practice. |

  9. High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

  10. Harmful Interactions: Mixing Alcohol with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Interactions Print version Harmful Interactions Mixing Alcohol With Medicines You’ve probably seen this warning on medicines ... falls and serious injuries, especially among older people. Medicines may have many ingredients Some medications—including many ...

  11. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say inflammation or cigarette ... a significant risk to kidney health for black Americans, new research suggests. The study included more than ...

  12. Heavy Drinking Might Harm the Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160283.html Heavy Drinking Might Harm the Lungs Alcohol appears to reduce ... 2016 FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heavy drinking may increase the risk of lung problems, a ...

  13. Harm reduction-the cannabis paradox

    PubMed Central

    Melamede, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids) as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive). Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately. PMID:16179090

  14. [West African childbirth traditions].

    PubMed

    Hallgren, R

    1983-11-01

    Religious and medical practices are steeped in the traditions of West African culture vis-a-vis childbirth. It is customary for delivery to occur with the woman squatting on the ground surrounded by sisters and female relatives, some of whom function as midwives. Midwives get paid only if delivery is successful. A stool is also often used in childbirth. The name given to a child in the Yoruba tribe in Nigeria has to refer to the circumstances of the individual's birth. The contact with the earth (as in the squatting position) has religious overtones--it indicates the fecundity of the earth, and the mother's contact with it. Infertility is considered the greatest tragedy in traditional African society. In Senegal, a childless woman pays a fertile one a certain sum in return for bearing her a child who would be raised as her own (this tradition is not unlike surrogate motherhood in Western countries). Men are never present at birth; however, in urban settings this practice is changing. The burial of the placenta and umbilical cord is thought to restore the woman's fertility and help heal her womb. This practice was even recorded in 19th century Sweden harkening back to heathen times. In Ghana, an infertile woman urinates on the ground where the placenta is buried in the belief that her fertility will be restored. The birth of twins is regarded as a great blessing, and as a sign of fertility; however, the inability of the mother to breast-feed both twins may result in the death of the weaker child. The harmony of nature, animals, and human beings is paramount in traditional West Africa religion and life, and undoubtedly Western culture could learn from some of these beliefs. PMID:6558064

  15. E-Cigarette Awareness and Perceived Harmfulness

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Andy S.L.; Bigman, Cabral A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are increasingly advertised as replacements for regular cigarettes or cessation aids for smokers. Purpose To describe the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness among U.S. adults and analyze whether these variables are associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts and intention to quit. Methods Data were obtained from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4 Cycle 2), conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Data analyses were performed from June to August 2013. Results Overall, 77% of respondents were aware of e-cigarettes. Of these, 51% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes. Younger, white (compared with Hispanic), more educated respondents, and current or former smokers (compared with non-smokers) were more likely to be aware of e-cigarettes. Among those who were aware of e-cigarettes, younger, more educated respondents and current smokers (compared with former and non-smokers) were more likely to believe that e-cigarettes were less harmful. Awareness and perceived harm were not associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts or intention to quit. Conclusions Overall e-cigarette awareness increased while smokers’ perceived harm of e-cigarettes declined compared with earlier surveys. However, awareness and perceived harm of e-cigarettes did not show evidence of promoting smoking cessation at the population level. PMID:24794422

  16. Harm mediates the disgust-immorality link.

    PubMed

    Schein, Chelsea; Ritter, Ryan S; Gray, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    Many acts are disgusting, but only some of these acts are immoral. Dyadic morality predicts that disgusting acts should be judged as immoral to the extent that they seem harmful. Consistent with this prediction, 3 studies reveal that perceived harm mediates the link between feelings of disgust and moral condemnation-even for ostensibly harmless "purity" violations. In many cases, accounting for perceived harm completely eliminates the link between disgust and moral condemnation. Analyses also reveal the predictive power of anger and typicality/weirdness in moral judgments of disgusting acts. The mediation of disgust by harm holds across diverse acts including gay marriage, sex acts, and religious blasphemy. Revealing the endogenous presence and moral relevance of harm within disgusting-but-ostensibly harmless acts argues against modular accounts of moral cognition such as moral foundations theory. Instead, these data support pluralistic conceptions of harm and constructionist accounts of morality and emotion. Implications for moral cognition and the concept of "purity" are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100369

  17. Self-harm in young offenders.

    PubMed

    Borschmann, Rohan; Coffey, Carolyn; Moran, Paul; Hearps, Stephen; Degenhardt, Louisa; Kinner, Stuart A; Patton, George

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence and correlates of self-harm and suicidal behavior in 515 young offenders (mean age 17.3 years, SD = 1.7) serving community-based orders (CBOs; n = 242) or custodial sentences (n = 273) in Victoria, Australia, are described. Results from structured interviews showed that 83 (16.1%) participants reported self-harming in the previous 6 months, and this was more common among those serving custodial sentences than those serving CBOs (19.4% vs. 12.4%; OR 3.10, 95% CI: 1.74-5.55). Multiple incidents were more common in females and 24% (95% CI: 19-39) of participants who had self-harmed reported having done so with suicidal intent. Self-harm was associated with recent bullying victimization, expulsion from school, past year violent victimization, cannabis dependence, and risk-taking behavior in the preceding year. The epidemiological profile of self-harm in this population appears to be distinct from that seen in the general population. Young offenders who self-harm are a vulnerable group with high rates of psychiatric morbidity, substance misuse problems, and social risk factors. They may benefit from targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, delivered both within-and during the transition from-the youth justice system. PMID:24773535

  18. Authority dependence and judgments of utilitarian harm.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Jared; Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin

    2013-09-01

    Three studies tested the conditions under which people judge utilitarian harm to be authority dependent (i.e., whether its right or wrongness depends on the ruling of an authority). In Study 1, participants judged the right or wrongness of physical abuse when used as an interrogation method anticipated to yield useful information for preventing future terrorist attacks. The ruling of the military authority towards the harm was manipulated (prohibited vs. prescribed) and found to significantly influence judgments of the right or wrongness of inflicting harm. Study 2 established a boundary condition with regards to the influence of authority, which was eliminated when the utility of the harm was definitely obtained rather than forecasted. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of Studies 1-2 in a completely different context-an expert committee's ruling about the harming of chimpanzees for biomedical research. These results are discussed as they inform ongoing debates regarding the role of authority in moderating judgments of complex and simple harm. PMID:23747648

  19. Is harm reduction profitable? An analytical framework for corporate social responsibility based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption.

    PubMed

    Massin, Sophie

    2012-06-01

    This article aims to help resolve the apparent paradox of producers of addictive goods who claim to be socially responsible while marketing a product clearly identified as harmful. It advances that reputation effects are crucial in this issue and that determining whether harm reduction practices are costly or profitable for the producers can help to assess the sincerity of their discourse. An analytical framework based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption that includes a deterrent effect of heavy use on initiation is developed. This framework enables us to establish a clear distinction between a simple responsible discourse and genuine harm reduction practices and, among harm reduction practices, between use reduction practices and micro harm reduction practices. Using simulations based on tobacco sales in France from 1950 to 2008, we explore the impact of three corresponding types of actions: communication on damage, restraining selling practices and development of safer products on total sales and on the social cost. We notably find that restraining selling practices toward light users, that is, preventing light users from escalating to heavy use, can be profitable for the producer, especially at early stages of the epidemic, but that such practices also contribute to increase the social cost. These results suggest that the existence of a deterrent effect of heavy use on the initiation of the consumption of an addictive good can shed new light on important issues, such as the motivations for corporate social responsibility and the definition of responsible actions in the particular case of harm reduction. PMID:22475402

  20. Learning a New Approach to Teach in a Traditional Context: A Case of Thai Primary School Teachers Making Fundamental Changes in Their Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namfa, Benjalug

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a unique professional development model and its contribution to teachers' practice. The study also sought to understand the process of teacher learning as teachers made fundamental changes in their teaching. The new model of professional development was implemented in the context of the Social Forestry, Education and…

  1. Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate…

  2. The impact of self-harm by young people on parents and families: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrey, Anne E; Hughes, Nicholas D; Simkin, Sue; Locock, Louise; Stewart, Anne; Kapur, Navneet; Gunnell, David; Hawton, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little research has explored the full extent of the impact of self-harm on the family. This study aimed to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person's self-harm on parents and family. Design and participants We used qualitative methods to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person's self-harm on their parents and family. We conducted a thematic analysis of thirty-seven semistructured narrative interviews with parents of young people who had self-harmed. Results After the discovery of self-harm, parents described initial feelings of shock, anger and disbelief. Later reactions included stress, anxiety, feelings of guilt and in some cases the onset or worsening of clinical depression. Social isolation was reported, as parents withdrew from social contact due to the perceived stigma associated with self-harm. Parents also described significant impacts on siblings, ranging from upset and stress to feelings of responsibility and worries about stigma at school. Siblings had mixed responses, but were often supportive. Practically speaking, parents found the necessity of being available to their child often conflicted with the demands of full-time work. This, along with costs of, for example, travel and private care, affected family finances. However, parents generally viewed the future as positive and hoped that with help, their child would develop better coping mechanisms. Conclusions Self-harm by young people has major impacts on parents and other family members. Clinicians and staff who work with young people who self-harm should be sensitive to these issues and offer appropriate support and guidance for families. PMID:26739734

  3. Smoking and harm-reduction efforts among postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Muramoto, Myra

    2008-09-01

    The authors present findings from a qualitative study on postpartum smoking among low-income women ( N = 44) who had been smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Interview data collected after delivery at Months 1, 3, and 6 postpartum are discussed to explore contextual factors contributing to smoking abstinence, relapse, and harm-reduction practices. By 6 months postpartum, 10 women (23%) had completely quit, 21 women (48%) had reduced their smoking by 50% of their prepregnancy levels, and 7 women (16%) had reduced their smoking by one third of their prepregnancy levels. Thus, the majority of the women were engaging in significant harm-reduction efforts despite being entrenched in high-risk smoking environments where they were provided with few messages to quit. Many mothers were concerned about their moral identity as a smoker and expressed concerns that their child might initiate smoking at an early age. Future programs targeting this population should acknowledge women's harm-reduction efforts in environments where smoking is normative. PMID:18689532

  4. Runoff and soil loss under different land management practices in vineyards: grass cover treatments and traditional tillage. Results from simulated rainfall.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramon; Marques, Maria-Jose

    2010-05-01

    Land degradation control is crucial in croplands located in semiarid lands, due to its low soil formation rate, above all in slope fields. This study is located in the South East of Madrid (Spain), in a vineyard at 800 masl under Mediterranean semiarid climatic conditions, with an average slope of 14%. We studied the impact of traditional tillage measuring runoff and soil loss in plots in two critical moments of the vineyard crop: summer with dry soil, and fall when tillage is done in order to facilitate the infiltration of winter rainfalĺs water. Three treatments were tested in nine erosion plots (4m x 0,5m): traditional tillage ("till"); Brachypodium distachyon (L.) ("bra") allowing self-sowing; Secale cereale ("sec"), mown in early spring. Short (15 minutes) but intense (2,16 mm/min) simulated rainfalls were carried out at each plot: The simulated rainfalls made in summer over the vineyard tilled in spring ("till") produced little runoff (41 ml min-1; erosion rate of 0.24 g m-2) and it lasted 6 min from the start of the shower, it was due to the roughness and because the soil was near its wilting point. The low erosion rate is attributable to the sealing of soil after the rains occurred in spring. In treatments with plant cover runoff began earlier, at the 3rd minute. The average runoff was 516 and 730 ml min-1 and erosion rates were 3.04 g m-2 and 1.41 g m-2 in "bra" and "sec" respectively. There were significant differences (F = 31.6, P <0.001) in runoff coefficient between the three treatments with the highest ratio shown in "sec". The average runoff coefficients obtained were 16% in "sec", 13% in "bra" and 1.4% in "till". Moreover two simulated rainfalls were carried out in autumn in order to test the effect of the autumnal traditional tillage. The plant cover treatments were efficient controlling the erosion (sediment yield were in "till"; "sec" and "bra" respectively 2.66, 0. 29, 0. 11 g m-2 in the first simulation, and 11.67, 0.66, 0.14 g m-2 in the

  5. Traditional Chinese drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, John K

    2003-12-01

    More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. PMID:14747850

  6. The fading links between tradition and oral health in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Y H

    1984-12-01

    Singapore is an island republic of 616 km2. Four main ethnic groups make up its population of 2.4 million; these are the Chinese, Malays, Indians and others. Singapore's successful housing, industrialization and modernization programmes have caused tremendous changes in the lifestyles and expectations of the people. This very success has rendered some traditional customs impractical and irrelevant. Older Indians and Malay women still chew betel-nut. During the Hindu Thaipusam ceremony a traditional practice of dental interest is the piercing of devotees' cheeks and tongues with slivers of silver. There is no pain, bleeding or permanent tissue damage. The Chinese pick their teeth, crack melon seeds and scrape their tongues every morning. They also drink large quantities of unsweetened tea. Yet they remain caries-prone. Singaporeans have recently adopted the practice of eating at all hours of the day and night. This may have a bearing on their future caries state. Singapore has two categories of dental practitioner: the graduate and the registered but unqualified dentist who is invariably of Chinese descent. The swaged metal crown over sound and diseased tooth structure is frequently the unfortunate trademark of the latter. Often abscesses and cysts develop beneath these crowns. Successful dental health programmes have produced a DMFT of 2.8 in 12-year-old children, which betters the DMF target of 3.0 set by WHO for the year 2000. The progressive outlook of Singaporeans may eventually reduce further the number of traditional practices which are harmful to oral health. PMID:6597130

  7. Is human existence worth its consequent harm?

    PubMed Central

    Doyal, Len

    2007-01-01

    Benatar argues that it is better never to have been born because of the harms always associated with human existence. Non‐existence entails no harm, along with no experience of the absence of any benefits that existence might offer. Therefore, he maintains that procreation is morally irresponsible, along with the use of reproductive technology to have children. Women should seek termination if they become pregnant and it would be better for potential future generations if humans become extinct as soon as humanely possible. These views are challenged by the argument that while decisions not to procreate may be rational on the grounds of the harm that might occur, it may equally rational to gamble under certain circumstances that future children would be better‐off experiencing the harms and benefits of life rather than never having the opportunity of experiencing anything. To the degree that Benatar's arguments preclude the potential rationality of any such gamble, their moral relevance to concrete issues concerning human reproduction is weakened. However, he is right to emphasise the importance of foreseen harm when decisions are made to attempt to have children. PMID:17906053

  8. Assessing the likely harms to kidney vendors in regulated organ markets.

    PubMed

    Koplin, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Advocates of paid living kidney donation frequently argue that kidney sellers would benefit from paid donation under a properly regulated kidney market. The poor outcomes experienced by participants in existing markets are often entirely attributed to harmful black-market practices. This article reviews the medical and anthropological literature on the physical, psychological, social, and financial harms experienced by vendors under Iran's regulated system of donor compensation and black markets throughout the world and argues that this body of research not only documents significant harms to vendors, but also provides reasons to believe that such harms would persist under a regulated system. This does not settle the question of whether or not a regulated market should be introduced, but it does strengthen the case against markets in kidneys while suggesting that those advocating such a system cannot appeal to the purported benefits to vendors to support their case. PMID:25229573

  9. Bullying victimization and adolescent self-harm: testing hypotheses from general strain theory.

    PubMed

    Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

    2010-05-01

    Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation. The data come from a school-based survey of adolescents in a rural county of a southeastern state (n = 426); 50% of subjects are female, their mean age was 15 years, and non-Hispanic whites represent 66% of the sample. The analysis revealed that both types of bullying are positively related to self-harm and suicidal ideation, net of controls. Moreover, those relationships are partially mediated by the negative emotions experienced by those who are bullied and partially moderated by features of the adolescent's social environment and self. Regarding the latter, exposure to authoritative parenting and high self-control diminished the harmful effects of bullying victimization on self-harm and suicidal ideation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these conclusions for future research and for policy efforts designed to reduce self-harm. PMID:20072852

  10. Comparison of an effect-model-law-based method versus traditional clinical practice guidelines for optimal treatment decision-making: application to statin treatment in the French population

    PubMed Central

    Kahoul, Riad; Gueyffier, François; Amsallem, Emmanuel; Haugh, Margaret; Marchant, Ivanny; Boissel, François-Henri; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare authorities make difficult decisions about how to spend limited budgets for interventions that guarantee the best cost-efficacy ratio. We propose a novel approach for treatment decision-making, OMES—in French: Objectif thérapeutique Modèle Effet Seuil (in English: Therapeutic Objective–Threshold–Effect Model; TOTEM). This approach takes into consideration results from clinical trials, adjusted for the patients' characteristics in treatment decision-making. We compared OMES with the French clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the management of dyslipidemia with statin in a computer-generated realistic virtual population, representing the adult French population, in terms of the number of all-cause deaths avoided (number of avoided events: NAEs) under treatment and the individual absolute benefit. The total budget was fixed at the annual amount reimbursed by the French social security for statins. With the CPGs, the NAEs was 292 for an annual cost of 122.54 M€ compared with 443 with OMES. For a fixed NAEs, OMES reduced costs by 50% (60.53 M€ yr−1). The results demonstrate that OMES is at least as good as, and even better than, the standard CPGs when applied to the same population. Hence the OMES approach is a practical, useful alternative which will help to overcome the limitations of treatment decision-making based uniquely on CPGs. PMID:25209407

  11. Comparison of an effect-model-law-based method versus traditional clinical practice guidelines for optimal treatment decision-making: application to statin treatment in the French population.

