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1

Reducing harmful traditional practices in Adjibar, Ethiopia: lessons learned from the Adjibar Safe Motherhood Project.  

PubMed

This paper assesses the impact of the Adjibar Safe Motherhood Project and derives lessons of value to future interventions. Amongst the participatory qualitative methods used were 15 group discussions, eight semi-structured interviews, a number of opportunistic informal discussions and observation. The information gathering was complemented by a detailed review of project documents. Field visits for data collection took place over a six day period in March 2005. The project was effective in raising awareness about maternal health, and the social, economic and health consequences of various harmful traditional practices (HTPs). It has also mobilised the community to monitor and report HTPs and has strengthened referral systems for counselling, support and treatment. A number of effective strategies were identified as having contributed to project success. These are presented using the framework offered by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion which presents five areas of public health action: developing personal skills; strengthening community action; building healthy public policy; re-orienting health services; and, creating supportive environments. This evaluation contributes to and strengthens the expanding body of literature about effective development practices to reduce HTPs. It demonstrates that addressing HTPs takes time and long term investment; both are necessary to enable better understanding of the social and cultural reasons for HTPs before attempting to address them, and to build the community trust necessary to overcome the natural resistance to challenging such deeply entrenched practices. The project also highlighted the importance of developing a multi pronged strategy based on engagement with a broad range of stakeholders and supportive legislation. PMID:18844548

Natoli, Lisa; Renzaho, Andre M N; Rinaudo, Tony

2008-05-01

2

The International Obligation to Abolish Traditional Practices Harmful to Children's Health: What Does It Mean and Require of States&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Article 24(3) of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child imposes an obligation on States to abolish traditional practices harmful to the health of children. This article seeks to examine the nature of this obligation, the types of practices to be abolished and the measures required of States to achieve this end. It argues that the prejudice

John Tobin

2009-01-01

3

Magnitude and Reasons for Harmful Traditional Practices among Children Less Than 5 Years of Age in Axum Town, North Ethiopia, 2013  

PubMed Central

Background. In addition to beneficial traditional practices, there are around 140 harmful traditional practices affecting mothers and children in almost all ethnic groups of Ethiopia. Therefore this study might give a clue about their practice and associated factors. The objective of this study was to assess magnitude of harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years of age in Axum Town, North Ethiopia. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 752 participants who were selected using multistage sampling. Simple random sampling method was used to select ketenas from all kebelles of Axum Town. After proportional allocation of sample size to eachketena, systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participants. Data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaire; it was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 and descriptive statistics was calculated. Results. Majority of the respondents (81.2%) were Orthodox, 78.2% of the mothers had no work, and majority of mothers had no formal education. Among the harmful traditional practices performed on children, uvula cutting alone was performed on 72.8% of children followed by milk teeth extraction and uvula cutting with eyebrow incision. Conclusion. The leading harmful traditional practice performed on children in this study was uvula cutting.

Gebrekirstos, Kahsu; Fantahun, Atsede; Buruh, Gerezgiher

2014-01-01

4

A cross sectional study on factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years in Axum town, north Ethiopia, 2013  

PubMed Central

Background Every social grouping in the world has its own cultural practices and beliefs which guide its members on how they should live or behave. Harmful traditional practices that affect children are Female genital mutilation, Milk teeth extraction, Food taboo, Uvula cutting, keeping babies out of exposure to sun, and Feeding fresh butter to new born babies. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years of age in Axum town, North Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted in 752 participants who were selected using multi stage sampling; Simple random sampling method was used to select ketenas from all kebelles of Axum town. After proportional allocation of sample size, systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participants. Data was collected using interviewer administered Tigrigna version questionnaire, it was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics was calculated and logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results Out of the total sample size 50.7% children were females, the mean age of children was 26.28 months and majority of mothers had no formal education. About 87.8% mothers had performed at least one traditional practice to their children; uvula cutting was practiced on 86.9% children followed by milk teeth extraction 12.5% and eye borrows incision 2.4% children. Fear of swelling, pus and rapture of the uvula was the main reason to perform uvula cutting. Conclusion The factors associated with harmful traditional practices were educational status, occupation, religion of mothers and harmful traditional practices performed on the mothers.

2014-01-01

5

Harm Reduction Therapy: A Practice-Friendly Review of Research  

PubMed Central

Harm reduction is an umbrella term for interventions aiming to reduce the problematic effects of behaviors. Although harm reduction was originally and most frequently associated with substance use, it is increasingly being applied to a multitude of other behavioral disorders. This article reviews the state of empirical research on harm reduction practices including alcohol interventions for youth, college students, and a variety of other adult interventions. We also review nicotine replacement and opioid substitution, as well as needle exchanges and safe injection sites for intravenous drug users. Dozens of peer-reviewed controlled trial publications provide support for the effectiveness of harm reduction for a multitude of clients and disorders without indications of iatrogenic effects. Harm reduction interventions provide additional tools for clinicians working with clients who, for whatever reason, may not be ready, willing, or able to pursue full abstinence as a goal.

Logan, Diane E.; Marlatt, G. Alan

2014-01-01

6

Harm reduction in Cambodia: a disconnect between policy and practice  

PubMed Central

In 2003 the Government of Cambodia officially began to recognise that harm reduction was an essential approach to preventing HIV among people who use drugs and their sexual partners. Several programs aiming to control and prevent HIV among drug users have been implemented in Cambodia, mostly in the capital, Phnom Penh. However, there have been ongoing tensions between law enforcement and harm reduction actors, despite several advocacy efforts targeting law enforcement. This study attempts to better understand the implementation of harm reduction in Cambodia and how the policy environment and harm reduction program implementation has intersected with the role of law enforcement officials in Cambodia.

2012-01-01

7

Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change  

PubMed Central

Background Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is strong adherence to traditional practices. Successful implementation of the package therefore requires in-depth knowledge of the local context and tailored behaviour change communication. Methods This study was carried out in rural Karnataka, India. It uses quantitative data from a prospective survey following mothers through their experience of pregnancy and the postnatal period; and qualitative data from in depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted with mothers, grandmothers and birth attendants. It explores local newborn care practices and beliefs, analyses their harmful or beneficial characteristics and elucidates areas of potential resistance to behaviour change and implementation of the essential newborn care package. Results Findings show that many potentially harmful newborn care practices are being carried out in the study area, such as unhygienic cord cutting, delayed breastfeeding and early bathing. Some are more amenable to change than others, depending on the strength of the underlying beliefs, and acceptability of alternative care. However, movement away from traditional practices is already taking place, particularly amongst the more educated and better off, and there is a clear opportunity to broaden, direct and accelerate this process. Conclusion Community education should be a focus of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) program being implemented in Karnataka. The added capacity of the new Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) could enable more women to be reached. With careful tailoring of behaviour change messages to the local context, government outreach workers can become effective brokers of positive change and significant improvements in home newborn care and neonatal mortality are possible.

Kesterton, Amy J; Cleland, John

2009-01-01

8

Developing a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for clinical work with boys and men.  

PubMed

This study drew upon the knowledge base of member practitioners of the American Psychological Association (APA) to develop a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for treatment with boys and men. Four hundred seventy-five APA-member practitioners solicited from practice-related divisions provided responses to 4 open-ended questions about helpful and harmful practices in working with boys and men. Ten themes emerged from qualitative analyses. Beneficial and sensitive practices included addressing gender socialization and gender-sensitive issues as they apply to boys and men in psychological practice. Harmful practices included biased practices, stereotypes, and a lack of awareness and training around gender and diversity issues as they apply to boys and men. We discuss the specific themes that emerged from analysis of the responses, how these findings are situated within previous work examining helpful and harmful practices, limitations to the study, suggestions for research, and implications for training psychologists. PMID:23088685

Mahalik, James R; Good, Glenn E; Tager, David; Levant, Ronald F; Mackowiak, Christopher

2012-10-01

9

First, do no harm: the impact of the practice environment on patient safety.  

PubMed

Registered nurses have leadership skills, vision and commitment, a willingness to be responsible and accountable, and an understanding of organizational systems--all of which help to improve practice environments and protect patients from harm. PMID:15301079

Winslow, Wendy

2004-06-01

10

Developing a Taxonomy of Helpful and Harmful Practices for Clinical Work with Boys and Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study drew upon the knowledge base of member practitioners of the American Psychological Association (APA) to develop a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for treatment with boys and men. Four hundred seventy-five APA-member practitioners solicited from practice-related divisions provided responses to 4 open-ended questions about…

Mahalik, James R.; Good, Glenn E.; Tager, David; Levant, Ronald F.; Mackowiak, Christopher

2012-01-01

11

Validation of suicide and self-harm records in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink  

PubMed Central

Aims The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is increasingly being used to investigate suicide-related adverse drug reactions. No studies have comprehensively validated the recording of suicide and nonfatal self-harm in the CPRD. We validated general practitioners' recording of these outcomes using linked Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) admission data. Methods We identified cases of suicide and self-harm recorded using appropriate Read codes in the CPRD between 1998 and 2010 in patients aged ?15 years. Suicides were defined as patients with Read codes for suicide recorded within 95 days of their death. International Classification of Diseases codes were used to identify suicides/hospital admissions for self-harm in the linked ONS and HES data sets. We compared CPRD-derived cases/incidence of suicide and self-harm with those identified from linked ONS mortality and HES data, national suicide incidence rates and published self-harm incidence data. Results Only 26.1% (n = 590) of the ‘true’ (ONS-confirmed) suicides were identified using Read codes. Furthermore, only 55.5% of Read code-identified suicides were confirmed as suicide by the ONS data. Of the HES-identified cases of self-harm, 68.4% were identified in the CPRD using Read codes. The CPRD self-harm rates based on Read codes had similar age and sex distributions to rates observed in self-harm hospital registers, although rates were underestimated in all age groups. Conclusions The CPRD recording of suicide using Read codes is unreliable, with significant inaccuracy (over- and under-reporting). Future CPRD suicide studies should use linked ONS mortality data. The under-reporting of self-harm appears to be less marked.

Thomas, Kyla H; Davies, Neil; Metcalfe, Chris; Windmeijer, Frank; Martin, Richard M; Gunnell, David

2013-01-01

12

[Rapid detection of extrinsic harmful contaminants using quantum dots-coated probes and their application prospects in traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

The contamination of extrinsic harmful contaminants including mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides, etc, brings serious risks to traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), further to human health. Due to their unique photoluminescence, chemiluminescence, electrochemical and electrochemiluminescence properties, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) nanoparticles are widely used to immobilize bioprobes and biosensors, etc. In this review, the luminescence characteristics and specific ligands of QDs probles which are used to determine contaminants were summed up. Then, the applications of QDs-coated novel probes in the determination of mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides were discussed in detail. In addition, the contamination levels and characteristics of extrinsic harmful residues in TCMs were investigated. Further, the maximum levels of those contaminants in TCMs were compared with those set by various countries. Finally, the future development trends and problems of QDs-coated probes in the determination of those extrinsic residues in TCMs were prospected. PMID:24791477

Yang, Xi-Hui; Kong, Wei-Jun; Yang, Mei-Hua; Chen, Shi-Lin; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

2013-12-01

13

Harm Reduction: A Social Work Practice Model and Social Justice Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how social workers may reduce ethical conflicts associated with efforts to address substance abuse by adopting a harm reduction approach to policy, practice, and research. Also examines current drug policies and their consequences and, in particular, how these policies affect social workers as practitioners, agents of social control, and…

Brocato, Jo; Wagner, Eric F.

2003-01-01

14

Harm reduction and women in the Canadian national prison system: policy or practice?  

PubMed

Applying the principles of harm reduction within the context of incarcerated populations raises a number of challenges. Although some access to harm reduction strategies has been promoted in general society, a divide between what is available and what is advocated continues to exist within the prison system. This paper explores the perceptions and lived experiences of a sample of nationally incarcerated women in Canada regarding their perceptions and experiences in accessing HIV and Hepatitis C prevention, care, treatment and support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 156 women in Canadian national prisons. Q.S.R. Nudist was used to assist with data management. A constant comparison method was used to derive categories, patterns, and themes. Emergent themes highlighted a gap between access to harm reduction in policy and in practice. Despite the implementation of some harm reduction techniques, women in Canadian prisons reported variable access to both education and methods of reducing HIV/HCV transmission. Concerns were also raised about pre-and post-test counseling for HIV/HCV testing. Best practices are suggested for implementing harm reduction strategies within prisons for women in Canada. PMID:15911510

Rehman, Laurene; Gahagan, Jacqueline; DiCenso, Anne Marie; Dias, Giselle

2004-01-01

15

Treatment of pediatric atlantoaxial instability with traditional and modified Goel-Harms fusion constructs  

PubMed Central

There are several treatment options for rigid fixation at C1–C2 including Brooks and Gallie type wired fusions and C1–2 transarticular screws. The use of a Goel–Harms type fusion, a construct with C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws, has not been extensively described in pediatric patients. Here, we describe its relatively safe and effective use for treating pediatric patients by retrospective chart review of patients treated by the senior author for atlantoaxial instability with a Goel–Harms-type constructs during a 3-year period (2005–2007). Six patients were treated using Goel–Harms-type constructs. Five patients were treated utilizing a construct containing C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws; one patient was treated using construct containing C1 lateral mass screws and C2 trans-laminar screws. The patients ranged in age from 7 to 17 years old (mean 12.7). All patients had findings of an os odontoideum on CT scans and three of the six patients had T2 hyperintensity on MRI. Three of the six patients presented with transient neurologic deficits: quadraplegia in two patients and paresthesias in two patients. In each patient C1 lateral mass and C2 screws were placed and the subluxation was reduced to attain an anatomical alignment. No bone grafts were harvested from the iliac crest or rib. Local morsalized bone and sub-occipital skull graft was used. All patients tolerated the procedure well and were discharged home on post-operative day 3–4. The patients wore a hard cervical collar and no halo-vests were needed. All patients had solid fusion constructs and normal alignment on post-operative imaging studies performed on average 14 months post-operatively (range: 7–29). The results demonstrated that Goel–Harms fusions are a relatively safe and effective method of treating pediatric patients with atlantoaxial instability and are not dependent on vertebral anatomy or an intact ring of C1. Follow-up visits and studies in this limited series of patients demonstrated solid fusion constructs and anatomical alignment in all patients treated.

Heuer, Gregory G.; Hardesty, Douglas A.; Bhowmick, Deb A.; Bailey, Robert; Magge, Suresh N.

2009-01-01

16

Treatment of pediatric atlantoaxial instability with traditional and modified Goel-Harms fusion constructs.  

PubMed

There are several treatment options for rigid fixation at C1-C2 including Brooks and Gallie type wired fusions and C1-2 transarticular screws. The use of a Goel-Harms type fusion, a construct with C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws, has not been extensively described in pediatric patients. Here, we describe its relatively safe and effective use for treating pediatric patients by retrospective chart review of patients treated by the senior author for atlantoaxial instability with a Goel-Harms-type constructs during a 3-year period (2005-2007). Six patients were treated using Goel-Harms-type constructs. Five patients were treated utilizing a construct containing C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws; one patient was treated using construct containing C1 lateral mass screws and C2 trans-laminar screws. The patients ranged in age from 7 to 17 years old (mean 12.7). All patients had findings of an os odontoideum on CT scans and three of the six patients had T2 hyperintensity on MRI. Three of the six patients presented with transient neurologic deficits: quadraplegia in two patients and paresthesias in two patients. In each patient C1 lateral mass and C2 screws were placed and the subluxation was reduced to attain an anatomical alignment. No bone grafts were harvested from the iliac crest or rib. Local morsalized bone and sub-occipital skull graft was used. All patients tolerated the procedure well and were discharged home on post-operative day 3-4. The patients wore a hard cervical collar and no halo-vests were needed. All patients had solid fusion constructs and normal alignment on post-operative imaging studies performed on average 14 months post-operatively (range: 7-29). The results demonstrated that Goel-Harms fusions are a relatively safe and effective method of treating pediatric patients with atlantoaxial instability and are not dependent on vertebral anatomy or an intact ring of C1. Follow-up visits and studies in this limited series of patients demonstrated solid fusion constructs and anatomical alignment in all patients treated. PMID:19357876

Heuer, Gregory G; Hardesty, Douglas A; Bhowmick, Deb A; Bailey, Robert; Magge, Suresh N; Storm, Phillip B

2009-06-01

17

A qualitative analysis of case managers' use of harm reduction in practice.  

PubMed

The harm reduction approach has become a viable framework within the field of addictions, yet there is limited understanding about how this approach is implemented in practice. For people who are homeless and have co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders, the Housing First model has shown promising results in employing such an approach. This qualitative study utilizes ethnographic methods to explore case managers' use of harm reduction within Housing First with a specific focus on the consumer-provider relationship. Analysis of observational data and in-depth interviews with providers and consumers revealed how communication between the two regarding the consumer's substance use interacted with the consumer-provider relationship. From these findings emerged a heuristic model of harm reduction practice that highlighted the profound influence of relationship quality on the paths of communication regarding substance use. This study provides valuable insight into how harm reduction is implemented in clinical practice that ultimately has public health implications in terms of more effectively addressing high rates of addiction that contribute to homelessness and health disparities. PMID:22520277

Tiderington, Emmy; Stanhope, Victoria; Henwood, Benjamin F

2013-01-01

18

Pharmacists and harm reduction: A review of current practices and attitudes  

PubMed Central

Background: Injection drug use and other high-risk behaviours are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality and thus have been the focus of many health promotion strategies. Community pharmacists are considered underutilized health providers and are often thought to be more accessible than other health professionals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of community pharmacists' practices as well as pharmacists' attitudes and identified barriers toward providing harm reduction services. We will highlight the major harm reduction services being offered through community pharmacies, as well as identify barriers to implementing these services. Methods: A review of the literature from 1995 to 2011 was conducted using the electronic databases MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus, encompassing pharmacists' involvement in harm reduction services. Keywords included pharmacist, harm reduction, disease prevention, health promotion, attitudes, competence and barriers. References of included articles were examined to identify further relevant literature. Results: Pharmacists are primarily involved in providing clean needles to injection drug users, as well as opioid substitution. Pharmacists generally have a positive attitude toward providing health promotion and harm reduction programs and express some interest in increasing their role in this area. Common barriers to expanding harm reduction strategies in community pharmacists' practice include lack of time and training, insufficient remuneration, fear of attracting unruly clientele and inadequate communication between health providers. Conclusion: As one of the most accessible health care providers, community pharmacists are in an ideal position to provide meaningful services to injection drug users. However, in order to do so, pharmacists require additional support in the form of better health team and system integration, as well as remuneration models.

Watson, Tyler; Hughes, Christine

2012-01-01

19

Invisibility Considered Harmful: Revisiting Traditional Principles of Ubiquitous Computing in the Context of Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquitous computing, as a subfield of computer science, has traditionally been associated with a set of principles expressed (loosely but tellingly) with terms like transparency, invisibility, and the like: essentially, the idea is that people should be able to use ubiquitous computing artifacts while hardly being conscious that they are doing so. We argue that, as a design principle, \\

Michael Eisenberg; Ann Eisenberg; Leah Buechley; Nwanua Elumeze

2006-01-01

20

Traditional beliefs and practices in the postpartum period in Fujian Province, China: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. Methods We interviewed family members (36) and health workers (8) in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban county. We asked about their traditional beliefs and their behaviour postpartum. We used a framework approach to identify main themes. We categorised reported behaviour against their probable effects on health, drawing on Western standards. Results Respondents reported that zuo yuezi was commonly practiced in urban and rural families to help the mother regain her strength and protect her future health. Zuo yuezi included: dietary precautions, such as eating more food and avoiding cold food; behavioural precautions, such as staying inside the home, avoiding housework and limiting visitors; hygiene precautions, such as restricting bathing and dental hygiene; and practices associated with infant feeding, including supplementary feeding and giving honeysuckle herb to the infant. Respondents reported that the main reasons for adhering to these practices were respect for tradition, and following the advice of elders. Categorised against Western medical standards, several zuo yuezi practices are beneficial, including eating more, eating protein rich food, avoiding housework, and daily vulval and perineal hygiene. A few are potentially harmful, including giving honeysuckle herb, and avoiding dental hygiene. Some women reported giving infants supplementary feeds, although zuo yuezi emphasises breast feeding. Conclusion Zuo yuezi is an important ritual in Fujian. In medical terms, most practices are beneficial, and could be used by health staff to promote health in this period. Further research on reported potentially harmful practices, such as supplements to breast feeding, is needed.

Raven, Joanna H; Chen, Qiyan; Tolhurst, Rachel J; Garner, Paul

2007-01-01

21

Preventing HIV transmission among Iranian prisoners: Initial support for providing education on the benefits of harm reduction practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the association between the beliefs of a group of adult, male prisoners in Iran about the transmission of HIV and their high-risk practices while in prison. METHODS:

Babak Eshrati; Rahim Taghizadeh Asl; Colleen Anne Dell; Parviz Afshar; Peggy E Margaret Millson; Mohammad Kamali; John Weekes

2008-01-01

22

Creating Minimum Harm Practice ( MiHaP): a concept for continuous improvement  

PubMed Central

The author asks for the attention of leaders and all other stakeholders to calls of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and the UK National Health Service (NHS) to promote continuous learning to reduce harm to patients. This paper presents a concept for structured bottom-up methodology that enables and empowers all stakeholders to identify, prioritize, and address safety challenges. This methodology takes advantage of the memory of the experiences of all persons involved in providing care. It respects and responds to the uniqueness of each setting by empowering and motivating all team members to commit to harm reduction. It is based on previously published work on “Best Practices Research (BPR)” and on “Systematic Appraisal of Risk and Its Management for Error Reduction (SARAIMER)”. The latter approach, has been shown by the author (with Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) support), to reduce adverse events and their severity through empowerment, ownership and work satisfaction. The author puts forward a strategy for leaders to implement, in response to national and international calls for Better health, Better care, and Better value (the 3B’s of healthcare) in the US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.  This is designed to enable and implement “ A promise to learn- a commitment to act”.  AHRQ has recently published “A Toolkit for Rapid-Cycle Patient Safety and Quality Improvement” that includes an adapted version of SARAIMER.

Singh, Ranjit

2013-01-01

23

Maximising harm reduction in early specialty training for general practice: validation of a safety checklist  

PubMed Central

Background Making health care safer is a key policy priority worldwide. In specialty training, medical educators may unintentionally impact on patient safety e.g. through failures of supervision; providing limited feedback on performance; and letting poorly developed behaviours continue unchecked. Doctors-in-training are also known to be susceptible to medical error. Ensuring that all essential educational issues are addressed during training is problematic given the scale of the tasks to be undertaken. Human error and the reliability of local systems may increase the risk of safety-critical topics being inadequately covered. However adherence to a checklist reminder may improve the reliability of task delivery and maximise harm reduction. We aimed to prioritise the most safety-critical issues to be addressed in the first 12-weeks of specialty training in the general practice environment and validate a related checklist reminder. Methods We used mixed methods with different groups of GP educators (n?=?127) and specialty trainees (n?=?9) in two Scottish regions to prioritise, develop and validate checklist content. Generation and refinement of checklist themes and items were undertaken on an iterative basis using a range of methods including small group work in dedicated workshops; a modified-Delphi process; and telephone interviews. The relevance of potential checklist items was rated using a 4-point scale content validity index to inform final inclusion. Results 14 themes (e.g. prescribing safely; dealing with medical emergency; implications of poor record keeping; and effective & safe communication) and 47 related items (e.g. how to safety-net face-to-face or over the telephone; knowledge of practice systems for results handling; recognition of harm in children) were judged to be essential safety-critical educational issues to be covered. The mean content validity index ratio was 0.98. Conclusion A checklist was developed and validated for educational supervisors to assist in the reliable delivery of safety-critical educational issues in the opening 12-week period of training, and aligned with national curriculum competencies. The tool can also be adapted for use as a self-assessment instrument by trainees to guide patient safety-related learning needs. Dissemination and implementation of the checklist and self-rating scale are proceeding on a national, voluntary basis with plans to evaluate its feasibility and educational impact.

2012-01-01

24

Evidence-based practice for young people who self harm: can it be sustained and does it improve outcomes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998-1999, two Area Health Services in NSW conducted a project to implement evidence-based service enhancements for the clinical management of young people who present with Deliberate Self Harm (DSH) behaviour. The present study examined what structures and procedures were required to implement and sustain evidence-based practice in different health care settings for patients with DSH behaviour. Service provision was

Stewart L Einfeld; John Beard; Margaret Tobin; Richard Buss; Michael Dudley; Adam R Clarke; Michelle Knowles; Blake Hamilton

2002-01-01

25

Traditional pharmaceutical practice in Gondar region, northwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The knowledge and skills of Ethiopian traditional healers in Gondar region on the pharmaceutical aspects of their practice were assessed using a questionnaire. Of the 86 healers interviewed, only 83 gave responses good enough to be considered in the analysis of results. It was shown that the healers obtained their drugs mainly from natural substances and these in descending order of frequency were plants, animals and minerals. The healers prepared the drugs in various dosage forms including liquids, ointments, powders and pills. They also prescribed drugs in a "non-formulated" form. They usually incorporated additives and more than one drug in a single dosage form. Drugs were administered using eight routes, the main ones being, topical, oral and respiratory. Most of the healers claimed to determine doses and to know about side-effects of drugs. When side-effects became severe, "antidotes" were claimed to be used. The healers imposed restriction when certain types of drugs were taken by patients. Most of them stored the drugs that should not be dispensed immediately after collection or preparation. Drugs were usually stored in containers such as bottles, papers, pieces of cloth, leaves and horns, and were kept anywhere at home. The results are discussed mainly in relation to modern pharmaceutical and medical practices and their importance to health care services among the people in Gondar region is also stated. PMID:6471880

Abebe, W

1984-06-01

26

Toxic Red Tides and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Practical Challenge in Coastal Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This national report to IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) contains links to information regarding harmful algal blooms (HABs). Written by Donald Anderson, the report includes: introduction, background, recent trends, physical/biological coupling, small-scale interactions, nutrient dynamics, emerging technologies (molecular probes, remote sensing, models, management issues, and program and policy issues), and a list of references.

Anderson, Donald M. (Donald Mark)

2010-01-04

27

Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender and Fairness in Traditional Practices in Benin, West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined reasoning about fairness in gender-related traditional practices in Benin, West Africa. Fifty adolescents (M = 15.7 years) and 46 adults (M = 33.4 years) were interviewed about traditional practices involving gender hierarchy. Results indicate that the majority attributed decision-making authority to a traditional authority for…

Conry-Murray, Clare

2009-01-01

28

Health care access and preventive care among Vietnamese immigrants: Do traditional beliefs and practices pose barriers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some have speculated that underutilization of Western health services among non-Western populations can be explained by traditional health beliefs and practices rooted deep within cultures. These beliefs and practices may act as barriers to access to and utilization of services. Among Vietnamese, in particular, a number of traditional health beliefs and practices have been identified which are said to pose

Christopher N. H. Jenkins; Thao Le; Stephen J. McPhee; Susan Stewart; Ngoc The Ha

1996-01-01

29

Protecting girls and women from harmful practices affecting their health: Are we making progress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since female genital mutilation (FGM) was first recognized internationally in 1958, it has now become widely accepted and anchored in international law that FGM is a violation of girls' and women's human rights. Declines in the practice, however, are slow overall, and continued work for its elimination requires action and investment at many levels. Where the practice has diminished, community

Jane Cottingham; Eszter Kismodi

2009-01-01

30

Teaching for Greater Inclusion: Searching for Talent as a Potentially Harmful Teaching Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has found that women held stronger beliefs in scientific success due to effort, whereas men believed in success based upon ability. While this does not seem problematic, because females have been more likely to attribute their successes to effort, this may have compromised their perceived intellectual ability in the eyes of ability-referenced academics and peers. Females, in traditionally

Christina M. Vogt

2006-01-01

31

Blending Online Learning with Traditional Approaches: Changing Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable claims have been made for the development of e-learning, either as stand-alone programmes or alongside more traditional approaches to teaching and learning, for students across school and tertiary education. National initiatives have improved the position of schools in terms of access to hardware and electronic networking, software…

Condie, Rae; Livingston, Kay

2007-01-01

32

Linking traditional knowledge and environmental practice in Ontario.  

PubMed

Beginning in the late 1980s with the release of Our Common Future by the World Commission on Environment and Development, followed by the development of international accords such as the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity, international pressure to resolve Indigenous rights issues has been steadily mounting. Successive Canadian governments have been striving increasingly to recognize and incorporate Aboriginal traditional knowledge into resource management planning. Following more than a decade of such efforts, the question of how to achieve such incorporation appropriately remains inadequately answered. This essay contributes to the resolution of this issue by first clarifying some key differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal definitions of "traditional knowledge." Then, three Ontario case studies are briefly described that highlight the most and least successful aspects of previous undertakings. Among the lessons learned are the need to value traditional knowledge on a par with Western science while recognizing the particular capabilities of each system, and the requirement that Aboriginal peoples and their knowledge participate on a mutually respectful basis. PMID:20715326

McGregor, Deborah

2009-01-01

33

Leadership Practices of Non-Traditional Seminary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine differences in Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-Self) scores between masters-level seminary students based on the independent variables of student age, class load, gender, marital status, and parental status. The 1,254 masters-level seminary students enrolled on the main campus of Dallas Theological…

Hillman, George Milton, Jr.

2008-01-01

34

Sustaining Educational Innovation: engaging traditional faculty in transformed practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past five years CU Physics has engaged in an experimental study of what it means to transform our introductory physics sequence to employ the tools and practices shown to be productive by physics education research. We have previously reported on the successful transformation of the courses to make them student centered, interactive and post high learning gains on conceptual surveys. [1] In an effort to understand the long-term potential of these course transformations, we now examine what happens when the course is transferred to new faculty. We demonstrate that it is possible to maintain high learning gains with new faculty and find two critical factors that contribute to the sustained success of these course transformations: 1) faculty background and beliefs and 2) particular curricular materials and practices selected to use. We also present a model (the Learning Assistant program) designed for sustaining these reforms and for increasing student interest and retention in teaching. [2] [1] N.D. Finkelstein and S.J. Pollock, ``Replicating and Understanding Successful Innovations: Implementing Tutorials in Introductory Physics'' Physical Review, Spec Top: Physics Education Research, 1, 010101 (2005). [2] V.Otero, N.D. Finkelstein, R. McCray, and S. Pollock, ``Who is Responsible for Preparing Science Teachers?'' Science. 313(5786), 445-446 (2006).

Pollock, Steven; Finkelstein, Noah

2007-03-01

35

Traditional beliefs and disease practices of Ethiopian Jews.  

PubMed

In an attempt to assess concepts of disease, we questioned 33 Ethiopian Jews (Falashas) in Ethiopia about 13 diseases: 8 western and 5 cultural syndromes (in the Amharic language): birrd (cold), wugat (stabbing chest pain), moygnbagegn (neurologic disorder), mitch (sunstroke), and attent hono kere (retained fetus becoming bone). Disease causation was often attributed to spirits and the sun. None of the interviewees understood the cause of: a) epilepsy, most attributing it to spirits and recommending smelling match smoke as treatment, b) prolonged labor, attributed by most to the evil kole spirit and is managed by traditional birth attendants; and c) abortion, believed to be caused by exposure to sun or cold. Less than 20% linked malaria to mosquitoes. Most correlated splenomegaly with malaria. Hepatitis was believed to be caused by a bird or bat flying around the affected person. Multiple factors were linked to diarrhea, including a journey in the sun. Moygnbagegn is the only condition treated by venisection from brachial veins; wugat is treated by "cupping". Modern medicine was recommended by < 30% of those questioned for epilepsy, splenomegaly, hepatitis, and Ethiopian cultural diseases. It was recommended most for malaria (52%), sexually transmitted diseases (55%), and diarrhea (69%). PMID:8756985

Hodes, R M; Teferedegne, B

1996-07-01

36

Active patients: the integration of modern and traditional obstetric practices in Nepal.  

PubMed

This paper describes the integration of modern and traditional obstetric practices in a provincial hospital in the Maithili-speaking area of southern Nepal. The doctors and nurses consciously distance themselves from the traditional practices of their obstetrical patients, whom they view as 'ignorant'; but because hospital resources are insufficient to impose the normative form of modern medical organization, patients and their relatives assert a more active role in providing hospital-based care. In consequence, mothers are delivered according to both modern, clinical as well as local cultural practices. Recent WHO policy has cast modern medicine as the agent in the integration of traditional healing within national health systems. This essay shows that in poor countries the powers of agency may not be exclusively in the hands of the medical profession. Patients, and others in their social networks, have become agents, constraining and negotiating the terms on which modern medicine is to be integrated within their traditional obstetric practices. PMID:2740927

Reissland, N; Burghart, R

1989-01-01

37

Evidence-based practice for young people who self harm: can it be sustained and does it improve outcomes?  

PubMed

In 1998-1999, two Area Health Services in NSW conducted a project to implement evidence-based service enhancements for the clinical management of young people who present with Deliberate Self Harm (DSH) behaviour. The present study examined what structures and procedures were required to implement and sustain evidence-based practice in different health care settings for patients with DSH behaviour. Service provision was assessed at three points during the initial project to assess the degree of change that occurred, and 9 months after the completion of the project to allow an assessment of sustainability of the service provision. We examined staff perceptions of the importance of education, management directives, policy and procedure changes, and cultural/attitudinal changes, in implementing clinical best practice. Results indicated that support from both service management and clinical staff is necessary for successful implementation of service enhancements. High levels of staff education and policy development were also associated with high levels of service performance. The best sustained enhancements were those that were developed by the services themselves. PMID:12404981

Einfeld, Stewart L; Beard, John; Tobin, Margaret; Buss, Richard; Dudley, Michael; Clarke, Adam R; Knowles, Michelle; Hamilton, Blake

2002-01-01

38

Household Survey of Pesticide Practice, Deliberate Self-Harm, and Suicide in the Sundarban Region of West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

The toxicological impact and intentional ingestion of pesticides are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to estimate the extent of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicides (suicidal behaviour) and document pesticide practices in Namkhana block of the Sundarban region, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1680 households (21 villages) following a mixed random and cluster design sampling. The survey questionnaire (Household Information on Pesticide Use and DSH) was developed by the research team to elicit qualitative and quantitative information. The Kappa statistic and McNemar's test were used to assess the level of agreement and association between respondents' and investigators' opinions about safe storage of pesticides. Over five years, 1680 households reported 181 incidents of suicidal behaviour. Conflict with family members was the most frequently reported reason for suicidal behaviour (53.6%). The Kappa statistic indicated poor agreement between respondents and investigators about safe storage of pesticides. The pesticide-related annual DSH rate was 158.1 (95% CI 126.2–195.5), and for suicide it was 73.4 (95% CI 52.2–100.3) per 100,000. Unsafe pesticide practice and psychosocial stressors are related to the high rates of suicidal behaviour. An intersectoral approach involving the local governments, agricultural department and the health sector would help to reduce the magnitude of this public health problem.

Banerjee, Sohini; Chowdhury, Arabinda Narayan; Schelling, Esther; Weiss, Mitchell G.

2013-01-01

39

Traditional beliefs and practices in the postpartum period in Fujian Province, China: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. METHODS: We interviewed family members (36) and health workers (8) in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban county. We asked about their traditional

Joanna H Raven; Qiyan Chen; Rachel J Tolhurst; Paul Garner

2007-01-01

40

Perspectives and Practices of Xhosa?speaking African Traditional Healers when Managing Psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives and practices of Xhosa?speaking African traditional healers, known as “amagqirha”, in managing psychosis. Four traditional healers, 3 male and one female, were chosen to take part in the study through their association with psychosis patients undergoing treatment at a South African psychiatric hospital in Cape Town. In?depth interviews were used to

Kanyiswa G. Mzimkulu; Leickness C. Simbayi

2006-01-01

41

Perspectives and Practices of Xhosa-Speaking African Traditional Healers when Managing Psychosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives and practices of Xhosa-speaking African traditional healers, known as "amagqirha", in managing psychosis. Four traditional healers, 3 male and one female, were chosen to take part in the study through their association with psychosis patients undergoing treatment at a South African psychiatric…

Mzimkulu, Kanyiswa G.; Simbayi, Leickness C.

2006-01-01

42

Traditional and emerging forms of dental practice. Cost, accessibility, and quality factors.  

PubMed Central

The traditional and predominant manner of delivering dental care is through a fee-for-service, private practice system. A number of alternative dental care delivery systems have emerged and are being tested, and others are just emerging. These systems include department store practices, hospital dental services, health maintenance organizations, the independent practice of dental hygiene, and denturism. Although it is too soon to draw final conclusions about the efficacy and effectiveness of these systems, we examine them for their potential to compete with and change the way dental care is currently delivered. Using the parameters of cost, accessibility, and quality, we compare these systems to traditional dental practice. Some of these emerging forms clearly have the potential to complete favorably with traditional practice. Other seem less likely to alter the existing system substantially. The system which can best control costs, increase accessibility, and enhance quality will gain the competitive edge.

