Sample records for harmful traditional practices

  1. Sudanese women's struggle to eliminate harmful practices.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A

    1995-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is widely accepted in the Sudan regardless of educational level. Findings from the 1989-90 Sudan Demographic and Health Survey indicate that a large majority of both men and women approved of the procedure. 73% of men preferred the less harmful "Sunna" type, and 18% preferred infibulation. 4% preferred an intermediate type. Another study found that all the polygynous men with both types of wives preferred non-excised or "Sunna" circumcised women as more sexually responsive and participatory. FGM is part of a continuation of a patriarchal repression of female sexuality. The belief is held among African societies that excision of the clitoris protects a woman from her sexuality by keeping her from temptation, suspicion, and disgrace. FGM occurs mainly in societies that have an absolute and clear requisite of female chastity for marriage. The Islamic view is ambivalent and variable by geographic region. Some physicians defend FGM on "scientific" grounds. The general principle of Islamic education as stated by Shiekh Mahmoud Shaltout of Cairo is that neither "Sunna" nor excision of the clitoris is mandatory. FGM is celebrated as a rite of passage. The practice is disappearing due to education and eradication campaigns. Although unexcised women are considered unclean, the FGM procedure actually interferes with menstruation and escape of urine and results in discomfort and infection. An obstacle to stopping FGM is the fee paid to traditional birth attendants, nurses, and midwives, whose self-interest is to defend the practice. Groups working to eradicate the practice include the Inter-African Committee (since 1984) and the Sudan National Committee on Harmful Traditional Practices (since 1985). Campaigns involve education and promotion of alternative employment for birth attendants and midwives. An impact assessment in Sudan in 1994 found that FGM is now publicly discussed, the influence of elders is declining, and the practice is viewed among the most educated as anti-modern. There is a trend toward use of the less harmful "Sunna" method or else a new "false circumcision," where only plaster is placed around the clitoris. PMID:12346471

  2. Patterns of use and harm reduction practices of ecstasy users in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Allott; Jennifer Redman

    2006-01-01

    Harm reduction refers to the use of strategies to prevent or reduce harmful consequences associated with illicit drug use. There is a paucity of research concerning the harm reduction practices employed by ecstasy users. This study aimed to explore the prevalence, nature and factors associated with harm reduction practices employed by ecstasy users in Australia, with a specific focus on

  3. Integrating Sociological Practice into Traditional Sociology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basirico, Laurence A.

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a model of instruction that uses Marvin Olsen's reconceptualization of sociology as "sociological practice" to integrate sociological practice into traditional courses. States that this approach helps students gain a critical perspective and overcome personal and cultural ideological constraints in dealing with real issues related to…

  4. Traditional public health practices in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladepo, O; Sridhar, M K

    1987-10-01

    Traditional beliefs and practices can help teach effective modern public health practices in Nigeria. A study conducted among large ethnic groups in Nigeria found that many of the people's traditional beliefs promoted good health practices and complemented modern health promotion efforts. The study was conducted by public health workers and students through open-ended questions among Yorubas, Hausas, and Ibos, the dominant indigenous ethnic groups of Nigeria. Interviewers questioned the respondents on myths, cultural taboos, legends, proverbs and songs. They also asked about cultural practices regarding water sanitation, waste disposal, food hygiene, vector control, and communicable disease control. Maintaining a clean water supply was a key concept in traditional beliefs. In addition, folklore emphasized sanitary disposal of human waste, general cleanliness, and the importance of personal hygiene. Proper food handling was treated in certain proverbs and myths, and there were many taboos on cooking, storing, and serving of food. The study found evil attached to rats, cockroaches, and flies in homes. Disease prevention was encouraged through tales and practices involving isolation of infected persons. PMID:3119843

  5. The practice of traditional medicine in Africa.

    PubMed

    Tella, A

    1979-01-01

    Traditional medicine is a method of healing founded on its own concept of health and disease. Knowledge is passed on orally from father to son. Healing knowledge is jealously guarded in certain families. In Africa the popularity of traditional healers is attributed to the fact that they take full account of the socio-cultural background of the people. The components of traditional medicine include herbal medicine, therapeutic fasting and dieting, hydrotherapy, radiant healing therapy, venesection, surgery and bone-setting, spinal manipulation and massage, psychotherapy, therapeutic occultism, psychiatry and preventive medicine. In the African environment the therapeutic potential of traditional medicine is great and requires further indepth study to improve methods and training and to form a more effective organization within the ranks of traditional healers. In the physical medicine, vegetable, animal, and mineral substances may be used. In the metaphysical division of traditional medicine, prayers, invocations, or incantations are offered to some mysterious and powerful forces. The practioner usually excels in one or more practices to the exclusion of others. Herbal preparations should be studied with the idea of using them to replace more toxic, synthetic drugs. Some plants used by traditional healers are fennal, serpentine, cinchona, quinine, digitalis, and vinca rosea. PMID:525052

  6. Developing a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for clinical work with boys and men.

    PubMed

    Mahalik, James R; Good, Glenn E; Tager, David; Levant, Ronald F; Mackowiak, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    This study drew upon the knowledge base of member practitioners of the American Psychological Association (APA) to develop a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for treatment with boys and men. Four hundred seventy-five APA-member practitioners solicited from practice-related divisions provided responses to 4 open-ended questions about helpful and harmful practices in working with boys and men. Ten themes emerged from qualitative analyses. Beneficial and sensitive practices included addressing gender socialization and gender-sensitive issues as they apply to boys and men in psychological practice. Harmful practices included biased practices, stereotypes, and a lack of awareness and training around gender and diversity issues as they apply to boys and men. We discuss the specific themes that emerged from analysis of the responses, how these findings are situated within previous work examining helpful and harmful practices, limitations to the study, suggestions for research, and implications for training psychologists. PMID:23088685

  7. Harm reduction psychotherapy: extending the reach of traditional substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Tatarsky, Andrew

    2003-12-01

    Harm reduction is a paradigm-shifting idea that has the potential to significantly improve the treatment of problem substance users. The essence of harm reduction is the recognition that treatment must start from the client's needs and personal goals and that all change that reduces the harms associated with substance use can be regarded as valuable. The paper presents harm reduction's rationale, principles, treatment implications, and application to psychotherapy. The author describes his model of Integrative Harm Reduction Psychotherapy, an approach that integrates a strategic skills-building focus with an exploration of the multiple meanings of substance use and the importance of the therapeutic alliance. PMID:14693253

  8. Traditional Practices of Turkish infertile women: an example from a rural county.

    PubMed

    Nazik, Evsen; Apay, Serap; Özdemir, Funda; Nazik, Hakan

    2015-03-01

    Infertility is not only a health problem, but is also a central existential intrapersonal and relational conflict. Infertility treatments are invasive, expensive, time-consuming, emotionally draining. All over the world there are numerous traditional methods used in the treatment of infertility. This investigation was carried out to determine the traditional practices of infertile women in a rural county in Eastern Turkey. This is a descriptive study carried out in 105 primary infertile women. Data were collected between September 2007 and April 2008 by using a questionnaire. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. 55% of the women were in the 25-34 year age range. It was observed that only 17% of the women applied to a gynecologist without using any traditional applications while 83% of the women applied for traditional applications. The most prevalent traditional practices were consulting traditional healers, visiting mausoleums where religious leaders were buried, using traditional drugs, use of written fertility amulets. Various traditional practices against infertility are prevalent rural counties. Some of these practices may be potentially harmful for women. Health professionals should be aware that infertile women may sometimes follow questionable traditional practices and advices. PMID:26040063

  9. Developing a Taxonomy of Helpful and Harmful Practices for Clinical Work with Boys and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalik, James R.; Good, Glenn E.; Tager, David; Levant, Ronald F.; Mackowiak, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study drew upon the knowledge base of member practitioners of the American Psychological Association (APA) to develop a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for treatment with boys and men. Four hundred seventy-five APA-member practitioners solicited from practice-related divisions provided responses to 4 open-ended questions about…

  10. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Practices among Injecting Drug Users in Harm Reduction Centers in Catalonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cinta Folch; Jordi Casabona; M. Teresa Brugal; Xavier Majó; Anna Esteve; Mercč Merońo; Victoria Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and sexual risk practices, and to identify factors associated with infection by C. trachomatis\\/N. gonorrhoeae. Methods: Injecting drug users were interviewed at harm reduction centers and biological samples were collected to estimate the prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Results: The prevalence

  11. Harm reduction and women in the Canadian national prison system: policy or practice?

    PubMed

    Rehman, Laurene; Gahagan, Jacqueline; DiCenso, Anne Marie; Dias, Giselle

    2004-01-01

    Applying the principles of harm reduction within the context of incarcerated populations raises a number of challenges. Although some access to harm reduction strategies has been promoted in general society, a divide between what is available and what is advocated continues to exist within the prison system. This paper explores the perceptions and lived experiences of a sample of nationally incarcerated women in Canada regarding their perceptions and experiences in accessing HIV and Hepatitis C prevention, care, treatment and support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 156 women in Canadian national prisons. Q.S.R. Nudist was used to assist with data management. A constant comparison method was used to derive categories, patterns, and themes. Emergent themes highlighted a gap between access to harm reduction in policy and in practice. Despite the implementation of some harm reduction techniques, women in Canadian prisons reported variable access to both education and methods of reducing HIV/HCV transmission. Concerns were also raised about pre-and post-test counseling for HIV/HCV testing. Best practices are suggested for implementing harm reduction strategies within prisons for women in Canada. PMID:15911510

  12. Pharmacists and harm reduction: A review of current practices and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Tyler; Hughes, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injection drug use and other high-risk behaviours are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality and thus have been the focus of many health promotion strategies. Community pharmacists are considered underutilized health providers and are often thought to be more accessible than other health professionals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of community pharmacists' practices as well as pharmacists' attitudes and identified barriers toward providing harm reduction services. We will highlight the major harm reduction services being offered through community pharmacies, as well as identify barriers to implementing these services. Methods: A review of the literature from 1995 to 2011 was conducted using the electronic databases MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus, encompassing pharmacists' involvement in harm reduction services. Keywords included pharmacist, harm reduction, disease prevention, health promotion, attitudes, competence and barriers. References of included articles were examined to identify further relevant literature. Results: Pharmacists are primarily involved in providing clean needles to injection drug users, as well as opioid substitution. Pharmacists generally have a positive attitude toward providing health promotion and harm reduction programs and express some interest in increasing their role in this area. Common barriers to expanding harm reduction strategies in community pharmacists' practice include lack of time and training, insufficient remuneration, fear of attracting unruly clientele and inadequate communication between health providers. Conclusion: As one of the most accessible health care providers, community pharmacists are in an ideal position to provide meaningful services to injection drug users. However, in order to do so, pharmacists require additional support in the form of better health team and system integration, as well as remuneration models. PMID:23509527

  13. Muscle size satisfaction and predisposition for a health harmful practice in bodybuilders and recreational gymnasium users.

    PubMed

    Jankauskiene, Rasa; Kardelis, Kestutis; Pajaujiene, Simona

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate muscle size satisfaction and predisposition to health harmful muscle gain practice in bodybuilders and recreational gymnasium users and to evaluate its relationship with sport mastery. The sample consisted of 132 men (51 bodybuilders and 81 recreational gymnasium users). The muscle size satisfaction and related variables were evaluated using a 23-item questionnaire (alpha=0.6, test-retest reliability 0.7). The difference between the actual and the desired girths of the widest site of the upper arm and the thigh was determined based on the subjects' reported data. The study showed that the majority of the gymnasium users (61.2%) wanted to gain muscle mass, but the tendency was observed that muscle size dissatisfaction, preoccupation with body shape, obligatory motivation, and obsessive attitude towards exercising depended on the sport mastery - the lower mastery predicted higher values. Entering bodybuilding competitions was associated with a 3.2-time (95% CI 1.14-9) higher muscle size dissatisfaction and a 4.8-fold increase (95% CI 1.4-16) in reported predisposition for health harmful muscle gain practice; however, being a bodybuilder was associated with 5.7-time (95% CI 1.9-17) higher predisposition for a health harmful practice. In conclusion, bodybuilders have lower muscle size satisfaction and significantly higher predisposition to health harmful muscle gain practice as compared to recreational gymnasium users. Our findings service for understanding that competitive bodybuilders are not body image homogeneous group if their sport mastery is ignored. PMID:17485962

  14. Chemistry Practical Lessons: Altering Traditions for Students' Emancipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nhalevilo, Emilia Afonso

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to Maria Andree's paper. Andree tells in the paper how mistakes in practical lessons may be critical events to change students' attitudes in regard science. While traditionally mistakes in practical lessons could obligate students to repeat the experiment in order to get the "right result" in the paper we have a good…

  15. Theory meets practice: working pragmatically within different cultures and traditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja Maass; Geoff Wake

    We explore the question of how a research community focused on mathematical modeling might best inform teachers' practice from the viewpoint of an international collaborative project which seeks to develop a teacher training programme for use in different countries with their distinctive cultures and traditions. Following identification of some of the key challenges we illustrate these from the different perspectives

  16. Practical Approaches for Involving Traditionally Underserved Populations in Transportation Decisionmaking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Aimen; Anne Morris

    2012-01-01

    This report provides state departments of transportation (DOTs), metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), and other transportation agencies with a rich source of practical and effective tools, techniques, and approaches for identifying and connecting with populations that have traditionally been underserved and underrepresented in transportation decisionmaking. The report is organized in an easy-to-use format that gives transportation agency staff responsible for developing

  17. The impact of a police drug crackdown on drug injectors’ ability to practice harm reduction: A qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah Cooper; Lisa Moore; Sofia Gruskin; Nancy Krieger

    2005-01-01

    This paper employs qualitative methods to explore the ramifications of a police drug crackdown on drug injectors’ ability to practice harm reduction. Between August and December 2000, we conducted open-ended interviews with 40 illicit-drug-injecting residents of a New York City police precinct undergoing a crackdown. Interview topics included participants’ experiences with police in the precinct and their drug use practices.

  18. [Rapid screening and quality evaluation for the harmful substance 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection using LC-MS/MS method].

    PubMed

    Zang, Qing-ce; He, Jing-jing; Bai, Jin-fa; Zheng, Ya-jie; Zhang, Rui-ping; Li, Tie-gang; Wang, Zhong-hua; He, Jiu-ming; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-11-01

    To screen the harmful substance 5-hydroxymethyl furfural content in commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection which are commonly used, and to preliminarily evaluate the quality of these injections, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was taken as an index. The contents of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in 56 samples which consist of 23 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine injections and glucose injection were determined using LC-MS/MS, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was detected in 52 of these samples. The minimal content was 0.0038 microg x L(-1) and the maximum content was 1420 microg x mL(-1). The contents of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural were significantly different in traditional Chinese medicine injection which came from different kinds, manufacturers or batches. The results showed the quality difference of commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection is significant taking 5-hydroxymethyl furfural content as assessment index. More attention should be paid to the safety of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in traditional Chinese medicine injection, and unified limitation standard should be set to improve medication safety of traditional Chinese medicine injection. PMID:24475709

  19. Method Choice in Nonfatal Self-Harm as a Predictor of Subsequent Episodes of Self-Harm and Suicide: Implications for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; Barber, Catherine; Rosenberg-Wohl, Sarah; Azrael, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined time-varying and time-invariant characteristics of nonfatal intentional self-harm episodes in relation to subsequent episodes of self-harm and suicide. Methods. We conducted a follow-up cohort study through 2007 of 3600 patients discharged from hospitals in New Jersey with a primary diagnosis of intentional self-harm in 2003. We determined repetition of self-harm from hospital records and suicide from state registers. Results. Use of methods other than drug overdose and cutting in self-harm events, greater medical severity of nonfatal episodes, and a history of multiple self-harm episodes increased the risk of suicide. However, most suicides occurred without these risk factors. Most suicides took place without intervening episodes of self-harm, and most persons used a low-lethality method (drug overdose or cutting) in their index episode, but switched to a more lethal method in their fatal episode. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that preventing suicide among persons with a history of self-harm must account for the possibility that they will adopt methods with higher case-fatality ratios than they previously tried. PMID:23597351

  20. Toxic Red Tides and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Practical Challenge in Coastal Oceanography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson, Donald M. (Donald Mark)

    This national report to IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) contains links to information regarding harmful algal blooms (HABs). Written by Donald Anderson, the report includes: introduction, background, recent trends, physical/biological coupling, small-scale interactions, nutrient dynamics, emerging technologies (molecular probes, remote sensing, models, management issues, and program and policy issues), and a list of references.

  1. Self harm and attempted suicide in adults: 10 practical questions and answers for emergency department staff

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, A J; Dennis, M

    2006-01-01

    Self harm is a complex behaviour that can be best thought of as a maladaptive response to acute and chronic stress, often but not exclusively linked with thoughts of dying. Patients presenting with self harm usually have current psychosocial difficulties, are likely to be suffering from mental health problems, and are at significant risk of further self harm and suicide. Recent guidelines suggest that all self harm attendees should receive an initial risk assessment at triage in the emergency department. A more detailed mental health assessment and an assessment of psychological and social needs should then be performed by trained staff, ideally specialist mental professionals experienced in this area. Risk of subsequent suicide is particularly high in those with high unresolved suicidal intent, depressive disorder, chronic alcohol and drug misuse, social isolation, and current physical illness. Patients with one or more of these risk factors should be offered enhanced care that may include inpatient or outpatient follow up care, a list of local support resources, and, where possible, self help material. Frequent repeaters, those with alcohol and substance use problems, those with physical or mental illness, and those who are isolated also require input from specialist mental health professionals. It is also recommended that adolescents and elderly people warrant a mandatory specialist assessment. PMID:16549567

  2. Islam and harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. PMID:20006483

  3. Blending Online Learning with Traditional Approaches: Changing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condie, Rae; Livingston, Kay

    2007-01-01

    Considerable claims have been made for the development of e-learning, either as stand-alone programmes or alongside more traditional approaches to teaching and learning, for students across school and tertiary education. National initiatives have improved the position of schools in terms of access to hardware and electronic networking, software…

  4. Trying to do more Good than Harm in Policy and Practice: The Role of Rigorous, Transparent, Up-to-Date Evaluations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IAIN CHALMERS

    2003-01-01

    Because professionals sometimes do more harm than good when they intervene in the lives of other people, their policies and practices should be informed by rigorous, transparent, up-to-date evaluations. Surveys often reveal wide variations in the type and frequency of practice and policy interventions, and this evidence of collective uncertainty should prompt the humility that is a precondition for rigorous

  5. Latent practice profiles of substance abuse treatment counselors: do evidence-based techniques displace traditional techniques?

    PubMed

    Smith, Brenda D; Liu, Junqing

    2014-04-01

    As more substance abuse treatment counselors begin to use evidence-based treatment techniques, questions arise regarding the continued use of traditional techniques. This study aims to (1) assess whether there are meaningful practice profiles among practitioners reflecting distinct combinations of cognitive-behavioral and traditional treatment techniques; and (2) if so, identify practitioner characteristics associated with the distinct practice profiles. Survey data from 278 frontline counselors working in community substance abuse treatment organizations were used to conduct latent profile analysis. The emergent practice profiles illustrate that practitioners vary most in the use of traditional techniques. Multinomial regression models suggest that practitioners with less experience, more education, and less traditional beliefs about treatment and substance abuse are least likely to mix traditional techniques with cognitive-behavioral techniques. Findings add to the understanding of how evidence-based practices are implemented in routine settings and have implications for training and support of substance abuse treatment counselors. PMID:24462243

  6. Beyond Tradition: Culture, Symbolism, and Practicality in American Indian Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous people have always created what colonial language labels art. Yet there is no Native word for "art" as defined in a Euro-American sense. Art, as the dominant culture envisions, is mostly ornamental. This is in sharp juxtaposition to a Native perspective, which sees art as integrative, inclusive, practical, and constantly…

  7. Postpartum traditions and nutrition practices among urban Lao women and their infants in Vientiane, Lao PDR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Barennes; C Simmala; P Odermatt; T Thaybouavone; J Vallee; B Martinez-Ussel; P N Newton; M Strobel

    2009-01-01

    Background\\/Objective:To assess the traditional postpartum practices, mother and child nutritional status and associated factors.Subjects\\/Methods:A cross-sectional study in 41 randomly selected villages on the outskirts of Vientiane capital city, Lao PDR (Laos). 300 pairs of infants (<6 months of age) and their mothers were enrolled. Information was collected about pregnancy, delivery and traditional practices through a standardized questionnaire. Dietary intake and

  8. Don Quixote in the digital age: an analysis of traditional editorial practices and current electronic editions 

    E-print Network

    Lugo Ibarra, Cruz Yolanda

    1999-01-01

    DON QUIXOTE IN THE DIGITAL AGE: AN ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL EDITORIAL PRACTICES AND CURRENT ELECTRONIC EDITIONS A Thesis by CRUZ YOLANDA LUGO IBARRA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1999 Major Subject: Modern Languages DON QUIXOTE IN THE DIGITAL AGE: AN ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL EDITORIAL PRACTICES AND CURRENT ELECTRONIC EDITIONS A Thesis by CRUZ YOLANDA LUGO IBARRA Submitted...

  9. Perspectives and Practices of Xhosa-Speaking African Traditional Healers when Managing Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mzimkulu, Kanyiswa G.; Simbayi, Leickness C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives and practices of Xhosa-speaking African traditional healers, known as "amagqirha", in managing psychosis. Four traditional healers, 3 male and one female, were chosen to take part in the study through their association with psychosis patients undergoing treatment at a South African psychiatric…

  10. Traditional beliefs and practices in the postpartum period in Fujian Province, China: a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna H Raven; Qiyan Chen; Rachel J Tolhurst; Paul Garner

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. METHODS: We interviewed family members (36) and health workers (8) in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban county. We asked about their traditional

  11. Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm

    PubMed Central

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in communication, locus of control, and consent/permission before and during physical examinations and procedures. The intent of this article is to act as a catalyst for improved patient care and more research focused on the identification and optimal responses to the needs of men with adverse childhood experiences in the health care setting. PMID:25106042

  12. Traditional beliefs and disease practices of Ethiopian Jews.

    PubMed

    Hodes, R M; Teferedegne, B

    1996-07-01

    In an attempt to assess concepts of disease, we questioned 33 Ethiopian Jews (Falashas) in Ethiopia about 13 diseases: 8 western and 5 cultural syndromes (in the Amharic language): birrd (cold), wugat (stabbing chest pain), moygnbagegn (neurologic disorder), mitch (sunstroke), and attent hono kere (retained fetus becoming bone). Disease causation was often attributed to spirits and the sun. None of the interviewees understood the cause of: a) epilepsy, most attributing it to spirits and recommending smelling match smoke as treatment, b) prolonged labor, attributed by most to the evil kole spirit and is managed by traditional birth attendants; and c) abortion, believed to be caused by exposure to sun or cold. Less than 20% linked malaria to mosquitoes. Most correlated splenomegaly with malaria. Hepatitis was believed to be caused by a bird or bat flying around the affected person. Multiple factors were linked to diarrhea, including a journey in the sun. Moygnbagegn is the only condition treated by venisection from brachial veins; wugat is treated by "cupping". Modern medicine was recommended by < 30% of those questioned for epilepsy, splenomegaly, hepatitis, and Ethiopian cultural diseases. It was recommended most for malaria (52%), sexually transmitted diseases (55%), and diarrhea (69%). PMID:8756985

  13. Traditional and emerging forms of dental practice. Cost, accessibility, and quality factors.

    PubMed Central

    Rovin, S; Nash, J

    1982-01-01

    The traditional and predominant manner of delivering dental care is through a fee-for-service, private practice system. A number of alternative dental care delivery systems have emerged and are being tested, and others are just emerging. These systems include department store practices, hospital dental services, health maintenance organizations, the independent practice of dental hygiene, and denturism. Although it is too soon to draw final conclusions about the efficacy and effectiveness of these systems, we examine them for their potential to compete with and change the way dental care is currently delivered. Using the parameters of cost, accessibility, and quality, we compare these systems to traditional dental practice. Some of these emerging forms clearly have the potential to complete favorably with traditional practice. Other seem less likely to alter the existing system substantially. The system which can best control costs, increase accessibility, and enhance quality will gain the competitive edge. PMID:7091453

  14. Household survey of pesticide practice, deliberate self-harm, and suicide in the Sundarban region of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sohini; Chowdhury, Arabinda Narayan; Schelling, Esther; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2013-01-01

    The toxicological impact and intentional ingestion of pesticides are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to estimate the extent of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicides (suicidal behaviour) and document pesticide practices in Namkhana block of the Sundarban region, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1680 households (21 villages) following a mixed random and cluster design sampling. The survey questionnaire (Household Information on Pesticide Use and DSH) was developed by the research team to elicit qualitative and quantitative information. The Kappa statistic and McNemar's test were used to assess the level of agreement and association between respondents' and investigators' opinions about safe storage of pesticides. Over five years, 1680 households reported 181 incidents of suicidal behaviour. Conflict with family members was the most frequently reported reason for suicidal behaviour (53.6%). The Kappa statistic indicated poor agreement between respondents and investigators about safe storage of pesticides. The pesticide-related annual DSH rate was 158.1 (95% CI 126.2-195.5), and for suicide it was 73.4 (95% CI 52.2-100.3) per 100,000. Unsafe pesticide practice and psychosocial stressors are related to the high rates of suicidal behaviour. An intersectoral approach involving the local governments, agricultural department and the health sector would help to reduce the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:24224181

  15. Concerns About Aspects of Harm Reduction and the Overselling of Evidence-Based Practices in the Treatment of Alcohol\\/Other Drug Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome F. X. Carroll

    2009-01-01

    This opinion piece addresses concerns about the negative impressions offered by some harm reduction advocates about historical alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment and abstinence-based programs, as well as advocates who would insist that only evidence-based practices be used in AOD treatment.

  16. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyxlooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (coxibs) and gastrointestinal harm: review of clinical trials and clinical practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Andrew Moore; Sheena Derry; Ceri J Phillips; Henry J McQuay

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal harm, known to occur with NSAIDs, is thought to be lower with NSAID and gastroprotective agent, and with inhibitors selective to cyclooxygenase-2 (coxibs) at usual plasma concentrations. We examine competing strategies for available evidence of reduced gastrointestinal bleeding in clinical trials and combine this evidence with evidence from clinical practice on whether the strategies work in the real

  17. Physician and consumer acceptance of the traditional chinese medicine clinical practice support system (TCMCPSS).

    PubMed

    Lai, Tsai-Ya; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Lee, Chin-Ni

    2014-01-01

    Although ICT-enabled clinical practices have been widely accepted by the Western medical society, informatics applications for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are under developed. An integrated traditional Chinese medicine clinical practice support system (TCMCPSS) has been developed to enhance data integration automation and treatment planning decision support of clinical practice of TCM. The acceptance of TCMCPSS had been assessed by 26 TCM physicians based on information clarity, clinical relevancy, and theoretical relevancy through a survey questionnaire using the 5-points Likert Scale. The average acceptance rate was 3.76. One hundred and fifty-four participants were recruited for the TCMCPSS feasibility study and reported the acceptance rate of 90%. The results indicated that while consumers were ready to embrace TCM practice assisted by informatics technologies, TCM physicians concerned more about the usefulness of the system and preserved caution to adopt TCMCPSS. PMID:24943562

  18. Comparing Students' Attitudes towards the Use of Traditional and Alternative Assessment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMauro, Tom; Helphrey, Traci; Schram, Greg; Spiekermann, Carrie

    This paper describes a program designed to compare students' attitudes towards the use of traditional and alternative assessment practices. The targeted population consisted of a second and third grade general education class, a third grade physical education class, and an eighth grade applied technology class in three communities in northern…

  19. The Meaning Structures of Muslim Bereavements in Israel: Religious Traditions, Mourning Practices, and Human Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasien-Esmael, Hend; Rubin, Simon Shimshon

    2005-01-01

    The grief and mourning of Muslim citizens in Israel are considered. First, a series of mourning customs spanning the period from notification of death until post-mourning are presented from 3 perspectives: (a) the requirements of the Islamic Sunni tradition; (b) the manner in which Islamic mourning rituals are practiced; and (c) the authors'…

  20. Navigating Two Worlds: Experiences of Counsellors Who Integrate Aboriginal Traditional Healing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oulanova, Olga; Moodley, Roy

    2010-01-01

    There is revival in the use of traditional healing among Canadian Aboriginal communities and the therapeutic benefits of these practices have received much research attention. An argument is repeatedly made for incorporating indigenous healing into clinical interventions, yet recommendations on how this may be accomplished are lacking. The present…

  1. Field Research Practice in Management and Organization Studies: Reclaiming its Tradition of Discovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Locke

    2011-01-01

    This review reasserts field research's discovery epistemology. While it occupies a minority position in the study of organization and management, discovery-oriented research practice has a long tradition of giving insight into new, unappreciated and misappreciated processes that are important to how work is accomplished. I argue that while methods discourse has long emphasized that particularizing data and an emergent research

  2. Puttur kattu (bandage) - A traditional bone setting practice in south India.

    PubMed

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Rout, Suvendu

    2011-10-01

    Traditional bone setting practices are quite popular in India and nearly 6000 traditional bone setting Vaidyas (Practisioners) are practicing the same in our country. Puttur kattu is a traditional way of bone setting practice, invented accidentally by K. Kesava Raju in 1881. Now, the fourth generation of his family is practicing this bone setting practice in hospitals at Puttur, Andhra Pradesh, with 200-300 patients per day. A prospective study was undertaken to analyze the techniques in diagnosis, way of management, medicine preparation, plants used and way of applications by traditional bone setter (TBS) Vaidyas, with special reference to Puttur. We also tried to understand the reasons which make lots of people go to Puttur for getting treatment, means of contact for treatment, pathology of fracture and outcome of some treated cases through this study. 54% of the studied patients came to Puttur TBS on the advice of old patients. It is observed that more educated people are patronizing this therapy and 23% patients of the observed cases took discharge from modern hospital voluntarily to receive Puttur kattu treatment. 80% patients believed that this therapy with home remedy would fasten the healing process. 44% patients opted for this therapy due to fear of pain, heavy plaster of Paris bandage, prolonged period of immobilization, surgery and amputation. 71% patients of the followed cases were satisfied with the treatment of TBS of Puttur with minimum complications. The authors also attempted to put forth the legacy of the tradition, the way of management and the plant used for bone setting by the Puttur bone setting Vaidyas. PMID:22253506

  3. Puttur kattu (bandage) – A traditional bone setting practice in south India

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Rout, Suvendu

    2011-01-01

    Traditional bone setting practices are quite popular in India and nearly 6000 traditional bone setting Vaidyas (Practisioners) are practicing the same in our country. Puttur kattu is a traditional way of bone setting practice, invented accidentally by K. Kesava Raju in 1881. Now, the fourth generation of his family is practicing this bone setting practice in hospitals at Puttur, Andhra Pradesh, with 200-300 patients per day. A prospective study was undertaken to analyze the techniques in diagnosis, way of management, medicine preparation, plants used and way of applications by traditional bone setter (TBS) Vaidyas, with special reference to Puttur. We also tried to understand the reasons which make lots of people go to Puttur for getting treatment, means of contact for treatment, pathology of fracture and outcome of some treated cases through this study. 54% of the studied patients came to Puttur TBS on the advice of old patients. It is observed that more educated people are patronizing this therapy and 23% patients of the observed cases took discharge from modern hospital voluntarily to receive Puttur kattu treatment. 80% patients believed that this therapy with home remedy would fasten the healing process. 44% patients opted for this therapy due to fear of pain, heavy plaster of Paris bandage, prolonged period of immobilization, surgery and amputation. 71% patients of the followed cases were satisfied with the treatment of TBS of Puttur with minimum complications. The authors also attempted to put forth the legacy of the tradition, the way of management and the plant used for bone setting by the Puttur bone setting Vaidyas. PMID:22253506

  4. Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bekele Megersa; Demelash Biffa; Fekadu Niguse; Tesfaye Rufael; Kassahun Asmare; Eystein Skjerve

    2011-01-01

    Background  Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence\\u000a of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional\\u000a livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using

  5. From tradition to evidence: decolonization of the evidence-based practice system.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Culture counts in the prevention and treatment of behavioral ailments. The Native American Health Center (NAHC) has successfully developed a model that incorporates cultural adaptations into EBPs, yet also believes community-defined and practice-based evidence are relevant in the validation of traditional practices. American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) traditional practices are more than complementary forms of healing. They are stand-alone methods, developed and used by tribal people long before the concept of EBPs existed. There is a need for funders to respect these practices as autonomous mental health strategies. The reasons for promoting change are explained through an understanding of key dimensions of AI/AN behavioral health issues. These key dimensions were identified in the 2001 Surgeon General's Report and an extensive literature review of Indigenous research methodologies. Recommendations are made based upon their ability to promote AI/AN empowerment, to support movement toward self-determination using the Indigenous Research Agenda model. This model honors fluid movement of Indigenous people through states of survival, recovery, development and self-determination through four categories for action: decolonization, mobilization, transformation, and healing. The end results are options for holistic approaches to influence policy changes in the EBP system. PMID:22400463

  6. Traditional massage of newborns in Nepal: implications for trials of improved practice.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Luke C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Khatry, Subarna K; Tielsch, James M

    2005-04-01

    Mustard oil massage of newborns is an integral component of traditional care practices in many communities. Recent evidence suggests that this practice may have detrimental effects, particularly for preterm infants or for those whose skin barrier function is otherwise sub-optimal. Other natural oils such as sunflower, sesame or safflower seed oil may have a beneficial impact on newborn health and survival. Little is known, however, about cultural and other factors related to the acceptance and uptake of alternative, more beneficial oils for massage of the newborn. A questionnaire concerning the usage and reasons for application of mustard and other oils to newborn skin was administered to the caretakers of 8580 newborns in Sarlahi district of rural Nepal. Four focus group discussions among representative groups were conducted to describe the perceived benefits of oil massage and the factors involved in the decision to apply oil. The potential for the introduction of alternative natural oils was explored. Approximately 99 per cent of newborns were massaged at least once with mustard oil in the 2 weeks after birth, and 80 per cent were massaged at least twice daily. Promotion of strength, maintenance of health, and provision of warmth were the most commonly cited reasons for application of mustard oil. Focus group discussion participants noted that smell, oiliness, mode of pre-massage preparation, and perceived absorptive potential on the skin are important contextual factors involved in the practice. Caretakers are willing to consider adaptation of established traditions for the promotion of positive health outcomes if essential contextual criteria are met. An understanding of cultural, social, and economic factors that shape the context of traditional healthcare practices is essential to the design and implementation of intervention trials examining the relative efficacy of application of oils in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity. PMID:15677372

  7. Is prostitution harmful?

    PubMed

    Moen, Ole Martin

    2014-02-01

    A common argument against prostitution states that selling sex is harmful because it involves selling something deeply personal and emotional. More and more of us, however, believe that sexual encounters need not be deeply personal and emotional in order to be acceptable--we believe in the acceptability of casual sex. In this paper I argue that if casual sex is acceptable, then we have few or no reasons to reject prostitution. I do so by first examining nine influential arguments to the contrary. These arguments purport to pin down the alleged additional harm brought about by prostitution (compared to just casual sex) by appealing to various aspects of its practice, such as its psychology, physiology, economics and social meaning. For each argument I explain why it is unconvincing. I then weight the costs against the benefits of prostitution, and argue that, in sum, prostitution is no more harmful than a long line of occupations that we commonly accept without hesitation. PMID:22930676

  8. Contemporary Traditional Pottery Practices at Archaeo-Historically Important Sites, District Khargone, Madhya Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geedh, Smita; Nadgauda, Tejaswini

    Khargone district is located at the southwest border of Madhya Pradesh. The district comprises of many archaeological and historical sites viz. Navdatoli, Maheshwar, Kasrawad, Mandleshwar. Archaeological excavations at these sites revealed vast cultural assemblage from Lower Paleolithic to Medieval Period. Pottery plays significant role in the reconstruction and understanding of past technologies and socio-economic-religious life. Present paper endeavors to understand contemporary traditional pottery practices at these sites. Besides documentation of degeneration of technology, authors aim to put forth the survival problems of the potters. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to examine the possible reasons behind their present socio-economic conditions.

  9. Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Results Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Conclusions Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT and maternal child health programs in India. PMID:20860835

  10. Finding the Written in Unexpected Places: Literacy in the Maintenance and Practice of Lukumí Rituals and Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogue, Tiffany D.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the use of literacy--including the written word--in the maintenance and practice of Lukumí, a Diasporic African spiritual tradition. While Lukumí is decidedly orally transmitted, the written word is still a critical part of its contemporary practice. Relying on data collected during participant observation of ceremonies and…

  11. The meaning structures of Muslim bereavements in Israel: religious traditions, mourning practices, and human experience.