    PubMed

    Kahoul, Riad; Gueyffier, François; Amsallem, Emmanuel; Haugh, Margaret; Marchant, Ivanny; Boissel, François-Henri; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

    2014-11-01

    Healthcare authorities make difficult decisions about how to spend limited budgets for interventions that guarantee the best cost-efficacy ratio. We propose a novel approach for treatment decision-making, OMES-in French: Objectif thérapeutique Modèle Effet Seuil (in English: Therapeutic Objective-Threshold-Effect Model; TOTEM). This approach takes into consideration results from clinical trials, adjusted for the patients' characteristics in treatment decision-making. We compared OMES with the French clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the management of dyslipidemia with statin in a computer-generated realistic virtual population, representing the adult French population, in terms of the number of all-cause deaths avoided (number of avoided events: NAEs) under treatment and the individual absolute benefit. The total budget was fixed at the annual amount reimbursed by the French social security for statins. With the CPGs, the NAEs was 292 for an annual cost of 122.54 M€ compared with 443 with OMES. For a fixed NAEs, OMES reduced costs by 50% (60.53 M€ yr(-1)). The results demonstrate that OMES is at least as good as, and even better than, the standard CPGs when applied to the same population. Hence the OMES approach is a practical, useful alternative which will help to overcome the limitations of treatment decision-making based uniquely on CPGs. PMID:25209407

  12. Characteristics of Self-Harm Behaviour among Identified Self-Harming Youth in Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's…

  13. The paradigm-shifting idea and its practice: from traditional abortion Chinese medicine Murraya paniculata to safe and effective cancer metastatic chemopreventives

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Suxia; Qian, Jun; Zheng, Ning; Dong, Haiyan; Shi, Qing; Kuo, Minliang; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Recent large epidemiological studies demonstrated benefit of oral contraceptives in reducing cancer risk, and our analysis also showed molecular and cellular similarities between embryo implantation and CTCs adhesion-invasion to endothelium. We here hypothesize that abortion traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may serve well for pre-metastatic chemoprevention. To test the hypothesis, we selected the safe and well-known abortifacient TCM Murraya paniculata and identified a most-promising extracted fraction G (containing flavonoids and coumarins) from its many raw ethanol/dichloromethane extracts by using the bioactivity-guided fast screen assay. G showed free radical scavenging effect, and specifically inhibited both embryo implantation to human endometrial bed and cancer HT29 cells to human endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner (1–30 μg/mL) without significant cytotoxicity demonstrated by its high adhesion inhibition ratio. The inhibition may result from its down-regulation on expression of integrin β1 and α6, and CD44 on HT29 cells, as well as E-selectin on endothelial cells. Furthermore, G inhibited invasion and migration of HT29 cells. Pretreatment followed by one-month oral administration of G to the immunocompetent mice inoculated with mouse melanoma cells produced significant inhibition on lung metastasis without marked side effects. Collectively, this paradigm-shifting study provides, for the first time, a new strategy to discover safe and effective pre-metastatic chemopreventives from abortion TCM. PMID:26959747

  14. Understanding vulnerability to self-harm in times of economic hardship and austerity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, M C; Gunnell, D; Davies, R; Hawton, K; Kapur, N; Potokar, J; Donovan, J L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Self-harm and suicide increase in times of economic recession, but little is known about why people self-harm when in financial difficulty, and in what circumstances self-harm occurs. This study aimed to understand events and experiences leading to the episode of self-harm and to identify opportunities for prevention or mitigation of distress. Setting Participants’ homes or university rooms. Participants 19 people who had attended hospital following self-harm in two UK cities and who specifically cited job loss, economic hardship or the impact of austerity measures as a causal or contributory factor. Primary and secondary outcome measures Semistructured, in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed cross-sectionally and as case studies. Results Study participants described experiences of severe economic hardship; being unable to find employment or losing jobs, debt, housing problems and benefit sanctions. In many cases problems accumulated and felt unresolvable. For others an event, such as a call from a debt collector or benefit change triggered the self-harm. Participants also reported other current or past difficulties, including abuse, neglect, bullying, domestic violence, mental health problems, relationship difficulties, bereavements and low self-esteem. These contributed to their sense of despair and worthlessness and increased their vulnerability to self-harm. Participants struggled to gain the practical help they felt they needed for their economic difficulties or therapeutic support that might have helped with their other co-existing or historically damaging experiences. Conclusions Economic hardships resulting from the recession and austerity measures accumulated or acted as a ‘final straw’ to trigger self-harm, often in the context of co-existing or historically damaging life-experiences. Interventions to mitigate these effects should include providing practical advice about economic issues before

  15. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidence of harm. 68.108 Section 68.108... harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to... reasonably determine that such harm is imminent, the provider of wireline telecommunications shall,...

  16. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside.

    PubMed

    Lomba, Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, Rob H G; McCracken, David I

    2015-03-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems' data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation. PMID:25798221

  17. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    PubMed

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. PMID:26308751

  18. AL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) INFORMATION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project proposes to implement an integrated web site that will serve as an Alabama Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Information Exchange Network. This network will be a stand-alone site where HAB data from all agencies and research efforts in the State of Alabama will be integrate...

  19. Mayan Morality: An Exploration of Permissible Harms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abarbanell, Linda; Hauser, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropologists have provided rich field descriptions of the norms and conventions governing behavior and interactions in small-scale societies. Here, we add a further dimension to this work by presenting hypothetical moral dilemmas involving harm, to a small-scale, agrarian Mayan population, with the specific goal of exploring the hypothesis that…

  20. Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

  1. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

  2. Articulating Connections between the Harm-Reduction Paradigm and the Marginalisation of People Who Use Illicit Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Souleymanov, Rusty; Allman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for the importance of unsettling dominant narratives in the current terrain of harm-reduction policy, practice and research. To accomplish this, we trace the historical developments regarding the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and harm-reduction policies and practice. We argue that multiple historical junctures rather than single causes of social exclusion engender the processes of marginalisation, propelled by social movements, institutional interests, state legislation, community practices, neo-liberalism and governmentality techniques. We analyse interests (activist, lay expert, institutional and state) in the harm-reduction field, and consider conceptualisations of risk, pleasure, stigma, social control and exclusionary moral identities. Based on our review of the literature, this paper provides recommendations for social workers and others delivering health and social care interested in the fields of substance use, HIV prevention and harm reduction. PMID:27559236

  3. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist

  4. Solitary Confinement and Risk of Self-Harm Among Jail Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Fatos; Lewis, Andrea; Glowa-Kollisch, Sarah; Hadler, James; Lee, David; Alper, Howard; Selling, Daniel; MacDonald, Ross; Solimo, Angela; Parsons, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to better understand acts of self-harm among inmates in correctional institutions. Methods. We analyzed data from medical records on 244 699 incarcerations in the New York City jail system from January 1, 2010, through January 31, 2013. Results. In 1303 (0.05%) of these incarcerations, 2182 acts of self-harm were committed, (103 potentially fatal and 7 fatal). Although only 7.3% of admissions included any solitary confinement, 53.3% of acts of self-harm and 45.0% of acts of potentially fatal self-harm occurred within this group. After we controlled for gender, age, race/ethnicity, serious mental illness, and length of stay, we found self-harm to be associated significantly with being in solitary confinement at least once, serious mental illness, being aged 18 years or younger, and being Latino or White, regardless of gender. Conclusions. These self-harm predictors are consistent with our clinical impressions as jail health service managers. Because of this concern, the New York City jail system has modified its practices to direct inmates with mental illness who violate jail rules to more clinical settings and eliminate solitary confinement for those with serious mental illness. PMID:24521238

  5. Harm reduction for injecting opiate users: an update and implications in China

    PubMed Central

    Meise, Maja; Wang, Xi; Sauter, Marie-Luise; Bao, Yan-ping; Shi, Jie; Liu, Zhi-min; Lu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    The harm associated with high-risk injected opiate use and the threat of the HIV epidemic among injecting drug users has become a worldwide problem. Twenty years ago, in the face of a rapid increase in mortality rates among injecting drug users and the upcoming threat of HIV, the first harm-reduction programs were implemented in the Western world. This paper is a literature review describing four forms of harm reduction currently in use in Europe, North America, and Australia. Each represents a reasonable counterapproach to the threat of increased prevalence of HIV among injecting drug users in transitional and developing countries. The paper attempts to explain the concepts behind the most commonly used types of harm reduction and provides a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of each and the reasons for their implementation. The main focus of the review is on the definition and the practical aspects of harm reduction; it includes a brief introduction of Chinese harm-reduction efforts and their implications. PMID:19349966

  6. Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-04-01

    The rationale for breast cancer screening with mammography is deceptively simple: catch it early and reduce mortality from the disease and the need for mastectomies. But breast cancer is a complex problem, and complex problems rarely have simple solutions. Breast screening brings forward the time of diagnosis only slightly compared to the lifetime of a tumour, and screen-detected tumours have a size where metastases are possible. A key question is if screening can prevent metastases, and if the screen-detected tumours are small enough to allow breast conserving surgery rather than mastectomy. A mortality reduction can never justify a medical intervention in its own right, but must be weighed against the harms. Overdiagnosis is the most important harm of breast screening, but has gained wider recognition only in recent years. Screening leads to the detection and treatment of breast cancers that would otherwise never have been detected because they grow very slowly or not at all and would not have been detected in the woman's lifetime in the absence of screening. Screening therefore turns women into cancer patients unnecessarily, with life-long physical and psychological harms. The debate about the justification of breast screening is therefore not a simple question of whether screening reduces breast cancer mortality. This dissertation quantifies the primary benefits and harms of screening mammography. Denmark has an unscreened "control group" because only two geographical regions offered screening over a long time-period, which is unique in an international context. This was used to study breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, and the use of mastectomies. Also, a systematic review of overdiagnosis in five other countries allowed us to show that about half of the screen-detected breast cancers are overdiagnosed. An effect on breast cancer mortality is doubtful in today's setting, and overdiagnosis causes an increase in the use of mastectomies. These findings are

  7. Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional…

  8. Traditional Teacher Education Still Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Fresh from teaching his first full school year the author reflects on his traditional teacher preparation path into the classroom and finds he was instilled with a common sense of ethics, compassion, a demand for reflective practice, and a robust guiding philosophy. As a college student, he learned theory and was able to augment that with…

  9. Innovating Traditional Nursing Administration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra

    2016-03-01

    The evolving and complex practice environment calls for new mindsets among nurse leaders, academics, and nurse innovators to envision innovative ways to manage and optimize traditional tasks and processes in nursing administration. The purpose of this article is to present 3 case studies that used linear programming and simulation to innovate staffing enterprises, financial management of healthcare systems, and curricula development. PMID:26906516

  10. Children and Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: First Analysis of Data from a Scottish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Linda; Whyte, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing awareness and acknowledgement of the incidence of sexually harmful behaviour by children and young people, research on this group remains limited. A number of recent publications have reviewed UK systems and practice and suggest that the issue is better appreciated than a decade ago. To date, however, there is no published…

  11. Insulin degludec. Uncertainty over cardiovascular harms.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    Insulin isophane (NPH) is the standard long-acting human insulin for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Long-acting human insulin analogues are also available: insulin glargine and insulin detemir. Uncertainties remain concerning their long-term adverse effects. Insulin degludec (Tresiba, Novo Nordisk) is another long-acting human insulin analogue, also approved in the EU for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It was authorised at a concentration of 100 units per ml, like other insulins, and also at a concentration of 200 units per ml. There are no comparative data on insulin degludec 200 units per ml in patients using high doses of insulin. Insulin degludec has mainly been evaluated in ten randomised, unblinded, "non-inferiority" trials lasting 26 to 52 weeks, nine versus insulin glargine and one versus insulin detemir. Insulin degludec was administered at a fixed time each evening, or in either the morning or evening on alternate days, at varying intervals of 8 to 40 hours between doses. Efficacy in terms of HbA1c control was similar to that of the other insulin analogues administered once a day. The frequency of severe hypoglycaemia was similar in the groups treated with insulin degludec and those treated with the other insulins (10% to 12% among patients with type 1 diabetes and less than 5% in patients with type 2 diabetes). Deaths and other serious adverse events were similarly frequent in the different groups. A meta-analysis of clinical trials, carried out by the US Food and Drug Administration, suggested an increase of about 60% in the incidence of cardiovascular complications, based on a composite endpoint combining myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death. Other adverse effects observed in these trials were already known to occur with human insulin and its analogues, including weight gain, hypersensitivity reactions, reactions at the injection site, etc. The trials were too short in duration to assess long-term harms

  12. Electrofishing and its harmful effects on fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Darrel E.

    2003-01-01

    Electrofishing, a valuable sampling technique in North America for over half a century, involves a very dynamic and complex mix of physics, physiology, and behavior that remains poorly understood. New hypotheses have been advanced regarding "power transfer" to fish and the epileptic nature of their responses to electric fields, but these too need to be more fully explored and validated. Fishery researchers and managers in the Colorado River Basin, and elsewhere, are particularly concerned about the harmful effects of electrofishing on fish, especially endangered species. Although often not externally obvious or fatal, spinal injuries and associated hemorrhages sometimes have been documented in over 50% of fish examined internally. Such injuries can occur anywhere in the electrofishing field at or above the intensity threshold for twitch. These injuries are believed to result from powerful convulsions of body musculature (possibly epileptic seizures) caused mostly by sudden changes in voltage as when electricity is pulsed or switched on or off. Significantly fewer spinal injuries are reported when direct current, low-frequency pulsed direct current (<30 Hz), or specially designed pulse trains are used. Salmoniae are especially susceptible. Endangered cyprinids of the Colorado River Basin are generally much less susceptible, enough so to allow cautious use of less harmful currents for most recovery monitoring and research. However, the endangered catostomid Xyrauchen texanus appears sufficiently susceptible to warrant a continued minimal-use policy. Other harmful effects, such as bleeding at gills or vent and excessive physiological stress, are also of concern. Mortality, usually by asphyxiation, is a common result of excessive exposure to tetanizing intensities near electrodes or poor handling of captured specimens. Reported effects on reproduction are contradictory, but electrofishing over spawning grounds can harm embryos. Electrofishing is often considered the

  13. Autism: Common, heritable, but not harmful

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Dawson, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    We assert that one of the examples used by Keller & Miller (K&M), namely, autism, is indeed common, and heritable, but we question whether it is harmful. We provide a brief review of cognitive science literature in which autistics perform superiorly to non-autistics in perceptual, reasoning, and comprehension tasks; however, these superiorities are often occluded and are instead described as dysfunctions. PMID:25506106

  14. The Content and Bioavailability of Mineral Nutrients of Selected Wild and Traditional Edible Plants as Affected by Household Preparation Methods Practiced by Local Community in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Andinet Abera; Addis, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Edible parts of some wild and traditional vegetables used by the Gumuz community, namely, Portulaca quadrifida, Dioscorea abyssinica, Abelmoschus esculentus, and Oxytenanthera abyssinica, were evaluated for their minerals composition and bioavailability. Mineral elements, namely, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu, were analyzed using Shimadzu atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Effects of household processing practices on the levels of mineral elements were evaluated and the bioavailability was predicted using antinutrient-mineral molar ratios. Fe, Zn, Ca, Cu, P, Na, and K level in raw edible portions ranged in (0.64 ± 0.02-27.0 ± 6.24), (0.46 ± 0.02-0.85 ± 0.02), (24.49 ± 1.2-131.7 ± 8.3), (0.11 ± 0.01-0.46 ± 0.04), (39.13 ± 0.34-57.27 ± 0.94), (7.34 ± 0.42-20.42 ± 1.31), and (184.4 ± 1.31-816.3 ± 11.731) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Although statistically significant losses in minerals as a result of household preparation practices were observed, the amount of nutrients retained could be valuable especially in communities that have limited alternative sources of these micronutrients. The predicted minerals' bioavailability shows adequacy in terms of calcium and zinc but not iron. PMID:26981523

  15. The Content and Bioavailability of Mineral Nutrients of Selected Wild and Traditional Edible Plants as Affected by Household Preparation Methods Practiced by Local Community in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Andinet Abera; Addis, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Edible parts of some wild and traditional vegetables used by the Gumuz community, namely, Portulaca quadrifida, Dioscorea abyssinica, Abelmoschus esculentus, and Oxytenanthera abyssinica, were evaluated for their minerals composition and bioavailability. Mineral elements, namely, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu, were analyzed using Shimadzu atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Effects of household processing practices on the levels of mineral elements were evaluated and the bioavailability was predicted using antinutrient-mineral molar ratios. Fe, Zn, Ca, Cu, P, Na, and K level in raw edible portions ranged in (0.64 ± 0.02–27.0 ± 6.24), (0.46 ± 0.02–0.85 ± 0.02), (24.49 ± 1.2–131.7 ± 8.3), (0.11 ± 0.01–0.46 ± 0.04), (39.13 ± 0.34–57.27 ± 0.94), (7.34 ± 0.42–20.42 ± 1.31), and (184.4 ± 1.31–816.3 ± 11.731) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Although statistically significant losses in minerals as a result of household preparation practices were observed, the amount of nutrients retained could be valuable especially in communities that have limited alternative sources of these micronutrients. The predicted minerals' bioavailability shows adequacy in terms of calcium and zinc but not iron. PMID:26981523

  16. Kaiy (traditional cautery) in Benghazi, Libya: complications versus effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Mona Kamal; El-Mansoury, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The practice of Kaiy (Cautery) as a traditional therapy is not science based though it is widely practiced worldwide. In Libya, in particular, it is commonly used with no any report or publication to emphasis on its positive or negative impact. This work was undertaken to highlight the complications and disadvantages of kaiy in the Libyan societies as it seems to cause more harm than benefit for the patient. Methods We conducted a questionnaire-based survey in the period from the first of March to the end of April (two months) of the year 2013, on fifty patients who were collected from different hospitals in Benghazi city, and who had experienced Kaiy therapy for different diseases. Results We found that kaiy application is more common among non educated patients (30 patients, 60%). Most of patients (45 cases, 90%) followed their relatives’ advice and that 32 cases (63.5%) did not improve and show undesirable manifestations and complications. Conclusion This study has shown that Kaiy therapy is associated with considerable health risks; therefore, we recommend discouraging and restricting its application. PMID:26848345

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Warming Potential of Traditional and Diversified Tropical Rice Rotation Systems including Impacts of Upland Crop Management Practices i.e. Mulching and Inter-crop Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janz, Baldur; Weller, Sebastian; Kraus, David; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Paddy rice cultivation is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from flooded double-rice systems to the introduction of well-aerated upland crop systems in the dry season. Emissions of methane (CH4) are expected to decrease, while emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) will increase and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks will most likely be volatilized in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines to provide a comparative assessment of the global warming potentials (GWP) as well as yield scaled GWPs of different crop rotations and to evaluate mitigation potentials or risks of new management practices i.e. mulching and inter-crop cultivation. New management practices of mulching and intercrop cultivation will also have the potential to change SOC dynamics, thus can play the key role in contributing to the GWP of upland cropping systems. To present, more than three years of continuous measurement data of CH4 and N2O emissions in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation have been collected. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2O emissions increased twice- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction of CH4 led to a significantly lower (p<0.05) annual GWP (CH4+ N2O) as compared to the traditional double-rice cropping system. Measurements of soil organic carbon contents before and three years after introduction of upland

  18. Pragmatism rules: the intervention and prevention strategies used by psychiatric nurses working with non-suicidal self-harming individuals.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, A

    2007-02-01

    Self harm in the absence of expressed suicidal intent is an under explored area in psychiatric nursing research. This paper reports on findings of a study undertaken in two acute psychiatric inpatient units in Ireland. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the practices of psychiatric nurses in relation to people who self harm, but who are not considered suicidal. Semi structured interviews were held with eight psychiatric nurses. Content analysis revealed several themes. For the purpose of this paper the prevention and intervention strategies psychiatric nurses engage in when working with non-suicidal self harming individuals are presented. Recommendations for further research are offered. PMID:17244007

  19. Exercise May Counter Harms from Too Much Sitting, Study Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158222.html Exercise May Counter Harms From Too Much Sitting, Study ... 2016 FRIDAY, April 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Regular exercise helps counteract the harmful health effects of too ...

  20. Navajo Pawn: A Misunderstood Traditional Trading Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiser, William S.

