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Harmful cultural or harmfultraditionalpractices (HTP) have been a concern for the violence against women movement and the health service for a number of years. These forms of violence include female genital mutilation (FGM), prenatal sex selection, child marriage, forced marriage and so-called honour-killings\\/honour based violence (HBV). They are not individual, isolated cases of violence, but expressions of discriminatory
Article 24(3) of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child imposes an obligation on States to abolish traditionalpracticesharmful to the health of children. This article seeks to examine the nature of this obligation, the types of practices to be abolished and the measures required of States to achieve this end. It argues that the prejudice
\\u000a After reading this chapter and answering the discussion questions that follow, you should be able to\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Identify and discuss the origin, types, and prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Critically appraise factors that help to perpetuate the practice of FGM globally.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Review the immediate and long-term consequences of FGM and discuss the various approaches for caring for
Sarah Windle; Chuks Kamanu; Ebere Anyanwu; John E. Ehiri
The harmfulpractices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is widely accepted in the Sudan regardless of educational level. Findings from the 1989-90 Sudan Demographic and Health Survey indicate that a large majority of both men and women approved of the procedure. 73% of men preferred the less harmful "Sunna" type, and 18% preferred infibulation. 4% preferred an intermediate type. Another study found that all the polygynous men with both types of wives preferred non-excised or "Sunna" circumcised women as more sexually responsive and participatory. FGM is part of a continuation of a patriarchal repression of female sexuality. The belief is held among African societies that excision of the clitoris protects a woman from her sexuality by keeping her from temptation, suspicion, and disgrace. FGM occurs mainly in societies that have an absolute and clear requisite of female chastity for marriage. The Islamic view is ambivalent and variable by geographic region. Some physicians defend FGM on "scientific" grounds. The general principle of Islamic education as stated by Shiekh Mahmoud Shaltout of Cairo is that neither "Sunna" nor excision of the clitoris is mandatory. FGM is celebrated as a rite of passage. The practice is disappearing due to education and eradication campaigns. Although unexcised women are considered unclean, the FGM procedure actually interferes with menstruation and escape of urine and results in discomfort and infection. An obstacle to stopping FGM is the fee paid to traditional birth attendants, nurses, and midwives, whose self-interest is to defend the practice. Groups working to eradicate the practice include the Inter-African Committee (since 1984) and the Sudan National Committee on HarmfulTraditionalPractices (since 1985). Campaigns involve education and promotion of alternative employment for birth attendants and midwives. An impact assessment in Sudan in 1994 found that FGM is now publicly discussed, the influence of elders is declining, and the practice is viewed among the most educated as anti-modern. There is a trend toward use of the less harmful "Sunna" method or else a new "false circumcision," where only plaster is placed around the clitoris. PMID:12346471
Traditionalpractices in marriage, such as early and forced marriage, bride price and baad or restorative justice, are common in Afghanistan. These traditionalpractices, as well as the concepts of polygamy, zina and boy preference, can be harmful to Afghan women's physical, mental and social wellbeing. The major study objective is to understand how traditional marriage practices influence Afghan women's
Judging whether a child is suffering or is likely to suffer 'significant harm' has become a critical task for professionals working in the field of child health. Yet little guidance is available about what the phrase means in its entirety or how it should be applied in practice. This study set out to clarify the position by examining how the phrase was used in practice by a selected sample of experienced health and social work staff. The evidence collected suggests flaws in the general approach adopted by professionals to identification and assessment in child protection cases. The data indicate a heavy concentration of attention on the weaknesses of families being assessed rather than their strengths and on parents rather than children. Problems are identified in responding effectively to long-term, chronic abuse such as emotional abuse and neglect. PMID:9495954
There are significant points of similarity between considerations of self-harm and suicide in Buddhist and non-Buddhist traditions, including qualified acceptance of certain forms of self-harm, altruism as a motivation for suicide, and self-immolation as a form of political protest. Differences include specific contexts in which certain forms of self-harm are accepted and the predominant frameworks used to interpret such acts. The integration of Buddhist concepts of dukkha (unsatisfactoriness or suffering) and sati (mindfulness) into Western psychotherapeutic paradigms represents a significant point of convergence between the two traditions, and suggests the possibility of greater dialogue and therapeutic benefit in the future. PMID:21742954
This article discusses the potentially harmfulpractice of utilizing the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as the only tool when diagnosing minority clients with a mental illness. Issues addressed include diagnosing, accuracy, cultural information, revision process, clinical judgment, training, and empirical evidence. A brief discussion of what social workers can do to enhance diagnosing is given, as well
This article discusses the potentially harmfulpractice of utilizing the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as an only tool when diagnosing minority clients with a mental illness. Issues addressed include diagnosing, accuracy, cultural information, revision process, clinical judgment, training, and empirical evidence. A brief discussion of what social workers can do to enhance diagnosing is given, as well
|This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…
This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…
In Africa, certain traditional treatments for eye diseases can produce ocular damage and visual loss. However, many practices do not cause harm, and some may be beneficial. Traditional healers are often valuable resource persons, helping to provide an understanding of cultural beliefs and practices relating to eye disease, and delivering eye care at community level. These matters are discussed below with special reference to conditions in Zimbabwe. PMID:8018276
In 2003 the Government of Cambodia officially began to recognise that harm reduction was an essential approach to preventing HIV among people who use drugs and their sexual partners. Several programs aiming to control and prevent HIV among drug users have been implemented in Cambodia, mostly in the capital, Phnom Penh. However, there have been ongoing tensions between law enforcement and harm reduction actors, despite several advocacy efforts targeting law enforcement. This study attempts to better understand the implementation of harm reduction in Cambodia and how the policy environment and harm reduction program implementation has intersected with the role of law enforcement officials in Cambodia.
Little is studied about traditional healers' perceptions toward and practice of uvulectomy, which is known as a traditional surgical practice mainly in Africa and which sometimes results in severe complications. This study aimed to clarify the perceptions toward and practice of uvulectomy and the other traditional healing practices of traditional healers in a Congolese refugee camp in Tanzania. Interviews were
This study drew upon the knowledge base of member practitioners of the American Psychological Association (APA) to develop a taxonomy of helpful and harmfulpractices for treatment with boys and men. Four hundred seventy-five APA-member practitioners solicited from practice-related divisions provided responses to 4 open-ended questions about helpful and harmfulpractices in working with boys and men. Ten themes emerged from qualitative analyses. Beneficial and sensitive practices included addressing gender socialization and gender-sensitive issues as they apply to boys and men in psychological practice. Harmfulpractices included biased practices, stereotypes, and a lack of awareness and training around gender and diversity issues as they apply to boys and men. We discuss the specific themes that emerged from analysis of the responses, how these findings are situated within previous work examining helpful and harmfulpractices, limitations to the study, suggestions for research, and implications for training psychologists. PMID:23088685
Mahalik, James R; Good, Glenn E; Tager, David; Levant, Ronald F; Mackowiak, Christopher
Objectives We sought to identify factors associated with harmful microinjecting practices in a longitudinal cohort of IDU. Methods Using data from the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS) between January 2004 and December 2005, generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was performed to examine sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with four harmful microinjecting practices (frequent rushed injecting, frequent syringe borrowing, frequently injecting with a used water capsule, frequently injecting alone). Results In total, 620 participants were included in the present analysis. Our study included 251 (40.5%) women and 203 (32.7%) self-identified Aboriginal participants. The median age was 31.9 (interquartile range: 23.4–39.3). GEE analyses found that each harmful microinjecting practice was associated with a unique profile of sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Discussion We observed high rates of harmful microinjecting practices among IDU. The present study describes the epidemiology of harmful microinjecting practices and points to the need for strategies that target higher risk individuals including the use of peer-driven programs and drug-specific approaches in an effort to promote safer injecting practices.
This article suggests new ways of approaching clinical-based research in an era of evidence-based practice. Using the example of self-harm, we identify three distinct problems with current dominant approaches to research in this area. These include insufficient clarity about target issues, an overreliance on predetermined outcomes which prioritise behavioural measures (such as self-harm cessation) and an undue focus on treatment
Moral disagreements often revolve around the issue of harm to others. Identifying harms, however, is a contested enterprise. This paper provides a conceptual toolbox for identifying harms, and so possible wrongdoing, by drawing several distinctions. First, I distinguish between four modes of human vulnerability, forming four ways in which one can be in a harmed state. Second, I argue for the intrinsic disvalue of harm and so distinguish the presence of harm from the fact that it is instrumental to or constitutive of a valued act, practice or way of life. Finally, I distinguish between harm and wrongdoing, arguing that while harm is a normative concept requiring justification, not all harmed states are automatically unjustified. The advantage of this view is that it refocuses the moral debate on the normative issues involved while establishing a common basis to which both sides can agree: the presence of harm to others. PMID:21434956
Special Series on Social Norms and HarmfulPractices Female Genital Mutilation\\/Cutting (FGM\\/C) is still a widespread practice in Ethiopia, although important declines in prevalence rates can be observed in some areas of the country. Attitudes towards the practice have drastically changed, evidenced by the fact that overall support for FGM\\/C has declined and younger mothers are less likely than older
Infant feeding practices, breastmilk and food intake and post-natal growth in Madura,East Java, Indonesia and Machakos, Kenya are described. Breastfeeding is commonly practised. Additional foods are introduced the first week post-partum in Madura and at age 2-3 months in Machakos. Growth started to falter at 2-3 months in Madura but was acceptable during the first 6 months in Machakos. It
The harm reduction approach has become a viable framework within the field of addictions, yet there is limited understanding about how this approach is implemented in practice. For people who are homeless and have co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders, the Housing First model has shown promising results in employing such an approach. This qualitative study utilizes ethnographic methods to explore case managers' use of harm reduction within Housing First with a specific focus on the consumer-provider relationship. Analysis of observational data and in-depth interviews with providers and consumers revealed how communication between the two regarding the consumer's substance use interacted with the consumer-provider relationship. From these findings emerged a heuristic model of harm reduction practice that highlighted the profound influence of relationship quality on the paths of communication regarding substance use. This study provides valuable insight into how harm reduction is implemented in clinical practice that ultimately has public health implications in terms of more effectively addressing high rates of addiction that contribute to homelessness and health disparities. PMID:22520277
Tiderington, Emmy; Stanhope, Victoria; Henwood, Benjamin F
This paper describes associations among delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, and early postpartum morbidity in women in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During November 1993–May 1995, data on delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, delivery-related complications, and postpartum morbidity were collected through interviews with 1,506 women, 489 home-based birth attendants, and audits in 20 facilities where the women from this study gave birth. Associations among maternal characteristics, birth practices, delivery-location, and early postpartum morbidity were specifically explored. Self-reported postpartum morbidity was associated with maternal characteristics, delivery-related complications, and some birthing practices. Dais with more experience were more likely to use potentially-harmful birthing practices which increased the risk of postpartum morbidity among women with births at home. Postpartum morbidity did not differ by birth-location. Safe motherhood programmes must develop effective strategies to discourage potentially-harmful home-based delivery practices demonstrated to contribute to morbidity.
Background Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. Methods We interviewed family members (36) and health workers (8) in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban county. We asked about their traditional beliefs and their behaviour postpartum. We used a framework approach to identify main themes. We categorised reported behaviour against their probable effects on health, drawing on Western standards. Results Respondents reported that zuo yuezi was commonly practiced in urban and rural families to help the mother regain her strength and protect her future health. Zuo yuezi included: dietary precautions, such as eating more food and avoiding cold food; behavioural precautions, such as staying inside the home, avoiding housework and limiting visitors; hygiene precautions, such as restricting bathing and dental hygiene; and practices associated with infant feeding, including supplementary feeding and giving honeysuckle herb to the infant. Respondents reported that the main reasons for adhering to these practices were respect for tradition, and following the advice of elders. Categorised against Western medical standards, several zuo yuezi practices are beneficial, including eating more, eating protein rich food, avoiding housework, and daily vulval and perineal hygiene. A few are potentially harmful, including giving honeysuckle herb, and avoiding dental hygiene. Some women reported giving infants supplementary feeds, although zuo yuezi emphasises breast feeding. Conclusion Zuo yuezi is an important ritual in Fujian. In medical terms, most practices are beneficial, and could be used by health staff to promote health in this period. Further research on reported potentially harmfulpractices, such as supplements to breast feeding, is needed.
Raven, Joanna H; Chen, Qiyan; Tolhurst, Rachel J; Garner, Paul
Background: Injection drug use and other high-risk behaviours are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality and thus have been the focus of many health promotion strategies. Community pharmacists are considered underutilized health providers and are often thought to be more accessible than other health professionals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of community pharmacists' practices as well as pharmacists' attitudes and identified barriers toward providing harm reduction services. We will highlight the major harm reduction services being offered through community pharmacies, as well as identify barriers to implementing these services. Methods: A review of the literature from 1995 to 2011 was conducted using the electronic databases MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus, encompassing pharmacists' involvement in harm reduction services. Keywords included pharmacist, harm reduction, disease prevention, health promotion, attitudes, competence and barriers. References of included articles were examined to identify further relevant literature. Results: Pharmacists are primarily involved in providing clean needles to injection drug users, as well as opioid substitution. Pharmacists generally have a positive attitude toward providing health promotion and harm reduction programs and express some interest in increasing their role in this area. Common barriers to expanding harm reduction strategies in community pharmacists' practice include lack of time and training, insufficient remuneration, fear of attracting unruly clientele and inadequate communication between health providers. Conclusion: As one of the most accessible health care providers, community pharmacists are in an ideal position to provide meaningful services to injection drug users. However, in order to do so, pharmacists require additional support in the form of better health team and system integration, as well as remuneration models.
Background: Injection drug use and other high-risk behaviours are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality and thus have been the focus of many health promotion strategies. Community pharmacists are considered underutilized health providers and are often thought to be more accessible than other health professionals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of community pharmacists' practices as well as pharmacists' attitudes and identified barriers toward providing harm reduction services. We will highlight the major harm reduction services being offered through community pharmacies, as well as identify barriers to implementing these services. Methods: A review of the literature from 1995 to 2011 was conducted using the electronic databases MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus, encompassing pharmacists' involvement in harm reduction services. Keywords included pharmacist, harm reduction, disease prevention, health promotion, attitudes, competence and barriers. References of included articles were examined to identify further relevant literature. Results: Pharmacists are primarily involved in providing clean needles to injection drug users, as well as opioid substitution. Pharmacists generally have a positive attitude toward providing health promotion and harm reduction programs and express some interest in increasing their role in this area. Common barriers to expanding harm reduction strategies in community pharmacists' practice include lack of time and training, insufficient remuneration, fear of attracting unruly clientele and inadequate communication between health providers. Conclusion: As one of the most accessible health care providers, community pharmacists are in an ideal position to provide meaningful services to injection drug users. However, in order to do so, pharmacists require additional support in the form of better health team and system integration, as well as remuneration models. PMID:23509527
|This paper is a response to Maria Andree's paper. Andree tells in the paper how mistakes in practical lessons may be critical events to change students' attitudes in regard science. While traditionally mistakes in practical lessons could obligate students to repeat the experiment in order to get the "right result" in the paper we have a good…
Background Estimating harm rates for specific patient populations and detecting significant changes in them over time are essential if patient safety in general practice is to be improved. Clinical record review (CRR) is arguably the most suitable method for these purposes, but the optimal values and combinations of its parameters (such as numbers of records and practices) remain unknown. Our aims were to: 1. Determine and quantify CRR parameters; 2. Assess the precision and power of feasible CRR scenarios; and 3. Quantify the minimum requirements for adequate precision and acceptable power. Method We explored precision and power of CRR scenarios using Monte Carlo simulation. A range of parameter values were combined in 864 different CRR scenarios, with 1000 random data sets generated for each, and harm rates were estimated and tested for change over time by fitting a generalised linear model with a Poisson response. Results CRR scenarios with ?100 detected harm incidents had harm rate estimates with acceptable precision. Harm reductions of 20% or ?50% were detected with adequate power by those CRR scenarios with at least 100 and 500 harm incidents respectively. The number of detected harm incidents was dependent on the baseline harm rate multiplied by: the period of time reviewed in each record; number of records reviewed per practice; number of practices who reviewed records; and the number of times each record was reviewed. Conclusion We developed a simple formula to calculate the minimum values of CRR parameters required to achieve adequate precision and acceptable power when monitoring harm rates. Our findings have practical implications for health care decision-makers, leaders and researchers aiming to measure and reduce harm at regional or national level.
The modern health risk assessment (HRA) methodology allows the development of the general HRA method applicable to any harmful source (ionizing radiation, harmful chemicals, nanomaterials and others). Specific methods and their simplified versions are developed on the basis of the general method. The main items of this approach to developing HRA methodology (risk indices and calculation formulas, exposure-response dependences, single and extended exposure to a harmful source, risk competition, etc.) are shortly described. The most suitable risk index for elaborating health safety standards (HSSs) and risk comparison on the unique methodological basis in different areas of the human activity are proposed. The approach to the risk standardization (establishment of HSSs and other safety levels) is described. HSSs and other safety levels are sequentially established in this approach according to the scheme: united main universal HSSs --> main branch HSSs --> derivative (secondary) HSSs with practically suitable indices. This approach allows resolution of the actual problem of harmonizing HSSs in different areas of human activity as well as in different countries. The principal role of HRA results in the development and justification of HSSs is shown on the example of developing radiological HSSs. PMID:22568018
Evidence-based nursing practice is essential to the delivery of high-quality care that optimizes patients' outcomes. Studies continue to show improved outcomes when best evidence is used in the delivery of patient care. Despite awareness of the importance of practicing by using best evidence, achieving and sustaining evidence-based practice within practice environments can be challenging, and research suggests that integration of evidence-based practice into daily clinical practice remains inconsistent. This article addresses 4 practice issues that, first, are within the realm of nursing and if changed might improve care of patients and, second, are areas in which the tradition and the evidence do not agree and practice continues to follow tradition. The topics addressed are (1) noninvasive measurement of blood pressure in children, (2) oxygen administration for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, (3) intravenous catheter size and blood administration, and (4) infection control practices to prevent infections. The related beliefs, current evidence, and recommendations for practice related to each topic are described. PMID:23547123
Makic, Mary Beth Flynn; Martin, Sarah A; Burns, Suzanne; Philbrick, Dinah; Rauen, Carol
Background Making health care safer is a key policy priority worldwide. In specialty training, medical educators may unintentionally impact on patient safety e.g. through failures of supervision; providing limited feedback on performance; and letting poorly developed behaviours continue unchecked. Doctors-in-training are also known to be susceptible to medical error. Ensuring that all essential educational issues are addressed during training is problematic given the scale of the tasks to be undertaken. Human error and the reliability of local systems may increase the risk of safety-critical topics being inadequately covered. However adherence to a checklist reminder may improve the reliability of task delivery and maximise harm reduction. We aimed to prioritise the most safety-critical issues to be addressed in the first 12-weeks of specialty training in the general practice environment and validate a related checklist reminder. Methods We used mixed methods with different groups of GP educators (n?=?127) and specialty trainees (n?=?9) in two Scottish regions to prioritise, develop and validate checklist content. Generation and refinement of checklist themes and items were undertaken on an iterative basis using a range of methods including small group work in dedicated workshops; a modified-Delphi process; and telephone interviews. The relevance of potential checklist items was rated using a 4-point scale content validity index to inform final inclusion. Results 14 themes (e.g. prescribing safely; dealing with medical emergency; implications of poor record keeping; and effective & safe communication) and 47 related items (e.g. how to safety-net face-to-face or over the telephone; knowledge of practice systems for results handling; recognition of harm in children) were judged to be essential safety-critical educational issues to be covered. The mean content validity index ratio was 0.98. Conclusion A checklist was developed and validated for educational supervisors to assist in the reliable delivery of safety-critical educational issues in the opening 12-week period of training, and aligned with national curriculum competencies. The tool can also be adapted for use as a self-assessment instrument by trainees to guide patient safety-related learning needs. Dissemination and implementation of the checklist and self-rating scale are proceeding on a national, voluntary basis with plans to evaluate its feasibility and educational impact.
In this paper, we contribute to the ethical challenges of harm reduction-based research by describing and reflecting on our experiences of initiating and maintaining relationships with research participants during an innovative neighbourhood-based study of the social and molecular epidemiology of the hepatitis C virus among injecting drug users over a 2-year period. We show through examples of our work how recruitment to our study had practical value for both researchers and study participants including advocacy and reciprocity. We argue that the recruitment process needed to be flexible, able to cope with the demands of the street drug market, and that we as researchers need to engage participants in their own environments as much as possible. We conclude with a series of recommendations for other researchers such as the need to employ appropriately skilled researchers who are flexible, innovative and comfortable in street settings, and for the setting of realistic time-frames for preliminary research, data collection and feedback and analysis. PMID:16939936
Some have speculated that underutilization of Western health services among non-Western populations can be explained by traditional health beliefs and practices rooted deep within cultures. These beliefs and practices may act as barriers to access to and utilization of services. Among Vietnamese, in particular, a number of traditional health beliefs and practices have been identified which are said to pose
Christopher N. H. Jenkins; Thao Le; Stephen J. McPhee; Susan Stewart; Ngoc The Ha
This national report to IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) contains links to information regarding harmful algal blooms (HABs). Written by Donald Anderson, the report includes: introduction, background, recent trends, physical/biological coupling, small-scale interactions, nutrient dynamics, emerging technologies (molecular probes, remote sensing, models, management issues, and program and policy issues), and a list of references.