    PubMed

    Yasien-Esmael, Hend; Rubin, Simon Shimshon

    2005-01-01

    The grief and mourning of Muslim citizens in Israel are considered. First, a series of mourning customs spanning the period from notification of death until post-mourning are presented from 3 perspectives: (a) the requirements of the Islamic Sunni tradition; (b) the manner in which Islamic mourning rituals are practiced; and (c) the authors' interpretative perspective. Next, a synopsis of the personal experiences of two adult children to the death of their elderly father illustrates Muslim bereavement from a narrative point of view. Lastly, the concluding section continues a consideration of the distinction between the Islamic religious emphasis on return to functioning and the myriad ways in which the memory and relationship to the deceased are experienced. The article demonstrates how belief system, Islamic mourning rituals, and the power of loss create an experiential blend that is neither monolithic nor stereotypical. PMID:16187476

  12. Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Eliana; Hadzich, Antonella; Kofer, Waltraud; Mithöfer, Axel; Cosio, Eric G

    2015-08-01

    Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae), is an annual herbaceous plant native to the high plateaus of the Peruvian central Andes. Its underground storage hypocotyls have been a traditional medicinal agent and dietary staple since pre-Columbian times. Reported properties include energizing and fertility-enhancing effects. Published reports have focused on the benzylalkamides (macamides) present in dry hypocotyls as one of the main bioactive components. Macamides are secondary amides formed by benzylamine and a fatty acid moiety, with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and degree of unsaturation. Although it has been assumed that they are usually present in fresh undamaged tissues, analyses show them to be essentially absent from them. However, hypocotyls dried by traditional Andean postharvest practices or industrial oven drying contain up to 800?gg(-1) dry wt (2.3?molg(-1) dry wt) of macamides. In this study, the generation of macamides and their putative precursors were studied during nine-week traditional drying trials at 4200m altitude and in ovens under laboratory conditions. Freeze-thaw cycles in the open field during drying result in tissue maceration and release of free fatty acids from storage and membrane lipids up to levels of 1200?gg(-1) dry wt (4.3?molg(-1) dry wt). Endogenous metabolism of the isothiocyanates generated from glucosinolate hydrolysis during drying results in maximal benzylamine values of 4300?gg(-1) dry wt (40.2?molg(-1) dry wt). Pearson correlation coefficients of the accumulation profiles of benzylamine and free fatty acid to that of macamides showed good values of 0.898 and 0.934, respectively, suggesting that both provide sufficient substrate for amide synthesis during the drying process. PMID:25817836

  13. Self-harm

    MedlinePLUS

    Self-harm refers to a person's harming their own body on purpose. About 1 in 100 people hurts ... females hurt themselves than males. A person who self-harms usually does not mean to kill himself or ...

  14. A ‘Latin’ approach to harm reduction: some suggestions from the Italian experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grazia Zuffa

    2008-01-01

    Following the example of many northern European countries, harm reduction strategies were introduced in Italy at the beginning of the 90s in response to the spread of HIV\\/Aids. The peculiarities of Italian culture and tradition led to the adoption of a ‘Latin’ model, while in northern countries the culture of pragmatism and evidence-based practices, together with a long tradition of

  15. Is the evidence-based practice movement doing more good than harm? Reflections on Iain Chalmers' case for research-based policy making and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martyn Hammersley

    2005-01-01

    English Powerful voices are currently insisting that policy and practice must be based on research evidence, and that social science inquiry should be reformed in order to serve this need more effectively. An influential figure in the evidence-based practice movement is Sir Iain Chalmers, previously director of the UK Cochrane Centre. Taking evidence-based medicine as his model, he presents the

  16. According to SFDA Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) GUIdelInes for Traditional Chinese Medicine* I. The Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Kwong; Guixing Rent; Alan Yeung; Rufa Lin; Fang Shan; Hongmei Le

    2004-01-01

    According to the SFDA guideline on Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) for traditional Chinese medicine, a cultivation study of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) was conducted at Shouyang County Shanxi province, P. R. China. The geographic climate characteristics and social impact at the production sites was investigated. Moreover the ambient air quality, soil environment quality, soil fertility and processing water quality was

  17. When the New Application Smell Is Gone: Traditional Intranet Best Practices and Existing Web 2.0 Intranet Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoose, Becky

    2010-01-01

    With the growth of Web 2.0 library intranets in recent years, many libraries are leaving behind legacy, first-generation intranets. As Web 2.0 intranets multiply and mature, how will traditional intranet best practices--especially in the areas of planning, implementation, and evaluation--translate into an existing Web 2.0 intranet infrastructure?…

  18. Ecological implications of traditional livestock husbandry and associated land use practices: A case study from the trans-Himalaya, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Chandrasekhar; K. S. Rao; R. K. Maikhuri; K. G. Saxena

    2007-01-01

    The importance of indigenous knowledge is being increasingly realized for identifying sustainable interventions enabling environmental conservation coupled with socio-economic development of local communities. This study aimed to evaluate livestock diet composition, diet overlap, forage selection and livestock husbandry and associated land use practices in a typical traditional village landscape in the cold arid region of the trans-Himalaya, India. The village

  19. Is traditional Chinese medicine recommended in Western medicine clinical practice guidelines in China? A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Li, Xun; Sun, Jin; Han, Mei; Yang, Guo-Yan; Li, Wen-Yuan; Robinson, Nicola; Lewith, George; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine promotes and relies on the use of evidence in developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The Chinese healthcare system includes both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine, which are expected to be equally reflected in Chinese CPGs. Objective To evaluate the inclusion of TCM-related information in Western medicine CPGs developed in China and the adoption of high level evidence. Methods All CPGs were identified from the China Guideline Clearinghouse (CGC), which is the main Chinese organisation maintaining the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health of China, the Chinese Medical Association and the Chinese Medical Doctors’ Association. TCM-related contents were extracted from all the CPGs identified. Extracted information comprised the institution issuing the guideline, date of issue, disease, recommendations relating to TCM, evidence level of the recommended content and references supporting the recommendations. Results A total of 604 CPGs were identified, only a small number of which (74/604; 12%) recommended TCM therapy and only five guidelines (7%) had applied evidence grading. The 74 CPGs involved 13 disease systems according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition. TCM was mainly recommended in the treatment part of the guidelines (73/74, 99%), and more than half of the recommendations (43/74, 58%) were related to Chinese herbal medicine (single herbs or herbal treatment based on syndrome differentiation). Conclusions Few Chinese Western medicine CPGs recommend TCM therapies and very few provide evidence grading for the TCM recommendation. We suggest that future guideline development should be based on systematic searches for evidence to support CPG recommendations and involve a multidisciplinary approach including TCM expertise. PMID:26041487

  20. Teaching as a Reflective Practice: The German Didaktik Tradition. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbury, Ian, Ed.; Hopmann, Stefan, Ed.; Riquarts, Kurt, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents essays by German scholars and practitioners writing from within the German Didaktik tradition and interpretive essays by U.S. scholars. After an introduction, "Starting a Dialogue: A Beginning Conversation between Didaktik and the Curriculum Traditions" (Stefan Hopmann and Kurt Riquarts), there are 18 chapters in…

  1. Fostering traditional health systems and ethnomedicine practices through a holistic approach: a pioneering community strategy from Southern India.

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    The ever-presence of traditional medicine and of medical practitioners in remote areas of the world is well documented by anthropological studies. However, the social, cultural, and environmental factors influencing health and traditional health systems have been analyzed separately, ignoring the interlinkages existing between them and the resulting synergies as well as the impact these will have on the multiple aspects of local communities. This case study attempts to overcome this shortcoming, by investigating the interrelationships between biodiversity conservation and the practice of ethnomedicine in Southern India as a basis to implement primary health care, enhance local livelihoods, and contribute to poverty alleviation through community-based entrepreneurial activities. PMID:20353924

  2. Traditional and alternative community food security interventions in Montréal, Québec: different practices, different people.

    PubMed

    Roncarolo, Federico; Adam, Caroline; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Food insecurity is steadily increasing in developed countries. Traditional interventions adopted to tackle food insecurity, like food banks, address the urgent need for food. By contrast, alternative interventions, such as community gardens and kitchens, are oriented towards social integration and the development of mutual aid networks. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the populations served by traditional and alternative interventions in food security differ according to measures of vulnerability. We studied newly registered participants to food security interventions. Participants were selected from a random sample of food security community organizations in a two-stage cluster sampling frame. The categorizing variable was participation in a community organization providing either traditional interventions or alternative interventions. Seven measures of vulnerability were used: food security; perceived health; civic participation; perceived social support of the primary network, social isolation, income and education. Regression multilevel models were used to assess associations. 711 participants in traditional interventions and 113 in alternative interventions were enrolled in the study. Between group differences were found with respect to food insecurity, health status perception, civic participation, education and income, but not with respect to social isolation or perceived social support from primary social network. Traditional and alternative food security interventions seem to reach different populations. Participants in traditional interventions were found to have less access to resources, compared to those in alternative interventions. Thus, new participants in traditional interventions may have higher levers of vulnerability than those in alternative interventions. PMID:25012098

  3. From Mexico to Here: An Observational Study of Traditional Dietary Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As Mexican-Americans acculturate to the American diet and lifestyle they have increased risk of developing many chronic diseases. An understanding of traditional environment and behavior is needed to address this phenomenon. Transnational qualitative research (participant observation, photography, a...

  4. The Texas Aggie Bonfire: A Conservative Reading of Regional Narratives, Traditional Practices, and a Paradoxical Place

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Concepts of place, narrative, tradition, and identity are employed in a conservative reading of the Texas A&M Bonfire. Texas A&M embodied regional narratives of a dual Southern commitment to economic and technological development and conservation of traditional cultural. Institutionalized at Texas A&M in the late nineteenth century, these narratives made a paradoxical place. Bonfire expressed and obscured this paradox. In

  5. Traditional male circumcision practices among the Kurya of North-eastern Tanzania and implications for national programmes.

    PubMed

    Mshana, Gerry; Wambura, Mwita; Mwanga, Joseph; Mosha, Jacklin; Mosha, Frank; Changalucha, John

    2011-09-01

    The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS recommend male circumcision (MC) as an additional intervention against HIV infection. Various sub-Saharan African countries are at different stages of rolling out MC programmes. Despite initial fears, studies conducted among traditionally non-circumcising communities in Africa have shown that MC is widely accepted as a biomedical intervention. However, little is known on how traditionally circumcising communities where MC carries considerable social meaning and significance would respond to such programmes. This study was conducted among a traditionally circumcising community in Tarime district in Tanzania as part of a national situation analysis prior to initiating a national MC programme. It employed key informant interviews and focus group discussions for data collection. Results show that the Kurya ethnic group practice MC as a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood. Each clan organises its own circumcision ceremony, which takes place every even numbered years. Clan leaders and traditional circumcisers are central to its organisation. Among the Kurya, there is high regard for traditional MC as it is perceived as upholding cultural practice and identity. It also embodies notions of bravery since anaesthetics are not used. On the other hand, medical MC is not viewed as prestigious since anaesthetics are used to suppress pain. Social pressure for traditional MC is applied through ridiculing of those uncircumcised or circumcised at health facilities. In general, there are positive attitudes towards MC as it is perceived as enhancing personal hygiene and having a protective effect against sexually transmitted infections. For the success of nation-wide MC programmes, there is need to develop programmes that incorporate both clinical and sociocultural interests. PMID:21476151

  6. Definitions of suicide and self-harm behavior in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-04-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way such behavior is defined in an Aboriginal context. A continuation of certain "traditional" cultural forms of self-harm behavior was evident in participant definitions, notably the practice of female hair cutting, also described as a mourning ritual, which appears to serve as a marker both to the individual and others. PMID:19527158

  7. [Optimization theory and practical application of membrane science technology based on resource of traditional Chinese medicine residue].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua-Xu; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guo, Li-Wei; Li, Bo; Lu, Jin; Tang, Yu-Ping; Pan, Lin-Mei

    2014-05-01

    Resource of traditional Chinese medicine residue is an inevitable choice to form new industries characterized of modem, environmental protection and intensive in the Chinese medicine industry. Based on the analysis of source and the main chemical composition of the herb residue, and for the advantages of membrane science and technology used in the pharmaceutical industry, especially membrane separation technology used in improvement technical reserves of traditional extraction and separation process in the pharmaceutical industry, it is proposed that membrane science and technology is one of the most important choices in technological design of traditional Chinese medicine resource industrialization. Traditional Chinese medicine residue is a very complex material system in composition and character, and scientific and effective "separation" process is the key areas of technology to re-use it. Integrated process can improve the productivity of the target product, enhance the purity of the product in the separation process, and solve many tasks which conventional separation is difficult to achieve. As integrated separation technology has the advantages of simplified process and reduced consumption, which are in line with the trend of the modern pharmaceutical industry, the membrane separation technology can provide a broad platform for integrated process, and membrane separation technology with its integrated technology have broad application prospects in achieving resource and industrialization process of traditional Chinese medicine residue. We discuss the principles, methods and applications practice of effective component resources in herb residue using membrane separation and integrated technology, describe the extraction, separation, concentration and purification application of membrane technology in traditional Chinese medicine residue, and systematically discourse suitability and feasibility of membrane technology in the process of traditional Chinese medicine resource industrialization in this paper. PMID:25095393

  8. Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors Influencing Middle Level Students' Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…

  9. The influence of traditional steep land agricultural practices on runoff and soil loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edivaldo Lopes Thomaz

    2009-01-01

    The erosion of soil from subsistence agricultures on lands with steep slopes and shallow soil is poorly documented, particularly in Brazil. This paper details the hydrological and soil loss responses to traditional agriculture (shifting agriculture) of a steeply sloped sector (32° incline) classified by FAO has having Regosol soil. This sector is in Guarapuava, Brazil and is covered by a

  10. A Community of Practice Approach to the Development of Non-Traditional Learners through Networked Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guldberg, K.; Pilkington, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses a sample of online discussions to evaluate the development of adult learners as reflective practitioners within a networked learning community. The context for our study is a blended learning course offering post-experience professional training to non-traditional university students. These students are parents and carers of…

  11. Traditional medical practices and medicinal plant usage on a Bahamian Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Halberstein; Ashley B. Saunders

    1978-01-01

    The traditional medical system of a small Bahamian island is explored through a health survey of 83% of the population and an analysis of the activities and materials of the two main native health ‘professionals’ — the healing specialist and the ‘herbalist’. The present findings suggest that the Bimini medical system has historically been efficacious in the treatment and management

  12. Denying Social Harm: Students' Resistance to Lessons about Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Sherryl; Copp, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Students share folk beliefs that make it difficult for them to understand inequality, especially the harmful consequences of social practices they routinely engage in, are attached to, and take for granted. Four of these beliefs include: (a) harm is direct, extreme, and the product of an individual's intentions; (2) harm is the product of the…

  13. Immediate replacement complete dentures: pitfalls of ignoring traditional teaching and established practice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert K F; Radford, David R

    2011-09-01

    A thirty-year-old female had immediate replacement dentures made by a general practitioner and her teeth extracted and the dentures fitted under general anaesthetic by her local oral surgeon three months previously. Anterior and posterior teeth had been extracted and no attempt had been made to smooth or shape the ridges. Both dentures were constructed with gum fitted anterior teeth without labial flanges. This treatment differs from traditional immediate replacement complete denture teaching. Traditionally, when possible the posterior teeth would have been extracted first and then once there had been a period of healing the immediate replacement complete dentures would have been made replacing the remaining anterior teeth. A trans-septal alveolotomy would have been performed, which would reduce the labial undercut on the edentulous ridge so that the denture could have a labial flange which would enable a border seal to be established to enhance retention but would not displace the lip. Care would have been taken to ensure that the fit surface of the denture would reflect the change in ridge shape that would follow healing. The divergence of this treatment management from a traditional approach raises important questions. In the past oral surgeons were well versed in pre-prosthetic surgery. As demand for this type of treatment has declined, so has the opportunity for oral surgery trainees, who themselves may have limited experience in prosthetic dentistry, to learn the techniques involved. Teaching of this form of removable prosthetic dentistry has been reduced reflecting the reduced frequency of this presenting condition. PMID:22645795

  14. Is This the End of the English Tradition of Practical A-Level Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ian

    2014-01-01

    From September 2015, schools in England will be teaching new A-level science specifications that have been developed by examination boards to encompass new higher levels of demand developed by the Department for Education. Integral to these new specifications is a radical change to the contribution of practical science to the A-level grade of the…

  15. Dr. Roland Fryer's Apollo 20 Report, "Injecting Charter School Best Practices into Traditional Public Schools

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1 Review of Dr. Roland Fryer's Apollo 20 Report, "Injecting Charter School Best Practices, 2014 Introduction The Apollo 20 program is a bold effort to turn around the lowest performing schools and superintendent asked HERC to review Dr. Fryer's report of the Apollo 20 program. Although Dr. Fryer's report has

  16. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  17. The Harmful Algae Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donald Anderson

    2004-06-17

    Relevant sections in this resource include What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), an Introduction to Algal Blooms and "Red Tide", Algae Species (which algae are responsible for the harmful effects?), Adverse Impacts, Human Illness (food poisoning associated with harmful algal blooms & information on diagnosis and treatment), HAB Distribution Maps, HAB events in the United States and around the world, HAB related articles as printed in the news media, and a photo gallery of visible algal blooms, photomicrographs, and satellite imagery.

  18. Predictors of traditional medicines utilisation in the Ghanaian health care practice: interrogating the Ashanti situation.

    PubMed

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah

    2015-04-01

    Traditional medicine (TRM) use remains universal among individuals, families and communities the world over but the predictive variables of TRM use is still confounding. This population-based study analysed the predictors of TRM use in Ashanti Region, Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional quantitative survey involving systematic random sampled participants (N = 324) was conducted. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used as research instruments. Data were analysed with logit regression, Pearson's Chi square and Fisher's exact tests from the PASW for Windows application (V. 17.0). Overall, 86.1 % (n = 279) reported use of TRM with biologically-based and distant/prayer therapies as the major forms of TRM utilised in the previous 12 months. Among the general population, TRM use was predicted by having low-income levels [odds ratio (OR) 2.883, confidence interval (CI) 1.142-7.277], being a trader (OR 2.321, CI 1.037-5.194), perceiving TRM as effective (OR 4.430, CI 1.645-11.934) and safe (OR 2.730, CI 0.986-4.321), good affective behaviour of traditional medical practitioner (TMP) (OR 2.943, CI 0.875-9.896) and having chronic ill-health (OR 3.821, CI 1.213-11.311). The prevalence of TRM use is high. The study provides evidence that people's experience, personal attributes, health beliefs, attitude to TRM, attitude of TMP to clients and medical history are largely accountable for the upsurge use of TRM rather than socio-demographic factors. Understanding the health-seeking behaviour of individuals is exigent to ascribe appropriate medical care by health care providers. PMID:25173694

  19. Water Management: Sacrificing Normative Practice Subverting the Traditions of Water Apportionment-'Whose Justice? Which Rationality?'

    PubMed

    Harandi, Mehdi F; Nia, Mahdi G; de Vries, Marc J

    2014-10-10

    Since current water governance patterns mandate cooperation and partnership within and between the actors in the hydrosystems, supplementary models are necessary to distinguish the roles and the rules of indoor actions which is why we extend a theory in the frameworks of philosophy of technology. This analysis is empirically grounded on the problematic hydrosystems of a river in central Iran, Zayandehrud. Following a modernist-holistic-based analysis, it illustrates how values in the water apportionment mechanisms are being reshaped. The article by using the theory of normative practice has scrutinised the tasks and the rules of the old and new water-management systems, Mirab. Subsequently according to such philosophical theory, it has argued that the conflicts over the cases are due to interference of structural and directional norms within them. PMID:25300408

  20. On-farm performance evaluation of improved traditional small-scale irrigation practices: A case study from Dire Dawa area, Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zerihun Bekele; Ketema Tilahun

    2006-01-01

    Field evaluation of surface irrigation systems play a fundamental role to determine the efficiency of the system as it is\\u000a being used and to identify management practices and system configurations that can be implemented to improve the irrigation\\u000a efficiency. This study evaluated the performance of an ‘improved’ traditional small-scale irrigation practice at Adada, a\\u000a representative small-scale irrigation practice in Dire

  1. Provider views of harm reduction versus abstinence policies within homeless services for dually diagnosed adults.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Padgett, Deborah K; Tiderington, Emmy

    2014-01-01

    Harm reduction is considered by many to be a legitimate alternative to abstinence-based services for dually diagnosed individuals, yet there is limited understanding of how varying approaches affect front-line practice within services for homeless adults. This paper examines how front-line providers working with individuals who have experienced homelessness, serious mental illness, and addiction view policies of harm reduction versus abstinence within two different approaches to homeless services: the traditional or "treatment first" approach that requires abstinence, and the more recent housing first approach that incorporates harm reduction. As part of a federally funded qualitative study, 129 in-depth interviews conducted with 41 providers were thematically analyzed to understand how providers view harm reduction versus abstinence approaches. Themes included the following: (a) harm reduction as a welcomed alternative, (b) working with ambiguity, and (c) accommodating abstinence. Drawing on recovery principles, the authors consider the broader implications of the findings for behavioral health care with this population. PMID:23404076

  2. Harmful Algal Blooms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Center for Environmental Health Health Studies Branch

    This webpage serves as a portal to the CDC's collection of harmful algal bloom (HAB) resources for the general public. Visitors can find general information about HABs, as well as focus areas targeting Cyanobacteria, Ciguatera, red tide, and Pfiesteria piscicida. Links are also provided to publications, CDC activities, and datasets (organized by federal, state, and international levels).

  3. Harm to the \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    This article explores the possibility that harm to the fabric of society provides the best justification for some statutes that prohibit otherwise harmless conduct. This article considers three illustrations: first, the incest statutes, which, even in progressive states like Alaska and New York, prohibit a wide array of basically harmless conduct; second, a Massachusetts statute regulating the use of human

  4. Harming the Dead

    E-print Network

    Marquis, Don

    1985-10-01

    and Environmental Crisis, ed. William Blackstone (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1974), pp. 43-68, and "Harm and Self-Interest," in Law, Morality and Society: Essays in Honor of H. L. A. Hart, ed. P. M. S. Hacker and J. Raz (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977...

  5. Ecology of Harmful Algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Roelke

    2007-01-01

    Edna Graneli and Jefferson T. Turner, Editors;Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 189; Springer; ISBN 3540322094; 413 pp.; 2006; $195 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) affect commercially and recreationally important species, human health, and ecosystem functioning. Hallmark events are the visually stunning blooms where waters are discolored and filled with ichthyotoxin-producing algae that lead to large fish kills. Of most concern, however, are

  6. Mentor Profiles -Kevin Harm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gem-Nursing

    Considering his job, Kevin's last name doesn't make sense. Kevin got into nursing because he wants to help, not harm, people. Kevin didn't know what he wanted to do right away; he had another career before nursing. Read about him here.

  7. Use of Information-Seeking Strategies for Developing Systematic Reviews and Engaging in Evidence-Based Practice: The Application of Traditional and Comprehensive Pearl Growing--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Wendt, Oliver; Bhavnani, Suresh; Nail-Chiwetalu, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Background: Efficient library searches for research evidence are critical to practitioners who wish to engage in evidence-based practice (EBP) as well as researchers who seek to develop systematic reviews. Aims: This review will propose the benefits of the search technique "Pearl Growing" ("Traditional Pearl Growing") as well as an adaptation of…

  8. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  9. Researching self help drug treatment: collaboration and conflict in the age of harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Toumbourou, J; Hamilton, M

    1994-02-01

    While there is evidence supporting the effectiveness of drug treatment in self help groups there are many points of divergence between the philosophies traditionally espoused by these groups and those advocated within harm reduction policies. In this paper we examine some of the differences between self help and harm reduction approaches. We argue that (in common with other treatment modalities) self help groups have altered and developed in response to changing community expectations and that this process should be expected to continue. We report on our ongoing exploration of research partnerships with self help group members focusing particularly upon research conducted in collaboration with self help groups in Victoria. We argue that research partnerships have advantages for both parties. These partnerships have the potential to better inform researchers of developments in the self help community (including the practices of active drug users). Research partnerships also encourage better understanding among self help group members of some of the potential problems that, as research has indicated, may be associated with certain self help group practices. We advocate such understanding as a potentially effective means of encouraging the appropriate development and refinement of self help group practices in line with harm reduction principals. PMID:8173480

  10. Pregnancy as a harm?

    PubMed

    Kraft, Rory E

    2012-01-01

    Michigan's Appellate Court ruled in 2004 that a pregnancy that resulted from a rape should be considered a bodily injury for sentencing purposes. Interestingly, all three possible outcomes of a pregnancy-abortion, miscarriage, or childbirth-are considered to bring with them significant and substantial physical, psychological, and emotional changes. While the immediate impact of the ruling in People v. Cathey affected only the guilty individual, there are larger implications for this ruling beyond just sentencing guidelines. The ruling can be considered a step forward in prosecuting rapists, but possibly at the expense of reimagining the female body. This article considers the Cathey ruling itself, the potential benefits and consequences of this understanding on feminist discourse, and, crucially, the impact of this decision on abortion discussions. The central question that emerges is, can we both consider pregnancy a harm and believe that this harm is not always wrong-making? PMID:22643758

  11. The Harmful Algae Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. National Office for Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Blooms .

    1997-01-01

    Produced by the National Office of Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Blooms and housed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, this site covers the dark side of the organisms that provide the foundation for almost all marine life. The site focuses on the small number of algae that produce potent neurotoxins that "can be transferred through the food web where they affect and even kill the higher forms of life such as zooplankton, shellfish, fish, birds, marine mammals, and even humans that feed either directly or indirectly on them." The site is divided into the following sections: photos of "Red Tide" blooms, species responsible for harmful effects, adverse impacts at higher trophic levels, human illness associated with algal blooms, and effects in your region. Researchers, educators, and people with interests in such recent headline topics such as the Pfiesteria scare can all find useful information at this site.

  12. Toxic & Harmful Algal Blooms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teaching unit investigates differences between toxic and non-toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs), where they occur in U.S. waters, causative phytoplankton species, technologies for detecting blooms, which organisms in the food web are affected and how, effects of specific toxins on humans. Five lessons contain: background and glossary; instructions for classroom and lab activities; online data; web links for further study. Lessons are aligned to teaching standards.

  13. Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

  14. The Superintendent Beliefs and Leadership Practices in a School District that Has Successfully Increased the Achievement of Traditionally Marginalized Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks-Schutz, Jo-Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Superintendent leadership can influence student achievement and with the alarming gap between the academic achievement of traditionally marginalized students and their peers, superintendents have an ethical duty to lead their districts in closing these achievement gaps. Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2001) suggested that to have a more complete…

  15. Storm water quantity control has long been a challenge for highway designers. Traditionally, centralized best management practice designs

    E-print Network

    Fiedler, Fritz R.

    Storm water quantity control has long been a challenge for highway designers. Traditionally applica- tions. The use of existing vegetated rights-of-way as a method of treating storm water, a component of the broader storm water treatment concept more generally referred to as low-impact development

  16. The corral and the slaughterhouse : knowledge, tradition and the modernization of indigenous reindeer slaughtering practice in the Norwegian Arctic

    E-print Network

    Reinert, Hugo

    2008-01-15

    This dissertation is a contribution to the ethnography of contemporary indigenous reindeer pastoralism in Norway: specifically, to the study of the neglected fields of reindeer killing and slaughtering practice. Its central contention...

  17. A Comparison of Students' Attitudes Between Computer Software Support and Traditional Laboratory Practical Learning Environments in Undergraduate Electronics Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. B. Gandole

    The purpose of this experimental study was to see the effect of Computer software support on the attitude towards electronics subject of students while working in laboratory of electronics science. In this experimental study there were two groups as experimental group and control group. The experimental group performed the experiments using computer software support for selected practical in electronics, while

  18. Models of harmful algal blooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. S. Franks

    1997-01-01

    Models used to study harmful algal blooms are a subset of those used to examine more general planktonic processes. Most models have been heuristic, examining the likelihood of certain processes generating a harmful algal bloom. Several models have been more closely coupled to field data and have been used to gain insights into the dynamics underlying the observations. As better

  19. The right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health care

    PubMed Central

    Stuttaford, Maria; Al Makhamreh, Sahar; Coomans, Fons; Harrington, John; Himonga, Chuma; Hundt, Gillian Lewando

    2014-01-01

    Background State parties to human rights conventions and declarations are often faced with the seemingly contradictory problem of having an obligation to protect people from harmful practices while also having an obligation to enable access to culturally appropriate effective healing. As people increasingly migrate across the globe, previous distinctions between ‘traditional’ and ‘complementary and alternative medicine’ practices are being transcended. There are connections across transnational healing pathways that link local, national, and global movements of people and knowledge. Objective This paper contributes to the development of the concept and practice of the right to health in all its forms, exploring the right to traditional, complementary, and alternative health (R2TCAH) across different contexts. Design The paper draws on four settings – England, South Africa, Kenya, and Jordan – and is based on key informant interviews and a literature review undertaken in 2010, and updated in 2013. The paper begins by reviewing the international legal context for the right to health. It then considers legal and professional regulations from the global north and south. Results Additional research is needed to establish the legal basis, compare regulatory frameworks, and explore patient and provider perspectives of regulation. This leads to being able to make recommendations on how to balance protection from harm and the obligation to ensure culturally appropriate services. Such an exploration must also challenge Western theories of human rights. Key concepts, such as individual harm, consent, and respect of the autonomy of the individual already established and recognised in international health law, could be adopted in the development of a template for future comparative research. Conclusions Exploration of the normative content of the right to health in all its forms will contribute to supporting traditional, complementary, and alternative health service users and providers in terms of access to information, non-discrimination, clarification of state obligations, and accountability. PMID:24767601

  20. Does Simulation-based Medical Education with Deliberate Practice Yield Better Results than Traditional Clinical Education? A Meta-Analytic Comparative Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    McGaghie, William C.; Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This article presents a comparison of the effectiveness of traditional clinical education toward skill acquisition goals versus simulation-based medical education (SBME) with deliberate practice (DP). Method This is a quantitative meta-analysis that spans twenty years, 1990 to 2010. A search strategy involving three literature databases, 12 search terms, and four inclusion criteria was used. Four authors independently retrieved and reviewed articles. Main outcome measures were extracted to calculate effect sizes. Results Of 3,742 articles identified, 14 met inclusion criteria. The overall effect size for the 14 studies evaluating the comparative effectiveness of SBME compared to traditional clinical medical education was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.65–0.76; P < .001). Conclusions Although the number of reports analyzed in this meta analysis is small, these results show that SBME with DP is superior to traditional clinical medical education in achieving specific clinical skill acquisition goals. SBME is a complex educational intervention that should be introduced thoughtfully and evaluated rigorously at training sites. Further research on incorporating SBME with DP into medical education is needed to amplify its power, utility, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:21512370

  1. Health, Healthcare Access, and Use of Traditional Versus Modern Medicine in Remote Peruvian Amazon Communities: A Descriptive Study of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. PMID:25688165

  2. Effect of traditional processing practices on the content of total carotenoid, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and vitamin A activity of selected Tanzanian vegetables.

    PubMed

    Mosha, T C; Pace, R D; Adeyeye, S; Laswai, H S; Mtebe, K

    1997-01-01

    The alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total provitamin A carotenoids and the effect of traditional processing practices on the retention of these provitamins were studied using amaranth, cowpea, peanut, pumpkin and sweet potato leaves. Results of this study indicated that the content of total carotenoids, beta-carotene and alpha-carotene were in the range of 26.79-44.74 mg, 4.16-19.12 mg, and 0.99-10.26 mg per 100 g of dry vegetables, respectively. The vitamin A activities were 4.042, 3.124, 0.829, 2.025 and 1.581 mg RE per 100 g of dry amaranth, cowpea, peanut, pumpkin and sweet potato leaves, respectively. The traditional processing practices of sun drying and storage in ventilated containers resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the concentration of total carotenoids, beta-carotene and alpha-carotene for all the vegetables. Conventional blanching and cooking resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the concentration of carotenoids in the cowpea, peanut and pumpkin leaves while in amaranth and sweet potato greens, thermal processing resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the concentration of these nutrients. PMID:9373870

  3. [Research strategy and practice of "multi-dimensional structure and process dynamics quality control system" of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Hua; Gu, Jun-Fei; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-11-01

    The quality control is one of the key problems in the modernization and internationalization of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). As TCMs have the characteristics of integrity and systematicness, their effect in disease prevention and treatment is the result of multi-component synergistic effect. Currently, the quality control of TCMs is mostly measured with a single index, which can not reflect the integrity of TCMs. As TCM components could play the role in preventing and treating diseases through multiple targets and channels, only if we expound the specific composition and structural relations among inherent components, and determine the optimum composition and structure ratio of TCMs in preventing and treating diseases and revealing their optimal efficiency, safety and stability, can we get rid of the conventional quantitative model, and realize the scientific integral quality control in a real sense. On the basis of the component structure theory, we propose "multi-dimensional structure and process dynamics quality control system" in this article, and systematically expound the optimal efficiency of TCMs, in order to provide a theoretical basis for improving the efficacy of TCM preparation products. PMID:24494540

  4. Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

    2014-04-01

    A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety. PMID:24680078

  5. IOC Harmful Algal Bloom Programme

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) website aims to foster the effective management of, and scientific research on, harmful algal blooms (HAB) to understand their causes, predict their occurrences, and mitigate their effects. The site includes an overview of the program, introduction to HABs, links to relevant databases and activities, and services provided (including literature grants, an identification service, publications, and training courses). The site also features Harmful Algal News, an IOC-published newsletter on toxic algae and algal blooms.

  6. Self-harm: cutting the bad out of me.

    PubMed

    Harris, J

    2000-03-01

    The practice of self-harm is increasing in the United Kingdom, accounting for the highest number of acute medical admissions for women. The medical and nursing response to repeaters, set within a climate of dwindling emergency and accident resources, has been one of impatience, frustration, and hostile care. The author undertook a correspondence study with 6 women who regularly self-harmed. The women claimed that medical and nursing professionals viewed their self-harm as irrational and illogical. However, a qualitative examination of the motivations and interests of all parties reveals that self-harm acts possess situated internal logic, whereas professionals tend to use rational logic in attempting to understand them. PMID:10788281

  7. Smokeless tobacco: the epidemiology and politics of harm.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Carl V; Heavner, Karyn K

    2009-07-01

    The health burden from tobacco smoking results almost entirely from inhalation of the components of smoke, although this is not widely known. The primary benefit of smoking is nicotine delivery, but nicotine can be obtained without combustion. Thus there is potential for tobacco harm reduction (THR), the substitution of lower-risk nicotine products for smoking. Epidemiological evidence suggests that smokeless tobacco causes about one one-hundredth the health risk of smoking. Despite the practice of harm reduction being widely accepted in public health, however, THR has faced fierce opposition from antitobacco activists. These activists have effectively misled the public about what aspect of smoking cigarettes causes the harm, convincing them that nicotine and tobacco themselves are harmful, ignoring the smoke. In the interests of promoting public health and rescuing science from politics, experts on inhalation hazards and health could play an important role in educating the public and policy makers about THR. PMID:19604065

  8. Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…

  9. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, F.P.; Graff, H.; Mitchell, C.; Lock, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Methods Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Results Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives—for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions—can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. Conclusions By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. PMID:23933915

  10. Harm Avoidance and Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Levine, Steven R.; Yu, Lei; Hoganson, George M.; Buchman, Aron S.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Harm avoidance, a trait indicative of behavioral inhibition, is associated with disability and dementia in old age, but the basis of these associations is uncertain. We test the hypothesis that higher level of harm avoidance is associated with increased likelihood of cerebral infarction. Methods Older persons without dementia completed a standard measure of harm avoidance. During a mean of 3.5 years of follow-up, 257 (of 1,082) individuals died of whom 206 (80%) underwent brain autopsy. Number of chronic cerebral infarcts (microscopic plus gross; expressed as 0,1, or >1) was assessed on neuropathologic examination, completed in 192 individuals at the time of analyses. Results On postmortem examination, chronic cerebral infarcts were found in 89 (42 with 1, 47 with >1). Higher harm avoidance was associated with higher likelihood of infarcts (odds ratio = 1.083, 95% confidence interval 1.040–1.128). A moderately high level of the trait (score=17, 75th percentile) was associated with a 2.4-fold increase in the likelihood of infarction compared to a moderately low level of the trait (score = 6, 25th percentile). These associations persisted in models that controlled for other cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Higher level of the harm avoidance trait may be a risk factor for cerebral infarction. PMID:24364391

  11. Harmful Algal Blooms & Muck What's the Difference?

    E-print Network

    that photosynthesizes like algae do. Blue-green harmful algal blooms (HABs) and green algae blooms can be foundHarmful Algal Blooms & Muck What's the Difference? Harmful algal blooms and muck, otherwise known OF COMM E R CE Harmful Algal Bloom: Microcystis Blooms tend to stay in water column Can produce liver

  12. Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Ocean Service (NOS)

    The Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Forecasting System provided by NOAA supplies information on the location, extent, and potential for development or movement of harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico. The forecasting system relies on satellite imagery, field observations, and buoy data to provide the large spatial scale and high frequency of observations required to assess bloom location and movements. Conditions are posted to this web page twice a week during the HAB season. Additional analysis is included in the HAB Bulletin that is provided to state and local resource managers in the region. The web page includes links to the HAB bulletin, available mapping systems, contributors, and other HAB resources.