Rovin, S; Nash, J

1982-01-01

43

Risk Factors for Self-Harm and Suicide in Incarcerated Young Offenders: Implications for Policy and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identified common and unique risk factors for suicidal and self-harming (SSH) behavior in 242 incarcerated young offenders. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation was 19.2% and was 18.2% for self-harm ideation; 8.4% had attempted suicide (44% in detention), and 9.1% had inflicted self-harm in the past 12 months (75% in detention). SSH young offenders reported more severe psychopathology, childhood

Dianna T. Kenny; C. J. Lennings; Olivia A. Munn

2008-01-01

44

HIV/AIDS-Related Attitudes and Practices Among Traditional Healers in Zamb?zia Province, Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives To document HIV knowledge, treatment practices, and the willingness of traditional healers to engage with the health system in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Settings/location Traditional healers offer culturally acceptable services and are more numerous in Mozambique than are allopathic providers. Late presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported among persons who have first sought care from traditional healers. Design One hundred and thirty-nine (139) traditional healers were interviewed in their native languages (Chuabo or Lomwe) in Zambézia Province. Furthermore, 24 traditional healers were observed during patient encounters. Healers answered a semistructured questionnaire regarding their knowledge of HIV/AIDS, general treatment practices, attitudes toward the allopathic health system, and their beliefs in their abilities to cure AIDS. Results Traditional healers were older and had less formal education than the general population. Razor cutting in order to rub herbs into bloodied skin was observed, and healers reported razor cutting as a routine practice. Healers stated that they did not refer HIV patients to clinics for two principal reasons: (1) patient symptoms/signs of HIV were unrecognized, and (2) practitioners believed they could treat the illness effectively themselves. Traditional healers were far more likely to believe in a spiritual than an infectious origin of HIV disease. Prior HIV/AIDS training was not associated with better knowledge or referral practices, though 81% of healers were interested in engaging allopathic providers. Conclusions It was found that the HIV-related practices of traditional healers probably increase risk for both HIV-infected and uninfected persons through delayed care and reuse of razors. Mozambican traditional healers attribute HIV pathogenesis to spiritual, not infectious, etiologies. Healers who had received prior HIV training were no more knowledgeable, nor did they have better practices. The willingness expressed by 4 in 5 healers to engage local formal health providers in HIV/AIDS care suggests a productive way forward, though educational efforts must be effective and income concerns considered.

Blevins, Meridith; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Pires, Paulo; Vergara, Alfredo; Vermund, Sten H.

2012-01-01

45

Why "do no harm"?  

PubMed

Edmund Pellegrino has argued that the dramatic changes in American health care call for critical reflection on the traditional norms governing the therapeutic relationship. This paper offers such reflection on the obligation to "do no harm." Drawing on work by Beauchamp and Childress and Pellegrino and Thomasma, I argue that the libertarian model of medical ethics offered by Engelhardt cannot adequately sustain an obligation to "do no harm." Because the obligation to "do no harm" is not based simply on a negative duty of nonmaleficence but also on a positive duty of beneficence, I argue that it is best understood to derive from the fiduciary nature of the healing relationship. PMID:9129401

Sharpe, V A

1997-01-01

46

Concerns About Aspects of Harm Reduction and the Overselling of Evidence-Based Practices in the Treatment of Alcohol\\/Other Drug Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This opinion piece addresses concerns about the negative impressions offered by some harm reduction advocates about historical alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment and abstinence-based programs, as well as advocates who would insist that only evidence-based practices be used in AOD treatment.

Jerome F. X. Carroll

2009-01-01

47

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyxlooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (coxibs) and gastrointestinal harm: review of clinical trials and clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal harm, known to occur with NSAIDs, is thought to be lower with NSAID and gastroprotective agent, and with inhibitors selective to cyclooxygenase-2 (coxibs) at usual plasma concentrations. We examine competing strategies for available evidence of reduced gastrointestinal bleeding in clinical trials and combine this evidence with evidence from clinical practice on whether the strategies work in the real

R Andrew Moore; Sheena Derry; Ceri J Phillips; Henry J McQuay

2006-01-01

48

Traditional practices and other socio-cultural factors affecting the health of children in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The medical services in Saudi Arabia have improved tremendously over the last two decades, and health centres are easily accessible to more than 93% of the population. Nevertheless, folk medicine, including cautery, bone setting, manual tonsillectomy, uvulectomy, use of herbal medicines and use of harmful teething powders, in addition to religious healing, is widely practised. Reasons include influence of grandparents, religious beliefs and failure of modern medicine to find an answer to some chronic disorders. These problems, and measures to counteract them, are discussed. Attention is also drawn to some of the harmful 'imported' practices that are affecting the health of children, including smoking, children driving cars and problems resulting from dependence on housemaids to bring up children. Some nutritional beliefs and taboos are also mentioned. PMID:7505546

Abdullah, M A

1993-01-01

49

Sustaining evidence-based practice for young people who self-harm: a 4-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In 1998 and 1999, two NSW Area Health Services conducted the Youth At Risk of Deliberate Self Harm (YARDS) project. The YARDS project was designed to implement evidence-based service enhancements for the clinical management of young people with Deliberate Self Harm. This paper examines the extent to which service enhancements implemented during YARDS were maintained 4 years after the

Stewart Einfeld; Margaret Tobin; John Beard; Elizabeth Evans; Richard Buss; Michael Dudley

2004-01-01

50

Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors influencing middle level students’ science achievement and attitudes about science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student?reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student?centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group experiments during science class) and traditional teaching practices (e.g. having

Arthur Louis Odom; Jacob M. Marszalek; Elizabeth R. Stoddard; Jerzy M. Wrobel

2011-01-01

51

Defining harm reduction.  

PubMed

Harm reduction attempts to reduce the adverse consequences of drug use among persons who continue to use drugs. It developed in response to the excesses of a "zero tolerance approach". Harm reduction emphasizes practical rather than idealized goals. It has been expanded from illicit drugs to legal drugs and is grounded in the evolving public health and advocacy movements. Harm reduction has proved to be effective and it has gained increasing official acceptance; for example, it is now the basis of Canada's Drug Strategy. However, the concept is still poorly defined, as virtually any drug policy or programme, even abstinence-oriented programmes, attempt to reduce drug-related harm. The principle feature of harm reduction is the acceptance of the fact that some drug users cannot be expected to cease their drug use at the present time. Harm reduction is neutral about the long term goals of intervention while according a high priority to short-term realizable goals. Harm reduction should be neutral about legalization. The essence of the concept is to ameliorate adverse consequences of drug use while, at least in the short term, drug use continues. PMID:16203323

Single, E

1995-01-01

52

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

53

The role of traditional farming practices in ecosystem conservation: The case of transhumance and vultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transhumance is a traditional livestock practice based on the movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures with importance placed on biodiversity conservation. We analyzed the transhumant activity of sheep and cows in the uplands of the Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain, and its influence on the ecology and management of the griffon vulture, a scavenger with a relevant ecosystem function.

Pedro P. Olea; Patricia Mateo-Tomás

2009-01-01

54

The Meaning Structures of Muslim Bereavements in Israel: Religious Traditions, Mourning Practices, and Human Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grief and mourning of Muslim citizens in Israel are considered. First, a series of mourning customs spanning the period from notification of death until post-mourning are presented from 3 perspectives: (a) the requirements of the Islamic Sunni tradition; (b) the manner in which Islamic mourning rituals are practiced; and (c) the authors'…

Yasien-Esmael, Hend; Rubin, Simon Shimshon

2005-01-01

55

Maternal and newborn care: practices and beliefs of traditional birth attendants in Sindh, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal mortality, infant mortality and neonatal mortality are high in Pakistan where maternal health services depend upon traditional birth attendants (TBAs). We examined the practices of TBAs in Dadu district in rural Sindh from September to November 1998 by interviewing and hosting focus group discus- sions with 17 TBAs. Health care personnel and other important members of the community were

Z. Fatmi; A. Z. Gulzar; A. Kazi; Abdul Samad Kazi

56

Puttur kattu (bandage) - A traditional bone setting practice in south India.  

PubMed

Traditional bone setting practices are quite popular in India and nearly 6000 traditional bone setting Vaidyas (Practisioners) are practicing the same in our country. Puttur kattu is a traditional way of bone setting practice, invented accidentally by K. Kesava Raju in 1881. Now, the fourth generation of his family is practicing this bone setting practice in hospitals at Puttur, Andhra Pradesh, with 200-300 patients per day. A prospective study was undertaken to analyze the techniques in diagnosis, way of management, medicine preparation, plants used and way of applications by traditional bone setter (TBS) Vaidyas, with special reference to Puttur. We also tried to understand the reasons which make lots of people go to Puttur for getting treatment, means of contact for treatment, pathology of fracture and outcome of some treated cases through this study. 54% of the studied patients came to Puttur TBS on the advice of old patients. It is observed that more educated people are patronizing this therapy and 23% patients of the observed cases took discharge from modern hospital voluntarily to receive Puttur kattu treatment. 80% patients believed that this therapy with home remedy would fasten the healing process. 44% patients opted for this therapy due to fear of pain, heavy plaster of Paris bandage, prolonged period of immobilization, surgery and amputation. 71% patients of the followed cases were satisfied with the treatment of TBS of Puttur with minimum complications. The authors also attempted to put forth the legacy of the tradition, the way of management and the plant used for bone setting by the Puttur bone setting Vaidyas. PMID:22253506

Panda, Ashok Kumar; Rout, Suvendu

2011-10-01

57

Puttur kattu (bandage) - A traditional bone setting practice in south India  

PubMed Central

Traditional bone setting practices are quite popular in India and nearly 6000 traditional bone setting Vaidyas (Practisioners) are practicing the same in our country. Puttur kattu is a traditional way of bone setting practice, invented accidentally by K. Kesava Raju in 1881. Now, the fourth generation of his family is practicing this bone setting practice in hospitals at Puttur, Andhra Pradesh, with 200-300 patients per day. A prospective study was undertaken to analyze the techniques in diagnosis, way of management, medicine preparation, plants used and way of applications by traditional bone setter (TBS) Vaidyas, with special reference to Puttur. We also tried to understand the reasons which make lots of people go to Puttur for getting treatment, means of contact for treatment, pathology of fracture and outcome of some treated cases through this study. 54% of the studied patients came to Puttur TBS on the advice of old patients. It is observed that more educated people are patronizing this therapy and 23% patients of the observed cases took discharge from modern hospital voluntarily to receive Puttur kattu treatment. 80% patients believed that this therapy with home remedy would fasten the healing process. 44% patients opted for this therapy due to fear of pain, heavy plaster of Paris bandage, prolonged period of immobilization, surgery and amputation. 71% patients of the followed cases were satisfied with the treatment of TBS of Puttur with minimum complications. The authors also attempted to put forth the legacy of the tradition, the way of management and the plant used for bone setting by the Puttur bone setting Vaidyas.

Panda, Ashok Kumar; Rout, Suvendu

2011-01-01

58

Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and processing between non-codified traditional system of medicine and Ayurveda require further methodical studies to establish the relationship between the two on a more objective basis. However, the practice appears to be at crossroads with threat of extinction, because of non-inheritance of the knowledge and non-availability of medicinal plants. Hence conservation strategies for both knowledge and resources at societal, scientific and legislative levels are urgently required to preserve the traditional wisdom.

2014-01-01

59

Evaluating traditional healers knowledge and practices related to HIV testing and treatment in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In a context of inadequate human resources for health, this study investigated whether traditional healers have the knowledge and skill base which could be utilised to assist in the scaling up of HIV prevention and treatment services in South Africa. Methods Using a cross-sectional research design a total of 186 traditional healers from the Northern Cape province were interviewed. Responses on the following topics were obtained: socio-demographic characteristics; HIV training, experience and practices; and knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and symptoms. Descriptive statistics and chi square tests were used to analyse the responses. Results Traditional healers’ knowledge of HIV and AIDS was not as high as expected. Less than 50% of both trained and untrained traditional healers would treat a person they suspected of being HIV positive. However, a total of 167 (89%) respondents agreed using a condom can prevent HIV and a majority of respondents also agreed that having one sexual partner (127, 68.8%) and abstaining from sex can prevent HIV (145, 78.8%). Knowledge of treatment practices was better with statistically significant results being obtained. Conclusion The results indicate that traditional healers could be used for prevention as well as referring HIV positive individuals for treatment. Traditional healers were enthusiastic about the possibility of collaborating with bio-medical practitioners in the prevention and care of HIV and AIDS patients. This is significant considering they already service the health needs of a large percentage of the South African population. However, further development of training programmes and materials for them on HIV and AIDS related issues would seem necessary.

2013-01-01

60

The role of traditional medicine practice in primary health care within Aboriginal Australia: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

The practice of traditional Aboriginal medicine within Australia is at risk of being lost due to the impact of colonisation. Displacement of people from traditional lands as well as changes in family structures affecting passing on of cultural knowledge are two major examples of this impact. Prior to colonisation traditional forms of healing, such as the use of traditional healers, healing songs and bush medicines were the only source of primary health care. It is unclear to what extent traditional medical practice remains in Australia in 2013 within the primary health care setting, and how this practice sits alongside the current biomedical health care model. An extensive literature search was performed from a wide range of literature sources in attempt to identify and examine both qualitatively and quantitatively traditional medicine practices within Aboriginal Australia today. Whilst there is a lack of academic literature and research on this subject the literature found suggests that traditional medicine practice in Aboriginal Australia still remains and the extent to which it is practiced varies widely amongst communities across Australia. This variation was found to depend on association with culture and beliefs about disease causation, type of illness presenting, success of biomedical treatment, and accessibility to traditional healers and bush medicines. Traditional medicine practices were found to be used sequentially, compartmentally and concurrently with biomedical healthcare. Understanding more clearly the role of traditional medicine practice, as well as looking to improve and support integrative and governance models for traditional medicine practice, could have a positive impact on primary health care outcomes for Aboriginal Australia. PMID:23819729

Oliver, Stefanie J

2013-01-01

61

Self-harm, capacity, and refusal of treatment: implications for emergency medical practice. A prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: In the context of increasing attention to the rights of adults to make treatment decisions for themselves, this study investigated, among patients who have engaged in self-harm (i) the extent of valid decision making; (ii) the impact of mental disorders; and (iii) the effect of systematically providing relevant clinical information. Design: A prospective observational study. Setting: The emergency department of a large teaching hospital in southeast England. Participants: Seventy one adult men and women who had presented for treatment following self-harm. Main outcome measures: Semi-structured interviews were used to make clinical judgements about participants' capacity to consent before, and following, the presentation of simple written information about the proposed treatment(s). Demographic data, and data about mental disorder and alcohol misuse, were also collected. Results: Based on accepted legal criteria, only 28/71 (39.4%) of the patients were judged to have capacity to consent to the proposed intervention(s) initially. However, the number of patients judged to have capacity improved significantly (p<0.001) after the presentation of written information, to 45/71 (63.4%). Those judged incapable were significantly more likely (p<0.01) to refuse treatment. Continuing incapacity was significantly associated only with cognitive impairment (p<0.001) and/or severe psychiatric disturbance (p<0.01). Conclusions: Consistent with current views, capacity is not static, even among patients who have engaged in self-harm, but can be improved through a simple intervention. The findings are consistent with recent guidance about supporting this vulnerable group of patients, many of whom are ambivalent about treatment.

Jacob, R; Clare, I; Holland, A; Watson, P; Maimaris, C; Gunn, M

2005-01-01

62

Traditional birth attendants in rural Nepal: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices about maternal and newborn health  

PubMed Central

Efforts to formalize the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and neonatal health programs have had limited success. TBAs’ continued attendance at home deliveries suggests potential to influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of TBAs in rural Nepal. Twenty one trained and untrained TBAs participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews about antenatal care, delivery practices, maternal complications, and newborn care. Antenatal care included advice about nutrition and tetanus toxic (TT) immunization but did not include planning ahead for transport in cases of complications. Clean delivery practices were observed by most TBAs though hand washing practices differed by training status. There was no standard practice to identify maternal complications such as excessive bleeding, prolonged labour, or retained placenta, and most referred outside in the event of such complications. Newborn care practices included breastfeeding with supplemental feeds, thermal care after bathing and mustard seed oil massage. TBAs reported high job satisfaction and desire to improve their skills. Despite uncertainty regarding the role of TBAs to manage maternal complications, TBAs may be strategically placed to make potential contributions to newborn survival.

THATTE, N.; MULLANY, L.C.; KHATRY, S.K.; KATZ, J.; TIELSCH, J.M.; DARMSTADT, G.L.

2008-01-01

63

Is prostitution harmful?  

PubMed

A common argument against prostitution states that selling sex is harmful because it involves selling something deeply personal and emotional. More and more of us, however, believe that sexual encounters need not be deeply personal and emotional in order to be acceptable-we believe in the acceptability of casual sex. In this paper I argue that if casual sex is acceptable, then we have few or no reasons to reject prostitution. I do so by first examining nine influential arguments to the contrary. These arguments purport to pin down the alleged additional harm brought about by prostitution (compared to just casual sex) by appealing to various aspects of its practice, such as its psychology, physiology, economics and social meaning. For each argument I explain why it is unconvincing. I then weight the costs against the benefits of prostitution, and argue that, in sum, prostitution is no more harmful than a long line of occupations that we commonly accept without hesitation. PMID:22930676

Moen, Ole Martin

2014-02-01

64

Traditional healing practice and folk medicines used by Mishing community of North East India  

PubMed Central

Assam and Arunachal Pradesh have very rich tradition of herbal medicines used in the treatment of various ailments. Tribal communities practice different types of traditional healing practices. Enough documentation is available on the healing practices in other tribal communities except Mishing community of Assam and foot hill of East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh hence the attempt was made for the same. A survey on folk medicinal plants and folk healers of Mishing tribe was conducted in few places of Lakhimpur and Dhemaji district of Assam and East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, where this ethnic group is living since time immemorial. All information was collected based on interview and field studies with local healers within the community. The identification of medicinal plants collected with help of indigenous healers was done. Such medicines have been shown to have significant healing power, either in their natural state or as the source of new products processed by them. This study is mainly concentrated with plants used to cure diseases and to enquire about different healing systems. Detail note on the method of preparation of precise dose, the part/parts of plants used and method of application is given.

Shankar, Rama; Lavekar, G. S.; Deb, S.; Sharma, B. K.

2012-01-01

65

Contemporary Traditional Pottery Practices at Archaeo-Historically Important Sites, District Khargone, Madhya Pradesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Khargone district is located at the southwest border of Madhya Pradesh. The district comprises of many archaeological and historical sites viz. Navdatoli, Maheshwar, Kasrawad, Mandleshwar. Archaeological excavations at these sites revealed vast cultural assemblage from Lower Paleolithic to Medieval Period. Pottery plays significant role in the reconstruction and understanding of past technologies and socio-economic-religious life. Present paper endeavors to understand contemporary traditional pottery practices at these sites. Besides documentation of degeneration of technology, authors aim to put forth the survival problems of the potters. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to examine the possible reasons behind their present socio-economic conditions.

Geedh, Smita; Nadgauda, Tejaswini

66

Comparing an Inquiry-based Approach known as the Science Writing Heuristic to Traditional Science Teaching Practices: Are there differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many state and federal governments have mandated in such documents as the National Science Education Standards that inquiry strategies should be the focus of the teaching of science within school classrooms. The difficult part for success is changing teacher practices from perceived traditional ways of teaching to more inquiry?based approaches. Arguments are often made about the effectiveness of these traditional

Recai Akkus; Murat Gunel; Brian Hand

2007-01-01

67

Family planning in rural Kwazulu: transition from traditional to contemporary practices.  

PubMed

In South Africa, premarital vaginal penetration was not allowed in traditional Zulu society because illegitimate children disrupted the community. Young people could have external sexual intercourse between the thighs, however, only if 1st instructed in this practice by the leader of each peer group plus the girl's group leader had to approve of a meeting between the boy and girl. In addition, men could not marry before proving themselves in the battlefield, usually between 30-35 years old. Women could not marry until all the women of an older age group had married, therefore women were approximately 25 years old when married. In years past, the Zulu believed that a large enough quantity of semen must accumulate inside the wife's body before a baby would grow. Newlyweds therefore had intercourse day and night for the 1st few weeks until they believed that the wife was pregnant. Frequency of intercourse either decreased or ceased once a women was pregnant. A breast feeding mother could not have sexual intercourse because the fetus would poison the child who was still breast feeding. Children were breast fed for 3 years. Husbands could have sexual intercourse between the thighs with a mistress during the lactational period of his wife, however. Polygynists slept with each wife for only 1 period/month, often not during her most fertile days. They therefore had fewer children/wife than men in monogamous relationships. Today females do not practice abstinence after birth and breast feed their children for 3 years. Additionally, they become sexually active at an earlier age. Only 5% of the respondents of a survey were using modern contraceptives. Due to the nonuse of traditional practices and modern contraceptives, the present levels of fertility are higher than was the case in the past. PMID:12315625

Kies, C W

1987-07-01

68

Knowledge and practice of traditional healers in oral health in the Bui Division, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of Cameroonians depend on traditional medicines for their health care needs and about seven per cent of the average household health budget is spent on traditional medicines irrespective of their incomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral care knowledge and practices of Traditional Healers (TH) on oral health delivery in the urban and rural areas of Bui Division of Cameroon and the objectives to determine the cost of treatment and reasons why people visit TH. Methods The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data. Results The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years). Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5) is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50). Conclusions Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care seeking attitudes in this community and barriers affecting the oral health seeking behaviours should be removed. Mutual cooperation, collaboration and by integrating TH into primary oral health care services needs to be increased.

2011-01-01

69

Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India  

PubMed Central

Background There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Results Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Conclusions Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT and maternal child health programs in India.

2010-01-01

70

Relationships among spirituality, religious practices, personality factors, and health for five different faith traditions.  

PubMed

To determine: (1) differences in spirituality, religiosity, personality, and health for different faith traditions; and (2) the relative degree to which demographic, spiritual, religious, and personality variables simultaneously predict health outcomes for different faith traditions. Cross-sectional analysis of 160 individuals from five different faith traditions including Buddhists (40), Catholics (41), Jews (22), Muslims (26), and Protestants (31). Brief multidimensional measure of religiousness/spirituality (BMMRS; Fetzer in Multidimensional measurement of religiousness/spirituality for use in health research, Fetzer Institute, Kalamazoo, 1999); NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI; in Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and the NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Costa and McCrae 1992); Medical outcomes scale-short form (SF-36; in SF-36 physical and mental health summary scores: A user's manual, The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, Boston, Ware et al. 1994). (1) ANOVAs indicated that there were no significant group differences in health status, but that there were group differences in spirituality and religiosity. (2) Pearson's correlations for the entire sample indicated that better mental health is significantly related to increased spirituality, increased positive personality traits (i.e., extraversion) and decreased personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness). In addition, spirituality is positively correlated with positive personality traits (i.e., extraversion) and negatively with negative personality traits (i.e., neuroticism). (3) Hierarchical regressions indicated that personality predicted a greater proportion of unique variance in health outcomes than spiritual variables. Different faith traditions have similar health status, but differ in terms of spiritual, religious, and personality factors. For all faith traditions, the presence of positive and absence of negative personality traits are primary predictors of positive health (and primarily mental health). Spiritual variables, other than forgiveness, add little to the prediction of unique variance in physical or mental health after considering personality. Spirituality can be conceptualized as a characterological aspect of personality or a distinct construct, but spiritual interventions should continue to be used in clinical practice and investigated in health research. PMID:22618413

Johnstone, Brick; Yoon, Dong Pil; Cohen, Daniel; Schopp, Laura H; McCormack, Guy; Campbell, James; Smith, Marian

2012-12-01

71

Maternal and newborn care: practices and beliefs of traditional birth attendants in Sindh, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Maternal mortality, infant mortality and neonatal mortality are high in Pakistan where maternal health services depend upon traditional birth attendants (TBAs). We examined the practices of TBAs in Dadu district in rural Sindh from September to November 1998 by interviewing and hosting focus group discussions with 17 TBAs. Health care personnel and other important members of the community were also interviewed. TBAs worked in areas demarcated by extended families, ethnicity or geographical access and a system of seniority was observed. Only one TBA was formally trained and antenatal and postnatal care concepts, cleanliness and equipment were inadequate. Communities trusted the TBAs and remunerated them according to factors particular to each birth. TBAs need training and to be linked with the formal health sector to effect change and to decrease maternal and neonatal mortality. PMID:16532692

Fatmi, Z; Gulzar, A Z; Kazi, A

2005-01-01

72

Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication  

PubMed Central

Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5%) of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7) of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR) = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6) and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2) showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9) and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6). Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and information on its occurrence, human brucellosis is most likely misdiagnosed for other febrile diseases prevailing in the areas and treated empirically. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that bovine brucellosis is widely prevalent in the study areas particularly in pastoral production system. Hence, the study suggests the need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on prevention methods of brucellosis.

2011-01-01

73

Is the evidence-based practice movement doing more good than harm? Reflections on Iain Chalmers' case for research-based policy making and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

English Powerful voices are currently insisting that policy and practice must be based on research evidence, and that social science inquiry should be reformed in order to serve this need more effectively. An influential figure in the evidence-based practice movement is Sir Iain Chalmers, previously director of the UK Cochrane Centre. Taking evidence-based medicine as his model, he presents the

Martyn Hammersley

2005-01-01

74

Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol\\/L (greater than 29 micrograms\\/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: (1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and (2) the PbBs of nearly half

M. R. Farfel; J. J. Jr. Chisolm

1990-01-01

75

Optimal water allocation in small hydropower plants between traditional and non-traditional water users: merging theory and existing practices.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water demand for hydropower production is increasing together with the consciousness of the importance of riparian ecosystems and biodiversity. Some Cantons in Switzerland and other alpine regions in Austria and in Süd Tiröl (Italy) started replacing the inadequate concept of Minimum Flow Requirement (MFR) with a dynamic one, by releasing a fix percentage of the total inflow (e.g. 25 %) to the environment. Starting from a model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) and the need of including the environment as an actual water user, we arrived to similar qualitative results, and better quantitative performances. In this paper we explore the space of non-proportional water repartition rules analysed by Gorla and Perona (2013), and we propose new ecological indicators which are directly derived from current ecologic evaluation practices (fish habitat modelling and hydrological alteration). We demonstrate that both MFR water redistribution policy and also proportional repartition rules can be improved using nothing but available information. Furthermore, all water redistribution policies can be described by the model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) in terms of the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU) and a suitable class of nonlinear functions. This is particularly useful to highlights implicit assumptions and choosing best-compromise solutions, providing analytical reasons explaining why efficiency cannot be attained by classic repartition rules. Each water repartition policy underlies an ecosystem monetization and a political choice always has to be taken. We explicit the value of the ecosystem health underlying each policy by means of the PEMU under a few assumptions, and discuss how the theoretic efficient redistribution law obtained by our approach is feasible and doesn't imply high costs or advanced management tools. For small run-of-river power plants, this methodology answers the question "how much water should be left to the river?" and is therefore a simple but effective step towards eco-sustainability. References - Perona, P., Characklis, G., Dürrenmatt, D.J., 2013. Inverse parameters estimation of simple riparian benefit economical models. Journal of Environmental Management . - Gorla, L. and Perona, P., 2013. On quantifying ecologically sustainable flow releases in a diverted river reach. Journal of Hydrology.

Gorla, Lorenzo; Crouzy, Benoît; Perona, Paolo

2014-05-01

76

Improving communication and practical skills in working with inpatients who self-harm: a pre-test/post-test study of the effects of a training programme  

PubMed Central

Background Differing perspectives of self-harm may result in a struggle between patients and treatment staff. As a consequence, both sides have difficulty communicating effectively about the underlying problems and feelings surrounding self-harm. Between 2009 and 2011, a programme was developed and implemented to train mental health care staff (nurses, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, and occupational therapists) in how to communicate effectively with and care for patients who self-harm. An art exhibition focusing on self-harm supported the programme. Lay experts in self-harm, i.e. people who currently harm themselves, or who have harmed themselves in the past and have the skills to disseminate their knowledge and experience, played an important role throughout the programme. Methods Paired sample t-tests were conducted to measure the effects of the training programme using the Attitude Towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire, the Self-Perceived Efficacy in Dealing with Self-Harm Questionnaire, and the Patient Contact Questionnaire. Effect sizes were calculated using r. Participants evaluated the training programme with the help of a survey. The questionnaires used in the survey were analysed descriptively. Results Of the 281 persons who followed the training programme, 178 completed the questionnaires. The results show a significant increase in the total scores of the three questionnaires, with large to moderate effect sizes. Respondents were positive about the training, especially about the role of the lay expert. Conclusion A specialised training programme in how to care for patients who self-harm can result in a more positive attitude towards self-harm patients, an improved self-efficacy in caring for patients who self-harm, and a greater closeness with the patients. The deployment of lay experts is essential here.

2014-01-01

77

[Innovation and practice of component structure theory on material basis of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions].  

PubMed

The component structure theory on material basis of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions provides a new research thought and method for studies on traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions in line with integrated and systemic characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine. Through years of exploration and accumulation, studies on component structures have made achievements. On the basis of summarizing the component structure development of material basis of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, we systematically explained the background of component structures and their roles and progress in quality control of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions and modern innovative traditional Chinese medicine preparations. Studies on component structures promote the changes in material basis of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, and point out the direction for the modernization development of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. PMID:24494539

Feng, Liang; Zhang, Ming-Hu; Gu, Jun-Feil; Wu, Chan; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2013-11-01

78

Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources  

PubMed Central

In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs.

Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

2014-01-01

79

A cross-sectional study on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine in Dembia district, north western Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study pertaining to the practices and perceptions of modern and traditional health practitioners on Traditional Medicine (TM) was carried out from February 25 to April 4, 2008. The results of the study showed that almost all the practitioners in both systems expressed their willingness to collaborate among each other to promote the positive elements of TM. As traditional healing knowledge is still being handed over from one generation to the next, mainly through word of mouth, which will lead to distortion or a total demise of the original knowledge, this report indicates the urgency to document the same. Moreover, the report also implies the need for educating and training the practitioners of the two systems. More also has to be done to create a discussion forum for both modern and TM practitioners, to enable them to share their knowledge. Government support for promotion and development of TM should be considered as a goal to be seriously pursued. The government should also contribute by helping them financially and by arranging training and education for the improvement of the healthcare system given to the public.

Ragunathan, Muthuswamy; tadesse, Hawi; tujuba, Rebecca

2010-01-01

80

Comparison of a Computer Simulation Program and a Traditional Laboratory Practical Class for Teaching the Principles of Intestinal Absorption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the effectiveness of an interactive computer-assisted learning program for undergraduate students that simulates experiments performed using isolated, everted sacs of rat small intestine. The program is designed to offer an alternative student-centered approach to traditional laboratory-based practical classes. Knowledge gain of students…

Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

1994-01-01

81

When the New Application Smell Is Gone: Traditional Intranet Best Practices and Existing Web 2.0 Intranet Infrastructures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growth of Web 2.0 library intranets in recent years, many libraries are leaving behind legacy, first-generation intranets. As Web 2.0 intranets multiply and mature, how will traditional intranet best practices--especially in the areas of planning, implementation, and evaluation--translate into an existing Web 2.0 intranet infrastructure?…

Yoose, Becky

2010-01-01

82

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyxlooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (coxibs) and gastrointestinal harm: review of clinical trials and clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Background Gastrointestinal harm, known to occur with NSAIDs, is thought to be lower with NSAID and gastroprotective agent, and with inhibitors selective to cyclooxygenase-2 (coxibs) at usual plasma concentrations. We examine competing strategies for available evidence of reduced gastrointestinal bleeding in clinical trials and combine this evidence with evidence from clinical practice on whether the strategies work in the real world, whether guidance on appropriate prescribing is followed, and whether patients adhere to the strategies. Methods We used a series of systematic literature searches to find full publications of relevant studies for evidence about the efficacy of these different gastroprotection strategies in clinical trials, and for evidence that they worked and were adhered to in clinical practice – whether they were effective. We chose to use good quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses when they were available. Results Evidence of efficacy of coxibs compared to NSAIDs for upper gastrointestinal bleeding was strong, with consistent reductions in events of about 50% in large randomised trials (34,460 patients), meta-analyses of randomised trials (52,474 patients), and large observational studies in clinical practice (3,093 bleeding events). Evidence on the efficacy of NSAID plus gastroprotection with acid suppressants (proton pump inhibitors, PPIs, and histamine antagonists, H2As) was based mainly on the surrogate measure of endoscopic ulcers. The limited information on damage to the bowel suggested that NSAID plus PPI was more damaging than coxibs. Eleven observational studies studied 1.6 million patients, of whom 911,000 were NSAID users, and showed that 76% (range 65% to 90%) of patients with at least one gastrointestinal risk factor received no prescription for gastroprotective agent with an NSAID. The exception was a cohort of US veterans with previous gastrointestinal bleeding, where 75% had gastroprotection with an NSAID. When gastroprotection was prescribed, it was often described as inadequate. A single study suggested that patient adherence to prescribed gastroprotection was low. Conclusion Evidence for efficacy of gastroprotection strategies with NSAIDs is limited. In clinical practice few patients who need gastroprotection get it, and those who get it may not take it. For coxibs, gastroprotection is inherent, although probably not complete.

Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; Phillips, Ceri J; McQuay, Henry J

2006-01-01

83

Knowledge and practices of traditional birth attendants in prenatal services in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A questionnaire-based study was conducted on 189 Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) on their knowledge and practices in prenatal services. Only 86 (45.5%) of them associated cessation of menstrual period with pregnancy while others use mystic power 46 (24.3%), early morning sickness, pallor of conjunctiva and reaction to herbs 56 (29.6%) to detect pregnancy. Fundal height n=76 (40.2%), palpation n=82 (43.4%), special soaps and soups n=52 (27.5%) and special devices n=8 (4.2%) are used to determine stages of pregnancy. Foetal health status is determined by regular foetal movements n=95 (50.3%), mystic power n=15 (8%), soap n=2 (1.1%), special concoction 9 (4.8%), health status of mother n=67 (35.4%) and foetal heart beat n=24 (12.7%). Ninety seven (51.3%) of them used herbal treatment, 77 (40.7%) used incantations, 189 (100%) used special soaps as their main methods of delivery, while only 18 (9.5%) of respondents refer difficult cases to hospitals. Instruments used for separating cord were blade 123 (65.1%) and scissors 40 (21.1%). Symptoms recognized by the TBAs as signs of complications in pregnancy were dizziness, swollen feet, pallor, tiredness, absent foetal movement, loss of appetite, heaviness, pain in back/stomach/side, weight loss, vomiting, bleeding, fever/malaria, head ache, bad dream, premature or delayed labour. Although some of them recognized some danger signs in pregnancy and labour, only very few would refer difficult cases for emergency obstetric interventions. Clear protocols for management and referral, which are necessary for improved maternal survival, should be provided through regular training of the TBAs. PMID:15971555

Ahmed, O A; Odunukwe, N N; Akinwale, O P; Raheem, T Y; Efienemokwu, C E; Ogedengbe, O; Salako, L A

2005-03-01

84

The Clinical Practice of Traditional and Nontraditional Dental Hygienists. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information is presented on a study designed to gather details about the services provided by clinical dental hygienists in traditional and nontraditional settings. The 10 research topics addressed include: services provided by the clinical RDH in the traditional and nontraditional setting; time allocated for such services; how patients are…

Boyer, E. Marcia

85

Teaching as a Reflective Practice: The German Didaktik Tradition. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers presents essays by German scholars and practitioners writing from within the German Didaktik tradition and interpretive essays by U.S. scholars. After an introduction, "Starting a Dialogue: A Beginning Conversation between Didaktik and the Curriculum Traditions" (Stefan Hopmann and Kurt Riquarts), there are 18 chapters in…

Westbury, Ian, Ed.; Hopmann, Stefan, Ed.; Riquarts, Kurt, Ed.

86

Characteristics of Hygiene Practice in Non-Traditional Settings, Phase 2. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main area of interest of this study was clinical hygiene practice. Data acquisition focused on developing a profile of hygienists' clinical and clinically related practice and not on administrative or managerial functions. Therefore, this report made ...

1984-01-01

87

The Texas Aggie Bonfire: A Conservative Reading of Regional Narratives, Traditional Practices, and a Paradoxical Place  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concepts of place, narrative, tradition, and identity are employed in a conservative reading of the Texas A&M Bonfire. Texas A&M embodied regional narratives of a dual Southern commitment to economic and technological development and conservation of traditional cultural. Institutionalized at Texas A&M in the late nineteenth century, these narratives made a paradoxical place. Bonfire expressed and obscured this paradox. In

Jonathan M. Smith

2007-01-01

88

Forecasting Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online newsletter gives a brief summary of societal impacts of harmful algal blooms and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) project, a group funded by NOAA to forecast harmful algal blooms (HABs) along the Washington coast. The site includes colorful SeaWiFS (satellite) images of the coast during upwelling events.

Woodruff, Dana; Institute, Battelle M.

89

Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors Influencing Middle Level Students' Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…

Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

2011-01-01

90

Practical physical-layer encryption: The marriage of optical noise with traditional cryptography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an emerging method of encryption suitable for high-speed optical communication networks. This encryption protocol combines traditional electronic cryptographic algorithms with the physical effect of optical noise of quantum origin to create a highly secure method of secret communications. The resulting optical signal is compatible with today's high speed fiber optic infrastructure including optical amplification and add\\/drop multiplexing. Systems

Gregory S. Kanter; Daniel Reilly; Neil Smith

2009-01-01

91

Anatomical Practical Examinations: How Does Student Performance on Computerized Evaluation Compare with the Traditional Format?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a research study comparing the scores on online versus traditional examinations in a gross anatomy course. The authors hypothesis was that there would not be a difference between modes of testing on performance. Methods and outcomes are discussed.