    2012-01-01

    Navajo trading has been a crucial component of that tribe's localized economy for generations and has been the subject of much scholarship over the years. The role of the Navajo trader in influencing the types and styles of crafts that Navajos created as well as providing tribal members with an outlet for those items remains important to their…

  1. Harmful algae blooms removal from fresh water with modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunguang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiangqin

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite and vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid were investigated to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies in freshwater containing harmful algae blooms (HABs) (Microcystis aeruginosa). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, converted fluorescence microscope, plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and Zetasizer were used to study the flocculation mechanism of modified vermiculite. It was found that the vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid could coagulate algae cells through charge neutralization, chemical bridging, and netting effect. The experimental results show that the efficiency of flocculation can be notably improved by modified vermiculite. Ninety-eight per cent of algae cells in algae solution could be removed within 10 min after the addition ofmodified vermiculite clay. The method that removal of HABs with modified vermiculite is economical with high efficiency, and more research is needed to assess their ecological impacts before using in practical application. PMID:24600873

  2. Freshwater harmful algal blooms: toxins and children's health.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Chelsea A; Miller, Todd R

    2014-01-01

    Massive accumulations of cyanobacteria (a.k.a. "blue-green algae"), known as freshwater harmful algal blooms (FHABs), are a common global occurrence in water bodies used for recreational purposes and drinking water purification. Bloom prevalence is increased due to anthropogenic changes in land use, agricultural activity, and climate change. These photosynthetic bacteria produce a range of toxic secondary metabolites that affect animals and humans at both chronic and acute dosages. Children are especially at risk because of their lower body weight, behavior, and toxic effects on development. Here we review common FHAB toxins, related clinical symptoms, acceptable concentrations in drinking water, case studies of children's and young adults' exposures to FHAB toxins through drinking water and food, methods of environmental and clinical detection in potential cases of intoxication, and best practices for FHAB prevention. PMID:24439026

  3. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. PMID:25518881

  4. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. PMID:25518881

  5. 30 CFR 722.11 - Imminent dangers and harms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imminent dangers and harms. 722.11 Section 722... INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.11 Imminent dangers and harms. (a) If an... expected to cause, significant, imminent environmental harm to land, air, or water resources,...

  6. 47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A... system in those circumstances where electronic or physical harm would be caused by the attachment or... concerns of electronic or physical harm or theft of service. In any situation where theft of service...

  7. How Would We Know if Psychotherapy Were Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimidjian, Sona; Hollon, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Patients can be harmed by treatment or by the decisions that are made about those treatments. Although dramatic examples of harmful effects of psychotherapy have been reported, the full scope of the problem remains unclear. The field currently lacks consensus about how to detect harm and what to do about it when it occurs. In this article, we…

  8. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

    2010-01-01

    Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession. PMID:21547046

  9. No excuses: televised pornography harms children.

    PubMed

    Benedek, E P; Brown, C F

    1999-01-01

    All youngsters are at some risk from exposure to televised pornography, as described above. At particular risk for harm, however, are the most vulnerable children in our society--children in single-parent homes, children with mental and emotional disturbances, mentally challenged children, children who have been physically and/or sexually abused, and children in dysfunctional families. Youngsters for whom television serves as a babysitter or parental surrogate unfortunately are exposed to few competing influences to television viewing. In addition, parents in such homes are least likely to know what their children are viewing and to be able to pass on their own values about sex and sexual behavior. The main possible effects of televised pornography that must concern us as clinicians, educators, and parents are modeling and imitation of language heard and behaviors observed in televised pornography; negative interference with children's normal sexual development; emotional reactions such as nightmares and feelings of anxiety, guilt, confusion, and/or shame; stimulation of premature sexual activity; development of unrealistic, misleading, and/or harmful attitudes toward sex and adult male-female relationships; and undermining of family values with resultant conflict between parents and children. Much more research is clearly needed on this topic. Because of the ethical and procedural problems surrounding research on children exposed to pornography, ideal research designs may never be possible. Nonetheless, we hope that this article will stimulate further discussion and work. To devise public policy that protects children from potentially harmful material while at the same time respecting the media's First Amendment rights, such public discourse and responsible research are essential. PMID:10579105

  10. Visualizing harm reduction: Methodological and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Switzer, S; Guta, A; de Prinse, K; Chan Carusone, S; Strike, C

    2015-05-01

    The use of visual methods is becoming increasingly common and accepted in health research. This paper explores the opportunities and constraints of using photo-based methods in the context of a community-based participatory research study on how to engage people living with HIV in conversations about a hospital's recently introduced harm reduction policy. Using a blended approach of photovoice and photo-elicited interviews, we provided participants (n = 16) with cameras and asked them to take a series of photos that "show how you feel about or have experienced harm reduction as a Casey House client." We reflect on methodological insights from the study to think through the process of doing photo-based work on a stigmatized topic in a small hospital setting by foregrounding: 1) how the act of taking photos assisted participants in visualizing connections between space, harm reduction, and substance use; 2) expectations of participation and navigating daily health realities; and 3) issues of confidentiality, anonymity and stigma in clinical settings. These reflections provide a case study on the importance of critically examining the process of engaging with photo-based methods. We conclude the paper by re-thinking issues of context and photo-based methods. Rather than viewing context as a neutral backdrop to apply a method, context should be viewed as an active force in shaping what can or cannot be done or produced within the space. Photo-based methods may offer an effective community-engagement strategy but may require modification for use in a clinical setting when working on a stigmatized topic with individuals with complex health care needs. Given the potential of visual methods as a community engagement strategy, research teams are advised to understand the entire process as a data collection opportunity so that these methods can be further explored in a variety of contexts. PMID:25841098

  11. The harms of prostitution: critiquing Moen's argument of no-harm.

    PubMed

    Westin, Anna

    2014-02-01

    In this short critical analysis, the author examines the recent argument by Moen in his article 'Is Prostitution Harmful?' In highlighting why prostitution does not cause harm to either member involved in the act, Moen argues that prostitution is not an ethical concern. However, while Moen is able to clearly challenge contemporary objections to prostitution, the author of this review will suggest that Moen's argument is itself incomplete as it does not address essential key ontological issues. This critical analysis will briefly suggest why this omission weakens Moen's argument. Finally, it will conclude with examining why prostitution differs substantially from other professions through the type of harm that it causes to the moral agents involved. PMID:23760729

  12. Harming high performers: a social comparison perspective on interpersonal harming in work teams.

    PubMed

    Lam, Catherine K; Van der Vegt, Gerben S; Walter, Frank; Huang, Xu

    2011-05-01

    This study developed a multilevel model of the interpersonal harming behavior associated with social comparison processes in work teams. We tested this model using temporally lagged data from a sample of student teams (Study 1) and cross-sectional data from a sample of work teams in a telecommunication services company (Study 2). In both studies, social relations analyses revealed that in teams with less cooperative goals, comparison to a higher performing team member was positively associated with interpersonal harming behavior, but only when expectations of future performance similarity to that member were low. The interactive relationship of social comparison and expected future performance similarity with interpersonal harming was buffered, however, in teams with more cooperative goals. PMID:21171734

  13. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nick; Moore, Tim; Crofts, Nick

    2012-01-01

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers.In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness.While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050

  14. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers. In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness. While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050

  15. Drug use and harm reduction in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Catherine S; Safi, Naqibullah; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2005-01-01

    Opium has been cultivated in Afghanistan since 1100 A.D., although production has steadily increased since 1979. Currently, Afghanistan produces three-quarters of the global opium supply, with injection drug use and HIV currently following the opium trade route through Central Asia. Although systematic studies are lacking, heroin use appears to be on the rise in Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to briefly provide historical background and current statistics for drug production and use in Afghanistan, to discuss the new government's policies towards problem drug use and available rehabilitation programs, and to assess Afghan harm reduction needs with consideration of regional trends. PMID:16146577

  16. The harm principle as a mid-level principle?: three problems from the context of infectious disease control.

    PubMed

    Krom, André

    2011-10-01

    Effective infectious disease control may require states to restrict the liberty of individuals. Since preventing harm to others is almost universally accepted as a legitimate (prima facie) reason for restricting the liberty of individuals, it seems plausible to employ a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control. Moral practices like infectious disease control support - or even require - a certain level of theory-modesty. However, employing a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control faces at least three problems. First, it is unclear what we gain by attaining convergence on a specific formulation of the harm principle. Likely candidates for convergence, a harm principle aimed at preventing harmful conduct, supplemented by considerations of effectiveness and always choosing the least intrusive means still leave ample room for normative disagreement. Second, while mid-level principles are sometimes put forward in response to the problem of normative theories attaching different weight to moral principles, employing a mid-level harm principle completely leaves open how to determine what weight to attach to it in application. Third, there appears to be a trade-off between attaining convergence and finding a formulation of the harm principle that can justify liberty-restrictions in all situations of contagion, including interventions that are commonly allowed. These are not reasons to abandon mid-level theorizing altogether. But there is no reason to be too theory-modest in applied ethics. Morally justifying e.g. if a liberty-restriction in infectious disease control is proportional to the aim of harm-prevention, promptly requires moving beyond the mid-level harm principle. PMID:21929702

  17. Harms from discharge to primary care: mixed methods analysis of incident reports

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Huw; Edwards, Adrian; Hibbert, Peter; Rees, Philippa; Prosser Evans, Huw; Panesar, Sukhmeet; Carter, Ben; Parry, Gareth; Makeham, Meredith; Jones, Aled; Avery, Anthony; Sheikh, Aziz; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Discharge from hospital presents significant risks to patient safety, with up to one in five patients experiencing adverse events within 3 weeks of leaving hospital. Aim To describe the frequency and types of patient safety incidents associated with discharge from secondary to primary care, and commonly described contributory factors to identify recommendations for practice. Design and setting A mixed methods analysis of 598 patient safety incident reports in England and Wales related to ‘Discharge’ from the National Reporting and Learning System. Method Detailed data coding (with 20% double-coding), data summaries generated using descriptive statistical analysis, and thematic analysis of special-case sample of reports. Incident type, contributory factors, type, and level of harm were described, informing recommendations for future practice. Results A total of 598 eligible reports were analysed. The four main themes were: errors in discharge communication (n = 151; 54% causing harm); errors in referrals to community care (n = 136; 73% causing harm); errors in medication (n = 97; 87% causing harm); and lack of provision of care adjuncts such as dressings (n = 62; 94% causing harm). Common contributory factors were staff factors (not following referral protocols); and organisational factors (lack of clear guidelines or inefficient processes). Improvement opportunities include developing and testing electronic discharge methods with agreed minimum information requirements and unified referrals systems to community care providers; and promoting a safety culture with ‘safe discharge’ checklists, discharge coordinators, and family involvement. Conclusion Significant harm was evident due to deficits in the discharge process. Interventions in this area need to be evaluated and learning shared widely. PMID:26622036

  18. Harm reduction for young people who use prescription opioids extra-medically: Obstacles and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Green, Traci C; Yedinak, Jesse L; Hadland, Scott E

    2016-05-01

    Extra-medical prescription opioid (EMPO) use - intentional use without a prescription or outside of prescribed parameters - is a public health crisis in the United States and around the world. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the prevalence of EMPO use and adverse sequelae, including opioid overdose and hepatitis C infection, are elevated among people aged 18-25. Despite these preventable health risks, many harm reduction interventions are underutilized by, or inaccessible to, EMPO-using youth. In this commentary, we describe key harm reduction strategies for young people who use prescription opioids. We examine individual, social, and policy-level barriers to the implementation of evidence-based approaches that address EMPO use and related harms among young people. We highlight the need for expanded services and new interventions to engage this diverse and heterogeneous at-risk population. A combination of medical, social, and structural harm reduction interventions are recommended. Furthermore, research to inform strategies that mitigate particularly high-risk practices (e.g., polysubstance use) is warranted. Finally, we discuss how the meaningful involvement of youth in the implementation of harm reduction strategies is a critical component of the public health response to the prescription opioid epidemic. PMID:26919826

  19. Brief Report: The Self Harm Questionnaire--A New Tool Designed to Improve Identification of Self Harm in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ougrin, Dennis; Boege, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The Self Harm Questionnaire (SHQ) aiming at identification of self-harm in adolescents has been developed and piloted in a sample of 12-17 year olds (n = 100). The adolescents were recruited from both in- and outpatient psychiatric services. Concurrent validity of the SHQ was evaluated by comparing the SHQ results with recorded self harm in the…

  20. Harms from medicines: inevitable, in error or intentional

    PubMed Central

    Ferner, Robin E

    2014-01-01

    Rational therapeutics requires a balance between benefits and harms. (i) Harm may be inevitable. Some adverse drug reactions cannot be predicted or prevented. (ii) Some harm occurs in error when a medicine is wrongly formulated, prescribed, dispensed or administered. Adverse drug reactions that might have been prevented, for example, by monitoring, fall into this category. (iii) Rarely, harm is inflicted deliberately, for example, in murder by poisoning. Here I consider adverse drug reactions, errors and deliberate drug-induced harm from the perspective of a clinical pharmacologist. PMID:23683079

  1. Investigating the efficacy of practical skill teaching: a pilot-study comparing three educational methods.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-03-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a randomised controlled trial, with concealed allocation and blinded participants and outcome assessment. Each of the three randomly allocated groups were exposed to a different practical skills teaching method (traditional, pre-recorded video tutorial or student self-video) for two specific practical skills during the semester. Clinical performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The students were also administered a questionnaire to gain the participants level of satisfaction with the teaching method, and their perceptions of the teaching methods educational value. There were no significant differences in clinical performance between the three practical skill teaching methods as measured in the OSCE, or for student ratings of satisfaction. A significant difference existed between the methods for the student ratings of perceived educational value, with the teaching approaches of pre-recorded video tutorial and student self-video being rated higher than 'traditional' live tutoring. Alternative teaching methods to traditional live tutoring can produce equivalent learning outcomes when applied to the practical skill development of undergraduate health professional students. The use of alternative practical skill teaching methods may allow for greater flexibility for both staff and infrastructure resource allocation. PMID:22354336

  2. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  3. Reducing harm from alcohol: call to action.

    PubMed

    Casswell, Sally; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon

    2009-06-27

    Despite clear evidence of the major contribution alcohol makes to the global burden of disease and to substantial economic costs, focus on alcohol control is inadequate internationally and in most countries. Expansion of industrial production and marketing of alcohol is driving alcohol use to rise, both in emerging markets and in young people in mature alcohol markets. Cost-effective and affordable interventions to restrict harm exist, and are in urgent need of scaling up. Most countries do not have adequate policies in place. Factors impeding progress include a failure of political will, unhelpful participation of the alcohol industry in the policy process, and increasing difficulty in free-trade environments to respond adequately at a national level. An effective national and international response will need not only governments, but also non-governmental organisations to support and hold government agencies to account. International health policy, in the form of a Framework Convention on Alcohol Control, is needed to counterbalance the global conditions promoting alcohol-related harm and to support and encourage national action. PMID:19560606

  4. Substance abuse and developments in harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Y W

    2000-06-13

    A drug is a substance that produces a psychoactive, chemical or medicinal effect on the user. The psychoactive effect of mood-altering drugs is modulated by the user's perception of the risks of drug use, his or her ability to control drug use and the demographic, socioeconomic and cultural context. The ability to control drug use may vary along a continuum from compulsive use at one end to controlled use at the other. The "drug problem" has been socially constructed, and the presence of a moral panic has led to public support for the prohibitionist approach. The legalization approach has severely attacked the dominant prohibitionist approach but has failed to gain much support in society because of its extreme libertarian views. The harm reduction approach, which is based on public health principles, avoids the extremes of value-loaded judgements on drug use and focuses on the reduction of drug-related harm through pragmatic and low-threshold programs. This approach is likely to be important in tackling the drug problem in the 21st century. PMID:10870502

  5. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms: causes, consequences, and controls.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Otten, Timothy G

    2013-05-01

    Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest oxygenic photoautotrophs and have had major impacts on shaping its biosphere. Their long evolutionary history (≈ 3.5 by) has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recently anthropogenic modifications of aquatic environments, including nutrient over-enrichment (eutrophication), water diversions, withdrawals, and salinization. Many cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. Bloom-forming cyanobacterial taxa can be harmful from environmental, organismal, and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, depleting oxygen upon bloom senescence, and producing a variety of toxic secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanotoxins). How environmental factors impact cyanotoxin production is the subject of ongoing research, but nutrient (N, P and trace metals) supply rates, light, temperature, oxidative stressors, interactions with other biota (bacteria, viruses and animal grazers), and most likely, the combined effects of these factors are all involved. Accordingly, strategies aimed at controlling and mitigating harmful blooms have focused on manipulating these dynamic factors. The applicability and feasibility of various controls and management approaches is discussed for natural waters and drinking water supplies. Strategies based on physical, chemical, and biological manipulations of specific factors show promise; however, a key underlying approach that should be considered in almost all instances is nutrient (both N and P) input reductions; which have been shown to effectively reduce cyanobacterial biomass, and therefore limit health risks and frequencies of hypoxic events. PMID:23314096

  6. Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex impairs judgment of harmful intent

    PubMed Central

    Young, Liane; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel; Damasio, Hanna; Hauser, Marc; Damasio, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Moral judgments, whether delivered in ordinary experience or in the courtroom, depend on our ability to infer intentions. We forgive unintentional or accidental harms and condemn failed attempts to harm. Prior work demonstrates that patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) deliver abnormal judgments in response to moral dilemmas, and that these patients are especially impaired in triggering emotional responses to inferred or abstract events (e.g., intentions), as opposed to real or actual outcomes. We therefore predicted that VMPC patients would deliver abnormal moral judgments of harmful intentions in the absence of harmful outcomes, as in failed attempts to harm. This prediction was confirmed in the current study: VMPC patients judged attempted harms including attempted murder as more morally permissible relative to controls. These results highlight the critical role of the VMPC in processing harmful intent for moral judgment. PMID:20346759

  7. Year-Round versus Traditional Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyttle, LeighAnne

    2011-01-01

    This document serves as a literature review for the practicality and cost effectiveness of traditional versus year-round school systems. The differences in year-round and traditional schools are many, as the debate lingers on which type is best for students' learning. Generally conclusive, the literature indicates that year-round schools' benefits…

  8. Variability and dilemmas in harm reduction for anabolic steroid users in the UK: a multi-area interview study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK continues to experience a rise in the number of anabolic steroid-using clients attending harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes. Methods The present study uses interviews conducted with harm reduction service providers as well as illicit users of anabolic steroids from different areas of England and Wales to explore harm reduction for this group of drug users, focussing on needle distribution policies and harm reduction interventions developed specifically for this population of drug users. Results The article addresses the complexity of harm reduction service delivery, highlighting different models of needle distribution, such as peer-led distribution networks, as well as interventions available in steroid clinics, including liver function testing of anabolic steroid users. Aside from providing insights into the function of interventions available to steroid users, along with principles adopted by service providers, the study found significant tensions and dilemmas in policy implementation due to differing perspectives between service providers and service users relating to practices, risks and effective interventions. Conclusion The overarching finding of the study was the tremendous variability across harm reduction delivery sites in terms of available measures and mode of operation. Further research into the effectiveness of different policies directed towards people who use anabolic steroids is critical to the development of harm reduction. PMID:24986546

  9. Little cigars, big cigars: omissions and commissions of harm and harm reduction information on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Dollar, Katherine M; Mix, Jacqueline M; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2008-05-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of "harm," "harm reduction," and "little cigar" information about cigars on 10 major English-language health Web sites. The sites were from governmental and nongovernmental organizations based in seven different countries and included "harm" and "harm reduction" information, discussions of little cigars, quantitative estimates of health risks, and qualifying behavioral characteristics (inhalation, number per day). Of the 10 Web sites, 7 offered statements explicitly indicating that cigars may be safer than cigarettes. None of the Web sites reviewed described that little cigars are likely as dangerous as cigarettes. Some Web sites provided quantitative estimates of health risks and extensive discussions of qualifying factors. Reading grade levels were higher than desirable. Extensive and complex information on the reduced risks of cigars compared with cigarettes is available on Web sites affiliated with prominent health organizations. Yet these sites fail to warn consumers that popular cigarette-like little cigars and cigarillos are likely to be just as dangerous as cigarettes, even for those who have never smoked cigarettes. Improvement of these Web sites is urgently needed to provide the public with high-quality health information. PMID:18569755