  13. Usability evaluation considered harmful (some of the time)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saul Greenberg; William Buxton

    2008-01-01

    Current practice in Human Computer Interaction as encouraged by educational institutes, academic review processes, and institutions with usability groups advocate usability evaluation as a critical part of every design process. This is for good reason: usability evaluation has a significant role to play when conditions warrant it. Yet evaluation can be ineffective and even harmful if naively done 'by rule'

  14. Hurt, Harm, and School Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozycki, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Nietzsche overlooks some possibilities. Something may not kill us, yet leave us sickly or crippled. But he is right, too. It may make us stronger. It is ancient wisdom that we grow through facing adversity: ad astra per aspera?to the stars through adversity. We know, too, that too much of something good may do us harm. One can overstudy, or…

  15. Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bigelow Laboratory

    Primarily through the use of engaging graphics, this resource outlines where Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occur in U.S. waters. It also addresses the differences between toxic and non-toxic HABs, which organisms in the food web are affected, how specific toxins work and the symptoms associated with them, and the causative phytoplankton species.

  16. Situational determinants of inpatient self-harm.

    PubMed

    Nijman, Henk L I; ŕ Campo, Joost M L G

    2002-01-01

    Auto-aggressive individuals have a higher likelihood of engaging in interpersonal violence, and vice versa. It is unclear, however, whether ward circumstances are involved in determining whether aggression-prone patients will engage in auto-aggressive or outwardly directed aggressive behavior. The current study focuses on the situational antecedents of self-harming behavior and outwardly directed aggression of psychiatric inpatients. Inwardly and outwardly aggressive behavior were monitored on a locked 20-bed psychiatric admissions ward for 3.5 years with the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R). A map of the ward was attached to each SOAS-R form, enabling staff members to specify locations of aggressive incidents. Time of onset, location, and provoking factors of auto-aggressive incidents were compared to those connected to aggression against others or objects. Of a total of 774 aggressive incidents, 154 (20%) concerned auto-aggressive behavior. Auto-aggression was significantly more prevalent during the evening (i.e., 50% compared to 32%), and reached its highest level between 8 and 9 P.M. (17% compared to 7%). The majority of self-harming acts (66%) were performed on patients' bedrooms. Outwardly directed aggression was particularly common in the day-rooms (24%), the staff office (19%), the hallways of the ward (14%), and the dining rooms (10%). Provoking factors of auto-aggressive behavior are less often of an interactional nature compared to outwardly directed aggression. The results suggest that a lack of stimulation and interaction with others increases the risk of self-injurious behavior. Practical and testable measures to prevent self-harm are proposed. PMID:12079033

  17. The Olympics and harm reduction?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent. The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping. PMID:22788912

  18. Red Tide and Harmful Algal Blooms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Project Oceanography

    This Project Oceanography pdf document contains information and activities related to red tide and harmful algal blooms (HABs). The activities and lesson plans are designed for elementary school, middle school, and may be adapted for high school students. Articles include: harmful algal blooms, Florida red tide, implications of harmful algal blooms, and student information about harmful algal blooms. Activities are introduced with background information and include: "Growing Algae" and "Algal Explosion." The document also features activity extension projects and a glossary of terms.

  19. Off-Campus, Harmful Online Student Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to off-campus, harmful student speech on the Internet, exploring the characteristics of this harmful speech and reviewing recent court cases in which schools have perceived such speech to be harmful or defamatory. Discusses prevention strategies in the context of the social and behavioral factors involved in offensive…

  20. Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

  1. What Are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Harmful algal blooms, sometimes referred to as "red tides,"

    E-print Network

    What Are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Harmful algal blooms, sometimes referred to as "red tides," are mostly caused by single celled algae called phytoplank- ton (Fig. 1). Many harmful algae, however, are not red. Further, not all reddish blooms are harmful. Phytoplankton are abundant in marine and freshwater

  2. Simulating murder: the aversion to harmful action.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Fiery; Gray, Kurt; Gaffey, Allison; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-02-01

    Diverse lines of evidence point to a basic human aversion to physically harming others. First, we demonstrate that unwillingness to endorse harm in a moral dilemma is predicted by individual differences in aversive reactivity, as indexed by peripheral vasoconstriction. Next, we tested the specific factors that elicit the aversive response to harm. Participants performed actions such as discharging a fake gun into the face of the experimenter, fully informed that the actions were pretend and harmless. These simulated harmful actions increased peripheral vasoconstriction significantly more than did witnessing pretend harmful actions or to performing metabolically matched nonharmful actions. This suggests that the aversion to harmful actions extends beyond empathic concern for victim harm. Together, these studies demonstrate a link between the body and moral decision-making processes. PMID:21910540

  3. [Dutch parliament legitimizes harmful quackery].

    PubMed

    van Dam, Frits S A M; Renckens, Cees N M

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch parliament has recently accepted a tax law in which certain groups of alternative therapists can be exempt from VAT. To be eligible for this VAT exemption, the disciplines to which the therapists belong have to meet certain training requirements. In this article it is contended, in agreement with the Royal College of Physicians in the UK, that statutory regulation is inappropriate for disciplines whose therapies are neither of proved benefit nor appropriately tested. It legitimizes harmful therapies. This is illustrated by two serious accidents, previously described in this journal, caused by a chiropractor and a craniosacral therapist. PMID:20298623

  4. Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carter Hay; Ryan Meldrum

    2010-01-01

    Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology.\\u000a Drawing from Agnew’s (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects\\u000a of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation. The data come from a school-based\\u000a survey

  5. Negotiating tradition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine Moreno; Mary Ann Littrell

    2001-01-01

    Retailers serve as intermediaries between artisans and tourist consumers in the marketing of textile and craft products. This study examines the role of intermediaries by exploring retailers' perceptions of tradition as they contemplate, blend, and juxtapose textile product features for a tourism market. Qualitative research methods were employed to collect data. A related group of product characteristics emerged as being

  6. Incorporating traditional and emerging biomarkers in the clinical management of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Karapetis, Christos S; Maru, Dipen; Waring, Paul; Tie, Jeanne; Michael, Michael Z

    2015-08-01

    The role of biomarker assessment in determining the best therapeutic options for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer has become increasingly complex and important. Biomarkers that predict the efficacy and/or toxicity of such treatments can affect medical decision making, leading to decreased harm and/or costs associated with treatment and improvements in therapeutic outcomes for patients. This review discusses traditional and emerging biomarkers of potential clinical utility for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, current assays and methods used in clinical practice, technologies that have allowed the identification of new biomarkers and key considerations for oncologists and pathologists when determining appropriate biomarker evaluations to be undertaken for their patients. PMID:26166616

  7. Assessment of self-harm risk using implicit thoughts.

    PubMed

    Randall, Jason R; Rowe, Brian H; Dong, Kathryn A; Nock, Matthew K; Colman, Ian

    2013-09-01

    Assessing for the risk of self-harm in acute care is a difficult task, and more information on pertinent risk factors is needed to inform clinical practice. This study examined the relationship of 6 forms of implicit cognition about death, suicide, and self-harm with the occurrence of self-harm in the future. We then attempted to develop a model using these measures of implicit cognition along with other psychometric tests and clinical risk factors. We conducted a prospective cohort of 107 patients (age > 17 years) with a baseline assessment that included 6 implicit association tests that assessed thoughts of death, suicide, and self-harm. Psychometric questionnaires were also completed by the patients, and these included the Beck Hopelessness Scale (Beck, Weissman, Lester, & Trexler, 1974), Barratt impulsiveness scale (Patton, Stanford, & Barratt, 1995), brief symptom inventory (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1983), CAGE questionnaire for alcoholism (Ewing, 1984), and the drug abuse screening test 10 (Skinner, 1982). Medical and demographic information was also obtained for patients as potential confounders or useful covariables. The outcome measure was the occurrence of self-harm within 3 months. Implicit associations with death versus life as a predictor added significantly (odds ratio = 5.1, 95% confidence interval [1.3, 20.3]) to a multivariable model. The model had 96.6% sensitivity and 53.9% specificity with a high cutoff, or 58.6% sensitivity and 96.2% specificity with a low cutoff. This scale shows promise for screening emergency department patients with mental health presentations who may be at risk for future self-harm or suicide. PMID:23647043

  8. Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional

  9. Esoteric healing traditions: a conceptual overview.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, a comprehensive scholarly examination of the history and principles of major traditions of esoteric healing. After a brief conceptual overview of esoteric religion and healing, summaries are provided of eight major esoteric traditions, including descriptions of beliefs and practices related to health, healing, and medicine. These include what are termed the kabbalistic tradition, the mystery school tradition, the gnostic tradition, the brotherhoods tradition, the Eastern mystical tradition, the Western mystical tradition, the shamanic tradition, and the new age tradition. Next, commonalities across these traditions are summarized with respect to beliefs and practices related to anatomy and physiology; nosology and etiology; pathophysiology; and therapeutic modalities. Finally, the implications of this survey of esoteric healing are discussed for clinicians, biomedical researchers, and medical educators. PMID:18316053

  10. Online drug user-led harm reduction in Hungary: a review of “Daath”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Harm reduction has been increasingly finding its way into public drug policies and healthcare practices worldwide, with successful intervention measures justifiably focussing on the highest-risk groups, such as injecting drug users. However, there are also other types of drug users in need for harm reduction, even though they pose less, low, or no public health risk. Occasionally, drug users may autonomously organise themselves into groups to provide advocacy, harm reduction, and peer-help services, sometimes online. The http://www.daath.hu website has been operated since 2001 by the “Hungarian Psychedelic Community”, an unorganised drug user group with a special interest in hallucinogenic and related substances. As of today, the website serves about 1200 visitors daily, and the online community comprises of more than 8000 registered members. The Daath community is driven by a strong commitment to the policy of harm reduction in the form of various peer-help activities that aim to expand harm reduction without promoting drug use. Our review comprehensively summarises Daath’s user-led harm reduction services and activities from the last ten years, firstly outlining the history and growth phases of Daath, along with its self-set guidelines and policies. Online services (such as a discussion board, and an Ecstasy pill database) and offline activities (such as Ecstasy pill field testing, and a documentary film about psychedelics) are described. In order to extend its harm reduction services and activities in the future, Daath has several social, commercial, and legislative challenges to face. Starting with a need to realign its focus, outlooks for the upcoming operation of Daath are pondered. Future trends in harm reduction, such as separating harm-decreasing from benefit-increasing, are also discussed. We aim to share these innovative harm reduction measures and good practices in order to be critically assessed, and – if found useful – adapted and applied elsewhere. PMID:24088321

  11. Toward a psychology of harm reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. MacCoun

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses 3 different strategies for dealing with the harmful consequences of drug use and other risky behaviors: We can discourage people from engag- ing in the behavior (prevalence reduction), we can en- courage people to reduce the frequency or extent of the behavior (quantity reduction), or we can try to reduce the harmful consequences of the behavior when

  12. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  13. Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

  14. The Health Risks: Seafood Contamination, Harmful Algal

    E-print Network

    The Health Risks: Seafood Contamination, Harmful Algal Blooms and Polluted Beaches Seafood that can cause a wide variety of symptoms. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasing in number, type associated public health costs. Announcing a New Interagency Report on Oceans and Human Health Research

  15. Practitioner Review: Self-Harm in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ougrin, Dennis; Tranah, Troy; Leigh, Eleanor; Taylor, Lucy; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum

    2012-01-01

    Background: Repeated self-harm in adolescents is common and associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm there have been few systematic reviews of the topic. Aims: The main aim of this article is to review randomised controlled…

  16. TEXAS HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM COORDINATION MX964014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly ż of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...

  17. A Comparison of Preservice Teachers' Responses to Cyber versus Traditional Bullying Scenarios: Similarities and Differences and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Michael J.; Hardcastle, Katryna; Down, James; Fowles, John; Simmonds, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies indicate that teachers differ in how they respond to different kinds of traditional bullying, and that their beliefs predict their intervention intentions. The current study provided the first extension of this work into the realm of cyber bullying. Preservice teachers in the United Kingdom ("N" = 222) were presented with…

  18. Anatomy--The Patient's or the Book's? Progress Report on a Teaching Experiment Which Reverses the Traditional Sequence of "Theoretical" and "Practical" Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecher, Stan R.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to replace a tradition of theoretical rote memorization by objective-oriented learning is described, based on an experiment involving teaching anatomy to dental students at the Royal Dental College in Copenhagen. Both students and teachers favored this independent learning system. (Author/LBH)

  19. Understanding Patient Values and the Manifestations in Clinical Research with Traditional Chinese Medicine—With Practical Suggestions for Trial Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hongcai

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To define patient values, identify their manifestations in a randomized clinical trial, and investigate the possible implications for clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine. Methods. We categorized patient values manifestations into patient choice, preference, compliance, and patient-reported outcomes and summarized the underlying personal values through purposeful electronic searches for relevant reports. By hypothesizing a set of positive versus negative circumstances occurring in the enrollment, intervention allocation, treatment, and the follow-up stage of a trial, it is possible to discuss the potential implications of patient values manifestation on a trial with traditional Chinese medicine. Results. Patient values and its manifestations are ubiquitous in the process of clinical research with traditional Chinese medicine. These values may provide motivation for participation or engender the internal and external validity of the study. Conclusions. Trialists should attach sufficient importance to the needs and concerns of individual participant. To incorporate patient values into the design and conduct of a clinical study with traditional Chinese medicine, researchers are recommended to adopt participant-friendly design and use patient-reported outcomes, take convenience-for-patients measures, and help foster rational beliefs and behaviors of trial participants. PMID:24363772

  20. Moving Beyond an Exclusive Focus on Harm Avoidance in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Considering the Role of Incompleteness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley S. Pietrefesa; Meredith E. Coles

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have predominantly viewed compulsions as being motivated by harm avoidance. However, sensations of things being incomplete or not “just right” may also underlie compulsions in OCD. Preliminary research suggests that distinguishing between harm avoidance and incompleteness in OCD may have practical utility, but the research on this topic is very limited to date.

  1. Effect of a multimodal training program and traditional lecture method on nurses' hand hygiene knowledge, belief, and practice: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Abbasnejad, Zahra; Rafii, Forough; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    This study compared the effect of a multimodal training program and lecturing method on nurses' hand hygiene knowledge, belief, and practice. Two weeks and 3 months after the study, nurses' in both groups received significantly higher scores compared with the control group. Compared with the lecturing method, the multimodal training program is more effective in improving nurses' hand hygiene knowledge, belief, and practice 3 months after the study. PMID:25997879

  2. The perception and practice of traditional medicine in the treatment of cancers and inflammations by the Hausa and Fulani tribes of Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, M S; Musa, A M; Ahmed, A; Hussaini, I M

    2007-05-22

    A survey was conducted among Hausa and Fulani, two major tribes of Northern Nigeria to identify plants and methods used traditionally in the treatment of cancers and inflammatory diseases. The ecological zones that were considered include Zaria, Kaduna and Kano in the Northern part of Nigeria. The survey involves traditional healers, hunters, farmers and Fulani nomads. This survey has identified plants useful in the treatment of cancers. The plants were identified via taxonomic means and classified according to their habitats, families, genera. Evidently the plants span families and genera, the knowledge and values of the plants was evaluated with the aim of understanding the scientific basis for the use of the plants. The inventory provides the unique opportunity of capturing plants of common uses across the communities. PMID:17320319

  3. The fading links between tradition and oral health in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Y H

    1984-12-01

    Singapore is an island republic of 616 km2. Four main ethnic groups make up its population of 2.4 million; these are the Chinese, Malays, Indians and others. Singapore's successful housing, industrialization and modernization programmes have caused tremendous changes in the lifestyles and expectations of the people. This very success has rendered some traditional customs impractical and irrelevant. Older Indians and Malay women still chew betel-nut. During the Hindu Thaipusam ceremony a traditional practice of dental interest is the piercing of devotees' cheeks and tongues with slivers of silver. There is no pain, bleeding or permanent tissue damage. The Chinese pick their teeth, crack melon seeds and scrape their tongues every morning. They also drink large quantities of unsweetened tea. Yet they remain caries-prone. Singaporeans have recently adopted the practice of eating at all hours of the day and night. This may have a bearing on their future caries state. Singapore has two categories of dental practitioner: the graduate and the registered but unqualified dentist who is invariably of Chinese descent. The swaged metal crown over sound and diseased tooth structure is frequently the unfortunate trademark of the latter. Often abscesses and cysts develop beneath these crowns. Successful dental health programmes have produced a DMFT of 2.8 in 12-year-old children, which betters the DMF target of 3.0 set by WHO for the year 2000. The progressive outlook of Singaporeans may eventually reduce further the number of traditional practices which are harmful to oral health. PMID:6597130

  4. Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems. PMID:23740348

  5. Rationalising circumcision: from tradition to fashion, from public health to individual freedom--critical notes on cultural persistence of the practice of genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Hellsten, S K

    2004-06-01

    Despite global and local attempts to end genital mutilation, in their various forms, whether of males or females, the practice has persisted throughout human history in most parts of the world. Various medical, scientific, hygienic, aesthetic, religious, and cultural reasons have been used to justify it. In this symposium on circumcision, against the background of the other articles by Hutson, Short, and Viens, the practice is set by the author within a wider, global context by discussing a range of rationalisations used to support different types of genital mutilation throughout time and across the globe. It is argued that in most cases the rationalisations invented to provide support for continuing the practice of genital mutilation--whether male or female--within various cultural and religious settings have very little to do with finding a critical and reflective moral justification for these practices. In order to question the ethical acceptability of the practice in its non-therapeutic forms, we need to focus on child rights protection. PMID:15173357

  6. Oligonucleotide probe technology as applied to the study of harmful algal blooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John V. Tyrrell; Patricia R. Bergquist; David J. Saul; Lincoln MacKenzie; Peter L. Bergquist

    1997-01-01

    Harmful algal bloom (HAB) research and monitoring has traditionally been based on ecological and microbiological measurements which are laborious, time?consuming, and reliant on experienced operators. Recent developments in oligonucleotide probe technology and immunofluorescence research have revealed several potential applications and techniques that may be transposable to laboratory and field?based monitoring and research. Field trials are currently underway for fluorescent in

  7. Learning a New Approach to Teach in a Traditional Context: A Case of Thai Primary School Teachers Making Fundamental Changes in Their Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namfa, Benjalug

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a unique professional development model and its contribution to teachers' practice. The study also sought to understand the process of teacher learning as teachers made fundamental changes in their teaching. The new model of professional development was implemented in the context of the Social Forestry, Education and…

  8. High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

  9. Extreme Natural Events: Harmful Algal Blooms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Public domain

    This NOAA website features a repository of information about Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). It explains the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act (HABHRCA) and describes the subsequent formation of an Interagency Task Force to develop a national HAB assessment and authorize funding for existing and new research programs on HABs. The site features links to information about current and past research programs, HAB ecological forecasting, related news articles, workshop announcements, and additional HAB information sources.

  10. Practice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Goldenberg

    2011-10-25

    This article focuses on the role and techniques of effective ("distributed") practice that leads to full and fluent mastery of mental mathematics as well as conceptual growth around properties of arithmetic. It lists the essential mental math skills needed for fluent computation at grades 1, 2, and 3. The article describes a number of strategies for developing mental skills and links to pages with more details on others (some not yet complete). While this article refers to the Think Math! curriculum published by EDC, the methods generalize to any program. The Fact of the Day technique and a related video are cataloged separately.

  11. Self-harm and suicide in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hawton, Keith; Saunders, Kate E A; O'Connor, Rory C

    2012-06-23

    Self-harm and suicide are major public health problems in adolescents, with rates of self-harm being high in the teenage years and suicide being the second most common cause of death in young people worldwide. Important contributors to self-harm and suicide include genetic vulnerability and psychiatric, psychological, familial, social, and cultural factors. The effects of media and contagion are also important, with the internet having an important contemporary role. Prevention of self-harm and suicide needs both universal measures aimed at young people in general and targeted initiatives focused on high-risk groups. There is little evidence of effectiveness of either psychosocial or pharmacological treatment, with particular controversy surrounding the usefulness of antidepressants. Restriction of access to means for suicide is important. Major challenges include the development of greater understanding of the factors that contribute to self-harm and suicide in young people, especially mechanisms underlying contagion and the effect of new media. The identification of successful prevention initiatives aimed at young people and those at especially high risk, and the establishment of effective treatments for those who self-harm, are paramount needs. PMID:22726518

  12. Self-harm in young offenders.

    PubMed

    Borschmann, Rohan; Coffey, Carolyn; Moran, Paul; Hearps, Stephen; Degenhardt, Louisa; Kinner, Stuart A; Patton, George

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence and correlates of self-harm and suicidal behavior in 515 young offenders (mean age 17.3 years, SD = 1.7) serving community-based orders (CBOs; n = 242) or custodial sentences (n = 273) in Victoria, Australia, are described. Results from structured interviews showed that 83 (16.1%) participants reported self-harming in the previous 6 months, and this was more common among those serving custodial sentences than those serving CBOs (19.4% vs. 12.4%; OR 3.10, 95% CI: 1.74-5.55). Multiple incidents were more common in females and 24% (95% CI: 19-39) of participants who had self-harmed reported having done so with suicidal intent. Self-harm was associated with recent bullying victimization, expulsion from school, past year violent victimization, cannabis dependence, and risk-taking behavior in the preceding year. The epidemiological profile of self-harm in this population appears to be distinct from that seen in the general population. Young offenders who self-harm are a vulnerable group with high rates of psychiatric morbidity, substance misuse problems, and social risk factors. They may benefit from targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, delivered both within-and during the transition from-the youth justice system. PMID:24773535

  13. Putting harm reduction into an adolescent context.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Y; Bowes, G

    2001-02-01

    Drug use is now widespread amongst Australian youth. Substance abuse and dependence are becoming increasingly significant health problems. Approximately 50% of 17-year-old Australians report regular consumption of alcohol and nearly 30% report tobacco smoking. The age of onset of substance use is reported to be decreasing. Between 1993 and 1995 the proportion of heroin users who had used the drug before the age of 16 years increased from 2% to 14%. The debate about youth substance use tends to be polarized between the views of Zero Tolerance and Legalization of drugs. The harm reduction approach spans between these two extremes. Examples of harm reduction strategies, such as education campaigns on safe injecting and needle exchange programs, have been effective in curbing the spread of blood-borne viruses such as HIV amongst intravenous drug using youth. The harm reduction approach, taking social context and developmental stage of the individual into account, may also be applied to adolescents at the less extreme end of the substance use spectrum. It is proposed that the harm reduction framework used in this way enables a rational, relevant and consistent response to contemporary youth substance use, aiming to minimize drug related harm. PMID:11168860

  14. "Cloning Considered Harmful" Considered Harmful Cory Kapser and Michael W. Godfrey

    E-print Network

    Godfrey, Michael W.

    "Cloning Considered Harmful" Considered Harmful Cory Kapser and Michael W. Godfrey Software}@uwaterloo.ca Abstract Current literature on the topic of duplicated (cloned) code in software systems often considers describes several patterns of cloning that we have encountered in our case studies and discusses

  15. Characteristics of Self-Harm Behaviour among Identified Self-Harming Youth in Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's…

  16. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside.

    PubMed

    Lomba, Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, Rob H G; McCracken, David I

    2015-03-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems' data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation. PMID:25798221

  17. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside

    PubMed Central

    Lomba, Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, Rob H G; McCracken, David I

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems' data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation. PMID:25798221

  18. Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Operational Forecast System provided by NOAA supplies information on the location, extent, and potential for development or movement of harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico. The forecasting system relies on satellite imagery, field observations, and buoy data to provide the large spatial scale and high frequency of observations required to assess bloom location and movements. Conditions are posted to this web page twice a week during the HAB season. Additional analysis is included in the HAB Bulletin that is provided to state and local resource managers in the region. The web page includes links to the HAB bulletin, available mapping systems, contributors, and other HAB resources.

  19. Helpful and harmful expectations of premarital interventions.

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos E; Belanger, Catherine J; Estrada, Ana U

    2002-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of premarital programs, estimates indicate that only 30% of couples use these services. This study examined the helpful and harmful aspects of premarital programs that may encourage or discourage participation. As expected, participants identified improved communication and problem solving skills as most beneficial. Disclosing secrets or past relationship issues that threaten the stability of the relationship was viewed as most harmful. Implications for the recruitment of couples and for the design and implementation of premarital programs are discussed. PMID:11928181

  20. HARMFUL ALGAE POSE ADDITIONAL CHALLENGES FOR OYSTER RESTORATION: IMPACTS OF THE HARMFUL ALGAE KARLODINIUM VENEFICUM AND PROROCENTRUM

    E-print Network

    North, Elizabeth W.

    HARMFUL ALGAE POSE ADDITIONAL CHALLENGES FOR OYSTER RESTORATION: IMPACTS OF THE HARMFUL ALGAE been increasing over the past half century, leading to increases in hypoxia and harmful algal blooms difficult. KEY WORDS: oysters, larvae, harmful algae, HABs, Chesapeake Bay, oyster restoration, Karlodinium

  1. Children and Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: First Analysis of Data from a Scottish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Linda; Whyte, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing awareness and acknowledgement of the incidence of sexually harmful behaviour by children and young people, research on this group remains limited. A number of recent publications have reviewed UK systems and practice and suggest that the issue is better appreciated than a decade ago. To date, however, there is no published…

  2. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

  3. ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms represent one of the most serious ecological stressors in lakes, rivers, estuaries and marine environments. When there are persistent or frequent blooms with high biomass of cyanobacterial cells, colonies or filaments in the water, a wide range of i...

  4. AL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) INFORMATION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project proposes to implement an integrated web site that will serve as an Alabama Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Information Exchange Network. This network will be a stand-alone site where HAB data from all agencies and research efforts in the State of Alabama will be integrate...

  5. First Do No Harm. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexander C.

    2007-01-01

    The author expresses concern that launching an accountability initiative without careful consideration may do more harm than good. A well-designed accountability system, writes McCormick, motivates substantive change and useful diagnostic tools must not be undermined in the name of accountability. Several new college-quality initiatives offer…

  6. Gotos Considered Harmful and Other Programmers' Taboos

    E-print Network

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    {PAGE } Gotos Considered Harmful and Other Programmers' Taboos Lindsay Marshall James Webber of rules and procedures, but also by taboos that they have acquired as part of their formal education or informally from colleagues. These taboos usually embody perceived sound advice and have generally been

  7. Mitigating the harmful effects of violent television

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence I. Rosenkoetter; Sharon E. Rosenkoetter; Rachel A. Ozretich; Alan C. Acock

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's viewing of violent TV as well

  8. Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Story board ­ Sequence of drawings with descriptions ­ Story board ­ Animatic ­ Final Animation #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Key Frames ­ Draw a fewAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

  9. Intentional Harms Are Worse, Even When They’re Not

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    People and societies seek to combat harmful events. However, because resources are limited, every wrong righted leaves another wrong left unchecked. Responses must therefore be calibrated to the magnitude of the harm. One underappreciated factor that affects this calibration may be people’s oversensitivity to intent. Across a series of studies, people saw intended harms as worse than unintended harms, even though the two harms were identical. This harm-magnification effect occurred for both subjective and monetary estimates of harm, and it remained when participants were given incentives to be accurate. The effect was fully mediated by blame motivation. People may therefore focus on intentional harms to the neglect of unintentional (but equally damaging) harms. PMID:23878021

  10. Screening of surfactants for harmful algal blooms mitigation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Xia; Han, Kyung-Nam; Choi, Joong-Ki; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2004-05-01

    Screening experiments were conducted in order to find promising synthetic surfactants for harmful algal blooms (HABs) mitigation. The chemically synthesized surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) showed characteristics of relatively high inhibition efficiency, high biodegradability and low cost. The motility inhibition ratios of 10 mg/L CAPB on Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Alexandrium tamarense were about 60% after 5 min. The biodegradation test indicated that the half-life of CAPB in seawater was shorter than one day and 90% was biodegraded after five days under the initial concentration of 100 mg/L at 25 degrees C. Further cell lysis experiments revealed the selective lysis effect of CAPB on different HAB organisms. More than 90% of C. polykrikoides lysed at the concentration of 10 mg/L CAPB after 24 h and at 15 mg/L CAPB after 4 h, whereas the lysis effect of CAPB on A. tamarense was slight, no more than 10% after 2 h interaction with 50 mg/L CAPB. This research provided preliminary data for CAPB as a candidate in harmful algal blooms mitigation and pointed out unresolved problems for its practical application in the meantime. PMID:15111041

  11. The cost-effectiveness of harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David P; Donald, Braedon; Shattock, Andrew J; Wilson, David; Fraser-Hurt, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    HIV prevalence worldwide among people who inject drugs (PWID) is around 19%. Harm reduction for PWID includes needle-syringe programs (NSPs) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) but often coupled with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for people living with HIV. Numerous studies have examined the effectiveness of each harm reduction strategy. This commentary discusses the evidence of effectiveness of the packages of harm reduction services and their cost-effectiveness with respect to HIV-related outcomes as well as estimate resources required to meet global and regional coverage targets. NSPs have been shown to be safe and very effective in reducing HIV transmission in diverse settings; there are many historical and very recent examples in diverse settings where the absence of, or reduction in, NSPs have resulted in exploding HIV epidemics compared to controlled epidemics with NSP implementation. NSPs are relatively inexpensive to implement and highly cost-effective according to commonly used willingness-to-pay thresholds. There is strong evidence that substitution therapy is effective, reducing the risk of HIV acquisition by 54% on average among PWID. OST is relatively expensive to implement when only HIV outcomes are considered; other societal benefits substantially improve the cost-effectiveness ratios to be highly favourable. Many studies have shown that ART is cost-effective for keeping people alive but there is only weak supportive, but growing evidence, of the additional effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ART as prevention among PWID. Packages of combined harm reduction approaches are highly likely to be more effective and cost-effective than partial approaches. The coverage of harm reduction programs remains extremely low across the world. The total annual costs of scaling up each of the harm reduction strategies from current coverage levels, by region, to meet WHO guideline coverage targets are high with ART greatest, followed by OST and then NSPs. But scale-up of all three approaches is essential. These interventions can be cost-effective by most thresholds in the short-term and cost-saving in the long-term. PMID:25727260

  12. CSCOR Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR)

    This NOAA Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features the Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Team. Over the past decade harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased along U.S. coasts causing major resource, economic, and health impacts. State and Federal managers responding to blooms often lack timely access to cutting-edge science useful in minimizing HAB impacts on coastal communities. The NCCOS Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) HAB Event Response program addresses the need to inject science into management by supporting coastal managers faced with responding to unusual or unexpected HABs. This page describes how to apply for funding and accomplishments achieved by the program. Links are provided to CSCOR Event Responses.

  13. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For over 15?years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers. In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness. While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050

  14. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nick; Moore, Tim; Crofts, Nick

    2012-01-01

    For over 15?years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers.In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness.While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050

  15. Comparing Alternatives For Replacing Harmful Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruit, W.; Schutzenhofer, S.; Goldberg, B.; Everhart, K.

    1995-01-01

    Methodology developed to provide guidance for replacement of industrial chemicals that must be phased out by law because they are toxic and/or affect environment adversely. Chemicals and processes ranked numerically. Applies mostly to chemicals contributing to depletion of ozone in upper atmosphere; some other harmful chemicals included. Quality function deployment matrix format provides convenient way to compare alternative processes and chemicals. Overall rating at bottom of each process-and-chemical column indicates relative advantage.

  16. Artificial Immune for Harmful Information Filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Sun; Xue guang Zhou

    \\u000a Biologically-inspired methods such as evolutionary algorithms and neural networks are well suited to dynamic problems. Artificial\\u000a immune systems are proving useful in the field of information filtering. We tackle this dynamic problem with IHIF, a harmful\\u000a information filtering model inspired by the immune system. It is based on a self-organising antibody network that reacts to\\u000a dynamic evolvement in order to

  17. Electrofishing and its harmful effects on fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Darrel E.

    2003-01-01

    Electrofishing, a valuable sampling technique in North America for over half a century, involves a very dynamic and complex mix of physics, physiology, and behavior that remains poorly understood. New hypotheses have been advanced regarding "power transfer" to fish and the epileptic nature of their responses to electric fields, but these too need to be more fully explored and validated. Fishery researchers and managers in the Colorado River Basin, and elsewhere, are particularly concerned about the harmful effects of electrofishing on fish, especially endangered species. Although often not externally obvious or fatal, spinal injuries and associated hemorrhages sometimes have been documented in over 50% of fish examined internally. Such injuries can occur anywhere in the electrofishing field at or above the intensity threshold for twitch. These injuries are believed to result from powerful convulsions of body musculature (possibly epileptic seizures) caused mostly by sudden changes in voltage as when electricity is pulsed or switched on or off. Significantly fewer spinal injuries are reported when direct current, low-frequency pulsed direct current (<30 Hz), or specially designed pulse trains are used. Salmoniae are especially susceptible. Endangered cyprinids of the Colorado River Basin are generally much less susceptible, enough so to allow cautious use of less harmful currents for most recovery monitoring and research. However, the endangered catostomid Xyrauchen texanus appears sufficiently susceptible to warrant a continued minimal-use policy. Other harmful effects, such as bleeding at gills or vent and excessive physiological stress, are also of concern. Mortality, usually by asphyxiation, is a common result of excessive exposure to tetanizing intensities near electrodes or poor handling of captured specimens. Reported effects on reproduction are contradictory, but electrofishing over spawning grounds can harm embryos. Electrofishing is often considered the most effective and benign technique for capturing moderate- to large-size fish, but when adverse effects are problematic and cannot be sufficiently reduced, its use should be severely restricted.

  18. Year-Round versus Traditional Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyttle, LeighAnne

    2011-01-01

    This document serves as a literature review for the practicality and cost effectiveness of traditional versus year-round school systems. The differences in year-round and traditional schools are many, as the debate lingers on which type is best for students' learning. Generally conclusive, the literature indicates that year-round schools' benefits…

  19. Electronic cigarettes. Potential harms and benefits.

    PubMed

    Drummond, M Bradley; Upson, Dona

    2014-02-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine-containing vapor, has increased rapidly across the country and globally. Perceived and marketed as a "healthier alternative" to conventional cigarettes, few data exist regarding the safety of these devices and their efficacy in harm reduction and treatment of tobacco dependence; even less is known about their overall impact on population health. This review highlights the recent data regarding electronic cigarette toxicity, impact on lung function, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation. Studies show that the vapor generated from electronic cigarettes has variable amounts of nicotine and potential harmful toxins, albeit at levels lower than in conventional cigarettes. The long-term carcinogenic and lung function effects of electronic cigarettes are not known. Although some data demonstrate that electronic cigarettes may be effective in reducing conventional cigarette consumption, there are no data demonstrating the efficacy of electronic cigarettes as a tool to achieve cessation. Until robust longitudinal evaluations demonstrate the safety of electronic cigarettes and efficacy in treatment of tobacco dependence, their role as a harm reduction tool is unclear. PMID:24575993

  20. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Equipment § 68.108 Incidence of harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to the public switched telephone network, or should the provider of wireline telecommunications...

  1. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Equipment § 68.108 Incidence of harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to the public switched telephone network, or should the provider of wireline telecommunications...

  2. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Equipment § 68.108 Incidence of harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to the public switched telephone network, or should the provider of wireline telecommunications...

  3. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Equipment § 68.108 Incidence of harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to the public switched telephone network, or should the provider of wireline telecommunications...

  4. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Equipment § 68.108 Incidence of harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to the public switched telephone network, or should the provider of wireline telecommunications...

  5. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. PMID:25518881

  6. Freshwater harmful algal blooms: toxins and children's health.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Chelsea A; Miller, Todd R

    2014-01-01

    Massive accumulations of cyanobacteria (a.k.a. "blue-green algae"), known as freshwater harmful algal blooms (FHABs), are a common global occurrence in water bodies used for recreational purposes and drinking water purification. Bloom prevalence is increased due to anthropogenic changes in land use, agricultural activity, and climate change. These photosynthetic bacteria produce a range of toxic secondary metabolites that affect animals and humans at both chronic and acute dosages. Children are especially at risk because of their lower body weight, behavior, and toxic effects on development. Here we review common FHAB toxins, related clinical symptoms, acceptable concentrations in drinking water, case studies of children's and young adults' exposures to FHAB toxins through drinking water and food, methods of environmental and clinical detection in potential cases of intoxication, and best practices for FHAB prevention. PMID:24439026

  7. Harmful algae blooms removal from fresh water with modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunguang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiangqin

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite and vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid were investigated to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies in freshwater containing harmful algae blooms (HABs) (Microcystis aeruginosa). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, converted fluorescence microscope, plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and Zetasizer were used to study the flocculation mechanism of modified vermiculite. It was found that the vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid could coagulate algae cells through charge neutralization, chemical bridging, and netting effect. The experimental results show that the efficiency of flocculation can be notably improved by modified vermiculite. Ninety-eight per cent of algae cells in algae solution could be removed within 10 min after the addition ofmodified vermiculite clay. The method that removal of HABs with modified vermiculite is economical with high efficiency, and more research is needed to assess their ecological impacts before using in practical application. PMID:24600873

  8. How Would We Know if Psychotherapy Were Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimidjian, Sona; Hollon, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Patients can be harmed by treatment or by the decisions that are made about those treatments. Although dramatic examples of harmful effects of psychotherapy have been reported, the full scope of the problem remains unclear. The field currently lacks consensus about how to detect harm and what to do about it when it occurs. In this article, we…

  9. 30 CFR 722.11 - Imminent dangers and harms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Imminent dangers and harms. 722.11 Section 722.11 Mineral...PROCEDURES § 722.11 Imminent dangers and harms. (a) If an authorized representative...significant, imminent environmental harm to land, air, or water...