2011-09-13

92

Tradition and Innovation in the Practical Culture of Schools in Franco's Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews school practice in Spain through the long historic period of the dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco between the 1936 Civil War and Franco's death in 1975. For this purpose, an analysis is made of the most relevant documents (school materials, reports, direct testimonies by practising teachers, scientific papers on education…

Calvo, Carmen Benso

2006-01-01

93

Construction of Life-Practice Moral Education Based on Traditional Chinese Morality with Life Connotation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The actual effect is a big problem in current school moral education. By analyzing the problems in the theory and practice of the current school moral education, the author points out that the reason is that, for a long time, the meaning of morality has been dissimilated, and moral education is considered as a kind of knowledge input and…

Yi, Lian-yun; Peng, Jing

2006-01-01

94

Challenging Exclusionary Paradigms in the Traditional Musical Canon: Implications for Music Education Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors propose that best practices in music education require a conceptual understanding of music teaching and learning based on a perspective of social justice and equitable access for all students. Examinations of the relationship between the tenets of culturally-responsive teaching and three dimensions of music teaching and learning…

Kindall-Smith, Marsha; McKoy, Constance L.; Mills, Susan W.

2011-01-01

95

Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in traditional and dairy cattle farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania.  

PubMed

Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in 177 cattle farms in Iringa district in the southern highlands of Tanzania was determined through a questionnaire survey. A total of 76 traditional, 92 small-scale dairy and 9 large-scale dairy cattle farms were included in the survey. Results indicated that 87.7% traditional, 97.8% small-scale dairy and 100% large-scale farmers relied solely on the use of anthelmintics, 2.7% traditional farmers used traditional medicines while 9.6% traditional farmers had not any form of worm control practice. Worm infection was ranked the second most important constraint of productivity in cattle in the three production systems. Most farms (57.6% traditional, 35.8% small-scale dairy, 66.7% large-scale dairy) used anthelmintics with a combination of levamisole and oxyclozanide. Benzimidazoles were used only in traditional (25.4%) and small-scale dairy (32.1%) farms while nitroxynil (Trodax) was mostly used in large-scale dairy farms (33.3%). Generally, 40% of farmers treated three or four times a year and the frequency in some farms was surprisingly high for resource poor small-scale farmers. The frequency of anthelmintic treatment was mostly the same regardless of the management system. Treatments in most farms depended on availability of money and drugs and not the epidemiology of parasites. A significant proportion (46.3%, P=0.007) of farmers especially in rural areas failed to follow their pre-planned treatment schedules due to lack of money (86%) and unavailability of drugs (6.6%). Many farmers (58.9%) had used the same type of anthelmintic for four or more consecutive years and 85.3% of them would continue with the same anthelmintic. Farmers in all management systems mostly purchased anthelmintics from private veterinary drug shops and about 43% traditional and 33.3% small-scale dairy farmers mostly in rural areas obtained anthelmintics from village extension officers. Despite the fact that all farmers were aware of worm infection and the associated signs in cattle, 42.5% had poor knowledge on the source of worm infection. Small-scale dairy farmers allowed only a 1-day withdraw period for milk regardless of the type of anthelmintic used and there was no milk and slaughter clearance in traditional farms. It was concluded from this study that worm control in Iringa faces serious constrains and that education of farmers and farm hands is not adequate. Moreover, poor quality control and high price of potent anthelmintics, few extension workers, low income and low education among farmers contributed significantly to erratic worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in peri-urban and rural areas. PMID:12732466

Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Kassuku, A A; Willingham, A L

2003-05-15

96

The Harmful Algae Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Relevant sections in this resource include What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), an Introduction to Algal Blooms and "Red Tide", Algae Species (which algae are responsible for the harmful effects?), Adverse Impacts, Human Illness (food poisoning associated with harmful algal blooms & information on diagnosis and treatment), HAB Distribution Maps, HAB events in the United States and around the world, HAB related articles as printed in the news media, and a photo gallery of visible algal blooms, photomicrographs, and satellite imagery.

Anderson, Donald

2004-06-17

97

The use of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) in traditional medicine practice in East Africa.  

PubMed

Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) has been used by traditional health practitioners in East Africa for management of diseases, however, the extent of its usefulness has not been established to date. Fieldwork for this study was carried out in the Lake Victoria Basin between March and September 2006. The purpose was to collect ethnomedical information that will serve as a basis for further studies to establish current and potential medicinal uses. The ethnomedical information was obtained through interviews using semi-structured questionnaires. Consultative meetings were also conducted with traditional health practitioners and other members of the communities in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Results of this study show that Toddalia asiatica is collected in the wild, prepared mostly as decoctions or concoctions and administered orally. It is used for the management of a number of disease conditions. The most frequently cited diseases were stomach problems (78%) followed by malaria (25%). Cough (22%), chest pain (13%), food poisoning (8%), sore throat (7%), were also mentioned among other disease conditions treated. Validation studies of therapeutic claims will be carried out at a later date. PMID:17996412

Orwa, J A; Jondiko, I J O; Minja, R J A; Bekunda, M

2008-01-17

98

Satellites Harming Other Satellites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strategy is developed for assessing the harm that one satellite can do to another. A total of 29 modes are identified through which this harm can transpire, and the parameters and characteristics of each are explained. An overall, quantitative index of ...

P. C. Hughes

1991-01-01

99

A Comparative Study of Verbal Discourse Practices in Traditional and Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Biology Labs for Non-Science Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative interpretative study serves to identify and compare the verbal discourse practices exhibited by students in traditional and inquiry-based undergraduate labs for non-science majors and to identify factors in both lab contexts that would facilitate and / or inhibit student participation in the discourse practices of the labs.…

Narayan, Ratna

2010-01-01

100

Benefitting from differences in knowledge, practice and belief: M?ori oral traditions and natural hazards science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper builds upon earlier work that argued the information and experience contained within the knowledge-practice-belief complex of M?tauranga M?ori [M?ori knowledge] is a valuable and neglected area of information and understanding about past catastrophic events in Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ). Here we map M?ori oral traditions (p?r?kau) that relate experience with extreme environmental disturbance (in particular, tsunamis) around the A/NZ coast, compare the findings with geo-archaeological evidence, and discuss the scientific benefits to be gained by considering p?r?kau as legitimate perspectives on history. Not surprisingly, there are both differences and complementarities between traditional M?ori narratives and the available geo-archaeological evidence on extreme coastal disturbances. The findings presented here raise new and important questions about accepted geographies of tsunami risk, the causes and sources of their generation, as well as reasons for the relative paucity and abundance of information in some regions. Ways in which M?tauranga Taiao [M?ori environmental knowledge] and contemporary science can be combined to produce new narratives about extreme environmental disturbance along the A/NZ coastline will require not only acceptance of other ways of knowing but also open engagement with M?ori that respects their rights to tell their own histories. These efforts are encouraged to revitalise and ground-truth the interpretation of traditional stories, corroborate and/or question previous scientific deductions, and improve our collective understanding of the recurring impact of tectonic, geologic and meteorological-based events across A/NZ.

King, D. N.; Goff, J. R.

2010-09-01

101

Practices associated with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza spread in traditional poultry marketing chains: Social and economic perspectives.  

PubMed

In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus. The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities. PMID:23337390

Paul, Mathilde; Baritaux, Virginie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François; Bonnet, Pascal; Ducrot, Christian

2013-04-01

102

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA website features a repository of information about Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). It explains the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act (HABHRCA) and describes the subsequent formation of an Interagency Task Force to develop a national HAB assessment and authorize funding for existing and new research programs on HABs. The site features links to information about current and past research programs, HAB ecological forecasting, related news articles, workshop announcements, and additional HAB information sources.

2009-12-28

103

No-Harm Contracts: A Review of What We Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few events in the practice of a mental health clinician can be as devastating as the suicide of a client. Although suicide is a rare occurrence, clinicians face assessment of clients' risk for harming themselves on a regular basis. One well-accepted and widely practiced intervention for suicidal ideation is the use of no-harm contracts (NHC),…

Lewis, Lisa McConnell

2007-01-01

104

Harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention  

PubMed Central

This paper provides a brief overview of harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention strategies. Universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies are described for several populations including elementary and secondary schools, colleges, and medical settings. This paper primarily reviews individually focused alcohol prevention efforts in the United States (US), where harm reduction has been less well received in comparison to many European countries, Canada, and Australia. Zero-tolerance approaches continue to be the norm in individually focused prevention efforts in the US, especially amongst adolescents, despite research suggesting that harm reduction approaches can be effective. Moreover, existing evidence supports that harm reduction approaches show considerable promise in universal prevention and have become best practices in selective and indicated prevention contexts.

Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Woods, Briana A.

2006-01-01

105

Avian Influenza Risk Perception and Preventive Behavior among Traditional Market Workers and Shoppers in Taiwan: Practical Implications for Prevention  

PubMed Central

Background Avian influenza (AI) can be highly pathogenic and fatal. Preventive behavior such as handwashing and wearing face masks has been recommended. However, little is known about what psychosocial factors might influence people's decision to adopt such preventive behavior. This study aims to explore risk perception and other factors associated with handwashing and wearing face masks to prevent AI. Methodology/Principal Findings An interviewer-administered survey was conducted among 352 traditional market workers and shoppers in Taiwan between December 2009 and January 2010. Factors associated with the recommended AI preventive behavior (i.e., when in a traditional market, wearing a face mask and also washing hands after any contact with poultry) included: having correct knowledge about the fatality rate of AI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?4.18), knowing of severe cases of AI (AOR?=?2.13), being informed of local AI outbreaks (AOR?=?2.24), living in northeastern Taiwan (AOR?=?6.01), having a senior high-school education (AOR?=?3.33), and having a university or higher education (AOR?=?6.86). Gender interactive effect was also found among participants with a senior high-school education, with males being less likely to engage in the recommended AI preventive behavior than their female counterparts (AOR?=?0.34). Conclusions/Significance Specific information concerning AI risk perception was associated with the recommended AI preventive behavior. In particular, having correct knowledge about the fatality rate of AI and being informed of severe cases and local outbreaks of AI were linked to increased AI preventive behavior. These findings underscore the importance of transparency in dealing with epidemic information. These results also have practical implications for prevention and policy-making to more effectively promote the recommended AI preventive behavior in the public.

Liu, Ming-Der

2011-01-01

106

Harmful Algal Blooms Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the biological and physical conditions that lead to eutrophication of a water system by using real-time data to predict the the growth of harmful algae. They also conduct research on the Internet to learn more about the causes of harmful algal blooms. Students investigate both the position of the Gulf Stream, as well as population and life cycle characteristics of harmful phytoplankton. The activity includes a worksheet and assessment questions. This resource is found in Rising Tides, a journal created for teachers and students reporting on current oceanography research conducted by NASA, NOAA, and university scientists, featuring articles, classroom activities, readings, teacher/student questions, and imagery for student investigation of marine science.

107

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Aquatic Pathobiology website features an overview of harmful algal blooms. Specific focus is given to blooms of microscopic algae occurring in the coastal waters of the United States that produce toxins and impair fish and shellfish production, either directly or indirectly, via degradation of habitats. Links are provided to detailed pages about each of the following: neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), "Brown tide" blooms (BTB), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), and blooms which do not cause illness to humans but are harmful to fish.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; Center, Aquatic P.

108

Developing Policy for Integrating Biomedicine and Traditional Chinese Medical Practice Using Focus Groups and the Delphi Technique  

PubMed Central

In Hong Kong, statutory regulation for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners has been implemented in the past decade. Increasing use of TCM on top of biomedicine (BM) services by the population has been followed; but corresponding policy development to integrate their practices has not yet been discussed. Using focus group methodology, we explore policy ideas for integration by collating views from frontline BM (n = 50) and TCM clinicians (n = 50). Qualitative data were analyzed under the guidance of structuration model of collaboration, a theoretical model for understanding interprofessional collaboration. From focus group findings we generated 28 possible approaches, and subsequently their acceptability was assessed by a two round Delphi survey amongst BM and TCM policy stakeholders (n = 12). Consensus was reached only on 13 statements. Stakeholders agreed that clinicians from both paradigms should share common goals of providing patient-centered care, promoting the development of protocols for shared care and information exchange, as well as strengthening interprofessional connectivity and leadership for integration. On the other hand, attitudes amongst policy stakeholders were split on the possibility of fostering trust and mutual learning, as well as on enhancing innovation and governmental support. Future policy initiatives should focus on these controversial areas.

Chung, Vincent C. H.; Ma, Polly H. X.; Lau, Chun Hong; Griffiths, Sian M.

2012-01-01

109

Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage serves as a portal to the CDC's collection of harmful algal bloom (HAB) resources for the general public. Visitors can find general information about HABs, as well as focus areas targeting Cyanobacteria, Ciguatera, red tide, and Pfiesteria piscicida. Links are also provided to publications, CDC activities, and datasets (organized by federal, state, and international levels).

Branch, National C.; Prevention, Centers F.

110

Mentor Profiles -Kevin Harm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Considering his job, Kevin's last name doesn't make sense. Kevin got into nursing because he wants to help, not harm, people. Kevin didn't know what he wanted to do right away; he had another career before nursing. Read about him here.

Gem-Nursing

111

Toxic & Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Primarily through the use of engaging graphics, this resource outlines where Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occur in U.S. waters. It also addresses the differences between toxic and non-toxic HABs, which organisms in the food web are affected, how specific toxins work and the symptoms associated with them, and the causative phytoplankton species.

2001-03-19

112

Are nonspecific practice guidelines potentially harmful? A randomized comparison of the effect of nonspecific versus specific guidelines on physician decision making.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To test the ability of two different clinical practice guideline formats to influence physician ordering of electrodiagnostic tests in low back pain. DATA SOURCES/STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial of the effect of practice guidelines on self-reported physician test ordering behavior in response to a series of 12 clinical vignettes. Data came from a national random sample of 900 U.S. neurologists, physical medicine physicians, and general internists. INTERVENTION: Two different versions of a practice guideline for the use of electrodiagnostic tests (EDT) were developed by the U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Low Back Problems Panel. The two guidelines were similar in content but varied in the specificity of their recommendations. DATA COLLECTION: The proportion of clinical vignettes for which EDTs were ordered for appropriate and inappropriate clinical indications in each of three physician groups were randomly assigned to receive vignettes alone, vignettes plus the nonspecific version of the guideline, or vignettes plus the specific version of the guideline. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The response rate to the survey was 71 percent. The proportion of appropriate vignettes for which EDTs were ordered averaged 77 percent for the no guideline group, 71 percent for the nonspecific guideline group, and 79 percent for the specific guideline group (p = .002). The corresponding values for the number of EDTs ordered for inappropriate vignettes were 32 percent, 32 percent, and 26 percent, respectively (p = .08). Pairwise comparisons showed that physicians receiving the nonspecific guidelines ordered fewer EDTs for appropriate clinical vignettes than did physicians receiving no guidelines (p = .02). Furthermore, compared to physicians receiving nonspecific guidelines, physicians receiving specific guidelines ordered significantly more EDTs for appropriate vignettes (p = .0007) and significantly fewer EDTs for inappropriate vignettes (p = .04). CONCLUSIONS: The clarity and clinical applicability of a guideline may be important attributes that contribute to the effects of practice guidelines.

Shekelle, P. G.; Kravitz, R. L.; Beart, J.; Marger, M.; Wang, M.; Lee, M.

2000-01-01

113

Factors Affecting Missed Appointment Rates for Pediatric Patients Insured by Medicaid in a Traditional Hospital-Based Resident Clinic and Hospital-Owned Practice Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missed appointment rates (MAR) of pediatric patients insured by Medicaid and seen in a traditional hospital-based continuity (teaching) clinic were compared to the rates for the same patients after their care had been transitioned to a community practice. The hypothesis is that when rewarded with shorter waiting times, a less chaotic environment, and more pediatrician continuity, the MAR for patients

Elizabeth M. Specht; Keith R. Powell; Cynthia A. Dormo

2004-01-01

114

The Harmful Algae Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the National Office of Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Blooms and housed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, this site covers the dark side of the organisms that provide the foundation for almost all marine life. The site focuses on the small number of algae that produce potent neurotoxins that "can be transferred through the food web where they affect and even kill the higher forms of life such as zooplankton, shellfish, fish, birds, marine mammals, and even humans that feed either directly or indirectly on them." The site is divided into the following sections: photos of "Red Tide" blooms, species responsible for harmful effects, adverse impacts at higher trophic levels, human illness associated with algal blooms, and effects in your region. Researchers, educators, and people with interests in such recent headline topics such as the Pfiesteria scare can all find useful information at this site.

., Woods H.

1997-01-01

115

Harmful Algal Blooms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

Graham, Jennifer L.

2007-01-01

116

Harmful Algae Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harmful Algae Digital Library contains a collection of Sea Grant documents in digital format (primarily PDF) arranged by subject area: red tide/PSP, brown tide, ciguatera, killer algae, and Pfiesteria. This collection is part of the National Sea Grant Library (NSGL), which maintains over 36,000 searchable records dedicated to environmental stewardship, long-term economic development and responsible use of America's coastal, ocean and Great Lakes resources.

Library, National S.; University Of Rhode Island-Bay Campus, Noaa

117

A Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Harms of Computer Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variety and complexity of virus harm cause there is few practical evaluation methods currently. The paper first presents harms' definition and classification of the virus. Then representative first-level and second-level evaluation indexes are proposed. However, as these evaluation factors could hardly be assigned with definite values and somewhat have fuzziness, the paper constructs a fuzzy evaluation model for the

Cong Zheng; Lansheng Han; Jihang Ye; Mengsong Zou; Qiwen Liu

2009-01-01

118

How Current Clinical Practice Guidelines for Low Back Pain Reflect Traditional Medicine in East Asian Countries: A Systematic Review of Clinical Practice Guidelines and Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of this study were to investigate whether there is a gap between evidence of traditional medicine (TM) interventions in East-Asian countries from the current Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) and evidence from current systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR-MAs) and to analyze the impact of this gap on present CPGs. Methods We examined 5 representative TM interventions in the health care systems of East-Asian countries. We searched seven relevant databases for CPGs to identify whether core CPGs included evidence of TM interventions, and we searched 11 databases for SR-MAs to re-evaluate current evidence on TM interventions. We then compared the gap between the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs. Results Thirteen CPGs and 22 SR-MAs met our inclusion criteria. Of the 13 CPGs, 7 CPGs (54%) mentioned TM interventions, and all were for acupuncture (only one was for both acupuncture and acupressure). However, the CPGs did not recommend acupuncture (or acupressure). Of 22 SR-MAs, 16 were for acupuncture, 5 for manual therapy, 1 for cupping, and none for moxibustion and herbal medicine. Comparing the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs, an underestimation or omission of evidence for acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy in current CPGs was detected. Thus, applying the results from the SR-MAs, we moderately recommend acupuncture for chronic LBP, but we inconclusively recommend acupuncture for (sub)acute LBP due to the limited current evidence. Furthermore, we weakly recommend cupping and manual therapy for both (sub)acute and chronic LBP. We cannot provide recommendations for moxibustion and herbal medicine due to a lack of evidence. Conclusions The current CPGs did not fully reflect the evidence for TM interventions. As relevant studies such as SR-MAs are conducted and evidence increases, the current evidence on acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy should be rigorously considered in the process of developing or updating the CPG system.

Cho, Hyun-Woo; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Lim, Byungmook; Heo, Kwang-Ho; Liu, Jian-Ping; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul

2014-01-01

119

Screening decisions must balance potential benefits with potential patient harms  

Cancer.gov

Screening to detect medical conditions has become standard practice for many diseases, but insufficient attention has been paid to the potential for harm, according to research conducted at the University of North Carolina, including members of its UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center. In an article published by the Journal of American Medical Association - Internal Medicine, the authors outline a framework that physicians, patients, policy makers and researchers can use to think systematically about the harms of screening programs. This rationale – a “taxonomy of harms” – makes it easier for decision makers to fully consider all harms to balance against anticipated benefits.

120

Comparison of Patients' Expectations and Experiences at Traditional Pharmacies and Pharmacies Offering Enhanced Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. Methods A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. Results While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Conclusion Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction.

Collins, John B.; Berkowitz, Jonathan

2010-01-01

121

‘Why is This Not Social Work?’ The Contribution of ‘NonTraditional’ Placements in Preparing Social Work Students for Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the findings of two evaluations of a major charity's learning from providing ‘non-traditional’ social work placements with young people at risk of social exclusion. The article challenges the terminology of ‘non-traditional’ and ‘non-social work’ placements and examines the potential of these placements in the current social work curriculum and in the light of the recommendations of

Helen Scholar; Su McCaughan; Hugh McLaughlin; Allison Coleman

2012-01-01

122

‘Why is This Not Social Work?’ The Contribution of ‘NonTraditional’ Placements in Preparing Social Work Students for Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the findings of two evaluations of a major charity's learning from providing ‘non-traditional’ social work placements with young people at risk of social exclusion. The article challenges the terminology of ‘non-traditional’ and ‘non-social work’ placements and examines the potential of these placements in the current social work curriculum and in the light of the recommendations of

Helen Scholar; Su McCaughan; Hugh McLaughlin; Allison Coleman

2011-01-01

123

Cumulative Harm and Resilient Liability Rules for Product Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the traditional model of the law and economics of torts, harm accrues proportional to use. This has the remarkable implication for products-generated torts that product performance concerns (e.g., issues of care and of liability for harm) can be considered independently of market performance concerns (e.g., market structure and competition). Moreover, the classical analysis finds that all liability regimes (strict

Andrew F. Daughety; Jennifer F. Reinganum

2011-01-01

124

Cultural practices in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. PMID:12157983

Alabi, E M

1990-05-01

125

Traditional male circumcision practices among the Kurya of North-eastern Tanzania and implications for national programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS recommend male circumcision (MC) as an additional intervention against HIV infection. Various sub-Saharan African countries are at different stages of rolling out MC programmes. Despite initial fears, studies conducted among traditionally non-circumcising communities in Africa have shown that MC is widely accepted as a biomedical intervention. However, little

Gerry Mshana; Mwita Wambura; Joseph Mwanga; Jacklin Mosha; Frank Mosha; John Changalucha

2011-01-01

126

Perceptions and practices of U.S. dental schools regarding curriculum integrated format and traditional format licensure exams.  

PubMed

The dental licensure exam in the United States has evolved over the past ten years, and two formats-the traditional format and curriculum integrated format-are now available for students to satisfy licensure requirements. The objective of this study was to examine the differences and relative merits of the two formats. A twenty-five-question survey was distributed to the fifty-seven U.S. dental schools at the time. The survey included both quantitative and discrete variables and followed a strategic sequential order. The first set of questions sought to determine what type of board preparatory/mock exam each dental school offered, and the next set of questions asked which licensure exam each school formally offered. The final questions were qualitative in nature and aimed to determine the school representatives' opinions about the curriculum integrated format versus traditional format. Of the fifty-seven schools contacted, thirty-seven agreed to participate (response rate=64.9 percent). Fourteen schools reported that they administer the traditional format only and twelve administer the curriculum integrated format only, while eleven offer both. Thirty-two schools offered mock board exams to their graduating students, and twenty-four of those said their mock exams were identical in format to the actual qualifying clinical exams offered at their institution. The respondents reported no significant advantage to preparing for the curriculum integrated format examination as compared to the traditional format examination with regards to number of clock hours taken from regular curriculum time. In reporting on this study, this article provides an overview of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two examination formats used for the dental licensure process in the United States. PMID:23929575

Desai, Shamik; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Donoff, R Bruce; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

2013-08-01

127

Models of harmful algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models used to study harmful algal blooms are a subset of those used to examine more general planktonic processes. Most models have been heuristic, examining the likelihood of certain processes generating a harmful algal bloom. Several models have been more closely coupled to field data and have been used to gain insights into the dynamics underlying the observations. As better

Peter J. S. Franks

1997-01-01

128

I. Title Raab: The traditional agricultural practice of Dangs and its impacts on forests: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The staple crops grown in the district are finger millet, vari and paddy. The unique agricultural practice prevailing in Dangs to grow the cereals is called raab which is piling up leaf litter and lopped branch biomass from the forest trees in small plots (40-50 sq. m) and then burned just before the onset of monsoon. After the first shower,

Gitika Goswami; Sudipto Chatterjee; Sejal Worah

129

Emotionally Harmful Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional maltreatment tends to be overshadowed in research and in practice by other forms of maltreatment that present more obvious and explicit evidence and appear to require a more urgent response. This article aims to explore a growing body of research pointing to: (a) ways in which emotional maltreatment may adversely impact upon a child's…

Iwaniec, Dorota; Larkin, Emma; McSherry, Dominic

2007-01-01

130

Senegalese grandmothers promote improved maternal and child nutrition practices: the guardians of tradition are not averse to change.  

PubMed

The vast majority of community nutrition/health programs in developing countries focus on women of reproductive age (WRA) and a few explicitly involve senior women, or grandmothers. In Senegal, as in many other places, older, experienced women play an influential role in household maternal and child health (MCH) matters. Formative research in Serer villages revealed their importance and this was taken into account in an action research nutrition education (NE) project in which grandmothers were encouraged to promote improved nutritional practices related to pregnancy (e.g. decreased work and improved diet) and infant feeding (e.g. breastfeeding and complementary feeding). A participatory communication/empowerment education approach was used involving songs, stories and group discussion. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected to both document and evaluate the intervention. Triangulation of the evaluation data suggests that 12 months after the intervention was initiated there were significant improvements in grandmothers' nutritional knowledge, in their advice to WRA, and in the nutrition-related practices of these younger women associated both with pregnancy and infant feeding. For example, in the pre-test only 20% of grandmothers stated that they advise pregnant women to decrease their workload whereas in the post-test 87% reported giving this advice. At the same time, 91% of WRA in villages with the grandmother strategy reported having decreased their workload during their last pregnancy whereas in villages with NE activities for WRA but not with grandmothers, only 34% of younger women reported having done so. These findings provide evidence of grandmothers' ability to learn, to integrate new information into their practices and to positively influence the practices of WRA. These results support the need for future MCH programs, in different cultural contexts, to involve grandmothers and in so doing to build on their intrinsic commitment to family well-being. PMID:15186896

Aubel, Judi; Touré, Ibrahima; Diagne, Mamadou

2004-09-01

131

Releasing genetically modified organisms: will any harm outweigh any advantage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The public debate about genetically modified organisms has concentrated largely on concerns about food safety and potential risks to the environment. In both cases there appears to be an assumption that existing crops and animals are safe. I discuss the experience we have to date from traditional methods and conclude that most concerns about environmental harm are more

John E. Beringer

2000-01-01

132

Compilation and adoption of ethno-veterinary medicine, traditional and other management practices by small ruminant farmers in Edo State Nigeria.  

PubMed

An inventory study into the ethno-veterinary medicine and traditional management practices and the extent of their adoption in the management of small ruminants by farmers in Edo State, Nigeria was carried out. Three hundred and fifty (350) small ruminant farmers randomly chosen from the seven (7) randomly selected local government areas in the state were used for the study. Data pertaining to farmers' background information, small ruminant acquisition and rearing as well as the ethno-veterinary medicines (EVMs) adopted were collected through a scheduled interview where structured questionnaires were administered. Data collected were used in the computation of ethno-veterinary medicine use indices (EVMUIs) and were subjected to simple statistical analysis. Results showed that 60.5% of the farmers interviewed were male while 39.4% were females and 56.9% of them were above 40 years old. About 60% of the farmers had between primary and secondary education, while 33.1% have no formal education and about 86% had little or no exposure to mass media. Thirty-seven (37) different EVMs/Traditional practices were identified. Based on their EVMUIs, 11 or 29.73% were highly used, 9 or 24.32% were moderately used while 17 or 45.95% were poorly used by farmers. Materials identified were noted to be locally available and were fully discussed. It is concluded that EVMs practices are actually adapted to the culture and socio-economic realities of resource poor farmers and means of spreading the knowledge among small scale farmers should be encouraged. PMID:19412741

Bamikole, M A; Ikhatua, U J

2009-10-01

133

Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.  

PubMed

A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety. PMID:24680078

Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

2014-04-01

134

Impacts of traditional land use practices on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools of mountain ecosystems in Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop production, animal husbandry and forestry are three closely interlinked components of land use systems in the mountains of Nepal. Forests are the major source of fuel wood, construction materials, fodder and litter. The latter is used as a bedding material for livestock and forms an important component of farmyard manure. In addition forest grazing by cattle is a common practice. Excessive extraction of biomass from the forest leads to a decline of soil organic matter and nutrient contents. On the landscape scale these negative effects will partly be compensated by positive effects on soil organic matter and nutrient stocks of arable soils. The experimental data base for a quantification of such effects at the scale of communities is however poor, in particular for Nepal. Understanding the impact of subsistence farming on ecosystems is imperative in order to recommend successful and sustainable land management practices. The aim of our study is to quantify effects of land use on carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes for mountain communities in Nepal. Results of a case study in the buffer zone area of the Sagarmatha National Park are presented. The potential vegetation comprises mixed forests of Quercus semicarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Tsuga dumosa. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil and vegetation were quantified for three different land use types, namely: forest with low human impact, forests with high human impact and agricultural land. The scale of disturbance of the forests has been classified by visual estimation considering the percentage of litter raked, number of lopped trees, and grazing intensity assessed by signs of trampling and the number of trails. After stratification of the community area, 20 plots of 10 m radius were established (17 forest plots, 3 plots for arable land) where biometric data of the vegetation were determined and sub-samples were taken for chemical analyses. Organic layers (litter remaining after litter raking) and soil samples were collected (volumetric sampling of geometric horizons down to 1 m depth). Fluxes of carbon and nitrogen from the forests were accounted by combining results of sub samples of biomass extracted by local people during the field survey and information on amounts and source areas provided by the farmers. Also the amount of carbon and nutrients applied with farmyard manure and the extraction by harvest was determined for the arable land. First estimates of carbon and nitrogen cycling at the community level and on impacts on soil status will be presented.

Giri, Anjana; Katzensteiner, Klaus

2010-05-01

135

Excess risk attributable to traditional cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice settings across Europe - The EURIKA Study  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians involved in primary prevention are key players in CVD risk control strategies, but the expected reduction in CVD risk that would be obtained if all patients attending primary care had their risk factors controlled according to current guidelines is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the excess risk attributable, firstly, to the presence of CVD risk factors and, secondly, to the lack of control of these risk factors in primary prevention care across Europe. Methods Cross-sectional study using data from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Daily Practice (EURIKA), which involved primary care and outpatient clinics involved in primary prevention from 12 European countries between May 2009 and January 2010. We enrolled 7,434 patients over 50 years old with at least one cardiovascular risk factor but without CVD and calculated their 10-year risk of CVD death according to the SCORE equation, modified to take diabetes risk into account. Results The average 10-year risk of CVD death in study participants (N = 7,434) was 8.2%. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and diabetes were responsible for 32.7 (95% confidence interval 32.0-33.4), 15.1 (14.8-15.4), 10.4 (9.9-11.0), and 16.4% (15.6-17.2) of CVD risk, respectively. The four risk factors accounted for 57.7% (57.0-58.4) of CVD risk, representing a 10-year excess risk of CVD death of 5.66% (5.47-5.85). Lack of control of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and diabetes were responsible for 8.8 (8.3-9.3), 10.6 (10.3-10.9), 10.4 (9.9-11.0), and 3.1% (2.8-3.4) of CVD risk, respectively. Lack of control of the four risk factors accounted for 29.2% (28.5-29.8) of CVD risk, representing a 10-year excess risk of CVD death of 3.12% (2.97-3.27). Conclusions Lack of control of CVD risk factors was responsible for almost 30% of the risk of CVD death among patients participating in the EURIKA Study.

2011-01-01

136

Harm reduction: what it is and is not.  

PubMed

The meaning of the term "harm reduction" has changed over the decades of its existence but it is now increasingly being aligned with public health approaches. An agreed meaning for the term would be helpful and should be sought. Antecedents are easy to find. Emphasis on small achievable steps is an important element; neither inherently supportive of prohibition nor of legalization, harm reduction is essentially pragmatic and tends to favour regulatory approaches. HIV has focused attention on harm reduction but even in the illicit drug field, a strong tradition of research and policy with an identical philosophical framework can be traced back well before the AIDS era. Harm reduction primary prevention educational approaches are more open, honest and respectful of responsible decision making processes. With current illicit drug users, harm reduction emphasizes the need to understand existing individual control mechanisms. The concept can be well understood if contrasted with prevailing approaches to drugs which generally emphasize punishment, lack of regulation and often augment harm. PMID:16203322

Erickson, P G

1995-01-01

137

Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.  

PubMed

This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention. PMID:22706889

Ejlertsen, Maria; Poole, Jane; Marshall, Karen

2012-12-01

138

Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…

Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

2008-01-01

139

Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Forecasting System provided by NOAA supplies information on the location, extent, and potential for development or movement of harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico. The forecasting system relies on satellite imagery, field observations, and buoy data to provide the large spatial scale and high frequency of observations required to assess bloom location and movements. Conditions are posted to this web page twice a week during the HAB season. Additional analysis is included in the HAB Bulletin that is provided to state and local resource managers in the region. The web page includes links to the HAB bulletin, available mapping systems, contributors, and other HAB resources.

National Ocean Service (NOS); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

140

Traditional complementary and alternative medicine: knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care workers in HIV and AIDS clinics in Durban hospitals.  

PubMed

Traditional complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) has been reported to be commonly used among individuals with HIV and AIDS disease. However a lack of communication between health care workers (HCWs) and patients as well as between HCWs and TCAM practitioners has been identified as one of the challenges that may adversely affect treatment of HIV and AIDS patients. With improved and sustained communication HCWs, patients and TCAM practitioners would be able to make informed decisions with regards to best treatment practices based on the knowledge of what is safe, effective and what is not. In order to establish a baseline understanding of the current status of interaction and communication between HCWs and TCAM profession in Durban, South Africa, the purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs in the HIV and AIDS clinics towards TCAM professions. Data was collected by means of anonymous self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to HCWs in the HIV and AIDS clinics. Out of 161 HCWs in the HIV and AIDS clinics 81 HCWs returned the questionnaires resulting in 50% response rate. The results showed that participants did not possess a basic knowledge of TCAM. Out of 81 participants 23 (28%) scored zero in a true or false knowledge assessment question. PMID:23983356

Mbutho, Nozuko P; Gqaleni, Nceba; Korporaal, Charmaine M

2012-01-01

141

Purposing and repurposing harms: the victim impact statement and sexual assault.  

PubMed

The purpose of the victim impact statement (VIS) is to inform judges of victims' crime-related physical, psychological, and financial harms. Findings from interviews with Canadian sexual assault victims, advocates, victim services workers, and prosecutors (N = 37) demonstrated that harm descriptions were manipulated by victims and others in keeping with, and contrary to, VIS design. Victims and prosecutors purposed the VIS to inform court outcomes through harms claims and struggles over those claims. The repurposing of harms claims occurred through practices of strategic disclosure, intended to effect changes in others' behaviors, and harm peddling, the circulation of the VIS in nonsentencing arenas. Victims, adversaries, and criminal justice professionals engaged in harm peddling to obtain compensation, child custody, and parole delay. Implications of purposing and repurposing harms claims include novel opportunities and legal pitfalls for victims, varied responses by judges, and an expansion of social control over victims and offenders. PMID:24122518

Miller, Karen-Lee

2013-11-01

142

Health Harms from Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... heart disease attributable to secondhand smoke exposure. 1 Health risks associated with exposure to secondhand smoke • U.S. Surgeon ... sinus (CEPA 1997). Evidence for an increased cancer risk from environmental tobacco smoke stems from ... Health Harms From Secondhand Smoke / 3 nonsmoking spouses living ...

143

Ethical harm in virtual communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes under which conditions ethical relevant avatar harm occurs in virtual worlds. The authors argue that this is most likely to occur when there are some norms of acceptable behavior in a virtual world and when players see avatars as constitutive to their identity. Other than online environments characterized by a ‘caveat emptor’ approach, Second Life is governed

Bastiaan Vanacker; Don Heider

2012-01-01

144

Rheumatoid Arthritis May Harm Kidneys  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rheumatoid Arthritis May Harm Kidneys Study found patients may be ... 11, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Chronic Kidney Disease Rheumatoid Arthritis FRIDAY, April 11, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People with ...

145

Do no harm: a defense of markets in healthcare.  