  10. Minimizing Harm and Maximizing Pleasure: Considering the Harm Reduction Paradigm for Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naisteter, Michal A.; Sitron, Justin A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the potential for introducing harm reduction into sexuality education. When the goal of sexuality education is on prevention and focuses on risk and public health concerns, a discussion of pleasure is rendered problematic, as many pleasurable behaviors are inherently "unsafe" or "risky" when considered using a safe-sex lens.…

  11. Harmed? Harmful? Experiencing Abusive Adult Children With Mental Disorder Over the Life Course.

    PubMed

    Band-Winterstein, Tova; Avieli, Hila; Smeloy, Yael

    2016-09-01

    Older parents of an adult child coping with a mental disorder that is expressed by violent deviant behavior face significant parenting challenges. The purpose of this article is to explore the ways older parents exposed to abuse by their adult children with mental disorder (ACMD) perceived their child's violent deviant behavior along the life course. In a qualitative-phenomenological study, 16 parents aged 58 to 90 were interviewed in depth. Three major themes emerged: (a) ongoing total care for the child's needs along the life course, (b) constructions and perceptions of the child through the years-Parents perceived their children over two continua, reflecting their experience of the child's deviant behavior: the child as more harmed versus more harmful, the child as normative versus pathological-and (c) the parent's emotional world toward the harmed-harmful child. The findings enable a deeper understanding of the various ways in which parents cope with living with deviant behaviors of their ACMD. Hence, this study can serve as a framework for developing tailored and differential intervention methods. PMID:25854589

  12. General Practitioners’ Accounts of Patients Who Have Self-Harmed

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Background: The relationship between self-harm and suicide is contested. Self-harm is simultaneously understood to be largely nonsuicidal but to increase risk of future suicide. Little is known about how self-harm is conceptualized by general practitioners (GPs) and particularly how they assess the suicide risk of patients who have self-harmed. Aims: The study aimed to explore how GPs respond to patients who had self-harmed. In this paper we analyze GPs’ accounts of the relationship between self-harm, suicide, and suicide risk assessment. Method: Thirty semi-structured interviews were held with GPs working in different areas of Scotland. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed thematically. Results: GPs provided diverse accounts of the relationship between self-harm and suicide. Some maintained that self-harm and suicide were distinct and that risk assessment was a matter of asking the right questions. Others suggested a complex inter-relationship between self-harm and suicide; for these GPs, assessment was seen as more subjective. In part, these differences appeared to reflect the socioeconomic contexts in which the GPs worked. Conclusion: There are different conceptualizations of the relationship between self-harm, suicide, and the assessment of suicide risk among GPs. These need to be taken into account when planning training and service development. PMID:26572907

  13. New mothers' thoughts of harm related to the newborn.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Woody, Sheila R

    2008-07-01

    There are few published studies of new mothers' experiences of intrusive thoughts of harm related to the newborn. Evidence-based information about the normal phenomenology of intrusive thoughts of harm related to the newborn is needed to facilitate appropriate clinical decision-making. The objective of this project was to assess the phenomenology, prevalence, correlates, and behavioural sequelae of maternal thoughts of harm related to the newborn. One hundred women were recruited during pregnancy. Participants were assessed prenatally and at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum using questionnaires and a semi-structured interview about unwanted thoughts of harm related to the newborn. Postpartum intrusive thoughts of accidental harm to the infant were universal, and close to half of the sample reported unwanted thoughts of intentionally harming their infant. Compared with intentional harm thoughts, accidental harm thoughts were more frequent and more time consuming, but less distressing. High parenting stress and low social support predicted the occurrence of thoughts of intentional harm. Little evidence of an association between these thoughts and aggressive parenting was found. Unwanted intrusive thoughts of harming one's infant are a relatively normative experience during the early postpartum period, particularly in association with greater parenting stress and low social support. PMID:18463941

  14. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  15. [Do workplace chemicals harm the heart?].

    PubMed

    Maschewsky, W

    1993-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most important cause of mortality in industrialised countries. Contrary to cancer research, cardiovascular research mostly ignores toxic effects, apart from nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, a few pharmaceutical drugs, and the (in our countries) minor workplace problems carbon disulfide, nitrate esters, and carbon monoxide. But many workplace chemicals are known to be harmful to the cardiovascular system; beside the mentioned, also organic solvents, metals, pesticides, vinyl chloride, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. Several toxic mechanisms in the cardiovascular system are already known: e.g., long-term development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmia. To neglect cardiovascular toxicity is contrary to logic; for many cardiovascular diseases toxic effects may be constitutive; more of these effects may be seen in the future. PMID:8322524

  16. Do no harm--normal tissue effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy confers enormous benefits that must be balanced against the possibilities for harm including late toxicity in normal tissues and radiation-induced second malignancies. A small percentage of patients experience severe late complications. The question is, do these late sequelae occur randomly, or are they confined to individuals who are genetically predisposed to radiosensitivity. Experiments with knockout mice and with patients demonstrate that individuals heterozygous for a number of genes appear to be radiosensitive. If radiosensitive patients were identified prospectively by genetic analysis, they could be spared the trauma of late sequelae. Several large studies have shown a statistically significant excess of radiation-induced malignancies in radiotherapy patients. Most second cancers are carcinomas, developing in the lining cells of the body often remote from the treatment site. Radiation-induced sarcomas appear only in the heavily irradiated areas. These are small in number but appear with a very high relative risk.

  17. Geoengineering, Climate Harm, and Business as Usual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankunis, F. J.; Peacock, K.

    2014-12-01

    We define geoengineering (GE) as the intentional use of technology to change the planet's climate. Many people believe GE is different in kind rather than degree from any other organized activity in human history. In fact, humans caused changes in the planet's climate long before the industrial age, and all organisms engineer their environments directly or indirectly. The relevant difference between this cumulative and generally inadvertent activity and GE is the presence of intention. Now that science has revealed the extent to which humans can change the climate, however, even the continuance of Business as Usual (BAU) is, in effect, a form of intentional GE, albeit one that will cause significant climate harm, defined as effects such as sea level rise that will impact human well-being. But as with all forms of engineering, the devil is in the details: what forms of GE should be tried first? Some methods, such as large-scale afforestation, are low risk but have long-term payoffs; others, such as aerosol injection into the stratosphere, could help buy time in a warming crisis but have unknown side-effects and little long-term future. Climate change is a world-wide, inter-generational tragedy of the commons. Rational choice theory, the spatial and temporal extension of the problem, poorly fitted moral frameworks, and political maneuvering are all factors that inhibit solutions to the climate tragedy of the commons. The longer that such factors are allowed to dominate decision-making (or the lack thereof) the more likely it is that humanity will be forced to resort to riskier and more drastic forms of GE. We argue that this fact brings an additional measure of urgency to the search for ways to engineer the climate differently so as to avoid climate harm in the most lasting and least risky way.

  18. Laggards or Leaders: Conservers of Traditional Agricultural Knowledge in Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Jere L.; Thomas, Justin L.; Valdivia, Corinne; Yucra, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    Many sustainable agricultural practices are based on local and traditional farming knowledge. This article examines the conservation and loss of three traditional practices in the Bolivian Altiplano that agronomic research has shown increase the resiliency of small farmers in the face of climate-related risks. These practices are the use of…

  19. The relationship between self-harm and alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Norman, Hilary; Borrill, Jo

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the literature concerning the relationship between alexithymia and self-harm. Fifteen studies were selected following a systematic search of relevant databases. Results indicate significantly higher levels of alexithymia in women who self-harm compared with women who do not self-harm. Studies of men were less conclusive and require further investigation. A subsample of the studies found that childhood abuse and bullying were more likely to be associated with self-harm if alexithymia was present as a mediator. Other studies found that depression mediated between alexithymia and self-harm. The results indicate that the poor emotional cognition and expression associated with alexithymia may increase vulnerability to self-harm, particularly in women. PMID:26011069

  20. Potentially Harmful Therapy and Multicultural Counseling: Bridging Two Disciplinary Discourses

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Dennis C.; Gone, Joseph P.; Nagata, Donna K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years psychologists have been increasingly concerned about potentially harmful therapy, yet this recent discourse has not addressed issues that have long been voiced by the multicultural counseling and psychotherapy movement. We aim to begin to bring these seemingly disparate discourses of harm into greater conversation with one another, in the service of placing the discipline on a firmer foothold in its considerations of potentially harmful therapy. After reviewing the two discourses and exploring reasons for their divergence, we argue that they operate according to differing assumptions pertaining to the sources, objects, and scope of harm. We then argue that these differences reveal the discipline’s need to better appreciate that harm is a social construct, that psychotherapy may be inherently ethnocentric, and that strategies for collecting evidence of harm should be integrated with a social justice agenda. PMID:26339075

  1. Brief intervention strategies for harmful drinkers: new directions for medical education.

    PubMed Central

    Babor, T F

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology of behavioural interventions for harmful drinkers have created a new role for clinical practice and new challenges for medical education. Several reports from expert committees have recommended new initiatives in the secondary prevention of alcohol problems through physician-based interventions at the primary care level. The conceptual and scientific bases for these recommendations are discussed in terms of recent studies of harmful and hazardous drinkers. The behavioural principles thought to account for the effectiveness of brief interventions are explained. Despite these promising developments, difficulties are inherent in the introduction of new technologies, especially behavioural technologies, into medical practice. A major challenge to medical education will be the development of academic programs that not only teach skills and competencies in secondary prevention but also deal with the socialization of physicians as behavioural practitioners. PMID:2224675

  2. Ethical considerations in the de-adoption of ineffective or harmful aspects of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Niven, Daniel J; Leigh, Jeanna Parsons; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-09-01

    De-adoption refers to the discontinuance of a medical practice or health service found to be ineffective or harmful following a previous period of adoption. As growing healthcare budgets threaten to cripple the societies that fund them, facilitating de-adoption may be integral to sustainable healthcare systems that provide high-quality care. This article explores ethical issues pertinent to de-adoption including the underpinnings of beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, and autonomy. PMID:27498394

  3. Harm reduction, methadone maintenance treatment and the root causes of health and social inequities: An intersectional lens in the Canadian context

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Using our research findings, we explore Harm Reduction and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) using an intersectional lens to provide a more complex understanding of Harm Reduction and MMT, particularly how Harm Reduction and MMT are experienced differently by people dependent on how they are positioned. Using the lens of intersectionality, we refine the notion of Harm Reduction by specifying the conditions in which both harm and benefit arise and how experiences of harm are continuous with wider experiences of domination and oppression; Methods A qualitative design that uses ethnographic methods of in-depth individual and focus group interviews and naturalistic observation was conducted in a large city in Canada. Participants included Aboriginal clients accessing mainstream mental health and addictions care and primary health care settings and healthcare providers; Results All client-participants had profound histories of abuse and violence, most often connected to the legacy of colonialism (e.g., residential schooling) and ongoing colonial practices (e.g., stigma & everyday racism). Participants lived with co-occurring illness (e.g., HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C, PTSD, depression, diabetes and substance use) and most lived in poverty. Many participants expressed mistrust with the healthcare system due to everyday experiences both within and outside the system that further marginalize them. In this paper, we focus on three intersecting issues that impact access to MMT: stigma and prejudice, social and structural constraints influencing enactment of peoples' agency, and homelessness; Conclusions Harm reduction must move beyond a narrow concern with the harms directly related to drugs and drug use practices to address the harms associated with the determinants of drug use and drug and health policy. An intersectional lens elucidates the need for harm reduction approaches that reflect an understanding of and commitment to addressing the historical, socio

  4. Self-harm to preferentially harm the pathogens within: non-specific stressors in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    LeGrand, Edmund K; Day, Judy D

    2016-04-13

    Therapies with increasing specificity against pathogens follow the immune system's evolutionary course in maximizing host defence while minimizing self-harm. Nevertheless, even completely non-specific stressors, such as reactive molecular species, heat, nutrient and oxygen deprivation, and acidity can be used to preferentially harm pathogens. Strategic use of non-specific stressors requires exploiting differences in stress vulnerability between pathogens and hosts. Two basic vulnerabilities of pathogens are: (i) the inherent vulnerability to stress of growth and replication (more immediately crucial for pathogens than for host cells) and (ii) the degree of pathogen localization, permitting the host's use of locally and regionally intense stress. Each of the various types of non-specific stressors is present during severe infections at all levels of localization: (i) ultra-locally within phagolysosomes, (ii) locally at the infected site, (iii) regionally around the infected site and (iv) systemically as part of the acute-phase response. We propose that hosts strategically use a coordinated system of non-specific stressors at local, regional and systemic levels to preferentially harm the pathogens within. With the rising concern over emergence of resistance to specific therapies, we suggest more scrutiny of strategies using less specific therapies in pathogen control. Hosts' active use of multiple non-specific stressors is likely an evolutionarily basic defence whose retention underlies and supplements the well-recognized immune defences that directly target pathogens. PMID:27075254

  5. Self-harm to preferentially harm the pathogens within: non-specific stressors in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Therapies with increasing specificity against pathogens follow the immune system's evolutionary course in maximizing host defence while minimizing self-harm. Nevertheless, even completely non-specific stressors, such as reactive molecular species, heat, nutrient and oxygen deprivation, and acidity can be used to preferentially harm pathogens. Strategic use of non-specific stressors requires exploiting differences in stress vulnerability between pathogens and hosts. Two basic vulnerabilities of pathogens are: (i) the inherent vulnerability to stress of growth and replication (more immediately crucial for pathogens than for host cells) and (ii) the degree of pathogen localization, permitting the host's use of locally and regionally intense stress. Each of the various types of non-specific stressors is present during severe infections at all levels of localization: (i) ultra-locally within phagolysosomes, (ii) locally at the infected site, (iii) regionally around the infected site and (iv) systemically as part of the acute-phase response. We propose that hosts strategically use a coordinated system of non-specific stressors at local, regional and systemic levels to preferentially harm the pathogens within. With the rising concern over emergence of resistance to specific therapies, we suggest more scrutiny of strategies using less specific therapies in pathogen control. Hosts' active use of multiple non-specific stressors is likely an evolutionarily basic defence whose retention underlies and supplements the well-recognized immune defences that directly target pathogens. PMID:27075254

  6. [On the subject of tradition].

    PubMed

    Zuurmont, I

    1996-04-01

    HIV/STD prevention programs can stimulate debate over behavior change at the community level. In 1993, Yayasan Haumeni, a local nongovernmental organization (NGO) in Timor, southeastern Asia, launched an HIV/STD prevention program when voluntary health agents announced an increased level of STDs in the community. The NGO first conducted a study in 12 villages to identify the main modes of HIV transmission. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and group discussions with traditional healers, religious leaders, and youth. A ritual linked to puberty was found to be a practice potentially fostering the transmission of HIV/STDs in the community. Once circumcised by traditional practitioners, pubescent boys in the community are expected to have sexual relations with 2-4 different women. Study participants also discussed the subjects of multiple sex partners, abortion, adolescent pregnancy, family planning, and the exodus of young people. Study results were presented to district decision-makers, who decided to implement an education program on HIV and STDs designed to foment debate upon the circumcision ritual, the sex roles of men and women, and perceptions of male sexual power. Even though it remains too early to assess sexual behavior changes in the community, some young people and their families have begun to question the traditional circumcision practice and its associated rituals. PMID:12322626

  7. Best Practices in Grading. Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…

  8. Poor communication on patients’ medication across health care levels leads to potentially harmful medication errors

    PubMed Central

    Frydenberg, Karin; Brekke, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Objective General practitioners have a key role in updating their patients’ medication. Poor communication regarding patients’ drug use may easily occur when patients cross health care levels. We wanted to explore whether such inadequate communication leads to errors in patients’ medication on admission, during hospital stay, and after discharge, and whether these errors were potentially harmful. Design Exploratory case study of 30 patients. Setting General practices in central Norway and medical ward of Innlandet Hospital Trust Gjøvik, Norway. Subjects 30 patients urgently admitted to the medical ward, and using three or more drugs on admission. Main outcome measures Discrepancies between the patients’ actual drugs taken and what was recorded on admission to hospital, during hospitalization, at discharge, and five weeks after hospital stay. The discrepancies were grouped according to the NCC Merp Index for Categorizing Medication Errors to assess their potential harm. Results The 30 patients used a total of 250 drugs, and 50 medication errors were found, affecting 18 of the patients; 27 errors were potentially harmful, according to NCC Merp Index: 23 in category E, four in category F. Half of the errors originated from an incomplete medication list in the referral letter. Conclusion The majority of the medication errors were made when the patients were admitted to hospital, and a substantial proportion were potentially harmful. The medication list should be reviewed together with the patient on admission, and each patient should carry an updated medication list provided by his or her general practitioner. PMID:23050954

  9. Mental Health Nurses' Experiences of Caring for Patients Suffering from Self-Harm

    PubMed Central

    Talseth, Anne-Grethe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore mental health nurses' experiences of caring for inpatients who self-harm during an acute phase. The setting was four psychiatric clinics in Norway. Fifteen mental health nurses (MHNs) were recruited. Semistructured interviews comprised the method for data collection, with content analysis used for data analysis. Two main categories emerged: challenging and collaborative nurse-patient relationship and promoting well-being through nursing interventions. The underlying meaning of the main categories was interpreted and formulated as a latent theme: promoting person-centered care to patients suffering from self-harm. How MHNs promote care for self-harm patients can be described as a person-centered nursing process. MHNs, through the creation of a collaborative nurse-patient relationship, reflect upon nursing interventions and seek to understand each unique patient. The implication for clinical practice is that MHNs are in a position where they can promote patients' recovery processes, by offering patients alternative activities and by working in partnership with patients to promote their individual strengths and life knowledge. MHNs strive to help patients find new ways of living with their problems. The actual study highlighted that MHNs use different methods and strategies when promoting the well-being of self-harm patients. PMID:25512876

  10. Defining and redefining harm reduction in the Lao context

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The response to drug use in Laos has focused on reducing opium supply (supply reduction) and rates of drug use (demand reduction). However, recently there is increased interest among government counterparts to discuss and develop broader responses to injecting drug use (IDU) including the introduction of harm reduction programs. The concept of harm reduction has just been introduced to Lao PDR and as yet there is no agreement on a definition of the concept. We highlight here a range of issues that remain controversial in Lao PDR in the HIV, drug use and harm reduction discourse, the definition of 'harm reduction' and related terms; and the scope of harm reduction. This was a qualitative study, consisting of in-depth interviews with 27 law enforcement and 8 health officers who work in the fields of HIV and/or drug control about their understanding of HIV related to drug use, and concepts of harm reduction. Content analysis was performed to identify the coding, categories and themes. We found that law enforcement officers in particular had limited understanding about harm reduction and the feasibility and appropriateness of harm reduction services in the Lao context. Harm reduction should be a core element of a public health response to HIV where drug use and IDU exists. Recommendations include the necessity of increasing the awareness of harm reduction among law enforcement officers and providing appropriate evidence to support the needs of harm reduction policy and programs. HIV prevention and treatment strategies should be integrated within existing social and cultural frameworks, working with the task force for HIV/IDU and other government counterparts. PMID:22769736

  11. Optimal redesign study of the harm wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, S. C., Jr.; Weynand, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the use of optimization techniques to improve the flutter margins of the HARM AGM-88A wing. The missile has four cruciform wings, located near mid-fuselage, that are actuated in pairs symmetrically and antisymmetrically to provide pitch, yaw, and roll control. The wings have a solid stainless steel forward section and a stainless steel crushed-honeycomb aft section. The wing restraint stiffness is dependent upon wing pitch amplitude and varies from a low value near neutral pitch attitude to a much higher value at off-neutral pitch attitudes, where aerodynamic loads lock out any free play in the control system. The most critical condition for flutter is the low-stiffness condition in which the wings are moved symmetrically. Although a tendency toward limit-cycle flutter is controlled in the current design by controller logic, wing redesign to improve this situation is attractive because it can be accomplished as a retrofit. In view of the exploratory nature of the study, it was decided to apply the optimization to a wing-only model, validated by comparison with results obtained by Texas Instruments (TI). Any wing designs that looked promising were to be evaluated at TI with more complicated models, including body modes. The optimization work was performed by McIntosh Structural Dynamics, Inc. (MSD) under a contract from TI.