  10. 30 CFR 722.11 - Imminent dangers and harms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Imminent dangers and harms. 722.11 Section 722.11 Mineral...PROCEDURES § 722.11 Imminent dangers and harms. (a) If an authorized representative...significant, imminent environmental harm to land, air, or water...

  11. Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats

    E-print Network

    Hsu, Sze-Bi

    of harmful algal blooms in riverine ecosystems. It is important to un- derstand the persistence of algaeGlobal Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats Sze-Bi Hsu Feng-Bin Wang Xiao from the dynamics of harmful algae and zooplankton in flowing- water habitats where a main channel

  12. Harmful Algal Blooms Algae are the most abundant photosynthetic

    E-print Network

    Harmful Algal Blooms The Issue Algae are the most abundant photosynthetic organisms in marine ecosystems and are essential components of marine food webs. Harmful algal bloom or "HAB" species are a small subset of algal species that negatively impact humans or the environment. Some harmful algae produce

  13. Motivational interviewing techniques and the harm-reduction model in a short-term substance-abuse group for adolescents with psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Carter, Allen L; Wilber, Charles; Sahl, Robert

    2005-10-01

    The authors describe techniques and practical examples for working with substance-abusing teens within a short-term psychiatric setting that derive from the Harm-Reduction model and the Motivational Interviewing approach. PMID:16270788

  14. The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as “tailor-made medicine” and has properties similar to “mind and body” or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients’ lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans. There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms. PMID:24148283

  15. Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex impairs judgment of harmful intent

    PubMed Central

    Young, Liane; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel; Damasio, Hanna; Hauser, Marc; Damasio, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Moral judgments, whether delivered in ordinary experience or in the courtroom, depend on our ability to infer intentions. We forgive unintentional or accidental harms and condemn failed attempts to harm. Prior work demonstrates that patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) deliver abnormal judgments in response to moral dilemmas, and that these patients are especially impaired in triggering emotional responses to inferred or abstract events (e.g., intentions), as opposed to real or actual outcomes. We therefore predicted that VMPC patients would deliver abnormal moral judgments of harmful intentions in the absence of harmful outcomes, as in failed attempts to harm. This prediction was confirmed in the current study: VMPC patients judged attempted harms including attempted murder as more morally permissible relative to controls. These results highlight the critical role of the VMPC in processing harmful intent for moral judgment. PMID:20346759

  16. Harmful effect of detergents on lipase.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Sadaf; Ajmal, Rehan; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan H

    2014-11-01

    In order to study effects of detergents at molecular level, we have done activity measurements of wheat germ lipase in increasing concentration of some commercial detergents. Conformational changes in protein structure using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy were studied in increasing concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Our study proves that detergents may lead to loss of enzymatic activity and structure of plant enzymes. Since detergents are common source of pollution in water bodies and the water from these resources can be used in fields, our study may prove helpful in creating awareness about harmful action of detergents. PMID:24807844

  17. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms: causes, consequences, and controls.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Otten, Timothy G

    2013-05-01

    Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest oxygenic photoautotrophs and have had major impacts on shaping its biosphere. Their long evolutionary history (? 3.5 by) has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recently anthropogenic modifications of aquatic environments, including nutrient over-enrichment (eutrophication), water diversions, withdrawals, and salinization. Many cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. Bloom-forming cyanobacterial taxa can be harmful from environmental, organismal, and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, depleting oxygen upon bloom senescence, and producing a variety of toxic secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanotoxins). How environmental factors impact cyanotoxin production is the subject of ongoing research, but nutrient (N, P and trace metals) supply rates, light, temperature, oxidative stressors, interactions with other biota (bacteria, viruses and animal grazers), and most likely, the combined effects of these factors are all involved. Accordingly, strategies aimed at controlling and mitigating harmful blooms have focused on manipulating these dynamic factors. The applicability and feasibility of various controls and management approaches is discussed for natural waters and drinking water supplies. Strategies based on physical, chemical, and biological manipulations of specific factors show promise; however, a key underlying approach that should be considered in almost all instances is nutrient (both N and P) input reductions; which have been shown to effectively reduce cyanobacterial biomass, and therefore limit health risks and frequencies of hypoxic events. PMID:23314096

  18. Benzodiazepine harm: how can it be reduced?

    PubMed Central

    Lader, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    The benzodiazepines (BZDs) are anxiolytics, hypnotics, anticonvulsants, muscle-relaxants and induce anaesthesia. Adverse effects comprise sedation subjectively and cognitive and psychomotor impairment objectively. Complex skills such as driving can be compromised. Paradoxical excitement can have forensic implications. Long term use beyond the licensed durations is common but both efficacy and adverse effects associated with this have been poorly documented. Withdrawal and dependence have excited particular concern, and even polemic. Perhaps a third of long term (beyond 6?months) users experience symptoms and signs on attempting to withdraw – anxiety, insomnia, muscle spasms and tension and perceptual hypersensitivity. Uncommonly, fits or a psychosis may supervene. The patterns following withdrawal vary widely. The usual method of withdrawal is slow tapering but it may not obviate the problems completely. BZDs are also drugs of abuse either on their own or in conjunction with opioids and stimulants. Claims have been made that the use of BZDs is associated with increased mortality. This is a concern in view of the widespread usage of these drugs, particularly in the elderly. All of these factors impinge on the risk?:?benefit ratio and the severity of the indications. Harm reduction should focus on choice of alternative treatments both psychological and pharmacological. Guidelines emphasise that BZDs are not drugs of first choice and should only be used short term. Schedules are available to educate about methods of withdrawal in current users, emphasising the slow rate of taper. General principles of harm minimization in the addiction field are appropriate to BZD abuse. PMID:22882333

  19. Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: An Underutilized Opportunity for Reducing Harm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The management of localized prostate cancer is controversial, and in the absence of comparative trials to inform best practice, choices are driven by personal beliefs with wide variation in practice patterns. Men with localized disease diagnosed today often undergo treatments that will not improve overall health outcomes, and active surveillance has emerged as one approach to reducing this overtreatment of prostate cancer. The selection of appropriate candidates for active surveillance should balance the risk of harm from prostate cancer without treatment, and a patient’s personal preferences for living with a cancer and the potential side effects of curative treatments. Although limitations exist in assessing the potential for a given prostate cancer to cause harm, the most common metrics used today consider cancer stage, prostate biopsy features, and prostate-specific antigen level together with the risk of death from nonprostate causes based on age and overall state of health. PMID:23271770

  20. "Who" Helps and Harms "Whom"? Relational Antecedents of Interpersonal Helping and Harming in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkataramani, Vijaya; Dalal, Reeshad S.

    2007-01-01

    Antecedents of interpersonally directed forms of citizenship and counterproductive behaviors (i.e., interpersonal helping and harming, respectively) have been studied most often under the broad categories of individual differences and job attitudes. Although these behaviors often are exhibited within the confines of interpersonal relationships,…

  1. Minimizing Harm and Maximizing Pleasure: Considering the Harm Reduction Paradigm for Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naisteter, Michal A.; Sitron, Justin A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the potential for introducing harm reduction into sexuality education. When the goal of sexuality education is on prevention and focuses on risk and public health concerns, a discussion of pleasure is rendered problematic, as many pleasurable behaviors are inherently "unsafe" or "risky" when considered using a safe-sex lens.…

  2. Algicidal activity of thiazolidinedione derivatives against harmful algal blooming species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Mi; Wu, Ying; Duong, Thi Uyen; Jung, Seul-Gi; Kim, Si Wouk; Cho, Hoon; Jin, Eonseon

    2012-06-01

    Thiazolidinedione (TD) derivatives exhibit algicidal activity against harmful algal blooming species such as Chattonella marina, Heterosigma akashiwo, and Cochlodinium polykrikoides, as reported previously. In this study, the efficacies and selectivities of TD derivatives were tested by analyzing the structure-activity relationships of various TD derivatives. To investigate structure-activity relationships for growth inhibition of harmful algae, we added a methylene group between the cyclohexyl ring and oxygen of 5-(3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-TD, which decreased the inhibitory potency of compound 17. Interestingly, another addition of a methylene group significantly increased the inhibitory potency against C. polykrikoides. The addition of 1 ?M compound 17 resulted in the cell rupture of harmful algae after less than 10 h incubation at 20 °C. Compound 17 was applied to both harmful and non-harmful algae and showed a drastic reduction in the efficiency of photosystem II, resulting in reduced photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Compound 17 at a 5 ?M concentration destroyed all of the harmful algae, while algicidal activity against non-harmful algae did not exceed 30% of the control within the concentration range tested. In contrast, a herbicide, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, tested at a 5 ?M concentration, exhibited 40-70% algicidal activity relative to that of the control against both harmful and non-harmful algae. Compound 17 is a promising lead compound for the development of algicides to control harmful algal blooming species. PMID:22080145

  3. Best Practices in Grading. Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…

  4. Traditional Arts Knowledge, Traditional Ecological Lore: The Intersection of Art Education and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bequette, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Teaching about Native artworks as part of school arts curriculum can serve to pass on traditional ecological knowledge while also contextualizing colonialism's influence on traditional and contemporary Native arts practices. This article explores how schools can actively engage in community arts partnerships with American Indians who have…

  5. The relationship between self-harm and alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Norman, Hilary; Borrill, Jo

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the literature concerning the relationship between alexithymia and self-harm. Fifteen studies were selected following a systematic search of relevant databases. Results indicate significantly higher levels of alexithymia in women who self-harm compared with women who do not self-harm. Studies of men were less conclusive and require further investigation. A subsample of the studies found that childhood abuse and bullying were more likely to be associated with self-harm if alexithymia was present as a mediator. Other studies found that depression mediated between alexithymia and self-harm. The results indicate that the poor emotional cognition and expression associated with alexithymia may increase vulnerability to self-harm, particularly in women. PMID:26011069

  6. The Olympic Region Harmful Algal Blooms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) Partnership

    This is the website of the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership, which was organized to develop collaboration and cooperation among federal, state and local management agencies, coastal Indian tribes, marine resource-based businesses, public interest groups, and academic institutions. The ORHAB partnership investigates the origins of blooms of toxic algae, monitors where and when the blooms occur, assesses the environmental conditions conducive to blooms and toxification of intertidal shellfish populations, and explores methods that can be used to reduce HAB impacts on humans and the environment. Information in this website is organized into the following categories: Home, About ORHAB, HAB impacts, project plan, partnerships, benefits, meetings, gallery, sustaining ORHAB, education, and outreach.

  7. Do no harm--normal tissue effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy confers enormous benefits that must be balanced against the possibilities for harm including late toxicity in normal tissues and radiation-induced second malignancies. A small percentage of patients experience severe late complications. The question is, do these late sequelae occur randomly, or are they confined to individuals who are genetically predisposed to radiosensitivity. Experiments with knockout mice and with patients demonstrate that individuals heterozygous for a number of genes appear to be radiosensitive. If radiosensitive patients were identified prospectively by genetic analysis, they could be spared the trauma of late sequelae. Several large studies have shown a statistically significant excess of radiation-induced malignancies in radiotherapy patients. Most second cancers are carcinomas, developing in the lining cells of the body often remote from the treatment site. Radiation-induced sarcomas appear only in the heavily irradiated areas. These are small in number but appear with a very high relative risk.

  8. Multiple meanings of self harm: a critical review.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret

    2003-09-01

    The issue of self harm is a popular inclusion in various contemporary journals focusing on health and in particular women's health. This paper seeks to condense, critically analyse and more simply explain selected literature in order to raise awareness of the multiple ways of understanding self harm. Raised awareness may be a useful strategy in thinking about self harm in novel ways and thus providing alternate pathways for responding to the individual and society. PMID:17393644

  9. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    PubMed

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies. PMID:23748884

  10. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly linked to older people in rural areas. In the rural areas surveyed, significant economic and social benefits are derived from traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use. Policy makers designing ways to reduce alcohol-related risks and harms need to give thoughtful consideration to the role traditional alcohol plays in the local society and to suggest changes that do not create unintended problems. PMID:25037953

  11. Lead Encephalopathy Due to Traditional Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Karri, Surya K.; Saper, Robert B.; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional medicine use is common in developing countries and increasingly popular in the western world. Despite the popularity of traditional medicines, scientific research on safety and efficacy is limited. However documented fatalities and severe illness due to lead poisoning are increasingly recognized to be associated with traditional medicine use. As society becomes more globalized, it is imperative for pharmacists and health care providers to learn about the safety of traditional medical practices. The information presented educates and alerts pharmacists and health care providers about the potential of traditional medicines to cause lead encephalopathy. Case reports were located through systematic literature searches using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE and The Cochrane library from 1966 to the February 2007. Reference lists of identified articles and the authors' own files were also searched. Inclusion criteria were cases of human lead encephalopathy associated with traditional medical practices. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. Data were subsequently extracted and summarized in narrative and tabular form. We found 76 cases of lead encephalopathy potentially associated with traditional medicine. Ayurvedic medicines were associated with 5 cases (7%), Middle eastern traditional medicines with 66 cases (87%) and 5 cases (7%) with other traditional medicines. Of the 76 cases, 5% were in adults and 95% were in infants and young children. Of the 4 adult cases, at least one was left with residual neurological impairment. In infants and young children, among 72 cases 8 (11%) were fatal, and at least 15 (21%) had residual neurological deficits. Traditional medicine users should be screened for lead exposure and strongly encouraged to discontinue metal–containing remedies. Therefore, the United States Food and Drug Administration and corresponding agencies in other countries should require and enforce heavy metal testing for all imported traditional medicines and “dietary supplements”. PMID:18690981

  12. Tobacco harm reduction: a call to address the ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Fox, Brion J; Cohen, Joanna E

    2002-01-01

    The 2001 Institute of Medicine report Clearing the Smoke: Assessing the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction has helped to focus attention on the scientific basis for assessing tobacco harm reduction products. As the tobacco research and policy communities tackle the challenges of evaluating harm reduction, there are ethical issues that must also be addressed. There has, however, been very little writing on the ethics of this field. In an effort to spur research into answering these ethical questions, we present two complementary approaches. First we outline three overarching topics in tobacco harm reduction that would particularly lend themselves to study: (a) Is the pursuit of tobacco harm reduction an ethical goal? (b) What are the ethical considerations of tobacco harm reduction vis-ŕ-vis pharmaceutical companies? and (c) What are the ethical considerations for harm reduction vis-ŕ-vis tobacco companies? We then present one possible framework for analyzing the ethical issues that accompany particular tobacco harm reduction strategies. By considering the ethical dilemmas attendant to tobacco harm reduction in a prospective and thoughtful manner, we will be better prepared to handle the challenges that face us individually as researchers and collectively as a tobacco control community. PMID:12573170

  13. DataTags and Harm Levels Create and maintain a user-friendly system that allows researchers to

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    with researchers. On the other hand, "good science" practices encourage researchers to share data to assureDataTags and Harm Levels Create and maintain a user-friendly system that allows researchers to share data with confidence, knowing they comply with the laws and regulations governing shared

  14. Interprofessional and Interagency Training for Working with Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: An Evaluation of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Simon; Carpenter, John; Patsios, Demi; Szilassy, Eszter

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the outcomes of short interagency training courses provided by six Local Safeguarding Children Boards in England. The aim was to develop practical skills in recognising and responding to the needs of children with harmful sexual behaviour in an interagency context. The courses all employed interactive learning and teaching…

  15. Smokeless tobacco as a nicotine delivery device: harm or harm reduction?

    PubMed

    Benowitz, N L

    2011-10-01

    Smokeless tobacco (ST) delivers nicotine in doses similar to those received in cigarette smoking but does not expose the user to the toxic combustion gases and particles that are responsible for most tobacco-induced disease. This Opinion piece discusses the controversies pertaining to ST and health, the pros and cons of ST in harm reduction, and progress in treatment for those who would like to quit ST use. PMID:21934719

  16. Traditional Construction in Burma

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Traditional construction throughout Burma utilizes bamboo and other lightweight building materials, resulting in structures that are not generally durable but are quite earthquake-safe.  As traditional structures such as this house give way to more modern masonry buildings, seismic risk will in...

  17. Defining and redefining harm reduction in the Lao context

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The response to drug use in Laos has focused on reducing opium supply (supply reduction) and rates of drug use (demand reduction). However, recently there is increased interest among government counterparts to discuss and develop broader responses to injecting drug use (IDU) including the introduction of harm reduction programs. The concept of harm reduction has just been introduced to Lao PDR and as yet there is no agreement on a definition of the concept. We highlight here a range of issues that remain controversial in Lao PDR in the HIV, drug use and harm reduction discourse, the definition of 'harm reduction' and related terms; and the scope of harm reduction. This was a qualitative study, consisting of in-depth interviews with 27 law enforcement and 8 health officers who work in the fields of HIV and/or drug control about their understanding of HIV related to drug use, and concepts of harm reduction. Content analysis was performed to identify the coding, categories and themes. We found that law enforcement officers in particular had limited understanding about harm reduction and the feasibility and appropriateness of harm reduction services in the Lao context. Harm reduction should be a core element of a public health response to HIV where drug use and IDU exists. Recommendations include the necessity of increasing the awareness of harm reduction among law enforcement officers and providing appropriate evidence to support the needs of harm reduction policy and programs. HIV prevention and treatment strategies should be integrated within existing social and cultural frameworks, working with the task force for HIV/IDU and other government counterparts. PMID:22769736

  18. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Merriam, Sharan; Suhami, Norhasmilia

    2012-01-01

    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities. PMID:22295249

  19. Managing Sexually Harmful Behaviour in a Residential Special School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Graham, Nicola; Ikin, Annette; Penney, Heather; Kovacs, Lisa; Mercer, Dawn; Edwards, Richard; Jones, Dylan; Mace, Floyd Charles

    2012-01-01

    Children and young people with learning disabilities who present sexually harmful behaviour are marginalised and do not always participate in community activities. This case study describes a multi-component intervention that successfully reduced the sexually harmful behaviour of a 16-year-old boy with a mild learning disability. The intervention…

  20. Optical methods for monitoring harmful gas in animal facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shirui; Dong, Daming; Zheng, Wengang; Wang, Jihua

    2014-06-01

    Animal facilities produce large amounts of harmful gases such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and methane, many of which have a pungent odor. The harmful gases produced by animal housing not only affect the health of people and livestock but also pollute the air. The detection of the harmful gases can effectively improve efficiency of livestock production and reduce environmental pollution. More and more optical detection methods are applied to the detection of the harmful gases produced by animal housing. This summarizes optical detection methods for monitoring the harmful gases in animal housing recently, including nondispersive infrared gas analyzer, ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The basic principle and the characteristics of these methods are illustrated and the applications on the detection of harmful gases in animal housing are described. Meanwhile, the research of harmful gases monitoring for livestock production based on these methods were listed. The current situation and future development of the detection methods for harmful gases generated by animal housing were summarized by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  1. 40 CFR 51.151 - Significant harm levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant harm levels. 51.151 Section 51.151 Protection of Environment...of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes § 51.151 Significant harm levels. Each plan for a Priority I region must...

  2. Self-harm and suicide: care, interventions and policy.

    PubMed

    Cook, Stephen H; Clancy, Carmel; Sanderson, Sarah

    This article aims to raise awareness about self-harming behaviours and suicide. It explores their complex nature, social context, why they have become a central issue in public health and the challenges they present. The assessment of patients who self-harm is discussed, together with psychological and social policy interventions that may be used. PMID:15318652

  3. Training Implications of Harmful Effects of Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castonguay, Louis G.; Boswell, James F.; Constantino, Michael J.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Hill, Clara E.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to delineate training implications regarding harmful effects associated with psychotherapy. The authors strongly recommend that trainees be made aware of (and encouraged to examine carefully) the potentially harmful treatments that have been recently identified (Lilienfeld, 2007). Consistent with a broad perspective on…

  4. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Gobler; Dianna Berry; Sonya Dyhrman; Steven Wilhelm; A. Salamov; A. V. Lobanov; Y. Zhang; J. L. Collier; L. L. Wurch; A. B. Kustka; B. D. Dill; M. Shah; N. C. Verberkmoes; A. Kuo; A. Terry; J. Pangilinan; E. A. Lindquist; S. Lucas; I. T. Paulsen; T. K. Hattenrath-Lehmann; S. C. Talmage; E. A. Walker; F. Koch; A. M. Burson; M. A. Marcoval; Y.-Z. Tang; G. R. Lecleir; K. J. Coyne; G. M. Berg; E. M. Bertrand; M. A. Saito; V. N. Gladyshev; I. V. Grigoriev

    2011-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in

  5. Ohio Sea Grant Fact Sheets Harmful Algal Blooms

    E-print Network

    Ohio Sea Grant Fact Sheets Harmful Algal Blooms in Ohio Waters this stuff? What isEugene C. Braig AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S.D EPARTMENT OF COM M ERCE OHSU­FS-091­©2011 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are so death--in pets, livestock, and humans. An algal bloom is an abundant or excessive growth of algae. Most

  6. Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR)

    This Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB), a funding program within NOAA that seeks to develop effective methods for prevention, control, and mitigation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). The page provides an overview of the program, offers a link to the funding announcement, and lists accomplishments of the program.

  7. A harm reduction programme for injecting drug users in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    1997-01-01

    The Lifesaving and Lifegiving Society (LALS), a street-based nongovernmental organization established in Nepal in 1991, utilizes a harm-reduction strategy to minimize the spread of HIV among injecting drug users. Community health outreach workers, many of whom are former drug addicts, work in the streets of Kathmandu, educating, counseling, and distributing bleach, sterile water, swabs, and clean needles. They demonstrate how to clean syringes and distribute condoms. LALS also provides primary health care services such as treatment for abscesses. Clients are informed about the limited drug treatment services in Nepal and are offered the option of home detoxification under LALS supervision. LALS promotes the message that drug users should be treated as victims of a disease rather than as criminals. Family involvement, fostered through home visits, is considered important to sustaining behavioral changes and family members are informed about ways of encouraging drug users to give up drug use or at least practice safe injecting techniques. Education of and networking with Narcotics Division and other police officers has been essential to LALS' success. LALS is working with the Nepali Red Cross on integrating HIV prevention into family planning programs. A current priority is to reduce dependence on funding from donor agencies and mobilize support from private businesses. PMID:12292766

  8. Harmful immune reactions during acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Laskarin, G; Zaputovic, L; Persic, V; Ruzic, A; Sotosek Tokmadzic, V

    2012-06-01

    Acute coronary syndrome, including myocardial infarction, can occur as a result of ischaemia-reperfusion injury caused by acute occlusion of the coronary vessel/s following the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque. Superimposed thrombosis at the lesion obstructs blood supply to the myocardium causing myocardial necrosis and ischaemic inflammation. Although not fully described, researchers believe that this process is initiated by a dysfunctional endothelium that activates the nearby leukocytes in the blood stream, thus attracting them to the arterial wall and initiating a cascade of complex mechanisms that lead to myocardial infarction. Interestingly, this process is two sided as the leaking soluble factors from a damaged and/or necrotic myocardium enter the systemic circulation, activating the innate and adaptive cell-mediated immune responses, which include increasing cytotoxic mediators. We hypothesize that this unwanted side effect of increase in proinflammatory mediators can lead to harmful systemic immune reactions directed towards various dysfunctional endothelia. Additionally, a strong inflammatory response, caused by myocardial damage, can impair ventricular function, on top of baseline necrosis. To evaluate this hypothesis, we propose to use in vivo tests to measure endothelial dysfunction, as well as ventricular dysfunction by ultrasound methods, and their correlation with immunological and/or biochemical parameters. These tests will be useful in assessing the risk and therapeutic outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome. PMID:22398389

  9. Energy drinks and adolescents: what's the harm?

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R

    2015-04-01

    Concerns about potential dangers from energy drink consumption by youth have been raised by health experts, whereas energy drink manufacturers claim these products are safe and suitable for marketing to teens. This review summarizes the evidence used to support both sides of the debate. Unlike most beverage categories, sales of energy drinks and other highly caffeinated products continue to grow, and marketing is often targeted to youth under the age of 18 years. These products pose a risk of caffeine toxicity when consumed by some young people, and there is evidence of other troubling physiological and behavioral effects associated with their consumption by youth. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated it will reexamine the safety of caffeine in the food supply; however, more research is needed to better understand youth consumption of energy drinks and caffeine in general, as well as the long-term effects on health. Meanwhile, policymakers and physician groups have called on energy drink manufacturers to take voluntary action to reduce the potential harm of their products, including placing restrictions on marketing to youth under the age of 18 years. Additional regulatory and legislative options are also being discussed. PMID:26024547

  10. Native American Healing Traditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarrell A. A. Portman; Michael T. Garrett

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American healing practices requires helping professionals to have knowledge of Native American cultural belief systems about

  11. Behavioral ecology of conservation in traditional societies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bobbi S. Low

    1996-01-01

    A common exhortation by conservationists suggests that we can solve ecological problems by returning to the attitudes of traditional\\u000a societies: reverence for resources, and willingness to assume short-term individual costs for long-term, group-beneficial\\u000a sustainable management. This paper uses the 186-society Standard Cross-Cultural Sample to examine resource attitudes and practices.\\u000a Two main findings emerge: (1) resource practices are ecologically driven and

  12. iDetect: An immunity based algorithm to detect harmful content shared in Peer-to-Peer networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JIAN-MING LVI; ZHI-WEN YUI; Tie-Ying Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A huge amount of harmful and illegal contents such as child pornography and abuse vid eo are shared in Peer- to-Peer (P2P) network and have brought some se­ rious social problems. Traditional detection algorithm­ s monitor and analyze the content of the P2P traffic by deploying centralized powerful servers. The im­ mense amount of sharing, transferring and frequent­ ly updating

  13. [Health and social harm related alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources. PMID:25090405

  14. Tobacco smoking, harm reduction, and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Shields, Peter G

    2002-10-01

    The only known way to reduce cancer risk in smokers is complete cessation, but many smokers are unable or unwilling to quit. Consequently, tobacco companies are now marketing products that purport to reduce carcinogen exposure, with the implication that such products provide a safer way to smoke. Moreover, researchers are exploring ways to reduce the amount of cigarette smoke carcinogens to which the smokers are exposed. Although these methods are, in theory beneficial, it is possible that the perceived availability of "safe" ways to smoke will cause some former smokers to resume smoking and some current smokers to delay quitting. Thus, the extent of exposure reduction and the impact on public health of these methods need to be considered carefully. However, risk reduction and its relation to exposure are not simple to estimate. The way people smoke and the way they respond to carcinogen exposure are both highly variable, as evidenced by the previous history of smokers who switched to light, or low-tar cigarettes. This can actually increase risk in some smokers. The evaluation of exposure reduction will therefore need to be multidisciplinary and include in vitro cell culture studies, animal studies, human clinical studies, and epidemiologic studies. Biomarkers will be critical for rapidly evaluating the effects of new strategies or products to reduce exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens. No single biomarker will likely satisfy our assessment needs, and so a panel of biomarkers should be used that includes biomarkers of exposure, biologically effective dose, and potential harm. In addition, usefulness of new products will need to be tested in people of different susceptibilities (i.e., who vary in behavior, sex, age, genetics, and prior tobacco use). Even if the new products are shown to be effective at reducing lung carcinogens, they should not be used alone but rather be incorporated into a comprehensive tobacco control program. PMID:12359853

  15. An Agent Harms a Victim: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study on Specific Moral Emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gayannée Kédia; Sylvie Berthoz; Michele Wessa; Denis Hilton; Jean-luc Martinot

    2008-01-01

    The statement: An agent harms a victim, depicts a situation that triggers moral emotions. Depending on whether the agent and the victim are the self or someone else, it can lead to four different moral emotions: self-anger (I harm myself), guilt (I harm someone), other-anger (someone harms me), and compassion (someone harms someone). In order to investigate the neural correlates

  16. Against Harmful Research on Non-Agreeing Children.

    PubMed

    Chwang, Eric

    2015-07-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations permits harmful research on children who have not agreed to participate, but I will argue that it should be no more permissive of harmful research on such children than of harmful research on adults who have not agreed to participate. Of course, the Code permits harmful research on adults. Such research is not morally problematic, however, because adults must agree to participate. And, of course, the Code also permits beneficial research on children without needing their explicit agreement. This sort of research is also not problematic, this time because paternalism towards children may be justifiable. The moral problem at the center of this paper arises from the combination of two potential properties of pediatric research, first that it might be harmful and second that its subjects might not agree to participate. In Section 2 of this article I explain how the Code permits harmful research on non-agreeing children. Section 3 contains my argument that we should no more permit harmful research on non-agreeing children than on non-agreeing adults. In Section 4, I argue that my thesis does not presuppose that pediatric assent has the same moral force that adult consent does. In Section 5, I argue that the distinction between non-voluntary and involuntary research is irrelevant to my thesis. In Section 6, I rebut an objection based on the power of parental permission. In Section 7 I suggest how the Code of Federal Regulations might be changed. PMID:25257384

  17. Prevention and harm reduction for chemical dependency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo C DiClemente

    1999-01-01

    Clinical psychology is often on the periphery of treatment and prevention efforts to stop substance abuse and dependence. This article describes the current status of prevention research and practice, outlines a process perspective on the initiation and cessation of drug use and abuse, and offers some new ideas about how psychology can and should become involved in the prevention of

  18. PILL Series. Deliberate self-harm in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lauw, Michelle; How, Choon How; Loh, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm refers to an intentional act of causing physical injury to oneself without wanting to die. It is frequently encountered in adolescents who have mental health problems. Primary care physicians play an important role in the early detection and timely intervention of deliberate self-harm in adolescents. This article aims to outline the associated risk factors and possible aetiologies of deliberate self-harm in adolescents, as well as provide suggestions for clinical assessment and appropriate management within the primary care setting.

  19. Harmful UV radiation may increase after volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelmann, A. M.; Ackerman, T. P.

    The most biologically harmful of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface is UV-B, which spans wavelengths from 290 to 320 nm. In appreciable doses, UV-B harms plants and animals by damaging cellular DNA. The atmosphere's ozone layer absorbs this radiation and protects us from its more harmful effects. Recent theoretical and observational evidence shows that large volcanic eruptions, like that of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991, may cause shor-term ozone depletions, thereby enhancing the amount of UV-B that reaches the Earth's surface.

  20. Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Community in Crisis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity will allow students to apply their understanding of the role of algae in the food web, the general impacts of harmful algal blooms, and ways that our societies deal with blooms in a simulated situation. Students are presented with a scenario of a recent harmful algal bloom in the fictional town of Habport. They are assigned roles and are asked to prepare for and participate in a Habport town meeting called to discuss the bloom. As the students are allowed time to discuss what occurred during their town meeting, they will better understand the broader ecological, social, and economic impact of a harmful algal bloom.

  1. Newborn care practices in Pemba Island (Tanzania) and their implications for newborn health and survival.

    PubMed

    Thairu, Lucy; Pelto, Gretel

    2008-07-01

    Newborn mortality accounts for about one-third of deaths in children under five. Neglecting this problem may undermine the fourth Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. This study was conducted in Tanzania, where an estimated 32/1000 infants die within the first 28 days. Our objective was to describe newborn care practices and their potential impact on newborn health. We interviewed two purposive samples of mothers from Pemba Island, a predominantly Muslim community of Arab-African ethnicity, and one of Tanzania's poorest. The first sample of mothers (n = 12) provided descriptive data; the second (n = 26) reported actual practice. We identified cultural beliefs and practices that promote early initiation of breastfeeding and bonding, including 'post-partum seclusion'. We also identified practices which are potentially harmful for newborn health, such as bathing newborns immediately after delivery, a practice motivated by concerns about 'ritual pollution', which may lead to newborn hypothermia and premature breast milk supplementation (e.g. with water and other fluids) which may expose newborns to pathogens. Some traditional practices to treat illness, such as exposing sick newborns to medicinal smoke from burning herbs, are also of concern. It is unclear whether the practice of massaging newborns with coconut oil is harmful or beneficial. Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality need to identify and address the cultural rationales that underlie negative practices, as well as reinforce and protect the beliefs that support positive practices. The results suggest the need to improve use of health services through improving health worker communication skills and social management of patients, as well as by lowering healthcare costs. PMID:18582353

  2. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  3. 47 CFR 25.255 - Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary terrestrial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary...6/2.4 GHz bands. If harmful interference is caused to other services by...

  4. 47 CFR 25.255 - Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary terrestrial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary... Procedures for resolving harmful interference related to operation of ancillary...GHz and 2 GHz bands. If harmful interference is caused to other services by...

  5. 47 CFR 18.115 - Elimination and investigation of harmful interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. 18.115 Section 18.115...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. (a) The operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful interference to radio services shall...

  6. 47 CFR 18.115 - Elimination and investigation of harmful interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. 18.115 Section 18.115...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. (a) The operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful interference to radio services shall...

  7. 47 CFR 18.115 - Elimination and investigation of harmful interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. 18.115 Section 18.115...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. (a) The operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful interference to radio services shall...

  8. 47 CFR 18.115 - Elimination and investigation of harmful interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. 18.115 Section 18.115...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. (a) The operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful interference to radio services shall...

  9. 47 CFR 18.115 - Elimination and investigation of harmful interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. 18.115 Section 18.115...Elimination and investigation of harmful interference. (a) The operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful interference to radio services shall...

  10. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement. 194.103...194.103 Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement. (a) Each...expected to cause significant and substantial harm to the environment in the event of a...

  11. 17 CFR 1.67 - Notification of final disciplinary action involving financial harm to a customer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...disciplinary action involving financial harm to a customer. 1.67 Section 1...disciplinary action involving financial harm to a customer. (a) Definitions...or not, and that resulted in financial harm to the customer: (1)(i) the...

  12. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement. 194.103...194.103 Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement. (a) Each...expected to cause significant and substantial harm to the environment in the event of a...

  13. Ethnic Label Use in Adolescents from Traditional and NonTraditional Immigrant Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa KiangKrista; Krista M. Perreira; Andrew J. Fuligni

    2011-01-01

    Understanding adolescents’ use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance\\u000a of identity and self-definition in adolescents’ lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant\\u000a receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional immigrant receiving area of North Carolina (Asian n = 165, Latino n = 239). Logistic regressions showed that adolescents

  14. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent...may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on probation or...

  15. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent...may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on probation or...

  16. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent...may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on probation or...

  17. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent...may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on probation or...

  18. Harmful situations, impure people: an attribution asymmetry across moral domains.

    PubMed

    Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

    2015-03-01

    People make inferences about the actions of others, assessing whether an act is best explained by person-based versus situation-based accounts. Here we examine people's explanations for norm violations in different domains: harmful acts (e.g., assault) and impure acts (e.g., incest). Across four studies, we find evidence for an attribution asymmetry: people endorse more person-based attributions for impure versus harmful acts. This attribution asymmetry is partly explained by the abnormality of impure versus harmful acts, but not by differences in the moral wrongness or the statistical frequency of these acts. Finally, this asymmetry persists even when the situational factors that lead an agent to act impurely are stipulated. These results suggest that, relative to harmful acts, impure acts are linked to person-based attributions. PMID:25490126

  19. Single-Load Liquid Laundry Packets: Harmful to Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... unintentional poisonings and eye injuries related to single-load laundry packets: 1. Do NOT let children handle ... Poison Help at 1-800-222-1222. Single-Load Liquid Laundry Packets: Harmful to Children Do NOT ...

  20. 24 CFR 200.1540 - Imminent harm notice of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1540 Imminent...may issue an imminent harm notice of action to terminate a MAP lender, or to place a MAP lender on probation or...

  1. Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

  2. Statins Pose No Greater Harm to Memory, Study Suggests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 152965.html Statins Pose No Greater Harm to Memory, Study Suggests Review of more than a million ... who take statin drugs might experience short-term memory loss, a large new study finds they are ...

  3. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    E-print Network

    Bertrand, Erin Marie

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the ...