Objective To compare the risk of suicide, self harm, and depression in patients prescribed varenicline or bupropion with those prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. Design Prospective cohort study within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Setting 349 general practices in England. Participants 119?546 men and women aged 18 years and over who used a smoking cessation product between 1 September 2006 and 31 October 2011. There were 81?545 users of nicotine replacement products (68.2% of all users of smoking cessation medicines), 6741 bupropion (5.6%), and 31?260 varenicline (26.2%) users. Main outcome measures Outcomes were treated depression and fatal and non-fatal self harm within three months of the first smoking cessation prescription, determined from linkage with mortality data from the Office for National Statistics (for suicide) and Hospital Episode Statistics data (for hospital admissions relating to non-fatal self harm). Hazard ratios or risk differences were estimated using Cox multivariable regression models, propensity score matching, and instrumental variable analysis using physicians’ prescribing preferences as an instrument. Sensitivity analyses were performed for outcomes at six and nine months. Results We detected 92 cases of fatal and non-fatal self harm (326.5 events per 100?000 person years) and 1094 primary care records of treated depression (6963.3 per 100?000 person years). Cox regression analyses showed no evidence that patients prescribed varenicline had higher risks of fatal or non-fatal self harm (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 1.49) or treated depression (0.75, 0.65 to 0.87) compared with those prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. There was no evidence that patients prescribed bupropion had a higher risk of fatal or non-fatal self harm (0.83, 0.30 to 2.31) or of treated depression (0.63, 0.46 to 0.87) compared with patients prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. Similar findings were obtained using propensity score methods and instrumental variable analyses. Conclusions There is no evidence of an increased risk of suicidal behaviour in patients prescribed varenicline or bupropion compared with those prescribed nicotine replacement therapy. These findings should be reassuring for users and prescribers of smoking cessation medicines.
Although the development in advanced medical and public health services has provided both proactive and passive postpartum care in the rural areas, the traditionalpractices are still influential. The objective of this study was to investigate the traditionalpractices and food consuming for Thai postpartum women in the rural areas. The descriptive study used both the quantitative and qualitative methods.
Considerable claims have been made for the development of e-learning, either as stand-alone programmes or alongside more traditional approaches to teaching and learning, for students across school and tertiary education. National initiatives have improved the position of schools in terms of access to hardware and electronic networking, software…
Preschool assessment is a complex process through which children's eligibility for special education services is determined. The assessment process requires decisions based on information gathered at several steps. To make these decisions, teams of professionals and families require information gathered from multiple sources. This article provides an overview of traditional and nontraditional sources of assessment information.
Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. PMID:20006483
Training birth attendants (TBAs) provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training programmes redirected funds to providing skilled attendants during delivery. This study aimed to assess the ways in which a TBA training programme in India has been successful in disseminating evidence-based knowledge on birthing practices. TBAs practicing within 16 villages targeted by training programme initiatives were administered with structured questionnaires. The post training birthing practices of trained (24) and untrained (14) TBAs was compared and birthing practices adopted by women assisted by trained (16) and untrained (9) TBAs was analysed. Positive post training practices were hand washing, use of a clean blade for cutting the cord, immediate breastfeeding and weighing of babies. Nevertheless, the training could be further improved with up to date and evidence-based information and more comprehensive instructions. The findings suggest an integration of local and evidence-based knowledge is needed to improve the training. Raising community awareness of public health measures related to maternal and child health is also recommended. PMID:21555049
The acquisition of soccer skills is fundamental to our enjoyment of the game and is essential to the attainment of expertise. Players spend most of their time in practice with the intention of improving technical skills. However, there is a lack of scientific research relating to the effective acquisition of soccer skills, especially when compared with the extensive research base
This study examines advanced medical students' perceptions of assessment practices and their ways of studying for examinations\\u000a as related to their approaches to learning. This study further validates a cluster model obtained in a previous study through\\u000a medical students' interviews. In this cluster model students were divided into four groups on the basis of their approaches\\u000a to learning. The subjects
Practical examinations in anatomy are usually conducted on specimens in the anatomy laboratory (referred to here as the "traditional" method). Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle™. In this study, we compare student scores between two assessment environments viz. online and traditional environments. We hypothesized that regardless of the examination medium (traditional or online) overall student performance would not be significantly different. For the online medium, radiological images, prosected specimens, and short video clips demonstrating muscle action were first acquired from resources used for teaching during anatomy practical classes. These were optimized for online viewing and then uploaded onto Moodle learning management software. With regards to the traditional format, actual specimens were usually laid out in a circular stream. Identification tags were then attached to specific spots on the specimens and questions asked regarding those identified spots. A cohort of students taking practical examinations in six courses was studied. The courses were divided into three pairs with each pair credit-weight matched. Each pair consisted of a course where the practical examination was conducted online and the other in the traditional format. There was no significant difference in the mean scores within each course pair. In addition, a significant positive correlation between score in traditional and online formats was found. We conclude that mean grades in anatomy practical examination conducted either online or in the traditional format were comparable. These findings should reassure teachers intending to use either format for their practical examinations. PMID:21916021
Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Taranikanti, Varna; Al-Rawahy, Maimouna; Habbal, Omar
Over the past five years CU Physics has engaged in an experimental study of what it means to transform our introductory physics sequence to employ the tools and practices shown to be productive by physics education research. We have previously reported on the successful transformation of the courses to make them student centered, interactive and post high learning gains on conceptual surveys.  In an effort to understand the long-term potential of these course transformations, we now examine what happens when the course is transferred to new faculty. We demonstrate that it is possible to maintain high learning gains with new faculty and find two critical factors that contribute to the sustained success of these course transformations: 1) faculty background and beliefs and 2) particular curricular materials and practices selected to use. We also present a model (the Learning Assistant program) designed for sustaining these reforms and for increasing student interest and retention in teaching.   N.D. Finkelstein and S.J. Pollock, ``Replicating and Understanding Successful Innovations: Implementing Tutorials in Introductory Physics'' Physical Review, Spec Top: Physics Education Research, 1, 010101 (2005).  V.Otero, N.D. Finkelstein, R. McCray, and S. Pollock, ``Who is Responsible for Preparing Science Teachers?'' Science. 313(5786), 445-446 (2006).
In an attempt to assess concepts of disease, we questioned 33 Ethiopian Jews (Falashas) in Ethiopia about 13 diseases: 8 western and 5 cultural syndromes (in the Amharic language): birrd (cold), wugat (stabbing chest pain), moygnbagegn (neurologic disorder), mitch (sunstroke), and attent hono kere (retained fetus becoming bone). Disease causation was often attributed to spirits and the sun. None of the interviewees understood the cause of: a) epilepsy, most attributing it to spirits and recommending smelling match smoke as treatment, b) prolonged labor, attributed by most to the evil kole spirit and is managed by traditional birth attendants; and c) abortion, believed to be caused by exposure to sun or cold. Less than 20% linked malaria to mosquitoes. Most correlated splenomegaly with malaria. Hepatitis was believed to be caused by a bird or bat flying around the affected person. Multiple factors were linked to diarrhea, including a journey in the sun. Moygnbagegn is the only condition treated by venisection from brachial veins; wugat is treated by "cupping". Modern medicine was recommended by < 30% of those questioned for epilepsy, splenomegaly, hepatitis, and Ethiopian cultural diseases. It was recommended most for malaria (52%), sexually transmitted diseases (55%), and diarrhea (69%). PMID:8756985
Seeking new language for the Divine has encouraged Christian and Jewish feminists to explore other religious traditions which are richer in feminine language for God, and in some cases to borrow parts of what they find for their own use. However, these other religious traditions are often socially and politically less powerful, and borrowing their language and practice has ethical
BACKGROUND: Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. METHODS: We interviewed family members (36) and health workers (8) in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban county. We asked about their traditional
Joanna H Raven; Qiyan Chen; Rachel J Tolhurst; Paul Garner
This is a descriptive study of the beliefs and practices of the traditional midwives in a rural Guatemalan village. During pregnancy and birth, traditional midwives who have received minimal or no training attend more than 80% of the indigenous Mayan women. Data were obtained from interviews with the midwives and from direct observation of midwives attending births. The midwives had
|The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives and practices of Xhosa-speaking African traditional healers, known as "amagqirha", in managing psychosis. Four traditional healers, 3 male and one female, were chosen to take part in the study through their association with psychosis patients undergoing treatment at a South African psychiatric…
|This research explored the type of traditional healing practices sought by Muslim psychiatric patients treated at public hospitals of Lahore city, Pakistan. The sample comprised 87 adult psychiatric patients (38% male and 62% female). The patients self-reported on the Case History Interview Schedule that they had sought diverse traditional…
This research explored the type of traditional healing practices sought by Muslim psychiatric patients treated at public hospitals of Lahore city, Pakistan. The sample comprised 87 adult psychiatric patients (38% male and 62% female). The patients self?reported on the Case History Interview Schedule that they had sought diverse traditional healing methods, including Homeopathy, Naturopathy (Tibb), Islamic Faith Healing, and Sorcery,
The traditional and predominant manner of delivering dental care is through a fee-for-service, private practice system. A number of alternative dental care delivery systems have emerged and are being tested, and others are just emerging. These systems include department store practices, hospital dental services, health maintenance organizations, the independent practice of dental hygiene, and denturism. Although it is too soon to draw final conclusions about the efficacy and effectiveness of these systems, we examine them for their potential to compete with and change the way dental care is currently delivered. Using the parameters of cost, accessibility, and quality, we compare these systems to traditional dental practice. Some of these emerging forms clearly have the potential to complete favorably with traditionalpractice. Other seem less likely to alter the existing system substantially. The system which can best control costs, increase accessibility, and enhance quality will gain the competitive edge.
This is an ethnography research using in-depth interviews, informal interview and participated observation approaches to explore the traditionalpractices among postpartum mothers and to analyze how socio - cultural factors influencing these practices in Anthi district, HungYen province, Northern Vietnam. Twenty postpartum mothers, six family members and three commune health workers involved in the study. Content analysis was applied to
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of traditional Chinese fuzzy thinking and its particular effects on human resource management (HRM) practices in mainland China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Semi-structured interviews with practising managers and directors of Chinese companies were used to access the tacit message in HR practices cases and to capture the personal stories provided
Ayahuasca commonly refers to a psychoactive Amazonian indigenous brew traditionally used for spiritual and healing purposes (that is as an entheogen). Since the late twentieth century, ayahuasca has undergone a process of globalization through the uptake of different kinds of socio-cultural practices, including its sacramental use in some new Brazilian religious movements and its commodified use in cross-cultural vegetalismo practices,
This article examines the practices of school psychologists who work within an urban school district. Participants (N = 86) rated 20 specific practices on their current use, their importance, and their level of competence. Overall the school psychologists rated their involvement in traditional assessment activities as significantly more common…
\\u000a This chapter considers pedagogical practices in Hong Kong kindergartens. First, it addresses some macro-level changes which\\u000a have influenced classroom practice. Second, it considers how professional knowledge about early instruction, educational policy\\u000a and traditional cultural beliefs about learning have affected teacher-child interactions. Next, through the use of examples,\\u000a the chapter illustrates current and emerging pedagogical practices in kindergartens and discusses the
This article describes maternal and child care practices among women from India. As in all cultures, certain beliefs exist surrounding what facilitates a good pregnancy and its outcome, as well as negative sanctions. These practices continue to influence many immigrant women to whom western practices are either unknown or unacceptable. An understanding of the traditional belief system of such women can case their adaptation into the Canadian and U.S. health care systems. PMID:9313183
Abstract Objective To investigate adverse events attributed to traditional medical treatments in the Republic of Korea. Methods Adverse events recorded in the Republic of Korea between 1999 and 2010 – by the Food and Drug Administration, the Consumer Agency or the Association of Traditional Korean Medicine – were reviewed. Records of adverse events attributed to the use of traditional medical practices, including reports of medicinal accidents and consumers’ complaints, were investigated. Findings Overall, 9624 records of adverse events attributed to traditional medical practices – including 522 linked to herbal treatments – were identified. Liver problems were the most frequently reported adverse events. Only eight of the adverse events were recorded by the pharmacovigilance system run by the Food and Drug Administration. Of the 9624 events, 1389 – mostly infections, cases of pneumothorax and burns – were linked to physical therapy (n?=?285) or acupuncture/moxibustion (n?=?1104). Conclusion In the Republic of Korea, traditional medical practices often appear to have adverse effects, yet almost all of the adverse events attributed to such practices between 1999 and 2010 were missed by the national pharmacovigilance system. The Consumer Agency and the Association of Traditional Korean Medicine should be included in the national pharmacovigilance system.
This study identified common and unique risk factors for suicidal and self-harming (SSH) behavior in 242 incarcerated young offenders. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation was 19.2% and was 18.2% for self-harm ideation; 8.4% had attempted suicide (44% in detention), and 9.1% had inflicted self-harm in the past 12 months (75% in detention). SSH young offenders reported more severe psychopathology, childhood
This opinion piece addresses concerns about the negative impressions offered by some harm reduction advocates about historical alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment and abstinence-based programs, as well as advocates who would insist that only evidence-based practices be used in AOD treatment.
Malaria remains one of the main causes of mortality among young children in sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria traditional healers play an important role in health care delivery and the majority of the population depend on them for most of their ailments. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of traditional healers regarding causes, symptoms, treatment of uncomplicated malaria and referral practices for severe malaria with a view to developing appropriate intervention strategies aimed at improving referral practices for severe malaria. A qualitative study was carried out in Ugwogo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria, which included in-depth interviews with 23 traditional healers. The traditional healers believed that the treatment of severe malaria, especially convulsions, with herbal remedies was very effective. Some traditional healers were familiar with the signs and symptoms of malaria, but malaria was perceived as an environmentally related disease caused by heat from the scorching sun. The majority of traditional healers believed that convulsions are inherited from parents, while a minority attributed them to evil spirits. Most (16/23) will not refer cases to a health facility because they believe in the efficacy of their herbal remedies. The few that did refer did so after several stages of traditional treatment, which resulted in long delays of about two weeks before appropriate treatment was received. The fact that traditional healers are important providers of treatment for severe malaria, especially convulsions, underlines the need to enlist their support in efforts to improve referral practices for severe malaria. PMID:16762086
This article examines the practices of school psychologists who work within an urban school district. Participants (N = 86) rated 20 specific practices on their current use, their importance, and their level of competence. Overall the school psychologists rated their involvement in traditional assessment activities as significantly more common than consultation\\/collaboration and prevention\\/intervention; however, they indicated consultation and prevention\\/intervention activities
In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmfultraditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmfulpractices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditionalpractices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522
Native Americans have their own unique traditional method of resolving disputes. Their processes, called peacemaking by some tribes, place the emphasis not on the guilt of the wrongdoer, but on restoring relationships and finding a solution that is amenable to all involved. This emphasis on saving the relationship has many similarities to current practices of mediation. Among the similar goals
This review reasserts field research's discovery epistemology. While it occupies a minority position in the study of organization and management, discovery-oriented research practice has a long tradition of giving insight into new, unappreciated and misappreciated processes that are important to how work is accomplished. I argue that while methods discourse has long emphasized that particularizing data and an emergent research
|Practical examinations in anatomy are usually conducted on specimens in the anatomy laboratory (referred to here as the "traditional" method). Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle[TM]. In this study, we compare student scores between two assessment environments viz. online and…
Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Taranikanti, Varna; Al-Rawahy, Maimouna; Habbal, Omar
Maternal mortality, infant mortality and neonatal mortality are high in Pakistan where maternal health services depend upon traditional birth attendants (TBAs). We examined the practices of TBAs in Dadu district in rural Sindh from September to November 1998 by interviewing and hosting focus group discus- sions with 17 TBAs. Health care personnel and other important members of the community were
|There is revival in the use of traditional healing among Canadian Aboriginal communities and the therapeutic benefits of these practices have received much research attention. An argument is repeatedly made for incorporating indigenous healing into clinical interventions, yet recommendations on how this may be accomplished are lacking. The…
The grief and mourning of Muslim citizens in Israel are considered. First, a series of mourning customs spanning the period from notification of death until post-mourning are presented from 3 perspectives: (a) the requirements of the Islamic Sunni tradition; (b) the manner in which Islamic mourning rituals are practiced; and (c) the authors' interpretative perspective. Next, a synopsis of the
A 1-year birth cohort of 1563 infants was seen bi-monthly for the first year of life. They comprised all identified infants born in Jimma town, south-west Ethiopia, in the year starting 1 Meskren 1985 in the Ethiopian calendar (11 September 1992). Growth in infancy is poor in this town, as it is in Ethiopia more generally: mean z-scores for both weight and length were more than 1.5 SD below the median of the NCHS/WHO reference population by 1 year of age, and infant mortality was 115/1000. In this paper we examine the weight gain of singletons in relation to background variables and to traditional nutritional and surgical practices in the families. Confirming work in other areas, sanitation, water supply, the income of the family and the mother's literacy were important determinants of weight gain. Almost all the infants were initially breast fed, and about 80% were still breast fed at 1 year. Many were also given cows' milk from 4 months onwards. Breast feeding had beneficial effects up to 8 months of age, and cows' milk had beneficial effects after 6 months of age. Supplementary feeds of solids and semi-solids were given at appropriate ages, but had no detectable benefit. Water was given inappropriately early, but did no detectable harm. Episodes of diarrhoea, fever or persistent cough each reduced weight gain. Catch-up in weight then took up to 8 months, probably because of the poor nutritional quality of supplementary feeds. The incidences of local traditional operations in the first year were: circumcision 63% in males and 4% in females, uvulectomy 35% and the extraction of milk teeth 38%. Although circumcision had no detectable adverse effect on weight, uvulectomy and milk teeth extraction both reduced weight gain. PMID:9620568
Developing cultural competence is a key requirement for social workers in the multicultural environment of the 21st century. However, the development of social work interventions that are syntonic with specific cultural groups is a great challenge. Interventions that are based on the traditional healing practices of a particular culture ensure cultural relevance and consistency with its values and worldview. This article discusses the importance of culturally based interventions within a cultural competence framework and offers examples of such interventions used with Native Hawaiians. Two interventions are discussed, targeted to the micro (direct practice) level and macro (community practice) level of practice. Culturally based social work interventions may be most appropriate for client systems within a particular culture; however, some methods, such as ho'oponopono, have been successfully used with clients from other cultures as well. PMID:12019805
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Islam as a religion and culture on Turkish women's health. The study included 138 household members residing in the territory of three primary health care centers in Turkey: Güzelbahçe, Fahrettin Altay and Esentepe. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire prepared by a multidisciplinary team that included specialists from the departments of public health, psychiatric nursing and sociology. We found that the women's health behavior changed from traditional to rational as education levels increased, and that religious and traditional attitudes and behaviors were predominant in the countryside, especially practices related to pregnancy, delivery, the postpartum period, induced abortion and family planning. One of the most important prerequisites for the improvement of women's health is that nurses should know the religious practices and culture of the society for which they provide care, so that their efforts to protect and improve women's health will be effective. PMID:16312085
We situate elderly Chinese immigrants’ utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in social contexts (e.g., family and social networks), exploring how TCM is used as a tool, a resource, and a product of meaning-construction in their everyday life. We conducted in in-depth interviews with 20 elderly Chinese immigrants in the United State, exploring the complexity of their understanding and practice
The practice of traditional Aboriginal medicine within Australia is at risk of being lost due to the impact of colonisation. Displacement of people from traditional lands as well as changes in family structures affecting passing on of cultural knowledge are two major examples of this impact. Prior to colonisation traditional forms of healing, such as the use of traditional healers, healing songs and bush medicines were the only source of primary health care. It is unclear to what extent traditional medical practice remains in Australia in 2013 within the primary health care setting, and how this practice sits alongside the current biomedical health care model. An extensive literature search was performed from a wide range of literature sources in attempt to identify and examine both qualitatively and quantitatively traditional medicine practices within Aboriginal Australia today. Whilst there is a lack of academic literature and research on this subject the literature found suggests that traditional medicine practice in Aboriginal Australia still remains and the extent to which it is practiced varies widely amongst communities across Australia. This variation was found to depend on association with culture and beliefs about disease causation, type of illness presenting, success of biomedical treatment, and accessibility to traditional healers and bush medicines. Traditional medicine practices were found to be used sequentially, compartmentally and concurrently with biomedical healthcare. Understanding more clearly the role of traditional medicine practice, as well as looking to improve and support integrative and governance models for traditional medicine practice, could have a positive impact on primary health care outcomes for Aboriginal Australia. PMID:23819729
Culture counts in the prevention and treatment of behavioral ailments. The Native American Health Center (NAHC) has successfully developed a model that incorporates cultural adaptations into EBPs, yet also believes community-defined and practice-based evidence are relevant in the validation of traditionalpractices. American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) traditionalpractices are more than complementary forms of healing. They are stand-alone methods, developed and used by tribal people long before the concept of EBPs existed. There is a need for funders to respect these practices as autonomous mental health strategies. The reasons for promoting change are explained through an understanding of key dimensions of AI/AN behavioral health issues. These key dimensions were identified in the 2001 Surgeon General's Report and an extensive literature review of Indigenous research methodologies. Recommendations are made based upon their ability to promote AI/AN empowerment, to support movement toward self-determination using the Indigenous Research Agenda model. This model honors fluid movement of Indigenous people through states of survival, recovery, development and self-determination through four categories for action: decolonization, mobilization, transformation, and healing. The end results are options for holistic approaches to influence policy changes in the EBP system. PMID:22400463
We situate elderly Chinese immigrants' utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in social contexts (e.g., family and social networks), exploring how TCM is used as a tool, a resource, and a product of meaning-construction in their everyday life. We conducted in in-depth interviews with 20 elderly Chinese immigrants in the United State, exploring the complexity of their understanding and practice of TCM. We used grounded theory to identify the set of meanings that are particular to elderly Chinese immigrants' use of TCM as a part of their health practice. For our participants, TCM is not just a resource for illness management. Instead, incorporating TCM in their health practice allows them to: (a) perform and reaffirm their cultural identity as Chinese, (b) maintain their moral status and fulfill their social roles, and (c) pass down health knowledge and cultural heritage. Clinical implications were discussed. PMID:22160808
Introduction and Aims. This paper discusses the formal dissemination of the School Health and Alcohol Harm Reduction Project (National SHAHRP Dissemination Project) in Australia. The original SHAHRP research programme (SHAHRP study) was assessed previously for effectiveness during a longitudinal research study which followed the student participants over 32 months post-intervention. The SHAHRP study focused on evaluating the behavioural impact of
Nyanda T. McBride; Fiona H. Farringdon; Carol A. Kennedy
The majority of mothers in countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are supported by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) during pregnancy and childbirth. TBAs do more than just deliver babies. As part of the local community they are acquainted with the women and their families with whom they share the cultural ideas about how the birth has to be prepared for and performed. They know the local medicines and rituals which are used before, during and after delivery. The work of the TBAs is adapted and strictly bound to the social and cultural matrix to which they belong, their practices and beliefs being in accordance with the needs of the local community. Therefore they may not be able to assist women at childbirth outside their own socio-cultural environment. Comparison of the practices and beliefs of TBAs in Africa, Asia and Latin America revealed a large variation among the different cultures of the three continents. Surprisingly, in spite of the cultural differences there were clearly some common practices and beliefs which may occur in all three continents. It is assumed that these common practices are due to the expression people give to the basic events of life such as pregnancy, labour and lactation. A short review of common practices is presented as they may be of value in obstetrical practice in the northern countries. PMID:9438474
Assam and Arunachal Pradesh have very rich tradition of herbal medicines used in the treatment of various ailments. Tribal communities practice different types of traditional healing practices. Enough documentation is available on the healing practices in other tribal communities except Mishing community of Assam and foot hill of East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh hence the attempt was made for the same. A survey on folk medicinal plants and folk healers of Mishing tribe was conducted in few places of Lakhimpur and Dhemaji district of Assam and East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, where this ethnic group is living since time immemorial. All information was collected based on interview and field studies with local healers within the community. The identification of medicinal plants collected with help of indigenous healers was done. Such medicines have been shown to have significant healing power, either in their natural state or as the source of new products processed by them. This study is mainly concentrated with plants used to cure diseases and to enquire about different healing systems. Detail note on the method of preparation of precise dose, the part/parts of plants used and method of application is given.