  12. DDT, epigenetic harm, and transgenerational environmental justice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although the environmentally harmful effects of widespread dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) use became well-known following Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962), its human health effects have more recently become clearer. A ban on the use of DDT has been in place for over 30 years, but recently DDT has been used for malaria control in areas such as Africa. Recent work shows that DDT has transgenerational effects in progeny and generations never directly exposed to DDT. These effects have health implications for individuals who are not able to have any voice in the decision to use the pesticide. The transgenerational effects of DDT are considered in light of some widely accepted ethical principles. We argue that this reframes the decision to use DDT, requiring us to incorporate new considerations, and new kinds of decision making, into the deliberative process that determines its ongoing use. Ethical considerations for intergenerational environmental justice are presented that include concern and respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, and justice. Here, we offer a characterization of the kinds of ethical considerations that must be taken into account in any satisfactory decisions to use DDT. PMID:25086599

  13. Genetic Transmission of Disease: A Legal Harm?

    PubMed

    Stanton, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    This paper considers whether existing law could potentially be used to criminalize the transmission of genetic disease. The paper argues that even if an offence could be made out, the criminal law should not be involved in this context for many reasons, including the need to protect reproductive liberty and pregnant women's rights. The paper also examines whether there might be scope for civil claims between reproductive partners for a 'failure to warn' of potential genetic harm and argues there are strong policy grounds for resisting such claims. If such a duty were to exist, there might, in the future, be scope for a child to bring a claim under the Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability Act) 1976. Such a claim could be for the failure by the child's father to warn her mother, which in turn led to the loss of opportunity to have treatment in utero which could have prevented the disability. It is suggested that the same arguments which supported granting maternal immunity under the Act would also support paternal immunity and that, therefore the issue of the lack of paternal immunity under the Act should be revisited. PMID:26498322

  14. Intelligent glasses, watches and vests…oh my! Rethinking the meaning of "harm" in the age of wearable technologies.

    PubMed

    Jadad, Alejandro R; Fandiño, Marcela; Lennox, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The widespread release and adoption of wearable devices will likely accelerate the "hybrid era", already initiated by mobile digital devices, with progressively deeper levels of human-technology co-evolution and increasing blurring of our boundaries with machines. Questions about the potentially harmful nature of information and communication technologies have been asked before, since the introduction of the telephone, the Web, and more recently, mobile phones. Our capacity to answer them now is limited by outdated conceptual approaches to harm, mostly derived from drug evaluation; and by the slow and static nature of traditional research tools. In this article, we propose a re-conceptualizing of the meaning of "harm", which builds on a global effort focused on health, adding flexibility and richness within a context that acknowledges the physical, mental, and social domains in which it can occur. PMID:25668291

  15. Ecological Education in Rural China: Rediscovering Traditional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    This article has implications for the ecological sustainability crisis now looming in China and what this portends for the practice of education. Chemical agriculture, although improving agricultural production, harms ecological systems in rural communities. The author presents research on a group of intellectuals and social activists in 1…

  16. Optical methods for monitoring harmful gas in animal facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shirui; Dong, Daming; Zheng, Wengang; Wang, Jihua

    2014-06-01

    Animal facilities produce large amounts of harmful gases such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and methane, many of which have a pungent odor. The harmful gases produced by animal housing not only affect the health of people and livestock but also pollute the air. The detection of the harmful gases can effectively improve efficiency of livestock production and reduce environmental pollution. More and more optical detection methods are applied to the detection of the harmful gases produced by animal housing. This summarizes optical detection methods for monitoring the harmful gases in animal housing recently, including nondispersive infrared gas analyzer, ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The basic principle and the characteristics of these methods are illustrated and the applications on the detection of harmful gases in animal housing are described. Meanwhile, the research of harmful gases monitoring for livestock production based on these methods were listed. The current situation and future development of the detection methods for harmful gases generated by animal housing were summarized by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  17. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  18. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  19. Managing Sexually Harmful Behaviour in a Residential Special School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Graham, Nicola; Ikin, Annette; Penney, Heather; Kovacs, Lisa; Mercer, Dawn; Edwards, Richard; Jones, Dylan; Mace, Floyd Charles

    2012-01-01

    Children and young people with learning disabilities who present sexually harmful behaviour are marginalised and do not always participate in community activities. This case study describes a multi-component intervention that successfully reduced the sexually harmful behaviour of a 16-year-old boy with a mild learning disability. The intervention…

  20. Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Non-indigenous species (NIS) are common in the United States landscape. While some are beneficial, others are harmful and can cause significant economic, environmental, and health damage. This study, requested by the U.S. House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, examined State and Federal policies related to these harmful NIS. The report is…

  1. 40 CFR 51.151 - Significant harm levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant harm levels. 51.151 Section... Emergency Episodes § 51.151 Significant harm levels. Each plan for a Priority I region must include a... concentrations at any location in such region from reaching the following levels: Sulfur dioxide—2.620 µg/m3...

  2. Self-Harm and Conventional Gender Roles in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straiton, Melanie L.; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Grimholt, Tine K.; Dieserud, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women.…

  3. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent harm notice of action. The Board may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on...

  4. 16 CFR 1102.28 - Publication of reports of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Procedural Requirements § 1102.28... publish reports of harm that meet the requirements for publication in the Database. The Commission will... Commission may publish a report of harm that meets the requirements of § 1102.10(d) in the Database...

  5. 16 CFR 1102.28 - Publication of reports of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Procedural Requirements § 1102.28... publish reports of harm that meet the requirements for publication in the Database. The Commission will... Commission may publish a report of harm that meets the requirements of § 1102.10(d) in the Database...

  6. 16 CFR 1102.28 - Publication of reports of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Procedural Requirements § 1102.28... publish reports of harm that meet the requirements for publication in the Database. The Commission will... Commission may publish a report of harm that meets the requirements of § 1102.10(d) in the Database...

  7. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent harm notice of action. The Board may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on...

  8. Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Louise; Canter, David

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the variations in behaviour displayed by young people who sexually harm, as previous research has shown that they are not a homogeneous sample. Three conceptually distinct sets of behaviour were hypothesized, relating to various modes of interaction between the young people with harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) and their…

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  14. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent harm notice of action. The Board may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on...

  15. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent harm notice of action. The Board may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on...

  16. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent harm notice of action. The Board may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on...

  17. Young Children Selectively Avoid Helping People with Harmful Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Amrisha; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether young children are selectively prosocial toward others, based on the others' moral behaviors. In Study 1 (N = 54), 3-year-olds watched 1 adult (the actor) harming or helping another adult. Children subsequently helped the harmful actor less often than a third (previously neutral) adult, but helped the helpful and…

  18. Hate Speech and Its Harms: A Communication Theory Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Clay

    1997-01-01

    Uses J.W. Carey's transmission and ritual communication models to illustrate harms caused by hate speech. Examines legal precedent for the ritual model, but suggests that courts more often adopt the transmission model. Argues that, although the ritual model points to a different, long-term harm caused by hate speech, its adoption raises troubling…

  19. Training Implications of Harmful Effects of Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castonguay, Louis G.; Boswell, James F.; Constantino, Michael J.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Hill, Clara E.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to delineate training implications regarding harmful effects associated with psychotherapy. The authors strongly recommend that trainees be made aware of (and encouraged to examine carefully) the potentially harmful treatments that have been recently identified (Lilienfeld, 2007). Consistent with a broad perspective on…

  20. When Traditions Become Innovations and Innovations Become Traditions in Everyday Food Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benny, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the way learning to cook remains important for the maintenance of "ethnic" food traditions and how sharing food knowledge plays a role in intercultural exchanges. Ethnographic data from an ongoing study in Melbourne is presented to highlight how, in everyday practices, both tradition and innovation are involved in learning…

  1. Traditional Arts Knowledge, Traditional Ecological Lore: The Intersection of Art Education and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bequette, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Teaching about Native artworks as part of school arts curriculum can serve to pass on traditional ecological knowledge while also contextualizing colonialism's influence on traditional and contemporary Native arts practices. This article explores how schools can actively engage in community arts partnerships with American Indians who have…

  2. Traditional and non-traditional collective bargaining: strategies to improve the patient care environment.

    PubMed

    Budd, Karen W; Warino, Linda S; Patton, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Acquiring organizational autonomy and control over nursing practice, through a combination of traditional and non-traditional collective bargaining (CB) strategies, is emerging as an important solution to the nursing shortage crisis. For the past 60 years, nurses have improved their economic and general welfare by organizing through traditional CB, particularly during periods of nursing shortages. During the past decade, however, the downsizing of nursing staffs, systems redesign, and oppressive management practices have created such poor nursing practice environments that improvement in wages no longer is viewed as the primary purpose of CB. Much more essential to nurses is assuring they have a safe practice environment free of mandatory overtime and other work issues, and a voice in the resource allocation decisions that affect their ability to achieve quality health outcomes for patients. The thesis presented in this article is that traditional and non-traditional CB strategies empower nurses to find such a voice and gain control over nursing practice. This article describes the current shortage; discusses how CB can be used to help nurses find a voice to effect change; reviews the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) history of collective action activities; explains differences between traditional and non-traditional CB strategies; and presents a case study in which both strategies were used to improve the present patient care environment. PMID:14998358

  3. Sharing Stories: Multicultural Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdieke, Sandra J.

    As more emphasis is placed on helping children gain a global perspective and understanding of the world, children's literature seems to be a natural vehicle for fostering that understanding. By studying the storyteller, educators can learn about literary traditions of communities, particularly traditions which reflect the use of stories. An…

  4. Mathematics: Montessori of Traditional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessner, Ruth

    1995-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the approaches to mathematics in Montessori schools and traditional schools. Suggests that in a traditional curriculum, math is studied as a separate subject and isolated discipline, in an abstract format, with the entire group of children moving together through the prescribed curriculum. In contrast, the Montessori school…

  5. Traditional Native Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

  6. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  7. Family Customs and Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cynthia

    Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

  8. Separation of wind's influence on harmful cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhizhang; Liang, Dongfang; du, Hanbei; Pang, Yong; Hu, Kaimin; Wang, Jianjian

    2016-07-01

    Wind is an important physical factor involved in Harmful Cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs). Its integrated influence was separated to three components: (a) Direct Disturbance Impact (DDI) on cyanbacterial proliferation, (b) Indirect Nutrient Impact (INI) by sediment release and (c) Direct Transportation Impact (DTI) by both gentle wind-induced surface drift and wave-generated Stokes drift. By the combination of field investigation, laboratory experiment and numerical simulation their individual contributions to the severe bloom event in May 2007 in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu, was explored. Wind synthetically made 10.5 percent promotion to the bloom on May 28, 2007, but the impact varied with locations. DTI was featured with the strongest contribution of wind's impacts on CyanoHABs, while INI stood at the lowest level and DDI played an intermediate role. From the point of whole Meiliang Bay, the influencing weights of DTI, DDI and INI were approximately 48.55%, 32.30% and 19.15% respectively. DTI exerted the higher promotion in the regions of middle-east (ME), southwest (SW) and southeast (SE), and its actual contribution rate on CyanoHABs ranged from 6.41% to 7.46%. Due to the background nutrient load, INI was characterized by a tiny effect with the contribution rate being 2.18% on average. From the south bay to the north, DDI was detected with a decreasing tendency, with the practical contribution rate generally falling from 4.13% to 2.7%. PMID:27108214

  9. The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization?

    PubMed

    Tupper, Kenneth W

    2008-08-01

    Ayahuasca is a tea made from two plants native to the Amazon, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, which, respectively, contain the psychoactive chemicals harmala alkaloids and dimethyltryptamine. The tea has been used by indigenous peoples in countries such as Brazil, Ecuador and Peru for medicinal, spiritual and cultural purposes since pre-Columbian times. In the 20th century, ayahuasca spread beyond its native habitat and has been incorporated into syncretistic practices that are being adopted by non-indigenous peoples in modern Western contexts. Ayahuasca's globalization in the past few decades has led to a number of legal cases which pit religious freedom against national drug control laws. This paper explores some of the philosophical and policy implications of contemporary ayahuasca use. It addresses the issue of the social construction of ayahuasca as a medicine, a sacrament and a "plant teacher." Issues of harm reduction with respect to ayahuasca use are explored, but so too is the corollary notion of "benefit maximization." PMID:18638702

  10. First do no harm: iatrogenic maintaining factors in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Janet; Crane, Anna; McKnight, Rebecca; Buchanan, Emmakate; Wolfe, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the way that we as clinicians may play an inadvertent role in perpetuating eating disordered behaviour. This is considered within the theoretical framework of Schmidt and Treasures' maintenance model of anorexia nervosa (AN). The model includes four main domains; interpersonal factors, pro-AN beliefs, emotional style and thinking style. Interpersonal reactions are of particular relevance as clinicians (as with family members) may react with high expressed emotion and unknowingly encourage eating disorder behaviours to continue. Hostility in the form of coercive refeeding in either a hospital or outpatient setting may strengthen conditioned food avoidance and pessimism may hamper motivation to change. Negative schema common to eating disorders, for example low self-esteem, perfectionism and striving for social value may augment existing or initiate new eating disorder behaviour. Services can become a reinforcing influence by providing an overly protective, palliating environment which ensures safety, security and acceptance whilst reducing loneliness and isolation. This stifles the need for an individual to develop their own sense of responsibility, autonomy and independence allowing avoidance to dominate. Furthermore, the highly structured environment of inpatient care supports the rigid attention to detail and inflexibility that is characteristic of people with eating disorders, and allows these negative behaviours to thrive. Careful planning of service provision, reflective practice, supervision and regular team feedback is essential to prevent iatrogenic harm. PMID:21714039

  11. Malaysia and harm reduction: the challenges and responses.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gary; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Sran, Sangeeta Kaur

    2007-03-01

    In Malaysia the response to illicit drug use has been largely punitive with the current goal of the Malaysian government being to achieve a drug-free society by 2015. This paper outlines the results of a desk-based situation assessment conducted over a 3-week period in 2004. Additional events, examined in 2005, were also included to describe more recent policy developments and examine how these came about. Despite punitive drug policy there has been a substantial rise in the number of drug users in the country. Over two-thirds of HIV/AIDS cases are among injecting drug users (IDUs) and there has been an exponential rise in the number of cases reported. Further, data suggest high risk drug use practices are widespread. Harm reduction initiatives have only recently been introduced in Malaysia. The successful piloting of substitution therapies, in particular methadone and buprenorphine, is cause for genuine hope for the rapid development of such interventions. In 2005 the government announced it will allow methadone maintenance programmes to operate beyond the pilot phase and needle and syringe exchange programmes will be established to serve the needs of IDUs. PMID:17689356

  12. Climate change: links to global expansion of harmful cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Paul, Valerie J

    2012-04-01

    Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest (∼3.5 bya) oxygen evolving organisms, and they have had major impacts on shaping our modern-day biosphere. Conversely, biospheric environmental perturbations, including nutrient enrichment and climatic changes (e.g. global warming, hydrologic changes, increased frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones, more intense and persistent droughts), strongly affect cyanobacterial growth and bloom potentials in freshwater and marine ecosystems. We examined human and climatic controls on harmful (toxic, hypoxia-generating, food web disrupting) bloom-forming cyanobacteria (CyanoHABs) along the freshwater to marine continuum. These changes may act synergistically to promote cyanobacterial dominance and persistence. This synergy is a formidable challenge to water quality, water supply and fisheries managers, because bloom potentials and controls may be altered in response to contemporaneous changes in thermal and hydrologic regimes. In inland waters, hydrologic modifications, including enhanced vertical mixing and, if water supplies permit, increased flushing (reducing residence time) will likely be needed in systems where nutrient input reductions are neither feasible nor possible. Successful control of CyanoHABs by grazers is unlikely except in specific cases. Overall, stricter nutrient management will likely be the most feasible and practical approach to long-term CyanoHAB control in a warmer, stormier and more extreme world. PMID:21893330

  13. Disclosing harmful medical errors to patients: tackling three tough cases.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Thomas H; Bell, Sigall K; Smith, Kelly M; Mello, Michelle M; McDonald, Timothy B

    2009-09-01

    A gap exists between recommendations to disclose errors to patients and current practice. This gap may reflect important, yet unanswered questions about implementing disclosure principles. We explore some of these unanswered questions by presenting three real cases that pose challenging disclosure dilemmas. The first case involves a pancreas transplant that failed due to the pancreas graft being discarded, an error that was not disclosed partly because the family did not ask clarifying questions. Relying on patient or family questions to determine the content of disclosure is problematic. We propose a standard of materiality that can help clinicians to decide what information to disclose. The second case involves a fatal diagnostic error that the patient's widower was unaware had happened. The error was not disclosed out of concern that disclosure would cause the widower more harm than good. This case highlights how institutions can overlook patients' and families' needs following errors and emphasizes that benevolent deception has little role in disclosure. Institutions should consider whether involving neutral third parties could make disclosures more patient centered. The third case presents an intraoperative cardiac arrest due to a large air embolism where uncertainty around the clinical event was high and complicated the disclosure. Uncertainty is common to many medical errors but should not deter open conversations with patients and families about what is and is not known about the event. Continued discussion within the medical profession about applying disclosure principles to real-world cases can help to better meet patients' and families' needs following medical errors. PMID:19736193

  14. [Health and social harm related alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources. PMID:25090405

  15. Harm perception of nicotine products in college freshmen.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie Y; Curbow, Barbara; Stillman, Frances A

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the association of sociodemographic characteristics and smoking behaviors (i.e., cigarette, cigar, and waterpipe) with nicotine product harm perception in college freshmen. Students were asked to compare the perceived harmfulness of 11 nicotine-delivering products with that of a regular cigarette. Data were from a cross-sectional Internet survey conducted during the spring 2004 semester at a private university (N = 411). Binomial logistic regression was used to determine the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors with nicotine product harm perception. A statistically significant association was found between nicotine product harm perception and sex, race, income, citizenship, and smoking behavior (p< or =.05). Regarding the three medicinal nicotine replacement therapies, 19.6% of respondents incorrectly perceived the nicotine patch to be as harmful as or more harmful than a regular cigarette; corresponding values were 24.1% for nicotine gum and 52.9% for nicotine inhaler. Respondents incorrectly perceived the following smoked tobacco products to be less harmful than regular cigarettes: ultra-light cigarettes (40.4%), waterpipe (37%), light cigarettes (35.2%), cigarillos (17.4%), and cigars (16.9%). Regarding smokeless nicotine products, 89.3% of respondents incorrectly perceived dip and chew to be as harmful as or more harmful than regular cigarettes; corresponding values were 36.2% for nicotine lollipops and 35.2% for nicotine water. Our findings reveal misperceptions about nicotine product harmfulness and underscore the importance of developing a science base to inform policies and educate consumers about these products. PMID:17763115