  4. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  5. Child Psychotherapy: Converging Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Neil

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I outline some of the ways in which I believe the psychoanalytic traditions in North America and in Great Britain are influencing each other. I identify points of convergence and divergence at this moment in the evolution of psychoanalytic theory and technique. I then point out some of the implications of relational perspectives in…

  6. Looking beyond Traditional Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Lynda; McKenna, Constance

    1978-01-01

    The article describes the evaluation of the home economics specialized adviser program in Illinois Extension regions, including specific recommendations for program revisions. The evaluation was based on the Provus Discrepancy Evaluation Model, which provides an alternative to traditional evaluation techniques by considering descriptions of…

  7. In Defense of Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekich, John

    A disturbing trend is developing in higher education which may jeopardize the quality and importance of the classical tradition in education. This trend is exemplified by demands that the liberal arts be made relevant and comprehensible to the student and that they be related in some way to the search for a good job. The great classical…

  8. Value of Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Marilynn B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Presents pro and con comments with regards to 1975 APA presidential address under the heading of the value of traditions. Other comments are subsumed under the headings of biological versus social evolution, and the genetic basis of behavior especially of altruism. (Author/AM)

  9. The Traditional Rebel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemansky, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the Linden, New Jersey, schools' introduction and use of electronic musical technology and contemporary instruments in the orchestral music program, which has broadened the musical repertoire and the recruitment of talented students not schooled in the classical tradition. Four applications of technology for rehearsals and instrumental…

  10. GHB use among Australians: characteristics, use patterns and associated harm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louisa Degenhardt; Shane Darke; Paul Dillon

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) users, their GHB and other drug use patterns, and the harms associated with GHB use. Seventy-six GHB users were recruited and administered a structured interview on GHB use and related harms. GHB users appeared to be a stable, highly educated and well-functioning group. They had had extensive

  11. Deliberate Self-Harm and State Dissociation: An Experimental Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Lee Bracken; Mitchell E. Berman; Michael S. McCloskey; Joshua S. Bullock

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the relation between deliberate self-harm (DSH) and state dissociation. Participants (N = 85) were randomly assigned to self-administer either a very mild electric shock below their pain threshold (a no-self-harm control condition) or an electric shock they were told could “cause minor tissue damage that would heal quickly,” but which was in

  12. Parental Detection of Youth's Self-Harm Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Olfson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The rate and predictors of parental detection of youth self-harm behavior and relationship with help-seeking were examined in 7,036 parent-child dyads from the 1999 and 2004 surveys of Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain. Youth self-harm behavior was reported by 463 (6.6%) children and adolescents but only 190 (2.7%) of the…

  13. Harm to Others: The Social Cost of Antibiotics in Agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonny Anomaly

    2009-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the use of antibiotics in conventionally raised livestock contributes to the emergence\\u000a of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this paper, \\u0009I argue that the harm principle of classical liberalism should guide agricultural\\u000a policy in general, and the regulation of antibiotics in livestock in particular. After developing an interpretation of the\\u000a harm principle, and framing the choice

  14. Students who self-harm: Coping style, Rumination and Alexithymia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Borrill; P. Fox; M. Flynn; D. Roger

    2009-01-01

    Counsellors working with students or other young adults may encounter individuals who have self-harmed, either with suicidal or non-suicidal intent. Recent US studies reported rates of self-injury of up to 37% of the student population, but studies in the UK have focussed primarily on younger adolescents. This study examined reported self-harm incidents (scratching, cutting, poisoning, overdose etc) from a sample

  15. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Nutrient sources, composition, and consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald M. Anderson; Patricia M. Glibert; Joann M. Burkholder

    2002-01-01

    Although algal blooms, including those considered toxic or harmful, can be natural phenomena, the nature of the global problem\\u000a of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has expanded both in extent and its public perception over the last several decades. Of concern,\\u000a especially for resource managers, is the potential relationship between HABs and the accelerated eutrophication of coastal\\u000a waters from human activities.

  16. Reducing harmful algae in raw water by light-shading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue-Chu Chen; Hai-Nan Kong; Sheng-Bing He; De-Yi Wu; Chun-Jie Li; Xiao-Chen Huang

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of harmful algal bloom in water source poses a serious water safety problem to local water supply systems. In order to ensure the raw water quality, the feasibility of an in situ light-shading measure was investigated through enclosure experiment and pilot-scale experiment. The results showed that harmful algal bloom could be controlled by light-shading lasting for 6–9 days,

  17. Harm reduction history, response, and current trends in Asia.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nicholas

    2013-12-01

    HIV epidemics in Asia have been initially driven through injecting drug use and the use of shared needles and syringes. Molecular epidemiological work has shown that where there is heroin trafficking and use, so too is there HIV. Given the often strict enforcement of national anti-narcotic laws, harm reduction responses to HIV infections driven by injecting drug use have been historically slow. As it became clear that preventing HIV meant embracing harm reduction, many countries in the region have adopted harm reduction as part of their national AIDS strategy and increasingly as part of their national drug strategy. Initial successes have proven that harm reduction, as it pertains to HIV among IDUs, can and does work in Asia. These initial successes have led to more comprehensive scale-up of other essential components of HIV prevention among IDUs, including increased availability of opiate substitution programs. Still, multiple challenges remain as overall coverage of services in the region remains poor. Changes in the availability and patterns of use of drugs, including the exponential increase in the use of amphetamine-type stimulants, is providing ongoing challenges to both the law enforcement and public health sectors. This paper reflects on the history of harm reduction in Asia and the shifting trends forcing policy makers to adapt and expand harm reduction strategies to include an ever widening approach to criminal justice, policing, public health, and human rights. PMID:25264414

  18. Efficacy of Quality Criteria to Identify Potentially Harmful Information: A Cross-sectional Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web Sites

    PubMed Central

    Walji, Muhammad; Sagaram, Smitha; Sagaram, Deepak; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson, Craig; Mirza, Nadeem Q

    2004-01-01

    Background Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated. PMID:15249270

  19. Victims' Perceptions of Traditional and Cyberbullying, and the Psychosocial Correlates of Their Victimisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally

    2012-01-01

    It is well recognised that there are serious correlates for victims of traditional bullying. These have been shown to include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms, in addition to often severe physical harm and even suicide. Bullied students also feel more socially ineffective and have greater interpersonal…

  20. Gwich'in harvest techniques of the Porcupine Caribou herd using traditional knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vesna Madjaric

    2002-01-01

    The most remote areas of the Arctic have long been recognized as unparalleled places of natural beauty and ecological importance. They are among the last repositories of traditional knowledge. Human disturbances could do tremendous harm to this delicately balanced ecosystem. This valuable ecosystem is home to the Gwich in who have and continue to live in balance with this ecosystem.

  1. Victims’ perceptions of traditional and cyberbullying, and the psychosocial correlates of their victimisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn Campbell; Barbara Spears; Phillip Slee; Des Butler; Sally Kift

    2012-01-01

    It is well recognised that there are serious correlates for victims of traditional bullying. These have been shown to include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms, in addition to often severe physical harm and even suicide. Bullied students also feel more socially ineffective and have greater interpersonal difficulties, together with higher absenteeism from school and lower academic competence.

  2. Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article…

  3. Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Freudenberg

    2005-01-01

    Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article describes how corporate policies influence health and reviews recent health

  4. Harm reduction - a historical view from the left.

    PubMed

    Friedman, S R.; Southwell, M; Bueno, R; Paone, D; Byrne, J; Crofts, N

    2001-04-01

    The harm reduction movement formed during a period in which social movements of the working class and the excluded were weak, neo-liberalism ideologically triumphant, and potential opposition movements were viewed as offering "tinkering" with the system rather than a total social alternative. This climate shaped and limited the perspectives, strategies, and tactics of harm reductionists almost everywhere. In many countries, this period was also marked by a "political economy of scapegoating" that often targeted drug users as the cause of social woes. This scapegoating took the form of "divide and rule" political initiatives by business and political leaderships to prevent social unrest in a long period of worldwide economic trends toward lowered profit rates and toward increasing income inequality. However, times have changed. Mass strikes and other labor struggles, opposition to the World Trade Organisation and other agencies of neo-liberalism, community-based protests against belt-tightening, and other forms of social unrest have been increasing in many countries. This opens up the possibility of new allies for the harm reduction movement, but also poses difficult problems for which we need to develop answers. On-the-ground experience in alliance formation needs to be combined with careful discussion of and research about what approaches work to convince other movements to work for and with harm reduction, and which approaches do not. Class differences within the harm reduction movement are likely to become more salient in terms of (a) creating internal tensions, (b) increasingly, opening up new ways in which working class harm reductionists can organize within their own communities and workplaces, and (c) producing different strategic orientations that will need to be discussed and debated. As a movement, we will need to find ways to accommodate and discuss differing perspectives, needs, and assessments of opportunities and threats without paralyzing harm reduction activities. PMID:11275494

  5. Hybrid re Assembage : bridging traditional craft and digital design

    E-print Network

    Zoran, Amit (Amit Shlomo)

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid reAssemblage is a design gestalt that lies at the cross-section of digital design practice and the tactile qualities of traditional craft. It spans a territory in which the value of artifacts is produced through ...

  6. Seismic Strengthening of Carpentry Joints in Traditional Timber Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria A. Parisi; Cinzia Cordié; Maurizio Piazza

    2008-01-01

    The static and dynamic behavior of timber structures largely depends on their connections. In traditional timber construction, elements are usually connected with carpentry joints based on contact pressure and friction, often with only minor reinforcement generically intended to avoid disassembling. In current practice, interventions for the upgrading of carpentry joints are mainly based on empirical knowledge according to tradition. Often

  7. Preserving Traditional Arts: A Toolkit for Native American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyal, Susan

    The surest way to preserve a traditional art form is to continue its practice. However, it is also possible for Indian and other Native American people to use modern documentation tools to safeguard the survival of their cultural traditions for the future. This book presents a selection of professional documentation techniques that are especially…

  8. Challenges in reducing cannabis-related harm in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne D

    2009-03-01

    This paper outlines the major policy challenges in reducing cannabis-related harm in Australia. The first is uncertainty about the health effects of cannabis, especially in young people. The second is uncertainty about the extent and severity of harms attributed to cannabis prohibition by its critics. The paper summarises and briefly states the extent of these putative harms to the degree that the data allow. The third challenge is a consequence of the first two, and the very different weightings that proponents of more liberal or restrictive policies give to harms arising from cannabis use and those arising from prohibition, namely, strong disagreements within the community about how we should respond to cannabis use by young people. In the face of such disagreement the formulation of cannabis policy necessitates a political compromise. The compromise that has emerged is a continued prohibition of cannabis production, sale and use, combined with either civil penalties for use in some states and reduced penalties or diversion in others. It concludes with suggestions about what needs to be learned about the health effects of cannabis use and the costs and benefits of cannabis prohibition if we are to develop policies that are more effective in reducing harms caused by cannabis use. PMID:19320694

  9. PREP advertisement features affect smokers’ beliefs regarding potential harm

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Tuller, Michael D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. Objective To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers’ beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. Methods A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a “red” condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a “no text” condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using “incorrect,” “unsure” and “correct” as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Results Participants randomised to the “no text” advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, healthier and make smoking safer. Conclusions Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising. PMID:18768457

  10. Vaginal Douching Among Latinas: Practices and Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, María; Anderson, Matthew R.; Alvarez, Adelyn; Karasz, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Vaginal douching is widely practiced by American women, particularly among minority groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. This research sought to investigate vaginal hygiene practices and meaning associated with them among Latina women and adolescents. Study results would guide development of an intervention to decrease douching among Latinas. Methods In depth qualitative interviews conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking women aged 16–40, seeking care for any reason who reported douching within the last year (n = 34). Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. One-third of interviews were conducted in Spanish. Results Two explanatory models for douching motives emerged: one stressed cosmetic benefits; the other, infection prevention and control. Most women reported douching to eliminate menstrual residue; a small number reported douching in context of sexual intercourse or vaginal symptoms. Many were unaware of associated health risks. Respondents typically learned about douching from female family members and friends. Male partners were described as having little to no involvement in the decision to douche. Women varied in their willingness to stop douching. Two-thirds reported receiving harm reduction messages about “overdouching”. About half indicated previous discussion about douching with health care providers; some had reduced frequency in response to counseling. A number of previously unreported vaginal hygiene practices and products were described, including use of a range of traditional hygiene practices, and products imported from outside the US. Conclusions Respondents expressed a range of commitment to douching. Counseling messages acknowledging benefits women perceive as well as health risks should be developed and delivered tailored to individual beliefs. Further research is needed to assess prevalence and safety of previously unreported practices. PMID:18297379

  11. Sugar beet traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With rapidly changing agricultural practices, target environments, and biotic and abiotic stresses, plant breeders face the task of continually selecting plants with desirable traits with the goal to assemble advantageous combinations of genes in new varieties. Sugar beet has been selectively bred s...

  12. Prospects for a nicotine-reduction strategy in the cigarette endgame: Alternative tobacco harm reduction scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2015-06-01

    Some major national and international tobacco control organisations favour mandating a reduction in nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addictive levels as a tobacco control tool. Reducing nicotine content, it is argued, will make tobacco smoking less attractive. The 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration's regulation of cigarettes appears to have the power to reduce nicotine to non-addictive levels provided it is not taken to zero. A consideration of the U.S. context, however, raises doubts about (a) whether this will ever be practicable and (b), if practicable, how long it will take to implement. Current versions of the nicotine-reducing strategy propose the systematic, incentivised use of less harmful nicotine/tobacco products as elements of the mandatory cigarette nicotine-reduction strategy. Time will tell if and when mandatory nicotine reduction in tobacco cigarettes will occur and what impact it might have on smoking prevalence. The question posed here is "Why wait?" Resources used in implementing reduction in nicotine content have an opportunity cost. In the meantime, nicotine-maintaining harm reduction strategies can have nearer term effects on tobacco use as an individual and a public health issue. PMID:25795345

  13. How do drug users define their progress in harm reduction programs? Qualitative research to develop user-generated outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ruefli, Terry; Rogers, Susan J

    2004-01-01

    Background Harm reduction is a relatively new and controversial model for treating drug users, with little formal research on its operation and effectiveness. In order to advance the study of harm reduction programs and our understanding of how drug users define their progress, qualitative research was conducted to develop outcomes of harm reduction programming that are culturally relevant, incremental, (i.e., capable of measuring change), and hierarchical (i.e., capable of showing how clients improve over time). Methods The study used nominal group technique (NGT) to develop the outcomes (phase 1) and focus group interviews to help validate the findings (phase 2). Study participants were recruited from a large harm-reduction program in New York City and involved approximately 120 clients in 10 groups in phase 1 and 120 clients in 10 focus groups in phase 2. Results Outcomes of 10 life areas important to drug users were developed that included between 10 to 15 incremental measures per outcome. The outcomes included ways of 1) making money; 2) getting something good to eat; 3) being housed/homeless; 4) relating to families; 5) getting needed programs/benefits/services; 6) handling health problems; 7) handling negative emotions; 8) handling legal problems; 9) improving oneself; and 10) handling drug-use problems. Findings also provided insights into drug users' lives and values, as well as a window into understanding how this population envisions a better quality of life. Results challenged traditional ways of measuring drug users based solely on quantity used and frequency of use. They suggest that more appropriate measures are based on the extent to which drug users organize their lives around drug use and how much drug use is integrated into their lives and negatively impacts other aspects of their lives. Conclusions Harm reduction and other programs serving active drug users and other marginalized people should not rely on institutionalized, provider-defined solutions to problems in living faced by their clients. PMID:15333130

  14. Between harm reduction, loss and wellness: on the occupational hazards of work

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Those working in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services must cope with a range of stresses, including post traumatic stress and vicarious trauma. Pain and loss are just a part of the job. So is dealing with premature death as a result of HIV, hypertension, and even overdose. Faced with a range of challenges, some workers in the field even turn to self-medication. For some, it is about pleasure; for others it is about alleviating suffering. In recent years, several leaders in the AIDS and harm reduction fields have died ahead of their time. Some stopped taking their medications; others overdosed. Rather than weakness or pathology, French sociologist Emile Durkheim saw self-destructive behavior as a byproduct of social disorganization and isolation, as a way of contending with a breakdown of social bonds and alienation. There are any number of reasons why such behavior becomes part of work for those involved with battling the dueling epidemics of Hepatitis C, HIV, and related concerns. Forms of stress related to this work include secondary trauma, compassion fatigue, organizational conflict, burnout, complications of direct services, and lack of funding. Faced with day-to- day struggles over poverty, punitive welfare systems, drug use, the war on drugs, high risk behavior, structural violence, and illness, many in the field are left to wonder how to strive for wellness when taking on so much pain. For some, self-injury and self-medication are ways of responding. Building on ethnographic methods, this reflective analysis considers the stories of those who have suffered, as well as a few of the ways those in the field cope with harm and pain. The work considers the moral questions we face when we see our friends and colleagues suffer. It asks how we as practitioners strive to create a culture of wellness and support in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services. Through a brief review of losses and literature thereof, the essay considers models of harm reduction practice that emphasize health, pleasure and sustainability for practitioners. PMID:23548032

  15. Between harm reduction, loss and wellness: on the occupational hazards of work.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Benjamin C

    2013-01-01

    Those working in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services must cope with a range of stresses, including post traumatic stress and vicarious trauma. Pain and loss are just a part of the job. So is dealing with premature death as a result of HIV, hypertension, and even overdose. Faced with a range of challenges, some workers in the field even turn to self-medication. For some, it is about pleasure; for others it is about alleviating suffering. In recent years, several leaders in the AIDS and harm reduction fields have died ahead of their time. Some stopped taking their medications; others overdosed. Rather than weakness or pathology, French sociologist Emile Durkheim saw self-destructive behavior as a byproduct of social disorganization and isolation, as a way of contending with a breakdown of social bonds and alienation. There are any number of reasons why such behavior becomes part of work for those involved with battling the dueling epidemics of Hepatitis C, HIV, and related concerns. Forms of stress related to this work include secondary trauma, compassion fatigue, organizational conflict, burnout, complications of direct services, and lack of funding. Faced with day-to- day struggles over poverty, punitive welfare systems, drug use, the war on drugs, high risk behavior, structural violence, and illness, many in the field are left to wonder how to strive for wellness when taking on so much pain. For some, self-injury and self-medication are ways of responding. Building on ethnographic methods, this reflective analysis considers the stories of those who have suffered, as well as a few of the ways those in the field cope with harm and pain. The work considers the moral questions we face when we see our friends and colleagues suffer. It asks how we as practitioners strive to create a culture of wellness and support in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services. Through a brief review of losses and literature thereof, the essay considers models of harm reduction practice that emphasize health, pleasure and sustainability for practitioners. PMID:23548032

  16. Harmful gas recognition exploiting a CTL sensor array.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qihui; Xie, Lijun; Zhu, Bo; Zheng, Yao; Cao, Shihua

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel cataluminescence (CTL)-based sensor array consisting of nine types of catalytic materials is developed for the recognition of several harmful gases, namely carbon monoxide, acetone, chloroform and toluene. First, the experimental setup is constructed by using sensing nanomaterials, a heating plate, a pneumatic pump, a gas flow meter, a digital temperature device, a camera and a BPCL Ultra Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer. Then, unique CTL patterns for the four types of harmful gas are obtained from the sensor array. The harmful gases are successful recognized by the PCA method. The optimal conditions are also investigated. Finally, experimental results show high sensitivity, long-term stability and good linearity of the sensor array, which combined with simplicity, make our system a promising application in this field. PMID:24113681

  17. Development and validation of the self-harm reasons questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen P; Santor, Darcy A

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the reasons for self-harm (SH) may be paramount for the identification and treatment of SH behavior. Presently, the psychometric properties for SH reason questionnaires are generally unknown or tested only in non-inpatient samples. Existing inpatient measures may have limited generalizability and do not examine SH apart from an explicit intent to die. The present study examined a newly developed, self-report measure of reason for self-harm. The Self-Harm Reasons Questionnaire (SHRQ) was administered to 143 undergraduate students. Results indicated that SH reasons covaried in meaningful and internally consistent ways, with subgroups of SH reasons correlating with hypothesized concomitants of SH, such as depressive symptoms. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention and the SHRQ offers a new, albeit preliminary, means by which to examine SH reasons in a non-inpatient sample. PMID:18355112

  18. Childhood Abuse and Harmful Substance Use among Criminal Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Swogger, Marc T.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with substance use consequences, even after taking into account substance type and frequency of use. No gender by childhood abuse interactions were found. Symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety partially mediated relationships between childhood abuse and substance use consequences. Findings underscore the importance of assessing childhood abuse and treating anxiety and depression among offenders who exhibit harmful substance use. PMID:21872997

  19. Health in China. Traditional Chinese medicine: one country, two systems.

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, T.; Zhu, W. X.

    1997-01-01

    China is the only country in the world where Western medicine and traditional medicine are practised alongside each other at every level of the healthcare system. Traditional Chinese medicine has a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of disease, which has developed over thousands of years. Traditional treatments include herbal remedies, acupuncture, acupressure and massage, and moxibustion. They account for around 40% of all health care delivered in China. The current government policy of expansion of traditional facilities and manpower is being questioned because many hospitals using traditional Chinese medicine are already underutilized and depend on government subsidies for survival. Research priorities include randomised controlled trials of common treatments and analysis of the active agents in herbal remedies. As more studies show the clinical effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, an integrated approach to disease using a combination of Western medicine and traditional approaches becomes a possibility for the future. PMID:9240055

  20. Embodied harms: gender, shame, and technology-facilitated sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Criminality in cyberspace has been the subject of much debate since the 1990s, yet comparatively little attention has been paid to technology-facilitated sexual violence and harassment (TFSV). The aim of this article is to explore the ways in which retraditionalized gender hierarchies and inequalities are manifested in online contexts, and to conceptualize the cause and effects of TFSV as "embodied harms." We argue that problematic mind/body and online/off-line dualisms result in a failure to grasp the unique nature of embodied harms, precluding an adequate understanding and theorization of TFSV. PMID:25827609

  1. Accuracy of harm scores entered into an event reporting system.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Toni; Adornetto-Garcia, Debra; Johnston, Patricia A; Segovia, Julie H; Summers, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This quality improvement project evaluated the accuracy of harm scores entered into an event reporting system by inpatient nursing staff at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. Nurses scored 10 safety scenarios using 2 versions of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality scale to determine interrater reliability. Results indicated inconsistency in the way nurses scored the scenarios, suggesting that the event reporting system may not accurately portray the severity of harm in patient safety events. Nurse executives can use this information to guide the development and implementation of incident reporting systems. PMID:25803804

  2. Mexico-U.S. Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2008-06-01

    Workshop on Taxonomy of Harmful Algal Blooms; Veracruz, Mexico, 18-22 February 2008; A workshop on harmful algal bloom (HAB) taxonomy, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Health of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, was held at the Aquarium of Veracruz and focused on standardizing methods to detect HABs that affect coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico. This binational effort was established under the umbrella of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA), initially formed in 2004 by the five U.S. Gulf states (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) with participation from U.S. federal agencies and other stakeholders.

  3. Primary School Children and Self Harm: The Emotional Impact upon Education Professionals, and Their Understandings of Why Children Self Harm and How This Is Managed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simm, Rebecca; Roen, Katrina; Daiches, Anna

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting that self harm among young people is beginning earlier, in childhood and adolescent years. This paper reports on a qualitative study of primary school staff responses to self harm among children. Some studies with adolescents show self harm presents challenges to education professionals who may lack training or…

  4. Mayo Clinic: Tradition and Heritage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    Heeding the words of their father, one Dr. W.W. Mayo, â??No one is big enough to be independent of othersâ?ť, Dr. William J. Mayo and Dr. Charles H. Mayo helped create one of the worldâ??s first private integrated group practices of medicine. Now known as the Mayo Clinic, the story of their work is closely intertwined with the story of American medical history. As an attempt to bring this story to the web-browsing public, staff members at the Clinic recently created this historical timeline that offers some perspective on their institutional history. With their mouse in hand, visitors can move across the interactive timeline, which deploys high-quality photographs and short descriptions in its quest to document the Clinicâ??s various achievements, such as the creation of the first heart bypass machine in 1955. Finally, online visitors can get up close and personal to some of the artifacts that are close to the Mayo Clinic traditions, including a 1904 photograph of some of the medical staff at the Clinic.

  5. Sexual Orientation and Self-Harm in Men and Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keren Skegg; Shyamala Nada-Raja; Sheila Williams

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies of homosexual people have found higher rates of nonfa- tal suicidal behavior than among hetero- sexuals. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between self- harm and sexual orientation for men and women separately, defining sexual orien- tation by sexual attraction rather than by behavior. Method: In a birth cohort of 1,019 New Zealand young

  6. Till Svenska matematikersamfundet. Harmed insander jag till Medlemsutskicket nedanstaende inlagg.

    E-print Network

    Till Svenska matematikersamfundet. H¨armed ins¨ander jag till Medlemsutskicket nedanst°aende inl¨agg. G¨oteborg den 26 maj 2004, Claes Johnson Johnson granskar H¨aggstr¨om/Svenska matematikersamfundet I maj-numret av Svenska matematikersamfundets tidning Medlemsutskicket kan man l¨asa artikeln "Ett

  7. Prediction of Harmful Human Health Effects of Chemicals from Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark T. D. Cronin

    2010-01-01

    There is a great need to assess the harmful effects of chemicals to which man is exposed. Various in silico techniques including chemical grouping and category formation, as well as the use of (Q)SARs can be applied to predict the toxicity of chemicals for a number of toxicological effects. This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art

  8. Doing Harm While Doing Good: The Child Protection Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Frank; Hansen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Every Australian citizen expects state and territory governments to protect children from child abuse and neglect. Protecting children from harm is seen as good. This however is not a simple matter. The ultimate act in protecting children is to remove them from parental care. This causes trauma for the child and pain and distress for parents no…

  9. Screening of surfactants for harmful algal blooms mitigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Xia Sun; Kyung-Nam Han; Joong-Ki Choi; Eun-Ki Kim

    2004-01-01

    Screening experiments were conducted in order to find promising synthetic surfactants for harmful algal blooms (HABs) mitigation. The chemically synthesized surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) showed characteristics of relatively high inhibition efficiency, high biodegradability and low cost. The motility inhibition ratios of 10 mg\\/L CAPB on Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Alexandrium tamarense were about 60% after 5 min. The biodegradation test indicated

  10. The Ethics of Observing: Confronting the Harm of Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisel, Joshua S.

    2008-01-01

    In this article I explore the ethical terrain of experiential learning activities drawing on my experiences leading college students on field trips into criminal justice settings. Though there are numerous educational benefits to adopting experiential learning activities, the rewards must be evaluated in light of the potential harms to nonstudent…

  11. Ecstasy use in Australia: patterns of use and associated harm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Libby Topp; Julie Hando; Paul Dillon; Ann Roche; Nadia Solowij

    1999-01-01

    This study explored patterns of ecstasy use and associated harm through the administration of a structured interview schedule to 329 ecstasy users, recruited from three Australian cities. A broad range of ecstasy users were interviewed, but on the whole, the sample was young, relatively well educated and most were employed or students. Patterns of use were varied, although extensive polydrug

  12. Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Louise; Canter, David; Salfati, C. Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the variations in characteristics that exist among youths who sexually harm (YSH). Three conceptually distinct sets of background characteristics are hypothesized from the literature relating to whether the YSH was abused, delinquent or impaired. Forty-one characteristics were drawn from an extensive and detailed review of…

  13. Building Face Composites Can Harm Lineup Identification Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gary L.; Charman, Steve D.; Olson, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    Face composite programs permit eyewitnesses to build likenesses of target faces by selecting facial features and combining them into an intact face. Research has shown that these composites are generally poor likenesses of the target face. Two experiments tested the proposition that this composite-building process could harm the builder's memory…

  14. Controlling Harmful Algal Blooms Through Clay Flocculation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIO R. SENGCO; DONALD M. ANDERSON

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The potential use of clays to control harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been explored in East Asia, Australia, the United States, and Sweden. In Japan and South Korea, minerals such as montmorillonite, kaolinite, and yellow loess, have already been used in the field effectively, to protect fish mariculture fromCochlodiniumspp. and other blooms. Cell removal occurs through the flocculation of

  15. What is causing the harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmful and nuisance algal blooms have been increasing in size and extent since about 2000. In recent years, the release of the algal toxin microcystin has become a growing concern and has resulted in the inability to use water from Lake Erie as a drinking water source to the 400,000 residents of T...

  16. Mental Health Status Among the Staff of Harm Reduction Centers

    PubMed Central

    Rezazade, Majid; Lashani, Zeynab; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Creating a supportive environment encourages charity services to help risk groups and individuals which has magnificent impacts on reducing their harm. Objectives: According to this plan, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health status in the staff of harm reduction centers. Materials and Methods: The clustered sample of this comparative study consisted of 49 staff of harm reduction centers. The study was supported by the United Nations Development Program in Tehran, Iran. The participants completed GHQ-28 and DASS-21 questionnaires along with sociologic forms and the results were evaluated by descriptive statistics indexes and independent sample t-test. Results: One-hundred percent of the participants in this study showed the symptoms of psychological disorders, and approximately 16 percent suffered from moderate to high degree of anxiety, depression and stress. The level of anxiety (P ? 0.04) and stress (P ? 0.01) in the younger staff (less than 40 years) was significantly higher than older staff (more than 40 years old). In addition, somatic symptoms (P ? 0.05) and social withdrawal (P ? 0.01) were significantly higher in women than men. Conclusions: Accordingly, major mental disorders in the staff of harm reduction centers, especially women and younger people need to be considered more than before. PMID:24971296

  17. A CASE WHERE BALANCING IS HARMFUL DAVID S. WATKINS

    E-print Network

    A CASE WHERE BALANCING IS HARMFUL DAVID S. WATKINS Abstract. Balancing is a common preprocessing step for the unsymmetric eigenvalue problem. If a matrix is badly out of scale, balancing can markedly improve the accuracy of the computed eigenvalues. This paper discusses a situation where balancing has

  18. Does Income Inequality Harm Health? New Cross-National Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckfield, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The provocative hypothesis that income inequality harms population health has sparked a large body of research, some of which has reported strong associations between income inequality and population health. Cross-national evidence is frequently cited in support of this important hypothesis, but the hypothesis remains controversial, and the…

  19. Toxic and harmful algae in the coastal waters of Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Vershinin; T. Yu. Orlova

    2008-01-01

    Toxic algal species of marine and brackish-water plankton, as well as nontoxic microalgae, which are capable of initiating harmful blooms, cause a detriment to human health (seafood poisoning) and often lead to a total crisis of coastal water ecosystems. The Russian coastal waters are inhabited by dozens of toxic and bloom-causing algal species, their toxins are accumulated in the tissues

  20. Research on the life cycles of harmful algae: A commentary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen A. Steidinger

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of the life cycles of harmful algae has advanced substantially in the last decade, in part through increased support of major research programs such as the SEED and the ECOHAB – Gulf of Maine projects. As with most research, the new knowledge answers some questions but raises more that require further inquiry, particularly since life-cycle strategies appear to

  1. Spatial Interaction Filters for Monitoring Harmful Algae Blooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Cai; Sai Ho Chung; Richard Stumpf; Timothy Wynne; Michelle Tomlinson

    In this paper, the authors use Spatial Interaction Filters (SIF) to simulate human experts' visual process in tracking spatial interactive objects. The algorithm includes spatial density based pixel clustering and object interaction descriptions, such as Contact Area Index (CAI) and correlation filter. The algorithm is designed to automatically track the Harmful Algae Bloom (HAB) targets. In the case studies, SIF

  2. Approaches to model the life cycle of harmful algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga Hense

    2010-01-01

    Models of harmful algal blooms (HABs) need to include autecological characteristics of the HAB species because the bloom dynamics can only be successfully described if relevant life cycle aspects (in particular en- and excystment) are included in some way. This study presents an overview on how the life cycle is considered in current Lagrangian and Eulerian models. Examples of the

  3. Strength-Based Efforts for Promoting Recovery from Psychological Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Civita, Mirella

    2006-01-01

    Much resilience research highlights protective factors that prevent risk. Here the author focuses on resilience as the ability to recover from psychological harm. The strength-based view sees resilience as a transformational experience. One applicant of this approach is the Phoenix Intervention Program for Children (PIPC) which combines concepts…

  4. Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28?days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83%) prescriptions and 93 (87%) medicines. 47 (38%) of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97%) received at least one medicine (median number 2) with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99%) and 297 (85%) of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable. PMID:22931304

  5. Enhanced measurement sensitivity of hopeless ideation among older adults at risk of self-harm: Reliability and validity of Likert-type responses to the Beck Hopelessness Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Neufeld; Norm O’Rourke; Martha Donnelly

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Responses to the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) have been identified as a significant predictor of suicide-related ideation and self-harm, of note, to a greater degree than severity of depressive symptoms. The BHS is the most widely used instrument to assess this construct, yet concern has been expressed about the traditional true\\/false response format of this instrument. For this study,

  6. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners’ (GPs’) advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service’s National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are reviewed, including their political acceptability. It is tentatively concluded that widespread dissemination of SBI, without the implementation of alcohol control measures, might have indirect influences on levels of consumption and harm but would be unlikely on its own to result in public health benefits. However, if and when alcohol control measures were introduced, SBI would still have an important role in the battle against alcohol-related harm. PMID:23186309

  7. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed

    Heather, Nick

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners' (GPs') advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service's National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are reviewed, including their political acceptability. It is tentatively concluded that widespread dissemination of SBI, without the implementation of alcohol control measures, might have indirect influences on levels of consumption and harm but would be unlikely on its own to result in public health benefits. However, if and when alcohol control measures were introduced, SBI would still have an important role in the battle against alcohol-related harm. PMID:23186309

  8. Investigating the "self" in deliberate self-harm.

    PubMed

    Adams, Joanna; Rodham, Karen; Gavin, Jeff

    2005-12-01

    In this study, the authors explored how a group of young people aged 16 to 26 years (who identified themselves as having engaged in deliberate self-harm) made sense of the self by conducting two online focus groups and four e-mail interviews. They analyzed data using interpretive phenomenological analysis. The concept of validation was the primary means of making sense of the self and concerned the desire to be considered legitimate and of worth. This desire was clearly evident across three realms of conflict: (a) the intrinsic or extrinsic self, which marked the distinction between objective fact and subjective opinion; (b) the accepted or denied self; and (c) the notion of normality. It is possible that having one's denied self validated online might lead to an exacerbation of an individual's self-harming behavior. Further work is needed to explore the effects of online discussion forums on such taboo forms of behavior. PMID:16263913

  9. Preventing ultimate harm as the justification for biomoral modification.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2015-06-01

    Most advocates of biogenetic modification hope to amplify existing human traits in humans in order to increase the value of such traits as intelligence and resistance to disease. These advocates defend such enhancements as beneficial for the affected parties. By contrast, some commentators recommend certain biogenetic modifications to serve social goals. As Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu see things, human moral psychology is deficient relative to the most important risks facing humanity as a whole, including the prospect of Ultimate Harm, the point at which worthwhile life is forever impossible on the planet. These risks can be mitigated, they say, by enhancing moral psychology in novel ways. Persson and Savulescu argue that some parents should modify the underlying biogenetics of their children's moral psychology, if such measures were safe and effective, but they admit these interventions may not decouple humanity from Ultimate Harm. Neither are these modifications the only options, they concede, for addressing risks to humanity. Even with these concessions, saving humanity from itself is a fairly poor reason to modify the moral psychology of children. In most ways, adults would be better candidates, morally speaking, for modifications of psychology. Even then, there is no direct link between morally enhanced human beings and the hoped-for effect of better protection from Ultimate Harm. Asserting a general duty of all to contribute to the avoidance of Ultimate Harm is a better moral strategy than intervening in the moral psychology of some, even though meeting that duty may involve substantial interference with the free exercise of one's interests. PMID:25186171

  10. Prediction of Harmful Human Health Effects of Chemicals from Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark T. D. Cronin

    \\u000a There is a great need to assess the harmful effects of chemicals to which man is exposed. Various in silico techniques including\\u000a chemical grouping and category formation, as well as the use of (Q)SARs can be applied to predict the toxicity of chemicals\\u000a for a number of toxicological effects. This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art

  11. Deliberate self-harm and suicide: a review from Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Shahid; Adnan A. Hyder

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is now considered a major public health problem, especially in low income countries. A systematic review was conducted to identify risk factors and causes of deliberate self-harm and suicide in Pakistan – a Muslim, South Asian nation. In addition, the role of emergency department-based surveillance is explored. Four electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL Plus, MDConsult, PakMediNet) were searched and 23

  12. Essays on competitive structure and product-harm crises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Cleeren

    This thesis is a collection of three empirical essays focusing on two important research topics, i.e. (i) competitive structure and (ii) product-harm crises. Competitive structure In the first two empirical essays, we study store competition in two local-service sectors, i.e. the video-rental and the grocery industry. In the considered sectors, collecting data on different marketing and\\/or performance variables for all

  13. Toxic and harmful algae in the coastal waters of Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Vershinin; T. Yu. Orlova

    2008-01-01

    Toxic algal species of marine and brackish-water plankton, as well as nontoxic microalgae, which are capable of initiating\\u000a harmful blooms, cause a detriment to human health (seafood poisoning) and often lead to a total crisis of coastal water ecosystems.\\u000a The Russian coastal waters are inhabited by dozens of toxic and bloom-causing algal species, their toxins are accumulated\\u000a in the tissues

  14. Payment Source and Emergency Management of Deliberate Self-Harm

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Steven C.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Olfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether health insurance type (private vs Medicaid) influences the delivery of acute mental health care to patients with deliberate self-harm. Methods. Using National Medicaid Analytic Extract Files (2006) and MarketScan Research Databases (2005–2007), we analyzed claims focusing on emergency episodes of deliberate self-harm of Medicaid- (n?=?8228) and privately (n?=?2352) insured adults. We analyzed emergency department mental health assessments and outpatient mental health visits in the 30 days following the emergency visit for discharged patients. Results. Medicaid-insured patients were more likely to be discharged (62.7%), and among discharged patients they were less likely to receive a mental health assessment in the emergency department (47.8%) and more likely to receive follow-up outpatient mental health care (52.9%) than were privately insured patients (46.9%, 57.3%, and 41.2%, respectively). Conclusions. Acute emergency management of deliberate self-harm is less intensive for Medicaid- than for privately insured patients, although discharged Medicaid-insured patients are more likely to receive follow-up care. Programmatic reforms are needed to improve access to emergency mental health services, especially in hospitals that serve substantial numbers of Medicaid-insured patients. PMID:22515853

  15. Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment harms developing chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Maren C; Milz, Stefan; Frank, Hans-Georg; Korbel, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment (rESWT) has became one of the best investigated treatment modalities for cellulite, including the abdomen as a treatment site. Notably, pregnancy is considered a contraindication for rESWT, and concerns have been raised about possible harm to the embryo when a woman treated with rESWT for cellulite is not aware of her pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that rESWT may cause serious physical harm to embryos. To this end, chicken embryos were exposed in ovo to various doses of radial shock waves on either day 3 or day 4 of development, resembling the developmental stage of four- to six-week-old human embryos. We found a dose-dependent increase in the number of embryos that died after radial shock wave exposure on either day 3 or day 4 of development. Among the embryos that survived the shock wave exposure a few showed severe congenital defects such as missing eyes. Evidently, our data cannot directly be used to draw conclusions about potential harm to the embryo of a pregnant woman treated for cellulite with rESWT. However, to avoid any risks we strongly recommend applying radial shock waves in the treatment of cellulite only if a pregnancy is ruled out. PMID:25655309

  16. Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms (MERHAB)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This NOAA Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR) web page features the Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms (MERHAB) Program. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are occurring with increasing frequency and duration along our shores. Nearly every coastal region is struggling to mitigate the often devastating impacts to local economies and serious human health threats associated with a variety of harmful algae. MERHAB projects have been developed to enhance existing water and shellfish monitoring programs with new technology allowing for pro-active detection of coastal HAB events. The ultimate aim of MERHAB is to help build sustainable regional partnerships that provide managers with crucial information in time for critical decisions needed to mitigate HAB impacts. The MERHAB research program is addressing the growing national HAB threat by expanding the number of coastal regions benefiting from advancements in algal identification, detection, modeling, and prediction. This page discusses the issue of HABs, research addressing the issue, and related accomplishments. A link is provided to a list of MERHAB research abstracts.