Shankar, Rama; Lavekar, G. S.; Deb, S.; Sharma, B. K.
Starting with this issue, the Editorial duties for the JCI move to Duke University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. As we begin our five-year tenure at the helm of this prestigious journal, the tradition of excellence that these two schools typically display on the basketball court now enters the editorial boardroom.
This paper presents, qualitative findings relating to specific environments hitherto unrecognised as settings used for the injecting-use of illicit drugs in an urban setting. This concerns the temporary appropriation of communal space within high-rise social-housing by injecting drug users (IDU); specifically those settings used by tower-block residents for garbage disposal ('bin chute rooms'). These environments were found to be used on daily, habitual bases by all IDU interviewed during the study. Such settings were found to contribute to a wide range of injecting-related harm and hazard. These findings further debate concerning the negative effect of place on health risk in the context of 'public' injecting drug use. These results are situated within Lefebvre's theoretical framework concerning the 'production of space'. It is contended that the 'representational spaces' shaped by IDU creates a dialectic between wider 'spatial practice' and 'representations of space'. Accordingly, it is further suggested that particular 'spaces' of harm reduction (such as 'safer injecting facilities') should be considered in UK settings in order to address injecting-related harm. PMID:21440483
Background There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Results Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Conclusions Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT and maternal child health programs in India.
To determine: (1) differences in spirituality, religiosity, personality, and health for different faith traditions; and (2) the relative degree to which demographic, spiritual, religious, and personality variables simultaneously predict health outcomes for different faith traditions. Cross-sectional analysis of 160 individuals from five different faith traditions including Buddhists (40), Catholics (41), Jews (22), Muslims (26), and Protestants (31). Brief multidimensional measure of religiousness/spirituality (BMMRS; Fetzer in Multidimensional measurement of religiousness/spirituality for use in health research, Fetzer Institute, Kalamazoo, 1999); NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI; in Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and the NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Costa and McCrae 1992); Medical outcomes scale-short form (SF-36; in SF-36 physical and mental health summary scores: A user's manual, The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, Boston, Ware et al. 1994). (1) ANOVAs indicated that there were no significant group differences in health status, but that there were group differences in spirituality and religiosity. (2) Pearson's correlations for the entire sample indicated that better mental health is significantly related to increased spirituality, increased positive personality traits (i.e., extraversion) and decreased personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness). In addition, spirituality is positively correlated with positive personality traits (i.e., extraversion) and negatively with negative personality traits (i.e., neuroticism). (3) Hierarchical regressions indicated that personality predicted a greater proportion of unique variance in health outcomes than spiritual variables. Different faith traditions have similar health status, but differ in terms of spiritual, religious, and personality factors. For all faith traditions, the presence of positive and absence of negative personality traits are primary predictors of positive health (and primarily mental health). Spiritual variables, other than forgiveness, add little to the prediction of unique variance in physical or mental health after considering personality. Spirituality can be conceptualized as a characterological aspect of personality or a distinct construct, but spiritual interventions should continue to be used in clinical practice and investigated in health research. PMID:22618413
Johnstone, Brick; Yoon, Dong Pil; Cohen, Daniel; Schopp, Laura H; McCormack, Guy; Campbell, James; Smith, Marian
People's attitudes to cancer and its treatment are influenced by the patient's and his family's faith, beliefs, societal traditions, and cultural taboos and stigmatism. In most Middle Eastern countries Islam is the dominant religion, yet there are differences as to people's acceptance of cancer, starting with the realization of the diagnosis and the subsequent treatment planning. In many societies in the Middle East, patients prefer that their families will be the first to know about the disease and to agree to the planned treatment protocols. Whereas in Western societies the patient is usually the first to know, understand, and agree to the proposed therapeutic procedures; this is not the case in various Muslim societies. Health care professionals have to accept these kinds of practices and find ways to cope with their patients' sensitivities, thereby preserving their dignity and faith. PMID:21952578
This study examines how Hawaiian adolescents' knowledge of and beliefs in traditional Hawaiian cultural practices were associ- ated with the ethnic background of their mother and father. Data from a community sample of 2,607 Hawaiian adolescents from five high schools on three islands in the state of Hawaiÿi were used. The outcome of Hawaiian beliefs and cultural practices were measured
Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5%) of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7) of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR) = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6) and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2) showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9) and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6). Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and information on its occurrence, human brucellosis is most likely misdiagnosed for other febrile diseases prevailing in the areas and treated empirically. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that bovine brucellosis is widely prevalent in the study areas particularly in pastoral production system. Hence, the study suggests the need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on prevention methods of brucellosis.
The internet is widely used for health information and support, often by vulnerable people. Internet-based research raises both familiar and new ethical problems for researchers and ethics committees. While guidelines for internet-based research are available, it is unclear to what extent ethics committees use these. Experience of gaining research ethics approval for a UK study (SharpTalk), involving internet-based discussion groups with young people who self-harm and health professionals is described. During ethical review, unsurprisingly, concerns were raised about the vulnerability of potential participants. These were dominated by the issue of anonymity, which also affected participant safety and consent. These ethical problems are discussed, and our solutions, which included: participant usernames specific to the study, a closed website, private messaging facilities, a direct contact email to researchers, information about forum rules displayed on the website, a 'report' button for participants, links to online support, and a discussion room for forum moderators. This experience with SharpTalk suggests that an approach to ethics, which recognises the relational aspects of research with vulnerable people, is particularly useful for internet-based health research. The solutions presented here can act as guidance for researchers developing proposals and for ethics committees reviewing them. PMID:21947802
A psychosocial care project for Tibetan torture survivor's and other Tibetan refugees suffering from psychological distress was opened in Dharamsala, North India in 1995 by a western non-government organisation (NGO) in collaboration with the Tibetan government-in-exile. The clinic explicitly sought to integrate western and local traditional approaches to healing. The aim of the present study was to examine the views of key stakeholders of the project in the context of broader cultural and social issues faced by exiled Tibetans. Twenty individual interviews were conducted with 'officials' (members of the Tibetan government-in-exile, religious leaders, other community leaders, and senior medical staff), the staff of the project (Tibetan and western) and the clients themselves. The interviews were taped, transcribed, and analysed using a grounded theory approach. All interviewees considered that mental health was an important issue and that awareness of psychological health in the community had improved since the initiation of the project. Clients and staff of the project, and some of the 'officials', believed that it provided a much-needed service and that it effectively and sensitively combined western psychological approaches with local cultural and religious beliefs and practices. However, a majority of the 'officials' felt that mental health issues were not a top priority in the competing health needs of the community, and that other ways of dealing with such problems (using traditional approaches or local health services) were adequate. Given these and other factors, the longer-term sustainability of the project appears to be a major challenge. According to the users and providers interviewed, the current project has developed an important and beneficial psychosocial support service. However, the continuing debate amongst community leaders regarding the place and future of the project suggests the importance of accommodating the views and priorities of all local stakeholders--and focusing on sustainability and capacity building of relevant community members--from the outset of such projects. This includes acknowledging the perceived threat to traditional beliefs and coping strategies--particularly in the context of wider socio-cultural disruption--posed by initiatives seeking to integrate western intervention approaches with local healing resources. PMID:15482877
Mercer, Stewart W; Ager, Alastair; Ruwanpura, Eshani
With our rapidly ageing population there is an urgent imperative to minimise the rate of falls and associated injuries. A key challenge to public health is to better conceptualise and contextualise falls prevention evidence for more effective policy making and practice. This paper describes how NSW Health adopted the Nutbeam and Bauman Stages of Research and Evaluation Model in the strategic development of the NSW Health Plan for Prevention of Falls and Harm from Falls Among Older People: 2011-2015. Research evidence has been comprehensively applied to every stage of the development of the Plan and research and evaluation is a key action area within the new Plan. The Stages of Research and Evaluation Model provides a useful overarching framework for policy makers to contextualise and more effectively apply research evidence throughout the policy making process from problem definition to program monitoring. PMID:21632003
The aim of the study was to investigate the beliefs and practices of caregivers and traditional healers within the South African Muslim community regarding Down syndrome. An exploratory-descriptive research design was utilized which incorporated individual interviews with 10 caregivers of persons with Down syndrome as well as 10 traditional healers from the South African Muslim community. Common beliefs emanating from both groups relating to the cause of Down syndrome included the notion that this condition was genetic in origin and that such children were perceived to be gifts from God. Others attributed Down syndrome to a punishment from God or the result of curses from people. Treatment included the use of inscriptions from the Quraan, water that had been prayed over and herbal medicines. Some caregivers seemed reluctant to approach western health care professionals due to negative past experiences. The main reasons for consulting traditional healers were cultural beliefs and pressure from family members, their holistic approach and the personal nature of their interventions. Collaboration between allopathic medicine and traditional healing was advocated by almost all of the traditional healers. These findings underline the need for culturally sensitive rehabilitation practices in speech-language pathology and audiology; and collaboration between western health care practitioners and traditional healers. PMID:20218488
Traditional healers have been an established source of health care delivery in Africa for centuries while Christian religious healers (193 traditional healers and 99 Christian religious healers) with respect to infertility and some other fertility-related issues. The findings show that both types of healers believe that infertility is most commonly due to the past life of the woman, physical problems related to the womb or to male potency, and imcompatibity between the man and the woman. Traditional healers also believed that being bewitched or being cursed can lead to infertility. Both groups of healers threat infertility by sacrifices, prayer and fasting, and timing of intercourse to coincide with the fertile period. Also 61% of traditional healers and 87% of religious healers advice their-clients with infertility to do nothing at least initially. To those clients seeking advice on preventing pregnancy, traditional healers tend to recommend herbal concoctions, beads and rings while Christian healers tended to recommend condoms, withdrawal method and the safe period. Both groups are consulted on premarital sex, premarital conception, sex during pregnancy and influencing the sex of an unborn baby. It was concluded that both traditional healers and Christian faith healers are involved with infertility and other fertility-related issues in their practices. There is an overlap in beliefs about causes and treatment of such conditions among both groups although areas of differences in beliefs and practices are clearly identifiable. PMID:10456130
According to the SFDA guideline on Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) for traditional Chinese medicine, a cultivation study of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) was conducted at Shouyang County Shanxi province, P. R. China. The geographic climate characteristics and social impact at the production sites was investigated. Moreover the ambient air quality, soil environment quality, soil fertility and processing water quality was
Simon Kwong; Guixing Rent; Alan Yeung; Rufa Lin; Fang Shan; Hongmei Le
|The history of education, as taught in the United States and in the West generally, has focused primarily on how Western educational tradition emerged. This book provides a brief overview of several non-Western approaches to educational thought and practice. An understanding of how other peoples have educated their children, as well as what…
This study considered traditional ethno-medicinal practices of rural people of Feni district, Bangladesh, focusing on their utilization of medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. Ninety households were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Plant resources are used to treat 26 different ailments ranging from simple cuts to diabetes. In total, 46 medicinal plants are as used, of which a third are
Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Masao Koike; Nur Muhammed; Narayan Saha; Hajime Kobayashi
|With the growth of Web 2.0 library intranets in recent years, many libraries are leaving behind legacy, first-generation intranets. As Web 2.0 intranets multiply and mature, how will traditional intranet best practices--especially in the areas of planning, implementation, and evaluation--translate into an existing Web 2.0 intranet infrastructure?…
|Evaluates the effectiveness of an interactive computer-assisted learning program for undergraduate students that simulates experiments performed using isolated, everted sacs of rat small intestine. The program is designed to offer an alternative student-centered approach to traditional laboratory-based practical classes. Knowledge gain of…
English Powerful voices are currently insisting that policy and practice must be based on research evidence, and that social science inquiry should be reformed in order to serve this need more effectively. An influential figure in the evidence-based practice movement is Sir Iain Chalmers, previously director of the UK Cochrane Centre. Taking evidence-based medicine as his model, he presents the
This paper explicates the term, "harm reduction"; demonstrates that harm reduction has a long tradition; and uses one country, Australia, as a case study. Harm reduction can be understood as "policies and programs which are designed to reduce the adverse consequences of mood altering substances without necessarily reducing their consumption"; it is consistent with the best traditions of both medicine and public health. Although it is difficult to interpret trends in mortality from alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs to determine whether harm reduction in Australia "worked", the effectiveness of harm-reduction policies and programs in controlling HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) seems extremely strong and suggests that benefits of harm-reduction programs for other drugs will become apparent in time.
|This collection of papers presents essays by German scholars and practitioners writing from within the German Didaktik tradition and interpretive essays by U.S. scholars. After an introduction, "Starting a Dialogue: A Beginning Conversation between Didaktik and the Curriculum Traditions" (Stefan Hopmann and Kurt Riquarts), there are 18 chapters…
Information is presented on a study designed to gather details about the services provided by clinical dental hygienists in traditional and nontraditional settings. The 10 research topics addressed include: services provided by the clinical RDH in the traditional and nontraditional setting; time allocated for such services; how patients are…
Self-harm refers to a person's harming their own body on purpose. About 1 in 100 people hurts himself ... hurt themselves than males. A person who self-harms usually does not mean to kill himself or ...
This discussion article contributes to ethics reform by introducing the contribution of religious, spiritual, and traditional beliefs and practices to both subject vulnerability and patient improvement. A growing body of evidence suggests that religious, spiritual, and traditional beliefs and practices may provide positive benefits, although in some cases mixed or negative consequences to mental and physical health. These beliefs and practices add a new level of complexity to ethical deliberations, in terms of what ignoring them may mean for both distributive justice and respect for persons. International ethical guidelines need to be created that are expansive enough to cover an array of social groups and circumstances. It is proposed that these guidelines incorporate the religious, spiritual, and/or traditional principles that characterize a local population. Providing effective mental healthcare requires respecting and understanding how differences, including ones that express a population's religious, spiritual, or traditional belief systems, play into the complex deliberations and negotiations that must be undertaken if researchers are to adhere to ethical imperatives in research and treatment.
NOLAN, JENNIFER A.; WHETTEN, KATHRYN; KOENIG, HAROLD G.
This discussion article contributes to ethics reform by introducing the contribution of religious, spiritual, and traditional beliefs and practices to both subject vulnerability and patient improvement. A growing body of evidence suggests that religious, spiritual, and traditional beliefs and practices may provide positive benefits, although in some cases mixed or negative consequences to mental and physical health. These beliefs and practices add a new level of complexity to ethical deliberations, in terms of what ignoring them may mean for both distributive justice and respect for persons. International ethical guidelines need to be created that are expansive enough to cover an array of social groups and circumstances. It is proposed that these guidelines incorporate the religious, spiritual, and/or traditional principles that characterize a local population. Providing effective mental healthcare requires respecting and understanding how differences, including ones that express a population's religious, spiritual, or traditional belief systems, play into the complex deliberations and negotiations that must be undertaken if researchers are to adhere to ethical imperatives in research and treatment. PMID:22439296
Nolan, Jennifer A; Whetten, Kathryn; Koenig, Harold G
The ever-presence of traditional medicine and of medical practitioners in remote areas of the world is well documented by anthropological studies. However, the social, cultural, and environmental factors influencing health and traditional health systems have been analyzed separately, ignoring the interlinkages existing between them and the resulting synergies as well as the impact these will have on the multiple aspects of local communities. This case study attempts to overcome this shortcoming, by investigating the interrelationships between biodiversity conservation and the practice of ethnomedicine in Southern India as a basis to implement primary health care, enhance local livelihoods, and contribute to poverty alleviation through community-based entrepreneurial activities. PMID:20353924
Concepts of place, narrative, tradition, and identity are employed in a conservative reading of the Texas A&M Bonfire. Texas A&M embodied regional narratives of a dual Southern commitment to economic and technological development and conservation of traditional cultural. Institutionalized at Texas A&M in the late nineteenth century, these narratives made a paradoxical place. Bonfire expressed and obscured this paradox. In
The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS recommend male circumcision (MC) as an additional intervention against HIV infection. Various sub-Saharan African countries are at different stages of rolling out MC programmes. Despite initial fears, studies conducted among traditionally non-circumcising communities in Africa have shown that MC is widely accepted as a biomedical intervention. However, little is known on how traditionally circumcising communities where MC carries considerable social meaning and significance would respond to such programmes. This study was conducted among a traditionally circumcising community in Tarime district in Tanzania as part of a national situation analysis prior to initiating a national MC programme. It employed key informant interviews and focus group discussions for data collection. Results show that the Kurya ethnic group practice MC as a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood. Each clan organises its own circumcision ceremony, which takes place every even numbered years. Clan leaders and traditional circumcisers are central to its organisation. Among the Kurya, there is high regard for traditional MC as it is perceived as upholding cultural practice and identity. It also embodies notions of bravery since anaesthetics are not used. On the other hand, medical MC is not viewed as prestigious since anaesthetics are used to suppress pain. Social pressure for traditional MC is applied through ridiculing of those uncircumcised or circumcised at health facilities. In general, there are positive attitudes towards MC as it is perceived as enhancing personal hygiene and having a protective effect against sexually transmitted infections. For the success of nation-wide MC programmes, there is need to develop programmes that incorporate both clinical and sociocultural interests. PMID:21476151
|The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…
Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.
The traditional medical system of a small Bahamian island is explored through a health survey of 83% of the population and an analysis of the activities and materials of the two main native health ‘professionals’ — the healing specialist and the ‘herbalist’. The present findings suggest that the Bimini medical system has historically been efficacious in the treatment and management
This article describes a research study comparing the scores on online versus traditional examinations in a gross anatomy course. The authors hypothesis was that there would not be a difference between modes of testing on performance. Methods and outcomes are discussed.
The study carried out within the target population of a Primary Care Project in Lagos, Nigeria, found that some changes had occurred. The traditional length of abstinence has decreased, and more women now resume sex before termination of breast-feeding. This should give rise to some concern especially if the level of adoption of modern contraception does not rise correspondingly. Other
This paper analyses a sample of online discussions to evaluate the development of adult learners as reflective practitioners within a networked learning community. The context for our study is a blended learning course offering post-experience professional training to non- traditional university students. These students are parents and carers of people with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). We use Lave and Wenger's
Overseas Chinese entrepreneurs in East Asia have achieved notable success in a number of traditional, slow growth industries. This success has been ascribed to distinctive aspects of Chinese business culture that favor alacrity, adaptability, networking, and close control of firm operations. Recently, some have suggested that the same characteristics that have promoted these firms' success in slower growth sectors may
David Ahlstrom; Michael N. Young; Eunice S. Chan; Garry D. Bruton
As the diversity in the patient population is growing, there is also an increasing number of diverse caregivers. Among them are the Filipino health care providers, most of whom are nurses. Understanding the culture, health care beliefs, and practices of Filipino nurses is important, as it affects the way they assess the needs and provide care for their clients. This
This paper introduces Interactive Documentary as a new production paradigm. Research objectives are (1) to engage documentary practice with emerging media technologies in an open data space; (2) to prototype tools to facilitate cyclical authoring among a contributors’ community. Interactive Documentary is here defined as a media production model with interactive author functions for constructing a narrative voice as a
|Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…
The authors propose that best practices in music education require a conceptual understanding of music teaching and learning based on a perspective of social justice and equitable access for all students. Examinations of the relationship between the tenets of culturally-responsive teaching and three dimensions of music teaching and learning (musical content, instruction, and context) are presented: (1) historically, through the
Marsha Kindall-Smith; Constance L. McKoy; Susan W. Mills
The purpose of this study was to examine the practices of two teachers who had chosen to use the social network site (SNS) Ning to create online classrooms as supplements to their physical classrooms in order to bridge the self and school-selected literacies of adolescents. The study further aimed to identify whether the ways in which the teachers were using
|The authors propose that best practices in music education require a conceptual understanding of music teaching and learning based on a perspective of social justice and equitable access for all students. Examinations of the relationship between the tenets of culturally-responsive teaching and three dimensions of music teaching and learning…
Kindall-Smith, Marsha; McKoy, Constance L.; Mills, Susan W.