  16. Improving health and social care relationships for harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Allman, D; Myers, T; Schellenberg, J; Strike, C; Cockerill, R; Cavalieri, W

    2007-05-01

    This paper explores elements of the relationships that develop between people who use illicit drugs and people who provide services to them. It focuses on expectations people who use drugs and service providers have of health and social care relationships for harm reduction, as well as facilitators and barriers to effective and ineffective interactions, and to what governments might better do to help strengthen interactions. Prior to Canada's inaugural national harm reduction conference, informal discussion groups were organized to source local views regarding policy reform for harm reduction. One component of these discussion groups focused upon improving health and social care relationships for harm reduction. Community-based organizations providing services for harm minimisation were consulted to help develop themes and questions. Discussion groups conducted in French or English were held in 10 cities across Canada. Groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Disjuncture between understandings of the nature of health and social care relationships for harm reduction were found. Interpersonal and structural factors functioned both for and against the development of effective interactions. Differences in expectation sets held by illicit drug users and service providers may reflect the fluid experience of boundaries as a population on society's margins moves between harm-causing and harm-reducing behaviours and identities. The research described in this paper targeted those most directly involved in receiving, developing and delivering harm reduction programmes across a very diverse nation. It did so by including representatives of those most directly involved in utilizing and providing services within the research process itself. By incorporating a process that was community-based, user-driven, and which strived to be non-judgmental, the research was able to explore suggestions for improving health and social care relationships for harm

  17. Interprofessional and Interagency Training for Working with Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: An Evaluation of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Simon; Carpenter, John; Patsios, Demi; Szilassy, Eszter

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the outcomes of short interagency training courses provided by six Local Safeguarding Children Boards in England. The aim was to develop practical skills in recognising and responding to the needs of children with harmful sexual behaviour in an interagency context. The courses all employed interactive learning and teaching…

  18. Design and Implementation of Harmful Algal Bloom Diagnosis System Based on J2EE Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chunfeng; Zheng, Haiyong; Ji, Guangrong; Lv, Liang

    According to the shortcomings which are time consuming and laborious of the traditional HAB (Harmful Algal Bloom) diagnosis by the experienced experts using microscope, all kinds of methods and technologies to identify HAB emerged such as microscopic images, molecular biology, characteristics of pigments analysis, fluorescence spectra, inherent optical properties, etc. This paper proposes the design and implementation of a web-based diagnosis system integrating the popular methods for HAB identification. This system is designed with J2EE platform based on MVC (Model-View-Controller) model as well as technologies such as JSP, Servlets, EJB and JDBC.

  19. Dealing with Alcohol-related problems in the Night-Time Economy: A Study Protocol for Mapping trends in harm and stakeholder views surrounding local community level interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This project will provide a comprehensive investigation into the prevalence of alcohol-related harms and community attitudes in the context of community-based interventions being implemented to reduce harm in two regional centres of Australia. While considerable experimentation and innovation to address these harms has occurred in both Geelong and Newcastle, only limited ad-hoc documentation and analysis has been conducted on changes in the prevalence of harm as a consequence, leaving a considerable gap in terms of a systematic, evidence-based analysis of changes in harm over time and the need for further intervention. Similarly, little evidence has been reported regarding the views of key stakeholder groups, industry, government agencies, patrons or community regarding the need for, and the acceptability of, interventions to reduce harms. This project will aim to provide evidence regarding the impact and acceptability of local initiatives aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Methods/Design This study will gather existing police data (assault, property damage and drink driving offences), Emergency Department presentations and Ambulance attendance data. Further, the research team will conduct interviews with licensed venue patrons and collect observational data of licensed venues. Key informant interviews will assess expert knowledge from key industry and government stakeholders, and a community survey will assess community experiences and attitudes towards alcohol-related harm and harm-reduction strategies. Overall, the project will assess: the extent of alcohol-related harm in the context of harm-reduction interventions, and the need for and acceptability of further intervention. Discussion These findings will be used to improve evidence-based practice both nationally and internationally. Ethical Approval This project has been approved by Deakin University HREC. PMID:21682908

  20. Continuing to challenge practice to be evidence based.

    PubMed

    Makic, Mary Beth Flynn; Rauen, Carol; Jones, Kimmith; Fisk, Anna C

    2015-04-01

    Practice habits continue in clinical practice despite the availability of research and other forms of evidence that should be used to guide critical care practice interventions. This article is based on a presentation at the 2014 National Teaching Institute of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. The article is part of a series of articles that challenge critical care nurses to examine the evidence guiding nursing practice interventions. Four common practice interventions are reviewed: (1) weight-based medication administration, (2) chest tube patency maintenance, (3) daily interruption of sedation, and (4) use of chest physiotherapy in children. For weight-based administration of medication, the patient's actual weight should be measured, rather than using an estimate. The therapeutic effectiveness and dosages of medications used in obese patients must be critically evaluated. Maintaining patency of chest tubes does not require stripping and milking, which probably do more harm than good. Daily interruption of sedation and judicious use of sedatives are appropriate in most patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Traditional chest physiotherapy does not help children with pneumonia, bronchiolitis, or asthma and does not prevent atelectasis after extubation. Critical care nurses are challenged to evaluate their individual practice and to adopt current evidence-based practice interventions into their daily practice. PMID:25834007

  1. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly

  2. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Merriam, Sharan; Suhami, Norhasmilia

    2012-01-01

    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities. PMID:22295249

  3. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    .Thus, California Department of Health Services prohibits promotion of snus and medicinal nicotine as a harm reduction strategy. However, the US Federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, signed by President Obama in 2009, places tobacco products under FDA jurisdiction: FDA must define criteria for lowering carcinogens and toxicants in tobacco products, making more available medicinal nicotine, evaluating PREPs, creating a federal Tobacco Control Agency.Which approaches is Italy going to follow? PMID:21926451

  4. Against Harmful Research on Non-Agreeing Children.

    PubMed

    Chwang, Eric

    2015-07-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations permits harmful research on children who have not agreed to participate, but I will argue that it should be no more permissive of harmful research on such children than of harmful research on adults who have not agreed to participate. Of course, the Code permits harmful research on adults. Such research is not morally problematic, however, because adults must agree to participate. And, of course, the Code also permits beneficial research on children without needing their explicit agreement. This sort of research is also not problematic, this time because paternalism towards children may be justifiable. The moral problem at the center of this paper arises from the combination of two potential properties of pediatric research, first that it might be harmful and second that its subjects might not agree to participate. In Section 2 of this article I explain how the Code permits harmful research on non-agreeing children. Section 3 contains my argument that we should no more permit harmful research on non-agreeing children than on non-agreeing adults. In Section 4, I argue that my thesis does not presuppose that pediatric assent has the same moral force that adult consent does. In Section 5, I argue that the distinction between non-voluntary and involuntary research is irrelevant to my thesis. In Section 6, I rebut an objection based on the power of parental permission. In Section 7 I suggest how the Code of Federal Regulations might be changed. PMID:25257384

  5. Perceived intent motivates people to magnify observed harms

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Existing moral psychology research commonly explains certain phenomena in terms of a motivation to blame. However, this motivation is not measured directly, but rather is inferred from other measures, such as participants’ judgments of an agent’s blameworthiness. The present paper introduces new methods for assessing this theoretically important motivation, using tools drawn from animal-model research. We test these methods in the context of recent “harm-magnification” research, which shows that people often overestimate the damage caused by intentional (versus unintentional) harms. A preliminary experiment exemplifies this work and also rules out an alternative explanation for earlier harm-magnification results. Exp. 1 asks whether intended harm motivates blame or merely demonstrates the actor’s intrinsic blameworthiness. Consistent with a motivational interpretation, participants freely chose blaming, condemning, and punishing over other appealing tasks in an intentional-harm condition, compared with an unintentional-harm condition. Exp. 2 also measures motivation but with converging indicators of persistence (effort, rate, and duration) in blaming. In addition to their methodological contribution, these studies also illuminate people’s motivational responses to intentional harms. Perceived intent emerges as catalyzing a motivated social cognitive process related to social prediction and control. PMID:25733850

  6. Protecting children from harmful food marketing: options for local government to make a difference.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic cannot be reversed without substantial improvements in the food marketing environment that surrounds children. Food marketing targeted to children almost exclusively promotes calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and takes advantage of children's vulnerability to persuasive messages. Increasing scientific evidence reveals potentially profound effects of food marketing on children's lifelong eating behaviors and health. Much of this marketing occurs in nationwide media (eg, television, the Internet), but companies also directly target children in their own communities through the use of billboards and through local environments such as stores, restaurants, and schools. Given the harmful effect of this marketing environment on children's health and the industry's reluctance to make necessary changes to its food marketing practices, government at all levels has an obligation to act. This article focuses on policy options for municipalities that are seeking ways to limit harmful food marketing at the community level. PMID:21843422

  7. First, do no harm: the role of defibrillators and advanced medical care in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    McKenas, D K

    1997-05-01

    Primum non nocere-First, do no harm. How often have we as physicians and health care providers heard those words? We at American Airlines did not wish to put even one person in harm's way by not having care available to save a life in a remote commercial aviation environment. The decision was purely a business decision of the AMR corporation, who always keeps the welfare of the customer at the fore. It may not be the right choice for the entire commercial aviation industry under an FAA mandate. We know that we will save lives of persons traveling on American Airlines with this program. If the 'ripple' that we have started expands to affect the practices of other commercial air carriers in the domestic United States, American's reward will be a great one-to know that the lives of many people will be saved because one air carrier has taken the first step. PMID:9143743

  8. Harm reduction interventions in HIV care: a qualitative exploration of patient and provider perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. A culture of stringent drug policy, one-size-fits-all treatment approaches, and drug-related stigma has clouded clinical HIV practice in the United States. The result is a series of missed opportunities in the HIV care environment. An approach which may address the broken relationship between patient and provider is harm reduction—which removes judgment and operates at the patient’s stage of readiness. Harm reduction is not a routine part of care; rather, it exists outside clinic walls, exacerbating the divide between compassionate, stigma-free services and the medical system. Methods. Qualitative, phenomenological, semi-structured, individual interviews with patients and providers were conducted in three publicly-funded clinics in Chicago, located in areas of high HIV prevalence and drug use and serving African-American patients (N = 38). A deductive thematic analysis guided the process, including: the creation of an index code list, transcription and verification of interviews, manual coding, notation of emerging themes and refinement of code definitions, two more rounds of coding within AtlasTi, calculation of Cohen’s Kappa for interrater reliability, queries of major codes and analysis of additional common themes. Results. Thematic analysis of findings indicated that the majority of patients felt receptive to harm reduction interventions (safer injection counseling, safer stimulant use counseling, overdose prevention information, supply provision) from their provider, and expressed anticipated gratitude for harm reduction information and/or supplies within the HIV care visit, although some were reluctant to talk openly about their drug use. Provider results were mixed, with more receptivity reported by advanced practice nurses, and more barriers cited by physicians. Notable barriers included: role-perceptions, limited time, inadequate training, and the patients themselves. Discussion. Patients are willing to receive harm reduction

  9. Harm reduction interventions in HIV care: a qualitative exploration of patient and provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Carlberg-Racich, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background. A culture of stringent drug policy, one-size-fits-all treatment approaches, and drug-related stigma has clouded clinical HIV practice in the United States. The result is a series of missed opportunities in the HIV care environment. An approach which may address the broken relationship between patient and provider is harm reduction-which removes judgment and operates at the patient's stage of readiness. Harm reduction is not a routine part of care; rather, it exists outside clinic walls, exacerbating the divide between compassionate, stigma-free services and the medical system. Methods. Qualitative, phenomenological, semi-structured, individual interviews with patients and providers were conducted in three publicly-funded clinics in Chicago, located in areas of high HIV prevalence and drug use and serving African-American patients (N = 38). A deductive thematic analysis guided the process, including: the creation of an index code list, transcription and verification of interviews, manual coding, notation of emerging themes and refinement of code definitions, two more rounds of coding within AtlasTi, calculation of Cohen's Kappa for interrater reliability, queries of major codes and analysis of additional common themes. Results. Thematic analysis of findings indicated that the majority of patients felt receptive to harm reduction interventions (safer injection counseling, safer stimulant use counseling, overdose prevention information, supply provision) from their provider, and expressed anticipated gratitude for harm reduction information and/or supplies within the HIV care visit, although some were reluctant to talk openly about their drug use. Provider results were mixed, with more receptivity reported by advanced practice nurses, and more barriers cited by physicians. Notable barriers included: role-perceptions, limited time, inadequate training, and the patients themselves. Discussion. Patients are willing to receive harm reduction interventions from

  10. Alcohol-related harm among university students in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Pham Bich; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Giang, Kim Bao; De Vries, Nanne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Aim This study examines the prevalence of and risk factors for alcohol-related harm and types of harm among medical students from Hanoi Medical University (Vietnam). Risk factors include aspects of drinking patterns and relevant socio-demographic variables. Study Design and Methods A cross-sectional study involving 1st to 6th year students (N=1216; response rate 96.5%). Of these, 210 students from each academic year were randomly selected from a sampling frame covering all students from each academic year. Data were collected using a questionnaire distributed in class by researchers. Drinkers completed 23 questions on alcohol-related harm categorized into: 1) ‘negative influence on daily activities’; 2) ‘social conflict’; 3) ‘loss of control, acute consequences, and withdrawal’; 4) ‘mental health conditions’; and 5) ‘physical and medical health problems’. Logistic and Poisson regression models were used to identify the predictors of alcohol-related harm and the amount of harm, respectively. Results The prevalence of alcohol use associated with at least one or more of the five types of harm was higher in men (81.8%) than in women (60.4%). In female and male students, the most common harm category was ‘loss of control, acute consequences, and withdrawal’ (51.8 and 75.6%, respectively), followed by ‘negative influence on daily activities’ (29.4 and 55.8%, respectively). Age, living away from home, and average number of standard drinks per occasion among male drinkers, and age and frequency of drinking per week among female drinkers were associated with alcohol-related harm. Conclusions These data suggest that alcohol-related harm represents a serious public health problem among young educated individuals in Vietnam. The risk factors indicate that prevention should be aimed at aspects of drinking patterns and specific subpopulations defined by gender, age, and (for men only) type of living situation. PMID:23374703

  11. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  12. Traditional healers in North India: a study.

    PubMed

    Kakar, D N

    1983-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the role of indigenous medicine practitioners in providing medical care to the people and to identify factors influencing continuity of their practice. 64 registered indigenous medicine practitioners were practicing in a Community Development Block in North India with a total population of 18,000. Only 9 or them were fully institutionally qualified, i.e., they possessed an ayurvedic degree like GAMS or BIMS. Of the remainder, only 10 were partially institutionally qualified, i.e., they had either a diploma or a certificate in ayurvedic or Unani medicine and the remaining 45 were all noninstitutionally qualified (RIMPS). The 45 had no formal training in indigenous medicine, but they all had served apprenticeships to established practitioners in different areas. The duration of apprenticeship had generally been 4-5 years. 44 of them were practicing both allopathic and ayurvedic systems of medicine. The value of the stock of drugs maintained by them ranged from Rs. 500-2500. Except for 3, all were engaged in full time practice. As most of the RIMPs had their clinics on the main roads, they were easily accessible to their clients. Nearly 3/4 of them had nonresidential clinics, and the rest practiced in their own homes. Most of them had only 1 room clinics. Furnishings usually included a wooden table and chair and a couple of benches for waiting clients. The following were among the study findings: cosmopolitan medicine was still favored by a majority of the rural people; the traditional healers were approached more for the treatment of chronic nonincapacitating dysfunctions rather than critical incapacitating dysfunctions; some traditional healers made claims of curing barrenness, impotency, veneral disease, and certain chronic diseases; the traditional healers moved from 1 place to another in the course of their training and practice; most of them stayed in touch with doctors practicing in towns to acquire knowledge of new remedies

  13. Primary healthcare provider knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding alternative tobacco products and marijuana: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S; Scott, Kimberly N; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J

    2016-06-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This qualitative study explored knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding traditional and alternative tobacco products (cigar-like products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, e-cigarettes) and marijuana among rural and urban Georgia primary healthcare providers. The sample comprised 20 healthcare providers in primary care settings located in the Atlanta Metropolitan area and rural southern Georgia who participated in semi-structured interviews. Results indicated a lack of knowledge about these products, with some believing that some products were less harmful than traditional cigarettes or that they may be effective in promoting cessation or harm reduction. Few reported explicitly assessing use of these various products in clinic. In addition, healthcare providers reported a need for empirical evidence to inform their clinical practice. Healthcare providers must systematically assess use of the range of tobacco products and marijuana. Evidence-based recommendations or information sources are needed to inform clinical practice and help providers navigate conversations with patients using or inquiring about these products. PMID:26802106

  14. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs. PMID:21477299

  15. Sprained Ankle Could Pose Longer-Term Harms to Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sprained Ankle Could Pose Longer-Term Harms to Health Study finds link between adult injury, more heart ... or federal policy. Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Ankle Injuries and Disorders Sprains and Strains ...

  16. Gaps in Care Can Harm Patients After Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Gaps in Care Can Harm Patients After Heart Attack Waiting too long for first medical apppointment after ... 23, 2016 WEDNESDAY, March 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart attack patients who wait a long period to have ...

  17. Harsh Parenting May Harm a Child's Physical Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158709.html Harsh Parenting May Harm a Child's Physical Health Problems might ... 2016 FRIDAY, May 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Harsh parenting may leave more than psychological scars, it might ...

  18. Besides Your Lungs, Smoking May Harm Your Job Prospects, Paycheck

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Besides Your Lungs, Smoking May Harm Your Job Prospects, Paycheck Income difference works out to more ... gone. Today, smokers have a harder time finding jobs, and earn less than nonsmokers when they do ...

  19. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158807.html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college players raises concerns about repetitive non-concussive impacts To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Harmful situations, impure people: an attribution asymmetry across moral domains.

    PubMed

    Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

    2015-03-01

    People make inferences about the actions of others, assessing whether an act is best explained by person-based versus situation-based accounts. Here we examine people's explanations for norm violations in different domains: harmful acts (e.g., assault) and impure acts (e.g., incest). Across four studies, we find evidence for an attribution asymmetry: people endorse more person-based attributions for impure versus harmful acts. This attribution asymmetry is partly explained by the abnormality of impure versus harmful acts, but not by differences in the moral wrongness or the statistical frequency of these acts. Finally, this asymmetry persists even when the situational factors that lead an agent to act impurely are stipulated. These results suggest that, relative to harmful acts, impure acts are linked to person-based attributions. PMID:25490126

  1. Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

  2. Women and Alcohol Use Disorders: Factors That Lead to Harm.

    PubMed

    Brighton, Renee; Moxham, Lorna; Traynor, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Women, alcohol, and alcohol use disorders are underresearched topics when compared with the plethora of literature exploring male alcohol consumption and its related harms. It is time to change the fact that women are underrepresented in research and programs targeting alcohol use disorders. Given the changing patterns of alcohol consumption by women, coupled with the fact that women experience a telescoping effect in alcohol-related harms, it is time that increasing attention be paid to the way gender influences the experience of alcohol-related harms, including the development of alcohol use disorders. Recovery-orientated systems are not possible without the voices of the consumers being heard. With this in mind, the purposes of this article are to explore factors that lead to alcohol-related harm in women and to highlight the gender-specific barriers to service engagement. PMID:27580194

  3. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college players raises concerns about repetitive ... Repeated blows to the head can cause near vision to blur slightly, even if the individual impacts ...