  17. [Research methods on alcohol-related harm in the population].

    PubMed

    Indave, B Iciar; Sordo, Luis; Pulido, José; Vallejo, Fernando; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Bravo, María J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the available methods to quantify the main health and social harms related to alcohol consumption in the population and to provide recommendations to improve research on these issues. Methods using individual and aggregate level data for the study of the relationship between alcohol consumption and related harms are taken into account, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Methodological aspects to quantify the magnitude and trends of alcohol-related and alcohol-attributable mortality, including alcohol dependence, acute intoxication, injury, violent behavior, disease burden and social costs are widely considered. There are often discrepancies between the study results mainly due to the difficulty of adequately measuring alcohol consumption and its relationship to health conditions. In the future we must strengthen research on the effect of drinking patterns and context in chronic diseases using appropriate controls, clarify the relationship of alcohol use disorders and other mental disorders , improve the measurement of alcohol intoxication when acute problems occurs, periodically quantify the disease burden and social costs attributable to alcohol (using country- specific attributable fractions) and develop valid and comparable methods and indicators for monitoring alcohol-related harm. PMID:25090404

  18. Benefits and harms of roflumilast in moderate to severe COPD

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tsung; Fain, Kevin M.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; Singh, Sonal; Weiss, Carlos O.; Li, Tianjing; Varadhan, Ravi; Puhan, Milo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, was approved for the prevention of COPD exacerbations. It is unclear in which patients roflumilast will have a favorable benefit-harm balance. Our aim was to quantitatively assess the benefits and harms of roflumilast (500 mcg per day) compared to placebo. Methods and Findings We used trial data released by the US Food and Drug Administration to estimate the treatment effects of roflumilast. We used data from observational studies when available to estimate the baseline risks for COPD exacerbations and gastrointestinal, neurological and psychiatric harms associated with roflumilast. Using simulation, we calculated the probability that roflumilast provides net benefit. We examined the impacts of different baseline risks for exacerbations and the severity of exacerbations. We varied weights (i.e., relative importance) for outcomes and treated death as a competing risk in the analyses. The probability that roflumilast provides net benefit approximates 0% across different age categories of men and women with varying baseline risks for exacerbations. Using different weights for outcomes did not change the probability that roflumilast provides net benefit. Only in the sensitivity analysis restricted to the prevention of severe exacerbations there was a probability of >50% that roflumilast provides net benefit if the baseline risk of having at least one severe exacerbation per year exceeds 22%. Conclusions Our results suggest roflumilast only provides net benefit to patients at a high risk of severe exacerbations. Guideline developers should consider different recommendations for COPD patients at different baseline risks for exacerbations. PMID:24347460

  19. Anthropogenic nutrients and harmful algae in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Keith; Gowen, Richard J; Harrison, Paul J; Fleming, Lora E; Hoagland, Porter; Moschonas, Grigorios

    2014-12-15

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are thought to be increasing in coastal waters worldwide. Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment has been proposed as a principal causative factor of this increase through elevated inorganic and/or organic nutrient concentrations and modified nutrient ratios. We assess: 1) the level of understanding of the link between the amount, form and ratio of anthropogenic nutrients and HABs; 2) the evidence for a link between anthropogenically generated HABs and negative impacts on human health; and 3) the economic implications of anthropogenic nutrient/HAB interactions. We demonstrate that an anthropogenic nutrient-HAB link is far from universal, and where it has been demonstrated, it is most frequently associated with high biomass rather than low biomass (biotoxin producing) HABs. While organic nutrients have been shown to support the growth of a range of HAB species, insufficient evidence exists to clearly establish if these nutrients specifically promote the growth of harmful species in preference to benign ones, or if/how they influence toxicity of harmful species. We conclude that the role of anthropogenic nutrients in promoting HABs is site-specific, with hydrodynamic processes often determining whether blooms occur. We also find a lack of evidence of widespread significant adverse health impacts from anthropogenic nutrient-generated HABs, although this may be partly due to a lack of human/animal health and HAB monitoring. Detailed economic evaluation and cost/benefit analysis of the impact of anthropogenically generated HABs, or nutrient reduction schemes to alleviate them, is also frequently lacking. PMID:25173729

  20. Tobacco harm reduction: what do the experts think?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, E; Warner, K; Lantz, P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess experts' opinions about the future of, and potential to improve individual and public health through "tobacco harm reduction" (THR), the use of novel nicotine containing products purporting to reduce the health risks from cigarette smoking. Design: Semi-structured telephone interviews on nine topic areas, with qualitative content analysis of coded transcripts. Participants: 29 professionals with expertise related to tobacco and interest in THR, including prominent tobacco control advocates (7), pharmaceutical (3) and tobacco industry scientists/officials (5), non-industry scientists (12), and Congressional staff (2). Results: Respondents agreed that harm reduction is at minimum theoretically plausible, that characteristics of "good" and "bad" THR products can be identified, that government regulation is essential but not likely in the foreseeable future, and that additional scientific data are very much needed. However, there was no consensus on specifics, such as preferred regulatory strategies or examples of ideal THR products. Disagreement was seen not only across but also within respondent categories. Mistrust of key stakeholders—for example, tobacco control advocates distrust of tobacco industry scientists and vice versa—was pervasive, and cited frequently as a barrier to regulation and collaboration. Conclusions: Continued dialogue and debate are essential as we enter a new and uncertain era of products purporting to reduce tobacco produced harm. Experts have concluded that effective government regulation is crucial to minimising the risks associated with THR and maximising potential benefits. PMID:15175526

  1. 47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...event of harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission is...harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then check all...

  2. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783

  3. Teaching reflective practice in practice settings: students' perceptions of their clinical educators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franziska Trede; Megan Smith

    2012-01-01

    Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice potential not being realised. This study explored final year physiotherapy students' perceptions of clinical educators as

  4. Teaching Reflective Practice in Practice Settings: Students' Perceptions of Their Clinical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; Smith, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice

  5. Automated detection of harm in healthcare with information technology: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malavika Govindan; Aricca D Van Citters; Eugene C Nelson; Jane Kelly-Cummings; Gautham Suresh

    2010-01-01

    ContextTo improve patient safety, healthcare facilities are focussing on reducing patient harm. Automated harm-detection methods using information technology show promise for efficiently measuring harm. However, there have been few systematic reviews of their effectiveness.ObjectiveTo perform a systematic literature review to identify, describe and evaluate effectiveness of automated inpatient harm-detection methods.MethodsData sources included MEDLINE and CINAHL databases indexed through August 2008,

  6. Advocating for a Harm-Minimization Approach to Drug Education in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzys, Diana; Kendall, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    The concept of using a harm-minimization approach to drug education in Australian schools has existed in both national and state government policy documents for over two decades. However, this approach appears to be ineffectively and inconsistently incorporated within the curriculum. Harm minimization emphasizes strategies that reduce the harms

  7. Metal-organic frameworks with high capacity and selectivity for harmful gases

    E-print Network

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    adsorption reticular chemistry Release of harmful chemicals into our environment is a growing national to address any conceivable harmful chemical. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of crystallineMetal-organic frameworks with high capacity and selectivity for harmful gases David Britt, David

  8. 30 CFR 722.12 - Non-imminent dangers or harms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Non-imminent dangers or harms. 722.12 Section 722.12 Mineral... § 722.12 Non-imminent dangers or harms. (a) If an authorized representative...cause significant, imminent environmental harm to land, air, or water resources,...

  9. 28 CFR 104.46 - Determination of presumed noneconomic losses for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...losses for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.46 Section 104.46 Judicial...losses for claimants who suffered physical harm. The Special Master may determine the...losses for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die) by relying upon...

  10. Differential Profiles of Risk of Self-Harm among Clinically Referred Primary School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelkovska, Anne; Houghton, Stephen; Hopkins, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Risk of self-harm among clinic referred children aged 6- to 12-years-old was investigated using the recently developed Self-Harm Risk Assessment for Children (SHRAC) instrument which comprises six factors: Affect traits; verbalizing of self-harm; socialization; dissociation; self-directing; and self-appraisal. The SHRAC was completed by the…

  11. Reports of Self-Harm and Social Stressors among Early Adolescents: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teufel, James A.; Brown, Stephen L.; Birch, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined reports of self-harm by early adolescents as well as associations between salient interpersonal stressors and self-harm. While attending health education centers located in Illinois, Indiana, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania, early adolescents (n = 737) responded to a questionnaire measuring stressors, coping, and self-harm.…

  12. 28 CFR 104.46 - Determination of presumed noneconomic losses for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...losses for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.46 Section 104.46 Judicial...losses for claimants who suffered physical harm. The Special Master may determine the...losses for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die) by relying upon...

  13. Moral Complexity in Middle Childhood: Children's Evaluations of Necessary Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambon, Marc; Smetana, Judith G.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed 5-to 11-year-olds' (N = 76) judgments of straightforward moral transgressions (prototypical harm) as well as their evaluations of complex, hypothetical scenarios in which an actor transgresses in order to prevent injury (necessary harm). The nature of the actor's transgression (psychological or physical harm) varied across…

  14. 30 CFR 722.12 - Non-imminent dangers or harms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Non-imminent dangers or harms. 722.12 Section 722.12 Mineral... § 722.12 Non-imminent dangers or harms. (a) If an authorized representative...cause significant, imminent environmental harm to land, air, or water resources,...

  15. Psychological Subtyping Finds Pathological, Impulsive, and "Normal" Groups among Adolescents Who Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research to date suggests that as many as 12-15% of young people engage in self-harm behaviour; however, the current understanding of the psychological basis of adolescent self-harm is limited. The objective was to determine whether adolescents who self-harm are a psychologically homogenous group. It was hypothesised that psychological…

  16. The harmful factors affect human health and preventive measures in welding process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Le Shen

    2010-01-01

    The harmful substances produced in welding process have seriously endangered the health of welders and had a great impact on the environment. The harmful substances can be divided into physical hazards and chemical hazards. The physical hazards include welding arc, electromagnetic wave, thermal radiation and so on. The chemical hazards include welding fumes, harmful gases and so forth. The paper

  17. Negative Intrusive Thoughts and Dissociation as Risk Factors for Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Helen; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between self-harm and vulnerability factors were studied in a general population of 432 participants, of whom 30% reported some experience of self-harm. This group scored higher on dissociation and childhood trauma, had lower self-worth, and reported more negative intrusive thoughts. Among the non-harming group, 10% scored similarly…

  18. How Much Detail Needs to Be Elucidated in Self-Harm Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Assessing self-harm through brief multiple choice items is simple and less invasive than more detailed methods of assessment. However, there is currently little validation for brief methods of self-harm assessment. This study evaluates the extent to which adolescents' perceptions of self-harm agree with definitions in the literature, and what…

  19. Harmful algae and their potential impacts on desalination operations off southern California

    E-print Network

    Caron, David

    Harmful algae and their potential impacts on desalination operations off southern California David Published online - Keywords: Harmful algal blooms Desalination Red tides Phytoplankton Phytotoxins a b s t r facilities to ensure the long-term safety and suitability of this emerging water supply. Harmful algal blooms

  20. The effects of a harmful alga on bivalve larval lipid stores R. Przeslawski a,

    E-print Network

    Padilla, Dianna

    The effects of a harmful alga on bivalve larval lipid stores R. Przeslawski a, *, P.E. Bourdeau b mercenaria, the accumulation of lipids and Harmful Algae 7 (2008) 802­807 A R T I C L E I N F O Article stress and harmful algal blooms. Lipid stores have been shown to be especially important for post

  1. Some harmful algae produce potent toxins which cause illness or death in humans

    E-print Network

    Issue Some harmful algae produce potent toxins which cause illness or death in humans and other organisms, including endangered species. Other harmful algae are non-toxic to humans and wildlife, and organisms living on the sea-bottom. Human health and ecosystem impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs

  2. Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus J. Heisler a,3

    E-print Network

    Cochlan, William P.

    Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus J. Heisler a,3 , P.M. Glibert b between water quality and eutrophication and the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). This meeting, Harmful Algae 8 (2008) 3­13 A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 26 October 2007 Received

  3. The effects of the harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo on cultures of Schmackeria inopinus (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Yu; Guipeng Yang; Jiyuan Tian

    2010-01-01

    Harmful effects of red tide dinoflagellates on copepods have gained particular attention in recent years. In this study, monocultures and mixed cultures of the harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo and the non-harmful alga Isochrysis galbana were utilized as diets to investigate the ingestion, reproduction and recruitment of the copepod Schmackeria inopinus. When compared with a monoculture of I. galbana, a sole

  4. Harmful algae include eukaryotes and prokaryotes that persist in both freshwater and marine systems. They

    E-print Network

    Wilhelm, Steven W.

    Harmful algae include eukaryotes and prokaryotes that persist in both freshwater and marine systems unchecked and resulting in harmful algal blooms with potentially serious economic and health- related on the use of molecular methods for detecting toxic cyanobacteria, as in-depth discussions of marine harmful

  5. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States

    E-print Network

    Townsend, David W.

    Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions Virtually every coastal nation is affected by harmful algal blooms (HABs; Hallegraeff, 1993). It is now). Likewise, increased nutrient loadings to the Harmful Algae 8 (2008) 39­53 A R T I C L E I N F O Article

  6. Harmful Alcohol Use on Campus: Impact on Young People at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Debra; George, Amanda; Parker, Rhian; Mikhailovich, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Young people at university are more likely to consume alcohol at harmful levels than their same-age peers who are not at university, and harmful alcohol use affects many aspects of campus life. This study aimed to investigate alcohol use and alcohol-related harms, both experienced and witnessed, among students at an Australian university. An…

  7. Augmenting Traditional Books with Context-Aware Learning Supports from Online Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gwo-Dong; Chao, Po-Yao

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in ubiquitous computing technologies have brought reality augmentation of traditional objects to context-aware and social supports. Although a significant proportion of students prefer poring over traditional paper textbooks over electronic books, few studies have enhanced reading practice of traditional books with ubiquitous…

  8. Traditional Occupations in a Modern World: Implications for Career Guidance and Livelihood Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnam, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This article is an attempt to examine the place and significance of traditional occupations as careers in today's world. The areas of tension and compatibility between ideas and values that signify modernity and the practice of traditional occupations are reviewed. The meaning of "traditional occupations" is unravelled, the potential that…

  9. The Permanence of Provenance: The "Two Traditions" and the American Archival Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the claims that the American archival profession owes its existence to the unique combination of a "historical manuscripts tradition" and a "public archives tradition" over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It also evaluates the differences and similarities between the traditions' theories of practice and…

  10. The limits of post-traditional public administration: towards a Gramscian perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S. Davies

    2011-01-01

    ‘Celebrations of transformation abound’ in public administration (Nickel 2009, p. 383), heralding the emergence of a post-traditional discipline according analytical and normative priority to networks. This paper develops a critique of post-traditional public administration, arguing that it overlooks the continuance of ‘traditionalpractices, such as the tendency for governing networks to resolve into hierarchies and historical continuities between governing forms.

  11. Traditional Irrigated Agriculture in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Salim Al-Marshudi

    2001-01-01

    Traditional methods were developed to allow farmers to live in harmony with a harsh environment. The farming techniques employed required only limited inputs of capital and caused minimal disturbance to the environment. The patterns of production were truly sustainable and skills were passed from generation to generation. Traditional surface irrigation systems of aflaj provide more than 60 percent of the

  12. Improving clinical practice guidelines for practicing cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Dwyer, Edward M; Eberly, Shirley; Francis, Charles; Gillespie, John A; Goldstein, Robert E; Greenberg, Henry; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald J; Klein, Helmut; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Marcus, Frank I; Moss, Arthur J; Oakes, David; Ryan, Daniel H; Bloch Thomsen, Poul E; Zareba, Wojciech

    2015-06-15

    Cardiac-related clinical practice guidelines have become an integral part of the practice of cardiology. Unfortunately, these guidelines are often long, complex, and difficult for practicing cardiologists to use. Guidelines should be condensed and their format upgraded, so that the key messages are easier to comprehend and can be applied more readily by those involved in patient care. After presenting the historical background and describing the guideline structure, we make several recommendations to make clinical practice guidelines more user-friendly for clinical cardiologists. Our most important recommendations are that the clinical cardiology guidelines should focus exclusively on (1) class I recommendations with established benefits that are supported by randomized clinical trials and (2) class III recommendations for diagnostic or therapeutic approaches in which quality studies show no benefit or possible harm. Class II recommendations are not evidence based but reflect expert opinions related to published clinical studies, with potential for personal bias by members of the guideline committee. Class II recommendations should be published separately as "Expert Consensus Statements" or "Task Force Committee Opinions," so that both majority and minority expert opinions can be presented in a less dogmatic form than the way these recommendations currently appear in clinical practice guidelines. PMID:25918027

  13. Aerosol dynamics and health: strategies to reduce exposure and harm.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Gerald

    2009-07-01

    The term 'air pollution' is used to describe the presence of chemicals or materials in the atmosphere that produce poor air quality. Air pollutants may be classified into four principal categories which include anthropogenic (man-made; e.g. combustion products), biogenic (biological; e.g. pollen, allergens), technogenic (technology; e.g. metal aerosols or smelter) and geogenic (geological; e.g. erosion of earth, i.e. minerals, volcanic ash). From these categories are derived the seven main pollutants of human health concern, i.e. carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbons, lead, and particulate matter (PM). The common provenance of all these emissions is from the combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, petrol and diesel), biomass (e.g. cooking) and tobacco smoke. PM is now considered to be the most precarious of pollutants, with the combustion-derived nano-particles being linked to a myriad of premature and excess deaths world-wide; especially for persons with pre-existing cardiovascular disorders. This meeting intended to bring together scientists from a host of disciplines (toxicologists, biologists, chemists, physicists and material scientists) that work at the bio-particulate interface. It aimed to present and discuss, via topical 'break-out' sessions, the current thoughts on the 'burden to human health' following exposure to and harm from combustion-derived particles. Furthermore, strategies for 'harm reduction' were another feature of this cross-disciplinary meeting. The final objectives were to identify biomarkers of exposure and harm to these inhalation hazards. All topics covered sought to find biomarker indices for human health effects. PMID:19604050

  14. How much downside? Quantifying the relative harm from tobacco taxation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G; Tobias, M; Blakely, T

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the loss of life expectancy attributable to tobacco taxation (via financial hardship and flow-on health effect) in New Zealand. Design: Data were used on the gradients in life expectancy and smoking by neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation and survey data on tobacco expenditure. Three estimates were modelled of the percentage of the crude association of neighbourhood deprivation with life expectancy that might be mediated via financial hardship: 100%, 50%, and 25% (best estimate). From this information the impact of tobacco taxation on life expectancy was estimated. Main results: For the total population, the estimated loss of life expectancy due to tobacco tax ranged from 0.005 years to 0.027 years. For people living in the most deprived 30% of neighbourhoods, the range was 0.009 to 0.044 years (that is, 3 to 16 days of lost life expectancy). For the total population the loss of life expectancy attributable to tobacco tax ranged from 119 to 460 times less than that attributable to deprivation. The loss of life expectancy attributable to tobacco tax was 42 to 257 times less than that attributable to smoking. Conclusions: The estimated harm to life expectancy from tobacco taxation (via financial hardship) is orders of magnitude smaller than the harm from smoking. Although the analyses involve a number of simplistic assumptions, this conclusion is likely to be robust. Policy makers should be reassured that tobacco taxation is likely to be achieving far more benefit than harm in the general population and in socioeconomically deprived populations. PMID:15143110

  15. A media information analysis for implementing effective countermeasure against harmful rumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Mitsuyoshi; Suto, Kazuhiro; Ohuchi, Azuma

    2010-04-01

    When large scale earthquake occurred, the word of "harmful rumor" came to be frequently heard. The harmful rumor means an economic damage which is caused by the action that people regard actually safe foods or areas as dangerous and then abort consumption or sightseeing. In the case of harmful rumor caused by earthquake, especially, tourism industry receives massive economic damage. Currently, harmful rumor which gives substantial economic damage have become serious social issue which must be solved. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure method for harmful rumor on the basis of media trend in order to implement speedy recovery from harmful rumor. Here, we investigate the amount and content of information which is transmitted to the general public by the media when an earthquake occurred. In addition, the media information in three earthquakes is treated as instance. Finally, we discuss an effective countermeasure method for dispeling harmful rumor through these analysis results.

  16. Harm, hype and evidence: ELSI research and policy guidance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There has been much investment in research on the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) associated with genetic and genomic research. This research should inform the development of the relevant policy. So far, much of the relevant policy - such as in the areas of patents, genetic testing and genetic discrimination - seems to be informed more by speculation of harm and anecdote than by available evidence. Although a quest for evidence cannot always be allowed to delay policy choice, it seems axiomatic to us that policy options are improved by the incorporation of evidence. PMID:23534337

  17. Worst New England Harmful Algal Bloom in 30 Years

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR)

    This online 2005 article reports the most severe bloom since 1972 of the microscopic alga, Alexandrium fundyense, which spread from Maine to Massachusetts, resulting in extensive commercial and recreational shellfish harvesting closures to protect humans from paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The article discusses harmful algal blooms (HABs) and reports how NOAA-funded research is addressing the problem. It includes links to research programs, up-to-date information about shellfish closures, images of the causative microbes, related press releases and legislation, and other informational sources.

  18. Traditional Practice for Non-Traditional Students? Examining the Role of Pedagogy in Higher Education Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The current agenda for widening participation (WP) promotes equal access to higher education (HE), yet it also implicitly requires institutions to develop support strategies to ensure a successful learning experience and good retention for different groups of students. The objective of this article is predominantly reflected in the latter goal and…

  19. Traditional occupations in a modern world: implications for career guidance and livelihood planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Ratnam

    2011-01-01

    This article is an attempt to examine the place and significance of traditional occupations as careers in today’s world. The\\u000a areas of tension and compatibility between ideas and values that signify modernity and the practice of traditional occupations\\u000a are reviewed. The meaning of “traditional occupations” is unravelled, the potential that traditional occupations in agriculture\\u000a and crafts offer for building inclusive

  20. The Critical Tradition in Bulgaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitar Tsatsov

    2001-01-01

    The critical tradition in Bulgaria includes all philosophical studies concerned directly or indirectly with Kant’s philosophy. In this sense, it can be called the Kantian trend in the Bulgarian philosophical tradition. Compared with other philosophical schools, such as Rehmke’s philosophy, dialectical materialism, etc., Kantianism develops relatively steadily, neither achieving lasting pre-eminence over other trends nor losing ground altogether. In the

  1. Cultural Childbirth Practices, Beliefs, and Traditions in Postconflict Liberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jody R. Lori; Joyceen S. Boyle

    2011-01-01

    In this qualitative study we used an interpretive, critical ethnographic approach to provide an understanding of childbirth and maternal illness and death in Liberia through the lens of women, families, and communities. We identified three major themes from the data: (a) secrecy surrounding pregnancy and childbirth; (b) power and authority; and (c) distrust of the health care system. The interpretive

  2. Institutional traditions in teachers' manners of teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Östman, Leif

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this article is to make a close case study of one teacher's teaching in relation to established traditions within science education in Sweden. The teacher's manner of teaching is analysed with the help of an epistemological move analysis. The moves made by the teacher are then compared in a context of educational philosophy and selective tradition. In the analyses the focus is to study the process of teaching and learning in action in institutionalised and socially shared practices. The empirical material consists of video recordings of four lessons with the same group of students and the same teacher. The students are all in Year 7 in a Swedish 9-year compulsory school. During these lessons the students work with a subject area called "Properties of materials". The results show that the teacher makes a number of different moves with regard to how to proceed and come to a conclusion about what the substances are. Many of these moves are special in that they indicate that the students need to be able to handle the procedural level of school science. These moves do not deal directly with the knowledge production process, but with methodological aspects. The function of the moves turns the students' attention from one source of knowledge to another. The moves are aimed at helping the students to help themselves, since it is through their own activity and their own thinking that learning takes place. This is characteristic in the teacher's manner of teaching. When compared in a context of educational philosophy, this manner of teaching has similarities with progressentialism; a mixture of essentialism and progressivism. This educational philosophy is a central aspect of what is called the academic tradition—a selective tradition common in science education in Sweden between 1960 and 1990.

  3. The pituri story: a review of the historical literature surrounding traditional Australian Aboriginal use of nicotine in Central Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The harmful outcomes of nicotine self administration have been the focus of sustained global health education campaigns that have targeted tobacco smoking and to a lesser extent, smokeless tobacco use. 'Smokeless tobacco' infers that the nicotine is not burnt, and administration can be through a range of methods including chewing. The chewing of wild tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp.) is practiced across a broad inland area of Central Australia by traditional Aboriginal groups. Collectively these plants are known by a variety of names - one common name being 'pituri'. This is the first paper to examine the historical literature and consider the linkage between pituri use and health outcomes. Using a narrative approach, this paper reviews the literature generated since 1770 surrounding the term pituri and the behaviours associated with its use. The review examines the scientific literature, as well as the diaries and journals of nineteenth century explorers, expedition notes, and early Australian novels to expound the scientific evidence and broaden the sense of understanding related to pituri, particularly the behavioural elements. The evaluation considers the complexities of ethnobotany pertaining to language and distance and the ethnopharmacology of indigenous plant usage. The review compares the use of burnt and smokeless tobacco to pituri and establishes the foundation for research into the clinical significance and health outcomes of pituri use. Additionally, this review provides contemporary information for clinicians providing care for patients who chew pituri. PMID:20831827

  4. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    SciTech Connect

    Gobler, Christopher J. [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Berry, Dianna L. [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Dyhrman, Sonya T. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Wilhelm, Steven W [ORNL; Salamov, Asaf [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lobanov, Alexei V. [Brigham and Women's Hospital; Zhang, Yan [Brigham and Women's Hospital; Collier, Jackie L. [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Wurch, Louie L. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Kustka, Adam B. [Rutgers University; Dill, Brian [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

  5. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor; Gobler, Christopher; Salamov, Asaf; Kuo, Alan; Terry, Astrid; Pangillian, Jasmyn; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Berry, Dianna; Dyhrman, Sonya; Wilhelm, Steven; Lobanov, Alexei; Zhang, Yan; Collier, Jackie; Wurch, Louie; Kusta, Adam; Dill, Brian; Shsh, Manesh; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Paulsen, Ian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa; Talmage, Stephanie; Walker, Elyse; Koch, Florian; Burson, Amanda; Marcoval, Maria; Tang, Yin-Zhong; LeCleir, Gary; Coyne, Kathyrn; Berg, Gry; Bertrand, Erin; Saito, Mak; Gladyshev, Vadim

    2011-02-18

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

  6. Patient safety in orthopedic surgery: prioritizing key areas of iatrogenic harm through an analysis of 48,095 incidents reported to a national database of errors

    PubMed Central

    Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Salvilla, Sarah A; Patel, Bhavesh; Mirza, Saqeb B; Mann, Bhupinder

    2013-01-01

    Background With scientific and technological advances, the practice of orthopedic surgery has transformed the lives of millions worldwide. Such successes however have a downside; not only is the provision of comprehensive orthopedic care becoming a fiscal challenge to policy-makers and funders, concerns are also being raised about the extent of the associated iatrogenic harm. The National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS) in England and Wales is an underused resource which collects intelligence from reports about health care error. Methods Using methods akin to case-control methodology, we have identified a method of prioritizing the areas of a national database of errors that have the greatest propensity for harm. Our findings are presented using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The largest proportion of surgical patient safety incidents reported to the NRLS was from the trauma and orthopedics specialty, 48,095/163,595 (29.4%). Of those, 14,482/48,095 (30.1%) resulted in iatrogenic harm to the patient and 71/48,095 (0.15%) resulted in death. The leading types of errors associated with harm involved the implementation of care and on-going monitoring (OR 5.94, 95% CI 5.53, 6.38); self-harming behavior of patients in hospitals (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.45, 3.18); and infection control (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.69, 2.17). We analyze these data to quantify the extent and type of iatrogenic harm in the specialty, and make suggestions on the way forward. Conclusion and level of evidence Despite the limitations of such analyses, it is clear that there are many proven interventions which can improve patient safety and need to be implemented. Avoidable errors must be prevented, lest we be accused of contravening our fundamental duty of primum non nocere. This is a level III evidence-based study. PMID:23569398

  7. Practicing the Political Art of Beneficial Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins-Newby, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    All of us are deeply embedded within a number of strong, web-like structures of relationships, such as our families and workplaces. Sometimes these relationships benefit us; at others times they don't. We spend much of our mental energy trying to strengthen our beneficial relationships and transform the harmful ones to our benefit. In practicing

  8. Professional care after deliberate self-harm: a qualitative study of young people’s experiences

    PubMed Central

    Idenfors, Hans; Kullgren, Gunnar; Salander Renberg, Ellinor

    2015-01-01

    Background Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is increasingly common among young people. At the same time, treatment and support after DSH are often hampered by low compliance. Aim To explore young people’s perceptions of care and support during a 6-month period following their first contact for DSH. Methods We conducted nine semistructured interviews with young people aged 16–24 years 6 months after their first contact for DSH. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Three main themes were extracted from the interviews. “Am I really in good hands?” describes whether the participants felt they were being listened to and taken seriously and whether they could rely on the competence of the professionals and the appropriateness of treatment, including keeping agreements and communication with other relevant agencies. “Help should match life circumstances” comprises how basic practicalities such as travel possibilities affect treatment and concomitant assistance in everyday living. Financial matters and jobseeking were perceived as necessary for optimal treatment and well-being. “Making yourself better” includes participants’ efforts to manage on their own, through realizing their own responsibility to be engaged and actively take part in treatment planning. Conclusion Flexibility and responsiveness to young people’s own views and specific needs in treatment arrangements are of crucial importance. The significance of basic practical help cannot be underestimated and should not be overlooked. PMID:25670889

  9. Sustaining safe practice: twenty years on.

    PubMed

    Kippax, Susan; Race, Kane

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines the ways in which populations at risk of HIV in the developed world have enculturated the knowledges and technologies of both the medical and the social sciences. By revisiting a number of review papers and by reviewing findings from a range of studies, we argue that gay men have appropriated information that has enabled them to sustain safe practices while they have eschewed information that has made maintenance difficult. The paper describes a range of risk reduction strategies and compares the responses of populations at risk of HIV in the years before the advent of highly active antiviral therapy (HAART) with their responses after the introduction of HAART in 1996. We concentrate our argument on the changing responses to HIV risk of gay men, although occasionally illustrate our argument with reference to the responses of injecting drug users. The responses of gay men to risk post-HAART--particularly those who reside in Australia--speak to the adoption of a range of considered strategies, not altogether safe, to reduce harm. We argue that such strategies need to be understood and addressed within a 'new' social public health, that is, a public health that takes what social analysis has to say seriously. The paper examines the differences between the traditional, the 'modern' epidemiological/clinical and the 'new' social or socio-cultural public healths and describes the tensions between the medical and the social science disciplines in their efforts to inform public health. Key concepts provided by social science such as agency (including individual and collective agency), alongside its methodological reflexivity are key to effective public health. The risk avoidance strategies adopted by gay men suggest a way forward by turning our attention to the ways in which medicine is taken in(to) their practice. PMID:12753812

  10. Aesop and Company: Using Traditional Tales in EFL Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Virginia French

    Making repeated use of a traditional tale can offer various kinds of language practice. Many new teachers use a reading passage just once, investing considerable time in the explanation of the vocabulary needed to understand it, and then rush on to something new. Actually, the best potentialities of the material are still to be tapped, through…

  11. The Traditional World of Islam Film Series: A Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Jerrold E.

    The guide describes a series of six films examining the influence of Islamic doctrine and traditional practices on human endeavors throughout the Islamic world. The objective of the series is to fill an informational gap concerning the important contributions that Islamic civilization has made to the achievements of man. The films are entitled:…

  12. USING TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE IN SCIENCE: METHODS AND APPLICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HENRY P. H UNTINGTON

    2000-01-01

    Advocates of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) have promoted its use in scientific research, impact assessment, and ecological understanding. While several examples illustrate the utility of applying TEK in these contexts, wider application of TEK- derived information remains elusive. In part, this is due to continued inertia in favor of established scientific practices and the need to describe TEK in Western

  13. Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh: Implications for the adaptation of kangaroo mother care for community-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Erin C; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Shah, Rashed; Farzin, Azadeh; Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Akhter, Sadika; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2014-12-01

    Bangladesh has one of the world's highest rates of low birth weight along with prevalent traditional care practices that leave newborns highly vulnerable to hypothermia, infection, and early death. We conducted formative research to explore existing newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh with an emphasis on thermal protection, and to identify potential facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for the community level delivery of kangaroo mother care (CKMC). Forty in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions were conducted between September and December 2012. Participants included pregnant women and mothers, husbands, maternal and paternal grandmothers, traditional birth attendants, village doctors, traditional healers, pharmacy men, religious leaders, community leaders, and formal healthcare providers. Audio recordings were transcribed and translated into English, and the textual data were analyzed using the Framework Approach. We find that harmful newborn care practices, such as delayed wrapping and early initiation of bathing, are changing as more biomedical advice from formal healthcare providers is reaching the community through word-of-mouth and television campaigns. While the goal of CKMC was relatively easily understood and accepted by many of the participants, logistical and to a lesser extent ideological barriers exist that may keep the practice from being adopted easily. Women feel a sense of inevitable responsibility for household duties despite the desire to provide the best care for their new babies. Our findings showed that participants appreciated CKMC as an appropriate treatment method for ill babies, but were less accepting of it as a protective method of caring for seemingly healthy newborns during the first few days of life. Participants highlighted the necessity of receiving help from family members and witnessing other women performing CKMC with positive outcomes if they are to adopt the behavior themselves. Focusing intervention messages on building a supportive environment for CKMC practice will be critical for the intervention's success. PMID:25441314

  14. Use of remote sensing in monitoring and forecasting of harmful algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, Richard P.; Tomlinson, Michelle C.

    2005-08-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have impacts on coastal economies, public health, and various endangered species. HABs are caused by a variety of organisms, most commonly dinoflagellates, diatoms, and cyanobacteria. In the late 1970's, optical remote sensing was found to have a potential for detecting the presence of blooms of Karenia brevis on the US Florida coast. Due to the nearly annual frequency of these blooms and the ability to note them with ocean color imagery, K. brevis blooms have strongly influenced the field of HAB remote sensing. However, with the variability between phytoplankton blooms, heir environment and their relatively narrow range of pigment types, particularly between toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates and diatoms, techniques beyond optical detection are required for detecting and monitoring HABs. While satellite chlorophyll has some value, ecological or environmental characteristics are required to use chlorophyll. For example, identification of new blooms can be an effective means of identifying HABs that are quie intense, also blooms occurring after specific rainfall or wind events can be indicated as HABs. Several HAB species do not bloom in the traditional sense, in that they do not dominate the biomass. In these cases, remote sensing of SST or chlorophyll can be coupled with linkages to seasonal succession, changes in circulation or currents, and wind-induced transport--including upwelling and downwelling, to indicate the potential for a HAB to occur. An effective monitoring and forecasting system for HABs will require the coupling of remote sensing with an environmental and ecological understanding of the organism.