Harmful algae are a worldwide problem. Phycotoxins is a general term for toxic compounds produced by harmful species of the phytoplankton. This review deals with the occurrence of harmful algae and phycotoxins in the Baltic Sea and other domestic waters, the ways of getting exposed to them, and their effects. Advice on how to avoid the exposure is provided. PMID:21834336
This online newsletter gives a brief summary of societal impacts of harmful algal blooms and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) project, a group funded by NOAA to forecast harmful algal blooms (HABs) along the Washington coast. The site includes colorful SeaWiFS (satellite) images of the coast during upwelling events.
In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way such behavior is defined in an Aboriginal context. A continuation of certain "traditional" cultural forms of self-harm behavior was evident in participant definitions, notably the practice of female hair cutting, also described as a mourning ritual, which appears to serve as a marker both to the individual and others. PMID:19527158
Despite the fact that plants have played an important role in midwifery in many cultures, there are very few in-depth studies on the plants traditionally used by midwives. The aim of this study is to analyse the perceptions and the uses of medicinal plants for reproductive health among indigenous midwives in the city of Otavalo, Ecuador. The article also aims to analyse the perceptions of traditional midwives regarding allopathic drugs for reproductive health and their possible overlapping uses of medicinal plants and allopathic drugs. The data are drawn from an ethnographic study carried out in Ecuador. In total, 20 traditional midwives have been interviewed. Individual and in-depth interviews also took place with a sample of 35 women as well as with five nurses and two doctors working at San Luis Hospital in Otavalo. The study shows that cultural health management and the incorporation of the beliefs and practices relating to women's reproductive health can represent a starting point towards the search for more successful strategies in reproductive health. PMID:22877763
Wildfires are an important natural process in southern California, but they also present a major hazard for human life and property. The region leads the nation in fire-related losses, and since 2001, wildfires have damaged or destroyed more than 10,000 homes. As human ignitions have increased along with urban development and population growth, fire frequency has also surged, and most home losses occur in large fires when ignitions coincide with Santa Ana windstorms. As the region accommodates more growth in the future, the wildfire threat promises to continue. We will thus explore how a broader, more comprehensive approach to fire management could improve upon traditional approaches for reducing community vulnerability. The traditional approach to mitigating fire risk, in addition to fire suppression, has been to reduce fuel through construction of fuel breaks. Despite increasing expenditure on these treatments, there has been little empirical study of their role in controlling large fires. We will present the results of a study in which we constructed and analyzed a spatial database of fuel breaks in southern California national forests. Our objective was to better understand characteristics of fuel breaks that affect the behavior of large fires and to map where fires and fuel breaks most commonly intersect. We found that fires stopped at fuel breaks 22-47% of the time, depending on the forest, and the reason fires stopped was invariably related to firefighter access and management activities. Fire weather and fuel break condition were also important. The study illustrates the importance of strategic location of fuel breaks because they have been most effective where they provided access for firefighting activities. While fuel breaks have played a role in controlling wildfires at the Wildland Urban Interface, we are evaluating alternative approaches for reducing community vulnerability, including land use planning. Recent research shows that the amount and spatial arrangement of human infrastructure, such as roads and housing developments, strongly influences wildfire patterns. Therefore, we hypothesize that the spatial arrangement and location of housing development is likely to affect the susceptibility of lives and property to fire. In other words, potential for urban loss may be greatest at specific housing densities, spatial patterns of development, and locations of development. If these risk factors can be identified, mapped, and modeled, it is possible that vulnerability to wildfire could be substantially minimized through careful planning for future development - especially because future development will likely increase the region’s fire risk. To address these possibilities, we are evaluating past housing loss in relation to land use planning, in conjunction with other variables that influence fire patterns. We are also exploring alternative future scenarios to identify optimum land use planning strategies for minimizing fire risk.
A consumer study was conducted to determine the most popular beef seasonings used in three countries: Argentina, United States (US), and Spain. Once the typical cooking methods and seasonings in these countries were established, descriptive analysis was used to determine the differences in the main flavor attributes, particularly the impact on beef characteristics, of the samples. Large variations were found in the consumer practices in the studied countries, and the preferred seasonings from each country were identified. This study showed that on average US consumers would prefer beef products with more initial flavor impact, brown/roasted and salty characteristics than Argentinian or Spanish consumers. The addition of seasonings changed some of the main beef attributes, but the changes were dependent on the cooking method. Beef identity (Beef ID), brown/roasted, and bloody/serumy were the attributes most affected when adding different seasonings. PMID:22910805
Vázquez-Araújo, L; Chambers, E; Adhikari, K; Hough, G; Carbonell-Barrachina, A A
This paper reviews the importance of traditional natural resources management practices in Ghana. It highlights the roles of traditional beliefs, taboos and rituals in the management and conservation of key natural resources in the country. The paper is based on desk studies undertaken as part of anthropological studies conducted in the forest-savanna transitional agroecological zone of Ghana to study the
Students share folk beliefs that make it difficult for them to understand inequality, especially the harmful consequences of social practices they routinely engage in, are attached to, and take for granted. Four of these beliefs include: (a) harm is direct, extreme, and the product of an individual's intentions; (2) harm is the product of the…
The Task force for Skin Care for All: Community Dermatology seeks to meet WHO objectives, to draw attention to the role of Traditional Health Practitioners and to develop integrated skin care. In many African countries patients will first use traditional medicine to treat skin diseases. Many traditionalpractices are beneficial but some are harmful. The Task Force recommends education of traditional and modern health practitioners to improve collaboration, safety and efficacy. Thereby, it aims to improve skin care and to reinforce the best practices. PMID:21506973
The term self-harm is commonly used to describe a wide range of behaviours and intentions including attempted hanging, impulsive self-poisoning, and superficial cutting in response to intolerable tension. As with suicide, rates of self-harm vary greatly between countries. 5-9% of adolescents in western countries report having self-harmed within the previous year. Risk factors include socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychiatric illness--particularly depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders. Cultural aspects of some societies may protect against suicide and self-harm and explain some of the international variation in rates of these events. Risk of repetition of self-harm and of later suicide is high. More than 5% of people who have been seen at a hospital after self-harm will have committed suicide within 9 years. Assessment after self-harm includes careful consideration of the patient's intent and beliefs about the lethality of the method used. Strong suicidal intent, high lethality, precautions against being discovered, and psychiatric illness are indicators of high suicide risk. Management after self-harm includes forming a trusting relationship with the patient, jointly identifying problems, ensuring support is available in a crisis, and treating psychiatric illness vigorously. Family and friends may also provide support. Large-scale studies of treatments for specific subgroups of people who self-harm might help to identify more effective treatments than are currently available. Although risk factors for self-harm are well established, aspects that protect people from engaging in self-harm need to be further explored. PMID:16243093
Background Avian influenza (AI) can be highly pathogenic and fatal. Preventive behavior such as handwashing and wearing face masks has been recommended. However, little is known about what psychosocial factors might influence people's decision to adopt such preventive behavior. This study aims to explore risk perception and other factors associated with handwashing and wearing face masks to prevent AI. Methodology/Principal Findings An interviewer-administered survey was conducted among 352 traditional market workers and shoppers in Taiwan between December 2009 and January 2010. Factors associated with the recommended AI preventive behavior (i.e., when in a traditional market, wearing a face mask and also washing hands after any contact with poultry) included: having correct knowledge about the fatality rate of AI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?4.18), knowing of severe cases of AI (AOR?=?2.13), being informed of local AI outbreaks (AOR?=?2.24), living in northeastern Taiwan (AOR?=?6.01), having a senior high-school education (AOR?=?3.33), and having a university or higher education (AOR?=?6.86). Gender interactive effect was also found among participants with a senior high-school education, with males being less likely to engage in the recommended AI preventive behavior than their female counterparts (AOR?=?0.34). Conclusions/Significance Specific information concerning AI risk perception was associated with the recommended AI preventive behavior. In particular, having correct knowledge about the fatality rate of AI and being informed of severe cases and local outbreaks of AI were linked to increased AI preventive behavior. These findings underscore the importance of transparency in dealing with epidemic information. These results also have practical implications for prevention and policy-making to more effectively promote the recommended AI preventive behavior in the public.
Background Mental health problems are a major public health concern worldwide. Evidence shows that African communities, including Uganda, use both modern and traditional healing systems. There is limited literature about the magnitude of psychological distress and associated factors among attendees of traditional healing practices. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among attendees of traditional healing practices in two districts in Uganda. Methods Face-to-face interviews with the Lusoga version of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) were carried out with 400 patients over the age of 18 years attending traditional healing in Iganga and Jinja districts in Eastern Uganda. Patients were recruited consecutively in all the traditional healers' shrines that could be visited in the area. Persons with 6 or more positive responses to the SRQ were identified as having psychological distress. Prevalence was estimated and odds ratios of having psychological distress were obtained with multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 387 questionnaire responses were analyzed. The prevalence of psychological distress in connection with attendance at the traditional healers' shrines was 65.1%. Having a co-wife and having more than four children were significantly associated with psyclogical distress. Among the socioeconomic indicators, lack of food and having debts were significantly associated with psychological distress. The distressed group was more likely to need explanations for ill health. Those who visited both the healer and a health unit were less likely to be distressed. Conclusion This study provides evidence that a substantial proportion of attendees of traditional healing practices suffer from psychological distress. Associated factors include poverty, number of children, polygamy, reason for visiting the healer and use of both traditional healing and biomedical health units. These findings may be useful for policy makers and biomedical health workers for the engagement with traditional healers.
In Hong Kong, statutory regulation for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners has been implemented in the past decade. Increasing use of TCM on top of biomedicine (BM) services by the population has been followed; but corresponding policy development to integrate their practices has not yet been discussed. Using focus group methodology, we explore policy ideas for integration by collating views from frontline BM (n = 50) and TCM clinicians (n = 50). Qualitative data were analyzed under the guidance of structuration model of collaboration, a theoretical model for understanding interprofessional collaboration. From focus group findings we generated 28 possible approaches, and subsequently their acceptability was assessed by a two round Delphi survey amongst BM and TCM policy stakeholders (n = 12). Consensus was reached only on 13 statements. Stakeholders agreed that clinicians from both paradigms should share common goals of providing patient-centered care, promoting the development of protocols for shared care and information exchange, as well as strengthening interprofessional connectivity and leadership for integration. On the other hand, attitudes amongst policy stakeholders were split on the possibility of fostering trust and mutual learning, as well as on enhancing innovation and governmental support. Future policy initiatives should focus on these controversial areas.
Chung, Vincent C. H.; Ma, Polly H. X.; Lau, Chun Hong; Griffiths, Sian M.
BACKGROUND: 'Sitting month' is the Chinese tradition for postpartum customs. Available studies indicate that some of the traditional postpartum practices are potentially harmful for women's health. However, no intervention study aiming at postpartum practices has been performed. In this paper we evaluated the effect of a health and nutrition education intervention, which focused on improving postpartum dietary quality and optimal
This online textbook contains detailed information about harmful algal blooms (HABs). Topics include HAB related health hazards, general information about HABs, and taxonomic information regarding different harmful algae. The site also features links to specific aforementioned topic-related sites and maps of observed blooms in Europe and North America, Florida datasets, and historical/real-time data produced by NOAA. It also contains color photographs related to HABs.
Stewart, Robert R.; Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University
|Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…
Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…
The harm that each individual causes others is unverifiable in some circumstances where the total harm caused by everyone is verifiable. For example, the environmental agency can often measure the total harm caused by pollution much easier than it can measure the harm caused by each individual polluter. In these circumstances, implementing the usual liability rules or externality taxes is
We propose Remote Harm-Diagnostics (RHD) as a new de- fensive tactic against malware and phishing attacks. RHD is a server-side tool that harvests data from clients to detect signs of previous or ongoing compromise. RHD can sup- plement client-side protections such as virus checkers and anti-phishing toolbars. Given its \\
Edna Graneli and Jefferson T. Turner, Editors;Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 189; Springer; ISBN 3540322094; 413 pp.; 2006; $195 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) affect commercially and recreationally important species, human health, and ecosystem functioning. Hallmark events are the visually stunning blooms where waters are discolored and filled with ichthyotoxin-producing algae that lead to large fish kills. Of most concern, however, are
This comprehensive NOAA pdf file contains in depth information about harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States. The article contains general information about HABs, location-based assessments of HABs, and case studies of the problem. The article features color photographs of affected areas.
This article reports on the findings of two evaluations of a major charity's learning from providing ‘non-traditional’ social work placements with young people at risk of social exclusion. The article challenges the terminology of ‘non-traditional’ and ‘non-social work’ placements and examines the potential of these placements in the current social work curriculum and in the light of the recommendations of
Helen Scholar; Su McCaughan; Hugh McLaughlin; Allison Coleman
This article reports on the findings of two evaluations of a major charity's learning from providing ‘non-traditional’ social work placements with young people at risk of social exclusion. The article challenges the terminology of ‘non-traditional’ and ‘non-social work’ placements and examines the potential of these placements in the current social work curriculum and in the light of the recommendations of
Helen Scholar; Su McCaughan; Hugh McLaughlin; Allison Coleman
The primary aim of this article is to explore and describe the production and consumption of homemade alcohol and its associated challenges in relation to implications for social work practice. Qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was ideal and purposive and snowball sampling methods were used in this research. Data was collected through interviews with brewers and consumers of homemade alcoholic beverages. It was found that foreign substances are put into homemade alcoholic beverages for commercial reasons in an attempt to address social exclusion. PMID:24066633
Michigan's Appellate Court ruled in 2004 that a pregnancy that resulted from a rape should be considered a bodily injury for sentencing purposes. Interestingly, all three possible outcomes of a pregnancy-abortion, miscarriage, or childbirth-are considered to bring with them significant and substantial physical, psychological, and emotional changes. While the immediate impact of the ruling in People v. Cathey affected only the guilty individual, there are larger implications for this ruling beyond just sentencing guidelines. The ruling can be considered a step forward in prosecuting rapists, but possibly at the expense of reimagining the female body. This article considers the Cathey ruling itself, the potential benefits and consequences of this understanding on feminist discourse, and, crucially, the impact of this decision on abortion discussions. The central question that emerges is, can we both consider pregnancy a harm and believe that this harm is not always wrong-making? PMID:22643758
Teaching unit investigates differences between toxic and non-toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs), where they occur in U.S. waters, causative phytoplankton species, technologies for detecting blooms, which organisms in the food web are affected and how, effects of specific toxins on humans. Five lessons contain: background and glossary; instructions for classroom and lab activities; online data; web links for further study. Lessons are aligned to teaching standards.
|Superintendent leadership can influence student achievement and with the alarming gap between the academic achievement of traditionally marginalized students and their peers, superintendents have an ethical duty to lead their districts in closing these achievement gaps. Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2001) suggested that to have a more…
Traditional extension has been a top down process: scientists developed products and methods which, following promulgation by extension agencies, farmers were expected to adopt. Extension agents considered farmers who failed to adopt new techniques to be recalcitrant and irrational. Farmers' attitudes and their lack of knowledge were considered to be the main barriers to adoption. Little consideration was given to
The vast majority of the medicinal plants in Chile have been studied from a pharmacological point of view. These studies, although giving important insights into the understanding of the Mapuche’s traditional medicine in terms of the therapeutical value of the plants, fail, however, to portray the numerous sociocultural and symbolic aspects of this form of medicine. This article aims to
Text VersionHarm reduction in nicotine addiction Helping people who can't quit ... 236 Harm reduction in nicotine addiction CASAA Dissolvables - Attachment 7 2 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
The harm thesis—the assumption that words harm people—is a defining feature of sexual harassment, hate speech, verbal abuse, and obscene telephone call (OTC) offenses. This thesis ignores the possibility that swearing can be advantageous, cathartic, or an acceptable substitute for physical aggression. Observational data, courtroom evidence and verbal abuse research reviewed here produce conflicting conclusions on the question of harm.
\\u000a Resumen El trabajo que se describe a continuación procura comparar las aspiraciones, los conocimientos, la practica el entrenamient\\u000a de los educadores infantiles de tres diferentes escuelas: Montessori, traditional, y Preschool Playgroups (PPA), y relata\\u000a practicas relacionadas con las investigaciones actuales. La información se obtuvo a traves de un cuestionario, el cual fúe\\u000a enviado a los educadores infantiles donde se incluyen temas
|Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…
Five West African communities were visited to assess the knowledge of the cause of malaria and to document traditional ways of treating and preventing the infection. Knowledge of the cause of malaria was low in the five communities visited. People were more concerned about mosquitoes being a nuisance than a cause of the infection. Various herbs were used as mosquito repellents. Malaria was treated by a number of traditionalpractices, including herbal remedies. Bednets were used to a varying extent, from 44% Ghana to 86% Gambia, in each community to protect against mosquito bites but also for other purposes such as privacy, decoration and protection from roof debris dropping on the bed. PMID:8170007
|We investigated curricular conditions and educational practices that influenced the development of life-long learning orientations among 405 undergraduate students. Results suggest that growth in life-long learning orientations was facilitated by instruction that included opportunities for reflection, active learning, and perspective-taking and…
Mayhew, Matthew J.; Wolniak, Gregory C.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
Traditionally, schools have turned to zero tolerance policies when dealing with student discipline and punishment. However, it is argued that zero tolerance policies are not only ineffective, but also harmful to students because the policies hinder schools' ability to be democratic spaces. Nonetheless, schools are turning to alternatives to these policies, such as restorative practices, which are thought to resolve
This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four
Alexandra Evans; Sherman Chow; Rose Jennings; Jayna Dave; Kathryn Scoblick; Katherine Regan Sterba; Jennifer Loyo
This case study sought to understand the meaning of restoring traditional weaving as an occupation among Karen women from Burma who now live in an urban city in the United States and to examine the impact of weaving on their daily lives in terms of identity, empowerment, social support, and opportunities for entrepreneurship. The story of one Karen woman, Paw Law Eh, is described. Her story exemplifies the negative consequences of restricted access to familiar and meaningful daily activities, or "occupations", the relationship between occupation and self-identity, how participation in valued occupations can enhance social networks, and the restorative effects that are possible when engagement in meaningful occupations are maintained or restored. Her story demonstrates that occupational therapists have the skills and opportunity to contribute significantly to the well-being of Karen women by supporting the restoration of the occupation of weaving. PMID:23531562
This article investigates music in the concentration camps before the second world war. For the camp authorities, ordering prisoners to sing songs or play in orchestras was an instrument of domination. But for the prisoners, music could also be an expression of solidarity and survival: inmates could retain a degree of their own agency in the pre-war camps, despite the often unbearable living conditions and harsh treatment by guards. The present article emphasizes this ambiguity of music in the early camps. It illustrates the emergence of musical traditions in the pre-war camps which came to have a significant impact on everyday life in the camps. It helps to overcome the view that concentration camp prisoners were simply passive victims. PMID:20845575
This study investigates 122 people's descriptions of their self-harm experiences using thematic analysis. Analysis revealed four themes: What counts as self-harm, What leads to self-harm, Intentions and Managing stigma. Our participants challenged commonly accepted understandings in terms of method, outcome and intentions. Several difficulties associated with discriminating between suicidal and non-suicidal self-harm were highlighted, which may be important in clinical practice. Few participants mentioned diagnosed psychiatric disorders; they best understood self-harm through their social experiences. Focusing on social understandings of self-harm may help reduce associated stigma and barriers to help-seeking. PMID:23540517
An inventory study into the ethno-veterinary medicine and traditional management practices and the extent of their adoption in the management of small ruminants by farmers in Edo State, Nigeria was carried out. Three hundred and fifty (350) small ruminant farmers randomly chosen from the seven (7) randomly selected local government areas in the state were used for the study. Data pertaining to farmers' background information, small ruminant acquisition and rearing as well as the ethno-veterinary medicines (EVMs) adopted were collected through a scheduled interview where structured questionnaires were administered. Data collected were used in the computation of ethno-veterinary medicine use indices (EVMUIs) and were subjected to simple statistical analysis. Results showed that 60.5% of the farmers interviewed were male while 39.4% were females and 56.9% of them were above 40 years old. About 60% of the farmers had between primary and secondary education, while 33.1% have no formal education and about 86% had little or no exposure to mass media. Thirty-seven (37) different EVMs/Traditionalpractices were identified. Based on their EVMUIs, 11 or 29.73% were highly used, 9 or 24.32% were moderately used while 17 or 45.95% were poorly used by farmers. Materials identified were noted to be locally available and were fully discussed. It is concluded that EVMs practices are actually adapted to the culture and socio-economic realities of resource poor farmers and means of spreading the knowledge among small scale farmers should be encouraged. PMID:19412741
Crop production, animal husbandry and forestry are three closely interlinked components of land use systems in the mountains of Nepal. Forests are the major source of fuel wood, construction materials, fodder and litter. The latter is used as a bedding material for livestock and forms an important component of farmyard manure. In addition forest grazing by cattle is a common practice. Excessive extraction of biomass from the forest leads to a decline of soil organic matter and nutrient contents. On the landscape scale these negative effects will partly be compensated by positive effects on soil organic matter and nutrient stocks of arable soils. The experimental data base for a quantification of such effects at the scale of communities is however poor, in particular for Nepal. Understanding the impact of subsistence farming on ecosystems is imperative in order to recommend successful and sustainable land management practices. The aim of our study is to quantify effects of land use on carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes for mountain communities in Nepal. Results of a case study in the buffer zone area of the Sagarmatha National Park are presented. The potential vegetation comprises mixed forests of Quercus semicarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Tsuga dumosa. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil and vegetation were quantified for three different land use types, namely: forest with low human impact, forests with high human impact and agricultural land. The scale of disturbance of the forests has been classified by visual estimation considering the percentage of litter raked, number of lopped trees, and grazing intensity assessed by signs of trampling and the number of trails. After stratification of the community area, 20 plots of 10 m radius were established (17 forest plots, 3 plots for arable land) where biometric data of the vegetation were determined and sub-samples were taken for chemical analyses. Organic layers (litter remaining after litter raking) and soil samples were collected (volumetric sampling of geometric horizons down to 1 m depth). Fluxes of carbon and nitrogen from the forests were accounted by combining results of sub samples of biomass extracted by local people during the field survey and information on amounts and source areas provided by the farmers. Also the amount of carbon and nutrients applied with farmyard manure and the extraction by harvest was determined for the arable land. First estimates of carbon and nitrogen cycling at the community level and on impacts on soil status will be presented.