PubMed

This paper argues that the rules that constitute a market protect autonomy and increase welfare in healthcare. Markets do the former through protecting rights to self-ownership and a cluster of rights that protect its exercise. Markets protect welfare by organizing and protecting trades. In contrast, prohibition destroys legitimate markets, giving rise to so-called black markets that harm both the autonomy and well-being of agents. For example, a fee-for-service medical system is a highly developed and specialized market. It is individuals working together, through the division of labor, to provide mutual insurance. This coordination, and the benefits it makes possible, is not possible without injunctions against harm. Prohibitions on harm are not mere ethical niceties, they are practice rules for both healthcare and markets. Placing the doctor within a healthcare market actually reinforces the doctor's moral obligation, and the legal enforcement of that obligation, not to harm. Similarly, markets reinforce patient rights to self-determination through legal and institutional enforcement of the harm principle in the form of the protection of certain basic welfare rights to life, bodily integrity, property, trade, and contract. Since the establishment of markets protects agent autonomy and welfare, and prohibition directly harms the same, there are strong reasons for establishing markets to protect trade in precisely those areas where autonomy and well-being are most vulnerable to exploitation, for example, the trade in human kidneys. PMID:20799051

Kline, William

2010-09-01

146

Palliative Care and Traditional Practices of Death and Dying in Wa'ab (Yap Proper) and in the Outer Islands of Yap  

PubMed Central

Background Death remains one of the most important and significant activities in Yap, an event that involves the entire island. A death of a Yapese not only unites the family, it initiates a complex series of reaffirmed kinship ties, rituals and exchanges that refocus the entire community and create new social identities for the participants. How these ties, exchanges, and identities are changing due to new economic challenges and new social pressures were the focus of this preliminary study, which sought to document the resiliency or fragility of traditional structures, measured in the efforts around death and dying in Yap and to identify ways that the health care system can intervene to improve palliative care. Methods 226 persons (49 on Wa'ab - Yap Proper - and 177 on the Outer Islands) participated in 16 focus groups, of which eight were on Wa'ab and eight on four Outer Islands: Fais, Falalop, Fetherai, and Mogmog. We additionally conducted 6 semi-structured open-ended key informant interviews, added to capture more of Yap's enormous sociocultural diversity. Results The islands of Yap, particularly the Outer Islands, continue to support one of the world's best traditional palliative care involving the immediate family, more distant relatives and in many cases the entire community. However, participants showed considerable concern for ways that this system is weakening and offered numerous suggestions for improving and strengthening palliative care in Yap. Discussion Although caution must be exercised not to undermine the existing system, six recommendations on how the health system can intervene can be identified. These involve identifying a key resource person on each island; supplying small, practical “comfort care” kits; making more pain medication available; conducting regular home visits; improving patient-physician and physician-family communication; designing a suicide intervention strategy; and documenting existing variations of how the dying are cared for on the other Outer Islands of Yap.

Yalmadau, Kelly; Maluchmai, Maryann R; Tun, Petra; Yinnifel, Cyril; Hancock, W Thane

2011-01-01

147

Involving traditional birth attendants in emergency obstetric care in Tanzania: policy implications of a study of their knowledge and practices in Kigoma Rural District  

PubMed Central

Introduction Access to quality maternal health services mainly depends on existing policies, regulations, skills, knowledge, perceptions, and economic power and motivation of service givers and target users. Critics question policy recommending involvement of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in emergency obstetric care (EmoC) services in developing countries. Objectives This paper reports about knowledge and practices of TBAs on EmoC in Kigoma Rural District, Tanzania and discusses policy implications on involving TBAs in maternal health services. Methods 157 TBAs were identified from several villages in 2005, interviewed and observed on their knowledge and practice in relation to EmoC. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection and analysis depending on the nature of the information required. Findings Among all 157 TBAs approached, 57.3% were aged 50+ years while 50% had no formal education. Assisting mothers to deliver without taking their full pregnancy history was confessed by 11% of all respondents. Having been attending pregnant women with complications was experienced by 71.2% of all respondents. Only 58% expressed adequate knowledge on symptoms and signs of pregnancy complications. Lack of knowledge on possible risk of HIV infections while assisting childbirth without taking protective gears was claimed by 5.7% of the respondents. Sharing the same pair of gloves between successful deliveries was reported to be a common practice by 21.1% of the respondents. Use of unsafe delivery materials including local herbs and pieces of cloth for protecting themselves against HIV infections was reported as being commonly practiced among 27.6% of the respondents. Vaginal examination before and during delivery was done by only a few respondents. Conclusion TBAs in Tanzania are still consulted by people living in underserved areas. Unfortunately, TBAs’ inadequate knowledge on EmOC issues seems to have contributed to the rising concerns about their competence to deliver the recommended maternal services. Thus, the authorities seeming to recognize and promote TBAs should provide support to TBAs in relation to necessary training and giving them essential working facilities, routine supportive supervision and rewarding those seeming to comply with the standard guidelines for delivering EmoC services.

2013-01-01

148

The Olympics and harm reduction?  

PubMed Central

The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent. The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping.

2012-01-01

149

Evaluation of Indian Traditional Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has an ancient heritage of traditional medicine. The materia medica of India provides a great deal of information on the folklore practices and traditional aspects of therapeutically important natural products. Indian traditional medicine is based on various systems including Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. The evaluation of these drugs is primarily based on phytochemical, pharmacological, and allied approaches including various

Pulok K. Mukherjee

2001-01-01

150

Smartphone security limitations: conflicting traditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smartphones are becoming a dominant form of mobile computing in the United States, and more slowly, the world. The smartphone, as a platform, blends a traditional general computing platform with a specialized mobile phone platform. However, each platform comes with its own tradition of social practices and policies. The general computing tradition is historically open, allowing its owners, i.e., users

Nathaniel Husted; Hassen Saïdi; Ashish Gehani

2011-01-01

151

Many Young Adults Misinformed About Hookahs' Harms  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Many Young Adults Misinformed About Hookahs' Harms More than half surveyed said the water ... Many young adults don't realize that using hookahs can harm their health, a new study reveals. ...

152

Red Tide and Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Project Oceanography pdf document contains information and activities related to red tide and harmful algal blooms (HABs). The activities and lesson plans are designed for elementary school, middle school, and may be adapted for high school students. Articles include: harmful algal blooms, Florida red tide, implications of harmful algal blooms, and student information about harmful algal blooms. Activities are introduced with background information and include: "Growing Algae" and "Algal Explosion." The document also features activity extension projects and a glossary of terms.

Oceanography, Project

153

Harms titanium mesh cage fracture  

PubMed Central

Interbody fusion has become a mainstay of surgical management for lumbar fractures, tumors, spondylosis, spondylolisthesis and deformities. Over the years, it has undergone a number of metamorphoses, as novel instrumentation and approaches have arisen to reduce complications and enhance outcomes. Interbody fusion procedures are common and successful, complications are rare and most often do not involve the interbody device itself. We present here a patient who underwent an anterior L4 corpectomy with Harms cage placement and who later developed a fracture of the lumbar titanium mesh cage (TMC). This report details the presentation and management of this rare complication, as well as discusses the biomechanics underlying this rare instrumentation failure.

Klezl, Zdenek; Bookland, Markus J.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Rezek, Zdenek; Gokaslan, Ziya L.

2007-01-01

154

Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

2005-01-01

155

Nonsuicidal Self-Harm Among Community Adolescents: Understanding the “Whats” and “Whys” of Self-Harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires assessing self-harm, adjustment, health behaviors, suicide history, and social desirability were completed by 424 school-based adolescents.

Aviva Laye-Gindhu; Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl

2005-01-01

156

Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

157

Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology.\\u000a Drawing from Agnew’s (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects\\u000a of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation. The data come from a school-based\\u000a survey

Carter Hay; Ryan Meldrum

2010-01-01

158

Preterm labor and prenatal harm.  

PubMed

A young pregnant woman, diagnosed as extremely immature with a personality disorder, refuses treatment to stop preterm labor despite advice that a premature birth may result in fetal death or a handicapped baby. Her physician considers acquiescing and risking a premature delivery, transferring the patient to a compliant physician, or obtaining a court order to force treatment. Steinbock, a professor of philosophy and public policy, takes a psychological approach of exploring the reasons for the refusal and of gentle persuasion. Marquis, a philosopher, employs a comparison of harms analysis and concludes that the rights of the postnatal child not to risk permanent, substantial, preventable injury overrides the pregnant woman's right not to be confined involuntarily. Kayata, a pediatrician, raises the issue of the obstetrician's conflicting legal obligations and recommends seeking a court order. PMID:2703337

1989-01-01

159

Environments, risk and health harms: a qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK  

PubMed Central

Objectives The illicit use of anabolic steroids among the gym population continues to rise, along with the number of steroid using clients attending harm reduction services in the UK. This presents serious challenges to public health. Study objectives were to account for the experiences of anabolic steroid users and investigate how ‘risk environments’ produce harm. Methods Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 24 users of anabolic steroids engaged with harm reduction services in the UK. Results Body satisfaction was an important factor when deciding to start the use of anabolic steroids. Many users were unaware of the potential dangers of using drugs from the illicit market, whereas some had adopted a range of strategies to negotiate the hazards relating to the use of adulterated products, including self-experimentation to gauge the perceived efficacy and unwanted effects of these drugs. Viewpoints, first-hand anecdotes, norms and practices among groups of steroid users created boundaries of ‘sensible’ drug use, but also promoted practices that may increase the chance of harms occurring. Established users encouraged young users to go to harm reduction services but, at the same time, promoted risky injecting practices in the belief that this would enhance the efficacy of anabolic steroids. Conclusions Current steroid-related viewpoints and practices contribute to the risk environment surrounding the use of these drugs and may undermine the goal of current public health strategies including harm reduction interventions. The level of harms among anabolic steroid users are determined by multiple and intertwining factors, in addition to the harms caused by the pharmacological action or injury and illness associated with incorrect injecting techniques.

Kimergard, Andreas; McVeigh, Jim

2014-01-01

160

Adjacent stimulation and measurement patterns considered harmful.  

PubMed

We characterize the ability of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to distinguish changes in internal conductivity distributions, and analyze it as a function of stimulation and measurement patterns. A distinguishability measure, z, is proposed which is related to the signal-to-noise ratio of a medium and to the probability of detection of conductivity changes in a region of interest. z is a function of the number of electrodes, the EIT stimulation and measurement protocol, the stimulation amplitude, the measurement noise, and the size and location of the contrasts. Using this measure we analyze various choices of stimulation and measurement patterns under the constraint of medical electrical safety limits (maximum current into the body). Analysis is performed for a planar placement of 16 electrodes for simulated 3D tank and chest shapes, and measurements in a saline tank. Results show that the traditional (and still most common) adjacent stimulation and measurement patterns have by far the poorest performance (by 6.9 ×). Good results are obtained for trigonometric patterns and for pair drive and measurement patterns separated by over 90°. Since the possible improvement over adjacent patterns is so large, we present this result as a call to action: adjacent patterns are harmful, and should be abandoned. We recommend using pair drive and measurement patterns separated by one electrode less than 180°. We describe an approach to modify an adjacent pattern EIT system by adjusting electrode placement. PMID:21646709

Adler, Andy; Gaggero, Pascal Olivier; Maimaitijiang, Yasheng

2011-07-01

161

A Research Framework for Reducing Preventable Patient Harm  

PubMed Central

Programs to reduce central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) have improved the safety of hospitalized patients. Efforts are underway to disseminate these successes broadly to reduce other types of hospital-acquired infectious and noninfectious preventable harms. Unfortunately, the ability to broadly measure and prevent other types of preventable harms, especially infectious harms, needs enhancement. Moreover, an overarching research framework for creating and integrating evidence will help expedite the development of national prevention programs. This article outlines a 5-phase translational (T) framework to develop robust research programs that reduce preventable harm, as follows: phase T0, discover opportunities and approaches to prevent adverse health care events; phase T1, use T0 discoveries to develop and test interventions on a small scale; phase T2, broaden and strengthen the evidence base for promising interventions to develop evidence-based guidelines; phase T3, translate guidelines into clinical practice; and phase T4, implement and evaluate T3 work on a national and international scale. Policy makers should use this framework to fill in the knowledge gaps, coordinate efforts among federal agencies, and prioritize research funding.

Weinstein, Robert; Cardo, Denise M.; Goeschel, Christine A.; Berenholtz, Sean M.; Saint, Sanjay; Jernigan, John A.

2011-01-01

162

Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional

Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

2005-01-01

163

Harmful Interactions: Mixing Alcohol with Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

Harmful Interactions Mixing Alcohol With Medicines You’ve probably seen this warning on medicines you’ve taken. The danger ... at particularly high risk for harmful alcohol–medication interactions. Aging slows the body’s ability to break down ...

164

TEXAS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM COORDINATION MX964014  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly ¿ of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...

165

Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

2006-01-01

166

Responding to Young People who Self Harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deliberate Self Harm in Children and Young People may promote anxiety in families and professionals. My presentation describes how the confidence and competence of a Team can reduce such anxiety and improve outcome for those Young People who choose self-harming behaviour as a way of coping with life stressors. I will share information about: local prevalence rates of Young People

R Morris

2010-01-01

167

Online drug user-led harm reduction in Hungary: a review of "Daath"  

PubMed Central

Harm reduction has been increasingly finding its way into public drug policies and healthcare practices worldwide, with successful intervention measures justifiably focussing on the highest-risk groups, such as injecting drug users. However, there are also other types of drug users in need for harm reduction, even though they pose less, low, or no public health risk. Occasionally, drug users may autonomously organise themselves into groups to provide advocacy, harm reduction, and peer-help services, sometimes online. The http://www.daath.hu website has been operated since 2001 by the “Hungarian Psychedelic Community”, an unorganised drug user group with a special interest in hallucinogenic and related substances. As of today, the website serves about 1200 visitors daily, and the online community comprises of more than 8000 registered members. The Daath community is driven by a strong commitment to the policy of harm reduction in the form of various peer-help activities that aim to expand harm reduction without promoting drug use. Our review comprehensively summarises Daath’s user-led harm reduction services and activities from the last ten years, firstly outlining the history and growth phases of Daath, along with its self-set guidelines and policies. Online services (such as a discussion board, and an Ecstasy pill database) and offline activities (such as Ecstasy pill field testing, and a documentary film about psychedelics) are described. In order to extend its harm reduction services and activities in the future, Daath has several social, commercial, and legislative challenges to face. Starting with a need to realign its focus, outlooks for the upcoming operation of Daath are pondered. Future trends in harm reduction, such as separating harm-decreasing from benefit-increasing, are also discussed. We aim to share these innovative harm reduction measures and good practices in order to be critically assessed, and – if found useful – adapted and applied elsewhere.

2013-01-01

168

Traditional Medicine in Oman: Its Role in Ophthalmology  

PubMed Central

Aim: To present three patients with ocular disease who developed a range of complications following use of traditional medications. Settings and Design: Case series Methods: Three patients who were examined in the Ophthalmic department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in the Sultanate of Oman between 2003 and 2004, seeking care following use of traditional medicines and or healing practices for various ophthalmic problems described below. Results: The first patient was a computer professional with a chalazion; the patient used a plant extract from ‘Calotropis procera’ as a part of the treatment. He developed corneal edema with decrease in vision in his left eye following application of the plant extract. Treatment with topical steroids and antibiotics resulted in a complete clinical and visual recovery. The second patient developed a fungal corneal ulcer (dermatophyte - Trichophyton mentagrophyte) after sustaining injury with an animal tail to the right eye and used honey for pain relief prior to presentation. She responded poorly to anti-fungal treatment, underwent a penetrating keratoplasty with recurrence of infection in the graft that resulted in a vascularized corneal scar. The third patient was a five-year-old child who was treated with ‘wasam’ on the occiput for intraocular inflammation following bilateral uncomplicated cataract extraction. Following this treatment the topical steroid was discontinued. The ‘Wasam’ treatment indirectly resulted in exacerbation of the intraocular inflammation and secondary glaucoma and poor vision as well as ‘Wasam ulcers’ on the occiput. Despite treatment of the intraocular inflammation, the visual outcome was poor. Conclusion: Traditional medicine in Oman is sought by many for variable reasons. Lack of evidence-based scientific data on its safety or efficacy does not deter the Omanis from flocking the traditional healers. However, when applied in the treatment of ocular diseases, traditional medicine and healing practices seem to cause more harm than benefit for the patient.

Shenoy, Radha; Bialasiewicz, Alexander; Khandekar, Rajiv; Al Barwani, Badar; Al Belushi, Habiba

2009-01-01

169

Understanding Patient Values and the Manifestations in Clinical Research with Traditional Chinese Medicine--With Practical Suggestions for Trial Design and Implementation  

PubMed Central

Objective. To define patient values, identify their manifestations in a randomized clinical trial, and investigate the possible implications for clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine. Methods. We categorized patient values manifestations into patient choice, preference, compliance, and patient-reported outcomes and summarized the underlying personal values through purposeful electronic searches for relevant reports. By hypothesizing a set of positive versus negative circumstances occurring in the enrollment, intervention allocation, treatment, and the follow-up stage of a trial, it is possible to discuss the potential implications of patient values manifestation on a trial with traditional Chinese medicine. Results. Patient values and its manifestations are ubiquitous in the process of clinical research with traditional Chinese medicine. These values may provide motivation for participation or engender the internal and external validity of the study. Conclusions. Trialists should attach sufficient importance to the needs and concerns of individual participant. To incorporate patient values into the design and conduct of a clinical study with traditional Chinese medicine, researchers are recommended to adopt participant-friendly design and use patient-reported outcomes, take convenience-for-patients measures, and help foster rational beliefs and behaviors of trial participants.

Shang, Hongcai

2013-01-01

170

‘Sincedisa – We Can Help!’ A Literature Review of Current Practice Involving Traditional African Healers in Biomedical HIV\\/AIDS Interventions in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes research literature involved with efforts at collaboration between traditional African healers (TAHs) and biomedical practitioners in HIV\\/AIDS interventions in Southern Africa, The paper draws on academic texts including published and unpublished research papers, books and reports, and press comments on the subject. The focus is on Southern African literature, but selected texts from elsewhere on the continent

Jo Wreford

2005-01-01

171

A Comparison of Preservice Teachers' Responses to Cyber versus Traditional Bullying Scenarios: Similarities and Differences and Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior studies indicate that teachers differ in how they respond to different kinds of traditional bullying, and that their beliefs predict their intervention intentions. The current study provided the first extension of this work into the realm of cyber bullying. Preservice teachers in the United Kingdom ("N" = 222) were presented with…

Boulton, Michael J.; Hardcastle, Katryna; Down, James; Fowles, John; Simmonds, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

172

Consumer and practitioner perceptions of the harm reduction approach in a community mental health setting.  

PubMed

Harm reduction in community mental health settings can be effective in engaging persons with co-occurring disorders in services. In this qualitative study, personal interviews and grounded theory methods were used to explore the experiences of 21 mental health practitioners and 15 consumers with co-occurring disorders at a community mental health housing program that uses harm reduction. Results indicate that while harm reduction enhanced therapeutic alliances, ethical and emotional tensions between practitioners and consumers regarding their views on self-determination and tolerance of drug-related behaviors were also evident. These tensions are explored and implications for practice and education are provided. PMID:22009266

Mancini, Michael A; Wyrick-Waugh, Wynter

2013-02-01

173

Gambling Harms and Gambling Help-Seeking Amongst Indigenous Australians.  

PubMed

This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems. PMID:23740348

Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

2013-06-01

174

Is harm reduction profitable? An analytical framework for corporate social responsibility based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption.  

PubMed

This article aims to help resolve the apparent paradox of producers of addictive goods who claim to be socially responsible while marketing a product clearly identified as harmful. It advances that reputation effects are crucial in this issue and that determining whether harm reduction practices are costly or profitable for the producers can help to assess the sincerity of their discourse. An analytical framework based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption that includes a deterrent effect of heavy use on initiation is developed. This framework enables us to establish a clear distinction between a simple responsible discourse and genuine harm reduction practices and, among harm reduction practices, between use reduction practices and micro harm reduction practices. Using simulations based on tobacco sales in France from 1950 to 2008, we explore the impact of three corresponding types of actions: communication on damage, restraining selling practices and development of safer products on total sales and on the social cost. We notably find that restraining selling practices toward light users, that is, preventing light users from escalating to heavy use, can be profitable for the producer, especially at early stages of the epidemic, but that such practices also contribute to increase the social cost. These results suggest that the existence of a deterrent effect of heavy use on the initiation of the consumption of an addictive good can shed new light on important issues, such as the motivations for corporate social responsibility and the definition of responsible actions in the particular case of harm reduction. PMID:22475402

Massin, Sophie

2012-06-01

175

Learning a New Approach to Teach in a Traditional Context: A Case of Thai Primary School Teachers Making Fundamental Changes in Their Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined a unique professional development model and its contribution to teachers' practice. The study also sought to understand the process of teacher learning as teachers made fundamental changes in their teaching. The new model of professional development was implemented in the context of the Social Forestry, Education and…

Namfa, Benjalug

2012-01-01

176

Could Infections Harm Memory in Older Adults?  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Could Infections Harm Memory in Older Adults? Early study found connection between ... February 13, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Infectious Diseases Memory Seniors' Health THURSDAY, Feb. 13, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

177

Cellphone Exposure May Harm Male Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... viable in men who had been exposed to electromagnetic radiation of devices (*this news item will not be ... noted that previous studies have suggested radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by cellphones can harm male fertility. "Given ...

178

Harm reduction-the cannabis paradox  

PubMed Central

This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids) as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive). Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately.

Melamede, Robert

2005-01-01

179

Ironclad Findings about Red Meat's Harms?  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Ironclad Findings About Red Meat's Harms? Analysis of 21 studies may bolster ... News) -- A type of iron found only in red meat is associated with an increase in the ...

180

Extreme Natural Events: Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA website features a repository of information about Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). It explains the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act (HABHRCA) and describes the subsequent formation of an Interagency Task Force to develop a national HAB assessment and authorize funding for existing and new research programs on HABs. The site features links to information about current and past research programs, HAB ecological forecasting, related news articles, workshop announcements, and additional HAB information sources.

Domain, Public; Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR)

181

Adolescents’ views on preventing self-harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major problem in young people in the United Kingdom. The majority of young people who harm\\u000a themselves do not seek help and therefore community based prevention strategies are important. However little is known about\\u000a young peoples’ views on the prevention of DSH. The aims of this study were to identify what adolescents believe can be

Sarah Fortune; Julia Sinclair; Keith Hawton

2008-01-01

182

Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate…

Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

2010-01-01

183

Traditional healers in Swaziland: Toward improved cooperation between the traditional and modern health sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes applied research efforts, requested by the Swaziland Ministry of Health and funded by U.S. AID, aimed at providing an information base for new government policies regarding traditional healers in Swaziland. Information reported relates to: health care manpower in the traditional sector; treatment seeking behavior in a pluralistic medical setting; traditional health beliefs and practices; payment practices; patterns

Edward C. Green; Lydia Makhubu

1984-01-01

184

Self-harm and suicide in adolescents.  

PubMed

Self-harm and suicide are major public health problems in adolescents, with rates of self-harm being high in the teenage years and suicide being the second most common cause of death in young people worldwide. Important contributors to self-harm and suicide include genetic vulnerability and psychiatric, psychological, familial, social, and cultural factors. The effects of media and contagion are also important, with the internet having an important contemporary role. Prevention of self-harm and suicide needs both universal measures aimed at young people in general and targeted initiatives focused on high-risk groups. There is little evidence of effectiveness of either psychosocial or pharmacological treatment, with particular controversy surrounding the usefulness of antidepressants. Restriction of access to means for suicide is important. Major challenges include the development of greater understanding of the factors that contribute to self-harm and suicide in young people, especially mechanisms underlying contagion and the effect of new media. The identification of successful prevention initiatives aimed at young people and those at especially high risk, and the establishment of effective treatments for those who self-harm, are paramount needs. PMID:22726518

Hawton, Keith; Saunders, Kate E A; O'Connor, Rory C

2012-06-23

185

[Theme: circumcision. When culture harms health].  

PubMed

Millions of women are circumcised worldwide, and now Danish health personnel face this problem because of large numbers of immigrants and refugees entering the country. Circumcision is practiced among people from Somalia, where traditional infibulation, the most severe form, has been widespread. According to the World Health Organization there are about 80 million women who have been circumcised, some more extensively than others depending on the culture that they live in. This is mainly an African phenomenon that dates back to the time of the Pharaohs. In 1981 the Danish health authority issued an advisory to doctors not to perform circumcision. In contrast, in 1993 it left it up to the doctor to evaluate whether the procedure should be performed after childbirth. This poses a dilemma of interfering in the culture of other people which affects their identity and their concept of womanhood, no matter how brutal the practice. In Somalia a circumcised woman is regarded as unappealing and unesthetic. Three forms of circumcision are practiced: 1) sunna is the mildest form, 2) excision or cliterectomy, 3) infibulation or Pharaonic circumcision, the most mutilating operation which is repeated after each childbirth. Some Danish doctors favor, while others are against, performing infibulation after delivery. Infibulation poses the greatest risk to intercourse, pregnancy, and delivery. In Alborg nurses have tried to convince Somali women about changing their practice by means of education and instruction. Circumcision mostly occurs in connection with puberty rites in Sub-Saharan countries. In Egypt, Sudan, and Somalia girls undergo infibulation at 8-10 years of age. Complications often occur: difficulty in urination, bleeding, cysts or chronic inflammation that can result in infertility as well as psychological consequences. PMID:7974220

Kjaergaard, G

1994-05-01

186

Runoff and soil loss under different land management practices in vineyards: grass cover treatments and traditional tillage. Results from simulated rainfall.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land degradation control is crucial in croplands located in semiarid lands, due to its low soil formation rate, above all in slope fields. This study is located in the South East of Madrid (Spain), in a vineyard at 800 masl under Mediterranean semiarid climatic conditions, with an average slope of 14%. We studied the impact of traditional tillage measuring runoff and soil loss in plots in two critical moments of the vineyard crop: summer with dry soil, and fall when tillage is done in order to facilitate the infiltration of winter rainfal?s water. Three treatments were tested in nine erosion plots (4m x 0,5m): traditional tillage ("till"); Brachypodium distachyon (L.) ("bra") allowing self-sowing; Secale cereale ("sec"), mown in early spring. Short (15 minutes) but intense (2,16 mm/min) simulated rainfalls were carried out at each plot: The simulated rainfalls made in summer over the vineyard tilled in spring ("till") produced little runoff (41 ml min-1; erosion rate of 0.24 g m-2) and it lasted 6 min from the start of the shower, it was due to the roughness and because the soil was near its wilting point. The low erosion rate is attributable to the sealing of soil after the rains occurred in spring. In treatments with plant cover runoff began earlier, at the 3rd minute. The average runoff was 516 and 730 ml min-1 and erosion rates were 3.04 g m-2 and 1.41 g m-2 in "bra" and "sec" respectively. There were significant differences (F = 31.6, P <0.001) in runoff coefficient between the three treatments with the highest ratio shown in "sec". The average runoff coefficients obtained were 16% in "sec", 13% in "bra" and 1.4% in "till". Moreover two simulated rainfalls were carried out in autumn in order to test the effect of the autumnal traditional tillage. The plant cover treatments were efficient controlling the erosion (sediment yield were in "till"; "sec" and "bra" respectively 2.66, 0. 29, 0. 11 g m-2 in the first simulation, and 11.67, 0.66, 0.14 g m-2 in the second simulation). Before tillage the average runoff coefficient in "till" was 19% (six times higher than in plant cover treatments) probably because of its sealing and compaction due to the lack of plants. After tillage, in spite of the increase of roughness, and on the contrary to obtained in summer, the runoff increases. It is explained by the soil moisture: In the first simulated rainfall, the soil was 72% of its water holding capacity at 10 cm, and 44% at 35 cm soil depth. However, in the second simulated rainfall the surface was completely wet, and at 35 cm it reached the 85% of water holding capacity. Comparing the runoff and erosion behavior in each treatment for both seasons, it is shown that in summer a shallow tillage increases the infiltration significantly. However in autumn, when the soil is wetter, the tillage increases runoff and erosion significantly. This has to be taken into account in order to change traditional uses in steep crops. Keywords: erosion, runoff, simulated rainfall, vineyard, tillage, vegetable cover Aknowledgements: Projects FP06-DR3 IMIDRA and RTA2007-0086 INIA. Predoctoral grant from INIA. Bodegas and Viñedos Gosálbez-Ortí.

Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramon; Marques, Maria-Jose

2010-05-01

187

Bullying victimization and adolescent self-harm: testing hypotheses from general strain theory.  

PubMed

Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation. The data come from a school-based survey of adolescents in a rural county of a southeastern state (n = 426); 50% of subjects are female, their mean age was 15 years, and non-Hispanic whites represent 66% of the sample. The analysis revealed that both types of bullying are positively related to self-harm and suicidal ideation, net of controls. Moreover, those relationships are partially mediated by the negative emotions experienced by those who are bullied and partially moderated by features of the adolescent's social environment and self. Regarding the latter, exposure to authoritative parenting and high self-control diminished the harmful effects of bullying victimization on self-harm and suicidal ideation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these conclusions for future research and for policy efforts designed to reduce self-harm. PMID:20072852

Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

2010-05-01

188

Neonatal intensive care practices harmful to the developing brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a marked increase in the survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, but these babies have a long\\u000a stay in the NICU. Strategies to decrease their neurodevelopmental impairment become very important. The maximum development\\u000a of the brain occurs between 29–41 weeks. From the warm, dark, acquatic econiche, where the baby hears pleasant sounds like\\u000a the mother’s

Sudha Chaudhari

2011-01-01

189

Putting harm reduction into an adolescent context.  

PubMed

Drug use is now widespread amongst Australian youth. Substance abuse and dependence are becoming increasingly significant health problems. Approximately 50% of 17-year-old Australians report regular consumption of alcohol and nearly 30% report tobacco smoking. The age of onset of substance use is reported to be decreasing. Between 1993 and 1995 the proportion of heroin users who had used the drug before the age of 16 years increased from 2% to 14%. The debate about youth substance use tends to be polarized between the views of Zero Tolerance and Legalization of drugs. The harm reduction approach spans between these two extremes. Examples of harm reduction strategies, such as education campaigns on safe injecting and needle exchange programs, have been effective in curbing the spread of blood-borne viruses such as HIV amongst intravenous drug using youth. The harm reduction approach, taking social context and developmental stage of the individual into account, may also be applied to adolescents at the less extreme end of the substance use spectrum. It is proposed that the harm reduction framework used in this way enables a rational, relevant and consistent response to contemporary youth substance use, aiming to minimize drug related harm. PMID:11168860

Bonomo, Y; Bowes, G

2001-02-01

190

Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Operational Forecast System provided by NOAA supplies information on the location, extent, and potential for development or movement of harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico. The forecasting system relies on satellite imagery, field observations, and buoy data to provide the large spatial scale and high frequency of observations required to assess bloom location and movements. Conditions are posted to this web page twice a week during the HAB season. Additional analysis is included in the HAB Bulletin that is provided to state and local resource managers in the region. The web page includes links to the HAB bulletin, available mapping systems, contributors, and other HAB resources.

2009-06-26

191

The effect of computer-assisted therapeutic practice for children with handwriting deficit: A comparison with the effect of the traditional sensorimotor approach.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the effect of computer-assisted practice with the sensorimotor approach on the remediation of handwriting problems in children with dysgraphia. In a randomized controlled trial, experiments were conducted to verify the intervention effect. Forty two children with handwriting deficit were assigned to computer-assisted instruction, sensorimotor training, or a control group. Handwriting performance was measured using the elementary reading/writing test and computerized handwriting evaluation before and after 6 weeks of intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA of changed scores were conducted to show whether statistically significant differences across the three groups were present. Significant differences in the elementary reading/writing test were found among the three groups. The computer group showed more significant improvements than the other two groups did. In the kinematic and kinetic analyses, the computer group showed promising results in the remediation of handwriting speed and fluency. This study provided clinical evidence for applying a computer-assisted handwriting program for children with dysgraphia. Clinicians and school teachers are provided with a systematic intervention for the improvement of handwriting difficulties. PMID:24770471

Chang, Shao-Hsia; Yu, Nan-Ying

2014-07-01

192

Mayan morality: An exploration of permissible harms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropologists have provided rich field descriptions of the norms and conventions governing behavior and interactions in small-scale societies. Here, we add a further dimension to this work by presenting hypothetical moral dilemmas involving harm, to a small-scale, agrarian Mayan population, with the specific goal of exploring the hypothesis that certain moral principles apply universally. We presented Mayan participants with moral

Linda Abarbanell; Marc D. Hauser

2010-01-01

193

Mayan Morality: An Exploration of Permissible Harms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anthropologists have provided rich field descriptions of the norms and conventions governing behavior and interactions in small-scale societies. Here, we add a further dimension to this work by presenting hypothetical moral dilemmas involving harm, to a small-scale, agrarian Mayan population, with the specific goal of exploring the hypothesis that…

Abarbanell, Linda; Hauser, Marc D.

2010-01-01

194

ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms represent one of the most serious ecological stressors in lakes, rivers, estuaries and marine environments. When there are persistent or frequent blooms with high biomass of cyanobacterial cells, colonies or filaments in the water, a wide range of i...

195

Harm reduction in hospitals: is it time?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among persons who inject drugs (IDU), illicit drug use often occurs in hospitals and contributes to patient expulsion and\\/or high rates of leaving against medical advice (AMA) when withdrawal is inadequately managed. Resultant disruptions in medical care may increase the likelihood of several harms including drug resistance to antibiotics as well as costly readmissions and increased patient morbidity. In this

Beth S Rachlis; Thomas Kerr; Julio SG Montaner; Evan Wood

2009-01-01

196

First Do No Harm. Carnegie Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author expresses concern that launching an accountability initiative without careful consideration may do more harm than good. A well-designed accountability system, writes McCormick, motivates substantive change and useful diagnostic tools must not be undermined in the name of accountability. Several new college-quality initiatives offer…

McCormick, Alexander C.

2007-01-01

197

Helpful and Harmful Expectations of Premarital Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of premarital programs, estimates indicate that only 30% of couples use these services. This study examined the helpful and harmful aspects of premarital programs that may encourage or discourage participation. As expected, participants identified improved communication and problem solving skills as most beneficial. Disclosing secrets or past relationship issues that threaten the stability of the relationship

Carlos E. Valiente; Catherine J. Belanger; Ana U. Estrada

2002-01-01

198

Harmful algal blooms: causes, impacts and detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blooms of autotrophic algae and some heterotrophic protists are increasingly frequent in coastal waters around the world and are collectively grouped as harmful algal blooms (HABs). Blooms of these organisms are attributed to two primary factors: natural processes such as circulation, upwelling relaxation, and river flow; and, anthropogenic loadings leading to eutrophication. Unfortunately, the latter is commonly assumed to be

Kevin G. Sellner; Gregory J. Doucette; Gary J. Kirkpatrick

2003-01-01

199

AL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) INFORMATION EXCHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project proposes to implement an integrated web site that will serve as an Alabama Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Information Exchange Network. This network will be a stand-alone site where HAB data from all agencies and research efforts in the State of Alabama will be integrate...

200

Pregabalin-induced self-harm behavior  

PubMed Central

Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) such as lamotrigine, gabapentin, and oxcarbazepine may have the potential to increase the risk of self-harm or suicidal behavior. We report a case of pregabalin-induced self-inflicted multiple injuries on forearm after its continuous use. This is an interesting adverse drug reaction (ADR) that is rare, unusual, and potentially serious.

Tandon, Vishal R; Mahajan, Vivek; Gillani, Zahid H; Mahajan, Annil

2013-01-01

201

How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

2013-01-01

202

Group problem-solving skills training for self-harm: randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Background Rates of self-harm are high and have recently increased. This trend and the repetitive nature of self-harm pose a significant challenge to mental health services. Aims To determine the efficacy of a structured group problem-solving skills training (PST) programme as an intervention approach for self-harm in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) as offered by mental health services. Method A total of 433 participants (aged 18-64 years) were randomly assigned to TAU plus PST or TAU alone. Assessments were carried out at baseline and at 6-week and 6-month follow-up and repeated hospital-treated self-harm was ascertained at 12-month follow-up. Results The treatment groups did not differ in rates of repeated self-harm at 6-week, 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements in psychological and social functioning at follow-up. Only one measure (needing and receiving practical help from those closest to them) showed a positive treatment effect at 6-week (P = 0.004) and 6-month (P = 0.01) follow-up. Repetition was not associated with waiting time in the PST group. Conclusions This brief intervention for self-harm is no more effective than treatment as usual. Further work is required to establish whether a modified, more intensive programme delivered sooner after the index episode would be effective. PMID:24434070

McAuliffe, Carmel; McLeavey, Breda C; Fitzgerald, Tony; Corcoran, Paul; Carroll, Bernie; Ryan, Louise; O'Keeffe, Brian; Fitzgerald, Eva; Hickey, Portia; O'Regan, Mary; Mulqueen, Jillian; Arensman, Ella

2014-05-01

203

Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers  

PubMed Central

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers.

Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

2006-01-01

204

Moving beyond an exclusive focus on harm avoidance in obsessive compulsive disorder: considering the role of incompleteness.  

PubMed

Cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have predominantly viewed compulsions as being motivated by harm avoidance. However, sensations of things being incomplete or not "just right" may also underlie compulsions in OCD. Preliminary research suggests that distinguishing between harm avoidance and incompleteness in OCD may have practical utility, but the research on this topic is very limited to date. The current study further addressed the role of incompleteness in OCD. A confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence for harm avoidance and incompleteness as separate constructs in a student sample. Supporting the benefits of considering incompleteness in addition to harm avoidance, self-reported levels of both constructs were significantly correlated with all domains of OCD symptoms and perfectionism assessed. Further, some evidence for unique relationships was found (e.g., incompleteness with ordering and personally prescribed perfectionism; harm avoidance with obsessing). The role of incompleteness in OCD warrants greater attention. PMID:18721636

Pietrefesa, Ashley S; Coles, Meredith E

2008-09-01

205

Children and Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: First Analysis of Data from a Scottish Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a growing awareness and acknowledgement of the incidence of sexually harmful behaviour by children and young people, research on this group remains limited. A number of recent publications have reviewed UK systems and practice and suggest that the issue is better appreciated than a decade ago. To date, however, there is no published…

Hutton, Linda; Whyte, Bill

2006-01-01

206

An overview of harms associated with ?-lactam antimicrobials: where do the carbapenems fit in?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Institute of Medicine's focus on patient safety has motivated hospital administrators to facilitate a culture of safety. As a result, subcommittees of the pharmacy and therapeutics committee have emerged in many hospitals to focus on adverse events and patient safety. Antimicrobial harms have gained the attention of practicing clinicians and hospital formulary committees, because they top the list

Robert C Owens Jr

2008-01-01

207

CSCOR Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features the Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Team. Over the past decade harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased along U.S. coasts causing major resource, economic, and health impacts. State and Federal managers responding to blooms often lack timely access to cutting-edge science useful in minimizing HAB impacts on coastal communities. The NCCOS Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) HAB Event Response program addresses the need to inject science into management by supporting coastal managers faced with responding to unusual or unexpected HABs. This page describes how to apply for funding and accomplishments achieved by the program. Links are provided to CSCOR Event Responses.

Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR); Noaa

208

CSCOR Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features the Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Team. Over the past decade harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased along U.S. coasts causing major resource, economic, and health impacts. State and Federal managers responding to blooms often lack timely access to cutting-edge science useful in minimizing HAB impacts on coastal communities. The NCCOS Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) HAB Event Response program addresses the need to inject science into management by supporting coastal managers faced with responding to unusual or unexpected HABs. This page describes how to apply for funding and accomplishments achieved by the program. Links are provided to CSCOR Event Responses.

2010-01-14

209

Mayan morality: an exploration of permissible harms.  

PubMed

Anthropologists have provided rich field descriptions of the norms and conventions governing behavior and interactions in small-scale societies. Here, we add a further dimension to this work by presenting hypothetical moral dilemmas involving harm, to a small-scale, agrarian Mayan population, with the specific goal of exploring the hypothesis that certain moral principles apply universally. We presented Mayan participants with moral dilemmas translated into their native language, Tseltal. Paralleling several studies carried out with educated subjects living in large-scale, developed nations, the Mayan participants judged harms caused as the means to a greater good as more forbidden than harms caused as a side-effect (i.e., side-effect bias). However, unlike these other populations living in large-scale societies, as well as a more educated and less rural Mayan comparison group, the target rural Mayan participants did not judge actions causing harm as worse than omissions (i.e., omission bias). A series of probes targeting the action-omission distinction suggest that the absence of an omission bias among the rural Mayan participants was not due to difficulties comprehending the dilemmas, using the judgment scale, or in attributing a greater causal role for actions over omissions. Thus, while the moral distinction between means and side-effect may be more universal, the moral distinction between actions and omission appears to be open to greater cross-cultural variation. We discuss these results in light of issues concerning the role of biological constraints and cultural variation in moral decision-making, as well as the limitations of such experimental, cross-cultural research. PMID:20092817

Abarbanell, Linda; Hauser, Marc D

2010-05-01

210

Electrofishing and its harmful effects on fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electrofishing, a valuable sampling technique in North America for over half a century, involves a very dynamic and complex mix of physics, physiology, and behavior that remains poorly understood. New hypotheses have been advanced regarding "power transfer" to fish and the epileptic nature of their responses to electric fields, but these too need to be more fully explored and validated. Fishery researchers and managers in the Colorado River Basin, and elsewhere, are particularly concerned about the harmful effects of electrofishing on fish, especially endangered species. Although often not externally obvious or fatal, spinal injuries and associated hemorrhages sometimes have been documented in over 50% of fish examined internally. Such injuries can occur anywhere in the electrofishing field at or above the intensity threshold for twitch. These injuries are believed to result from powerful convulsions of body musculature (possibly epileptic seizures) caused mostly by sudden changes in voltage as when electricity is pulsed or switched on or off. Significantly fewer spinal injuries are reported when direct current, low-frequency pulsed direct current (<30 Hz), or specially designed pulse trains are used. Salmoniae are especially susceptible. Endangered cyprinids of the Colorado River Basin are generally much less susceptible, enough so to allow cautious use of less harmful currents for most recovery monitoring and research. However, the endangered catostomid Xyrauchen texanus appears sufficiently susceptible to warrant a continued minimal-use policy. Other harmful effects, such as bleeding at gills or vent and excessive physiological stress, are also of concern. Mortality, usually by asphyxiation, is a common result of excessive exposure to tetanizing intensities near electrodes or poor handling of captured specimens. Reported effects on reproduction are contradictory, but electrofishing over spawning grounds can harm embryos. Electrofishing is often considered the most effective and benign technique for capturing moderate- to large-size fish, but when adverse effects are problematic and cannot be sufficiently reduced, its use should be severely restricted.

Snyder, Darrel E.

2003-01-01

211

Injection molding of polymeric LIGA HARMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of an ongoing research effort at LSU is to develop the three-step LIGA process to inexpensively manufacture\\u000a high aspect ratio microstructures (HARMs). The first two steps of the process (lithography and electroplating) produce a metallic\\u000a mold insert that can be used as a template for molding microstructures. The final step of LIGA is molding. This paper focuses

M. S. Despa; K. W. Kelly; J. R. Collier

1999-01-01

212

Drug legalization, harm reduction, and drug policy.  

PubMed

The current U.S. policy options on drug use are reviewed in the context of the history of drug policy in the United States. A restrictive drug policy is a deterrent to drug use and helps reduce drug-related costs and societal problems. Although legalization or decriminalization of drugs might reduce some of the legal consequences of drug use, increased drug use would result in harmful consequences. PMID:7639447

DuPont, R L; Voth, E A

1995-09-15

213

Deviancy training: understanding how preventive interventions harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joan McCord’s follow-up study of the Cambridge–Somerville Youth Project showed that even well-intentioned, well-implemented\\u000a prevention programs sometimes have harmful effects on participants. She reported that peer reinforcement of delinquent behaviors\\u000a or bragging about delinquent behaviors that occurred during summer camp experiences provided as part of the project might\\u000a explain the negative outcomes observed for treatment boys. We explored this “deviancy

Denise C. Gottfredson

2010-01-01

214

Reducing harm in patients using insulin.  

PubMed

Controlling blood sugars with insulin is an important part of managing hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. However, the literature has shown that the use of insulin has been associated with more medication errors than any other type or class of drug. This article will highlight medication errors that may arise during the use of insulin in the long-term facility and provide risk-reduction recommendations to address the potential for error and patient harm. PMID:24849687

Grissinger, Matthew; Gaunt, Michael J

2014-05-01

215

Navajo Pawn: A Misunderstood Traditional Trading Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Navajo trading has been a crucial component of that tribe's localized economy for generations and has been the subject of much scholarship over the years. The role of the Navajo trader in influencing the types and styles of crafts that Navajos created as well as providing tribal members with an outlet for those items remains important to their…

Kiser, William S.

2012-01-01

216

Taking Antipsychotic Drugs While Pregnant May Harm Newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... that health guidelines for the use of antipsychotic drugs during pregnancy should be clarified. "There's been little research on ... The potentially harmful effects of taking an antipsychotic drug in pregnancy have to be balanced against the harm of ...

217

Freshwater harmful algal blooms: toxins and children's health.  

PubMed

Massive accumulations of cyanobacteria (a.k.a. "blue-green algae"), known as freshwater harmful algal blooms (FHABs), are a common global occurrence in water bodies used for recreational purposes and drinking water purification. Bloom prevalence is increased due to anthropogenic changes in land use, agricultural activity, and climate change. These photosynthetic bacteria produce a range of toxic secondary metabolites that affect animals and humans at both chronic and acute dosages. Children are especially at risk because of their lower body weight, behavior, and toxic effects on development. Here we review common FHAB toxins, related clinical symptoms, acceptable concentrations in drinking water, case studies of children's and young adults' exposures to FHAB toxins through drinking water and food, methods of environmental and clinical detection in potential cases of intoxication, and best practices for FHAB prevention. PMID:24439026

Weirich, Chelsea A; Miller, Todd R

2014-01-01

218

Harmful algae blooms removal from fresh water with modified vermiculite.  

PubMed

Vermiculite and vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid were investigated to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies in freshwater containing harmful algae blooms (HABs) (Microcystis aeruginosa). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, converted fluorescence microscope, plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and Zetasizer were used to study the flocculation mechanism of modified vermiculite. It was found that the vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid could coagulate algae cells through charge neutralization, chemical bridging, and netting effect. The experimental results show that the efficiency of flocculation can be notably improved by modified vermiculite. Ninety-eight per cent of algae cells in algae solution could be removed within 10 min after the addition ofmodified vermiculite clay. The method that removal of HABs with modified vermiculite is economical with high efficiency, and more research is needed to assess their ecological impacts before using in practical application. PMID:24600873

Miao, Chunguang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiangqin

2014-01-01

219

Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya  

PubMed Central

Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.

Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

2010-01-01

220

The Tipping Point: The Relationship Between Volume and Patient Harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study purports to show the relationship between volume and patient harm due to health care error. Using 5 measures of volume and incident reports weighted for patient harm over the course of 515 days, it is shown that increased volume is related to increased harm to patients. As the num- ber of areas in the hospital experiencing high vol-

Alberta T. Pedroja

2008-01-01

221

Harm reduction and equity of access to care for French prisoners: a review  

PubMed Central

Background Despite France being regarded as a model of efficient harm reduction policy and equity of access to care in the general community, the health of French inmates is a critical issue, as harm reduction measures are either inaccessible or only partially implemented in French prisons. Method Using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, information was collected and analyzed about HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence, risk practices, mortality, access to harm reduction measures and care for French prison inmates. Results Data about the occurrence of bloodborne diseases, drug use and access to care in prisons remain limited and need urgent updating. Needle exchange programs are not yet available in French prisons and harm reduction interventions and access to OST remain limited or are heterogeneous across prisons. The continuity of care at prison entry and after release remains problematic and should be among the primary public health priorities for French prisoners. Conclusion Preventive and harm reduction measures should be urgently introduced at least as pilot programs. The implementation of such measures, not yet available in French prisons, is not only a human right for prison inmates but can also provide important public health benefits for the general population.

Michel, Laurent; Carrieri, M Patrizia; Wodak, Alex

2008-01-01

222

Year-Round versus Traditional Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document serves as a literature review for the practicality and cost effectiveness of traditional versus year-round school systems. The differences in year-round and traditional schools are many, as the debate lingers on which type is best for students' learning. Generally conclusive, the literature indicates that year-round schools' benefits…

Lyttle, LeighAnne

2011-01-01

223

The harms of prostitution: critiquing Moen's argument of no-harm.  

PubMed

In this short critical analysis, the author examines the recent argument by Moen in his article 'Is Prostitution Harmful?' In highlighting why prostitution does not cause harm to either member involved in the act, Moen argues that prostitution is not an ethical concern. However, while Moen is able to clearly challenge contemporary objections to prostitution, the author of this review will suggest that Moen's argument is itself incomplete as it does not address essential key ontological issues. This critical analysis will briefly suggest why this omission weakens Moen's argument. Finally, it will conclude with examining why prostitution differs substantially from other professions through the type of harm that it causes to the moral agents involved. PMID:23760729

Westin, Anna

2014-02-01

224

The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder.  

PubMed

A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as "tailor-made medicine" and has properties similar to "mind and body" or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients' lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans.There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms. PMID:24148283

Ushiroyama, Takahisa

2013-01-01

225

The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder  

PubMed Central

A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as “tailor-made medicine” and has properties similar to “mind and body” or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients’ lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans. There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms.

2013-01-01

226

Brief Report: The Self Harm Questionnaire--A New Tool Designed to Improve Identification of Self Harm in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Self Harm Questionnaire (SHQ) aiming at identification of self-harm in adolescents has been developed and piloted in a sample of 12-17 year olds (n = 100). The adolescents were recruited from both in- and outpatient psychiatric services. Concurrent validity of the SHQ was evaluated by comparing the SHQ results with recorded self harm in the…

Ougrin, Dennis; Boege, Isabel

2013-01-01

227

Drug use and harm reduction in Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Opium has been cultivated in Afghanistan since 1100 A.D., although production has steadily increased since 1979. Currently, Afghanistan produces three-quarters of the global opium supply, with injection drug use and HIV currently following the opium trade route through Central Asia. Although systematic studies are lacking, heroin use appears to be on the rise in Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to briefly provide historical background and current statistics for drug production and use in Afghanistan, to discuss the new government's policies towards problem drug use and available rehabilitation programs, and to assess Afghan harm reduction needs with consideration of regional trends.

Todd, Catherine S; Safi, Naqibullah; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2005-01-01

228

Motivational interviewing techniques and the harm-reduction model in a short-term substance-abuse group for adolescents with psychiatric problems.  

PubMed

The authors describe techniques and practical examples for working with substance-abusing teens within a short-term psychiatric setting that derive from the Harm-Reduction model and the Motivational Interviewing approach. PMID:16270788

Carter, Allen L; Wilber, Charles; Sahl, Robert

2005-10-01

229

Superoxide and traditional Chinese medicines.  

PubMed

In traditional Chinese medicinal practices, herbs are classified as 'cold', 'neutral', or 'hot'. Fluorometric analysis of herbs with 'cold' properties revealed that these herbs produce large amounts of superoxide. In contrast, herbs with 'hot' properties have scavenging activities. We believe that this electron transfer to form superoxide and the scavenging of superoxide may elucidate the phenomena of the 'yin' (represented by 'cold') and 'yang' (represented by 'hot') respectively. PMID:8719977

Lin, W S; Chan, W C; Hew, C S

1995-11-01

230

Variability and dilemmas in harm reduction for anabolic steroid users in the UK: a multi-area interview study  

PubMed Central

Background The UK continues to experience a rise in the number of anabolic steroid-using clients attending harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes. Methods The present study uses interviews conducted with harm reduction service providers as well as illicit users of anabolic steroids from different areas of England and Wales to explore harm reduction for this group of drug users, focussing on needle distribution policies and harm reduction interventions developed specifically for this population of drug users. Results The article addresses the complexity of harm reduction service delivery, highlighting different models of needle distribution, such as peer-led distribution networks, as well as interventions available in steroid clinics, including liver function testing of anabolic steroid users. Aside from providing insights into the function of interventions available to steroid users, along with principles adopted by service providers, the study found significant tensions and dilemmas in policy implementation due to differing perspectives between service providers and service users relating to practices, risks and effective interventions. Conclusion The overarching finding of the study was the tremendous variability across harm reduction delivery sites in terms of available measures and mode of operation. Further research into the effectiveness of different policies directed towards people who use anabolic steroids is critical to the development of harm reduction.

2014-01-01

231

Measuring, monitoring, and reducing medical harm from a systems perspective: a medical director's personal reflections.  

PubMed

The author describes five critical elements for reducing and, ultimately, preventing harm to patients-from a systems perspective. In the element called leadership and culture, leaders must advocate patient safety as a primary goal and foster an institutional culture where change that promote patient safety can occur. In internal surveillance, systems are established to actively monitor for deviations in quality and guide efforts to engineer risk of harm out of the institution's practices; they can also demonstrate absence of risk or harm. Although incident reporting can be controversial and is sometimes avoided because its use in "blame attacks," etc., it can be valuable if built on a continuous improvement approach and a system approach to error prevention. External surveillance involves the identification and response to "sentinel events," such as wrong-sided surgery, and serves to remind all those involved in care just how risky and unforgiving medical practice can be. Finally, those involved in promoting safety must believe that hazard and risk are not inevitable and can be managed. The author illustrates this approach by describing his hospital's successful efforts to prevent the rise of aspergillus infections during a major hospital construction project. The author closes by describing selected challenges and opportunities to reduce harm from a systems perspective, such as using teams, involving patients and the public, using lessons learned from other industries with strong safety cultures, and using advances in information systems for a variety of safety-oriented tasks. PMID:12377673

Larson, Eric B

2002-10-01

232

Alternative medicine for management of breast masses: More harm than good  

PubMed Central

Case series Patient: — Final Diagnosis: Breast cancer Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents Background: Several well-established, evidence-based treatment modalities are currently available and widely applied to breast cancer patients, but it is known that some of the cancer patients use traditional/alternative medicine other than their treatments. Case Report: Herein, we report the cases of 2 middle-aged women (45 and 50 years old) with malignant breast masses who experienced serious complications in response to self-prescribed use of alternative medicine practices to treat their condition in lieu of evidence-based medical treatment. Specifically, the use and/or inappropriate application of alternative medical approaches promoted the progression of malignant fungating lesions in the breast for these 2 patients. The first patient sought medical assistance upon development of a fungating lesion 7?8 cm in diameter and involving 1/3 of the breast, with a palpable mass of 5×6 cm immediately beneath the wound. The second patient sought medical assistance upon development of a wide, bleeding, ulcerous area with patchy necrotic tissue that comprised 2/3 of the breast and had a 10×6 cm palpable mass under the affected area. Use of some non-evidence-based medical treatments as complementary to evidence-based medical treatments may benefit the patient on an emotional level; however, this strategy should be used with caution, as the non-evidence-based therapies may cause physical harm or even counteract the evidence-based treatment. Conclusions: A malignant, fungating wound is a serious complication of advanced breast cancer. It is critical that the public is informed about the potential problems of self-treating wounds such as breast ulcers and masses. Additionally, campaigns are needed to increase awareness of the risks and life-threatening potential of using non-evidence-based medical therapies exclusively.

Akbulut, Sami; Yagmur, Yusuf; Gumus, Serdar; Babur, Mehmet; Can, Mehmet Ali

2014-01-01

233

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms: causes, consequences, and controls.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest oxygenic photoautotrophs and have had major impacts on shaping its biosphere. Their long evolutionary history (? 3.5 by) has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recently anthropogenic modifications of aquatic environments, including nutrient over-enrichment (eutrophication), water diversions, withdrawals, and salinization. Many cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. Bloom-forming cyanobacterial taxa can be harmful from environmental, organismal, and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, depleting oxygen upon bloom senescence, and producing a variety of toxic secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanotoxins). How environmental factors impact cyanotoxin production is the subject of ongoing research, but nutrient (N, P and trace metals) supply rates, light, temperature, oxidative stressors, interactions with other biota (bacteria, viruses and animal grazers), and most likely, the combined effects of these factors are all involved. Accordingly, strategies aimed at controlling and mitigating harmful blooms have focused on manipulating these dynamic factors. The applicability and feasibility of various controls and management approaches is discussed for natural waters and drinking water supplies. Strategies based on physical, chemical, and biological manipulations of specific factors show promise; however, a key underlying approach that should be considered in almost all instances is nutrient (both N and P) input reductions; which have been shown to effectively reduce cyanobacterial biomass, and therefore limit health risks and frequencies of hypoxic events. PMID:23314096

Paerl, Hans W; Otten, Timothy G

2013-05-01

234

Reducing harm from alcohol: call to action.  

PubMed

Despite clear evidence of the major contribution alcohol makes to the global burden of disease and to substantial economic costs, focus on alcohol control is inadequate internationally and in most countries. Expansion of industrial production and marketing of alcohol is driving alcohol use to rise, both in emerging markets and in young people in mature alcohol markets. Cost-effective and affordable interventions to restrict harm exist, and are in urgent need of scaling up. Most countries do not have adequate policies in place. Factors impeding progress include a failure of political will, unhelpful participation of the alcohol industry in the policy process, and increasing difficulty in free-trade environments to respond adequately at a national level. An effective national and international response will need not only governments, but also non-governmental organisations to support and hold government agencies to account. International health policy, in the form of a Framework Convention on Alcohol Control, is needed to counterbalance the global conditions promoting alcohol-related harm and to support and encourage national action. PMID:19560606

Casswell, Sally; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon

2009-06-27

235

Substance abuse and developments in harm reduction.  

PubMed

A drug is a substance that produces a psychoactive, chemical or medicinal effect on the user. The psychoactive effect of mood-altering drugs is modulated by the user's perception of the risks of drug use, his or her ability to control drug use and the demographic, socioeconomic and cultural context. The ability to control drug use may vary along a continuum from compulsive use at one end to controlled use at the other. The "drug problem" has been socially constructed, and the presence of a moral panic has led to public support for the prohibitionist approach. The legalization approach has severely attacked the dominant prohibitionist approach but has failed to gain much support in society because of its extreme libertarian views. The harm reduction approach, which is based on public health principles, avoids the extremes of value-loaded judgements on drug use and focuses on the reduction of drug-related harm through pragmatic and low-threshold programs. This approach is likely to be important in tackling the drug problem in the 21st century. PMID:10870502

Cheung, Y W

2000-06-13

236

Little cigars, big cigars: omissions and commissions of harm and harm reduction information on the Internet.  

PubMed

We conducted a comparative analysis of "harm," "harm reduction," and "little cigar" information about cigars on 10 major English-language health Web sites. The sites were from governmental and nongovernmental organizations based in seven different countries and included "harm" and "harm reduction" information, discussions of little cigars, quantitative estimates of health risks, and qualifying behavioral characteristics (inhalation, number per day). Of the 10 Web sites, 7 offered statements explicitly indicating that cigars may be safer than cigarettes. None of the Web sites reviewed described that little cigars are likely as dangerous as cigarettes. Some Web sites provided quantitative estimates of health risks and extensive discussions of qualifying factors. Reading grade levels were higher than desirable. Extensive and complex information on the reduced risks of cigars compared with cigarettes is available on Web sites affiliated with prominent health organizations. Yet these sites fail to warn consumers that popular cigarette-like little cigars and cigarillos are likely to be just as dangerous as cigarettes, even for those who have never smoked cigarettes. Improvement of these Web sites is urgently needed to provide the public with high-quality health information. PMID:18569755

Dollar, Katherine M; Mix, Jacqueline M; Kozlowski, Lynn T

2008-05-01

237

"Who" Helps and Harms "Whom"? Relational Antecedents of Interpersonal Helping and Harming in Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Antecedents of interpersonally directed forms of citizenship and counterproductive behaviors (i.e., interpersonal helping and harming, respectively) have been studied most often under the broad categories of individual differences and job attitudes. Although these behaviors often are exhibited within the confines of interpersonal relationships,…

Venkataramani, Vijaya; Dalal, Reeshad S.

2007-01-01

238

Merseyside, the first harm reduction conferences, and the early history of harm reduction.  

PubMed

In the mid 1980s, Liverpool implemented pioneering approaches to dealing with the problems caused by the use of drugs. The Mersey Harm Reduction Model concentrated on reducing the harms rather than, as previously was the case, trying to reduce drug use itself. This policy was given great impetus by the emergence of HIV and the danger of infection from using contaminated injection equipment. It became imperative to reduce this kind of risk behaviour by providing clean injecting equipment, prescribing methadone (and in a small percentage of cases, heroin) and by using outreach workers to go into the community and help people where they lived and to attract them into services. The police played a key role. Service uptake was rapid and included many who had never had previous contact with services. An HIV epidemic did not happen amongst injecting drug users in Mersey. In 1991, the approach was applied to the new phenomenon of the use of MDMA with the publication of the leaflet 'Chill Out'. The First International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm took place in Liverpool in 1990 as a response to the interest shown in what was happening in the region and the International Harm Reduction Association was born out of these conferences. PMID:17689357

O'Hare, Pat

2007-03-01

239

Family Traits and Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

240

Favorite Family Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use the text The Relatives Came by Cynthia Rylant as a springboard for discussion about family traditions. After identifying the traditions observed by the relatives, students meet in small groups to brainstorm new traditions that could arise from the families gathering together during the winter. The lesson is concluded by having each student write about their own favorite family tradition and share it with a small group.

2012-12-08

241

Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) Compared With Traditional Assessment Methods  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To compare objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) and traditional assessment methods among recent pharmacy graduates. Methods. Individual student performance in OSCEs was compared with performance on traditional pharmacy-practice examinations at the same level of program study. Results. A moderate correlation was found between individual attainment in OSCE examinations and on traditional pharmacy practice examinations at the same level. Conclusions. OSCEs add value to traditional methods of assessment because the 2 evaluation methods measure different competencies.

Kravitz, Laura

2011-01-01

242

New mothers' thoughts of harm related to the newborn.  

PubMed

There are few published studies of new mothers' experiences of intrusive thoughts of harm related to the newborn. Evidence-based information about the normal phenomenology of intrusive thoughts of harm related to the newborn is needed to facilitate appropriate clinical decision-making. The objective of this project was to assess the phenomenology, prevalence, correlates, and behavioural sequelae of maternal thoughts of harm related to the newborn. One hundred women were recruited during pregnancy. Participants were assessed prenatally and at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum using questionnaires and a semi-structured interview about unwanted thoughts of harm related to the newborn. Postpartum intrusive thoughts of accidental harm to the infant were universal, and close to half of the sample reported unwanted thoughts of intentionally harming their infant. Compared with intentional harm thoughts, accidental harm thoughts were more frequent and more time consuming, but less distressing. High parenting stress and low social support predicted the occurrence of thoughts of intentional harm. Little evidence of an association between these thoughts and aggressive parenting was found. Unwanted intrusive thoughts of harming one's infant are a relatively normative experience during the early postpartum period, particularly in association with greater parenting stress and low social support. PMID:18463941

Fairbrother, Nichole; Woody, Sheila R

2008-07-01

243

The Olympic Region Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the website of the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership, which was organized to develop collaboration and cooperation among federal, state and local management agencies, coastal Indian tribes, marine resource-based businesses, public interest groups, and academic institutions. The ORHAB partnership investigates the origins of blooms of toxic algae, monitors where and when the blooms occur, assesses the environmental conditions conducive to blooms and toxification of intertidal shellfish populations, and explores methods that can be used to reduce HAB impacts on humans and the environment. Information in this website is organized into the following categories: Home, About ORHAB, HAB impacts, project plan, partnerships, benefits, meetings, gallery, sustaining ORHAB, education, and outreach.

Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) Partnership

244

Do no harm--normal tissue effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation therapy confers enormous benefits that must be balanced against the possibilities for harm including late toxicity in normal tissues and radiation-induced second malignancies. A small percentage of patients experience severe late complications. The question is, do these late sequelae occur randomly, or are they confined to individuals who are genetically predisposed to radiosensitivity. Experiments with knockout mice and with patients demonstrate that individuals heterozygous for a number of genes appear to be radiosensitive. If radiosensitive patients were identified prospectively by genetic analysis, they could be spared the trauma of late sequelae. Several large studies have shown a statistically significant excess of radiation-induced malignancies in radiotherapy patients. Most second cancers are carcinomas, developing in the lining cells of the body often remote from the treatment site. Radiation-induced sarcomas appear only in the heavily irradiated areas. These are small in number but appear with a very high relative risk.

Hall, E. J.

2001-01-01

245

The tipping point: the relationship between volume and patient harm.  

PubMed

This study purports to show the relationship between volume and patient harm due to health care error. Using 5 measures of volume and incident reports weighted for patient harm over the course of 515 days, it is shown that increased volume is related to increased harm to patients. As the number of areas in the hospital experiencing high volume increased, the likelihood of patients sustaining serious harm because of health care error also increased. This is attributed to reaching system capacity causing support services (ie, lab, pharmacy, radiology, housekeeping and engineering) to be overwhelmed and unable to keep up with requests from caregivers. PMID:18820138

Pedroja, Alberta T

2008-01-01

246

Changing Faces of Tradition: A Report on the Folk and Traditional Arts in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The field is the folk and traditional arts. These accessible arts, to paraphrase one folklorist, are practiced among families, friends and neighbors throughout the United States in familiar settings of everyday life and, increasingly, on concert stages an...

E. Peterson

1996-01-01

247

Ecological Education in Rural China: Rediscovering Traditional Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article has implications for the ecological sustainability crisis now looming in China and what this portends for the practice of education. Chemical agriculture, although improving agricultural production, harms ecological systems in rural communities. The author presents research on a group of intellectuals and social activists in 1…

Liu, Yan

2008-01-01

248

Traditional and non-traditional collective bargaining: strategies to improve the patient care environment.  

PubMed

Acquiring organizational autonomy and control over nursing practice, through a combination of traditional and non-traditional collective bargaining (CB) strategies, is emerging as an important solution to the nursing shortage crisis. For the past 60 years, nurses have improved their economic and general welfare by organizing through traditional CB, particularly during periods of nursing shortages. During the past decade, however, the downsizing of nursing staffs, systems redesign, and oppressive management practices have created such poor nursing practice environments that improvement in wages no longer is viewed as the primary purpose of CB. Much more essential to nurses is assuring they have a safe practice environment free of mandatory overtime and other work issues, and a voice in the resource allocation decisions that affect their ability to achieve quality health outcomes for patients. The thesis presented in this article is that traditional and non-traditional CB strategies empower nurses to find such a voice and gain control over nursing practice. This article describes the current shortage; discusses how CB can be used to help nurses find a voice to effect change; reviews the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) history of collective action activities; explains differences between traditional and non-traditional CB strategies; and presents a case study in which both strategies were used to improve the present patient care environment. PMID:14998358

Budd, Karen W; Warino, Linda S; Patton, Mary Ellen

2004-01-01

249

Defining and redefining harm reduction in the Lao context  

PubMed Central

The response to drug use in Laos has focused on reducing opium supply (supply reduction) and rates of drug use (demand reduction). However, recently there is increased interest among government counterparts to discuss and develop broader responses to injecting drug use (IDU) including the introduction of harm reduction programs. The concept of harm reduction has just been introduced to Lao PDR and as yet there is no agreement on a definition of the concept. We highlight here a range of issues that remain controversial in Lao PDR in the HIV, drug use and harm reduction discourse, the definition of 'harm reduction' and related terms; and the scope of harm reduction. This was a qualitative study, consisting of in-depth interviews with 27 law enforcement and 8 health officers who work in the fields of HIV and/or drug control about their understanding of HIV related to drug use, and concepts of harm reduction. Content analysis was performed to identify the coding, categories and themes. We found that law enforcement officers in particular had limited understanding about harm reduction and the feasibility and appropriateness of harm reduction services in the Lao context. Harm reduction should be a core element of a public health response to HIV where drug use and IDU exists. Recommendations include the necessity of increasing the awareness of harm reduction among law enforcement officers and providing appropriate evidence to support the needs of harm reduction policy and programs. HIV prevention and treatment strategies should be integrated within existing social and cultural frameworks, working with the task force for HIV/IDU and other government counterparts.

2012-01-01

250

The importance and limits of harm in identifying mental disorder.  

PubMed

The In Review articles in this issue on normality and disorder by Dr Rachel Cooper and Dr Derek Bolton explore the importance of a value component of harm in the concept of mental disorder. They focus on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder's clinical significance criterion, requiring that symptoms cause significant distress or role impairment, as the expression of the harm component. As Dr Bolton argues, harm in the form of distress or role impairment has always been intimately tied to the concept of disorder and treatment decisions; as Dr Cooper argues, without the harm requirement, any disliked anomaly may be labelled a disorder. Moreover, as Cooper argues, a harm requirement is not incompatible with a natural kinds approach to distinguishing among disorders or to a categorical approach to disorder; the lack of zones of rarity on the harm continuum does not preclude categorical underlying causal processes. However, neither paper systematically develops arguments regarding the other component of disorder, the requirement that the harm must be caused by underlying dysfunction. The dysfunction component distinguishes disorders from the many other negative conditions in life. Cooper's identification of dysfunction with symptom severity ignores the fact that normal suffering can be severe, and Bolton's attempt to encompass risk of harm within harm yields an implausibly expansive conception of disorder. While the harm component is essential, clarification of the dysfunction component of the concept of disorder, pursued in part 2 of this In Review in the December 2013 issue, is also essential to establishing a coherent and plausibly limited domain of psychiatric disorder within the broader arena of harmful conditions. PMID:24246432

Wakefield, Jerome C; First, Michael B

2013-11-01

251

Lead encephalopathy due to traditional medicines.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine use is common in developing countries and increasingly popular in the western world. Despite the popularity of traditional medicines, scientific research on safety and efficacy is limited. However documented fatalities and severe illness due to lead poisoning are increasingly recognized to be associated with traditional medicine use. As society becomes more globalized, it is imperative for pharmacists and health care providers to learn about the safety of traditional medical practices. The information presented educates and alerts pharmacists and health care providers about the potential of traditional medicines to cause lead encephalopathy. Case reports were located through systematic literature searches using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE and The Cochrane library from 1966 to the February 2007. Reference lists of identified articles and the authors' own files were also searched. Inclusion criteria were cases of human lead encephalopathy associated with traditional medical practices. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. Data were subsequently extracted and summarized in narrative and tabular form. We found 76 cases of lead encephalopathy potentially associated with traditional medicine. Ayurvedic medicines were associated with 5 cases (7%), Middle eastern traditional medicines with 66 cases (87%) and 5 cases (7%) with other traditional medicines. Of the 76 cases, 5% were in adults and 95% were in infants and young children. Of the 4 adult cases, at least one was left with residual neurological impairment. In infants and young children, among 72 cases 8 (11%) were fatal, and at least 15 (21%) had residual neurological deficits. Traditional medicine users should be screened for lead exposure and strongly encouraged to discontinue metal-containing remedies. Therefore, the United States Food and Drug Administration and corresponding agencies in other countries should require and enforce heavy metal testing for all imported traditional medicines and "dietary supplements". PMID:18690981

Karri, Surya K; Saper, Robert B; Kales, Stefanos N

2008-01-01

252

African Traditional Religion (ATR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The African Traditional Religion (ATR) site which hosts the on Bibliography on African Traditional Religion contains several more items of interest, including articles and documents exploring the contact points of ATR with Islam and Christianity, country-by-country statistics on adherents of ATR, and a number of related links.

Isizoh, Chidi D.

1998-01-01

253

Family Customs and Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

MacGregor, Cynthia

254

Tradition and Innovation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The articles in this issue were selected because, in one way or another, they all touched on the notion of tradition and innovation." Storytelling and tribal dances are examples of past, traditional methods of passing cultural knowledge from elders to youth. Contemporary youth have replaced tradtional rites of passage with their own inventions…

Katter, Eldon, Ed.

1995-01-01

255

30 CFR 722.11 - Imminent dangers and harms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Imminent dangers and harms. 722.11 Section 722...ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.11 Imminent dangers and harms. (a) If an authorized...regulatory program, which create an imminent danger to the health or safety of the...

2013-07-01

256

Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB), a funding program within NOAA that seeks to develop effective methods for prevention, control, and mitigation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). The page provides an overview of the program, offers a link to the funding announcement, and lists accomplishments of the program.

Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR); Noaa

257

Hate Speech and Its Harms: A Communication Theory Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses J.W. Carey's transmission and ritual communication models to illustrate harms caused by hate speech. Examines legal precedent for the ritual model, but suggests that courts more often adopt the transmission model. Argues that, although the ritual model points to a different, long-term harm caused by hate speech, its adoption raises troubling…

Calvert, Clay

1997-01-01

258

A self-harm training needs assessment of school nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-harm is acknowledged to be increasing and is especially prevalent in young people. School nurses are central to adolescent mental health, delivering initial and sustained intervention. However, few studies have considered their experiences and training needs in fulfilling this role. This training needs assessment explored the self-harm training needs of school nurses within one UK primary care trust by utilizing

Emma Cooke; Veronica James

2009-01-01

259

Self-Harm: A Challenge for Pastoral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deliberate self-harm (DSH) has received a considerable deal of recent publicity in the press and through the creation of a National Inquiry into Self-Harm and Young People, and there are grounds for believing that it is on the increase. Little is known about how DSH impacts upon schools or how teachers and support staff respond. This paper begins with seven

Ron Best

2005-01-01

260

Exploring parents' responses to their child's deliberate self-harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a serious public health problem and, although in the past research has focused mainly on the DSH patient, it is now recognised that parental involvement in the therapeutic process is beneficial. This study aimed to understand parents' concerns, expectations and experiences following an episode of deliberate self-harm in young people in order to identify

H. Raphael; G. Clarke; S. Kumar

2006-01-01

261

Managing Sexually Harmful Behaviour in a Residential Special School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children and young people with learning disabilities who present sexually harmful behaviour are marginalised and do not always participate in community activities. This case study describes a multi-component intervention that successfully reduced the sexually harmful behaviour of a 16-year-old boy with a mild learning disability. The intervention…

Pritchard, Duncan; Graham, Nicola; Ikin, Annette; Penney, Heather; Kovacs, Lisa; Mercer, Dawn; Edwards, Richard; Jones, Dylan; Mace, Floyd Charles

2012-01-01

262

Youths who sexually harm: A multivariate model of behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the variations in behaviour displayed by young people who sexually harm, as previous research has shown that they are not a homogeneous sample. Three conceptually distinct sets of behaviour were hypothesized, relating to various modes of interaction between the young people with harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) and their victim, victim as object, victim as person and victim

Louise Almond; David Canter

2007-01-01

263

The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization?  

PubMed

Ayahuasca is a tea made from two plants native to the Amazon, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, which, respectively, contain the psychoactive chemicals harmala alkaloids and dimethyltryptamine. The tea has been used by indigenous peoples in countries such as Brazil, Ecuador and Peru for medicinal, spiritual and cultural purposes since pre-Columbian times. In the 20th century, ayahuasca spread beyond its native habitat and has been incorporated into syncretistic practices that are being adopted by non-indigenous peoples in modern Western contexts. Ayahuasca's globalization in the past few decades has led to a number of legal cases which pit religious freedom against national drug control laws. This paper explores some of the philosophical and policy implications of contemporary ayahuasca use. It addresses the issue of the social construction of ayahuasca as a medicine, a sacrament and a "plant teacher." Issues of harm reduction with respect to ayahuasca use are explored, but so too is the corollary notion of "benefit maximization." PMID:18638702

Tupper, Kenneth W

2008-08-01

264

Disclosing harmful medical errors to patients: tackling three tough cases.  