  15. Self-Medication Practices among a Sample of Latino Migrant Workers in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although the literature on self-medication among Latino migrant workers (LMWs) is sparse, a few existing studies indicate that this practice is common in this community. The purpose of this paper is to estimate health status, access to health care, and patterns of self-medication practices of a cohort of LMWs in South Florida. Methods: A stratified network-based sample was utilized to recruit 278 LMWs in the Homestead area. After screening for eligibility, participants were administered a structured questionnaire that collected data on their health status, access to health care services, and self-medication practices. A convenience sample of 24 LMWs, who participated in the parent study were invited back to participate in 3 focus groups to look more in depth into self-medication practices in the LMW community. Results: Study findings indicate that LMWs are affected by a vast array of health problems yet lack access to health care services. Participants already engaged in self-medication practices in the countries of origin and, upon their arrival in the US, these practices continue and, in many cases, increase. Conclusion: Long-held traditions and lack of access to the formal health care system in the US contribute to the high prevalence of self-medication among LMWs. Self-medication practices such as the use of prescription medications without a prescription and lay injection are high risk practices that can have harmful consequences. Prevention interventions that address self-medication in the LMW community are likely to be most effective if they are culturally adapted to the community and facilitate access to health care services. PMID:25140297

  16. Attempted Suicide, Self-Harm, and Psychological Disorder Among Young Offenders in Custody.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Claire; Indig, Devon

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify risk factors for suicide and self-harm among young offenders. The data are from the 2009 New South Wales Young People in Custody Health Survey. The sample (N = 313) were 88% male and 48% Aboriginal. Sixteen percent reported ever having suicidal thoughts and 10% reported a suicide attempt. Twenty-one percent reported thoughts of self-harm and 16% reported actual self-harm. Female young offenders reported higher rates of suicidal behavior and self-harm compared to males. Significant correlates of attempted suicide and self-harm included childhood adversity and psychiatric disorder. This study finds that young offenders are at high risk of suicidal and self-harm behaviors. Early identification and support among this vulnerable group are critical. PMID:25968956

  17. The Joint Commission aims for high-reliability health care, unveils framework to move hospitals toward zero harm.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    To move hospitals toward what it terms high-reliability, The Joint Commission (TJC) is urging administrators to use a framework that it has developed to push their organizations through stages of maturity, ultimately creating environments in which there is zero patient harm. To get to this point, TJC leaders say hospitals will have to commit to transparency, promote and reward error reporting, and seize upon opportunities to improve. The Joint Commission has tested its high-reliability framework in seven hospitals, and it is now working on an assessment tool that will enable hospitals to measure their level of maturity across the framework's 14 components. The accrediting agency is urging hospitals to use a combination of Six Sigma, lean, and change management to make improvements that can be sustained. At some hospitals, entrenched practices of intimidation are dissuading staff from reporting unsafe practices and interfering with quality improvement efforts, according to TJC. PMID:24308070

  18. Oxytocin indexes relational distress following interpersonal harms in women.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; McCullough, Michael E; Szeto, Angela; Mendez, Armando J; McCabe, Philip M

    2011-01-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin, known for its involvement in social affiliation and bonding in animals, has recently been associated with a host of prosocial behaviors that are beneficial for maintaining positive social relationships in humans. Paradoxically, however, people with high endogenous levels of oxytocin also tend to report relational distress and interpersonal difficulties in their everyday lives. To address these contradictory findings, oxytocin reactivity was measured in response to a well-defined laboratory task in young adult women following recent interpersonal harms. Elevated mean peripheral oxytocin reactivity (but not baseline levels of oxytocin or cortisol reactivity) was associated with increased post-conflict anxiety and decreased levels of forgiveness. These results corroborate previous research implicating oxytocin as a neuroendocrine marker of relational distress, but not general stress, and demonstrate the utility of studying oxytocin in response to naturally occurring relational events. PMID:20688437

  19. Ordinary physical punishment: is it harmful? Comment on Gershoff (2002).

    PubMed

    Baumrind, Diana; Larzelere, Robert E; Cowan, Philip A

    2002-07-01

    E. T. Gershoff (2002) reviewed processes that might mediate and contexts that might moderate the associations between corporal punishment (CP) and child behaviors and provided an account of the methodological weaknesses of the research reviewed in her meta-analyses. In this examination of Gershoff, the authors argue that the biases and confounds in the meta-analyses further limit any causal inferences that can be drawn concerning the detrimental "effects" of CP on associated child behaviors. The authors suggest that undesirable child outcomes are associated with CP because the construct marks inept harsh parenting and conclude that although the harmful effects of physical abuse and other extreme punishments are clear, a blanket injunction against spanking is not justified by the evidence presented by Gershoff. PMID:12081082

  20. Exporting Harm: The High Tech Trashing of Asia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Byster, Leslie.

    2002-01-01

    Exporting Harm: The High Tech Trashing of Asia is an alarming article published on February 25, 2002, by the Basel Action Network and the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition. It sheds light on the largely unknown problem of electronic waste, or the disposal of electronic devices (e.g., computers, televisions, etc.). According to the article, major industrial countries export such waste to less developed countries in Asia. Due to the toxicity of the waste, it creates serious environmental concerns. The article examines the ramifications of this "E-waste" in a few Asian countries and presents possible solutions. On the main page, an audio recording of a National Public Radio broadcast about E-waste is currently available.

  1. Liability for psychological and psychiatric harm: the road to recovery.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the judicial approach to emotional harm claims from a medical perspective. Legal rules in this area are already recognised as being illogical and incoherent. Psychological and psychiatric research illustrate that they also conflict with empirical findings. By basing claims on erroneous criteria, courts may deny liability in meritorious cases, and impose liability in possibly less deserving claims. This not only brings the law into disrepute, but also reinforces the stigma that surrounds mental illness, and does disservice to an already misunderstood and vulnerable section of people in society. The article examines the evidence for the threshold requirement that distress must qualify for a psychiatric diagnosis to be actionable, and for the Alcock secondary victim criteria. It contends that these legal rules are based in misconceptions about mental illness and trauma, and suggests an alternative approach that is more principled, yet also addresses policy concerns about excessive liability. PMID:25223239

  2. Synthesis of porous inorganic hollow fibers without harmful solvents.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sushumna; de Wit, Patrick; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W J; Kappert, Emiel J; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck E

    2015-01-01

    A route for the fabrication of porous inorganic hollow fibers with high surface-area-to-volume ratio that avoids harmful solvents is presented. The approach is based on bio-ionic gelation of an aqueous mixture of inorganic particles and sodium alginate during wet spinning. In a subsequent thermal treatment, the bio-organic material is removed and the inorganic particles are sintered. The method is applicable to the fabrication of various inorganic fibers, including metals and ceramics. The route completely avoids the use of organic solvents, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and additives associated with the currently used fiber fabrication methods. In addition, it inherently avoids the manifestation of so-called macro voids and allows the facile incorporation of additional metal oxides in the inorganic hollow fibers. PMID:25256812

  3. Harmful freshwater algal blooms, with an emphasis on cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Paerl, H W; Fulton, R S; Moisander, P H; Dyble, J

    2001-04-01

    Suspended algae, or phytoplankton, are the prime source of organic matter supporting food webs in freshwater ecosystems. Phytoplankton productivity is reliant on adequate nutrient supplies; however, increasing rates of nutrient supply, much of it manmade, fuels accelerating primary production or eutrophication. An obvious and problematic symptom of eutrophication is rapid growth and accumulations of phytoplankton, leading to discoloration of affected waters. These events are termed blooms. Blooms are a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia and anoxia), toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. Toxins produced by blooms can adversely affect animal (including human) health in waters used for recreational and drinking purposes. Numerous freshwater genera within the diverse phyla comprising the phytoplankton are capable of forming blooms; however, the blue-green algae (or cyanobacteria) are the most notorious bloom formers. This is especially true for harmful toxic, surface-dwelling, scum-forming genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Nodularia, Microcystis) and some subsurface bloom-formers (Cylindrospermopsis, Oscillatoria) that are adept at exploiting nutrient-enriched conditions. They thrive in highly productive waters by being able to rapidly migrate between radiance-rich surface waters and nutrient-rich bottom waters. Furthermore, many harmful species are tolerant of extreme environmental conditions, including very high light levels, high temperatures, various degrees of desiccation, and periodic nutrient deprivation. Some of the most noxious cyanobacterial bloom genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, Nodularia) are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2), enabling them to periodically dominate under nitrogen-limited conditions. Cyanobacteria produce a range of organic compounds, including those that are toxic to higher-ranked consumers, from zooplankton to further up the food chain. Both N2- and non-N2-fixing genera participate in mutualistic and symbiotic associations with microorganisms, higher plants, and animals. These associations appear to be of great benefit to their survival and periodic dominance. In this review, we address the ecological impacts and environmental controls of harmful blooms, with an emphasis on the ecology, physiology, and management of cyanobacterial bloom taxa. Combinations of physical, chemical, and biotic features of natural waters function in a synergistic fashion to determine the sensitivity of water bodies. In waters susceptible to blooms, human activities in water- and airsheds have been linked to the extent and magnitudes of blooms. Control and management of cyanobacterial and other phytoplankton blooms invariably includes nutrient input constraints, most often focused on nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P). The types and amount of nutrient input constraints depend on hydrologic, climatic, geographic, and geologic factors, which interact with anthropogenic and natural nutrient input regimes. While single nutrient input constraints may be effective in some water bodies, dual N and P input reductions are usually required for effective long-term control and management of harmful blooms. In some systems where hydrologic manipulations (i.e., plentiful water supplies) are possible, reducing the water residence time by enhanced flushing and artificial mixing (in conjunction with nutrient input constraints) can be particularly effective alternatives. Implications of various management strategies, based on combined ecophysiological and environmental considerations, are discussed. PMID:12805693

  4. Unconventional dentistry in India - an insight into the traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Boloor, Vinita Ashutosh; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Rao, Anupama; Jenifer, Haziel; Pratap, Sruthy

    2014-07-01

    Unconventional medicine (UM) has been known and practised since the recorded history of civilization. Some unconventional practices may be viewed as "the continuity of traditions, religious beliefs, and even quackery that non-specialists practice." These practices have been associated with religious beliefs and the spiritual domain as well as with the physical domain. In ancient Old World civilizations, UM was performed by skilled experts or wise men; in today's Western civilization, practitioners may or may not be licensed, and some are charlatans. Dentistry, like medicine, is a traditional, science-based, highly regulated healthcare profession that serves increasingly sophisticated and demanding clients. Today, traditional dental practice is dealing with an array of challenges to the established professional system; these challenges are generally termed "alternative" (or complementary, unconventional, or integrative). Genuine alternatives are comparable methods of equal value that have met scientific and regulatory criteria for safety and effectiveness. Because "alternative care" has become politicized and is often a misnomer - referring to practices that are not alternative to, complementary to, or integrating with conventional health care - the more accurate term "unconventional" is used. PMID:25161919

  5. Potential population growth and harmful effects on humans from bed bug populations exposed to different feeding regimes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R M; Taylor, A S; Lehnert, M P; Koehler, P G

    2013-06-01

    Effects of host availability and feeding period on bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), were measured. Population growth and the potential harmful effect of bed bug populations on human hosts were modelled. Bloodmeal sizes were affected by both feeding length and frequency, with >2-fold difference between insects fed daily or weekly. Blood consumption increased >2-fold between bed bugs fed occasionally and often, and 1.5-fold between occasional and daily feeding. Bed bugs fed more often than once a week, potentially every 2-4 days. Egg production was associated with nutrition, being strongly correlated with blood consumption in the previous week. Bed bug populations can grow under different feeding regimes and are hard to control with <80% mortality. Bed bugs can survive and grow even in locations with a limited blood supply, where bed bug persistence may be important for the continual spread of populations. Persistence in non-traditional locations and a potential association with human pathogens increase the health risks of bed bugs. Potential blood loss as a result of a bed bug can have serious consequences because uncontrolled populations can reach harmful levels in 3-8 months. The reproduction potential of bed bug populations suggests serious consequences to human health and the need for efficacious control measures. PMID:23046478

  6. Structure-activity analysis of harmful algae inhibition by congeneric compounds: case studies of fatty acids and thiazolidinediones.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haomin; Xiao, Xi; Shi, Jiyan; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of harmful algal blooms has been increasing significantly around the world. In order to ensure the safety of drinking water, procedures to screen potential materials as effective algicides are needed, and predictive methods which save both the labor and time compared with traditional experimental approaches, are particularly desirable. In this study, data from previous studies on the algal-growth inhibitory action of two kinds of compounds, namely, the action of fatty acids and thiazolidinediones on the harmful algae Heterosigma akashiwo and Chattonella marina, were modeled using multiple linear regression (MLR) based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). The models were shown to have highly predictive ability and stability, and provided insight into the inhibitory mechanisms of congeneric compounds. The main descriptors in the fatty-acid models were the Connolly accessible area and the number of rotatable bonds, illustrating that molecular surface area and shape are important in their algicidal actions. In the thiazolidinedione models, the critical volume, octanol-water partition coefficient (LogP), and Connolly solvent-excluded volume were found to be significant, indicating that hydrophobicity, substituent group size, and mode of action are mechanistically important. Our results showed the algicidal activity of a series of compounds on different algae could be modeled, and each model is efficacious for compounds that fall into the application domain of the QSAR model. This work demonstrates how reliable predictions of the algicidal activity of novel compounds and explanations of their inhibitory mechanisms can be obtained. PMID:24562453

  7. Self-harm and risk of motor vehicle crashes in youth: the DRIVE prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A L C Martiniuk; R Q Ivers; N Glozier; G C Patton; L T Lam; S Boufous; T Senserrick; A Williamson; M Stevenson; R Norton

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundSome crashes, particularly single vehicle crashes, may result from intentional self-harm behaviour but research on this topic is limited. Self-harm is the deliberate injuring of oneself and includes actions such as cutting, attempted hanging and poisoning. This study aimed to assess the risk that intentional self-harm poses for prospective motor vehicle crashes among novice drivers.MethodsQuestionnaire responses from 20 822 newly

  8. Perceived Harmfulness Predicts Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs Among College Students: Interactions with Sensation-Seeking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amelia M. Arria; Kimberly M. Caldeira; Kathryn B. Vincent; Kevin E. O’Grady; Eric D. Wish

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the level of perceived harmfulness of nonmedical prescription stimulant and analgesic use in a sample\\u000a of college students, and examines the prospective relationship between perceived harmfulness and subsequent nonmedical use.\\u000a In addition, we explore whether the association between perceived harmfulness and nonmedical use varies by level of sensation-seeking.\\u000a Personal interviews, including questions on sensation-seeking and drug use,

  9. Self-harm and psychosocial characteristics of looked after and looked after and accommodated young people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Harkess-Murphy; J. MacDonald; J. Ramsay

    2012-01-01

    Children and young people who are classed as “looked after” and “looked after and accommodated”, have been identified as being especially at risk of self-harm, however there is little research that has assessed self-harm among these groups. This study investigates self-harm rates, distinguishing between cognitions and behaviours with non-suicidal and suicidal intent among the looked after and looked after and

  10. A Contextual Comparison of Risk Behaviors Among Older Adult Drug Users and Harm Reduction in Suburban Versus Inner-City Social Environments

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Miriam W.; Tyndall, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data show that older adults comprise a growing age group of drug users and new AIDS cases in the United States. Prevention and intervention studies show that risk behaviors leading to HIV infection are increasing among older users, particularly among the socially vulnerable. Yet older adults remain an under-researched population of drug users and little is known about their risk behaviors. Our aim is to address this gap in knowledge on older users by comparing contextual factors that influence risk behaviors and harm reduction strategies practiced by older drug users living in different communities. This study is based on ethnographic fieldwork in suburban and inner-city neighborhoods in a large metropolitan area in the southeastern USA. Interviewers conducted face-to-face, in-depth, life-history interviews with 69 older adults (age 45 and older) who used heroin, cocaine, and/or methamphetamine. Findings show that while risk behaviors were similar among older adult drug users living in suburban and inner-city environments, the provision of harm reduction education and paraphernalia varied widely. The results show the need for the expansion of harm reduction services focused on older adult drug users who are homeless, uninsured, or socially isolated. This application-oriented research will inform healthcare and treatment providers and generate new directions for future collaborative harm reduction services aimed to decrease the spread of HIV and other infectious diseases associated with drug use. PMID:23162176

  11. Is Traditional Educational Media Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubic, Milan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the influence of films on the author and concludes that traditional media has not died out, but rather has changed due to technology. Films are now watched on television as well as at a cinema; radio is more pervasive; and newspapers are still valued. (LRW)

  12. Does Scottish Education Need Traditions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Scottish education was, until quite recently, the conscious product of liberal tradition, of the belief by influential elites that the nation's educational history was strong, coherent, and progressive, a source of economic flexibility, of modernising ideas, and of liberal opportunity. In recent decades, however, it has become fashionable to decry…

  13. "Friluftsliv": Traditional Norwegian Outdoor Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellnes, Atle

    1992-01-01

    Nature and outdoor life are part of Norway's national identity, as exemplified by a long history of nature-inspired art and literature, the formation of outdoor organizations since the turn of the century, and the development of skiing. Norwegian traditional outdoor life is characterized as travelling with respectful use of nature, to achieve a…

  14. Traditional Navajo Maps and Wayfinding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Harris; Kelley, Klara

    2005-01-01

    An example of the way finding process when using verbal and other traditional maps among the Navajo Indians of the southwestern United States is presented. The scholarly literature on the Southwest offers examples of verbal maps that construct both linear space, such as trails, and broad geographical space, including hunting territories and large…

  15. From Traditional to Virtual Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Olinger, Jennifer

    The tradition of a mentoring relationship is embedded in a personal/business relationship between a wise teacher and someone who needs to learn a trade. Learning sessions have occurred over the years in many types of settings, including one-on-one mentoring, conferences, meetings, telephone, and fax. As society looks to technology as a vital…

  16. Africanisms in Gullah Oral Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Joseph E.

    1989-01-01

    The Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina, Georgia, and Northern Florida retain almost every element of African culture, including language, oral tradition, folklore, and aesthetics. Examines the African influence in the lifestyle of the Gullah people of the Sea Islands, especially in terms of their concept of time. (AF)

  17. Education and the Aesopic Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzo, Eugene Francis, Jr.

    The purpose for this study, as set forth in chapter one, is to describe the history and use of Aesop's fables as part of the Western pedagogical tradition. A second intention is to demonstrate how the different uses of the fables by various cultures reflect specific social, political, and economic concerns of the societies from which they are…

  18. The Drinker’s Effect on the Social Environment: A Conceptual Framework for Studying Alcohol’s Harm to Others

    PubMed Central

    Room, Robin; Ferris, Jason; Laslett, Anne-Marie; Livingston, Michael; Mugavin, Janette; Wilkinson, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The paper considers conceptual and methodological issues in studying the scope of alcohol’s harm to others. Reasons are suggested for the relative neglect of the topic. The approaches in two relevant research traditions are considered: population surveys on alcohol problems, and economic cost of alcohol studies. Ways of conceptualizing and measuring aspects of the drinker’s effects on others are considered, in terms of main types of relationship with the other, and in terms of major societal response institutions. The main types of data tend to measure different levels of severity, with population survey data dominated by less severe problems, and response institution data by more severe problems; so both are needed for a three-dimensional view. Research questions for the field and its policy significance are noted. PMID:20617064

  19. Between Tradition and Modernity: Marriage Dynamics in Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-06-01

    The demographic literature on union formation in post-communist Europe typically documents retreat from marriage and increase in cohabitation. However, sociological and anthropological studies of post-Soviet Central Asia often point to a resurgence of various traditional norms and practices, including those surrounding marriage, that were suppressed under Soviet rule. We engage these two perspectives on union formation by analyzing transition to first marriage in Kyrgyzstan both before and after the collapse of the USSR. We use uniquely detailed marriage histories from a nationally representative survey conducted in the period 2011-2012 to examine the dynamics of traditional marital practices among that country's two main ethnic groups-Kyrgyz and Uzbeks-focusing on trends in arranged marriages and in marriages involving bride kidnapping. The analysis reveals instructive ethnic and period differences but also indicates an overall decline in the risks of both types of traditional marriage practices in the post-Soviet era. In fact, although the decline has characterized all marriage types, it was more substantial for traditional marriages. We interpret these trends as evidence of continuing modernization of nuptiality behavior in the region. PMID:25940113

  20. A case of severe septicemia following traditional Samoan tattooing.

    PubMed

    Elegino-Steffens, Diane U; Layman, Clifton; Bacomo, Ferdinand; Hsue, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Samoan tattoos, or tatau, are created by master tattooists, or tufuga ta tatau, and their assistants using multi-pointed handmade tools. These tools are used to tap tattoo pigment into the skin, usually over several days. This traditional process is considered an honor to the one receiving the tatau. Unfortunately, as it is typically practiced according to cultural traditions, the sanitary practices are less than ideal. There have been several reported cases of severe infection, sepsis, shock, and even death as a result of traditional Samoan tattoos. Although Hawai'i is the home of the second largest Samoan population in the United States, short of only American Samoa, literature review found no published case reports in this state. Presented is a case of a 46-year-old man, who, after undergoing a modified version of traditional Samoan tattooing for 5 days, was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe septic shock due to poly-microbial bacteremia with Group A Streptococcus and Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus. In addition, we will discuss the previously reported cases, mainly documented in New Zealand, and review some of the mandatory sanitary standards put into place there. PMID:23386988

  1. An Overview of the Interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB): Advancing the Scientific Understanding of Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Kenneth Hudnell; Quay Dortch; Harold Zenick

    There is growing evidence that the spatial and temporal incidence of harmful algal blooms is increasing, posing potential\\u000a risks to human health and ecosystem sustainability. Currently there are no US Federal guidelines, Water Quality Criteria and\\u000a Standards, or regulations concerning the management of harmful algal blooms. Algal blooms in freshwater are predominantly\\u000a cyanobacteria, some of which produce highly potent cyanotoxins.

  2. Harm reduction with pharmacotherapy for homeless people with alcohol dependence: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Susan E.; Saxon, Andrew J.; Duncan, Mark H.; Smart, Brian F.; Merrill, Joseph O.; Malone, Daniel K.; Jackson, T. Ron; Clifasefi, Seema L.; Joesch, Jutta; Ries, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions requiring abstinence from alcohol are neither preferred by nor shown to be highly effective with many homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. It is therefore important to develop lower-threshold, patient-centered interventions for this multimorbid and high-utilizing population. Harm-reduction counseling requires neither abstinence nor use reduction and pairs a compassionate style with patient-driven goal-setting. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), a monthly injectable formulation of an opioid receptor antagonist, reduces craving and may support achievement of harm-reduction goals. Together, harm-reduction counseling and XR-NTX may support alcohol harm reduction and quality-of-life improvement. Aims Study aims include testing: a) the relative efficacy of XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling compared to a community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control, b) theory-based mediators of treatment effects, and c) treatment effects on publicly funded service costs. Methods This RCT involves four arms: a) XR-NTX+harm-reduction counseling, b) placebo+harm-reduction counseling, c) harm-reduction counseling only, and d) community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control conditions. Participants are currently/formerly homeless, alcohol dependent individuals (N=300). Outcomes include alcohol variables (i.e., craving, quantity/frequency, problems and biomarkers), health-related quality of life, and publicly funded service utilization and associated costs. Mediators include 10-point motivation rulers and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling are administered every 4 weeks over the 12-week treatment course. Follow-up assessments are conducted at weeks 24 and 36. Discussion If found efficacious, XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling will be well-positioned to support reductions in alcohol-related harm, decreases in costs associated with publicly funded service utilization, and increases in quality of life among homeless, alcohol-dependent individuals. PMID:24846619

  3. Development of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Steven D; Areán, Patricia A; Craske, Michelle G; Crawford, Kermit A; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Magnavita, Jeffrey J; Ollendick, Thomas H; Sexton, Thomas L; Spring, Bonnie; Bufka, Lynn F; Galper, Daniel I; Kurtzman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to improve mental, behavioral, and physical health by promoting clinical practices that are based on the best available evidence. The American Psychological Association (APA) is committed to generating patient-focused CPGs that are scientifically sound, clinically useful, and informative for psychologists, other health professionals, training programs, policy makers, and the public. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2011 standards for generating CPGs represent current best practices in the field. These standards involve multidisciplinary guideline development panels charged with generating recommendations based on comprehensive systematic reviews of the evidence. The IOM standards will guide the APA as it generates CPGs that can be used to inform the general public and the practice community regarding the benefits and harms of various treatment options. CPG recommendations are advisory rather than compulsory. When used appropriately, high-quality guidelines can facilitate shared decision making and identify gaps in knowledge. PMID:24679179

  4. Curriculum: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Wesley

    2011-01-01

    "Curriculum: From Theory to Practice" introduces readers to curriculum theory and how it relates to classroom practice. Wesley Null provides a unique organization of the curriculum field into five traditions: systematic, existential, radical, pragmatic, and deliberative. He discusses the philosophical foundations of curriculum as well as…

  5. Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of ADHD: a review.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinqiang; Zhang-James, Yanli; Han, Xinmin; Lei, Shuang; Sun, Jichao; Zhou, Rongyi

    2014-10-01

    This review covers an introduction of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on the traditional theoretic basis from the perspective of TCM regarding ADHD's cause, pathogenesis, methods of syndrome differentiation, and rationale for treatment. The authors present commonly accepted and successfully practiced clinical procedures used in China for diagnosis and treatment of ADHD by TCM clinicians along with the supportive clinical evidence. The authors hope to inspire more research to better understand the mechanisms underlying the therapies and to promote appropriate incorporation of TCM therapies with Western pharmacologic treatment to better help patients with ADHD. PMID:25220091

  6. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  7. Serotonin selectively influences moral judgment and behavior through effects on harm aversion

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Molly J.; Clark, Luke; Hauser, Marc D.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2010-01-01

    Aversive emotional reactions to real or imagined social harms infuse moral judgment and motivate prosocial behavior. Here, we show that the neurotransmitter serotonin directly alters both moral judgment and behavior through increasing subjects’ aversion to personally harming others. We enhanced serotonin in healthy volunteers with citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and contrasted its effects with both a pharmacological control treatment and a placebo on tests of moral judgment and behavior. We measured the drugs' effects on moral judgment in a set of moral 'dilemmas' pitting utilitarian outcomes (e.g., saving five lives) against highly aversive harmful actions (e.g., killing an innocent person). Enhancing serotonin made subjects more likely to judge harmful actions as forbidden, but only in cases where harms were emotionally salient. This harm-avoidant bias after citalopram was also evident in behavior during the ultimatum game, in which subjects decide to accept or reject fair or unfair monetary offers from another player. Rejecting unfair offers enforces a fairness norm but also harms the other player financially. Enhancing serotonin made subjects less likely to reject unfair offers. Furthermore, the prosocial effects of citalopram varied as a function of trait empathy. Individuals high in trait empathy showed stronger effects of citalopram on moral judgment and behavior than individuals low in trait empathy. Together, these findings provide unique evidence that serotonin could promote prosocial behavior by enhancing harm aversion, a prosocial sentiment that directly affects both moral judgment and moral behavior. PMID:20876101

  8. Sex, Drugs, and Skateboarding: Public Support for Prevalence Reduction vs. Harm Reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. MacCoun

    A random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1050 California adults examined public attitudes toward prevalence reduction (PR; reducing the number of people engaging in an activity) and harm reduction (HR; reducing the harm associated with an activity) across three controversial domains (heroin use, tobacco use, and teen sexual behavior), and a less controversial risky sport (skateboarding). PR was viewed favorably for heroin

  9. Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents in Oxford, 1985-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawton, Keith; Fagg, Joan; Simkin, Sue; Bale, Elizabeth; Bond, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Reviews data collected by the Oxford Monitoring System for Attempted Suicide in teenagers between 1985-1995 to determine trends in acts of deliberate self-harm. Notes substantial increase in number of episodes of deliberate self-harm for both males and females. Discusses implications for hospital and counseling professionals and well as…

  10. Filter for lowering harmful crankcase emissions in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, T.P.

    1991-12-17

    This paper describes combination with a crankcase vent connected to an internal combustion engine, a device for separating harmful emissions. It comprises: a housing unit; an inlet for taking in crankcase emissions a beveled surface for return of liquid portions of the crankcase emissions via the inlet; silica beads to filter harmful crankcase emissions, and viscous fluid coating the silica beads.

  11. The use of pleasure in harm reduction: Perspectives from the history of sexuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kane Race

    2008-01-01

    The absence of pleasure in harm reduction discourse is more and more frequently noted, but few have considered what, exactly, more attention to pleasure might do. What is the value of pleasure for harm reduction praxis? Central to such an inquiry is the question of how pleasure is grasped, conceptually and methodologically. In this paper I use Foucault's History of

  12. Harms associated with psychoactive substances: findings of the UK National Drug Survey.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Celia J A; Muetzelfeldt, Leslie; Muetzelfeldt, Mark; Nutt, David J; Curran, H Valerie

    2010-02-01

    Nutt and colleagues' 'rational' scale to assess the harms of commonly used drugs was based on ratings by a panel of experts. This survey aimed to assess drug users' views of the harms of drugs using the same scale. As users' drug choices are not solely based on harms, we additionally assessed perceived benefits. The survey was hosted at http://www.nationaldrugsurvey.org. UK residents reported their experience of 20 commonly used substances; those with direct experience of a substance rated its physical, dependence-related and social harms as well as benefits. A total of 1501 users completed the survey. There was no correlation between the classification of the 20 drugs under the Misuse of Drugs Act and ranking of harms by users. Despite being unclassified substances, alcohol, solvents and tobacco were rated within the top ten most harmful drugs. There was a remarkably high correlation (r = 0.896) overall between rankings by users' and by experts. Ecstasy, cannabis and LSD were ranked highest by users on both acute and chronic benefits. These findings imply that users are relatively well informed about the harms associated with the drugs they use. They also suggest that the current UK legal classification system is not acting to inform users of the harms of psychoactive substances. PMID:19939875

  13. Harm avoidance moderates the relationship between internalized stigma and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Aukst-Margeti?, Branka; Jakši?, Nenad; Bori?evi? Maršani?, Vlatka; Jakovljevi?, Miro

    2014-09-30

    This study investigated the associations between internalized stigma, depressive symptoms, and temperament dimension Harm avoidance. One hundred and seventeen stable outpatients with schizophrenia completed a battery of self-report instruments. Internalized stigma was significantly positively related to depressive symptoms, while Harm avoidance moderated the internalized stigma-depressive symptoms relationship. PMID:24857565

  14. Recent self-harm and psychological measures in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Randall, Jason R; Rowe, Brian H; Dong, Kathryn A; Colman, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of self-harm risk is a common, difficult, and perplexing task for many physicians, especially those working in emergency departments (ED). Attempts have been made to determine objective methods for assessing patients with suicidal ideation or self-harm though there is still a lack of knowledge about objective assessments of these patients. A study was conducted where 181 suicidal patients were enrolled in two EDs within the city of Edmonton, Canada. Initial interviews were conducted in the ED which collected basic demographics and medical history as well as psychometric measures including the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, Drug Abuse Screening Test 10, and CAGE questionnaire. The results of these measures were compared between those who presented to the ED with self-harm and those who presented only with ideation. Those with recent self-harm scored lower on many of the scales and subscales of distress and impulsivity measured compared to those with no recent self-harm. Possible explanations for this difference include differences in psychological traits between the two groups and possible cathartic effects of self-harm. The lower scores obtained by those that present with self-harm may complicate attempts to use psychometric tools to determine future self-harm risk. PMID:25401056

  15. Recent self-harm and psychological measures in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Brian H.; Dong, Kathryn A.; Colman, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of self-harm risk is a common, difficult, and perplexing task for many physicians, especially those working in emergency departments (ED). Attempts have been made to determine objective methods for assessing patients with suicidal ideation or self-harm though there is still a lack of knowledge about objective assessments of these patients. A study was conducted where 181 suicidal patients were enrolled in two EDs within the city of Edmonton, Canada. Initial interviews were conducted in the ED which collected basic demographics and medical history as well as psychometric measures including the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, Drug Abuse Screening Test 10, and CAGE questionnaire. The results of these measures were compared between those who presented to the ED with self-harm and those who presented only with ideation. Those with recent self-harm scored lower on many of the scales and subscales of distress and impulsivity measured compared to those with no recent self-harm. Possible explanations for this difference include differences in psychological traits between the two groups and possible cathartic effects of self-harm. The lower scores obtained by those that present with self-harm may complicate attempts to use psychometric tools to determine future self-harm risk. PMID:25401056

  16. Staff Beliefs about Why People with Learning Disabilities Self-Harm: A Q-Methodology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Katie; Gleeson, Kate; Johnstone, Lucy; Weston, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Staff beliefs about self-harm can influence staff responses to the behaviour. Existing research into staff beliefs about self-harm by people with learning disabilities is limited, with qualitative research restricted to forensic services. The aim of this study was to use Q-methodology to explore staff beliefs about why people with learning…

  17. Help-Seeking for Suicidal Thoughts and Self-Harm in Young People: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelmore, Lisa; Hindley, Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that only a minority of young people experiencing suicidal thoughts or self-harm present to any health services. This is of concern given that young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm often require treatment for mental illness as well as to reduce their risk of completed suicide. We reviewed…

  18. Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Joan S.; Diddams, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    The authors used structural equation modeling to test the mediational role of affect regulation on attachment and deliberate self-harm in 216 undergraduates. Results suggest that affect regulation mediates the relationship between attachment and deliberate self-harm, providing support for the theoretical importance of attachment and affect…

  19. Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional experiences immediately prior to (emotional antecedents) and following (emotional consequences) deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts in female inmates (N = 63) were examined. Anger was the antecedent emotion reported by the largest proportion of individuals who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (45.16%), suicide attempts (40.9%),…

  20. Mentalization-Based Treatment for Self-Harm in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossouw, Trudie I.; Fonagy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether mentalization-based treatment for adolescents (MBT-A) is more effective than treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents who self-harm. Method: A total of 80 adolescents (85% female) consecutively presenting to mental health services with self-harm and comorbid depression were randomly allocated to either MBT-A or TAU.…

  1. Psychiatric Impairment among Adolescents Engaging in Different Types of Deliberate Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Colleen M.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Miller, Alec L.; Turner, J. Blake

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective chart review study of 227 participants examined the psychiatric profiles of outpatient adolescents ages 12 to 19 years (M = 15.08 years, SD = 1.72 years) engaging in different types of deliberate self-harm (DSH) behaviors. Participants were divided into four groups: no deliberate self-harm (NoDSH; n = 119), nonsuicidal…

  2. Transition to injection amongst opioid users in Iran: Implications for harm reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Malekinejad; Mohsen Vazirian

    Driven by opioid use, HIV prevalence is high (15–27%) amongst injection drug users (IDU) in Iran. Harm reduction programmes are associated with a reduction in high risk injecting behaviours; however, Iran has a large number of non-injecting opioid users not immediately targeted by harm reduction programmes. The vast majority of heroin injectors tend to have a history of several years

  3. The Research on the Measurement of China Internet Illegal and Harmful Content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Song; Gang Li

    2009-01-01

    Although the Internet allows people to release, convey and obtain information freely and conveniently, the excessive spread of illegal and harmful information negatively affects the Internet development and obstructs Internet culture from thriving. On the basis of analyzing the root cause of illegal and harmful content on the Internet, this article helps to establish an index system for measuring them.

  4. Selective Exposure to Information About the Harmful Effects of Marijuana and Tranquilizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Reginald G.; Krakowski, Mark

    1972-01-01

    The study concludes that selective exposure seems unrelated to drug use and to certainty about various aspects of the harmful effects of drugs. These data suggest that drug education efforts are probably not losing their effectiveness because users refuse to initially expose themselves to information about harmful effects. (Author)

  5. Outpatient Care of Young People after Emergency Treatment of Deliberate Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Marcus, Steven C.; Olfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the mental health care received by young people after an episode of deliberate self-harm. This study examined predictors of emergency department (ED) discharge, mental health assessments in the ED, and follow-up outpatient mental health care for Medicaid-covered youth with deliberate self-harm. Method: A…

  6. Changing attitudes towards harm reduction among treatment professionals: a report from the American Midwest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perilou Goddard

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an educational presentation in changing the attitudes towards harm reduction (HR) of drug and alcohol treatment professionals working in the Midwest region of the United States. Treatment professionals (N=137) with a mean of 10.13 years of drug or alcohol treatment experience attended a 2-h educational presentation about harm reduction. Participants’ attitudes towards HR were

  7. Group therapy for adolescents with repeated self harm: randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Green; A J Wood; M J Kerfoot; G Trainor; C Roberts; J Rothwell; A Woodham; E Ayodeji; B Barrett; S Byford; R Harrington

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group therapy for self harm in young people.Design Two arm, single (assessor) blinded parallel randomised allocation trial of a group therapy intervention in addition to routine care, compared with routine care alone. Randomisation was by minimisation controlling for baseline frequency of self harm, presence of conduct disorder, depressive disorder, and severity of

  8. THE CURRENT STATUS OF RESEARCH ON HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) IN INDONESIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boy Rahardjo Sidharta

    2005-01-01

    Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) is a natural phenomenon, however its incident increases both in term of case s and areas. When HAB outbreaks occur it will usually dam age the environment and create economic losses. Environmental damage and economic losses are caused by the harmful aspects of the HAB organisms due to both of environmental alterations and toxin product ions.

  9. Anger, Disgust, and Presumption of Harm as Reactions to Taboo-Breaking Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Gutierrez; Roger Giner-Sorolla

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the relationship between the presumption of harm in harmfree violations of creatural norms (taboos) and the moral emotions of anger and disgust. In Experiment 1, participants made a presumption of harm to others from taboo violations, even in conditions described as harmless and not involving other people; this presumption was predicted by anger and not disgust. Experiment

  10. Using Cell Phones to Detect Harmful Airborne Engineering lab named after company that hopes to commercialize

    E-print Network

    Using Cell Phones to Detect Harmful Airborne Substances Engineering lab named after company focused on using mobile devices, such as cell phones, to detect harmful airborne substances in real detection capabilities with mobile devices, including cell phones that can interface global positioning

  11. Developing an Effective Intervention for IDU Women: A Harm Reduction Approach to Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nancy L.; Luna, Veronica; Ramirez, M. Heliana; Vail, Kenneth A.; Williams, Clark A.