There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that regular consumption of camel milk may aid in prevention and control of diabetes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of camel milk as an adjuvant therapy in young type 1 diabetics. This 16-week randomized study enrolled 54 type 1 diabetic patients (average age 20 years) selected from those attending the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Menofia University Hospital, affiliated with Egypt's National Cancer Institute. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 27 patients: one received usual management (diet, exercise, and insulin), whereas the other received 500 mL of camel milk daily in addition to standard management. A control group of 10 healthy subjects was also assessed. The following parameters were evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 16 weeks: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), human C-peptide, lipid profile, serum insulin, anti-insulin antibodies, creatinine clearance, albumin in 24-hour urine, body mass index, and Diabetes Quality of Life score. The following parameters were significantly different between the usual-management group versus the camel milk group after 16 weeks: fasting blood sugar (227.2 +/- 17.7 vs. 98.9 +/- 16.2 mg/dL), HbA1c (9.59 +/- 2.05[%] vs. 7.16 +/- 1.84[%]), serum anti-insulin antibodies (26.20 +/- 7.69 vs. 20.92 +/- 5.45 microU/mL), urinary albumin excretion (25.17 +/- 5.43 vs. 14.54 +/- 5.62 mg/dL/24 hours), daily insulin dose (48.1 +/- 6.95 vs. 23 +/- 4.05 units), and body mass index (18.43 +/- 3.59 vs. 24.3 +/- 2.95 kg/m(2)). Most notably, C-peptide levels were markedly higher in the camel milk group (0.28 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.30 +/- 0.51 pmol/mL). These results suggest that, as an adjunct to standard management, daily ingestion of camel milk can aid metabolic control in young type 1 diabetics, at least in part by boosting endogenous insulin secretion. PMID:19459752
Models used to study harmful algal blooms are a subset of those used to examine more general planktonic processes. Most models have been heuristic, examining the likelihood of certain processes generating a harmful algal bloom. Several models have been more closely coupled to field data and have been used to gain insights into the dynamics underlying the observations. As better
This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention. PMID:22706889
Background: Patients admitted to hospital because of self-harm should receive psychosocial assessment before discharge. In practice many of these assessments in the United Kingdom and elsewhere are undertaken by trainee rather than specialist psychiatrists. Aims: To compare psychosocial assessments, aftercare, and the pattern of non-fatal repetition for patients admitted to general hospital after self-harm: comparing assessments carried out by trainee
The US Institute of Medicine's focus on patient safety has motivated hospital administrators to facilitate a culture of safety. As a result, subcommittees of the pharmacy and therapeutics committee have emerged in many hospitals to focus on adverse events and patient safety. Antimicrobial harms have gained the attention of practicing clinicians and hospital formulary committees, because they top the list of drugs that are associated with adverse events and because of certain serious harms that have ultimately led to the withdrawal of some antimicrobial agents. In the near future, several antimicrobials in the late phase of development will become available for clinical use (ceftobiprole, ceftaroline, and telavancin), and others (doripenem and dalbavancin) have recently joined the armamentarium. Because new antimicrobials will become part of the treatment armamentarium, it is important to discuss our current understanding of antimicrobial harms in general. Although not thought of as traditional adverse events, Clostridium difficile infection and development of resistance during therapy are adverse events that occur as a result of antimicrobial exposure and therefore are discussed. In addition, a distillation of our current understanding of ?-lactam specific adverse events will be provided. Finally, new methods of administration are being evaluated that may influence peak concentration-related antimicrobial adverse events.
Summary 1. The public debate about genetically modified organisms has concentrated largely on concerns about food safety and potential risks to the environment. In both cases there appears to be an assumption that existing crops and animals are safe. I discuss the experience we have to date from traditional methods and conclude that most concerns about environmental harm are more
To counter the negative effects of a product-harm crisis, brands hope to capitalize on their equity, and often use advertising\\u000a as a communication device to regain customers’ lost trust. We study how consumer characteristics and advertising influence\\u000a consumers’ first-purchase decisions for two affected brands of peanut butter following a severe Australian product-harm crisis.\\u000a Both pre-crisis loyalty and familiarity are found
Kathleen Cleeren; Marnik G. Dekimpe; Kristiaan Helsen
The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM), a regional veterinary college for Maryland and Virginia, has a long and unique tradition of encouraging careers in public and corporate veterinary medicine. The VMRCVM is home to the Center for Public and Corporate Veterinary Medicine (CPCVM), and each year approximately 10% of the veterinary students choose the public/corporate veterinary medicine track. The faculty of the CPCVM, and their many partners from the veterinary public practice community, teach in the veterinary curriculum and provide opportunities for students locally, nationally, and internationally during summers and the final clinical year. Graduates of the program work for government organizations, including the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as in research, in industry, and for non-governmental organizations. Recent activities include securing opportunities for students, providing career counseling for graduate veterinarians interested in making a career transition, delivering continuing education, and offering a preparatory course for veterinarians sitting the board examination for the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. As the VMRCVM moves forward in recognition of the changing needs of the veterinary profession, it draws on its tradition of partnership and capitalizes on the excellence of its existing program. Future plans for the CPCVM include possible expansion in the fields of public health, public policy, international veterinary medicine, organizational leadership, and the One Health initiative. Quality assurance and evaluation of the program is ongoing, with recognition that novel evaluation approaches will be useful and informative. PMID:18723808
Retained rectal foreign bodies are most commonly seen in homosexuals and after assault. A few have been reported after self-treatment of anorectal conditions and prostatic massage. Harmfultraditional medical practices have been reported in many communities in Africa but therapeutic anal insertion of foreign bodies for the management of haemorrhoids is rare. We present a patient with features of peritonitis following insertion of a wine bottle into his rectum in an attempt to manage his prolapsed haemorrhoids. PMID:24065516
India has an ancient heritage of traditional medicine. The materia medica of India provides a great deal of information on the folklore practices and traditional aspects of therapeutically important natural products. Indian traditional medicine is based on various systems including Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. The evaluation of these drugs is primarily based on phytochemical, pharmacological, and allied approaches including various
Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process. PMID:16360791
The purpose of the victim impact statement (VIS) is to inform judges of victims' crime-related physical, psychological, and financial harms. Findings from interviews with Canadian sexual assault victims, advocates, victim services workers, and prosecutors (N = 37) demonstrated that harm descriptions were manipulated by victims and others in keeping with, and contrary to, VIS design. Victims and prosecutors purposed the VIS to inform court outcomes through harms claims and struggles over those claims. The repurposing of harms claims occurred through practices of strategic disclosure, intended to effect changes in others' behaviors, and harm peddling, the circulation of the VIS in nonsentencing arenas. Victims, adversaries, and criminal justice professionals engaged in harm peddling to obtain compensation, child custody, and parole delay. Implications of purposing and repurposing harms claims include novel opportunities and legal pitfalls for victims, varied responses by judges, and an expansion of social control over victims and offenders. PMID:24122518
|Four articles address traditional mediation in library services, including the librarian as mediator, the reference librarian as information intermediary, recommitment to patrons' information needs, and mediation in reference service to extend patron success. (87 references) (LRW)|
Objective To study the nature of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in children and to identify the associated factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting Child Guidance Clinic attached to the Department of Pediatrics of a teaching hospital in South India.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects Children with history of deliberate self harm who were referred to the CGC for psychological evaluation during a 10 year period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Children and parents were interviewed together and
This paper argues that the rules that constitute a market protect autonomy and increase welfare in healthcare. Markets do the former through protecting rights to self-ownership and a cluster of rights that protect its exercise. Markets protect welfare by organizing and protecting trades. In contrast, prohibition destroys legitimate markets, giving rise to so-called black markets that harm both the autonomy and well-being of agents. For example, a fee-for-service medical system is a highly developed and specialized market. It is individuals working together, through the division of labor, to provide mutual insurance. This coordination, and the benefits it makes possible, is not possible without injunctions against harm. Prohibitions on harm are not mere ethical niceties, they are practice rules for both healthcare and markets. Placing the doctor within a healthcare market actually reinforces the doctor's moral obligation, and the legal enforcement of that obligation, not to harm. Similarly, markets reinforce patient rights to self-determination through legal and institutional enforcement of the harm principle in the form of the protection of certain basic welfare rights to life, bodily integrity, property, trade, and contract. Since the establishment of markets protects agent autonomy and welfare, and prohibition directly harms the same, there are strong reasons for establishing markets to protect trade in precisely those areas where autonomy and well-being are most vulnerable to exploitation, for example, the trade in human kidneys. PMID:20799051
... to Women - Return from War - PTSD and Communities - PTSD Research - Mobile Apps - Páginas en Español - Videos - Web Links ... section of our website: Self-Harm and Trauma: Research Findings Date Created: See last Reviewed/Updated Date below. PTSD Site Map | Public Section | Professional Section | About Us: ...
Introduction: Self-harm is a direct, socially unacceptable, repetitive behavior that causes minor to moderate physical injury without suicidal intent. It is also a significant and growing concern among prison inmates, although it has been rarely studied. In the present study, we aimed to investigate demographic, psychosocial, and clinical variables associated to this critical bahaviour in a high risk sample of 1,555 male prisoners. Methods: Prisoners were interviewed about their history of self-mutilation, psychiatric history, and forensic history. The prisoners completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: Eighteen percent of prisoners had a history of self-harm. They more frequently reported childhood traumas, were more likely to be unmarried, previously imprisoned, tested positive for substance abuse, had a history of suicide attempt, and more likely showed violent tendencies. Discussion: Self-harm among prisoners is common, being found in ~20% of the subjects in our sample. Self-mutilation among prisoners appears to be multi-factorial with developmental, socio-demographic, psychiatric, and personality determinants. Conclusion: Self-harm is associated with critical behaviors such as violence, substance abuse and suicide attempts, which represent major critical problems in contention environments. PMID:21450166
When Edgster Dijkstra wrote his paper Go To Statements Considered Harmful, programmers were lost in millions of lines of spaghetti code. Now programmers have lost their way again---this time amidst thousands of unread resumes. Between 2000 and 2004, the percentage of incoming computer science freshmen fell by 60%. Drop rates of 30--50% are common. Results are similar for the other
Primarily through the use of engaging graphics, this resource outlines where Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occur in U.S. waters. It also addresses the differences between toxic and non-toxic HABs, which organisms in the food web are affected, how specific toxins work and the symptoms associated with them, and the causative phytoplankton species.
Auto-aggressive individuals have a higher likelihood of engaging in interpersonal violence, and vice versa. It is unclear, however, whether ward circumstances are involved in determining whether aggression-prone patients will engage in auto-aggressive or outwardly directed aggressive behavior. The current study focuses on the situational antecedents of self-harming behavior and outwardly directed aggression of psychiatric inpatients. Inwardly and outwardly aggressive behavior were monitored on a locked 20-bed psychiatric admissions ward for 3.5 years with the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R). A map of the ward was attached to each SOAS-R form, enabling staff members to specify locations of aggressive incidents. Time of onset, location, and provoking factors of auto-aggressive incidents were compared to those connected to aggression against others or objects. Of a total of 774 aggressive incidents, 154 (20%) concerned auto-aggressive behavior. Auto-aggression was significantly more prevalent during the evening (i.e., 50% compared to 32%), and reached its highest level between 8 and 9 P.M. (17% compared to 7%). The majority of self-harming acts (66%) were performed on patients' bedrooms. Outwardly directed aggression was particularly common in the day-rooms (24%), the staff office (19%), the hallways of the ward (14%), and the dining rooms (10%). Provoking factors of auto-aggressive behavior are less often of an interactional nature compared to outwardly directed aggression. The results suggest that a lack of stimulation and interaction with others increases the risk of self-injurious behavior. Practical and testable measures to prevent self-harm are proposed. PMID:12079033
Harm-reduction interventions and policies have emerged as viable strategies to ameliorate the adverse health, social, or economic consequences associated with injection-related behaviors. Highlights the common principles central to harm- reduction practice, based on a public health model. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)
The current anti-doping policy ('war on doping') resembles the 'war on drugs' in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent.The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping. PMID:22788912
The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent. The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping.
This page explains some of the harmful effects of acid rain on people, forests, lakes and streams, and infrastructure (buildings, monuments). Topics include ground-level ozone and respiratory diseases in people, removal of nutrients from soil and plant leaves or needles, acidification and release of aluminum into lakes and streams, and corrosion of stone and metal in buildings and monuments. Links to a glossary are embedded in the text.
Harm reduction therapy was originally developed as a nonabstinence-based method of treating people with drug and alcohol problems. In this article, we describe and apply the principles and practices of harm reduction therapy in community settings, places where people congregate for nontherapeutic reasons-street corners, community drop-in centers, needle exchanges, and primary care clinics. Low-threshold welcome and flexible session arrangements are defining characteristics of this community-based approach. We have been instrumental in developing several programs, three of which are described here. These programs work with more than 1,000 clients per year, with varying levels of intensity. The programs offer drop-in or sidewalk sessions, drop-in support groups, regular therapy appointments, and psychiatric medications. Many impressive outcomes, such as reduction of harmful drug use, stabilization of psychiatric problems, and permanent housing, are found each year. PMID:20066694
On the basis of the harm reduction movement's founding texts from the beginning of the 1990s, this paper reflects the movement's self-understanding in contrasting itself with the system of punitive prohibition. Following this is a discussion of the implications for drug users of harm reduction claims-making. The paper concludes that the principles of the harm reduction movement resonate extremely well with the moral sensibilities of our contemporary societies, and but that the movement's claims for an amoral, rational, just, and emancipating approach to drug use are to be seen rather as a powerful rhetorical intervention in the highly moralised landscape of drug debate than something that would be achieved in practice. PMID:17689349
This Project Oceanography pdf document contains information and activities related to red tide and harmful algal blooms (HABs). The activities and lesson plans are designed for elementary school, middle school, and may be adapted for high school students. Articles include: harmful algal blooms, Florida red tide, implications of harmful algal blooms, and student information about harmful algal blooms. Activities are introduced with background information and include: "Growing Algae" and "Algal Explosion." The document also features activity extension projects and a glossary of terms.
The goal of nursing care is to promote health and reduce harm caused by injury, disease, or poor self-care. Harm reduction is a public health model, which is gaining popularity as an effective modality to help persons reduce the negative consequences associated with their drug use. The harm reduction model blends well with the core principles of nursing. When viewed
Diverse lines of evidence point to a basic human aversion to physically harming others. First, we demonstrate that unwillingness to endorse harm in a moral dilemma is predicted by individual differences in aversive reactivity, as indexed by peripheral vasoconstriction. Next, we tested the specific factors that elicit the aversive response to harm. Participants performed actions such as discharging a fake
Fiery Cushman; Kurt Gray; Allison Gaffey; Wendy Berry Mendes
This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…
Neuropathic pain affects between 5% and 10% of the US population and can be refractory to treatment. Opioids may be recommended as a second-line pharmacotherapy but have risks including overdose and death. Cannabis has been shown to be effective for treating nerve pain without the risk of fatal poisoning. The author suggests that physicians who treat neuropathic pain with opioids should evaluate their patients for a trial of cannabis and prescribe it when appropriate prior to using opioids. This harm reduction strategy may reduce the morbidity and mortality rates associated with prescription pain medications.
Interbody fusion has become a mainstay of surgical management for lumbar fractures, tumors, spondylosis, spondylolisthesis and deformities. Over the years, it has undergone a number of metamorphoses, as novel instrumentation and approaches have arisen to reduce complications and enhance outcomes. Interbody fusion procedures are common and successful, complications are rare and most often do not involve the interbody device itself. We present here a patient who underwent an anterior L4 corpectomy with Harms cage placement and who later developed a fracture of the lumbar titanium mesh cage (TMC). This report details the presentation and management of this rare complication, as well as discusses the biomechanics underlying this rare instrumentation failure.
Klezl, Zdenek; Bookland, Markus J.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Rezek, Zdenek; Gokaslan, Ziya L.
Many harms of racial isolation are addressed in court proceedings on school desegregation. Although thefocus of these harms has traditionally been on students in schools and school districts (racial and ethnic percentages), increasing attention is now being given to teachers (staff stabillty, quality, absenteeism, and experience). The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of teacher transfer requests, using
Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology.\\u000a Drawing from Agnew’s (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects\\u000a of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation. The data come from a school-based\\u000a survey
This review describes research literature involved with efforts at collaboration between traditional African healers (TAHs) and biomedical practitioners in HIV\\/AIDS interventions in Southern Africa, The paper draws on academic texts including published and unpublished research papers, books and reports, and press comments on the subject. The focus is on Southern African literature, but selected texts from elsewhere on the continent
Assessing for the risk of self-harm in acute care is a difficult task, and more information on pertinent risk factors is needed to inform clinical practice. This study examined the relationship of 6 forms of implicit cognition about death, suicide, and self-harm with the occurrence of self-harm in the future. We then attempted to develop a model using these measures of implicit cognition along with other psychometric tests and clinical risk factors. We conducted a prospective cohort of 107 patients (age > 17 years) with a baseline assessment that included 6 implicit association tests that assessed thoughts of death, suicide, and self-harm. Psychometric questionnaires were also completed by the patients, and these included the Beck Hopelessness Scale (Beck, Weissman, Lester, & Trexler, 1974), Barratt impulsiveness scale (Patton, Stanford, & Barratt, 1995), brief symptom inventory (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1983), CAGE questionnaire for alcoholism (Ewing, 1984), and the drug abuse screening test 10 (Skinner, 1982). Medical and demographic information was also obtained for patients as potential confounders or useful covariables. The outcome measure was the occurrence of self-harm within 3 months. Implicit associations with death versus life as a predictor added significantly (odds ratio = 5.1, 95% confidence interval [1.3, 20.3]) to a multivariable model. The model had 96.6% sensitivity and 53.9% specificity with a high cutoff, or 58.6% sensitivity and 96.2% specificity with a low cutoff. This scale shows promise for screening emergency department patients with mental health presentations who may be at risk for future self-harm or suicide. PMID:23647043
Randall, Jason R; Rowe, Brian H; Dong, Kathryn A; Nock, Matthew K; Colman, Ian
Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements) of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their safety has recently been questioned due to potential adverse effects on vascular disease which may increase mortality. For example, the findings from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (currently published in abstract form only) revealed that the use of calcium supplements was associated with an ~30% increased risk of myocardial infarction. If high levels of calcium are harmful to health, this may alter current public health recommendations with regard to the use of calcium supplements for preventing osteoporosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest information from human observational and prospective studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses related to the effects of calcium supplementation on vascular disease and related risk factors, including blood pressure, lipid and lipoprotein levels and vascular calcification.
The results of a survey administered to 806 undergraduate students serve as the basis for analyzing the relationships among traditional gender roles, same-sex intimacy, and homophobia. High levels of homophobia and low levels of intimacy were found among those who believe strongly in the traditional roles. Previous research has shown both homophobia and a lack of intimacy to be harmful
BackgroundThe Chinese postpartum custom of “confinement” or “doing-the-month” involves formalised social support and recognition of the status of motherhood and has been presumed in anthropological literature to protect mothers of newborns from postpartum depression. The aim of this review was to examine systematically the evidence about the relationship between confinement practices and postpartum depression in Chinese cultures.
|This study examined a unique professional development model and its contribution to teachers' practice. The study also sought to understand the process of teacher learning as teachers made fundamental changes in their teaching. The new model of professional development was implemented in the context of the Social Forestry, Education and…
Singapore is an island republic of 616 km2. Four main ethnic groups make up its population of 2.4 million; these are the Chinese, Malays, Indians and others. Singapore's successful housing, industrialization and modernization programmes have caused tremendous changes in the lifestyles and expectations of the people. This very success has rendered some traditional customs impractical and irrelevant. Older Indians and Malay women still chew betel-nut. During the Hindu Thaipusam ceremony a traditionalpractice of dental interest is the piercing of devotees' cheeks and tongues with slivers of silver. There is no pain, bleeding or permanent tissue damage. The Chinese pick their teeth, crack melon seeds and scrape their tongues every morning. They also drink large quantities of unsweetened tea. Yet they remain caries-prone. Singaporeans have recently adopted the practice of eating at all hours of the day and night. This may have a bearing on their future caries state. Singapore has two categories of dental practitioner: the graduate and the registered but unqualified dentist who is invariably of Chinese descent. The swaged metal crown over sound and diseased tooth structure is frequently the unfortunate trademark of the latter. Often abscesses and cysts develop beneath these crowns. Successful dental health programmes have produced a DMFT of 2.8 in 12-year-old children, which betters the DMF target of 3.0 set by WHO for the year 2000. The progressive outlook of Singaporeans may eventually reduce further the number of traditionalpractices which are harmful to oral health. PMID:6597130
Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children.
As the articles in the recent special issue on harm reduction illustrate, the last decade has seen an impressive expansion of harm reduction in public health. Policies and programs using it have dramatically improved the formerly ignored health problems of marginalized populations. This article looks at the history of harm reduction, and the growing role that the medicalization of social
This paper criticises John Harris's attempts to defend an account of a ‘harmed condition’ that can stand independently of intuitions about what is ‘normal’. I argue that because Homo sapiens is a sexually dimorphic species, determining whether a particular individual is in a harmed condition or not will sometimes require making reference to the normal capacities of their sex. Consequently,
|Background: Repeated self-harm in adolescents is common and associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm there have been few systematic reviews of the topic. Aims: The main aim of this article is to review randomised controlled…
|Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…
It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewedas the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food iscurrently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept ofharm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the HarmPrinciple a plausible political principle, so this principlecannot be used to justify existing regulation; and (b) that evenif the
Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are an expanding problem in coastal Texas. Nearly ¿ of the known harmful algal blooms along the Texas coast have occurred in the past ten years and have led to significant resource and tourism losses. For example, there are at least two types of toxic...