  4. High Content Screening Analysis to Evaluate the Toxicological Effects of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHC)

    PubMed Central

    Marescotti, Diego; Gonzalez Suarez, Ignacio; Acali, Stefano; Johne, Stephanie; Laurent, Alexandra; Frentzel, Stefan; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and lung diseases. Because CS is a complex aerosol containing more than 7,000 chemicals1 it is challenging to assess the contributions of individual constituents to its overall toxicity. Toxicological profiles of individual constituents as well as mixtures can be however established in vitro, by applying high through-put screening tools, which enable the profiling of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHCs) of tobacco smoke, as defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).2 For an initial assessment, an impedance-based instrument was used for a real-time, label-free assessment of the compound's toxicity. The instrument readout relies on cell adhesion, viability and morphology that all together provide an overview of the cell status. A dimensionless parameter, named cell index, is used for quantification. A set of different staining protocols was developed for a fluorescence imaging-based investigation and a HCS platform was used to gain more in-depth information on the kind of cytotoxicity elicited by each HPHC. Of the 15 constituents tested, only five were selected for HCS-based analysis as they registered a computable LD50 (< 20 mM). These included 1-aminonaphtalene, Arsenic (V), Chromium (VI), Crotonaldehyde and Phenol. Based on their effect in the HCS, 1-aminonaphtalene and Phenol could be identified to induce mitochondrial dysfunction, and, together with Chromium (VI) as genotoxic based on the increased histone H2AX phosphorylation. Crotonaldehyde was identified as an oxidative stress inducer and Arsenic as a stress kinase pathway activator. This study demonstrates that a combination of impedance-based and HCS technologies provides a robust tool for in vitro assessment of CS constituents. PMID:27228213

  5. High Content Screening Analysis to Evaluate the Toxicological Effects of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHC).

    PubMed

    Marescotti, Diego; Gonzalez Suarez, Ignacio; Acali, Stefano; Johne, Stephanie; Laurent, Alexandra; Frentzel, Stefan; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and lung diseases. Because CS is a complex aerosol containing more than 7,000 chemicals it is challenging to assess the contributions of individual constituents to its overall toxicity. Toxicological profiles of individual constituents as well as mixtures can be however established in vitro, by applying high through-put screening tools, which enable the profiling of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHCs) of tobacco smoke, as defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For an initial assessment, an impedance-based instrument was used for a real-time, label-free assessment of the compound's toxicity. The instrument readout relies on cell adhesion, viability and morphology that all together provide an overview of the cell status. A dimensionless parameter, named cell index, is used for quantification. A set of different staining protocols was developed for a fluorescence imaging-based investigation and a HCS platform was used to gain more in-depth information on the kind of cytotoxicity elicited by each HPHC. Of the 15 constituents tested, only five were selected for HCS-based analysis as they registered a computable LD50 (< 20 mM). These included 1-aminonaphtalene, Arsenic (V), Chromium (VI), Crotonaldehyde and Phenol. Based on their effect in the HCS, 1-aminonaphtalene and Phenol could be identified to induce mitochondrial dysfunction, and, together with Chromium (VI) as genotoxic based on the increased histone H2AX phosphorylation. Crotonaldehyde was identified as an oxidative stress inducer and Arsenic as a stress kinase pathway activator. This study demonstrates that a combination of impedance-based and HCS technologies provides a robust tool for in vitro assessment of CS constituents. PMID:27228213

  6. Parental Detection of Youth's Self-Harm Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Olfson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The rate and predictors of parental detection of youth self-harm behavior and relationship with help-seeking were examined in 7,036 parent-child dyads from the 1999 and 2004 surveys of Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain. Youth self-harm behavior was reported by 463 (6.6%) children and adolescents but only 190 (2.7%) of the…

  7. Harm reduction in Bern: from outreach to heroin maintenance.

    PubMed Central

    Haemmig, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    In Switzerland, harm-reduction programs have the support of the national government and many localities, in congruence with much of the rest of Europe and in contrast with the United States, and take place in public settings. The threat of AIDS is recognized as the greater harm. This paper describes the overall national program and highlights the experience from one city; the program is noteworthy because it is aimed at gathering comparative data from controlled trials. PMID:10101377

  8. Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescence: A Challenge for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Ron

    2006-01-01

    Acts of deliberate self-harm (DSH) by adolescents are thought to be on the increase. Many of those who self-harm are of school age and it is to be expected that schools (and their teachers) will be aware of the problem and will respond appropriately as part of their pastoral-care provision. However, a recent survey of research in pastoral care and…

  9. Harm or Mere Inconvenience? Denying Women Emergency Contraception

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the likely impact on women of being denied emergency contraception (EC) by pharmacists who conscientiously refuse to provide it. A common view—defended by Elizabeth Fenton and Loren Lomasky, among others—is that these refusals inconvenience rather than harm women so long as the women can easily get EC somewhere else close by. I argue from a feminist perspective that the refusals harm women even when they can easily get EC somewhere else close by. PMID:20706565

  10. Young people's stories of self-harm: a narrative study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kerry; Dallos, Rudi

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the way in which adolescents who have engaged in self-harm make sense of their self-harm and its relationship to the events that have occurred in their lives. The six adolescents (aged between 13 and 18 years) who had been engaging in self-harm were invited to tell their life stories. The analysis explored both the content and the structure of these narratives in order to identify what they regarded to be key events in their lives and also what appeared to have been defended and less fully integrated features of their lives. A primary finding was that the adolescents perceive a severe lack of understanding from others about self-harm, which appeared to inhibit them from developing coherent narratives. They also found it difficult to discuss and integrate the difficulties behind their self-harm, giving narratives that were poorly integrated with little true resolution. One prominent story shared by this group was a story of self-harm as a way of directing their anger inwards. The findings highlight the importance for adolescents of access to conversations where difficult past events can be processed and understood within the context of a life story, and the implications for identity formation. PMID:22104364

  11. A Defence of the Counterfactual Account of Harm.

    PubMed

    Purshouse, Craig

    2016-05-01

    In order to determine whether a particular course of conduct is ethically permissible it is important to have a concept of what it means to be harmed. The dominant theory of harm is the counterfactual account, most famously proposed by Joel Feinberg. This determines whether harm is caused by comparing what actually happened in a given situation with the 'counterfacts' i.e. what would have occurred had the putatively harmful conduct not taken place. If a person's interests are worse off than they otherwise would have been, then a person will be harmed. This definition has recently faced challenges from bioethicists such as John Harris, Guy Kahane and Julian Savulescu who, believing it to be severely flawed, have proposed their own alternative theories of the concept. In this article I will demonstrate that the shortcomings Harris, Kahane and Savulescu believe are present in Feinberg's theory are illusory and that it is their own accounts of harm that are fraught with logical errors. I maintain that the arguments presented to refute Feinberg's theory not only fail to achieve this goal and can be accommodated within the counterfactual account but that they actually undermine the theories presented by their respective authors. The final conclusion will be that these challenges are misconceived and fail to displace the counterfactual theory. PMID:26423790

  12. Harm reduction history, response, and current trends in Asia.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nicholas

    2013-12-01

    HIV epidemics in Asia have been initially driven through injecting drug use and the use of shared needles and syringes. Molecular epidemiological work has shown that where there is heroin trafficking and use, so too is there HIV. Given the often strict enforcement of national anti-narcotic laws, harm reduction responses to HIV infections driven by injecting drug use have been historically slow. As it became clear that preventing HIV meant embracing harm reduction, many countries in the region have adopted harm reduction as part of their national AIDS strategy and increasingly as part of their national drug strategy. Initial successes have proven that harm reduction, as it pertains to HIV among IDUs, can and does work in Asia. These initial successes have led to more comprehensive scale-up of other essential components of HIV prevention among IDUs, including increased availability of opiate substitution programs. Still, multiple challenges remain as overall coverage of services in the region remains poor. Changes in the availability and patterns of use of drugs, including the exponential increase in the use of amphetamine-type stimulants, is providing ongoing challenges to both the law enforcement and public health sectors. This paper reflects on the history of harm reduction in Asia and the shifting trends forcing policy makers to adapt and expand harm reduction strategies to include an ever widening approach to criminal justice, policing, public health, and human rights. PMID:25264414

  13. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  14. Family traditions and generations.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Gerald; Barrera, Maru

    2009-01-01

    Currently, traditional family values that have been passed down through generations appear to be at risk. This has significant implications for the stability and health of individuals, families, and communities. This article explores selected issues related to intergenerational transmission of family values and cultural beliefs, with particular reference to Western culture and values that are rooted in Jewish and Christian traditions. It also examines family values and parenting styles as they influence the developing perspective of children and the family's adaptation to a changing world. PMID:19752638

  15. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for early classification of harmful algal blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Stewardship Institute at Northern Kentucky University and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are collaborating to optimize a harmful algal bloom detection algorithm that estimates the presence and count of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems by image analysis...

  16. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  17. Traditional Field Crops. Appropriate Technologies for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, David

    This manual, primarily designed to help Peace Corps volunteers develop and strengthen their agricultural skills, deals with traditional field crops. The focus of the manual is on surveying and interpreting local agricultural environment and individual farm units, developing agricultural extension techniques and practices, and providing basic…

  18. Evaluating retailer behavior in preventing youth access to harmful legal products a feasibility test.

    PubMed

    Courser, Matthew W; Holder, Harold D; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen A

    2009-10-01

    This article reports results from a feasibility study of a community effort to reduce the availability of legal products that youth can use to get high. The study evaluated the potential of youth purchase attempts to detect actual changes in retail availability of harmful legal products. These results were triangulated with self-reports from retailers about their own policies and practices. Before the intervention, less than half of retailers reported using any of six possible strategies identified as ways to reduce youth access to harmful products, and less than 8% of baseline youth attempts to purchase potentially harmful legal products were refused or questioned. After the low-dosage intervention, retailers reported increased use of three strategies and a statistically significant increase in the percentage of purchase attempts that were either questioned or refused by retail clerks. These findings (a) demonstrate the potential feasibility of retailer-focused environmental strategies and (b) support continued use of youth purchase attempts as a measure of actual retailer behavior. PMID:18660467

  19. "Trip-Sitting" in the Black Hole: A Netnographic Study of Dissociation and Indigenous Harm Reduction.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Evelyn; Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2016-01-01

    An array of dissociative novel psychoactive substances, including "methoxetamine," "3-MeO-PCP," and "methoxphenidine," have emerged as substitutes for the illicit substance "ketamine." A netographic research methodology aimed to describe online, dissociative novel psychoactive substance users' perceptions of risk, informed knowledge around use, and indigenous harm-reduction practices as advocated within online drug fora, so as to provide credible information which can be used to inform public online health education and drug prevention. Systematic Internet searches were performed using the terms "synthetic dissociative," "methoxetamine," "methoxphenidine," "diphenidine," "3-MeO-PCP," "4-MeO-PCP," "2-MDP," and "dissociative research chemical" in combination with "forum." Following screening of 3,476 forum threads with removal of duplicates and exclusion criteria, 90 user trip reports and 115 fora threads from seven drug fora websites were analyzed by conducting content analysis. Five themes emerged with 43 categories. The findings illustrated how forum activity within the cyber drug user community disseminated and exchanged "communal folk pharmacology" relating to the use of dissociative novel psychoactive substances. Further research and consistent monitoring of Internet drug fora are advised to explore variations in harm-reduction tactics throughout dissociative NPS populations, and to consider how existing harm-reduction initiatives are influencing these hard-to-reach groups. PMID:27430659

  20. [Harm reduction policies in Brazil: contributions of a North American program].

    PubMed

    Inglez-Dias, Aline; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Bastos, Francisco I; Page, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the rapid spread of the HIV epidemic and the need to control its transmission among intravenous drug users (IDU), harm reduction strategies have been incorporated in many countries, including Brazil. Considering these aspects and taking into account the emergence of drugs as a core concern on the government's agenda, especially crack cocaine, this article presents some of the contributions acquired from observing and recording the practices of an American model of research and care for IDUs, namely the UFO (You Find Out) Study. Issues such as participants' access and adherence, financing difficulties, sustainability and outcome evaluation were considered. The study involved documental research, systematic observation and interviews with key informants. Some of the UFO features that could contribute to the formulation of harm reduction policies in Brazil are highlighted. The UFO appears to be a successful example of harm reduction initiatives that successfully contact and guarantee the commitment of that risk group, ensuring its access to health services and reducing risks associated with drug use. PMID:24473612

  1. Evaluating Retailer Behavior in Preventing Youth Access to Harmful Legal Products: A Feasibility Test*

    PubMed Central

    Courser, Matthew W.; Holder, Harold D.; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from a feasibility study of a community effort to reduce the availability of legal products that youth can use to get “high”. The study evaluated the potential of youth purchase attempts to detect actual changes in retail availability of harmful legal products. These results were triangulated with self-reports from retailers themselves about their own policies and practices. Before the intervention less than half of retailers reported using any of six possible strategies identified as ways to reduce youth access to harmful products and less than 7% of baseline youth attempts to purchase potentially harmful legal products were refused or questioned. After the low dosage intervention, retailers reported increased use of three strategies and a statistically significant increase in the percentage of purchase attempts that were either questioned or refused by retail clerks. These findings (1) demonstrate the potential feasibility of retailer focused environmental strategies and (2) support continued use of youth purchase attempts as a measure of actual retailer behavior. PMID:18660467

  2. Future Climate Impacts on Harmful Algal Blooms in an Agriculturally Dominated Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloysius, N. R.; Martin, J.; Ludsin, S.; Stumpf, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Cyanobacteria blooms have become a major problem worldwide in aquatic ecosystems that receive excessive runoff of limiting nutrients from terrestrial drainage. Such blooms often are considered harmful because they degrade ecosystem services, threaten public health, and burden local economies. Owing to changing agricultural land-use practices, Lake Erie, the most biologically productive of the North American Great Lakes, has begun to undergo a re-eutrophication in which the frequency and extent of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has increased. Continued climate change has been hypothesized to magnify the HAB problem in Lake Erie in the absence of new agricultural management practices, although this hypothesis has yet to be formally tested empirically. Herein, we tested this hypothesis by predicting how the frequency and extent of potentially harmful cyanobacteria blooms will change in Lake Erie during the 21st century under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment climate projections in the region. To do so, we used 80 ensembles of climate projections from 20 Global Climate Models (GCMs) and two greenhouse gas emission scenarios (moderate reduction, RCP4.5; business-as-usual, RCP8.5) to drive a spatiotemporally explicit watershed-hydrology model that was linked to several statistical predictive models of annual cyanobacteria blooms in Lake Erie. Owing to anticipated increases in precipitation during spring and warmer temperatures during summer, our ensemble of predictions revealed that, if current land-management practices continue, the frequency of severe HABs in Lake Erie will increase during the 21st century. These findings identify a real need to consider future climate projections when developing nutrient reduction strategies in the short term, with adaptation also needing to be encouraged under both greenhouse gas emissions scenarios in the absence of effective nutrient mitigation strategies.

  3. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  4. Tradition in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisenberg, Werner

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

  5. Tradition and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyre, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Honors programs, like the institutions that host them, need to exercise constant re-examination to remain effective and to serve their students the best they can. As a private, liberal arts institution, in the tradition of the Irish Catholic Christian Brothers, Iona College provides many avenues to enhance student learning, and paramount to the…

  6. The Traditional Rebel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemansky, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the Linden, New Jersey, schools' introduction and use of electronic musical technology and contemporary instruments in the orchestral music program, which has broadened the musical repertoire and the recruitment of talented students not schooled in the classical tradition. Four applications of technology for rehearsals and instrumental…

  7. GLOBECORP: Simulation versus Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelman, Mary Dean

    2002-01-01

    Describes an empirical study conducted at the University of Central Oklahoma that investigated the differences in learning outcomes between English as a second language composition courses taught with two different methods, one based on a simulation called GLOBECORP and one on traditional instruction. Discusses progress measured by mandated…

  8. In Defense of Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekich, John

    A disturbing trend is developing in higher education which may jeopardize the quality and importance of the classical tradition in education. This trend is exemplified by demands that the liberal arts be made relevant and comprehensible to the student and that they be related in some way to the search for a good job. The great classical…

  9. Traditional healers formalised?

    PubMed

    Van Niekerk, Jp

    2012-03-01

    Traditional healers are the first to be called for help when illness strikes the majority of South Africans. Their communities have faith in their ability to cure or alleviate conditions managed by doctors, and much more. A visit to such practitioners' websites (they are up with the latest advertising technology!) shows that they promise help with providing more power, love, security or money, protection from evil people and spirits, enhancing one's sex life with penis enlargement and vagina tightening spells, etc. Contemplating such claims, it is easy to be dismissive of traditional healers. But in this issue of the SAMJ Nompumelelo Mbatha and colleagues1 argue that the traditional healers' regulatory council, promised by an Act of Parliament, should be established, followed by (or preferably preceded by) formal recognition by employers of sick certificates issued by traditional healers. Can matters be so simply resolved? What does this mean for doctors and other formally recognised healthcare professionals, and how to respond to such claims and social pressures? PMID:22380886

  10. Teaching Traditional Tropical Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that the teaching of traditional tropical agriculture through the presentation of large numbers of categories or types tends to overemphasize superficial differences at the expense of comprehending the inner essence of life as it exists for the majority of the world's farmers. Offers an alternative approach which claims to foster greater…

  11. Non-Traditional Wraps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  12. Harm reduction - a historical view from the left.