    2005-01-01

    Harm reduction is fundamentally a movement intended to empower the patient and consumer of health services. This project applied harm reduction theory as a strategy to empower collaborating community partners and researchers to overcome their preconceptions about each other in order to create a successful HIV prevention intervention and evaluation…

  12. Using clay to control harmful algal blooms: deposition and resuspension of clay\\/algal flocs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stace E. Beaulieu; Mario R. Sengco; Donald M. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) may be legitimate targets for direct control or mitigation, due to their impacts on commercial fisheries and public health. One promising control strategy is the rapid sedimentation of HABs through flocculation with clay. The objective of this study was to evaluate flow environments in which such a control strategy might be effective in removing harmful algae

  13. Harmful Algae 3 (2004) 305320 Assessment of brown tide blooms, caused by Aureococcus

    E-print Network

    Caron, David

    2004-01-01

    Harmful Algae 3 (2004) 305­320 Assessment of brown tide blooms, caused by Aureococcus.D. Gastrich et al. / Harmful Algae 3 (2004) 305­320 1. Introduction Brown tide blooms, caused by the minute and Technology (DSRT) in cooperation with several partners to assess brown tide blooms in coastal waters in NJ

  14. Facts about Cyanobacteria (Blue-green Algae) and Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms

    E-print Network

    ) and Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (CyanoHABs) Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Cyanobacteria are bacteria smell bad. #12;2 Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) CyanoHABs are algae blooms and how they form Cyanobacterial blooms occur when algae that are normally present grow exuberantly

  15. Molecular approaches to diagnosing nutritional physiology in harmful algae: Implications for studying the effects of eutrophication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonya T. Dyhrman

    2008-01-01

    Every year harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause serious impacts to local economies, coastal ecosystems, and human health on a global scale. It is well known that nutrient availability can influence important aspects of harmful algae biology and ecology, such as growth, toxin production, and life cycle stage, as well as bloom initiation, persistence and decline. Increases in the rate of

  16. An experimental analysis of harmful algaezooplankton interactions and the ultimate defense

    E-print Network

    Hambright, K. David

    An experimental analysis of harmful algae­zooplankton interactions and the ultimate defense Emily J characterized as a harmful algal bloom (HAB) species by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commis- sion alga. Behavioral observations revealed no significant effects of P. parvum on daphniid feeding

  17. Expansion of potentially harmful algal taxa in a Georgia Estuary (USA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. Verity

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is widespread that species of harmful algae are showing up in new locations and that toxic bloom events may be increasing in magnitude and frequency. These trends are sometimes but not exclusively associated with cultural eutrophication. On the southeast coast of the USA, harmful species, bloom events, and deleterious ecosystem impacts were restricted to eutrophic estuaries and adjacent shelf

  18. Mixotrophy, a major mode of nutrition for harmful algal species in eutrophic waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JoAnn M. Burkholder; Patricia M. Glibert; Hayley M. Skelton

    2008-01-01

    Historically most harmful algal species (HAS) have been thought to be strictly phototrophic. Mixotrophy, the use of phototrophy and heterotrophy in combination, has been emphasized as operative mainly in nutrient-poor habitats as a mechanism for augmenting nutrient supplies. Here we examine an alternate premise, that many harmful algae which thrive in eutrophic habitats are mixotrophs that respond both directly to

  19. The potential role of anthropogenically derived nitrogen in the growth of harmful algae in California, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphael M. Kudela; William P. Cochlan

    2008-01-01

    Cultural eutrophication is frequently invoked as one factor in the global increase in harmful algal blooms, but is difficult to definitively prove due to the myriad of factors influencing coastal phytoplankton bloom development. To assess whether eutrophication could be a factor in the development of harmful algal blooms in California (USA), we review the ecophysiological potential for urea uptake by

  20. Self-Harm among People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Secure Service Provision: A Qualitative Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jessica; Beail, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research into self-harm among people with intellectual disabilities has focused predominantly on high frequency internally maladaptive behaviour among people whose disability is severe or profound. Research into different forms of self-harm, such as cutting or burning the skin, found in those with mild intellectual disabilities;…

  1. Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use among Youth in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danseco, Evangeline R.; Kingery, Paul M.; Coggeshall, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Reviews studies that examined perceived risk or beliefs about harmful effects associated with marijuana use. Perceived risk was construed as consisting of at least four areas (physical harm; parental disapproval; peer disapproval; fear of arrest). Perception of risk varied with several factors including age and gender. Secondary data analysis was…

  2. HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS: RISK ASSESSMENT NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The symposium session, Indicators for Effects and Predictions of Harmful Algal Blooms, explored the current state of indicators used to assess the human health and ecological risks caused by harmful algal blooms, and highlighted future needs and impediments that must be overcome...

  3. Indian Traditional Ayurvedic System of Medicine and Nutritional Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, M. M.; Rastogi, Subha; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional ways are being given up. Affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate traditional herbal medicine are underway. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine, remains the most ancient yet living traditions. Although India has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, it still needs more extensive research and evidence base. Increased side effects, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases, high cost of new drugs, microbial resistance and emerging, diseases are some reasons for renewed public interest in complementary and alternative medicines. Numerous nutraceutical combinations have entered the international market through exploration of ethnopharmacological claims made by different traditional practices. This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its role in translational medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders. PMID:23864888

  4. Probabilistic forecasting of harmful algal blooms in western Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenour, D. R.; Gronewold, A.; Stow, C.; Bertani, I.; Steger, C. E.; Ruberg, S. A.; Scavia, D.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic rise in the magnitude of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in western Lake Erie. These cyanobacteria blooms have drawn attention to phosphorus loading, a common driver of freshwater productivity. However, it is unclear how much of the year-to-year variability in bloom size is explained by anthropogenic phosphorus loading, and how much variability is related to other factors, including weather/climate drivers and measurement error. Here, we aim to advance the state-of-the-art in HAB forecasting by explicitly quantifying uncertainties in late-summer bloom observations, and propagating them through a Bayesian modeling framework that relates bloom size to phosphorus load. Because of the need to accurately represent predictive uncertainty, different statistical formulations are critically evaluated through cross validation. A model based on a novel implementation of a gamma error distribution is found to provide the most realistic uncertainty characterization, as well as high predictive skill. Our results also underscore the benefits of a hierarchical approach that allows us to assimilate data sets from multiple sources. Finally, our modeling analysis suggests that Lake Erie has become increasingly susceptible to large cyanobacteria blooms. We explore the nature of this change and assess potential biophysical explanations.

  5. Toxicity of harmful cyanobacterial blooms to bream and roach.

    PubMed

    Trinchet, Isabelle; Cadel-Six, Sabrina; Djediat, Chakib; Marie, Benjamin; Bernard, Cécile; Puiseux-Dao, Simone; Krys, Sophie; Edery, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing increasing environmental pressures, leading to an increasing frequency of cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (cHABs) that have emerged as a worldwide concern due to their growing frequency and their potential toxicity to the fauna that threatens the functioning of ecosystems. Cyanobacterial blooms raise concerns due to the fact that several strains produce potent bioactive or toxic secondary metabolites, such as the microcystins (MCs), which are hepatotoxic to vertebrates. These strains of cyanobacteria may be potentially toxic to fish via gastrointestinal ingestion and also by direct absorption of the toxin MC from the water. The purpose of our study was to investigate toxic effects observed in fish taken from several lakes in the Ile-de-France region, where MCs-producing blooms occur. This study comprises histological studies and the measurement of MC concentrations in various organs. The histological findings are similar to those obtained following laboratory exposure of medaka fish to MCs: hepatic lesions predominate and include cell lysis and cell detachment. MC concentrations in the organs revealed that accumulation was particularly high in the digestive tract and the liver, which are known to be classical targets of MCs. In contrast concentrations were very low in the muscles. Differences in the accumulation of MC variants produced by blooms indicate that in order to more precisely evaluate the toxic potential of a specific bloom it is necessary not only to consider the concentration of toxins, but also the variants produced. PMID:23732128

  6. [Construction of electrochemiluminescence system for harmful algae detection].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Chun

    2012-01-01

    To develop a new technique, Electrochemiluminescence-Molecular Probe (ECL-MP), for harmful algae detection, a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection system was set up based on the principle of ECL and related literature. The optimization tests were carried out, including the impact of voltage and current, the concentration of tripropylamine (TPrA) and the pH of phosphate buffer (PBS). The determination limit of Ru (bpy)3Cl2 x 6H2O was 10(-11) mol x L(-1) and the detection range was from 10(-9) - 10(-5) mol x L(-1) as well as the detection amount of substance was in the range from 0.4 pmol-4 nmol in the optimal reaction conditions with voltage of 1.0 V, current of 1.0 mA, TPrA concentration of 1.5 mol x L(-1) and pH of 7.4. It was proved by facts that this ECL analyzer was stable and highly sensitive, which was helpful in establishment of ECL-MP. PMID:22452214

  7. Impulse noise: can hitting a softball harm your hearing?

    PubMed

    Cook, Korrine; Atcherson, Samuel R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify whether or not different materials of softball bats (wooden, aluminum, and composite) are a potential risk harm to hearing when batting players strike a 12'' core .40 softball during slow, underhand pitch typical of recreational games. Peak sound pressure level measurements and spectral analyses were conducted for three controlled softball pitches to a batting participant using each of the different bat materials in an unused outdoor playing field with regulation distances between the pitcher's mound and batter's box. The results revealed that highest recorded peak sound pressure level was recorded from the aluminum (124.6?dBC) bat followed by the composite (121.2?dBC) and wooden (120.0?dBC) bats. Spectral analysis revealed composite and wooden bats with similar broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response. The aluminum bat also produced a broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response, but there were also two very distinct peaks at around 1700?Hz and 2260?Hz above the noise floor that produced its ringing (or ping) sound after being struck. Impulse (transient) sounds less than 140?dBC may permit multiple exposures, and softball bats used in a recreational slow pitch may pose little to no risk to hearing. PMID:24778596

  8. Public Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use as a Harm Reduction Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, David A.; Meyer, Roger E.; Tanzer, Jason M.; Mirvish, Sidney S.; Lewin, Freddi

    2006-01-01

    Harm reduction strategies involve promoting a product that has adverse health consequences as a substitute for one that has more severe adverse health consequences. Smokeless tobacco low in nitrosamine content offers potential benefits in reducing smoking prevalence rates. Possible harm arises from the potential for such products to serve as a gateway to more harmful tobacco products, public misinterpretation of “less harmful” as “safe,” distraction from the public health goal of tobacco elimination, and ethical issues involved in advising those marketing these harmful products. We offer a research agenda to provide a stronger basis for evaluating the risks and benefits of smokeless tobacco as a means of reducing the adverse health effects of tobacco. PMID:17018821

  9. Change of Games' Traditions in Lithuania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EUGENIJUS BAGDONAS; IRENA PATASIENE; VYTAUTAS SKVERNYS

    Every generation of population (cohort) has its own specific traditions of games. Changes in traditions are determined by cultural environment of a country, possibilities to be at leisure and to play one game or another. Objectives are to evaluate how much the game's traditions of separate cohorts changed, how game's supply influence game's usage traditions. The data was collected from

  10. Systems thinking, systems practice, and practical philosophy: A program of research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Ulrich I

    1988-01-01

    IfSystems Practice is to serve the cause of socially rational decision making, its understanding of systems approach must open itself up to the communicative dimension of rational practice uncovered by contemporary practical philosophy. This programmatic paper argues that building the bridge between the two traditions of systems thinking and practical philosophy is a key challenge to be faced by the

  11. Responding to Global Shifts: Meta-Practice as a Relevant Social Work Practice Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grise-Owens, Erlene; Miller, J. Jay; Owens, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    In response to increasing global changes, this article proposes that social work education add meta-practice to traditional micro-, mezzo-, and macro-practice curriculum areas. Drawing on pertinent literature, the authors conceptualize meta-practice as a necessary paradigm shift for competent and relevant social work practice. Further, the authors…

  12. Traditional cheeses: rich and diverse microbiota with associated benefits.

    PubMed

    Montel, Marie-Christine; Buchin, Solange; Mallet, Adrien; Delbes-Paus, Céline; Vuitton, Dominique A; Desmasures, Nathalie; Berthier, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in cheeses (in both core and surface) and on the wooden surfaces of traditional equipment. The inhibition seems to be associated with their qualitative and quantitative composition rather than with their degree of diversity. The inhibitory mechanisms are not well elucidated. Both cross-sectional and cohort studies have evidenced a strong association of raw-milk consumption with protection against allergic/atopic diseases; further studies are needed to determine whether such association extends to traditional raw-milk cheese consumption. In the future, the use of meta-omics methods should help to decipher how traditional cheese ecosystems form and function, opening the way to new methods of risk-benefit management from farm to ripened cheese. PMID:24642348

  13. Augmenting Traditional Books with Context-Aware Learning Supports from Online Learning Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwo-dong Chen; Po-yao Chao

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent advances,in ubiquitous computing,technologies have brought reality augmentation,of traditional objects to context-awareand social supports. Although a significantproportion of students prefer poring over traditional paper textbooks over electronic books, few studies have enhanced reading practice of traditional books with ubiquitous context-aware and collaborative learning supports that provide timely, contextual assistance. This study proposed,an innovative approach to develop a paper-based learning

  14. Harmful potential toxic elements in greenhouse soils under long-term cultivation in Almería (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joaquin Ramos-Miras, Jose; Rodríguez Martín, Jose Antonio; Boluda, Rafael; Bech, Jaume; Gil, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metals (HM) are considered highly significant environmental contaminants and are the object of many scientific research works into the soil environment. Activities like agriculture or industry can increase the concentration of these contaminants in soils and waters, which can affect the food chain. Intensification of certain agricultural practices, constant and excessive use of fertilizers and phytosanitary products, and using machinery, increase the HM content in agricultural soils. Many studies have dealt with HM accumulation over time. Despite these works, the influence of long periods of time on these contents, the dynamics and evolution of these elements in agricultural soils, especially soils used for intensive farming purposes under greenhouse conditions, remain unknown to a certain extent. The western Almería region (Spain) is a very important area from both the socio-economic and agricultural viewpoints. A common practice in greenhouse agriculture is the addition of agrochemicals to soils and crops to improve nutrient supply or crop protection and disease control. Such intense agricultural activity has a strong impact, which may have negative repercussions on both these greenhouse soils and the environment. A research has been carried out to determine the total and available levels of six harmful potentially toxic elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn and Co), and to assess long-term variations in the greenhouse soils of western Almeria. The results indicate that managing soils in the greenhouse preparation stage determines major changes in total and available HM contents. Furthermore, Cd, Cu and Pb enrichment in soil was observed depending on the element and years of growth.

  15. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs). However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. Methods We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. Results In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Conclusions Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants), others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research. PMID:22824297

  16. The role of harm reduction in controlling HIV among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Wodak, Alex; McLeod, Leah

    2008-08-01

    Injecting drug users (IDU) now account for one in 10 new HIV infections world wide. Yet it has been known since the early 1990s that HIV among IDU can be effectively, safely and cost-effectively controlled by the early and vigorous implementation of a comprehensive package of strategies known as 'harm reduction'. This concept means that decreasing drug-related harms is accorded an even higher priority than reduction of drug consumption. Strategies required involve: explicit and peer-based education about the risk of HIV from sharing injecting equipment; needle syringe programmes; drug treatment (including especially opiate substitution treatment) and community development. Many countries experiencing or threatened by an HIV epidemic among IDU have now adopted harm reduction but often implementation has been too little and too late. Although coverage is slowly improving in many countries, HIV is still spreading faster among IDU than harm reduction programmes while coverage in correctional centres lags far behind community settings. The scientific debate about harm reduction is now over. National and international support for harm reduction is growing while almost all the major UN organizations responsible for drug policy now support harm reduction. Only a small number of countries, led by the USA, are still vehemently opposed to harm reduction. Excessive reliance on drug law enforcement remains the major barrier to increased adoption of harm reduction. Sometimes zealous drug law enforcement undermines harm reduction. A more balanced approach to drug law enforcement is required with illicit drug use recognized primarily as a health and social problem. PMID:18641473

  17. Upholding Mainstream Culture: The Tradition of the American High School Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Heather

    2000-01-01

    Questions the educational value of the traditional high-school play. Argues that the traditional school play upholds mainstream American culture through a process of patriotism and exclusion of minority groups as well as mainstream theatre. Recommends the use of non-mainstream theatre practices such as devised drama as an alternative to the…

  18. Promoting Professional Identity: A Within Group Comparison of Wiki-Based and Traditional Assignments on School Counselling Students' Learning, Sense of Community and Computer Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.; Pritchard, Tracey; McComb-Beverage, Shanna; Schellenberg, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare traditional and non-traditional instructional practices used in a counsellor education programme to determine their effect on pre-service school counsellors' learning and sense of community, thus leading to enhanced professional identity. Traditional and non-traditional assignments were examined: (a) a…

  19. Cephalopods as vectors of harmful algal bloom toxins in marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Costa, Pedro; Rosa, Rui

    2013-09-01

    Here we summarize the current knowledge on the transfer and accumulation of harmful algal bloom (HAB)-related toxins in cephalopods (octopods, cuttlefishes and squids). These mollusks have been reported to accumulate several HAB-toxins, namely domoic acid (DA, and its isomers), saxitoxin (and its derivatives) and palytoxin (and palytoxin-like compounds) and, therefore, act as HAB-toxin vectors in marine food webs. Coastal octopods and cuttlefishes store considerably high levels of DA (amnesic shellfish toxin) in several tissues, but mainly in the digestive gland (DG)--the primary site of digestive absorption and intracellular digestion. Studies on the sub-cellular partitioning of DA in the soluble and insoluble fractions showed that nearly all DA (92.6%) is found in the cytosol. This favors the trophic transfer of the toxins since cytosolic substances can be absorbed by predators with greater efficiency. The available information on the accumulation and tissue distribution of DA in squids (e.g., in stranded Humboldt squids, Dosidicus gigas) is scarcer than in other cephalopod groups. Regarding paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), these organisms accumulate them at the greatest extent in DG > kidneys > stomach > branchial hearts > posterior salivary glands > gills. Palytoxins are among the most toxic molecules identified and stranded octopods revealed high contamination levels, with ovatoxin (a palytoxin analogue) reaching 971 ?g kg?ą and palytoxin reaching 115 ?g kg?ą (the regulatory limit for PlTXs is 30 ?g kg?ą in shellfish). Although the impacts of HAB-toxins in cephalopod physiology are not as well understood as in fish species, similar effects are expected since they possess a complex nervous system and highly developed brain comparable to that of the vertebrates. Compared to bivalves, cephalopods represent a lower risk of shellfish poisoning in humans, since they are usually consumed eviscerated, with exception of traditional dishes from the Mediterranean area. PMID:24018900

  20. Procalcitonin in sepsis and systemic inflammation: a harmful biomarker and a therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kenneth L; Snider, Richard; Nylen, Eric S

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide yearly mortality from sepsis is substantial, greater than that of cancer of the lung and breast combined. Moreover, its incidence is increasing, and its response to therapy has not appreciably improved. In this condition, the secretion of procalcitonin (ProCT), the prohormone of calcitonin, is augmented greatly, attaining levels up to thousands of fold of normal. This hypersecretion emanates from multiple tissues throughout the body that are not traditionally viewed as being endocrine. The serum values of ProCT correlate with the severity of sepsis; they recede with its improvement and worsen with exacerbation. Accordingly, as highlighted in this review, serum ProCT has become useful as a biomarker to assist in the diagnosis of sepsis, as well as related infectious or inflammatory conditions. It is also a useful monitor of the clinical course and prognosis, and sensitive and specific assays have been developed for its measurement. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the administration of ProCT to septic animals greatly increases mortality, and several toxic effects of ProCT have been elucidated by in vitro experimental studies. Antibodies have been developed that neutralize the harmful effects of ProCT, and their use markedly decreases the symptomatology and mortality of animals that harbour a highly virulent sepsis analogous to that occurring in humans. This therapy is facilitated by the long duration of serum ProCT elevation, which allows for a broad window of therapeutic opportunity. An experimental groundwork has been established that suggests a potential applicability of such therapy in septic humans. PMID:20002097

  1. [Severe poisoning by plants used for traditional medicine in Mayotte].

    PubMed

    Durasnel, P; Vanhuffel, L; Blondé, R; Lion, F; Galas, T; Mousset-Hovaere, M; Bala˙, I; Viscardi, G; Valyi, L

    2014-12-01

    The authors describe three cases of severe accidental poisoning by plants used as part of a traditional treatment in Mayotte. The established, or suspected, toxicity of Thevetia peruviana (Yellow oleander), Cinchona pubescens (Red quinine-tree), Melia azaderach (Persian lilac, also called china berry) and Azadirachta indica (Neem), is discussed. The clinical presentation is cardiac (atrioventricular block) and well known for Thevetia and Cinchona intoxications. Neurological signs and multi-organ failure are found for Azadirachta and Melia. The identification of the plants is never easy, nor is the evidence of their accountability. In the three cases reported, no other cause than the traditional treatment has been found to explain the clinical presentation. The outcome was favorable in all cases. The authors emphasize the difficulties to investigate these accidents, the poor medical knowledge of these practices in tropical areas, and in Mayotte particularly. The need for cooperation with local botanists, familiar with traditional medicine, is also underlined. PMID:25301110

  2. Traditions of the Sun: Explore the World's Ancient Observatories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online exhibit allows visitors to explore traditions of solar observation and ancient astronomy practiced by the Chaco and Mayan cultures of the New World. There is a brief discussion on the development of solar observation and astronomy by early agricultural communities, and slide presentations of sites in the Chaco Culture National Historical Park and the Mayan cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Dzibilchaltun, Mayapan, and others. Visitors will learn about the Sun and Native American solar practices within a larger historical and cultural context, and about Mayan astronomy, history, culture, and science.

  3. The startle response during whiplash: a protective or harmful response?

    PubMed

    Mang, Daniel W H; Siegmund, Gunter P; Inglis, J Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2012-08-15

    Whiplash injuries are common following rear-end collisions. During such collisions, initially relaxed occupants exhibit brisk, stereotypical muscle responses consisting of postural and startle responses that may contribute to the injury. Using prestimulus inhibition, we sought to determine if the startle response elicited during a rear-end collision contributes to head stabilization or represents a potentially harmful overreaction of the body. Three experiments were performed. In the first two experiments, two groups of 14 subjects were exposed to loud tones (124 dB) preceded by prestimulus tones at either four interstimulus intervals (100-1,000 ms) or five prestimulus intensities (80-124 dB). On the basis of the results of the first two experiments, 20 subjects were exposed to a simulated rear-end collision (peak sled acceleration = 2 g; speed change = 0.75 m/s) preceded by one of the following: no prestimulus tone, a weak tone (85 dB), or a loud tone (105 dB). The prestimulus tones were presented 250 ms before sled acceleration onset. The loud prestimulus tone decreased the amplitude of the sternocleidomastoid (16%) and cervical paraspinal (29%) muscles, and key peak kinematics: head retraction (17%), horizontal head acceleration (23%), and head angular acceleration in extension (23%). No changes in muscle amplitude or kinematics occurred for the weak prestimulus. The reduced muscle and kinematic responses observed with loud tones suggest that the startle response represents an overreaction that increases the kinematics in a way that potentially increases the forces and strains in the neck tissues. We propose that minimizing this overreaction during a car collision may decrease the risk of whiplash injuries. PMID:22700800

  4. Harmful Algal Bloom Characterization at Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Using Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    PubMed Central

    Van der Merwe, Deon; Price, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) degrade water quality and produce toxins. The spatial distribution of HAbs may change rapidly due to variations wind, water currents, and population dynamics. Risk assessments, based on traditional sampling methods, are hampered by the sparseness of water sample data points, and delays between sampling and the availability of results. There is a need for local risk assessment and risk management at the spatial and temporal resolution relevant to local human and animal interactions at specific sites and times. Small, unmanned aircraft systems can gather color-infrared reflectance data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, with full control over data collection timing, and short intervals between data gathering and result availability. Data can be interpreted qualitatively, or by generating a blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI) that is correlated with cyanobacterial biomass densities at the water surface, as estimated using a buoyant packed cell volume (BPCV). Correlations between BNDVI and BPCV follow a logarithmic model, with r2-values under field conditions from 0.77 to 0.87. These methods provide valuable information that is complimentary to risk assessment data derived from traditional risk assessment methods, and could help to improve risk management at the local level. PMID:25826055

  5. Traditional living and cultural ways as protective factors against suicide: perceptions of Alaska Native university students

    PubMed Central

    DeCou, Christopher R.; Skewes, Monica C.; López, Ellen D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Native peoples living in Alaska have one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. This represents a significant health disparity for indigenous populations living in Alaska. This research was part of a larger study that explored qualitatively the perceptions of Alaska Native university students from rural communities regarding suicide. This analysis explored the resilience that arose from participants’ experiences of traditional ways, including subsistence activities. Previous research has indicated the importance of traditional ways in preventing suicide and strengthening communities. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 university students who had migrated to Fairbanks, Alaska, from rural Alaskan communities. An interview protocol was developed in collaboration with cultural and community advisors. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Participants were asked specific questions concerning the strengthening of traditional practices towards the prevention of suicide. Transcripts were analysed using the techniques of grounded theory. Findings Participants identified several resilience factors against suicide, including traditional practices and subsistence activities, meaningful community involvement and an active lifestyle. Traditional practices and subsistence activities were perceived to create the context for important relationships, promote healthy living to prevent suicide, contrast with current challenges and transmit important cultural values. Participants considered the strengthening of these traditional ways as important in suicide prevention efforts. However, subsistence and traditional practices were viewed as a diminishing aspect of daily living in rural Alaska. Conclusions Many college students from rural Alaska have been affected by suicide but are strong enough to cope with such tragic events. Subsistence living and traditional practices were perceived as important social and cultural processes with meaningful lifelong benefits for participants. Future research should continue to explore the ways in which traditional practices can contribute towards suicide prevention, as well as the far-reaching benefits of subsistence living. PMID:23984288

  6. The Unifying Moral Dyad: Liberals and Conservatives Share the Same Harm-Based Moral Template.

    PubMed

    Schein, Chelsea; Gray, Kurt

    2015-08-01

    Do moral disagreements regarding specific issues (e.g., patriotism, chastity) reflect deep cognitive differences (i.e., distinct cognitive mechanisms) between liberals and conservatives? Dyadic morality suggests that the answer is "no." Despite moral diversity, we reveal that moral cognition-in both liberals and conservatives-is rooted in a harm-based template. A dyadic template suggests that harm should be central within moral cognition, an idea tested-and confirmed-through six specific hypotheses. Studies suggest that moral judgment occurs via dyadic comparison, in which counter-normative acts are compared with a prototype of harm. Dyadic comparison explains why harm is the most accessible and important of moral content, why harm organizes-and overlaps with-diverse moral content, and why harm best translates across moral content. Dyadic morality suggests that various moral content (e.g., loyalty, purity) are varieties of perceived harm and that past research has substantially exaggerated moral differences between liberals and conservatives. PMID:26091912

  7. Harms and benefits associated with psychoactive drugs: findings of an international survey of active drug users

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Celia JA; Noronha, Louise A; Muetzelfeldt, Mark; Fielding, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    There have been several recent efforts in the UK and the Netherlands to describe the harms of psychoactive substances based on ratings of either experts or drug users. This study aimed to assess the perceived benefits as well as harms of widely used recreational drugs, both licit and illicit, in an international sample of drug users. The survey was hosted at https://www.internationaldrugsurvey.org/ and was available in three languages. Residents reported their experience of 15 commonly used drugs or drug classes; regular users then rated their harms and benefits. In all, 5791 individuals from over 40 countries completed the survey, although the majority were from English speaking countries. Rankings of drugs differed across 10 categories of perceived benefits. Skunk and herbal cannabis were ranked consistently beneficial, whilst alcohol and tobacco fell below many classified drugs. There was no correlation at all between users’ harm ranking of drugs and their classification in schedules of the USA or ABC system in the UK. Prescription analgesics, alcohol and tobacco were ranked within the top 10 most harmful drugs. These findings suggest that neither the UK nor US classification systems act to inform users of the harms of psychoactive substances. It is hoped the results might inform health professionals and educators of what are considered to be both the harms and benefits of psychoactive substances to young people. PMID:23438502

  8. Association between harmful alcohol use and periodontal status according to gender and smoking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background the aim of this study is to assess the association of harmful alcohol use based on the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) score with periodontal status according to gender and smoking in a representative sample of Korean adults. Methods This study analyzed 5,291 participants older than 19 years whose data of harmful alcohol use and periodontal status were available. Harmful alcohol use was defined by the WHO guidelines for the administration of AUDIT. The periodontal status was assessed by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for socio-demographic variables, oral and general health behavior, oral health status and systemic conditions. All analyses considered a complex sampling design, and multivariate analysis was also performed in the subgroups. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a marginal association between harmful alcohol use and higher CPI in the total sample. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of harmful alcohol use was 1.16 (0.97 to 1.38) for higher CPI. Higher CPI was significantly associated with harmful alcohol use in men (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03-1.60) and non-smokers (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.06-1.57). Conclusion Periodontal status is significantly associated with harmful alcohol use in men and non-smokers in a representative sample of Korean adults. PMID:24950716

  9. Substance use in adulthood following adolescent self-harm: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moran, P; Coffey, C; Romaniuk, H; Degenhardt, L; Borschmann, R; Patton, G C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether adolescents who self-harm are at increased risk of heavy and dependent substance use in adulthood. Method Fifteen-year prospective cohort study of a random sample of 1943 adolescents recruited from secondary schools across the state of Victoria, Australia. Data pertaining to self-harm and substance use was obtained at seven waves of follow-up, from mean age 15.9 years to mean age 29.1 years. Results Substance use and self-harm were strongly associated during the adolescent years (odds ratio (OR): 3.3, 95% CI 2.1–5.0). Moreover, adolescent self-harmers were at increased risk of substance use and dependence syndromes in young adulthood. Self-harm predicted a four-fold increase in the odds of multiple dependence syndromes (sex- and wave-adjusted OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 2.7–6.6). Adjustment for adolescent anxiety/depression attenuated but did not eliminate most associations. Adolescent substance use confounded all associations, with the exception of multiple dependence syndromes, which remained robustly associated with adolescent self-harm (fully adjusted odds ratio: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2–3.2). Conclusion Adolescent self-harm is an independent risk factor for multiple dependence syndromes in adulthood. This level of substance misuse is likely to contribute substantially to the premature mortality and disease burden experienced by individuals who self-harm. PMID:24954250

  10. Rural Indonesia women’s traditional beliefs about antenatal care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Indonesia Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) of 420/100.00 live births remains among the highest in East Asia while coverage of births assisted by skilled providers is still low. Traditional beliefs have been a key factor associated with the choice between midwives or traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the low number of antenatal care visits in rural West Sumatra. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 16 women from rural West Java to describe their perception regarding issues related to traditional beliefs. Focus group discussions provided data for the content analysis. Results The majority of the 16 women interviewed was from Village Dago, West Java and had only an elementary school education. Their ages ranged from 19 to 40 years. Most were multiparous housewives with an income of IDR 918.750 per month, which was lower than the monthly income in West Java (IDR. 1.172.060). Emerging from the focus group discussion were four main themes regarding their pregnancy and traditional beliefs: 1) pregnancy was a normal cycle in women’s life (pregnancy is a natural phenomena, not a sickness; no recognition of danger signs during pregnancy and death of baby or mother during pregnancy was brought about by God’s will); 2) women followed the traditional beliefs (positive motivation to follow the traditional beliefs and fear of not following the traditional beliefs); 3) relying on TBA called paraji rather than midwife (parajis are kind, tolerant and patient and have more experience than midwives; more accessibility than midwives and encouragement of natural birth) and 4) midwives are more secure than paraji; (they use a medical standard of care). Conclusions Women’s beliefs grounded in religion and tradition permeated the village culture making it difficult to counter their long held health practices with practices based on recent advances in health care. Use of TBA in this village was still dominant and women believed that following traditional beliefs led to a healthy pregnancy therefore, they also followed all relatives’ suggestions. Understanding the complexities of local culture is the first step to improving women’s awareness of how to preserve their pregnancy and prevent complications. PMID:23106915

  11. 34 CFR 222.17 - How does the Secretary determine undue financial hardship and serious harm to a local educational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the Secretary determine undue financial hardship and serious harm...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS General § 222...the Secretary determine undue financial hardship and serious harm...overpayment will result in undue financial hardship on an LEA and...

  12. 34 CFR 222.17 - How does the Secretary determine undue financial hardship and serious harm to a local educational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the Secretary determine undue financial hardship and serious harm...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS General § 222...the Secretary determine undue financial hardship and serious harm...overpayment will result in undue financial hardship on an LEA and...

  13. 34 CFR 222.17 - How does the Secretary determine undue financial hardship and serious harm to a local educational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the Secretary determine undue financial hardship and serious harm...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS General § 222...the Secretary determine undue financial hardship and serious harm...overpayment will result in undue financial hardship on an LEA and...

  14. 34 CFR 222.17 - How does the Secretary determine undue financial hardship and serious harm to a local educational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the Secretary determine undue financial hardship and serious harm...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS General § 222...the Secretary determine undue financial hardship and serious harm...overpayment will result in undue financial hardship on an LEA and...

  15. Condomless Sex: Gay Men, Barebacking, and Harm Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shernoff, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Social science research as well as a rise in sexually transmitted diseases and new HIV infections among men who have sex with men point to increasing numbers of gay men engaging in unprotected anal intercourse without condoms, a practice called "barebacking." There is some evidence that barebacking is linked to the rise of crystal methamphetamine…

  16. An invisible barrier to integrating HIV primary care with harm reduction services: philosophical clashes between the harm reduction and medical models.

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Daliah; McCoy, Kate; Cunningham, Chinazo

    2004-01-01

    Overall AIDS mortality in the United States has declined in recent years, but declines have not been consistent across all populations. Due to an array of barriers to care, minorities and poor people who are active substance users have not benefited as others have from advances in the treatment of HIV disease. One way to address this problem is to integrate HIV primary care into harm reduction programs that already effectively serve this population. Such collaborations, however, are difficult to initiate and sustain. Philosophical differences between the medical model and the harm reduction model, which often remain invisible to the parties involved, underlie these difficulties. This article addresses the issue by describing a partnership in the Bronx, NY, between CitiWide Harm Reduction Inc. (CitiWideHR) and the Montefiore Medical Center. It focuses specifically on the sources of philosophical differences between models, and briefly assesses the potential for successful collaborations of this sort. PMID:15147647

  17. The role of traditional healers in tooth extractions in Lekie Division, Cameroon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashu M Agbor; Sudeshni Naidoo; Awono M Mbia

    2011-01-01

    Background  The extraction of the teeth by traditional healers in Cameroon is an established cultural practice in the central region of\\u000a the Cameroon. Traditional healers (TH) use herbs and crude un-sterilized instruments and tools for the tooth extraction procedure.\\u000a The present study investigates the knowledge and practices of traditional healers regarding tooth extraction and the management\\u000a of its complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross

  18. Native American health: traditional healing and culturally competent health care internet resources.

    PubMed

    Carlock, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    Health disparities between Native Americans and the general population of the United States are a major health concern. Traditional healing and culturally competent health care offer much promise in raising the health status of Native Americans. Traditional healing, although uniquely practiced by each indigenous culture, is generally a system of medicine based on the inseparability of mind, body, and spirit. Culturally competent health care, care that is congruent with the culture and language of the patient, is a growing initiative in western medicine. This article outlines Internet sites and online resources relevant to the study and practice of traditional healing and culturally competent health care. PMID:16893848

  19. Self-Harm and Aggression in Dangerous and Severely Personality Disordered Patients of a High-Security Hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Daffern; Kevin Howells

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the frequency, prevalence and co-occurrence of aggression and self-harm in patients admitted for assessment and treatment to a high-security dangerous severe personality disorder (DSPD) hospital. Results showed that most patients admitted to this unit were aggressive and many patients self-harmed during the period of study. Few patients were neither aggressive nor self-harming. Patients who self-harmed and behaved

  20. Traditional serrated adenoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Bettington, Mark L; Chetty, Runjan

    2015-07-01

    Although recognized 25 years ago, the traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) remains an ongoing source of diagnostic and biologic debate. Recent research has greatly improved our understanding of the morphological and molecular aspects of these polyps. In particular, the recognition of ectopic crypt foci (ECFs) in combination with typical cytology and slitlike serrations improves diagnostic reproducibility. Awareness that many TSAs, particularly BRAF-mutated TSAs, arise in precursor microvesicular hyperplastic polyps and sessile serrated adenomas can aid in making this diagnosis and should not be confused with a sessile serrated adenoma with dysplasia. At a molecular level, TSAs can be divided into 2 groups based on their BRAF or KRAS mutation status. The development of overt cytologic dysplasia is accompanied by TP53 mutation, Wnt pathway activation, and, in some cases, silencing of CDKN2A. Importantly, however, mismatch repair enzyme function is retained. Thus, the TSA is an important precursor of aggressive molecular subtypes of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:26001333