Land degradation control is crucial in croplands located in semiarid lands, due to its low soil formation rate, above all in slope fields. This study is located in the South East of Madrid (Spain), in a vineyard at 800 masl under Mediterranean semiarid climatic conditions, with an average slope of 14%. We studied the impact of traditional tillage measuring runoff and soil loss in plots in two critical moments of the vineyard crop: summer with dry soil, and fall when tillage is done in order to facilitate the infiltration of winter rainfal?s water. Three treatments were tested in nine erosion plots (4m x 0,5m): traditional tillage ("till"); Brachypodium distachyon (L.) ("bra") allowing self-sowing; Secale cereale ("sec"), mown in early spring. Short (15 minutes) but intense (2,16 mm/min) simulated rainfalls were carried out at each plot: The simulated rainfalls made in summer over the vineyard tilled in spring ("till") produced little runoff (41 ml min-1; erosion rate of 0.24 g m-2) and it lasted 6 min from the start of the shower, it was due to the roughness and because the soil was near its wilting point. The low erosion rate is attributable to the sealing of soil after the rains occurred in spring. In treatments with plant cover runoff began earlier, at the 3rd minute. The average runoff was 516 and 730 ml min-1 and erosion rates were 3.04 g m-2 and 1.41 g m-2 in "bra" and "sec" respectively. There were significant differences (F = 31.6, P <0.001) in runoff coefficient between the three treatments with the highest ratio shown in "sec". The average runoff coefficients obtained were 16% in "sec", 13% in "bra" and 1.4% in "till". Moreover two simulated rainfalls were carried out in autumn in order to test the effect of the autumnal traditional tillage. The plant cover treatments were efficient controlling the erosion (sediment yield were in "till"; "sec" and "bra" respectively 2.66, 0. 29, 0. 11 g m-2 in the first simulation, and 11.67, 0.66, 0.14 g m-2 in the second simulation). Before tillage the average runoff coefficient in "till" was 19% (six times higher than in plant cover treatments) probably because of its sealing and compaction due to the lack of plants. After tillage, in spite of the increase of roughness, and on the contrary to obtained in summer, the runoff increases. It is explained by the soil moisture: In the first simulated rainfall, the soil was 72% of its water holding capacity at 10 cm, and 44% at 35 cm soil depth. However, in the second simulated rainfall the surface was completely wet, and at 35 cm it reached the 85% of water holding capacity. Comparing the runoff and erosion behavior in each treatment for both seasons, it is shown that in summer a shallow tillage increases the infiltration significantly. However in autumn, when the soil is wetter, the tillage increases runoff and erosion significantly. This has to be taken into account in order to change traditional uses in steep crops. Keywords: erosion, runoff, simulated rainfall, vineyard, tillage, vegetable cover Aknowledgements: Projects FP06-DR3 IMIDRA and RTA2007-0086 INIA. Predoctoral grant from INIA. Bodegas and Viñedos Gosálbez-Ortí.
Self-harm behavior is exhibited by a substantial minority of the general population and may be particularly prevalent among adolescents and clinical samples, both in psychiatric and primary care settings. A number of measures are currently available for the assessment of self-harm behavior. These vary a great deal in terms of their content, response options, targeted clinical audience, time to complete, and availability. The Self-Harm Inventory, a measure that we developed for the assessment of self-harm behavior, is one-page in length, takes five or less minutes to complete, and is free-of-charge. Studies indicate that the Self-Harm Inventory does the following: 1) screens for the lifetime prevalence of 22 self-harm behaviors; 2) detects borderline personality symptomatology; and 3) predicts past mental healthcare utilization. Hopefully, more efficient assessment of self-harm behavior will lead to more rapid intervention and resolution.
|Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate…
In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in traditional health-care practices in the western as well as in the developing world. In animal health, this has led to further interest in ethnoveterinary research and development, a relatively new field of study that covers traditionalpractices, ethnobotany and application of animal care practices embedded in local tradition. This
Animal data, that could show a correlation between anesthetic exposure and longterm damage to the developing brain, have raised concern within the international anesthesiology community, but also in patients, parents and media. The evaluation of the available literature does not provide evidence for changes in routine anesthetic practice associated with the order, to establish evidence through increased basic and clinical research about the mechanisms and possible effects in humans. PMID:23633255
This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids) as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive). Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately.
...component. (b) The harmful gas removal component shall...following requirements: Each chemical used for removal of harmful gas shall beâ (1...instructions for disposal of used chemical. (c) Each harmful gas removal component...
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The liquor control school of thought of the 1890s–1930s offered a clear alternative to alcohol prohibition, much as today some strands of harm-reduction thinking are an alternative to drug prohibition. Liquor control studies were an elite concern, often unusually international in perspective. Characteristics of the thinking included a focus on the harms from drinking, whether or not drinking per se
The authors present findings from a qualitative study on postpartum smoking among low-income women (N = 44) who had been smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Interview data collected after delivery at Months 1, 3, and 6 postpartum are discussed to explore contextual factors contributing to smoking abstinence, relapse, and harm-reduction practices. By 6 months postpartum, 10 women (23%) had completely quit, 21 women (48%) had reduced their smoking by 50% of their prepregnancy levels, and 7 women (16%) had reduced their smoking by one third of their prepregnancy levels. Thus, the majority of the women were engaging in significant harm-reduction efforts despite being entrenched in high-risk smoking environments where they were provided with few messages to quit. Many mothers were concerned about their moral identity as a smoker and expressed concerns that their child might initiate smoking at an early age. Future programs targeting this population should acknowledge women’s harm-reduction efforts in environments where smoking is normative.
Self-harm and suicide are major public health problems in adolescents, with rates of self-harm being high in the teenage years and suicide being the second most common cause of death in young people worldwide. Important contributors to self-harm and suicide include genetic vulnerability and psychiatric, psychological, familial, social, and cultural factors. The effects of media and contagion are also important, with the internet having an important contemporary role. Prevention of self-harm and suicide needs both universal measures aimed at young people in general and targeted initiatives focused on high-risk groups. There is little evidence of effectiveness of either psychosocial or pharmacological treatment, with particular controversy surrounding the usefulness of antidepressants. Restriction of access to means for suicide is important. Major challenges include the development of greater understanding of the factors that contribute to self-harm and suicide in young people, especially mechanisms underlying contagion and the effect of new media. The identification of successful prevention initiatives aimed at young people and those at especially high risk, and the establishment of effective treatments for those who self-harm, are paramount needs. PMID:22726518
Hawton, Keith; Saunders, Kate E A; O'Connor, Rory C
Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation. The data come from a school-based survey of adolescents in a rural county of a southeastern state (n = 426); 50% of subjects are female, their mean age was 15 years, and non-Hispanic whites represent 66% of the sample. The analysis revealed that both types of bullying are positively related to self-harm and suicidal ideation, net of controls. Moreover, those relationships are partially mediated by the negative emotions experienced by those who are bullied and partially moderated by features of the adolescent's social environment and self. Regarding the latter, exposure to authoritative parenting and high self-control diminished the harmful effects of bullying victimization on self-harm and suicidal ideation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these conclusions for future research and for policy efforts designed to reduce self-harm. PMID:20072852
A long-standing theoretical tradition in clinical psychology and psychiatry sees deliberate self-harm (DSH), such as wrist-cutting, as functionala means to avoid painful emotions, for example, or to elicit attention from others. There is substantial evidence that DSH serves these functions. Yet the specific links between self-harm and such functions remain obscure. Why don't self-harmers use less destructive behaviors to blunt
Edward H. Hagen; Paul J. Watson; Peter Hammerstein
Located at the Plimoth Plantation Web site, this collection of material related to the First Thanksgiving will be of great interest to those seeking to learn more about the facts and myths surrounding this famous event in American history. While most of the factual information about this meal comes from first-hand accounts written by William Bradford and Edward Winslow, these accounts are best understood by also studying household traditions, cooking techniques, and religious practices. The site consists primarily of brief essays that elucidate these various nuances of this legendary meal, including pieces on who exactly was in attendance at the 1621 First Thanksgiving, first-hand accounts about the meal, the bill of fare at the meal, and a piece that dispels the popular myth that popcorn was served at this meal. Perhaps the best part of the site are the modern recipe equivalents for the dishes served at the First Thanksgiving, including roast fowl, seethed cod, and hominy pudding.
Joseph Ana argues that the shortage of skilled health workers means traditional birth attendants have a valuable place, but Kelsey A Harrison (doi:10.1136\\/bmj.d3308) believes they do more harm than good
Benatar argues that it is better never to have been born because of the harms always associated with human existence. Non-existence entails no harm, along with no experience of the absence of any benefits that existence might offer. Therefore, he maintains that procreation is morally irresponsible, along with the use of reproductive technology to have children. Women should seek termination if they become pregnant and it would be better for potential future generations if humans become extinct as soon as humanely possible. These views are challenged by the argument that while decisions not to procreate may be rational on the grounds of the harm that might occur, it may equally rational to gamble under certain circumstances that future children would be better-off experiencing the harms and benefits of life rather than never having the opportunity of experiencing anything. To the degree that Benatar's arguments preclude the potential rationality of any such gamble, their moral relevance to concrete issues concerning human reproduction is weakened. However, he is right to emphasise the importance of foreseen harm when decisions are made to attempt to have children. PMID:17906053
|The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's…
Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.
Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.
Consultants in Britain are under pressure to change the way they organise their work. Many rely on formal, but unwritten, rules and a culture of "learning by doing." Unlike their counterparts in Sweden, they are often not well integrated into the management systems of their hospitals. The result is wide differences in the NHS workloads of individual consultants and, for a minority, conflicts of interest with their private work. The training received by junior doctors varies because it is largely left to individual consultants. Clinical directorates should provide a more effective mechanism for consultants to influence trust policies and for consultants to implement these policies. Consultants must not only recognise the need for change but also seize the initiative. Images p789-a
??????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????: ???????????????????????The reasons for cyber variants of traditional crimes are many. A direct catalyst is the generation gap caused by the transition from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0. Such variation takes the following three forms: variation in the elements constituting a crime, in the social harm done and in the form of the crime. Expansion of
Among persons who inject drugs (IDU), illicit drug use often occurs in hospitals and contributes to patient expulsion and\\/or high rates of leaving against medical advice (AMA) when withdrawal is inadequately managed. Resultant disruptions in medical care may increase the likelihood of several harms including drug resistance to antibiotics as well as costly readmissions and increased patient morbidity. In this
Beth S Rachlis; Thomas Kerr; Julio SG Montaner; Evan Wood
In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…
Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.
|Anthropologists have provided rich field descriptions of the norms and conventions governing behavior and interactions in small-scale societies. Here, we add a further dimension to this work by presenting hypothetical moral dilemmas involving harm, to a small-scale, agrarian Mayan population, with the specific goal of exploring the hypothesis…
In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's viewing of violent TV as well
Lawrence I. Rosenkoetter; Sharon E. Rosenkoetter; Rachel A. Ozretich; Alan C. Acock
|In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in…
Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.
Blooms of autotrophic algae and some heterotrophic protists are increasingly frequent in coastal waters around the world and are collectively grouped as harmful algal blooms (HABs). Blooms of these organisms are attributed to two primary factors: natural processes such as circulation, upwelling relaxation, and river flow; and, anthropogenic loadings leading to eutrophication. Unfortunately, the latter is commonly assumed to be
Kevin G. Sellner; Gregory J. Doucette; Gary J. Kirkpatrick
The concept of Canon in most religious traditions remains that of a static body of ideas, doctrines, and practices usually codified in a sacred book. Jews and Christians share that classical understanding; we are the people of the Book. This essay examines how Canon becomes embodied in religious communities, how that experience forms the faithful in the tradition, and how
Sherry H. Blumberg; Avis Clendenen; Stephen A. Schmidt
|Examines how a Canon (body of ideas, doctrines, and practices) becomes embodied in religious communities, how that experience forms the faithful in the tradition, and how that experience modifies the Canon of that tradition. Explores this phenomenon within the Jewish, Catholic, and Lutheran communities. (MJP)|
Blumberg, Sherry H.; Clendenen, Avis; Schmidt, Stephen A.
|Despite a growing awareness and acknowledgement of the incidence of sexually harmful behaviour by children and young people, research on this group remains limited. A number of recent publications have reviewed UK systems and practice and suggest that the issue is better appreciated than a decade ago. To date, however, there is no published…
The US Institute of Medicine's focus on patient safety has motivated hospital administrators to facilitate a culture of safety. As a result, subcommittees of the pharmacy and therapeutics committee have emerged in many hospitals to focus on adverse events and patient safety. Antimicrobial harms have gained the attention of practicing clinicians and hospital formulary committees, because they top the list
Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a randomised controlled trial, with concealed allocation and blinded participants and outcome assessment. Each of the three randomly allocated groups were exposed to a different practical skills teaching method (traditional, pre-recorded video tutorial or student self-video) for two specific practical skills during the semester. Clinical performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The students were also administered a questionnaire to gain the participants level of satisfaction with the teaching method, and their perceptions of the teaching methods educational value. There were no significant differences in clinical performance between the three practical skill teaching methods as measured in the OSCE, or for student ratings of satisfaction. A significant difference existed between the methods for the student ratings of perceived educational value, with the teaching approaches of pre-recorded video tutorial and student self-video being rated higher than 'traditional' live tutoring. Alternative teaching methods to traditional live tutoring can produce equivalent learning outcomes when applied to the practical skill development of undergraduate health professional students. The use of alternative practical skill teaching methods may allow for greater flexibility for both staff and infrastructure resource allocation. PMID:22354336
In traditionalpractices of medicine, numerous plants have been used to alleviate memory impairment both in healthy individuals\\u000a and those with disease states which are now recognised as specific cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). An\\u000a ethnopharmacological approach has provided leads to identify plants and their compounds that may have potential to modulate\\u000a cognitive abilities by different modes of
People and societies seek to combat harmful events. However, because resources are limited, every wrong righted leaves another wrong left unchecked. Responses must therefore be calibrated to the magnitude of the harm. One underappreciated factor that affects this calibration may be people's oversensitivity to intent. Across a series of studies, people saw intended harms as worse than unintended harms, even though the two harms were identical. This harm-magnification effect occurred for both subjective and monetary estimates of harm, and it remained when participants were given incentives to be accurate. The effect was fully mediated by blame motivation. People may therefore focus on intentional harms to the neglect of unintentional (but equally damaging) harms. PMID:23878021
...Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request...constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco smoke. This information...following measures of abuse liability (addiction): [cir] Central...food (for smokeless tobacco products). FDA believes having...
Many sustainable agricultural practices are based on local and traditional farming knowledge. This article examines the conservation and loss of three traditionalpractices in the Bolivian Altiplano that agronomic research has shown increase the resiliency of small farmers in the face of climate-related risks. These practices are the use of…
|Many sustainable agricultural practices are based on local and traditional farming knowledge. This article examines the conservation and loss of three traditionalpractices in the Bolivian Altiplano that agronomic research has shown increase the resiliency of small farmers in the face of climate-related risks. These practices are the use of…
This paper provides a poststructuralist analysis of the cultural inscription of drug-using subjects in the neo-liberal discourses of contemporary harm reduction. We argue that although neo-liberal discourses downplay material constraints on individual human agency, divert policy and practice away from structural issues, limit the conception of effective strategies for harm reduction and ignore alternative formulations of the subject, they are
OBJECTIVES.Currently there are few practical methods to identify and measure harm to hospitalized children. Patients in NICUs are at high risk and warrant a detailed assessment of harm to guide patient safety efforts. The purpose of this work was to develop a NICU-focused tool for adverse event detection and to describe the incidence of adverse events in NICUs identified by
Paul J. Sharek; Jeffrey D. Horbar; Wilbert Mason; Hema Bisarya; Cary W. Thurm; Gautham Suresh; James E. Gray; William H. Edwards; Donald Goldmann; David Classen; Vermont Burlington
In 2005, nearly 21% of American adults smoked cigarettes, and 81% of them smoked every day. For smokers unable or unwilling to quit, tobacco products that reduce the adverse health effects of smoking may be an attractive option. Potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs) were developed by the tobacco industry in response to smokers' health concerns. PREPs purportedly lower the tar and/or nicotine levels of cigarettes, although the actual harm reduced remains questionable. One of the most recent additions to this product class are cigarettes that use genetically modified tobacco to reduce nicotine levels. This Issue Brief summarizes studies that investigate  how this product is used and  the messages smokers take away from product marketing. These complementary studies send a cautionary signal about the ability of these new cigarettes to reduce the harmful effects of smoking. PMID:17302017
Strasser, Andrew A; Lerman, Caryn; Cappella, Joseph N
This paper proposes to examine some of the core philosophical issues to have arisen out of the recent calls to move “beyond\\u000a criminology”. It will be claimed that the dismissal of crime as a “fictive event” is premature, as crime does indeed have\\u000a an “ontological reality”. Nevertheless, it will be asserted that the relation between harm and crime is contingent
Harm reduction approaches to alcohol problems have endured a controversial history in both the research literature and the popular media. Although several studies have demonstrated that controlled drinking is possible and that moderation-based treatments may be preferred over abstinence-only approaches, the public and institutional views of alcohol treatment still support zero-tolerance. After describing the problems with zero-tolerance and the benefits
...AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements Â§ 1102.10...submission. To be entered into the Database, reports of harm must be submitted to...Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database reports of harm containing all of...
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Background Despite France being regarded as a model of efficient harm reduction policy and equity of access to care in the general community, the health of French inmates is a critical issue, as harm reduction measures are either inaccessible or only partially implemented in French prisons. Method Using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, information was collected and analyzed about HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence, risk practices, mortality, access to harm reduction measures and care for French prison inmates. Results Data about the occurrence of bloodborne diseases, drug use and access to care in prisons remain limited and need urgent updating. Needle exchange programs are not yet available in French prisons and harm reduction interventions and access to OST remain limited or are heterogeneous across prisons. The continuity of care at prison entry and after release remains problematic and should be among the primary public health priorities for French prisoners. Conclusion Preventive and harm reduction measures should be urgently introduced at least as pilot programs. The implementation of such measures, not yet available in French prisons, is not only a human right for prison inmates but can also provide important public health benefits for the general population.
Michel, Laurent; Carrieri, M Patrizia; Wodak, Alex
Background Harm reduction is a public health approach that aims to guide hazardous drinkers to change unsafe drinking and minimize alcohol-related consequences without requiring abstinence. In contrast, abstinence-based interventions are designed for people with more severe alcohol problems and they aim to eliminate consequences via complete abstinence from alcohol. Current best practices for treating college student alcohol misuse involve harm reduction strategies, but no research has been conducted examining students’ perceptions of these strategies. Objective Understanding attitudes is critical prior to the implementation of an intervention in a new setting, particularly when attitudes may serve as barriers to treatment enrolment and retention. For this reason, we sought to examine attitudes toward contrasting alcohol misuse interventions among college students in two large public universities in the circumpolar north. Design A web-based survey was conducted with 461 students from two public universities in Alaska. Participants completed questionnaires assessing attitudes toward alcohol treatment, current drinking behavior, and demographic information. Results Findings indicated that emerging adult (18–25 years old) students who would be targets of future interventions (hazardous drinkers) evidenced more positive attitudes toward harm reduction than abstinence-only approaches. Conclusion This research provides support for the implementation of harm reduction intervention strategies for Alaskan college students who misuse alcohol. It is likely that harm reduction will be acceptable in this population.
Law enforcement can play a valuable role within a harm reduction paradigm, but this possibility is often overlooked. This paper reviews a framework for thinking about harm reduction goals, and illustrates how some harm reduction perspectives are more receptive than others to a prominent law enforcement role. Five specific roles for law enforcement are then outlined: partnerships with treatment and
Traditional metallurgical processes are among the many old fashion practices that use nanoparticles to control the behavior of materials. Many of these practices were developed long before microscopy could resolve nanoscale features, yet the practitioners...
In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges. PMID:18595214
Teaching about Native artworks as part of school arts curriculum can serve to pass on traditional ecological knowledge while also contextualizing colonialism's influence on traditional and contemporary Native arts practices. This article explores how schools can actively engage in community arts partnerships with American Indians who have…
This paper explores the way learning to cook remains important for the maintenance of "ethnic" food traditions and how sharing food knowledge plays a role in intercultural exchanges. Ethnographic data from an ongoing study in Melbourne is presented to highlight how, in everyday practices, both tradition and innovation are involved in learning…
Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…
Opium has been cultivated in Afghanistan since 1100 A.D., although production has steadily increased since 1979. Currently, Afghanistan produces three-quarters of the global opium supply, with injection drug use and HIV currently following the opium trade route through Central Asia. Although systematic studies are lacking, heroin use appears to be on the rise in Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to briefly provide historical background and current statistics for drug production and use in Afghanistan, to discuss the new government's policies towards problem drug use and available rehabilitation programs, and to assess Afghan harm reduction needs with consideration of regional trends.
Todd, Catherine S; Safi, Naqibullah; Strathdee, Steffanie A
The study aimed to assess if accident and emergency (A&E) nurses have positive or negative attitudes towards patients with deliberate self-harm, and to assess if nurses' age, length of A&E experience, or in-service education influence their attitudes towards these patients. An adapted version of the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire was used to assess attitudes towards patients with deliberate self-harm. Data were collected from 43 Registered Nurses in the A&E department of a major city hospital in Australia. Data were analysed using SPSS. Most nurses had received no educational preparation to care for patients with self-harm. Over 20% claimed the department either had no practice guidelines for DSH or they did not know of their existence; one-third who knew about them had not read them. There were significant differences between respondents on several variables. Older and more experienced nurses had more supportive attitudes than younger and less experienced nurses. Nurses who had attended in-service education on DSH had more positive attitudes than non-attendees. Overall, the findings have implications for improving the educational preparation of A&E nurses, improving awareness and adoption of practice guidelines, mentoring nurses, and improving attitudes towards patients who self-harm. PMID:16330213
This paper focuses on lessons that can be learned from looking at the history of traditional architecture. When architects stayed aloof from the common building activities during the Industrial Revolution, a low standard of building resulted, and the needs of the people were made subservient to the needs of industry. Can we apply lessons from traditional architec- ture to software?