PubMed

A gap exists between recommendations to disclose errors to patients and current practice. This gap may reflect important, yet unanswered questions about implementing disclosure principles. We explore some of these unanswered questions by presenting three real cases that pose challenging disclosure dilemmas. The first case involves a pancreas transplant that failed due to the pancreas graft being discarded, an error that was not disclosed partly because the family did not ask clarifying questions. Relying on patient or family questions to determine the content of disclosure is problematic. We propose a standard of materiality that can help clinicians to decide what information to disclose. The second case involves a fatal diagnostic error that the patient's widower was unaware had happened. The error was not disclosed out of concern that disclosure would cause the widower more harm than good. This case highlights how institutions can overlook patients' and families' needs following errors and emphasizes that benevolent deception has little role in disclosure. Institutions should consider whether involving neutral third parties could make disclosures more patient centered. The third case presents an intraoperative cardiac arrest due to a large air embolism where uncertainty around the clinical event was high and complicated the disclosure. Uncertainty is common to many medical errors but should not deter open conversations with patients and families about what is and is not known about the event. Continued discussion within the medical profession about applying disclosure principles to real-world cases can help to better meet patients' and families' needs following medical errors. PMID:19736193

Gallagher, Thomas H; Bell, Sigall K; Smith, Kelly M; Mello, Michelle M; McDonald, Timothy B

2009-09-01

265

Dealing with Alcohol-related problems in the Night-Time Economy: A Study Protocol for Mapping trends in harm and stakeholder views surrounding local community level interventions  

PubMed Central

Background This project will provide a comprehensive investigation into the prevalence of alcohol-related harms and community attitudes in the context of community-based interventions being implemented to reduce harm in two regional centres of Australia. While considerable experimentation and innovation to address these harms has occurred in both Geelong and Newcastle, only limited ad-hoc documentation and analysis has been conducted on changes in the prevalence of harm as a consequence, leaving a considerable gap in terms of a systematic, evidence-based analysis of changes in harm over time and the need for further intervention. Similarly, little evidence has been reported regarding the views of key stakeholder groups, industry, government agencies, patrons or community regarding the need for, and the acceptability of, interventions to reduce harms. This project will aim to provide evidence regarding the impact and acceptability of local initiatives aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Methods/Design This study will gather existing police data (assault, property damage and drink driving offences), Emergency Department presentations and Ambulance attendance data. Further, the research team will conduct interviews with licensed venue patrons and collect observational data of licensed venues. Key informant interviews will assess expert knowledge from key industry and government stakeholders, and a community survey will assess community experiences and attitudes towards alcohol-related harm and harm-reduction strategies. Overall, the project will assess: the extent of alcohol-related harm in the context of harm-reduction interventions, and the need for and acceptability of further intervention. Discussion These findings will be used to improve evidence-based practice both nationally and internationally. Ethical Approval This project has been approved by Deakin University HREC.

2011-01-01

266

Design and Implementation of Harmful Algal Bloom Diagnosis System Based on J2EE Platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the shortcomings which are time consuming and laborious of the traditional HAB (Harmful Algal Bloom) diagnosis by the experienced experts using microscope, all kinds of methods and technologies to identify HAB emerged such as microscopic images, molecular biology, characteristics of pigments analysis, fluorescence spectra, inherent optical properties, etc. This paper proposes the design and implementation of a web-based diagnosis system integrating the popular methods for HAB identification. This system is designed with J2EE platform based on MVC (Model-View-Controller) model as well as technologies such as JSP, Servlets, EJB and JDBC.

Guo, Chunfeng; Zheng, Haiyong; Ji, Guangrong; Lv, Liang

267

Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not evidence-based from a clinical perspective but subclinical research data from the past decades support the traditional use of many herbal VTM drugs. For safe use, knowledge of the occurrence of adverse reactions and herb-drug interactions is necessary. The Vietnamese government supports further development of VTM in a scientific way and integration of VTM with Western medicine. This article first gives an overview of the general aspects of VTM (historical perspective, regulatory aspects, comparison with traditional Chinese medicine, philosophical background, the Vietnamese market situation, quality assurance and formulations), and subsequently focuses on its safe and effective use in Vietnamese clinical pharmacy and medical practice. PMID:22943125

Woerdenbag, Herman J; Nguyen, Tuyen Manh; Vu, Dien Van; Tran, Hung; Nguyen, Dung Tuan; Tran, Thanh Van; De Smet, Peter A G M; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J

2012-07-01

268

Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers  

PubMed Central

Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities.

Muhamad, Mazanah; Merriam, Sharan; Suhami, Norhasmilia

2012-01-01

269

Autism spectrum disorders, risk communication, and the problem of inadvertent harm.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are an issue of significant and growing importance to the field of public health. The prevalence of ASDs is rising, and these disorders significantly impact the quality of life of affected persons and their families. Though the etiology of ASDs has long been poorly understood, in recent years, studies are revealing genetic and environmental risk information about ASDs, with much more risk information expected to follow from scientific studies currently underway. The availability of this risk information raises questions about whether and how it should be communicated to individuals, families, and the public at large. One ethical issue of particular concern with ASD risk communication is the possibility that it may cause inadvertent harm to risk message recipients. Here we review the emerging picture of ASD risk, discuss some ways in which it may lead to inadvertent harm, and suggest some future directions for risk communication research and practice that might help to address this issue. PMID:23888834

Rossi, John; Newschaffer, Craig; Yudell, Michael

2013-06-01

270

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

271

Traditional indigenous healing: Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional indigenous healing is widely used today, as it has been since time immemorial. This article describes the following areas in regards to traditional healing: (a) an explanation of indigenous peoples, (b) a definition of traditional indigenous healing, (c) a portrayal of traditional healers, (d) health within indigenous culture, (e) traditional healing techniques, (f) utilization of traditional healing, (g) how

Roxanne Struthers; Valerie S. Eschiti; Beverly Patchell

2004-01-01

272

Alcohol-related harm among university students in Hanoi, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Aim This study examines the prevalence of and risk factors for alcohol-related harm and types of harm among medical students from Hanoi Medical University (Vietnam). Risk factors include aspects of drinking patterns and relevant socio-demographic variables. Study Design and Methods A cross-sectional study involving 1st to 6th year students (N=1216; response rate 96.5%). Of these, 210 students from each academic year were randomly selected from a sampling frame covering all students from each academic year. Data were collected using a questionnaire distributed in class by researchers. Drinkers completed 23 questions on alcohol-related harm categorized into: 1) ‘negative influence on daily activities’; 2) ‘social conflict’; 3) ‘loss of control, acute consequences, and withdrawal’; 4) ‘mental health conditions’; and 5) ‘physical and medical health problems’. Logistic and Poisson regression models were used to identify the predictors of alcohol-related harm and the amount of harm, respectively. Results The prevalence of alcohol use associated with at least one or more of the five types of harm was higher in men (81.8%) than in women (60.4%). In female and male students, the most common harm category was ‘loss of control, acute consequences, and withdrawal’ (51.8 and 75.6%, respectively), followed by ‘negative influence on daily activities’ (29.4 and 55.8%, respectively). Age, living away from home, and average number of standard drinks per occasion among male drinkers, and age and frequency of drinking per week among female drinkers were associated with alcohol-related harm. Conclusions These data suggest that alcohol-related harm represents a serious public health problem among young educated individuals in Vietnam. The risk factors indicate that prevention should be aimed at aspects of drinking patterns and specific subpopulations defined by gender, age, and (for men only) type of living situation.

Diep, Pham Bich; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Giang, Kim Bao; De Vries, Nanne

2013-01-01

273

An Agent Harms a Victim: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study on Specific Moral Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statement: An agent harms a victim, depicts a situation that triggers moral emotions. Depending on whether the agent and the victim are the self or someone else, it can lead to four different moral emotions: self-anger (I harm myself), guilt (I harm someone), other-anger (someone harms me), and compassion (someone harms someone). In order to investigate the neural correlates

Gayannée Kédia; Sylvie Berthoz; Michele Wessa; Denis Hilton; Jean-luc Martinot

2008-01-01

274

Self-harm in England: a tale of three cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Self-harm is a major healthcare problem in the United Kingdom, but monitoring of hospital presentations has largely been done\\u000a separately in single centres. Multicentre monitoring of self-harm has been established as a result of the National Suicide\\u000a Prevention Strategy for England.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Data on self-harm presentations to general hospitals in Oxford (one hospital), Manchester (three hospitals) and Leeds (two\\u000a hospitals), collected

Keith Hawton; Helen Bergen; Deborah Casey; Sue Simkin; Ben Palmer; Jayne Cooper; Nav Kapur; Judith Horrocks; Allan House; Rachael Lilley; Rachael Noble; David Owens

2007-01-01

275

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Community in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will allow students to apply their understanding of the role of algae in the food web, the general impacts of harmful algal blooms, and ways that our societies deal with blooms in a simulated situation. Students are presented with a scenario of a recent harmful algal bloom in the fictional town of Habport. They are assigned roles and are asked to prepare for and participate in a Habport town meeting called to discuss the bloom. As the students are allowed time to discuss what occurred during their town meeting, they will better understand the broader ecological, social, and economic impact of a harmful algal bloom.

276

Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

J. Lekki R. Tokars

2013-01-01

277

Single-Load Liquid Laundry Packets: Harmful to Children  

MedlinePLUS

... let children handle laundry packets. 2. Keep the liquid laundry packets sealed in their original packaging, and ... Help at 1-800-222-1222. Single-Load Liquid Laundry Packets: Harmful to Children Do NOT Let ...

278

Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John

2013-01-01

279

Policy interventions to reduce the harm from smoking.  

PubMed

The other papers in this series on reduced smoking discuss interventions focused on individuals. This paper illustrates possible smoking reduction interventions focused on policies rather than individuals. Target 12 of the new WHO Health For All Policy aims to significantly reduce the harm from addictive substances, including tobacco, in all member states by 2015, and the WHO Third Action Plan for Tobacco-Free Europe focuses on reducing the harm from tobacco. These documents recommend five key policy strategies: market regulation, product liability, smoke-free environments, support for smoking cessation and education, public information and public opinion. Interventions such as price increases, restricting availability, advertising bans and product control could all be used to achieve harm reduction. Research on reducing the harm of smoking needs to include policy as well as treatment research. PMID:10723816

Anderson, P; Hughes, J R

2000-01-01

280

Traditional Field Crops. Appropriate Technologies for Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, primarily designed to help Peace Corps volunteers develop and strengthen their agricultural skills, deals with traditional field crops. The focus of the manual is on surveying and interpreting local agricultural environment and individual farm units, developing agricultural extension techniques and practices, and providing basic…

Leonard, David

281

Harm or Mere Inconvenience? Denying Women Emergency Contraception  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the likely impact on women of being denied emergency contraception (EC) by pharmacists who conscientiously refuse to provide it. A common view—defended by Elizabeth Fenton and Loren Lomasky, among others—is that these refusals inconvenience rather than harm women so long as the women can easily get EC somewhere else close by. I argue from a feminist perspective that the refusals harm women even when they can easily get EC somewhere else close by.

McLeod, Carolyn

2010-01-01

282

Students who self-harm: Coping style, Rumination and Alexithymia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counsellors working with students or other young adults may encounter individuals who have self-harmed, either with suicidal or non-suicidal intent. Recent US studies reported rates of self-injury of up to 37% of the student population, but studies in the UK have focussed primarily on younger adolescents. This study examined reported self-harm incidents (scratching, cutting, poisoning, overdose etc) from a sample

J. Borrill; P. Fox; M. Flynn; D. Roger

2009-01-01

283

Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Nutrient sources, composition, and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although algal blooms, including those considered toxic or harmful, can be natural phenomena, the nature of the global problem\\u000a of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has expanded both in extent and its public perception over the last several decades. Of concern,\\u000a especially for resource managers, is the potential relationship between HABs and the accelerated eutrophication of coastal\\u000a waters from human activities.

Donald M. Anderson; Patricia M. Glibert; Joann M. Burkholder

2002-01-01

284

Parental Detection of Youth's Self-Harm Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rate and predictors of parental detection of youth self-harm behavior and relationship with help-seeking were examined in 7,036 parent-child dyads from the 1999 and 2004 surveys of Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain. Youth self-harm behavior was reported by 463 (6.6%) children and adolescents but only 190 (2.7%) of the…

Mojtabai, Ramin; Olfson, Mark

2008-01-01

285

GHB use among Australians: characteristics, use patterns and associated harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) users, their GHB and other drug use patterns, and the harms associated with GHB use. Seventy-six GHB users were recruited and administered a structured interview on GHB use and related harms. GHB users appeared to be a stable, highly educated and well-functioning group. They had had extensive

Louisa Degenhardt; Shane Darke; Paul Dillon

2002-01-01

286

Evaluating Retailer Behavior in Preventing Youth Access to Harmful Legal Products: A Feasibility Test*  

PubMed Central

This paper reports results from a feasibility study of a community effort to reduce the availability of legal products that youth can use to get “high”. The study evaluated the potential of youth purchase attempts to detect actual changes in retail availability of harmful legal products. These results were triangulated with self-reports from retailers themselves about their own policies and practices. Before the intervention less than half of retailers reported using any of six possible strategies identified as ways to reduce youth access to harmful products and less than 7% of baseline youth attempts to purchase potentially harmful legal products were refused or questioned. After the low dosage intervention, retailers reported increased use of three strategies and a statistically significant increase in the percentage of purchase attempts that were either questioned or refused by retail clerks. These findings (1) demonstrate the potential feasibility of retailer focused environmental strategies and (2) support continued use of youth purchase attempts as a measure of actual retailer behavior.

Courser, Matthew W.; Holder, Harold D.; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen A.

2008-01-01

287

[Harm reduction policies in Brazil: contributions of a North American program].  

PubMed

Given the rapid spread of the HIV epidemic and the need to control its transmission among intravenous drug users (IDU), harm reduction strategies have been incorporated in many countries, including Brazil. Considering these aspects and taking into account the emergence of drugs as a core concern on the government's agenda, especially crack cocaine, this article presents some of the contributions acquired from observing and recording the practices of an American model of research and care for IDUs, namely the UFO (You Find Out) Study. Issues such as participants' access and adherence, financing difficulties, sustainability and outcome evaluation were considered. The study involved documental research, systematic observation and interviews with key informants. Some of the UFO features that could contribute to the formulation of harm reduction policies in Brazil are highlighted. The UFO appears to be a successful example of harm reduction initiatives that successfully contact and guarantee the commitment of that risk group, ensuring its access to health services and reducing risks associated with drug use. PMID:24473612

Inglez-Dias, Aline; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Bastos, Francisco I; Page, Kimberly

2014-01-01

288

Compulsory substance-user treatment and harm reduction: a critical analysis.  

PubMed

Compulsory treatment potentially offers a cost-effective and rehabilitative alternative to incarceration for substance-user offenders. However, the compatibility of harm-reduction principles and compulsory substance-user treatment initiatives is unclear. First, the historical record suggests that policy and legislative changes promoting diversion to treatment are typically not followed up by administrative, fiscal, and evaluative support. Moreover, cost-saving arguments underlying past programs may be inadequate to cope with concerns about civil liberties raised by compulsory treatment practices. Second, empirical evidence suggests that there may be a fundamental incompatibility between attitudes endorsing compulsory treatment and attitudes endorsing harm reduction. Finally, empirical claims about the relative efficacy of mandated versus nonmandated substance-user treatment are plagued by conceptual and methodological problems. These arguments suggest that compulsory substance-user treatment and harm reduction may not be as compatible as is commonly believed. Consequently, caution is warranted in moving toward a widespread adoption of compulsory treatment policies. [Translations are provided in the International Abstracts Section of this issue.] PMID:10052392

Wild, T C

1999-01-01

289

Value of Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents pro and con comments with regards to 1975 APA presidential address under the heading of the value of traditions. Other comments are subsumed under the headings of biological versus social evolution, and the genetic basis of behavior especially of altruism. (Author/AM)

Brewer, Marilynn B.; And Others

1976-01-01

290

Literacy in Traditional Societies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of essays derives from an interest in communications, in media and their effect upon human intercourse. Primarily, this concern with the technology of the intellect centers upon the effect of literacy on human culture, especially in 'traditional' or pre-industrial societies. In most of the essays, the effects of literacy are considered…

Goody, Jack, Ed.

291

Tradition in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

Heisenberg, Werner

1973-01-01

292

Looking beyond Traditional Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes the evaluation of the home economics specialized adviser program in Illinois Extension regions, including specific recommendations for program revisions. The evaluation was based on the Provus Discrepancy Evaluation Model, which provides an alternative to traditional evaluation techniques by considering descriptions of…

Harriman, Lynda; McKenna, Constance

1978-01-01

293

Traditional Cherokee Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

Hendrix, Janey B.

294

Non-Traditional Wraps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

Owens, Buffy

2009-01-01

295

Child Psychotherapy: Converging Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I outline some of the ways in which I believe the psychoanalytic traditions in North America and in Great Britain are influencing each other. I identify points of convergence and divergence at this moment in the evolution of psychoanalytic theory and technique. I then point out some of the implications of relational perspectives in…

Altman, Neil

2004-01-01

296

Female genital cutting: a harmless practice?  

PubMed

A recent article in Medical Anthropology Quarterly (Obermeyer 1999) argues that the "facts" about the "harmful effects" of female genital cutting (FGC) are "not sufficiently supported by the evidence" (p. 79). The article suggests three further hypotheses, among others: (1) FGC may be of minimal harm because the more educated continue the practice just as much as the less educated; (2) FGC may be of minimal harm because it is so widespread and persistent; (3) FGC may be of minimal harm because the supposed link between the clitoris and female sexual pleasure is a social construction rather than a physiological reality. I challenge these hypotheses. I say that by appropriate standards of evaluation, FGC is harmful. Finally, I submit that most FGC is a proper matter of concern because it is the irreversible reduction of a human capacity in the absence of meaningful consent. PMID:12846114

Mackie, Gerry

2003-06-01

297

Victims' Perceptions of Traditional and Cyberbullying, and the Psychosocial Correlates of Their Victimisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well recognised that there are serious correlates for victims of traditional bullying. These have been shown to include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms, in addition to often severe physical harm and even suicide. Bullied students also feel more socially ineffective and have greater interpersonal…

Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally

2012-01-01

298

Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article…

Freudenberg, Nicholas

2005-01-01

299

Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article describes how corporate policies influence health and reviews recent health

Nicholas Freudenberg

2005-01-01

300

Harmful gas recognition exploiting a CTL sensor array.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel cataluminescence (CTL)-based sensor array consisting of nine types of catalytic materials is developed for the recognition of several harmful gases, namely carbon monoxide, acetone, chloroform and toluene. First, the experimental setup is constructed by using sensing nanomaterials, a heating plate, a pneumatic pump, a gas flow meter, a digital temperature device, a camera and a BPCL Ultra Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer. Then, unique CTL patterns for the four types of harmful gas are obtained from the sensor array. The harmful gases are successful recognized by the PCA method. The optimal conditions are also investigated. Finally, experimental results show high sensitivity, long-term stability and good linearity of the sensor array, which combined with simplicity, make our system a promising application in this field. PMID:24113681

Wang, Qihui; Xie, Lijun; Zhu, Bo; Zheng, Yao; Cao, Shihua

2013-01-01

301

Assessing benefits and harms of hormone replacement therapy: clinical applications.  

PubMed

An estimated one third of postmenopausal women in the United States use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to treat symptoms of menopause and prevent chronic conditions. In the context of this widespread use, evidence has been growing about the potential harms of HRT, particularly regarding long-term use. Physicians and patients are often confused about how to use results of studies in individual cases. This article applies the current state of evidence for the benefits and harms of HRT to management decisions in 4 clinical situations. Patient preferences, as well as evidence, are important for these decisions. Benefits and harms need to be readdressed periodically to apply newly published evidence and to reassess emerging risks, comorbidities, and needs of individuals. PMID:12186606

Nelson, Heidi D

2002-08-21

302

Harmful Gas Recognition Exploiting a CTL Sensor Array  

PubMed Central

In this paper, a novel cataluminescence (CTL)-based sensor array consisting of nine types of catalytic materials is developed for the recognition of several harmful gases, namely carbon monoxide, acetone, chloroform and toluene. First, the experimental setup is constructed by using sensing nanomaterials, a heating plate, a pneumatic pump, a gas flow meter, a digital temperature device, a camera and a BPCL Ultra Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer. Then, unique CTL patterns for the four types of harmful gas are obtained from the sensor array. The harmful gases are successful recognized by the PCA method. The optimal conditions are also investigated. Finally, experimental results show high sensitivity, long-term stability and good linearity of the sensor array, which combined with simplicity, make our system a promising application in this field.

Wang, Qihui; Xie, Lijun; Zhu, Bo; Zheng, Yao; Cao, Shihua

2013-01-01

303

Childhood Abuse and Harmful Substance Use among Criminal Offenders  

PubMed Central

Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with substance use consequences, even after taking into account substance type and frequency of use. No gender by childhood abuse interactions were found. Symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety partially mediated relationships between childhood abuse and substance use consequences. Findings underscore the importance of assessing childhood abuse and treating anxiety and depression among offenders who exhibit harmful substance use.

Swogger, Marc T.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.

2011-01-01

304

Do smokers in Europe think all cigarettes are equally harmful?  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the ban on misleading descriptors such as light or mild cigarettes in Europe, there are still widespread misperceptions of the relative harmfulness of different brands of cigarettes among smokers. This study examined the extent to which smokers in three European countries believed that some cigarette brands are less harmful and why, using data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe surveys. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were completed among nationally representative samples of 4,956 current smokers (aged ? 18) from Germany (n = 1,515), France (n = 1,735) and the United Kingdom (n = 1,706) conducted between September 2006 and November 2007. Logistic regression models examined whether outcomes, including beliefs that some cigarettes could be less harmful than others, varied by socio-demographic and country of residence. Findings: Around a quarter of smokers in the UK and France, and a third in Germany believed some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Overall, of smokers who falsely believed that some cigarettes are less harmful, 86.3% thought that tar/nicotine yields, 48.7% taste, and 40.4% terms on packs such as ‘smooth’ or ‘ultra’ indicated less harmful brands. About a fifth of smokers across all countries chose their brand based on health reasons, and a similar proportion gave tar yields as a reason for choosing brands. Conclusions: Our research suggests that the current European Tobacco Products Directive is inadequate in eliminating misperceptions about the relative risk of brand descriptors on cigarettes. There is therefore an urgent need to protect smokers in Europe from these misperceptions via stronger measures such as plain packaging regulations.

McNeill, Ann; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain

2012-01-01

305

The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim

Carolyn Morey; Paul Corcoran; Ella Arensman; Ivan J Perry

2008-01-01

306

AHP-Based Measurement and Comparison of Harms of Computer Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring and comparing the harm of the computer virus is an important part of computer security. But there are few researches on the subject. The paper, firstly, defines the harm of the computer virus, proposes four principles for harm classification and then constructs the hierarch structure for the harms. Then applying the theory of analytic hierarchy process, the paper presents

Lansheng Han; Qiwen Liu; Mengsong Zou; Dongfang Guo; Cai Fu

2009-01-01

307

CT hospital slashes door-to-balloon times to reduce patient harm.  

PubMed

A dramatic improvement in door-to-balloon times for STEMI patients is one example of how John Dempsey Hospital at the University of Connecticut Health Center in Farmington, CT, is using checklists and other tools for standardization to improve safety and care. The hospital is part of a three-year statewide initiative of the Connecticut Hospital Association to adopt high-reliability practices and eliminate errors that cause patient harm. The approach is enabling hospitals to learn from each other and share best practices that facilitate improvement. By putting all the materials needed to handle a STEMI patient in a portable "tackle box" and establishing a formal review process for all STEMI cases, Dempsey Hospital was able to trim dismal door-to-balloon times down to a median of 46.5 minutes for 2013, exceeding both state and national median times. The hospital is using multidisciplinary teams to focus on problems and devise solutions. The hospital now holds daily safety huddles to keep the staff focused on a patient-first approach. Administrators also distribute weekly and monthly publications to keep staff apprised about safety events, success stories, and the latest data. To reduce patient harm, more than 3,000 staff members will undergo training on high-reliability techniques. PMID:24968571

2014-07-01

308

It's a wonderful life: is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born?  

PubMed

"It's a Wonderful Life," the title of Frank Capra's classic 1946 movie, seems to encapsulate a fundamental all-American conviction. Unsurprisingly, several courts and jurists have applied the movie-title maxim as the ultimate retort to one of the most intriguing questions in modern tort discourse: Is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born? Wrongful life claimants answer in the affirmative, whereas Capra's aphorism makes a compelling counter-argument. In my opinion, the contrasting views represent equally legitimate subjective beliefs rather than objective truths, so neither may ever prevail. Without a satisfactory solution from conventional wisdom, the life-as-injury debate may be the Gordian knot of tort law. The purpose of this Article is to cut, rather than untie, the knot: Allow the child to recover without challenging or validating the deep-seated perception of life. Part I shows that hostility to liability in tort for wrongful life is almost universal, crossing lands and seas. Part II argues that this demurral is ultimately rooted in the absence of one of the central components of the cause of action. A tort action must fail because of the inability--both logical and practical--to establish "harm" under the traditional definition of this term. Part III opines that because the Gordian knot of tort law cannot be untied, it must be cut altogether. We must replace the traditional tort framework, which gives rise to an insoluble problem, with a more promising contractual framework inspired by the celebrated case of Hawkins v. McGee. In my view, the child may base an action on the claim that the defendant promised the parents that the child would be born without a certain defect and that the promise went unfulfilled. In formal terms, the child is an intended third party beneficiary of the contract between the parents and the consultant in which the latter warranted birth without a particular disability. The warranty of the future child's physical integrity and health, an integral and inseparable part of the contract, should form the basis of the child's cause of action. PMID:18354869

Perry, Ronen

2007-11-01

309

Mexico-U.S. Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workshop on Taxonomy of Harmful Algal Blooms; Veracruz, Mexico, 18-22 February 2008; A workshop on harmful algal bloom (HAB) taxonomy, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Health of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, was held at the Aquarium of Veracruz and focused on standardizing methods to detect HABs that affect coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico. This binational effort was established under the umbrella of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA), initially formed in 2004 by the five U.S. Gulf states (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) with participation from U.S. federal agencies and other stakeholders.

Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

2008-06-01

310

Vaginal Douching Among Latinas: Practices and Meaning  

PubMed Central

Objectives Vaginal douching is widely practiced by American women, particularly among minority groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. This research sought to investigate vaginal hygiene practices and meaning associated with them among Latina women and adolescents. Study results would guide development of an intervention to decrease douching among Latinas. Methods In depth qualitative interviews conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking women aged 16–40, seeking care for any reason who reported douching within the last year (n = 34). Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. One-third of interviews were conducted in Spanish. Results Two explanatory models for douching motives emerged: one stressed cosmetic benefits; the other, infection prevention and control. Most women reported douching to eliminate menstrual residue; a small number reported douching in context of sexual intercourse or vaginal symptoms. Many were unaware of associated health risks. Respondents typically learned about douching from female family members and friends. Male partners were described as having little to no involvement in the decision to douche. Women varied in their willingness to stop douching. Two-thirds reported receiving harm reduction messages about “overdouching”. About half indicated previous discussion about douching with health care providers; some had reduced frequency in response to counseling. A number of previously unreported vaginal hygiene practices and products were described, including use of a range of traditional hygiene practices, and products imported from outside the US. Conclusions Respondents expressed a range of commitment to douching. Counseling messages acknowledging benefits women perceive as well as health risks should be developed and delivered tailored to individual beliefs. Further research is needed to assess prevalence and safety of previously unreported practices.

Baquero, Maria; Anderson, Matthew R.; Alvarez, Adelyn; Karasz, Alison

2009-01-01

311

How do drug users define their progress in harm reduction programs? Qualitative research to develop user-generated outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Harm reduction is a relatively new and controversial model for treating drug users, with little formal research on its operation and effectiveness. In order to advance the study of harm reduction programs and our understanding of how drug users define their progress, qualitative research was conducted to develop outcomes of harm reduction programming that are culturally relevant, incremental, (i.e., capable of measuring change), and hierarchical (i.e., capable of showing how clients improve over time). Methods The study used nominal group technique (NGT) to develop the outcomes (phase 1) and focus group interviews to help validate the findings (phase 2). Study participants were recruited from a large harm-reduction program in New York City and involved approximately 120 clients in 10 groups in phase 1 and 120 clients in 10 focus groups in phase 2. Results Outcomes of 10 life areas important to drug users were developed that included between 10 to 15 incremental measures per outcome. The outcomes included ways of 1) making money; 2) getting something good to eat; 3) being housed/homeless; 4) relating to families; 5) getting needed programs/benefits/services; 6) handling health problems; 7) handling negative emotions; 8) handling legal problems; 9) improving oneself; and 10) handling drug-use problems. Findings also provided insights into drug users' lives and values, as well as a window into understanding how this population envisions a better quality of life. Results challenged traditional ways of measuring drug users based solely on quantity used and frequency of use. They suggest that more appropriate measures are based on the extent to which drug users organize their lives around drug use and how much drug use is integrated into their lives and negatively impacts other aspects of their lives. Conclusions Harm reduction and other programs serving active drug users and other marginalized people should not rely on institutionalized, provider-defined solutions to problems in living faced by their clients.

Ruefli, Terry; Rogers, Susan J

2004-01-01

312

THE ARTISTRY AND ABILITY OF TRADITIONAL WOMEN HEALERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a phenomenological research study with a purposeful sample, 6 Ojibwa and Cree indigenous women healers from Canada and the United States shared their experience of being a traditional healer. Using stories obtained during open-ended, unstructured interviews, in this article I depict the lives, backgrounds, and traditional healing practices of women who, in the past, have not been afforded an

Roxanne Struthers

2003-01-01

313

Traditional healers in Tanzania: sociocultural profile and three short portraits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional healers are an important part of African societies, but unfortunately the knowledge of the extent and character of traditional healing and the people involved in the practice is limited and impressionistic. They are frequently ignored in studies of user\\/provider patterns, although they cover the health needs of a substantial proportion of the population. For future health planning it is

M. C. Gessler; D. E. Msuya; M. H. H. Nkunya; A. Schär; M. Heinrich; M. Tanner

1995-01-01

314

Preserving Traditional Arts: A Toolkit for Native American Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The surest way to preserve a traditional art form is to continue its practice. However, it is also possible for Indian and other Native American people to use modern documentation tools to safeguard the survival of their cultural traditions for the future. This book presents a selection of professional documentation techniques that are especially…

Dyal, Susan

315

Primary School Children and Self Harm: The Emotional Impact upon Education Professionals, and Their Understandings of Why Children Self Harm and How This Is Managed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence suggesting that self harm among young people is beginning earlier, in childhood and adolescent years. This paper reports on a qualitative study of primary school staff responses to self harm among children. Some studies with adolescents show self harm presents challenges to education professionals who may lack training or…

Simm, Rebecca; Roen, Katrina; Daiches, Anna

2010-01-01

316

Primary school children and self harm: the emotional impact upon education professionals, and their understandings of why children self harm and how this is managed  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence suggesting that self harm among young people is beginning earlier, in childhood and adolescent years. This paper reports on a qualitative study of primary school staff responses to self harm among children. Some studies with adolescents show self harm presents challenges to education professionals who may lack training or resources to address this issue, yet research concerning

Rebecca Simm; Katrina Roen; Anna Daiches

2010-01-01

317

Adolescents With Suicidal and Nonsuicidal Self-Harm: Clinical Characteristics and Response to Therapeutic Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-harm is one of the best predictors of death by suicide, but few studies directly compare adolescents with suicidal versus nonsuicidal self-harm. Seventy adolescents presenting with self-harm (71% young women, ages 12–18 years) who participated in a randomized controlled trial were divided into suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm categories using the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment. Adolescents with suicidal self-harm

Dennis Ougrin; Tobias Zundel; Marinos Kyriakopoulos; Reetoo Banarsee; Daniel Stahl; Eric Taylor

2012-01-01

318

Nanoparticle emissions from traditional pottery manufacturing.  

PubMed

Traditional pottery manufacturing involves firing of the ceramics in kilns, a process that leads to high concentrations of airborne particles that are harmful to human health. In order to assess the associated exposure levels and the involved risks, here, for the first time, we investigate the size, the concentration and the elemental composition of the particles emitted during the different stages of the ceramic firing process. Number size distributions of the emitted particles, having diameters in the range from 10 nm to 20 ?m, were measured in a traditional small-sized pottery studio using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and an Optical Particle Counter (OPC). The measurements showed dominance of the nanoparticle mode (i.e., particles smaller than 100 nm) when the kiln reached temperatures above 600 °C. The mean size of the particles ranged from 30 to 70 nm and their peak number concentration was 6.5 × 10(5) cm(-3) during the first stage of the firing process where the ceramics were unpainted and unglazed. During the second stage of the firing process, where the ceramics were painted and glazed, the mean particle size ranged from 15 to 40 nm and their number concentration peaked at 1.2 × 10(6) cm(-3). Elemental analysis of individual particles collected during the two firing stages and studied by Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy showed that the emitted nanoparticles contain significant amounts of lead. These findings provide new information for understanding the health impacts of traditional pottery manufacturing, and underline the need for adopting adequate measures to control nanoparticle emissions at the source. PMID:24752632

Voliotis, Aristeidis; Bezantakos, Spyros; Giamarelou, Maria; Valenti, Marco; Kumar, Prashant; Biskos, George

2014-05-28

319

The Drinker's Effect on the Social Environment: A Conceptual Framework for Studying Alcohol's Harm to Others  

PubMed Central

The paper considers conceptual and methodological issues in studying the scope of alcohol’s harm to others. Reasons are suggested for the relative neglect of the topic. The approaches in two relevant research traditions are considered: population surveys on alcohol problems, and economic cost of alcohol studies. Ways of conceptualizing and measuring aspects of the drinker’s effects on others are considered, in terms of main types of relationship with the other, and in terms of major societal response institutions. The main types of data tend to measure different levels of severity, with population survey data dominated by less severe problems, and response institution data by more severe problems; so both are needed for a three-dimensional view. Research questions for the field and its policy significance are noted.

Room, Robin; Ferris, Jason; Laslett, Anne-Marie; Livingston, Michael; Mugavin, Janette; Wilkinson, Claire

2010-01-01

320

Traditional Software Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Large projects from the past must already have had some sort of project management, such the Pyramid of Giza or Pyramid of\\u000a Cheops, which were built more than 2,500 years BC. We cannot believe that those types of projects were possible without some\\u000a sort of project management. But at least we are not aware of the project management practices that

Thomas Stober; Uwe Hansmann

321

Strength-Based Efforts for Promoting Recovery from Psychological Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much resilience research highlights protective factors that prevent risk. Here the author focuses on resilience as the ability to recover from psychological harm. The strength-based view sees resilience as a transformational experience. One applicant of this approach is the Phoenix Intervention Program for Children (PIPC) which combines concepts…

De Civita, Mirella

2006-01-01

322

Tattoos Can Harm Perceptions: A Study and Suggestions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Health researchers have claimed that perceptions toward a person with a tattoo are more negative than are perceptions toward nontattooed persons. However, support for this has been obtained almost completely by nonexperimental research. Participants: In 2 experiments with 158 community college student participants, the authors found that tattoos harmed perceptions. Methods: Students viewed a photograph of a female model

Annette Resenhoeft; Julie Villa; David Wiseman

2008-01-01

323

The Harmful Algal Bloom: Simple Plants With Toxic Implications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides scientific understanding, detection, monitoring, assessment, and prediction of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxia (low oxygen). Specifics are given on understanding HABs (red tide) where they occur, the climate and economic impact on the environment as well as a framework of response options.

2003-07-27

324

Ecstasy use in Australia: patterns of use and associated harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored patterns of ecstasy use and associated harm through the administration of a structured interview schedule to 329 ecstasy users, recruited from three Australian cities. A broad range of ecstasy users were interviewed, but on the whole, the sample was young, relatively well educated and most were employed or students. Patterns of use were varied, although extensive polydrug

Libby Topp; Julie Hando; Paul Dillon; Ann Roche; Nadia Solowij

1999-01-01

325

Doing Harm While Doing Good: The Child Protection Paradox  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every Australian citizen expects state and territory governments to protect children from child abuse and neglect. Protecting children from harm is seen as good. This however is not a simple matter. The ultimate act in protecting children is to remove them from parental care. This causes trauma for the child and pain and distress for parents no…

Ainsworth, Frank; Hansen, Patricia

2012-01-01

326

2Way Text Classification for Harmful Web Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The openness of the Web allows any user to access almost any type of information. However, some information, such as adult con- tent, is not appropriate for all users, notably children. Additionally for adults, some contents included in abnormal porn sites can do ordinary people's mental health harm. In this paper, we propose an e-cient 2-way text fllter for blocking

Youngsoo Kim; Taekyong Nam; Dongho Won

2006-01-01

327

Induction of Apoptosis in Bronchial Eosinophils: Beneficial or Harmful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Prominent eosinophil infiltration takes place in asthmatic bronchi, and damages bronchial epithelial cells. Aim: This study was designed to investigate whether induction of apoptosis in infiltrated cells in the airways is beneficial or harmful. Methods: A\\/J mice, which are genetically predisposed to be hyperresponsive to acetylcholine, were immunized with ovalbumin (OA) and alum. Thereafter, they were subjected to a

Naomi Yamashita; Makoto Tajima; Junichi Nakano; Hitoshi Arioka; Hidenori Arai; Tadashi Miyasaka; Shigeru Kubota; Ruji Kawashima; Ken Ohta

2000-01-01

328

Protecting Prisoners from Harmful Research: Is "Being Heard" Enough?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving the conditions under which incarcerated populations give "informed consent" is a desirable goal given prisoners' lack of autonomy; part of the Institutional Review Board's (IRB) procedures is the inclusion of representative voices from the prisoner population as a mechanism to reduce harms. The most recent review of the ethics of…

Mobley, Alan; Henry, Stuart; Plemmons, Dena

2007-01-01

329

Safer self-injury or assisted self-harm?  