    PubMed

    Friedman, S R.; Southwell, M; Bueno, R; Paone, D; Byrne, J; Crofts, N

    2001-04-01

    The harm reduction movement formed during a period in which social movements of the working class and the excluded were weak, neo-liberalism ideologically triumphant, and potential opposition movements were viewed as offering "tinkering" with the system rather than a total social alternative. This climate shaped and limited the perspectives, strategies, and tactics of harm reductionists almost everywhere. In many countries, this period was also marked by a "political economy of scapegoating" that often targeted drug users as the cause of social woes. This scapegoating took the form of "divide and rule" political initiatives by business and political leaderships to prevent social unrest in a long period of worldwide economic trends toward lowered profit rates and toward increasing income inequality. However, times have changed. Mass strikes and other labor struggles, opposition to the World Trade Organisation and other agencies of neo-liberalism, community-based protests against belt-tightening, and other forms of social unrest have been increasing in many countries. This opens up the possibility of new allies for the harm reduction movement, but also poses difficult problems for which we need to develop answers. On-the-ground experience in alliance formation needs to be combined with careful discussion of and research about what approaches work to convince other movements to work for and with harm reduction, and which approaches do not. Class differences within the harm reduction movement are likely to become more salient in terms of (a) creating internal tensions, (b) increasingly, opening up new ways in which working class harm reductionists can organize within their own communities and workplaces, and (c) producing different strategic orientations that will need to be discussed and debated. As a movement, we will need to find ways to accommodate and discuss differing perspectives, needs, and assessments of opportunities and threats without paralyzing harm

  13. Elephant resource-use traditions.

    PubMed

    Fishlock, Victoria; Caldwell, Christine; Lee, Phyllis C

    2016-03-01

    African elephants (Loxodonta africana) use unusual and restricted habitats such as swampy clearings, montane outcrops and dry rivers for a variety of social and ecological reasons. Within these habitats, elephants focus on very specific areas for resource exploitation, resulting in deep caves, large forest clearings and sand pits as well as long-established and highly demarcated routes for moving between resources. We review evidence for specific habitat exploitation in elephants and suggest that this represents socially learned cultural behaviour. Although elephants show high fidelity to precise locations over the very long term, these location preferences are explained neither by resource quality nor by accessibility. Acquiring techniques for exploiting specific resource sites requires observing conspecifics and practice and is evidence for social learning. Elephants possess sophisticated cognitive capacities used to track relationships and resources over their long lifespans, and they have an extended period of juvenile dependency as a result of the need to acquire this considerable social and ecological knowledge. Thus, elephant fidelity to particular sites results in traditional behaviour over generations, with the potential to weaken relationships between resource quality and site preferences. Illustrating the evidence for such powerful traditions in a species such as elephants contributes to understanding animal cognition in natural contexts. PMID:26359083

  14. Understanding the potential impact of transgenic crops in traditional agriculture: maize farmers' perspectives in Cuba, Guatemala and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soleri, Daniela; Cleveland, David A; Aragón, Flavio; Fuentes, Mario R; Ríos, Humberto; Sweeney, Stuart H

    2005-01-01

    Genetically engineered transgenic crop varieties (TGVs) have spread rapidly in the last 10 years, increasingly to traditionally-based agricultural systems (TBAS) of the Third World both as seed and food. Proponents claim they are key to reducing hunger and negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Opponents claim they will have the opposite effect. The risk management process (RMP) is the primary way in which TGVs are regulated in the US (and many other industrial countries), and proponents claim that the findings of that process in the US and its regulatory consequences should be extended to TBAS. However, TBAS differ in important ways from industrial agriculture, so TGVs could have different effects in TBAS, and farmers there may evaluate risks and benefits differently. To evaluate some potential impacts of TGVs in TBAS we used the RMP as a framework for the case of Bt maize in Mesoamerica and Cuba. We interviewed 334 farmers in Cuba, Guatemala and Mexico about farming practices, evaluations of potential harm via hypothetical scenarios, and ranking of maize types. Results suggest high potential for transgene flow via seed, grain and pollen; differences in effects of this exposure in TBAS compared with industrial agriculture; farmers see some potential consequences as harmful. Perceptions of harm differ among farmers in ways determined by their farming systems, and are different from those commonly assumed in industrial systems. An RMP including participation of farmers and characteristics of TBAS critical for their functioning is necessary to ensure that investments in agricultural technologies will improve, not compromise these agricultural systems. PMID:16634221

  15. Young people and drugs: next generation of harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Merkinaite, Simona; Grund, Jean Paul; Frimpong, Allen

    2010-03-01

    Globally, young people under 25 accounted for an estimated 45% of all new HIV infections in 2007. Across the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region as many as 25% of injecting drug users (IDUs) are younger than 20. The Eurasian Harm Reduction assessment of young peoples' (under 25) drug use, risk behaviours and service availability and accessibility confirms, young people at risk of injecting, or those already experimenting with injecting drugs, find themselves isolated from health and prevention services, which increases the risks for health and social harms, while the approach towards young peoples' use rely heavily on law enforcement. Denying young drug users' access to life-saving drug treatment and other harm reduction services contributes to the risk environment surrounding their use and violates their right to health and well-being as identified in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Governments, health care providers and harm reduction services should work together to create an environment in which young people can access needed services, including non-judgmental and low-threshold approaches offered by harm reduction programs. PMID:20036526

  16. Benefits and harms of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2016-07-28

    Gastric cancer has remained a serious burden worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. However, nationwide prevention and screening programs for gastric cancer have not yet been established in most countries except in South Korea and Japan. Although evidence regarding the effectiveness of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer has been increasingly accumulated, such evidence remains weak because it is based on results from studies other than randomized controlled trials. Specifically, evidence was mostly based on the results of cohort and case-control studies mainly conducted in South Korea and Japan. However, the consistent positive results from these studies suggest promising evidence of mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic screening. The major harms of endoscopic screening include infection, adverse effects, false-positive results, and overdiagnosis. Despite the possible harms of endoscopic screening, information regarding these harms remains insufficient. To provide appropriate cancer screening, a balance of benefits and harms should always be considered when cancer screening is introduced as a public policy. Quality assurance is very important for the implementation of cancer screening to provide high-quality and safe screening and minimize harms. Endoscopic screening for gastric cancer has shown promising results, and thus deserves further evaluation to reliably establish its effectiveness and optimal use. PMID:27605874

  17. Benefits and harms of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer has remained a serious burden worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. However, nationwide prevention and screening programs for gastric cancer have not yet been established in most countries except in South Korea and Japan. Although evidence regarding the effectiveness of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer has been increasingly accumulated, such evidence remains weak because it is based on results from studies other than randomized controlled trials. Specifically, evidence was mostly based on the results of cohort and case-control studies mainly conducted in South Korea and Japan. However, the consistent positive results from these studies suggest promising evidence of mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic screening. The major harms of endoscopic screening include infection, adverse effects, false-positive results, and overdiagnosis. Despite the possible harms of endoscopic screening, information regarding these harms remains insufficient. To provide appropriate cancer screening, a balance of benefits and harms should always be considered when cancer screening is introduced as a public policy. Quality assurance is very important for the implementation of cancer screening to provide high-quality and safe screening and minimize harms. Endoscopic screening for gastric cancer has shown promising results, and thus deserves further evaluation to reliably establish its effectiveness and optimal use. PMID:27605874

  18. Efficacy of Quality Criteria to Identify Potentially Harmful Information: A Cross-sectional Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web Sites

    PubMed Central

    Walji, Muhammad; Sagaram, Smitha; Sagaram, Deepak; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson, Craig; Mirza, Nadeem Q

    2004-01-01

    Background Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated. PMID:15249270

  19. Assessing Multiple Medication Use With Probabilities of Benefits and Harms

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Terrence E.; Agostini, Joseph V.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Peduzzi, Peter; Tinetti, Mary E.; Allore, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A quantitative framework to assess harms and benefits of candidate medications in the context of drugs that a patient is already taking is proposed. Method Probabilities of harms and benefits of a given medication are averaged to yield a utility value. The utility values of all medications under consideration are combined as a geometric mean to yield an overall measure of favorability. The grouping of medications yielding the highest favorability value is chosen. Results Five examples of choosing between widely used candidate medications demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed framework. Discussion The framework proposed provides a simple method for considering the trade-offs involved in prescribing multiple medications. It can be adapted to include additional parameters representing severity of condition, prioritization of outcomes, patient preferences, dosages, and medication interactions. Inconsistent reporting in the medical literature of data about benefits and harms of medications, dosages, and interactions constitutes its primary limitation. PMID:18625759

  20. Development and validation of the self-harm reasons questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen P; Santor, Darcy A

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the reasons for self-harm (SH) may be paramount for the identification and treatment of SH behavior. Presently, the psychometric properties for SH reason questionnaires are generally unknown or tested only in non-inpatient samples. Existing inpatient measures may have limited generalizability and do not examine SH apart from an explicit intent to die. The present study examined a newly developed, self-report measure of reason for self-harm. The Self-Harm Reasons Questionnaire (SHRQ) was administered to 143 undergraduate students. Results indicated that SH reasons covaried in meaningful and internally consistent ways, with subgroups of SH reasons correlating with hypothesized concomitants of SH, such as depressive symptoms. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention and the SHRQ offers a new, albeit preliminary, means by which to examine SH reasons in a non-inpatient sample. PMID:18355112

  1. Reducing Fatal Opioid Overdose: Prevention, Treatment and Harm Reduction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Kathryn F.; Vaca, Federico E.; D’Onofrio, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The opioid overdose epidemic is a major threat to the public’s health, resulting in the development and implementation of a variety of strategies to reduce fatal overdose [1-3]. Many strategies are focused on primary prevention and increased access to effective treatment, although the past decade has seen an exponential increase in harm reduction initiatives. To maximize identification of opportunities for intervention, initiatives focusing on prevention, access to effective treatment, and harm reduction are examined independently, although considerable overlap exists. Particular attention is given to harm reduction approaches, as increased public and political will have facilitated widespread implementation of several initiatives, including increased distribution of naloxone and policy changes designed to increase bystander assistance during a witnessed overdose [4-7]. PMID:26339206

  2. Mexico-U.S. Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2008-06-01

    Workshop on Taxonomy of Harmful Algal Blooms; Veracruz, Mexico, 18-22 February 2008; A workshop on harmful algal bloom (HAB) taxonomy, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Health of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, was held at the Aquarium of Veracruz and focused on standardizing methods to detect HABs that affect coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico. This binational effort was established under the umbrella of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA), initially formed in 2004 by the five U.S. Gulf states (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) with participation from U.S. federal agencies and other stakeholders.

  3. Embodied harms: gender, shame, and technology-facilitated sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Criminality in cyberspace has been the subject of much debate since the 1990s, yet comparatively little attention has been paid to technology-facilitated sexual violence and harassment (TFSV). The aim of this article is to explore the ways in which retraditionalized gender hierarchies and inequalities are manifested in online contexts, and to conceptualize the cause and effects of TFSV as "embodied harms." We argue that problematic mind/body and online/off-line dualisms result in a failure to grasp the unique nature of embodied harms, precluding an adequate understanding and theorization of TFSV. PMID:25827609

  4. Sustainable Traditional Medicine: Taking the Inspirations from Ancient Veterinary Science

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Sanjeev; Kaphle, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Rapid reduction in natural resources as a consequence to the expanded urbanization, global warming and reduced natural habitat posed a considerable threat to the sustainability of traditional medicine. Being completely dependent upon natural resources like herbs, minerals and animal products, traditional medicine would possibly rank first in order of extinction of heritage if an alternative way is not considered well in time. In reference to the use of animal products, Ayurveda presents some unique examples where animals are used without causing harm to them and so without posing a threat to their existence. In the current context, when natural resources are facing a threat to their existence, a revisit to these ideas may give us a new insight to refine our look at natural resources used in traditional medicine. PMID:18980947

  5. Minor Self-Harm and Psychiatric Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Moffit, Terrie E.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as…

  6. Victims' Perceptions of Traditional and Cyberbullying, and the Psychosocial Correlates of Their Victimisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally

    2012-01-01

    It is well recognised that there are serious correlates for victims of traditional bullying. These have been shown to include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms, in addition to often severe physical harm and even suicide. Bullied students also feel more socially ineffective and have greater interpersonal…

  7. Drug use in prisons: strategies for harm reduction (ANRS-PRIDE Program).

    PubMed

    Michel, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    The existence of risky practices related to drug use inside prisons is a reality everywhere and is a major issue for the community as a whole. The level of implementation of harm reduction (HR) measures recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is very often poor and reveals inadequate concern about public health issues in the prison environment, without any respect for the principle of equivalence for prevention and health assistance with the general community. In 2009, the French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (ANRS) developed a comprehensive research program focusing on the prevention of infectious risks in prison settings. Different steps were defined and scheduled, and included i) an inventory of harm reduction (HR) measures, ii) a qualitative survey on the reality of risky practices, iii) an assessment of the social acceptability of HR measures, and iv) an intervention trial exploring the feasibility of upgrading existing HR strategies. A progressive implementation of this program has shown it is feasible, but in France, it requires tenacity, simple long-term objectives, support from a scientific authority, pedagogical interventions for all involved, as well as constant discussion with the authorities. The implementation of this program in other countries is equally simple to manage. PMID:27383342

  8. Mobilizing Drug Consumption Rooms: inter-place networks and harm reduction drug policy.

    PubMed

    McCann, Eugene; Temenos, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the learning and politics involved in spreading Drug Consumption Rooms (DCRs) globally. DCRs are health facilities, operating under a harm reduction philosophy, where people consume illicit drugs in a supervised setting. Approximately 90 are located in almost 60 cities in 11 countries. They are intensely local attempts to improve the lives of specific populations and urban neighborhoods. DCRs are also global models that travel. This article examines the relationship between DCRs as facilities that are fixed in place and DCRs as globally-mobilized models of drug policy and public health practice. Drawing on research from seven countries, we apply concepts from the policy mobilities literature to analyze the travels of the DCR model and the political strategies involved in the siting of these public health service facilities. We detail the networked mobilization of the DCR model from Europe to Canada and Australia, the learning among facilities, the strategies used to mold the DCR model to local contexts, and the role of DCR staff in promoting continued proliferation of DCRs. We conclude by identifying some immobilities of DCRs to identify questions about practices, principles and future directions of harm reduction. PMID:25576837

  9. Prospects for a nicotine-reduction strategy in the cigarette endgame: Alternative tobacco harm reduction scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2015-06-01

    Some major national and international tobacco control organisations favour mandating a reduction in nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addictive levels as a tobacco control tool. Reducing nicotine content, it is argued, will make tobacco smoking less attractive. The 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration's regulation of cigarettes appears to have the power to reduce nicotine to non-addictive levels provided it is not taken to zero. A consideration of the U.S. context, however, raises doubts about (a) whether this will ever be practicable and (b), if practicable, how long it will take to implement. Current versions of the nicotine-reducing strategy propose the systematic, incentivised use of less harmful nicotine/tobacco products as elements of the mandatory cigarette nicotine-reduction strategy. Time will tell if and when mandatory nicotine reduction in tobacco cigarettes will occur and what impact it might have on smoking prevalence. The question posed here is "Why wait?" Resources used in implementing reduction in nicotine content have an opportunity cost. In the meantime, nicotine-maintaining harm reduction strategies can have nearer term effects on tobacco use as an individual and a public health issue. PMID:25795345

  10. Between harm reduction, loss and wellness: on the occupational hazards of work.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Benjamin C

    2013-01-01

    considers models of harm reduction practice that emphasize health, pleasure and sustainability for practitioners. PMID:23548032

  11. Between harm reduction, loss and wellness: on the occupational hazards of work

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    considers models of harm reduction practice that emphasize health, pleasure and sustainability for practitioners. PMID:23548032

  12. Sugar beet traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With rapidly changing agricultural practices, target environments, and biotic and abiotic stresses, plant breeders face the task of continually selecting plants with desirable traits with the goal to assemble advantageous combinations of genes in new varieties. Sugar beet has been selectively bred s...

  13. Tradition, Discipline, Literary History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargiotis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    In its attempt to respond to changing historical realities the university has undergone significant transformations, most of which, however, have focused on teaching material, tools, methods or practices adapted to the new demands. Taking as a case study the literary disciplines, this article focuses on the theoretical, mostly implicit,…

  14. It's a wonderful life: is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born?

    PubMed

    Perry, Ronen

    2007-11-01

    "It's a Wonderful Life," the title of Frank Capra's classic 1946 movie, seems to encapsulate a fundamental all-American conviction. Unsurprisingly, several courts and jurists have applied the movie-title maxim as the ultimate retort to one of the most intriguing questions in modern tort discourse: Is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born? Wrongful life claimants answer in the affirmative, whereas Capra's aphorism makes a compelling counter-argument. In my opinion, the contrasting views represent equally legitimate subjective beliefs rather than objective truths, so neither may ever prevail. Without a satisfactory solution from conventional wisdom, the life-as-injury debate may be the Gordian knot of tort law. The purpose of this Article is to cut, rather than untie, the knot: Allow the child to recover without challenging or validating the deep-seated perception of life. Part I shows that hostility to liability in tort for wrongful life is almost universal, crossing lands and seas. Part II argues that this demurral is ultimately rooted in the absence of one of the central components of the cause of action. A tort action must fail because of the inability--both logical and practical--to establish "harm" under the traditional definition of this term. Part III opines that because the Gordian knot of tort law cannot be untied, it must be cut altogether. We must replace the traditional tort framework, which gives rise to an insoluble problem, with a more promising contractual framework inspired by the celebrated case of Hawkins v. McGee. In my view, the child may base an action on the claim that the defendant promised the parents that the child would be born without a certain defect and that the promise went unfulfilled. In formal terms, the child is an intended third party beneficiary of the contract between the parents and the consultant in which the latter warranted birth without a particular disability. The

  15. How do drug users define their progress in harm reduction programs? Qualitative research to develop user-generated outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ruefli, Terry; Rogers, Susan J

    2004-01-01

    Background Harm reduction is a relatively new and controversial model for treating drug users, with little formal research on its operation and effectiveness. In order to advance the study of harm reduction programs and our understanding of how drug users define their progress, qualitative research was conducted to develop outcomes of harm reduction programming that are culturally relevant, incremental, (i.e., capable of measuring change), and hierarchical (i.e., capable of showing how clients improve over time). Methods The study used nominal group technique (NGT) to develop the outcomes (phase 1) and focus group interviews to help validate the findings (phase 2). Study participants were recruited from a large harm-reduction program in New York City and involved approximately 120 clients in 10 groups in phase 1 and 120 clients in 10 focus groups in phase 2. Results Outcomes of 10 life areas important to drug users were developed that included between 10 to 15 incremental measures per outcome. The outcomes included ways of 1) making money; 2) getting something good to eat; 3) being housed/homeless; 4) relating to families; 5) getting needed programs/benefits/services; 6) handling health problems; 7) handling negative emotions; 8) handling legal problems; 9) improving oneself; and 10) handling drug-use problems. Findings also provided insights into drug users' lives and values, as well as a window into understanding how this population envisions a better quality of life. Results challenged traditional ways of measuring drug users based solely on quantity used and frequency of use. They suggest that more appropriate measures are based on the extent to which drug users organize their lives around drug use and how much drug use is integrated into their lives and negatively impacts other aspects of their lives. Conclusions Harm reduction and other programs serving active drug users and other marginalized people should not rely on institutionalized, provider

  16. Primary School Children and Self Harm: The Emotional Impact upon Education Professionals, and Their Understandings of Why Children Self Harm and How This Is Managed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simm, Rebecca; Roen, Katrina; Daiches, Anna

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting that self harm among young people is beginning earlier, in childhood and adolescent years. This paper reports on a qualitative study of primary school staff responses to self harm among children. Some studies with adolescents show self harm presents challenges to education professionals who may lack training or…

  17. Strength-Based Efforts for Promoting Recovery from Psychological Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Civita, Mirella

    2006-01-01

    Much resilience research highlights protective factors that prevent risk. Here the author focuses on resilience as the ability to recover from psychological harm. The strength-based view sees resilience as a transformational experience. One applicant of this approach is the Phoenix Intervention Program for Children (PIPC) which combines concepts…

  18. Building Face Composites Can Harm Lineup Identification Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gary L.; Charman, Steve D.; Olson, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    Face composite programs permit eyewitnesses to build likenesses of target faces by selecting facial features and combining them into an intact face. Research has shown that these composites are generally poor likenesses of the target face. Two experiments tested the proposition that this composite-building process could harm the builder's memory…

  19. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  20. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...