Because of tensions inherent in the modern position of youth, they have been vulnerable to a variety of deviant patterns. These deviant patterns manifest a spirit of rebelliousness and have taken three major forms in Amer ican life: delinquency, radicalism, and Bohemianism. Each has been a subterranean tradition of American youth. The subterranean tradition of delinquency, which is guided by
Fashion is said to corrode tradition, if only because it does not take the past seriously. Mark Taylor contends that until fashion appeared in the mid-fourteenth century preservation was more important than invention and innovation. Taylor also connects fashion to advertising and advertising to the disruption of tradition. Fashion involves useless, wasteful change; it is about the making and selling
|While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…
|This article has implications for the ecological sustainability crisis now looming in China and what this portends for the practice of education. Chemical agriculture, although improving agricultural production, harms ecological systems in rural communities. The author presents research on a group of intellectuals and social activists in 1…
For excellence in practice to be the standard for care, critical care nurses must embrace evidence-based practice as the norm. Nurses cannot knowingly continue a clinical practice despite research showing that the practice is not helpful and may even be harmful to patients. This article is based on 2 presentations on evidence-based practice from the American Association for Critical-Care Nurses' 2009 and 2010 National Teaching Institute and addresses 7 practice issues that were selected for 2 reasons. First, they are within the realm of nursing, and a change in practice could improve patient care immediately. Second, these are areas in which the tradition and the evidence do not agree and practice continues to follow tradition. The topics to be addressed are (1) Trendelenburg positioning for hypotension, (2) use of rectal tubes to manage fecal incontinence, (3) gastric residual volume and aspiration risk, (4) restricted visiting policies, (5) nursing interventions to reduce urinary catheter-associated infections, (6) use of cell phones in critical care areas, and (7) accuracy of assessment of body temperature. The related beliefs, current evidence, and recommendations for practice related to each topic are outlined. PMID:21459864
Makic, Mary Beth Flynn; VonRueden, Kathryn T; Rauen, Carol A; Chadwick, Jessica
Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest oxygenic photoautotrophs and have had major impacts on shaping its biosphere. Their long evolutionary history (? 3.5 by) has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recently anthropogenic modifications of aquatic environments, including nutrient over-enrichment (eutrophication), water diversions, withdrawals, and salinization. Many cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. Bloom-forming cyanobacterial taxa can be harmful from environmental, organismal, and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, depleting oxygen upon bloom senescence, and producing a variety of toxic secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanotoxins). How environmental factors impact cyanotoxin production is the subject of ongoing research, but nutrient (N, P and trace metals) supply rates, light, temperature, oxidative stressors, interactions with other biota (bacteria, viruses and animal grazers), and most likely, the combined effects of these factors are all involved. Accordingly, strategies aimed at controlling and mitigating harmful blooms have focused on manipulating these dynamic factors. The applicability and feasibility of various controls and management approaches is discussed for natural waters and drinking water supplies. Strategies based on physical, chemical, and biological manipulations of specific factors show promise; however, a key underlying approach that should be considered in almost all instances is nutrient (both N and P) input reductions; which have been shown to effectively reduce cyanobacterial biomass, and therefore limit health risks and frequencies of hypoxic events. PMID:23314096
A drug is a substance that produces a psychoactive, chemical or medicinal effect on the user. The psychoactive effect of mood-altering drugs is modulated by the user's perception of the risks of drug use, his or her ability to control drug use and the demographic, socioeconomic and cultural context. The ability to control drug use may vary along a continuum from compulsive use at one end to controlled use at the other. The "drug problem" has been socially constructed, and the presence of a moral panic has led to public support for the prohibitionist approach. The legalization approach has severely attacked the dominant prohibitionist approach but has failed to gain much support in society because of its extreme libertarian views. The harm reduction approach, which is based on public health principles, avoids the extremes of value-loaded judgements on drug use and focuses on the reduction of drug-related harm through pragmatic and low-threshold programs. This approach is likely to be important in tackling the drug problem in the 21st century.
Harm caused by preventive programs may be physical, psychological, social or, if informed consent has not been obtained, ethical. Adverse effects of preventive screening programs may occur at any of the three levels of the "screening cascade", the screening procedure itself, the investigation of abnormal results of screening tests or the treatment of detected abnormalities or diseases. The greatest harm occurs at the second and third levels. Examples of procedures that may cause physical harm are venipuncture, mammography, colonoscopy, breast biopsy, transrectal ultrasonography, prostate biopsy, weight-reducing and cholesterol-lowering diets and radical prostatectomy. The psychological and social harm of preventive programs involves anticipated discomfort or perception of adverse effects of preventive interventions; unpleasant interactions with health care workers, time required for preventive programs, excessive overall awareness of health, anxiety over the results of a screening test implications of a positive screening test, consequences of being labelled as "sick" or "at risk," psychopathologic effects induced directly by preventive programs and, in the case of a false-negative test result, false assurance of disease-free status. Since the positive predictive value of screening tests in the general population is always low, most abnormal test results are "false-positive," these engender a great deal of psychological discuss among patients.
Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities.
Recent advances in the technology of behavioural interventions for harmful drinkers have created a new role for clinical practice and new challenges for medical education. Several reports from expert committees have recommended new initiatives in the secondary prevention of alcohol problems through physician-based interventions at the primary care level. The conceptual and scientific bases for these recommendations are discussed in terms of recent studies of harmful and hazardous drinkers. The behavioural principles thought to account for the effectiveness of brief interventions are explained. Despite these promising developments, difficulties are inherent in the introduction of new technologies, especially behavioural technologies, into medical practice. A major challenge to medical education will be the development of academic programs that not only teach skills and competencies in secondary prevention but also deal with the socialization of physicians as behavioural practitioners. PMID:2224675
Will Trade Liberalization Harm the Environment?The Case of Indonesia to 2020Anna Strutt and Kym AndersonMost-favoured-nation (MFN) trade liberalizations will always improve globaleconomic welfare provided globally optimal environmental and other policies are inplace. But since the latter proviso is not met in practice, empirical studies of theenvironmental and resource depletion effects of such reforms are needed to convincesceptics that trade reform
The author discusses why healthcare security directors need to find more creative and innovative ways of providing cost-efficient services. Non-traditional partnerships, he notes, are needed. PMID:10124915
A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)
Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.
Radiation therapy confers enormous benefits that must be balanced against the possibilities for harm including late toxicity in normal tissues and radiation-induced second malignancies. A small percentage of patients experience severe late complications. The question is, do these late sequelae occur randomly, or are they confined to individuals who are genetically predisposed to radiosensitivity. Experiments with knockout mice and with patients demonstrate that individuals heterozygous for a number of genes appear to be radiosensitive. If radiosensitive patients were identified prospectively by genetic analysis, they could be spared the trauma of late sequelae. Several large studies have shown a statistically significant excess of radiation-induced malignancies in radiotherapy patients. Most second cancers are carcinomas, developing in the lining cells of the body often remote from the treatment site. Radiation-induced sarcomas appear only in the heavily irradiated areas. These are small in number but appear with a very high relative risk. PMID:11845954
Practice guidelines have proliferated in medicine but their impact on actual practice and outcomes is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify. Though guidelines are based largely on observational data and expert opinion, it is widely believed that adherence to them leads to improved outcomes. Data to support this belief simply does not exist. If guidelines are universally ignored, their impact
Richard Amerling; James F. Winchester; Claudio Ronco
A common exhortation by conservationists suggests that we can solve ecological problems by returning to the attitudes of traditional\\u000a societies: reverence for resources, and willingness to assume short-term individual costs for long-term, group-beneficial\\u000a sustainable management. This paper uses the 186-society Standard Cross-Cultural Sample to examine resource attitudes and practices.\\u000a Two main findings emerge: (1) resource practices are ecologically driven and
The purpose of this study was to co-calibrate items from different deliberate self-harm (DSH) behavioural scales on the same measurement metric and compare cut points and item hierarchy across those scales. Participants included 568 young Australians aged 18-30 years (62% university students, 21% mental health patients, and 17% community volunteers). Six DSH scales (containing 82 items) were administered, namely, Self-Injury Questionnaire Treatment Related (SIQTR), Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviours Interview (SITBI), Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory (DSHI), Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury (ISAS), Self-Harm Information Form (SHIF) and Self-Harm Inventory (SHI). Data were co-calibrated onto an underlying metric using the Rasch measurement model. The resulting calibration shows that the different scales occupy different ranges on the hierarchy of DSH methods with prevalence estimates ranging from 47.7 to 77.1%. A raw score conversion table is provided to adjust prevalence rates and to equate cut points on the six scales. A Rasch-validated hierarchy of DSH behaviours is also provided to inform the development of DSH nomenclatures and assist clinical practice. PMID:22727708
Objective General practitioners have a key role in updating their patients’ medication. Poor communication regarding patients’ drug use may easily occur when patients cross health care levels. We wanted to explore whether such inadequate communication leads to errors in patients’ medication on admission, during hospital stay, and after discharge, and whether these errors were potentially harmful. Design Exploratory case study of 30 patients. Setting General practices in central Norway and medical ward of Innlandet Hospital Trust Gjøvik, Norway. Subjects 30 patients urgently admitted to the medical ward, and using three or more drugs on admission. Main outcome measures Discrepancies between the patients’ actual drugs taken and what was recorded on admission to hospital, during hospitalization, at discharge, and five weeks after hospital stay. The discrepancies were grouped according to the NCC Merp Index for Categorizing Medication Errors to assess their potential harm. Results The 30 patients used a total of 250 drugs, and 50 medication errors were found, affecting 18 of the patients; 27 errors were potentially harmful, according to NCC Merp Index: 23 in category E, four in category F. Half of the errors originated from an incomplete medication list in the referral letter. Conclusion The majority of the medication errors were made when the patients were admitted to hospital, and a substantial proportion were potentially harmful. The medication list should be reviewed together with the patient on admission, and each patient should carry an updated medication list provided by his or her general practitioner.
Isihlambezo is a herbal decoction used by many Zulu women in South Africa as a preventative health tonic during pregnancy. Though the practice is cited by ethnographers and medical practitioners, few studies have focused on specific elements of isihlambezo use and preparation. Moreover, though some evidence exists suggesting negative effects of its ingestion, the maternal-fetal health impact and toxicity of isihlambezo have not been adequately studied. We examined two aspects of this traditional antenatal health practice: (1) the potential impact of urbanization and access to Western clinic-based care on popularity and utilization patterns of isihlambezo, and (2) the potential maternal-fetal health effects of its use. Interviews were conducted among rural and urban women in clinic and non-clinic settings regarding socio-behavioral aspects of isihlambezo use. The pharmacology of certain plant ingredients of isihlambezo was investigated through laboratory assays, literature review, and interviews with traditional healers. There were significant differences by area of interview in nearly all aspects of isihlambezo use examined. Though isihlambezo was most popular among urbanites and clinic non-attenders, it was considered an important antenatal health care alternative by the majority of women surveyed. Mixing traditional and clinic-based antenatal care was also strongly advocated. Pharmacological analysis suggested the possibility of both therapeutic and harmful consequences of isihlambezo. It was suggested that the following factors might contribute the popularity of isihlambezo among urban women: high cost and inferior quality of clinic care, use of isihlambezo as a means of adapting to urbanization-related stress, and socio-cultural transition. PMID:9089914
There is a considerable body of research evidence documenting effective policies that reduce the harm a community incurs from alcohol. These effective policies include influencing accessibility to alcohol (including the price the consumer pays), drink-driving enforcement and marketing practices. Using evidence-based review as a template, an analysis of alcohol policy in New Zealand illustrates areas where New Zealand has failed
This study examined a new method of mitigating harmful algal blooms (HABs) by combining biosurfactant sophorolipid and yellow clay. To investigate the effects and practicability of this HAB mitigation method, field experiments were carried out during a Cochlodinium bloom near Miruk Island, South Korea, in August 2002. Field experiments examined the effects of sophorolipid and yellow clay on Cochlodinium bloom
Young-Ju Lee; Joong-Ki Choi; Eun-Ki Kim; Seok-Hyun Youn; Eun-Jin Yang
The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.
The response to drug use in Laos has focused on reducing opium supply (supply reduction) and rates of drug use (demand reduction). However, recently there is increased interest among government counterparts to discuss and develop broader responses to injecting drug use (IDU) including the introduction of harm reduction programs. The concept of harm reduction has just been introduced to Lao PDR and as yet there is no agreement on a definition of the concept. We highlight here a range of issues that remain controversial in Lao PDR in the HIV, drug use and harm reduction discourse, the definition of 'harm reduction' and related terms; and the scope of harm reduction. This was a qualitative study, consisting of in-depth interviews with 27 law enforcement and 8 health officers who work in the fields of HIV and/or drug control about their understanding of HIV related to drug use, and concepts of harm reduction. Content analysis was performed to identify the coding, categories and themes. We found that law enforcement officers in particular had limited understanding about harm reduction and the feasibility and appropriateness of harm reduction services in the Lao context. Harm reduction should be a core element of a public health response to HIV where drug use and IDU exists. Recommendations include the necessity of increasing the awareness of harm reduction among law enforcement officers and providing appropriate evidence to support the needs of harm reduction policy and programs. HIV prevention and treatment strategies should be integrated within existing social and cultural frameworks, working with the task force for HIV/IDU and other government counterparts.
Self-harm is best defined as 'any act of self-poisoning or self-injury carried out by an individual irrespective of motivation'. With a 10.5% lifetime risk, self-reported self-harm is common in the community. Self-harm can occur at any age but is most common in young people. Prior self-harm is the key risk factor both for repeated self-harm and also for subsequent suicide. The presence of depressive symptoms predicts repeated self-harm, as does any history of psychiatric illness. Assessment of self-harm (actual or planned) should include: details of preplanning; final acts; the event itself; what happened afterwards; as well as broader psychosocial risk factors. Patients should be asked to reflect on the episode to consider whether they regret it, or whether they are likely to repeat it. Patients should be screened for depression, anxiety, psychosis and history of self-harm. Physical illness and substance misuse increase risk. Referral to secondary care community mental health teams should be considered for patients who present in primary care with a history of self-harm and a risk of repetition. Patients with continuing thoughts or serious intent of self-harm, where supportive or protective factors cannot be identified, may need urgent referral to secondary care. Prediction of further episodes of self-harm is difficult. Some clinicians may find the use of standardised rating scales, such as the SAD PERSONS scale, a useful way to identify patients who warrant referral and further assessment. The GP should provide long-term continuity of care, and maintain a holistic awareness of a patient's life events enabling discussion of the patient's emotional problems at an early stage with the aim of intervening before a crisis. PMID:22774378
Allan, Charlotte L; Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P
|This manual, primarily designed to help Peace Corps volunteers develop and strengthen their agricultural skills, deals with traditional field crops. The focus of the manual is on surveying and interpreting local agricultural environment and individual farm units, developing agricultural extension techniques and practices, and providing basic…
Social cognitive theory is used to develop a research model that was tested by examining employees' experiences of being a member in a traditional or virtual team. A self-efficacy for teamwork measure was developed based on best practices identified through case studies and existing literature. Then a survey of team members demonstrated that self-efficacy for teamwork is influenced by fellow
Background This project will provide a comprehensive investigation into the prevalence of alcohol-related harms and community attitudes in the context of community-based interventions being implemented to reduce harm in two regional centres of Australia. While considerable experimentation and innovation to address these harms has occurred in both Geelong and Newcastle, only limited ad-hoc documentation and analysis has been conducted on changes in the prevalence of harm as a consequence, leaving a considerable gap in terms of a systematic, evidence-based analysis of changes in harm over time and the need for further intervention. Similarly, little evidence has been reported regarding the views of key stakeholder groups, industry, government agencies, patrons or community regarding the need for, and the acceptability of, interventions to reduce harms. This project will aim to provide evidence regarding the impact and acceptability of local initiatives aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Methods/Design This study will gather existing police data (assault, property damage and drink driving offences), Emergency Department presentations and Ambulance attendance data. Further, the research team will conduct interviews with licensed venue patrons and collect observational data of licensed venues. Key informant interviews will assess expert knowledge from key industry and government stakeholders, and a community survey will assess community experiences and attitudes towards alcohol-related harm and harm-reduction strategies. Overall, the project will assess: the extent of alcohol-related harm in the context of harm-reduction interventions, and the need for and acceptability of further intervention. Discussion These findings will be used to improve evidence-based practice both nationally and internationally. Ethical Approval This project has been approved by Deakin University HREC.
The global increase in frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has led to more frequent incidence of seafood-borne illnesses and adverse impacts on natural resources. In response, public health agencies worldwide have mobilized to initiate HAB monitoring programs. To meet this demand, innovative analytical techniques are being developed that provide rapid and reliable detection of the causative organisms and the toxins produced. Modifications to conventional chromatography and mass spectrometry have greatly improved sensitivity and selectivity of these methods toward naturally occurring phycotoxins. Bioassay techniques using live organisms are giving way to molecular and cellular methods that measure the toxicologically significant activity of the toxin molecules. Molecular probes are being applied to distinguish species-specific RNA and DNA sequences for rapid identification of HAB-causing organisms. The direction of this new technology is to develop rapid and reliable screening methods for phycotoxins and the causative organisms to provide protection for public health, aquaculture, and natural resources. New methods also are being developed for detecting minute amounts of toxin molecules in microenvironments, leading to understanding the toxicokinetics and toxicological functions of the toxins. PMID:11351396
With an apparent increase of harmful algal blooms (HABs) worldwide, healthcare providers, public health personnel and coastal managers are struggling to provide scientifically-based appropriately-targeted HAB outreach and education. Since 1998, the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami, with its 24 hour/365 day/year free Aquatic Toxins Hotline (1–888–232–8635) available in several languages, has received over 25,000 HAB-related calls. As part of HAB surveillance, all possible cases of HAB-related illness among callers are reported to the Florida Health Department. This pilot study evaluated an automated call processing menu system that allows callers to access bilingual HAB information, and to speak directly with a trained Poison Information Specialist. The majority (68%) of callers reported satisfaction with the information, and many provided specific suggestions for improvement. This pilot study, the first known evaluation of use and satisfaction with HAB educational outreach materials, demonstrated that the automated system provided useful HAB-related information for the majority of callers, and decreased the routine informational call workload for the Poison Information Specialists, allowing them to focus on callers needing immediate assistance and their healthcare providers. These results will lead to improvement of this valuable HAB outreach, education and surveillance tool. Formal evaluation is recommended for future HAB outreach and educational materials.
We studied the phagotrophic ability of dinoflagellate strain Karenia mikimotoi KM-Lü (isolated from the South China Sea), using fluorescent microspheres, bacteria isolated from the culture of K. mikimotoi and a marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana. We found that K. mikimotoi cultured under conditions of high light intensity could ingest fluorescent microspheres (diameters 0.5 and 2.0 ?m) and fluorescence-labeled bacteria and microalgae. Under a low light intensity, however, only fluorescent microspheres (diameter 0.5 ?m) and fluorescence-labeled microalgae were ingested. K. mikimotoi showed better growth by ingesting living marine bacteria or microalgae I. galbana than the controls, either in nutrient-depleted or nutrient-replete conditions. In nutrient-depleted conditions, the growth of K. mikimotoi was more significant with I. galbana as the prey item. In conclusion, the harmful dinoflagellate K. mikimotoi from the South China Sea has apparent phagotrophic ability, and some marine bacteria and microalgae may promote the growth of K. mikimotoi.