PubMed

Psychiatric patients may try (or express a desire) to injure themselves in hospital in order to cope with overwhelming emotional pain. Some health care practitioners and patients propose allowing a controlled amount of self-injury to occur in inpatient facilities, so as to prevent escalation of distress. Is this approach an example of professional assistance with harm? Or, is the approach more likely to minimise harm, by ensuring safer self-injury? In this article, I argue that health care practitioners who use harm-minimisation can be considered to be helping physical injury to occur, although they do not encourage the act. I consider why there are compelling reasons to believe that a patient who self-injures is not maximally autonomous in relation to that choice. However, I then move onto argue that allowing a degree of self-injury may enable engagement with psychotherapy (enhancing autonomy) and behavioural change. In these circumstances, allowing injury (with precautions) may not be harm, all things considered. PMID:20232252

Gutridge, Kerry

2010-02-01

330

Sexual Orientation and Self-Harm in Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Recent studies of homosexual people have found higher rates of nonfa- tal suicidal behavior than among hetero- sexuals. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between self- harm and sexual orientation for men and women separately, defining sexual orien- tation by sexual attraction rather than by behavior. Method: In a birth cohort of 1,019 New Zealand young

Keren Skegg; Shyamala Nada-Raja; Sheila Williams

2003-01-01

331

Exploring Parents' Responses to Their Child's Deliberate Self-Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a serious public health problem and, although in the past research has focused mainly on the DSH patient, it is now recognised that parental involvement in the therapeutic process is beneficial. This study aimed to understand parents' concerns, expectations and experiences following an episode of deliberate…

Raphael, H.; Clarke, G.; Kumar, S.

2006-01-01

332

Controlling Harmful Algal Blooms Through Clay Flocculation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. The potential use of clays to control harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been explored in East Asia, Australia, the United States, and Sweden. In Japan and South Korea, minerals such as montmorillonite, kaolinite, and yellow loess, have already been used in the field effectively, to protect fish mariculture fromCochlodiniumspp. and other blooms. Cell removal occurs through the flocculation of

MARIO R. SENGCO; DONALD M. ANDERSON

2004-01-01

333

Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2003, the US Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a “roundtable discussion” to develop a consensus on the relationship between eutrophication and harmful algal blooms (HABs), specifically targeting those relationships for which management actions may be appropriate. Academic, federal, and state agency representatives were in attendance. The following seven statements were unanimously adopted by attendees based on review and analysis

J. Heisler; P. M. Glibert; J. M. Burkholder; D. M. Anderson; W. Cochlan; W. C. Dennison; Q. Dortch; C. J. Gobler; C. A. Heil; E. Humphries; A. Lewitus; R. Magnien; H. G. Marshall; K. Sellner; D. A. Stockwell; D. K. Stoecker; M. Suddleson

2008-01-01

334

Mental Health Status Among the Staff of Harm Reduction Centers  

PubMed Central

Background: Creating a supportive environment encourages charity services to help risk groups and individuals which has magnificent impacts on reducing their harm. Objectives: According to this plan, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health status in the staff of harm reduction centers. Materials and Methods: The clustered sample of this comparative study consisted of 49 staff of harm reduction centers. The study was supported by the United Nations Development Program in Tehran, Iran. The participants completed GHQ-28 and DASS-21 questionnaires along with sociologic forms and the results were evaluated by descriptive statistics indexes and independent sample t-test. Results: One-hundred percent of the participants in this study showed the symptoms of psychological disorders, and approximately 16 percent suffered from moderate to high degree of anxiety, depression and stress. The level of anxiety (P ? 0.04) and stress (P ? 0.01) in the younger staff (less than 40 years) was significantly higher than older staff (more than 40 years old). In addition, somatic symptoms (P ? 0.05) and social withdrawal (P ? 0.01) were significantly higher in women than men. Conclusions: Accordingly, major mental disorders in the staff of harm reduction centers, especially women and younger people need to be considered more than before.

Rezazade, Majid; Lashani, Zeynab; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

2014-01-01

335

The Ethics of Observing: Confronting the Harm of Experiential Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I explore the ethical terrain of experiential learning activities drawing on my experiences leading college students on field trips into criminal justice settings. Though there are numerous educational benefits to adopting experiential learning activities, the rewards must be evaluated in light of the potential harms to nonstudent…

Meisel, Joshua S.

2008-01-01

336

First Do No Harm: Ethical Principles for Youth Mentoring Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentoring programs pair youth who are perceived to be at risk for poor outcomes with volunteers who are trained to provide support. Although mentoring has experienced tremendous growth in recent years, the ethical challenges inherent in relationship-based interventions have been given insufficient attention among researchers and practitioners. Rarely acknowledged is the potential for harm that poorly implemented mentoring relationships can

Jean Rhodes; Belle Liang; Renée Spencer

2009-01-01

337

Approaches to model the life cycle of harmful algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of harmful algal blooms (HABs) need to include autecological characteristics of the HAB species because the bloom dynamics can only be successfully described if relevant life cycle aspects (in particular en- and excystment) are included in some way. This study presents an overview on how the life cycle is considered in current Lagrangian and Eulerian models. Examples of the

Inga Hense

2010-01-01

338

Research on the life cycles of harmful algae: A commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the life cycles of harmful algae has advanced substantially in the last decade, in part through increased support of major research programs such as the SEED and the ECOHAB – Gulf of Maine projects. As with most research, the new knowledge answers some questions but raises more that require further inquiry, particularly since life-cycle strategies appear to

Karen A. Steidinger

2010-01-01

339

Cruel disease, cruel medicine: self-treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with harmful chemical substances in Suriname.  

PubMed

Why are potentially harmful, non-biomedical chemical substances, such as battery acid, chlorine, herbicides, and insecticides, used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)? What drives people to use these products as medicine? This article is about perceptions of CL, and the quest for a cure, in Suriname, South America. It highlights the associative style of reasoning behind health seeking and discusses the use of harmful chemical substances as medicines. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, affects 1 to 1.5 million people globally. It has a spectrum of clinical manifestations, but the most prominent and disfiguring elements are extensive dermatological ulceration and scar formation from lesions. The data upon which this article is based are derived from anthropological research carried out in different parts of Suriname between September 2009 and December 2010. Data was collected through mainly qualitative methods, including interviewing 205 CL patients using structured questionnaires at the Dermatological Service in the capital Paramaribo. Almost all people with CL said they tried self-treatment, varying from the use of ethno-botanical products to non-biomedical chemical solutions. This article presents and interprets the views and practices of CL patients who sought treatment using harsh chemicals. It argues that a confluence of contextual factors - environmental, occupational, infrastructural, geographical, socio-cultural, economic, socio-psychological - leads to the use of harmful chemical substances to treat CL sores. This study is the first in Suriname - and one of the few done globally - focusing on social and cultural aspects related to CL health seeking. It aims to encourage health policy makers and health professionals to carefully initiate, provide, and evaluate CL treatment and prevention programs. PMID:22704264

Ramdas, Sahienshadebie

2012-09-01

340

The harm argument against surrogacy revisited: two versions not to forget.  

PubMed

It has been a common claim that surrogacy is morally problematic since it involves harm to the child or the surrogate-the harm argument. Due to a growing body of empirical research, the harm argument has seen a decrease in popularity, as there seems to be little evidence of harmful consequences of surrogacy. In this article, two revised versions of the harm argument are developed. It is argued that the two suggested versions of the harm argument survive the current criticism against the standard harm argument. The first version argues that the child is harmed by being separated from the gestational mother. The second version directs attention to the fact that surrogacy involves great incentives to keep the gestational mother's level of maternal-fetal attachment low, which tend to increase the risk of harm to the child. While neither of the two arguments is conclusive regarding the moral status of surrogacy, both constitute important considerations that are often ignored. PMID:24664239

Agnafors, Marcus

2014-08-01

341

Cost-effectiveness and harm-benefit analyses of risk-based screening strategies for breast cancer.  

PubMed

The one-size-fits-all paradigm in organized screening of breast cancer is shifting towards a personalized approach. The present study has two objectives: 1) To perform an economic evaluation and to assess the harm-benefit ratios of screening strategies that vary in their intensity and interval ages based on breast cancer risk; and 2) To estimate the gain in terms of cost and harm reductions using risk-based screening with respect to the usual practice. We used a probabilistic model and input data from Spanish population registries and screening programs, as well as from clinical studies, to estimate the benefit, harm, and costs over time of 2,624 screening strategies, uniform or risk-based. We defined four risk groups, low, moderate-low, moderate-high and high, based on breast density, family history of breast cancer and personal history of breast biopsy. The risk-based strategies were obtained combining the exam periodicity (annual, biennial, triennial and quinquennial), the starting ages (40, 45 and 50 years) and the ending ages (69 and 74 years) in the four risk groups. Incremental cost-effectiveness and harm-benefit ratios were used to select the optimal strategies. Compared to risk-based strategies, the uniform ones result in a much lower benefit for a specific cost. Reductions close to 10% in costs and higher than 20% in false-positive results and overdiagnosed cases were obtained for risk-based strategies. Optimal screening is characterized by quinquennial or triennial periodicities for the low or moderate risk-groups and annual periodicity for the high-risk group. Risk-based strategies can reduce harm and costs. It is necessary to develop accurate measures of individual risk and to work on how to implement risk-based screening strategies. PMID:24498285

Vilaprinyo, Ester; Forné, Carles; Carles, Misericordia; Sala, Maria; Pla, Roger; Castells, Xavier; Domingo, Laia; Rue, Montserrat

2014-01-01

342

An audit of the NICE self-harm guidelines at a local Accident and Emergency department in North Wales.  

PubMed

This paper reports the findings of a self-harm audit based on data collected at an A&E department in North Wales. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines on the short term physical and psychological management of self-harm were published in 2004 and the audit was based on technical criteria recommended in the guideline booklet, including standards of psychosocial assessment, staff training and patient satisfaction information. The data in this study related to fifty consecutive self-harm attendances at the A&E department Ysbyty Glan Clwyd in the Spring of 2007. The hospital serves a mixed rural/urban population of approximately 250,000. Patient satisfaction questionnaires were made available to the group subsequently, whilst the staff training audit was distributed more widely to include emergency, medicine and mental health divisions of the Conwy & Denbighshire NHS Trust. The results demonstrated generally high standards of care on psychosocial assessment, though information relating to initial ambulance involvement in treatment was often unclear. The response to the staff-training questionnaire was an encouraging 44% and indicated wide variations between staff groups and areas of work. The patient satisfaction returns demonstrated favourable responses, with several comments added to expand on tick box replies. Service developments, as a result of the audit, include the proposal to provide mental health and self-harm training to all those staff likely to encounter the behaviour--not just to those who work in mental health. Patients, from the questionnaire, who express a willingness to become part of a mental health planning group are now provided details of the patient participation involvement (PPI) group, where their experiences can often inform service improvement. Meanwhile the case note audit has reinforced the need for a practical self-harm pathway which will ensure consistency. PMID:18042484

Jones, Russell; Avies-Jones, Alison

2007-10-01

343

Tobacco Harm Reduction and the Evolution of Nicotine Dependence  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a renewed debate has developed around the potential for modified tobacco products to play a role in reducing tobacco-related harm. During the 1960s and 1970s medical experts recommended to smokers who could not quit that they switch to cigarettes with lower tar and nicotine content. At the time, survey data suggested that smokers who switched did not compensate for the reduction in nicotine by increasing their intake. However, public health scientists were hindered in their ability to evaluate the population impact of the reduced tar strategy by a limited understanding of nicotine addiction. Smoking dependence was seen as primarily psychological and social, rather than pharmacological or biological, until the late 1970s, when addiction researchers began to apply experimental techniques from other forms of drug abuse to study smoking behavior. This history has important lessons for current discussions about tobacco harm reduction and regulation of nicotine delivery.

2011-01-01

344

Combination drug use and risk for fetal harm.  

PubMed

Alcohol and other drugs are frequently used in combination. Based on data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Falk and colleagues (2006, 2008) reported that 21.7 percent of the sampled population used both alcohol and tobacco and 5.6 percent used alcohol and another drug. Among women aged 18 to 24 the rates were 25.5 percent and 12.5 percent, respectively. Individually, alcohol, tobacco products, and a number of illicit drugs (such as cocaine or amphetamine) are known to be harmful to the developing fetus during pregnancy. Determining the additional harm resulting from polydrug use during pregnancy is an exceptionally challenging task. The unpredictable interactive (either additive or synergistic) effects of the drugs used simultaneously have far-reaching implications on child health and development given the pervasive use of multiple drugs in our society. PMID:23580037

Chen, Weijung A; Maier, Susan E

2011-01-01

345

Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?  

PubMed Central

A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners’ (GPs’) advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service’s National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are reviewed, including their political acceptability. It is tentatively concluded that widespread dissemination of SBI, without the implementation of alcohol control measures, might have indirect influences on levels of consumption and harm but would be unlikely on its own to result in public health benefits. However, if and when alcohol control measures were introduced, SBI would still have an important role in the battle against alcohol-related harm.

2012-01-01

346

What's in my buckets today? Foreseeing and forestalling patient harm.  

PubMed

Operating theatre teams work in an imperfect system characterised by time pressure, goal conflicts, lack of team stability and steep authority gradients between consultants and other team members. Despite this, they often foresee and forestall errors that could harm patients. The paper discusses the strengths and limitations of using Reason's three buckets model of error prevention as a framework for training operating theatre staff how to foresee and forestall incidents. PMID:24720055

Carthey, Jane

2014-03-01

347

Worm Harm Prediction Based on Segment Procedure Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the application of segment procedure neural networks to predict harm status of horsetail-pine worm.\\u000a A novel procedure neural networks is proposed to solve those problems which are related to certain distinct segments of procedure.\\u000a It is indicated that this model is a generalized form of the known procedure neural networks, and it owns all properties of

Jiuzhen Liang; Xiaohong Wu

2006-01-01

348

Predicting blame assignment in a case of negligent harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of blame posit that observers consider causality, controllability, and foreseeability when assigning blame to actors.\\u000a The present study examined which of these factors, either on their own or in interaction, predicted blame assigned to actors\\u000a in a case of harm caused by negligence. The findings revealed that only causal impact ratings predicted blame. The findings\\u000a also revealed a novel

David R. Mandel

2010-01-01

349

Deliberate self-harm and suicide: a review from Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide is now considered a major public health problem, especially in low income countries. A systematic review was conducted to identify risk factors and causes of deliberate self-harm and suicide in Pakistan – a Muslim, South Asian nation. In addition, the role of emergency department-based surveillance is explored. Four electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL Plus, MDConsult, PakMediNet) were searched and 23

Muhammad Shahid; Adnan A. Hyder

2008-01-01

350

Harmful algal bloom causative collected from Hong Kong waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased globally in recent years. In Hong Kong, a record algal bloom, caused by Gymnodinium mikimotoi and Gyrodiniumsp. HK'98 (subsequently described as Karenia digitata) occurred in March and April 1998. Almost all fishes died in the affected cages, and the estimated economic loss caused by the HAB was HK$$315?000?000 (equivalent to US $$40?000?000). Most of

Songhui Lu; I. J. Hodgkiss

2004-01-01

351

ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIAL ACTION - ARE WE DOING MORE HARM THAN GOOD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (1) has stated that interventions i.e., remedial actions should do more good than harm. This paper examines completed cleanup projects to answer the question posed in the title. Various researchers have published that toxins in the environment only cause a small percentage of cancers i.e., 1-3 percent (2,3). Estimates of hypothetical fatal cancers

Bruce W. Church

2001-01-01

352

Absence of harmful effects of protracted negative air ionisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of harmful effects of protracted negative air ionisation was studied in 5 weather-sensitive women and 5 normal men chosen at random. Negative ions were generated by the Modulion of Amcor-Amron (Herzliya, Israel). The patients were exposed separately during 8 sleeping hours and 8 working hours to the apparatus at 1–2 m distance in a 4 × 4 m

F. G. Sulman; D. Levy; L. Lunkan; Y. Pfeifer; E. Tal

1978-01-01

353

Prediction of Harmful Human Health Effects of Chemicals from Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is a great need to assess the harmful effects of chemicals to which man is exposed. Various in silico techniques including\\u000a chemical grouping and category formation, as well as the use of (Q)SARs can be applied to predict the toxicity of chemicals\\u000a for a number of toxicological effects. This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art

Mark T. D. Cronin

354

Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms (MERHAB)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features the Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms (MERHAB) Program. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are occurring with increasing frequency and duration along our shores. Nearly every coastal region is struggling to mitigate the often devastating impacts to local economies and serious human health threats associated with a variety of harmful algae. MERHAB projects have been developed to enhance existing water and shellfish monitoring programs with new technology allowing for pro-active detection of coastal HAB events. The ultimate aim of MERHAB is to help build sustainable regional partnerships that provide managers with crucial information in time for critical decisions needed to mitigate HAB impacts. The MERHAB research program is addressing the growing national HAB threat by expanding the number of coastal regions benefiting from advancements in algal identification, detection, modeling, and prediction. This page discusses the issue of HABs, research addressing the issue, and related accomplishments. A link is provided to a list of MERHAB research abstracts.

2009-12-25

355

Youth Justice staff attitudes towards screening for self-harm.  

PubMed

Young offenders are recognised as a high-risk group for suicidal behaviour. It is essential that the screening used to identify those at risk and refer them to mental health services is effective, especially in community settings where service utilisation is low. Staff attitudes towards screening for suicide and self-harm are likely to influence how a young offender engages with the screening process. Our study is the first to explore community youth justice staff attitudes towards, and perceptions of, screening for self-harmful behaviour. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted at an English Youth Offending Team in June 2006 with staff who had used the suicide screening tool with young offenders. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Staff attitudes towards working within the screening system varied along two dimensions. The first 'active/passive' dimension related to perceived confidence in dealing with self-harm. The second 'positive/negative' dimension related to perceptions of the benefits of screening and the effectiveness of mental health provision for young offenders. Results indicate that barriers to effective screening must be tackled at both individual and organisational levels. The model of attitudes presented here could be used to increase understanding of how staff can be supported to engage effectively with the screening system. PMID:22443106

Knowles, Sarah E; Townsend, Ellen; Anderson, Martin P

2012-09-01

356

Harms and benefits: collecting ethnicity data in a clinical context.  

PubMed

Although ethnicity data are collected in most countries at the population level, it has become more common to collect such data in healthcare settings, partially in response to growing health and social inequities worldwide. However, the implications of doing so have not been studied. This two-year study was designed to critically examine the implications of collecting ethnicity data in healthcare settings. Using a critical ethnographic approach, we interviewed 104 patients, community and healthcare leaders, and healthcare workers within diverse clinical contexts in a large city in Western Canada in 2006-2007. This paper presents an interpretive thematic analysis, using an ethical lens, of the harms and benefits associated with the process of data collection in a clinical context. While most leaders and healthcare workers and some patients envisioned potential benefits associated with having ethnicity data, these benefits were seen as largely contingent upon action being taken to ameliorate inequities. Overwhelmingly, however, leaders from ethno-cultural communities and patients of diverse identities anticipated potential harm arising both from having ethnicity data and the process of collection. The analysis illustrates that in today's sociopolitical context, collecting ethnicity data in clinical contexts may engender considerable harm, particularly for racialized, vulnerable patients. If ethnicity data are currently collected at the population level, evidence of benefit is required before proceeding to collect these data at the point of care. PMID:19286294

Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J; Wong, Sabrina; Smye, Victoria L

2009-05-01

357

Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms (MERHAB)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features the Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms (MERHAB) Program. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are occurring with increasing frequency and duration along our shores. Nearly every coastal region is struggling to mitigate the often devastating impacts to local economies and serious human health threats associated with a variety of harmful algae. MERHAB projects have been developed to enhance existing water and shellfish monitoring programs with new technology allowing for pro-active detection of coastal HAB events. The ultimate aim of MERHAB is to help build sustainable regional partnerships that provide managers with crucial information in time for critical decisions needed to mitigate HAB impacts. The MERHAB research program is addressing the growing national HAB threat by expanding the number of coastal regions benefiting from advancements in algal identification, detection, modeling, and prediction. This page discusses the issue of HABs, research addressing the issue, and related accomplishments. A link is provided to a list of MERHAB research abstracts.

Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR); Noaa

358

Prediction of Harmful Human Health Effects of Chemicals from Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a great need to assess the harmful effects of chemicals to which man is exposed. Various in silico techniques including chemical grouping and category formation, as well as the use of (Q)SARs can be applied to predict the toxicity of chemicals for a number of toxicological effects. This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art of the prediction of the harmful effects of chemicals to human health. A variety of existing data can be used to obtain information; many such data are formalized into freely available and commercial databases. (Q)SARs can be developed (as illustrated with reference to skin sensitization) for local and global data sets. In addition, chemical grouping techniques can be applied on "similar" chemicals to allow for read-across predictions. Many "expert systems" are now available that incorporate these approaches. With these in silico approaches available, the techniques to apply them successfully have become essential. Integration of different in silico approaches with each other, as well as with other alternative approaches, e.g., in vitro and -omics through the development of integrated testing strategies, will assist in the more efficient prediction of the harmful health effects of chemicals

Cronin, Mark T. D.

359

Payment Source and Emergency Management of Deliberate Self-Harm  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated whether health insurance type (private vs Medicaid) influences the delivery of acute mental health care to patients with deliberate self-harm. Methods. Using National Medicaid Analytic Extract Files (2006) and MarketScan Research Databases (2005–2007), we analyzed claims focusing on emergency episodes of deliberate self-harm of Medicaid- (n?=?8228) and privately (n?=?2352) insured adults. We analyzed emergency department mental health assessments and outpatient mental health visits in the 30 days following the emergency visit for discharged patients. Results. Medicaid-insured patients were more likely to be discharged (62.7%), and among discharged patients they were less likely to receive a mental health assessment in the emergency department (47.8%) and more likely to receive follow-up outpatient mental health care (52.9%) than were privately insured patients (46.9%, 57.3%, and 41.2%, respectively). Conclusions. Acute emergency management of deliberate self-harm is less intensive for Medicaid- than for privately insured patients, although discharged Medicaid-insured patients are more likely to receive follow-up care. Programmatic reforms are needed to improve access to emergency mental health services, especially in hospitals that serve substantial numbers of Medicaid-insured patients.

Marcus, Steven C.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Olfson, Mark

2012-01-01

360

Understanding the composite practice that forms when classrooms take up the practice of scientific argumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional classroom practices communicate epistemic commitments and goals that might be contrary to those needed for meaningful participation in scientific inquiry practices. In this dissertation, I explore how traditional classroom practices influence students' participation in the practice of scientific argumentation. I address this through a two-pronged approach. First, given that students do not typically engage in collaborative knowledge-building through scientific

Leema Kuhn Berland

2008-01-01

361

47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

2013-10-01

362

Please Don't Eat the Daisies (A Guide to Harmful Plants).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews common wild, cultivated, and household plants which may be harmful to humans by causing allergic reactions, dermatitis, physical injury, or internal poisoning. Includes brief descriptions of plants, their potential harm, and some illustrations. (DC)

Manor, C. Robert

1982-01-01

363

A Primer on Detecting Cirrhosis and Caring for These Patients without Causing Harm  

PubMed Central

Many people who have cirrhosis are undiagnosed. The diagnosis may not become evident until they develop multiorgan failure after an invasive procedure. Patients with cirrhosis are unusually fragile and can be easily harmed and even set into a fatal down-spiral by seemingly innocuous treatments including medications and invasive procedures. There is much confusion regarding the care of these patients. For example, what medications can be used safely to treat pain, what sedatives are safe and effective, which medications are to be avoided, what diet should be prescribed, and which invasive procedures are safe. This paper provides the author's advice regarding clues to the presence of cirrhosis and the dos and do nots in the general care of these patients, based on his 30 years of experience in a liver-failure-focused academic practice.

Runyon, Bruce Allen

2011-01-01

364

LIFETIME AND INTERGENERATIONAL FITNESS CONSEQUENCES OF HARMFUL MALE INTERACTIONS FOR FEMALE LIZARDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Male mating,behaviors harmful,to females have been described in a wide range of species. However, the direct and indirect fitness consequences of harmful male behaviors have been rarely quantified for females and their offspring, especially for long-lived organisms under natural conditions. Here, lifetime and intergenerational consequences of harmful male interactions were,investigated,in female,common,lizards (Lacerta vivipara) using,field experiments. We exposed,females to male,harm,by

J.-F. Le Galliard; J. Cote; P. S. Fitze

2008-01-01

365

Managing the unmanageable: Cognitive behaviour therapy for deliberate self-harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deliberate non-fatal acts of self-harm, including self-poisoning and self-injury are a significant public health challenge: the incidence of self-harm in young people is in the region of 7–14%. This paper considers the application of cognitive behaviour therapy to people who harm themselves through attempted suicide or self-injury. Models and interventions for self-harm based on problem-solving, Beck's cognitive therapy and other

Stirling Moorey

2010-01-01

366

Self-harm in British South Asian women: psychosocial correlates and strategies for prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To review the rates of self-harm in British South Asian women, look into the factors that contribute to these high rates of self-harm and discuss possible strategies for prevention and provision of culturally sensitive service for South Asian women who harm themselves. METHOD: Review. RESULTS: South Asian women are significantly more likely to self harm between ages 16–24 years

MI Husain; W Waheed; Nusrat Husain

2006-01-01

367

Automated detection of harm in healthcare with information technology: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ContextTo improve patient safety, healthcare facilities are focussing on reducing patient harm. Automated harm-detection methods using information technology show promise for efficiently measuring harm. However, there have been few systematic reviews of their effectiveness.ObjectiveTo perform a systematic literature review to identify, describe and evaluate effectiveness of automated inpatient harm-detection methods.MethodsData sources included MEDLINE and CINAHL databases indexed through August 2008,

Malavika Govindan; Aricca D Van Citters; Eugene C Nelson; Jane Kelly-Cummings; Gautham Suresh

2010-01-01

368

Psychological characteristics, stressful life events and deliberate self-harm: findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study.  

PubMed

There is evidence to suggest that both psychological characteristics and stressful life events are contributory factors in deliberate self-harm among young people. These links, and the possibility of a dose-response relationship between self-harm and both psychological health and life events, were investigated in the context of a seven-country school-based study. Over 30,000, mainly 15 and 16 year olds, completed anonymous questionnaires at secondary schools in Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Australia. Pupils were asked to report on thoughts and episodes of self-harm, complete scales on depression and anxiety symptoms, impulsivity and self-esteem and indicate stressful events in their lives. Level and frequency of self-harm was judged according to whether they had thought about harming themselves or reported single or multiple self-harm episodes. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the extent to which psychological characteristics and stressful life events distinguished between adolescents with different self-harm histories. Increased severity of self-harm history was associated with greater depression, anxiety and impulsivity and lower self-esteem and an increased prevalence of all ten life event categories. Female gender, higher impulsivity and experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, physical or sexual abuse and worries about sexual orientation independently differentiated single-episode self-harmers from adolescents with self-harm thoughts only. Female gender, higher depression, lower self-esteem, experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, and trouble with the police independently distinguished multiple- from single-episode self-harmers. The findings reinforce the importance of psychological characteristics and stressful life events in adolescent self-harm but nonetheless suggest that some factors are more likely than others to be implicated. PMID:21847620

Madge, Nicola; Hawton, Keith; McMahon, Elaine M; Corcoran, Paul; De Leo, Diego; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; Ystgaard, Mette; Arensman, Ella

2011-10-01

369

Supporting staff working with prisoners who self-harm: A survey of support services for staff dealing with self-harm in prisons in England and Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has consistently shown that staff working with people who self-harm tend to experience a range of anxieties and negative emotions. Very little has been written on the particular issues and needs of staff in prisons, where rates of self-harm are high. The current study gathered information about existing sources of support for staff dealing with prisoners who self-harm, and

Lisa Marzano; Joanna R. Adler

2007-01-01

370

Counsellors' perspectives on self-harm and the role of the therapeutic relationship for working with clients who self-harm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To gain insight into counsellors' experiences of and ideas about self-harm, and to develop understanding of relational depth when working with clients who self-harm. Method: A qualitative exploration of counsellors' perspectives on working with people who self-harm. The research proposal gained approval from the University Ethics Committee. Data were collected from a sample of counsellors who have experience of

Maggie Long; Mary Jenkins

2010-01-01

371

Attempted Suicide, Self-Harm, and Violent Victimization among Regular Illicit Drug Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships among attempted suicide, nonsuicidal self-harm, and physical assault were examined in 400 regular users of heroin and/or psychostimulants. Twenty-eight percent had episodes of nonsuicidal self-harm, 32% had attempted suicide, and 95% had been violently assaulted. The number of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents were…

Darke, Shane; McCrim, Michelle Torok; Kaye, Sharlene; Ross, Joanne

2010-01-01

372

Reducing the harms caused by cannabis use: the policy debate in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate about cannabis policy in Australia has revolved around the harms that cannabis causes to users and the community, on the one hand, and the harms that are caused by the prohibition of its use, on the other. This paper assesses evidence on: (1) the harms caused to users and the community by cannabis use (derived from the international

Wayne Hall

2001-01-01

373

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2010-07-01

374

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2011-07-01

375

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2013-07-01

376

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2012-07-01

377

Self-Harm Experiences among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little research exists on self-harm in Hispanic populations, although there is a strong literature that addresses suicidality in Hispanics. This study compares self-reported rates of self-harm in 255 non-Hispanic White (NHW) and 187 Hispanic (predominantly Mexican American) undergraduate students. Results indicated that self-harm is…

Croyle, Kristin L.

2007-01-01

378

Reports of Self-Harm and Social Stressors among Early Adolescents: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined reports of self-harm by early adolescents as well as associations between salient interpersonal stressors and self-harm. While attending health education centers located in Illinois, Indiana, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania, early adolescents (n = 737) responded to a questionnaire measuring stressors, coping, and self-harm.…

Teufel, James A.; Brown, Stephen L.; Birch, David A.

2007-01-01

379

Psychological Subtyping Finds Pathological, Impulsive, and "Normal" Groups among Adolescents Who Self-Harm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research to date suggests that as many as 12-15% of young people engage in self-harm behaviour; however, the current understanding of the psychological basis of adolescent self-harm is limited. The objective was to determine whether adolescents who self-harm are a psychologically homogenous group. It was hypothesised that psychological…

Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P.

2009-01-01

380

How Much Detail Needs to Be Elucidated in Self-Harm Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessing self-harm through brief multiple choice items is simple and less invasive than more detailed methods of assessment. However, there is currently little validation for brief methods of self-harm assessment. This study evaluates the extent to which adolescents' perceptions of self-harm agree with definitions in the literature, and what…

Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P.

2010-01-01

381

Harmful Alcohol Use on Campus: Impact on Young People at University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people at university are more likely to consume alcohol at harmful levels than their same-age peers who are not at university, and harmful alcohol use affects many aspects of campus life. This study aimed to investigate alcohol use and alcohol-related harms, both experienced and witnessed, among students at an Australian university. An…

Rickwood, Debra; George, Amanda; Parker, Rhian; Mikhailovich, Katja

2011-01-01

382

What works for whom? Determining the efficacy and harm of treatments for pain.  

PubMed

There has been a tension between the needs of regulators and industry to demonstrate that interventions are effective and safe, and the needs of professionals to understand how well interventions will work for their patients, and patients to understand what might work for them as individuals. The custom has been to focus on statistical outcomes based on average results, but in-depth analysis based on outcomes obtained by individual patients demonstrates that few are average. Rather, a minority of patients achieve very large reductions in pain (responders), while the majority achieve little (nonresponders). Those who benefit in terms of pain also benefit in other areas, with improved sleep, fatigue, mood, function, quality of life, and ability to work. This changes how benefit and risk are seen; nonresponders should stop treatments that don't work and not, therefore, be exposed to risks, while responders have very large benefits to offset against rare but potentially serious harm. This alternative view, patient-centred and practice-orientated, has major implications for clinical practice, how and why we do clinical trials and how they are designed, how health economic evaluations are done, for decisions made by regulatory and other bodies, and for the theory and practice of evidence-based medicine. PMID:23622761

Andrew Moore, R

2013-12-01

383

Non-fatal repetition of self-harm in Taipei City, Taiwan: cohort study.  

PubMed

Background Repeat self-harm is an important risk factor for suicide. Few studies have explored risk factors for non-fatal repeat self-harm in Asia. Aims To investigate the risk of non-fatal repeat self-harm in a large cohort of patients presenting to hospital in Taipei City, Taiwan. Method Prospective cohort study of 7601 patients with self-harm presenting to emergency departments (January 2004-December 2006). Survival analysis was used to examine the rates, timing and factors associated with repeat self-harm. Results In total 778 (10.2%) patients presented to hospital with one or more further episodes of self-harm. The cumulative risk of non-fatal repetition within 1 year of a self-harm episode was 9.3% (95% CI 8.7-10.1). The median time to repetition within 1 year was 105 days. Females had a higher incidence of repeat self-harm than males (adjusted hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.48) but males had shorter median time to repetition (107 v. 80 days). Other independent risk factors for repeat self-harm within 1 year of an index episode were: young age, self-harm by medicine overdose and increasing number of repeat episodes of self-harm. Conclusions The risk of non-fatal repeat self-harm in Taipei City is lower than that seen in the West. Risk factors for repeat non-fatal self-harm differ from those for fatal self-harm. The first 3 months after self-harm is a crucial period for intervention. PMID:24482442

Kwok, Chi-Leung; Yip, Paul S F; Gunnell, David; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Chen, Ying-Yeh

2014-05-01

384

How much downside? Quantifying the relative harm from tobacco taxation  

PubMed Central

Objective: To estimate the loss of life expectancy attributable to tobacco taxation (via financial hardship and flow-on health effect) in New Zealand. Design: Data were used on the gradients in life expectancy and smoking by neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation and survey data on tobacco expenditure. Three estimates were modelled of the percentage of the crude association of neighbourhood deprivation with life expectancy that might be mediated via financial hardship: 100%, 50%, and 25% (best estimate). From this information the impact of tobacco taxation on life expectancy was estimated. Main results: For the total population, the estimated loss of life expectancy due to tobacco tax ranged from 0.005 years to 0.027 years. For people living in the most deprived 30% of neighbourhoods, the range was 0.009 to 0.044 years (that is, 3 to 16 days of lost life expectancy). For the total population the loss of life expectancy attributable to tobacco tax ranged from 119 to 460 times less than that attributable to deprivation. The loss of life expectancy attributable to tobacco tax was 42 to 257 times less than that attributable to smoking. Conclusions: The estimated harm to life expectancy from tobacco taxation (via financial hardship) is orders of magnitude smaller than the harm from smoking. Although the analyses involve a number of simplistic assumptions, this conclusion is likely to be robust. Policy makers should be reassured that tobacco taxation is likely to be achieving far more benefit than harm in the general population and in socioeconomically deprived populations.

Wilson, N; Thomson, G; Tobias, M; Blakely, T

2004-01-01

385

The Non-Traditional Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The non-traditional student, or adult learner, is making up the new majority in secondary education, creating several implications for community colleges. The average non-traditional student is an adult, age 25 or older, who has returned to school either full-time or part-time. The student must balance school with employment, family, and financial…

Ely, Eileen E.

386

The Non-Traditional Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document describes thirteen types of non-traditional students, as identified by the University of Toledo Community and Technical College (Ohio), and the student services available to them at this institution. Non-traditional student types include those who did not do well in high school, those who interrupt their education for at least one…

Somogye, R. J.; Draheim, E. H.

387

Cherokee Stickball: A Changing Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history of Cherokee stickball, a ball game dating back at least to the 1500s that was once used (as an alternative to war) for resolving grievances between tribes and townships. Describes traditional aspects of Cherokee stickball and notes the steady decline of the game and its traditional rules and ceremonies. (LP)

Olson, Ted

1993-01-01

388

Worst New England Harmful Algal Bloom in 30 Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online 2005 article reports the most severe bloom since 1972 of the microscopic alga, Alexandrium fundyense, which spread from Maine to Massachusetts, resulting in extensive commercial and recreational shellfish harvesting closures to protect humans from paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The article discusses harmful algal blooms (HABs) and reports how NOAA-funded research is addressing the problem. It includes links to research programs, up-to-date information about shellfish closures, images of the causative microbes, related press releases and legislation, and other informational sources.

Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR); Noaa

389

Study of harmful algal blooms in a eutrophic pond, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to analyze the underlying mechanisms and contributing factors related to the seasonal dynamic\\u000a of harmful algal blooms in a shallow eutrophic pond, Bangladesh during September 2005–July 2006. Two conspicuous events were\\u000a noted simultaneously throughout the study period: high concentration of phosphate–phosphorus (>3.03; SD 1.29 mg l???1) and permanent cyanobacterial blooms {>3,981.88 × 103 cells l???1 (SD 508.73)}. Cyanobacterial

Roksana Jahan; Saleha Khan; Joong Ki Choi

2010-01-01

390

Empowerment through agency-promoting dialogue: an explicit application of harm reduction theory to reframe HIV test counseling.  

PubMed

The counseling that accompanies HIV testing can be an important prevention tool for encouraging people to practice safer sex to avoid AIDS, but there is scant research about how HIV test counseling operates in practice. This article critiques the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) protocol for HIV test counseling for not being genuinely client centered and ignoring the unique needs of clients and offers an alternative approach that adapts and explicitly applies the tenets of harm reduction theory (HRT). Excerpts from actual HIV test counseling sessions illustrate both the weaknesses in the current approach to HIV test counseling and project how the alternative theoretical perspective offered could provide counseling that encourages agency-promoting and empowering dialogue. The implications for the development of HRT as a health communication heuristic and a practical training and evaluation strategy are discussed along with limitations and future research directions. PMID:11191017

Mattson, M

2000-01-01

391

When grammars collide: Harm reduction, drug detention and the challenges of international policy reform efforts in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Throughout the 1990s, a dramatic rise in HIV prevalence rates among drug users in Vietnam attracted the attention of international observers concerned about the prospect of a more generalised epidemic. Vietnam subsequently became the target of extensive funding and advocacy which sought to introduce needle exchange and methadone in a country where drug use was considered a 'social evil', and drug users were subjected to what international observers viewed as draconian incarceration measures. What were the goals of proponents of harm reduction when they came to Vietnam? How did they perceive the state of prevailing approaches to drug users in the context of the Vietnamese HIV epidemic? How did they understand the strategic challenges they faced and the dilemmas they had to confront? Based on in-depth interviews with international harm reduction proponents working in Vietnam, this paper explores the encounter of two grammars of harm reduction, one based on broadly accepted international approaches, the other rooted in Vietnam's own history and politics. From this encounter a set of policies and practices characterised by needle exchange and methadone maintenance emerged, as well as an extensive network of closed centres where tens of thousands of drug users are currently detained. PMID:23363324

Edington, Claire; Bayer, Ronald

2013-01-01

392

A media information analysis for implementing effective countermeasure against harmful rumor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When large scale earthquake occurred, the word of "harmful rumor" came to be frequently heard. The harmful rumor means an economic damage which is caused by the action that people regard actually safe foods or areas as dangerous and then abort consumption or sightseeing. In the case of harmful rumor caused by earthquake, especially, tourism industry receives massive economic damage. Currently, harmful rumor which gives substantial economic damage have become serious social issue which must be solved. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure method for harmful rumor on the basis of media trend in order to implement speedy recovery from harmful rumor. Here, we investigate the amount and content of information which is transmitted to the general public by the media when an earthquake occurred. In addition, the media information in three earthquakes is treated as instance. Finally, we discuss an effective countermeasure method for dispeling harmful rumor through these analysis results.

Nagao, Mitsuyoshi; Suto, Kazuhiro; Ohuchi, Azuma

2010-04-01

393

The association of ADHD symptoms to self-harm behaviours: a systematic PRISMA review  

PubMed Central

Background Self-harm is a major public health issue in young people worldwide and there are many challenges to its management and prevention. Numerous studies have indicated that ADHD is associated with completed suicides and other suicidal behaviours (i.e., suicidal attempt and ideation). However, significantly less is known about the association between ADHD and self-harm. Method This is the first review of the association between ADHD and self-harm. A systematic PRISMA review was conducted. Two internet-based bibliographic databases (Medline and CINAHL) were searched to access studies which examined to any degree the association between, specifically, ADHD and self-harm. Results Only 15 studies were identified which investigated the association between ADHD and self-harm and found evidence to support that ADHD is a potential risk factor for self-harm. Conclusion This association raises the need for more awareness of self-harm in individuals with symptoms of ADHD.

2014-01-01

394

Genderedness of bar drinking culture and alcohol-related harms: A multi-country study  

PubMed Central

This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in predominantly male bar-drinking countries. Multilevel analysis was used to analyze survey data from 21 countries representing five continents from Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Bar frequency was positively associated with harms overall. Relationships between bar frequency and harms varied across country. Genderedness modified associations between bar frequency and odds of fights, marriage/relationship harms, and work harms. Findings were significant only for men. Contrary to our hypothesis, odds of harms associated with bar drinking increased less rapidly in countries where bar drinking is predominantly male. This suggests predominantly male bar drinking cultures may be protective for males who more frequently drink in bars.

Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

2012-01-01

395

Traditional Occupations in a Modern World: Implications for Career Guidance and Livelihood Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an attempt to examine the place and significance of traditional occupations as careers in today's world. The areas of tension and compatibility between ideas and values that signify modernity and the practice of traditional occupations are reviewed. The meaning of "traditional occupations" is unravelled, the potential that…

Ratnam, Anita

2011-01-01

396

Augmenting Traditional Books with Context-Aware Learning Supports from Online Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in ubiquitous computing technologies have brought reality augmentation of traditional objects to context-aware and social supports. Although a significant proportion of students prefer poring over traditional paper textbooks over electronic books, few studies have enhanced reading practice of traditional books with ubiquitous…

Chen, Gwo-Dong; Chao, Po-Yao

2008-01-01

397

Instilling Normal Saline with Suctioning: Beneficial or Harmful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of normal saline in suctioning has been an established practice in health care professions for decades. Researchers have found that this practice can cause infection; however, use of normal saline remains common practice among health care providers. The purpose of this EBP project is to compare the effects on respiratory infection rates of normal saline lavage and not using

Brent Pavell; Charity Letko; Graciela Olivares; Jenny Luedke; John Gustavson

2012-01-01

398

Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction  

MedlinePLUS

... years. TCM practitioners use herbal medicines and various mind and body practices, such as acupuncture and tai chi , to ... side effects. Tai chi and qi gong , two mind and body practices used in TCM, are generally safe. There ...

399

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

SciTech Connect

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements demonstrated that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the first HAB genome (A. anophagefferens) and compared its gene complement to those of six competing phytoplankton species identified via metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on the gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 mbp) and more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen utilization, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

Gobler, C J; Grigoriev, I V; Berry, D L; Dyhrman, S T; Wilhelm, S W; Salamov, A; Lobanov, A V; Zhang, Y; Collier, J L; Wurch, L L; Kustka, A B; Dill, B D; Shah, M; VerBerkomes, N C; Kuo, A; Terry, A; Pangilinan, J; Lindquist, E A; Lucas, S; Paulsen, I; Hattenrath-Lehmann, T K; Talmage, S; Walker, E A; Koch, F; Burson, A M; Marcoval, M A; Tang, Y; LeCleir, G R; Coyne, K J; Berg, G M; Bertrand, E M; Saito, M A; Gladyshev, V N

2011-03-02

400

Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics  

PubMed Central

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

Gobler, Christopher J.; Berry, Dianna L.; Dyhrman, Sonya T.; Wilhelm, Steven W.; Salamov, Asaf; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Zhang, Yan; Collier, Jackie L.; Wurch, Louie L.; Kustka, Adam B.; Dill, Brian D.; Shah, Manesh; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Kuo, Alan; Terry, Astrid; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Paulsen, Ian T.; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K.; Talmage, Stephanie C.; Walker, Elyse A.; Koch, Florian; Burson, Amanda M.; Marcoval, Maria Alejandra; Tang, Ying-Zhong; LeCleir, Gary R.; Coyne, Kathryn J.; Berg, Gry M.; Bertrand, Erin M.; Saito, Mak A.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

2011-01-01

401

An overview of the interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB): advancing the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that the spatial and temporal incidence of harmful algal blooms is increasing, posing potential risks to human health and ecosystem sustainability. Currently there are no US Federal guidelines, Water Quality Criteria and Standards, or regulations concerning the management of harmful algal blooms. Algal blooms in freshwater are predominantly cyanobacteria, some of which produce highly potent cyanotoxins. The US Congress mandated a Scientific Assessment of Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms in the 2004 reauthorization of the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Act. To further the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established an interagency committee to organize the Interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB). A theoretical framework to define scientific issues and a systems approach to implement the assessment and management of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms were developed as organizing themes for the symposium. Seven major topic areas and 23 subtopics were addressed in Workgroups and platform sessions during the symposium. The primary charge given to platform presenters was to describe the state of the science in the subtopic areas, whereas the Workgroups were charged with identifying research that could be accomplished in the short- and long-term to reduce scientific uncertainties. The proceedings of the symposium, published in this monograph, are intended to inform policy determinations and the mandated Scientific Assessment by describing the scientific knowledge and areas of uncertainty concerning freshwater harmful algal blooms. PMID:18461763

Hudnell, H Kenneth; Dortch, Quay; Zenick, Harold

2008-01-01

402

Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

403

Proton pump inhibitors in cirrhosis: Tradition or evidence based practice?  

PubMed Central

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI) are very effective in inhibiting acid secretion and are extensively used in many acid related diseases. They are also often used in patients with cirrhosis sometimes in the absence of a specific acid related disease, with the aim of preventing peptic complications in patients with variceal or hypertensive gastropathic bleeding receiving multidrug treatment. Contradicting reports support their use in cirrhosis and evidence of their efficacy in this condition is poor. Moreover there are convincing papers suggesting that acid secretion is reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis. With regard to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, its prevalence in patients with cirrhosis is largely variable among different studies, and it seems that H pylori eradication does not prevent gastro-duodenal ulcer formation and bleeding. With regard to the prevention and treatment of oesophageal complications after banding or sclerotherapy of oesophageal varices, there is little evidence for a protective role of PPI. Moreover, due to liver metabolism of PPI, the dose of most available PPIs should be reduced in cirrhotics. In conclusion, the use of this class of drugs seems more habit related than evidence-based eventually leading to an increase in health costs.

Lodato, Francesca; Azzaroli, Francesco; Girolamo, Maria Di; Feletti, Valentina; Cecinato, Paolo; Lisotti, Andrea; Festi, Davide; Roda, Enrico; Mazzella, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

404

Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2011-01-01

405

Aesthetic Practice and Spirituality: Chi in Traditional East Asian Brushwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of multicultural art education has been addressed by art educators over the past 15 years. Art educators maintain that art is capable of empowering mutual respect and appreciation for people, objects, and ideas among diverse groups. Although many educators/teachers use non-Western artworks or artifacts to enrich their art programs,…

Chung, Sheng Kuan

2006-01-01

406

Cultural childbirth practices, beliefs, and traditions in postconflict Liberia.  

PubMed

In this qualitative study we used an interpretive, critical ethnographic approach to provide an understanding of childbirth and maternal illness and death in Liberia through the lens of women, families, and communities. We identified three major themes from the data: (a) secrecy surrounding pregnancy and childbirth; (b) power and authority; and (c) distrust of the health care system. The interpretive theory, Behind the House, generated from data analysis provides an understanding of the larger social and cultural context of childbirth in Liberia. Our findings provide a more complete understanding of the contextual factors that impact on the intractable problem of maternal mortality. PMID:21547801

Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

2011-06-01

407

Proton pump inhibitors in cirrhosis: Tradition or evidence based practice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI) are very effective in inhibiting acid secretion and are extensively used in many acid related diseases. They are also often used in patients with cirrhosis sometimes in the absence of a specific acid related disease, with the aim of preventing peptic complications in patients with variceal or hypertensive gastropathic bleeding receiving multidrug treatment. Contradicting reports support

Francesca Lodato; Francesco Azzaroli; Maria Di Girolamo; Valentina Feletti; Paolo Cecinato; Andrea Lisotti; Davide Festi; Enrico Roda; Giuseppe Mazzella; Di Girolamo M

2008-01-01

408

Codes of medical ethics: Traditional foundations and contemporary practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hippocratic Coprus recognized the interaction of 'business' and patient-health moral considerations, and urged that the former be subordinated to the latter. During the 1800s with the growth of complexity in both scientific knowledge and the organization of health services, the medical ethical codes addressed themselves to elaborate rules of conduct to be followed by the members of the newly

P. Sohl; H. A. Bassford

1986-01-01

409

SIMULATION OF CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES: TRADITIONAL PRACTICES VERSUS LEAN PRINCIPLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lean manufacturing theory is founded on several key principles: specify value by product, rethink your operating methods, focus on actual objects from beginning to completion, release resources for delivery just when needed and strive for perfection. Transferring these principles from manufacturing to the construction domain is of ongoing interest for construction researchers. However, modifying real construction processes is expensive, time

Abdulsalam A. Al-Sudairi; James E. Diekmann; Anthony D. Songer; Hyman M. Brown

410

Traditional Birth Attendant Training and Local Birthing Practices in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…

Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla

2011-01-01

411

The mormon health traditions: An evolving view of modern medicine.  

PubMed

The Mormon church has long been seen as an unusual group in relation to its health practices. But its health traditions and practices go much further than the ban on tobacco, coffee, and alcohol for which it is so well known. Church teachings and influences pervade the entire Mormon existence. This paper briefly discusses these traditions, first by examining their roots in the teachings of its first two prophet/presidents, Joseph Smith and Brigham Young. Then, how these ideas have evolved into the church's current thought is examined; and finally, the church's responses to many modern-day health care issues are presented. PMID:24271495

Simmerman, S R

1993-09-01

412

Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2013-07-01

413

Traditional soyfoods: processing and products.  

PubMed

Although soyfoods have been consumed for more than 1000 years, only for the past 15 years have they made an inroad into Western cultures and diets. Soyfoods are typically divided into two categories: nonfermented and fermented. Traditional nonfermented soyfoods include fresh green soybeans, whole dry soybeans, soy nuts, soy sprouts, whole-fat soy flour, soymilk and soymilk products, tofu, okara and yuba. Traditional fermented soyfoods include tempeh, miso, soy sauces, natto and fermented tofu and soymilk products. This paper presents a brief overview of processing techniques used in the manufacture of traditional soyfoods. PMID:7884535

Golbitz, P

1995-03-01

414

Tradition not against family planning -- Ooni.  

PubMed

The Ooni of Ife, Oba Okunade Sijuwade Olubose II, at the Population and Family Planning conference held in November, 1992, voiced strong support for family planning. He began by quoting the old Yoruba adage that "a proliferation of children is multiplication of adversities." He supported the National Population Programme because, he said, there were no longer valid reasons to have large families, traditionally encouraged when there was a need for farm labor. More current concerns were the impact of structural adjustment programs and the consequence of higher costs of education, health care, and other necessities of modern life. The nation must be concerned with the cost of uncontrolled numbers of children. He called on Nigerians to accept the Programme's goal of improving the quality of life by preventing needless deaths and illnesses, and lowering of population growth by reducing fertility. He urged government to inform the population of the impediment to national development by uncontrolled population growth. One sociocultural obstacle to the Population and Family Planning Programme, the notion of children as God's gifts, not to be courted or regulated, he countered with the argument that traditional polygamous family life did ensure appropriate birth spacing and protection of the health of mother. He noted that the Programme did not violate religious beliefs against abortion. He called on other traditional rulers to support grassroots mobilization and to practice child spacing actively for the development of communities and the progress of the nation. PMID:12318633

Okwudili, O

1993-01-01

415

Bibliography on African Traditional Religion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Chidi Denis Isizoh, this bibliography contains books, journal articles, and selections from larger works that focus on traditional religions in Africa. Citations include items in French and German as well as English.

Isizoh, Chidi D.

1998-01-01

416

Was the Monetarist Tradition Invented?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put

George S Tavlas

1998-01-01

417

Practicing chemical process safety: a look at the layers of protection.  

PubMed

This presentation will review a few public perceptions of safety in chemical plants and refineries, and will compare these plant workplace risks to some of the more traditional occupations. The central theme of this paper is to provide a "within-the-fence" view of many of the process safety practices that world class plants perform to pro-actively protect people, property, profits as well as the environment. It behooves each chemical plant and refinery to have their story on an image-rich presentation to stress stewardship and process safety. Such a program can assure the company's employees and help convince the community that many layers of safety protection within our plants are effective, and protect all from harm. PMID:15518976

Sanders, Roy E

2004-11-11

418

Deliberate self harm in adolescents: self report survey in schools in England  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the factors associated with it. Design Cross sectional survey using anonymous self report questionnaire. Setting 41 schools in England. Participants 6020 pupils aged 15 and 16 years. Main outcome measure Deliberate self harm. Results 398 (6.9%) participants reported an act of deliberate self harm in the previous year that met study criteria. Only 12.6% of episodes had resulted in presentation to hospital. Deliberate self harm was more common in females than it was in males (11.2% v 3.2%; odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 3.1 to 4.9). In females the factors included in a multivariate logistic regression for deliberate self harm were recent self harm by friends, self harm by family members, drug misuse, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and low self esteem. In males the factors were suicidal behaviour in friends and family members, drug use, and low self esteem. Conclusions Deliberate self harm is common in adolescents, especially females. School based mental health initiatives are needed. These could include approaches aimed at educating school pupils about mental health problems and screening for those at risk. What is already known on this topicDeliberate self harm is a common reason for presentation of adolescents to hospitalCommunity studies from outside the United Kingdom have shown much greater prevalence of self harm in adolescents than hospital based studiesWhat this study addsDeliberate self harm defined according to strict criteria is common in adolescents, especially femalesAssociated factors include recent awareness of self harm in peers, self harm by family members, drug misuse, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and low self esteem

Hawton, Keith; Rodham, Karen; Evans, Emma; Weatherall, Rosamund

2002-01-01

419

Critical Overview on the Benefits and Harms of Aspirin  

PubMed Central

Aspirin is widely used internationally for a variety of indications, with the most prominent one being that of cardiovascular disease. However, aspirin has also been proposed as a treatment option in a diverse range of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cancer prevention, and obstetrics. In our overview, we critically appraise the current evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses covering the benefits of aspirin across these conditions. We also look at evidence that some patients may not derive benefit due to the concept of aspirin resistance. Aspirin is also associated with the potential for significant harm, principally from haemorrhagic adverse events. We critically appraise the threat of haemorrhagic complications, and weigh up these risks against that of any potential benefit.

Kwok, Chun Shing; Loke, Yoon K.

2010-01-01

420

Harmful microalgae blooms (HAB); problematic and conditions that induce them.  

PubMed

HAB occurrence is becoming more frequent and problematic in marine recreational waters. However, the exploitation of the coastal area for recreational use is promoting the necessary conditions for the HAB increase. In terms of the harmful effects, we can consider two types of causative organism: the toxic producers and the high-biomass producers. Toxic events can be produced by a very low concentration of the causative organism. This characteristic implies a difficulty for the monitoring programs in relation to human health. It is important to point out in the context of human health and HAB events, that in some coastal regions (e.g. the Mediterranean basin) HABs are an emerging problem. In these regions, the local population and visitors may face a health risk that is difficult to measure. The monitoring of toxic species has mainly been associated -with shellfish farming. However, the risk of intoxication could become even greater in areas not subject to legislation of aquaculture activities. PMID:17010385

Masó, Mercedes; Garcés, Esther

2006-01-01

421

Oxytocin Indexes Relational Distress Following Interpersonal Harms in Women  

PubMed Central

Summary The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin, known for its involvement in social affiliation and bonding in animals, has recently been associated with a host of prosocial behaviors that are beneficial for maintaining positive social relationships in humans. Paradoxically, however, people with high endogenous levels of oxytocin also tend to report relational distress and interpersonal difficulties in their everyday lives. To address these contradictory findings, oxytocin reactivity was measured in response to a well-defined laboratory task in young adult women following recent interpersonal harms. Elevated mean peripheral oxytocin reactivity (but not baseline levels of oxytocin or cortisol reactivity) was associated with increased post-conflict anxiety and decreased levels of forgiveness. These results corroborate previous research implicating oxytocin as a neuroendocrine marker of relational distress, but not general stress, and demonstrate the utility of studying oxytocin in response to naturally occurring relational events.

Tabak, Benjamin A.; McCullough, Michael E.; Szeto, Angela; Mendez, Armando J.; McCabe, Philip M.

2010-01-01

422

Developing guidance for HIV prosecutions: an example of harm reduction?  

PubMed

Extensive discussion of the global trend towards the prosecution of individuals for HIV transmission has tended to focus on arguments of principle for or against such prosecutions. There has been less examination of how, where prosecutions are taking place, the community, the voluntary sector and relevant professional bodies (hereinafter the "HIV sector") can mitigate ensuing harm and maximise fairness and understanding in the criminal justice process. In England and Wales, where prosecutions for reckless HIV transmission have been taking place since 2003, the HIV sector persuaded the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) to consult on the production of Legal Guidance for CPS prosecutors and caseworkers (hereinafter "Guidance") in this area of law, as well as an accompanying Policy Statement. In this article, Yusef Azad describes both the process and the outcome, and attempts an initial assessment of whether this intervention has benefited people living with HIV. PMID:18724449

Azad, Yusef

2008-07-01

423

Risk, harm and intervention: the case of child obesity.  

PubMed

In this paper we aim to demonstrate the enormous ethical complexity that is prevalent in child obesity cases. This complexity, we argue, favors a cautious approach. Against those perhaps inclined to blame neglectful parents, we argue that laying the blame for child obesity at the feet of parents is simplistic once the broader context is taken into account. We also show that parents not only enjoy important relational prerogatives worth defending, but that children, too, are beneficiaries of that relationship in ways difficult to match elsewhere. Finally, against the backdrop of growing public concern and pressure to intervene earlier in the life cycle, we examine the perhaps unintended stigmatizing effects that labeling and intervention can have and consider a number of risks and potential harms occasioned by state interventions in these cases. PMID:24346516

Merry, Michael S; Voigt, Kristin

2014-05-01

424

Traditional Knowledge Strengthens NOAA's Environmental Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.

Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

2010-12-01

425

Selective Algicidal Action of Peptides against Harmful Algal Bloom Species  

PubMed Central

Recently, harmful algal bloom (HAB), also termed “red tide”, has been recognized as a serious problem in marine environments according to climate changes worldwide. Many novel materials or methods to prevent HAB have not yet been employed except for clay dispersion, in which can the resulting sedimentation on the seafloor can also cause alteration in marine ecology or secondary environmental pollution. In the current study, we investigated that antimicrobial peptide have a potential in controlling HAB without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Here, antimicrobial peptides are proposed as new algicidal compounds in combating HAB cells. HPA3 and HPA3NT3 peptides which exert potent antimicrobial activity via pore forming action in plasma membrane showed that HPA3NT3 reduced the motility of algal cells, disrupted their plasma membrane, and induced the efflux of intracellular components. Against raphidoflagellate such as Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella sp., and C. marina, it displayed a rapid lysing action in cell membranes at 1?4 µM within 2 min. Comparatively, its lysing effects occurred at 8 µM within 1 h in dinoflagellate such as Cochlodium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Moreover, its lysing action induced the lysis of chloroplasts and loss of chlorophyll a. In the contrary, this peptide was not effective against Skeletonema costatum, harmless algal cell, even at 256 µM, moreover, it killed only H. akashiwo or C. marina in co-cultivation with S. costatum, indicating to its selective algicidal activity between harmful and harmless algal cells. The peptide was non-hemolytic against red blood cells of Sebastes schlegeli, the black rockfish, at 120 µM. HAB cells were quickly and selectively lysed following treatment of antimicrobial peptides without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Thus, the antibiotic peptides examined in our study appear to have much potential in effectively controlling HAB with minimal impact on marine ecology.

Park, Seong-Cheol; Lee, Jong-Kook; Kim, Si Wouk; Park, Yoonkyung

2011-01-01

426

Practicing the Political Art of Beneficial Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All of us are deeply embedded within a number of strong, web-like structures of relationships, such as our families and workplaces. Sometimes these relationships benefit us; at others times they don't. We spend much of our mental energy trying to strengthen our beneficial relationships and transform the harmful ones to our benefit. In practicing

Riggins-Newby, Cheryl

2005-01-01

427

Dialogical Practices in Teaching Choreography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its inception, the choreography curriculum has adhered to traditional modernist aesthetics. Yet since the 1950s many artists have undermined traditional definitions of the artist and of the work of art and moved in directions aligned with dialogical aesthetics. The latter aesthetics has informed the development of the author's choreography teaching practices for ten years. Elaborating on these developments, the

Larry Lavender

2009-01-01

428

Self-harm and psychosocial characteristics of looked after and looked after and accommodated young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children and young people who are classed as “looked after” and “looked after and accommodated”, have been identified as being especially at risk of self-harm, however there is little research that has assessed self-harm among these groups. This study investigates self-harm rates, distinguishing between cognitions and behaviours with non-suicidal and suicidal intent among the looked after and looked after and

E. Harkess-Murphy; J. MacDonald; J. Ramsay

2012-01-01

429

Self-harm and risk of motor vehicle crashes in youth: the DRIVE prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSome crashes, particularly single vehicle crashes, may result from intentional self-harm behaviour but research on this topic is limited. Self-harm is the deliberate injuring of oneself and includes actions such as cutting, attempted hanging and poisoning. This study aimed to assess the risk that intentional self-harm poses for prospective motor vehicle crashes among novice drivers.MethodsQuestionnaire responses from 20 822 newly

A L C Martiniuk; R Q Ivers; N Glozier; G C Patton; L T Lam; S Boufous; T Senserrick; A Williamson; M Stevenson; R Norton

2010-01-01

430

25 CFR 224.137 - What must the Director do if a tribe's noncompliance has resulted in harm or the potential for...  

...in harm or the potential for harm to a physical trust asset? 224.137 Section 224...in harm or the potential for harm to a physical trust asset? If, because of the...is harm or the potential for harm to a physical trust asset that does not rise to...

2014-04-01

431

25 CFR 224.137 - What must the Director do if a tribe's noncompliance has resulted in harm or the potential for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in harm or the potential for harm to a physical trust asset? 224.137 Section 224...in harm or the potential for harm to a physical trust asset? If, because of the...is harm or the potential for harm to a physical trust asset that does not rise to...

2013-04-01

432

The Joint Commission aims for high-reliability health care, unveils framework to move hospitals toward zero harm.  

PubMed

To move hospitals toward what it terms high-reliability, The Joint Commission (TJC) is urging administrators to use a framework that it has developed to push their organizations through stages of maturity, ultimately creating environments in which there is zero patient harm. To get to this point, TJC leaders say hospitals will have to commit to transparency, promote and reward error reporting, and seize upon opportunities to improve. The Joint Commission has tested its high-reliability framework in seven hospitals, and it is now working on an assessment tool that will enable hospitals to measure their level of maturity across the framework's 14 components. The accrediting agency is urging hospitals to use a combination of Six Sigma, lean, and change management to make improvements that can be sustained. At some hospitals, entrenched practices of intimidation are dissuading staff from reporting unsafe practices and interfering with quality improvement efforts, according to TJC. PMID:24308070

2013-12-01

433

Poly-substance use and related harms: a systematic review of harm reduction strategies implemented in recreational settings.  

PubMed

The growing trends of poly-substance use and associated health and public concerns have been reported in various studies with particular focus on young adults patronising popular recreational settings. Harm reduction interventions targeting this population have been reported for a number of settings, however only limited data is available on the current strategies employed. A systematic review of peer-reviewed journals was conducted to determine interventions published since 1998 which targeted 17-24 year olds within recreational settings: defined as clubs, pubs, discos, festivals or raves. The identified studies were examined for similarities in design, implementation and outcome measures. The findings and their limitations are discussed alongside implications for future research needed to fill a void in the current knowledge base. PMID:21168438

Akbar, Tahira; Baldacchino, Alex; Cecil, Joanne; Riglietta, Marco; Sommer, Børge; Humphris, Gerry

2011-04-01

434

Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of opiate addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Chinese medicine consists of natural products including plants, animals and minerals. TCM has been practiced in China for more than 2000 years, and for the past 200 years has been used in treatment of drug addiction. Ten Chinese medicines for the treatment of opiate addiction have been approved by the Chinese

Jie Shi; Yan-li Liu; Yu-xia Fang; Guo-zhu Xu; Hai-fen Zhai; Lin Lu

2006-01-01

435

Health care in North must acknowledge Inuit values, traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Dr. Gail Gray spent a week on Baffin Island in a retreat devoted to discussions about health care delivery in the North. She says it is obvious that traditional medical practices and Inuit cultural values must be part of any new health care initiatives if the initiatives are to be successful. PMID:8956843

Gray, G

1996-12-01

436

Hungarian Folk Traditions Revisited. Educational Curriculum Kit 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains materials that highlight Hungarian traditions and customs transplanted to America by Hungarian immigrants. The research and educational activities are designed for practical application in locating, recording, preserving, and analyzing resources on Hungarian American history, particularly those in the Pittsburgh…

Biro, Ruth

437

Is It Time to Ditch the Traditional University Exam?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dominant theme emerging from contemporary university assessment literature is the need to enhance student learning through effective formative feedback and the need to improve current practices. Of particular concern is the traditional university examination. There is a growing body of opinion that the handwritten extended-prose examination is…

Muldoon, Robyn

2012-01-01

438

Charter School Competition, Organization, and Achievement in Traditional Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market models of education reform predict that the growth of charter schools will infuse competition into the public school sector, forcing traditional public schools to improve the practices they engage in to educate students. Some scholars have criticized these models, arguing that competition from charter schools is unlikely to produce…

Davis, Tomeka M.

2013-01-01

439

Tradition and Turmoil in Educational Administration. Study Guide 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is the first in a set of three study guides designed to help students of educational administration critically analyze contemporary theory in the field, examine the field from a new viewpoint, and develop their own, more practical knowledge base. The first of this volume's two sections, by W. John Smyth, focuses upon the traditional or…

Deakin Univ., Victoria (Australia).

440

Teachers in Charter and Traditional Schools: A Comparative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed approximately 100 teachers from 16 charter schools and 100 teachers from 7 traditional schools about perceptions of teacher empowerment, school climate, and working conditions. Results show consistent and practically significant differences in perceptions of teachers in these types of schools. (SLD)

Bomotti, Sally; Ginsberg, Rick; Cobb, Brian

1999-01-01

441

The Experience of Indigenous Traditional Healing and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous traditional healing is an ancient, deeply rooted, complex holistic health care system practiced by indigenous people worldwide. However, scant information exists to explain the phenomenon of indigenous medicine and indigenous health. Even less is known about how indigenous healing takes place. The purpose of this study is to describe the meaning and essence of the lived experience of 4

Roxanne Struthers; Valerie S. Eschiti

2004-01-01

442

Structure-activity analysis of harmful algae inhibition by congeneric compounds: case studies of fatty acids and thiazolidinediones.  

PubMed

The occurrence of harmful algal blooms has been increasing significantly around the world. In order to ensure the safety of drinking water, procedures to screen potential materials as effective algicides are needed, and predictive methods which save both the labor and time compared with traditional experimental approaches, are particularly desirable. In this study, data from previous studies on the algal-growth inhibitory action of two kinds of compounds, namely, the action of fatty acids and thiazolidinediones on the harmful algae Heterosigma akashiwo and Chattonella marina, were modeled using multiple linear regression (MLR) based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). The models were shown to have highly predictive ability and stability, and provided insight into the inhibitory mechanisms of congeneric compounds. The main descriptors in the fatty-acid models were the Connolly accessible area and the number of rotatable bonds, illustrating that molecular surface area and shape are important in their algicidal actions. In the thiazolidinedione models, the critical volume, octanol-water partition coefficient (LogP), and Connolly solvent-excluded volume were found to be significant, indicating that hydrophobicity, substituent group size, and mode of action are mechanistically important. Our results showed the algicidal activity of a series of compounds on different algae could be modeled, and each model is efficacious for compounds that fall into the application domain of the QSAR model. This work demonstrates how reliable predictions of the algicidal activity of novel compounds and explanations of their inhibitory mechanisms can be obtained. PMID:24562453

Huang, Haomin; Xiao, Xi; Shi, Jiyan; Chen, Yingxu

2014-06-01

443

A Framework for Teaching Community Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent attention on community organizing in national politics provides an opportunity for social work educators to revisit and enhance community practice as a core practice of the profession. Drawing from social work's rich tradition of community practice this article provides a practical aid to understand the variety of strategies currently used…

Thomas, M. Lori; O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen

2011-01-01

444

Theory into Practice: A Matter of Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a new approach to taking theory into practice--one that offers a direct route from research to practice. Traditionally, theory makes its way to practice cloaked in particular curriculum interventions. We argue that taking theory into practice is essentially a matter of transfer--applying teaching and learning principles in…

Randi, Judi; Corno, Lyn

2007-01-01

445

A Contextual Comparison of Risk Behaviors Among Older Adult Drug Users and Harm Reduction in Suburban Versus Inner-City Social Environments  

PubMed Central

Recent epidemiological data show that older adults comprise a growing age group of drug users and new AIDS cases in the United States. Prevention and intervention studies show that risk behaviors leading to HIV infection are increasing among older users, particularly among the socially vulnerable. Yet older adults remain an under-researched population of drug users and little is known about their risk behaviors. Our aim is to address this gap in knowledge on older users by comparing contextual factors that influence risk behaviors and harm reduction strategies practiced by older drug users living in different communities. This study is based on ethnographic fieldwork in suburban and inner-city neighborhoods in a large metropolitan area in the southeastern USA. Interviewers conducted face-to-face, in-depth, life-history interviews with 69 older adults (age 45 and older) who used heroin, cocaine, and/or methamphetamine. Findings show that while risk behaviors were similar among older adult drug users living in suburban and inner-city environments, the provision of harm reduction education and paraphernalia varied widely. The results show the need for the expansion of harm reduction services focused on older adult drug users who are homeless, uninsured, or socially isolated. This application-oriented research will inform healthcare and treatment providers and generate new directions for future collaborative harm reduction services aimed to decrease the spread of HIV and other infectious diseases associated with drug use.

Boeri, Miriam W.; Tyndall, Benjamin D.

2012-01-01

446

Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary care: a cluster randomised controlled trial protocol  

PubMed Central

Background There have been many randomized controlled trials of screening and brief alcohol intervention in primary care. Most trials have reported positive effects of brief intervention, in terms of reduced alcohol consumption in excessive drinkers. Despite this considerable evidence-base, key questions remain unanswered including: the applicability of the evidence to routine practice; the most efficient strategy for screening patients; and the required intensity of brief intervention in primary care. This pragmatic factorial trial, with cluster randomization of practices, will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different models of screening to identify hazardous and harmful drinkers in primary care and different intensities of brief intervention to reduce excessive drinking in primary care patients. Methods and design GPs and nurses from 24 practices across the North East (n = 12), London and South East (n = 12) of England will be recruited. Practices will be randomly allocated to one of three intervention conditions: a leaflet-only control group (n = 8); brief structured advice (n = 8); and brief lifestyle counselling (n = 8). To test the relative effectiveness of different screening methods all practices will also be randomised to either a universal or targeted screening approach and to use either a modified single item (M-SASQ) or FAST screening tool. Screening randomisation will incorporate stratification by geographical area and intervention condition. During the intervention stage of the trial, practices in each of the three arms will recruit at least 31 hazardous or harmful drinkers who will receive a short baseline assessment followed by brief intervention. Thus there will be a minimum of 744 patients recruited into the trial. Discussion The trial will evaluate the impact of screening and brief alcohol intervention in routine practice; thus its findings will be highly relevant to clinicians working in primary care in the UK. There will be an intention to treat analysis of study outcomes at 6 and 12 months after intervention. Analyses will include patient measures (screening result, weekly alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, public service use and quality of life) and implementation measures from practice staff (the acceptability and feasibility of different models of brief intervention.) We will also examine organisational factors associated with successful implementation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN06145674.

Kaner, Eileen; Bland, Martin; Cassidy, Paul; Coulton, Simon; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Gilvarry, Eilish; Godfrey, Christine; Heather, Nick; Myles, Judy; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Oyefeso, Adenekan; Parrott, Steve; Perryman, Katherine; Phillips, Tom; Shenker, Don; Shepherd, Jonathan

2009-01-01

447

The Traditional/Communicative Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When considering the question of "traditional" versus "communicative", the first essential is definition. This article first of all attempts to clarify these ill-defined concepts before considering the degree to which they may or may not be dichotomous. The results of a small-scale study are reported involving a survey of teaching approaches…

Griffiths, Carol

2011-01-01

448

Is Traditional Educational Media Dead?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of films on the author and concludes that traditional media has not died out, but rather has changed due to technology. Films are now watched on television as well as at a cinema; radio is more pervasive; and newspapers are still valued. (LRW)

Ljubic, Milan

2000-01-01

449

Contemporary Literature/Traditional Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An upper school English program has been experimenting with ways to reinforce its traditional literary curriculum with contemporary works. Three contemporary novels in particular (Naylor's "The Women of Brewster Place," Walker's "The Color Purple," and Miller's "A Canticle for Leibowitz") have been found to foster a sense of continuity with the…

Spencer, Jamieson

450

From Traditional to Virtual Mentoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tradition of a mentoring relationship is embedded in a personal/business relationship between a wise teacher and someone who needs to learn a trade. Learning sessions have occurred over the years in many types of settings, including one-on-one mentoring, conferences, meetings, telephone, and fax. As society looks to technology as a vital…