A gap exists between recommendations to disclose errors to patients and current practice. This gap may reflect important, yet unanswered questions about implementing disclosure principles. We explore some of these unanswered questions by presenting three real cases that pose challenging disclosure dilemmas. The first case involves a pancreas transplant that failed due to the pancreas graft being discarded, an error that was not disclosed partly because the family did not ask clarifying questions. Relying on patient or family questions to determine the content of disclosure is problematic. We propose a standard of materiality that can help clinicians to decide what information to disclose. The second case involves a fatal diagnostic error that the patient's widower was unaware had happened. The error was not disclosed out of concern that disclosure would cause the widower more harm than good. This case highlights how institutions can overlook patients' and families' needs following errors and emphasizes that benevolent deception has little role in disclosure. Institutions should consider whether involving neutral third parties could make disclosures more patient centered. The third case presents an intraoperative cardiac arrest due to a large air embolism where uncertainty around the clinical event was high and complicated the disclosure. Uncertainty is common to many medical errors but should not deter open conversations with patients and families about what is and is not known about the event. Continued discussion within the medical profession about applying disclosure principles to real-world cases can help to better meet patients' and families' needs following medical errors. PMID:19736193
Gallagher, Thomas H; Bell, Sigall K; Smith, Kelly M; Mello, Michelle M; McDonald, Timothy B
Objectives. We sought to establish the prevalence of physical activity among smokers, whether or not physically active smokers were more likely to attempt cessation, and who these physically active smokers were. Methods. We used logistic regression to contrast physically active and inactive smokers in a secondary data analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1. Results. Physically active smokers represented almost one quarter of the smoking population. Compared with physically inactive smokers, physically active smokers were more likely to have attempted cessation in the past year. Physically active smokers were more likely to be young, single, and men compared with their inactive counterparts. Income had no influence in distinguishing physically active and inactive smokers. Conclusions. Skepticism persists regarding the practicality and potential risks of promoting physical activity as a harm-reduction strategy for tobacco use. We found that a modest proportion of the daily smoking population was physically active and that engagement in this behavior was related to greater cessation attempts. Interventions could be developed that target smokers who are likely to adopt physical activity.
deRuiter, Wayne K.; Faulkner, Guy; Cairney, John; Veldhuizen, Scott
The aim of this paper is to reflect on the way that we as clinicians may play an inadvertent role in perpetuating eating disordered behaviour. This is considered within the theoretical framework of Schmidt and Treasures' maintenance model of anorexia nervosa (AN). The model includes four main domains; interpersonal factors, pro-AN beliefs, emotional style and thinking style. Interpersonal reactions are of particular relevance as clinicians (as with family members) may react with high expressed emotion and unknowingly encourage eating disorder behaviours to continue. Hostility in the form of coercive refeeding in either a hospital or outpatient setting may strengthen conditioned food avoidance and pessimism may hamper motivation to change. Negative schema common to eating disorders, for example low self-esteem, perfectionism and striving for social value may augment existing or initiate new eating disorder behaviour. Services can become a reinforcing influence by providing an overly protective, palliating environment which ensures safety, security and acceptance whilst reducing loneliness and isolation. This stifles the need for an individual to develop their own sense of responsibility, autonomy and independence allowing avoidance to dominate. Furthermore, the highly structured environment of inpatient care supports the rigid attention to detail and inflexibility that is characteristic of people with eating disorders, and allows these negative behaviours to thrive. Careful planning of service provision, reflective practice, supervision and regular team feedback is essential to prevent iatrogenic harm. PMID:21714039
As the prevalent of information technology, the urban management became more and more dependent on information. Subsequently, the wanton propagation of harmful information often cause very serious damage on normal urban order, and is becoming a critical problem faced by modern urban management. In order to gain insight in the harmful information propagation and hold back it effectively, an experiment
Liuqing Yang; Yinghua Liu; Lianyuan Cheng; Gang Zong
Purpose – Product-harm crises have become an almost familiar phenomenon in today's business environment as technology becomes more vulnerable. Even if a product-harm crisis is associated with the company that manufactured the defective product, the entire industry may be affected. Not only consumers of the affected company, but also consumers of competitors are affected by the crisis. The paper seeks
George Siomkos; Amalia Triantafillidou; Aikaterini Vassilikopoulou; Ioannis Tsiamis
|Non-indigenous species (NIS) are common in the United States landscape. While some are beneficial, others are harmful and can cause significant economic, environmental, and health damage. This study, requested by the U.S. House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, examined State and Federal policies related to these harmful NIS. The report is…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.
The efficacy of vasoconstrictor infiltration in reducing blood loss is well known. However, adrenaline infiltration is potentially harmful to tissues. The question of whether or not adrenaline infiltration is harmful in breast reduction surgery remains unanswered.We retrospectively reviewed the notes of 100 consecutive cases after bilateral breast reduction (n = 200 breasts) with preoperative infiltration of a vasconstrictor solution (10
ncreasing emphasis has been placed on the detection and treatment of hazardous and harm- ful drinking disorders, particularly among patients who are seen in primary care settings. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology and health-related effects of hazardous and harmful drinking and discuss current methods for their detection and treatment. Hazard- ous drinking is defined as a quantity or
M. Carrington Reid; David A. Fiellin; Patrick G. O'Connor
With examples from a 2003 New Zealand prostitution law, this article discusses the logi- cal inconsistencies in laws sponsoring prostitution and includes evidence for the physi- cal, emotional, and social harms of prostitution. These harms are not decreased by legal- ization or decriminalization. The article addresses the confusion caused by organizations that oppose trafficking but at the same time promote
|Children and young people with learning disabilities who present sexually harmful behaviour are marginalised and do not always participate in community activities. This case study describes a multi-component intervention that successfully reduced the sexually harmful behaviour of a 16-year-old boy with a mild learning disability. The intervention…
We assessed 5- to 11-year-olds' (N = 76) judgments of straightforward moral transgressions (prototypical harm) as well as their evaluations of complex, hypothetical scenarios in which an actor transgresses in order to prevent injury (necessary harm). The nature of the actor's transgression (psychological or physical harm) varied across participants. Moral judgments and justifications, knowledge of the actor's psychological experience, and their associations were examined. At all ages, children negatively evaluated prototypical harm; judgments of necessary harm became increasingly more forgiving with age as justifications pertaining to the actor's harm decreased. References to the actor's positive actions and children's tendency to coordinate conflicting concerns increased with age, but only when evaluating psychological harm. Across conditions, older children viewed transgressors as holding increasingly more positive attitudes toward their own actions, and this was uniquely associated with more forgiving moral judgments and justifications of necessary but not prototypical harm. Findings are discussed in relation to the emergence of more flexible and nuanced moral evaluations during middle childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23647415
|A disturbing trend is developing in higher education which may jeopardize the quality and importance of the classical tradition in education. This trend is exemplified by demands that the liberal arts be made relevant and comprehensible to the student and that they be related in some way to the search for a good job. The great classical…
|An historical and descriptive account of the Islamic school system is presented. Traditional Islamic schools began with the founding of Islam in the seventh century A.D.; the madrasas or Islamic universities were considered to be among the world's finest higher education institutes. Although Islamic scholarship began to wane in the 14th century,…
|This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.|
|Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)|
Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)
|A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…
High human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) incidence among injection drug users (IDUs) shows the failure of traditional health policies. The preference of IDUs for injected cocaine exposes them to high risks for contracting HIV because of the frequency of drug use. The correlation of poverty with the selling of drugs, especially the so-called "drugs of poverty"--freebase cocaine and crack--is a consequence of prohibitions against drug use and of urban unemployment. In Argentina, "zero-tolerance" approaches and punishment for personal drug use tend to exclude IDUs from the country's health care system. A historical perspective is presented regarding approaches to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Latin America and Argentina, where, despite isolated efforts, IDUs had no free access to sterile needles until the end of the 1990s. We present the impact of programs and campaigns of the Argentinean Harm Reduction Association, showing how and why, even with obstacles, harm reduction is possible and necessary. PMID:14648449
Primum non nocere-First, do no harm. How often have we as physicians and health care providers heard those words? We at American Airlines did not wish to put even one person in harm's way by not having care available to save a life in a remote commercial aviation environment. The decision was purely a business decision of the AMR corporation, who always keeps the welfare of the customer at the fore. It may not be the right choice for the entire commercial aviation industry under an FAA mandate. We know that we will save lives of persons traveling on American Airlines with this program. If the 'ripple' that we have started expands to affect the practices of other commercial air carriers in the domestic United States, American's reward will be a great one-to know that the lives of many people will be saved because one air carrier has taken the first step. PMID:9143743
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are an issue of significant and growing importance to the field of public health. The prevalence of ASDs is rising, and these disorders significantly impact the quality of life of affected persons and their families. Though the etiology of ASDs has long been poorly understood, in recent years, studies are revealing genetic and environmental risk information about ASDs, with much more risk information expected to follow from scientific studies currently underway. The availability of this risk information raises questions about whether and how it should be communicated to individuals, families, and the public at large. One ethical issue of particular concern with ASD risk communication is the possibility that it may cause inadvertent harm to risk message recipients. Here we review the emerging picture of ASD risk, discuss some ways in which it may lead to inadvertent harm, and suggest some future directions for risk communication research and practice that might help to address this issue. PMID:23888834
The obesity epidemic cannot be reversed without substantial improvements in the food marketing environment that surrounds children. Food marketing targeted to children almost exclusively promotes calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and takes advantage of children's vulnerability to persuasive messages. Increasing scientific evidence reveals potentially profound effects of food marketing on children's lifelong eating behaviors and health. Much of this marketing occurs in nationwide media (eg, television, the Internet), but companies also directly target children in their own communities through the use of billboards and through local environments such as stores, restaurants, and schools. Given the harmful effect of this marketing environment on children's health and the industry's reluctance to make necessary changes to its food marketing practices, government at all levels has an obligation to act. This article focuses on policy options for municipalities that are seeking ways to limit harmful food marketing at the community level. PMID:21843422
Objective To determine the standard of reporting of harms-related data, in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement extension for harms. Design Systematic review. Data sources The Cochrane library, Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies We included publications of studies that used the CONSORT harms extension to assess the reporting of harms in RCTs. Results We identified 7 studies which included between 10 and 205 RCTs. The clinical areas of the 7 studies were: hypertension (1), urology (1), epilepsy (1), complimentary medicine (2) and two not restricted to a clinical topic. Quality of the 7 studies was assessed by a risk of bias tool and was found to be variable. Adherence to the CONSORT harms criteria reported in the 7 studies was inadequate and variable across the items in the checklist. Adverse events are poorly defined, with 6 studies failing to exceed 50% adherence to the items in the checklist. Conclusions Readers of RCT publications need to be able to balance the trade-offs between benefits and harms of interventions. This systematic review suggests that this is compromised due to poor reporting of harms which is evident across a range of clinical areas. Improvements in quality could be achieved by wider adoption of the CONSORT harms criteria by journals reporting RCTs.
Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs.
Genetically engineered transgenic crop varieties (TGVs) have spread rapidly in the last 10 years, increasingly to traditionally-based agricultural systems (TBAS) of the Third World both as seed and food. Proponents claim they are key to reducing hunger and negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Opponents claim they will have the opposite effect. The risk management process (RMP) is the primary way in which TGVs are regulated in the US (and many other industrial countries), and proponents claim that the findings of that process in the US and its regulatory consequences should be extended to TBAS. However, TBAS differ in important ways from industrial agriculture, so TGVs could have different effects in TBAS, and farmers there may evaluate risks and benefits differently. To evaluate some potential impacts of TGVs in TBAS we used the RMP as a framework for the case of Bt maize in Mesoamerica and Cuba. We interviewed 334 farmers in Cuba, Guatemala and Mexico about farming practices, evaluations of potential harm via hypothetical scenarios, and ranking of maize types. Results suggest high potential for transgene flow via seed, grain and pollen; differences in effects of this exposure in TBAS compared with industrial agriculture; farmers see some potential consequences as harmful. Perceptions of harm differ among farmers in ways determined by their farming systems, and are different from those commonly assumed in industrial systems. An RMP including participation of farmers and characteristics of TBAS critical for their functioning is necessary to ensure that investments in agricultural technologies will improve, not compromise these agricultural systems. PMID:16634221
Soleri, Daniela; Cleveland, David A; Aragón, Flavio; Fuentes, Mario R; Ríos, Humberto; Sweeney, Stuart H
Patient safety is a central issue in healthcare. In the United Kingdom, where there is more accurate information on National Health Service (NHS) hospitals than on primary care or the private sector, the evidence on adverse incidents shows that avoidable medical harm is a major concern. This paper looks at the occurrence of medical harm and argues that in the construction of patient safety reforms, it is important to be aware of alternative narratives about issues of power and accountability from harmed patients and self-help groups, that challenge dominant perspectives on the issues. The paper draws upon evidence from two sources. First, the paper draws on experiences of self-help groups set up as a result of medical harm and part of a campaigning network, where evidence was gathered from 14 groups over more than 2 years. In addition, data were obtained from 21 individuals affected by harm that attended a residential workshop called the Break Through Programme; 18 questionnaires were completed from participants and a written narrative account of their experiences and observational data were gathered from a range of workshop sessions. Looking at the issues from harmed patients' perspectives, the research illustrates that a model of medical harm focussing predominantly upon the clinical markers and individual agency associated with a medical model operates to obscure a range of social processes. These social processes, connected to the power and dominance of the medical profession and the activities of a wider state, are seen to be a major part of the construction of harm that impacts upon patients, which is further compounded by its concealment. Understanding the experiences of harmed patients is therefore seen as an important way of generating knowledge about the medical and social processes involved in harm, that can lead to a broader framework for addressing patient safety. PMID:20554367
Clinical psychology is often on the periphery of treatment and prevention efforts to stop substance abuse and dependence. This article describes the current status of prevention research and practice, outlines a process perspective on the initiation and cessation of drug use and abuse, and offers some new ideas about how psychology can and should become involved in the prevention of
\\u000a The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese\\u000a liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about\\u000a 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments\\u000a in biotechnology and related fields
Yan Xu; Dong Wang; Wen Lai Fan; Xiao Qing Mu; Jian Chen
\\u000a What is “traditionalism” and how does it relate to family values? What are the family values that concern parental responsibility\\u000a in raising children? Who do the Puerto Ricans say should be the decision maker in the family? Should women with small children\\u000a work outside the home? Should husbands share responsibility for housework? Should a wife always obey her husband? Should
The term ‘balsamic vinegar’ is frequently applied to describe sauces, condiments and dressings with particular sweet taste.\\u000a In Italy there are two types of balsamic vinegar: ‘balsamic vinegar of Modena’ and ‘traditional balsamic vinegar’. The first\\u000a is a flavoured wine vinegar obtained by blending cooked must and wine vinegar and, in some cases, by adding a small amount\\u000a of caramel.
This article describes the structure and function of emergency mental health nursing practice for self-harming refugees and asylum seekers on Temporary Protection Visas. Emergency nurses working in accident and emergency departments or as part of crisis intervention teams will see self-harming refugees and asylum seekers at the very point of their distress. This clinical paper is intended to support nurses in their practice should they encounter an adult asylum seeker needing emergency mental health care. Practical strategies are highlighted to help mental health nurses assess, care, and comfort refugees and asylum seekers in this predicament. Mental health nurses should, where possible, work closely with asylum seekers, their support workers, and accredited interpreters and translators to ensure the appropriate use of language when dealing with mental and emotional health issues without further isolating the asylum seeker from appropriate services. To help strengthen continuity and integration of mental health supports for refugees and asylum seekers, well-resourced care must be experienced as coherent and connected. A coherent, interdisciplinary and team-orientated approach will synthesize different viewpoints to shape clinical practice and create workable solutions in local situations. PMID:16181157
Background Self-harm is a major healthcare problem in the United Kingdom, but monitoring of hospital presentations has largely been done\\u000a separately in single centres. Multicentre monitoring of self-harm has been established as a result of the National Suicide\\u000a Prevention Strategy for England.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Data on self-harm presentations to general hospitals in Oxford (one hospital), Manchester (three hospitals) and Leeds (two\\u000a hospitals), collected
Keith Hawton; Helen Bergen; Deborah Casey; Sue Simkin; Ben Palmer; Jayne Cooper; Nav Kapur; Judith Horrocks; Allan House; Rachael Lilley; Rachael Noble; David Owens
BACKGROUND: Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information.
Muhammad Walji; Smitha Sagaram; Deepak Sagaram; Funda Meric-Bernstam; Craig Johnson; Nadeem Q Mirza; Elmer V Bernstam
Potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), already sold in USA and in some European Countries, are low-nitrosamine cigarettes, low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g., the Swedish Snus), cigarette-like products, and medicinal nicotine products. Even e-cigarette delivers nicotine. With the exception of snus and medicinal nicotine, studies on the health effects of PREPs have not been carried out, although some PREPs are already sold and promoted as products that effectively reduce health risks. Thus, a second disaster similar to that occurred for light cigarettes could happen in the next years. Only medicinal nicotine and snus could be valid candidates to become PREPs, even if they pose some significant health risks. The World Health Organization, following a precautionary approach, has recently published a list of 9 carcinogens or toxicants recommended for mandated lowering (the tobacco-specific nitrosamines NNN and NNK, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, benzo[a]pyrene, 1-3 butadiene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde), and 9 carcinogens or toxicants for monitoring in usual cigarettes (not PREPs), underlining that tobacco companies cannot use this reduction strategy as a promotional message, as it occurred for light cigarettes in the 70s and 80s. The present status quo, in which cigarettes are freely available, medicinal nicotine, being a drug, is available under a regulated market, and Snus is prohibited, actually denies smokers the right to choose safer nicotine products. The solution suggested by the UK Royal College of Physicians is to balance the nicotine market, framing tobacco products and medicinal nicotine in the same regulation system; establishing a nicotine and tobacco regulatory authority;making medicinal nicotine more available; evaluating the feasibility of the introduction in the English market of Swedish Snus. California Government remarks that the nicotine maintenance is not a valid strategy, because it could induce smokers not to try to quit.Thus, California Department of Health Services prohibits promotion of snus and medicinal nicotine as a harm reduction strategy. However, the US Federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, signed by President Obama in 2009, places tobacco products under FDA jurisdiction: FDA must define criteria for lowering carcinogens and toxicants in tobacco products, making more available medicinal nicotine, evaluating PREPs, creating a federal Tobacco Control Agency.Which approaches is Italy going to follow? PMID:21926451
Newborn mortality accounts for about one-third of deaths in children under five. Neglecting this problem may undermine the fourth Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. This study was conducted in Tanzania, where an estimated 32/1000 infants die within the first 28 days. Our objective was to describe newborn care practices and their potential impact on newborn health. We interviewed two purposive samples of mothers from Pemba Island, a predominantly Muslim community of Arab-African ethnicity, and one of Tanzania's poorest. The first sample of mothers (n = 12) provided descriptive data; the second (n = 26) reported actual practice. We identified cultural beliefs and practices that promote early initiation of breastfeeding and bonding, including 'post-partum seclusion'. We also identified practices which are potentially harmful for newborn health, such as bathing newborns immediately after delivery, a practice motivated by concerns about 'ritual pollution', which may lead to newborn hypothermia and premature breast milk supplementation (e.g. with water and other fluids) which may expose newborns to pathogens. Some traditionalpractices to treat illness, such as exposing sick newborns to medicinal smoke from burning herbs, are also of concern. It is unclear whether the practice of massaging newborns with coconut oil is harmful or beneficial. Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality need to identify and address the cultural rationales that underlie negative practices, as well as reinforce and protect the beliefs that support positive practices. The results suggest the need to improve use of health services through improving health worker communication skills and social management of patients, as well as by lowering healthcare costs. PMID:18582353
|It is well recognised that there are serious correlates for victims of traditional bullying. These have been shown to include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms, in addition to often severe physical harm and even suicide. Bullied students also feel more socially ineffective and have greater interpersonal…
It is well recognised that there are serious correlates for victims of traditional bullying. These have been shown to include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms, in addition to often severe physical harm and even suicide. Bullied students also feel more socially ineffective and have greater interpersonal difficulties, together with higher absenteeism from school and lower academic competence.
Marilyn Campbell; Barbara Spears; Phillip Slee; Des Butler; Sally Kift
In its attempt to respond to changing historical realities the university has undergone significant transformations, most of which, however, have focused on teaching material, tools, methods or practices adapted to the new demands. Taking as a case study the literary disciplines, this article focuses on the theoretical, mostly implicit,…
... let children handle laundry packets. 2. Keep the liquid laundry packets sealed in their original packaging, and ... Help at 1-800-222-1222. Single-Load Liquid Laundry Packets: Harmful to Children Do NOT Let ...
The objectives of this report were to: (1) describe how hospitals use incident reporting systems and incident reports; (2) determine the extent to which hospital incident reporting systems capture patient harm that occurs within hospitals; and (3) determi...
...SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions on Use of Terminal Equipment Â§ 68...or protective circuitry cause harm to the public switched telephone network, or should the provider of wireline...
The findings of our research show that while police play multiple roles in the fight against drug-related crime, they often perceived their tasks - especially preventing and controlling drug use on the one hand, and supporting harm reduction on the other - as contradictory, and this creates tensions in their work and relations with their communities. Although they are leaders and implementers of harm reduction, not all police know about it, and some remain skeptical or perceive it as contradictory to their main task of fighting drugs. Methadone treatment is seen by some as in competition with their main task of coordinating conventional drug treatment in the rehabilitation center.The history of drug use and the evolution of discourses on drug use in Viet Nam have created these conflicting pressures on police, and thus created contradictory expectations and led to different views and attitudes of police regarding various harm reduction measures. This might aid understanding why, despite the comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Viet Nam, it is not easy for police to actively and effectively support and be involved in harm reduction at the ground level.To promote the wider acceptance of harm reduction the concept of community safety must be expanded to include community health; harm reduction must be integrated into the "new society" movement; and laws and policies need further revision to reduce contradiction between current drug laws and HIV laws.Harm reduction guidelines for police and other actors need to be disseminated and supported, embodying better ways of working between sectors, and all sectors in the partnership require support for building capacity to contribute to the overall goal. PMID:22769430
Khuat, Thu Hong; Nguyen, Van Anh Thi; Jardine, Melissa; Moore, Timothy; Bui, Thu Huong; Crofts, Nick
The findings of our research show that while police play multiple roles in the fight against drug-related crime, they often perceived their tasks – especially preventing and controlling drug use on the one hand, and supporting harm reduction on the other – as contradictory, and this creates tensions in their work and relations with their communities. Although they are leaders and implementers of harm reduction, not all police know about it, and some remain skeptical or perceive it as contradictory to their main task of fighting drugs. Methadone treatment is seen by some as in competition with their main task of coordinating conventional drug treatment in the rehabilitation center. The history of drug use and the evolution of discourses on drug use in Viet Nam have created these conflicting pressures on police, and thus created contradictory expectations and led to different views and attitudes of police regarding various harm reduction measures. This might aid understanding why, despite the comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Viet Nam, it is not easy for police to actively and effectively support and be involved in harm reduction at the ground level. To promote the wider acceptance of harm reduction the concept of community safety must be expanded to include community health; harm reduction must be integrated into the “new society” movement; and laws and policies need further revision to reduce contradiction between current drug laws and HIV laws. Harm reduction guidelines for police and other actors need to be disseminated and supported, embodying better ways of working between sectors, and all sectors in the partnership require support for building capacity to contribute to the overall goal.
It has become increasingly clear that the use of antibiotics in conventionally raised livestock contributes to the emergence\\u000a of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this paper, \\u0009I argue that the harm principle of classical liberalism should guide agricultural\\u000a policy in general, and the regulation of antibiotics in livestock in particular. After developing an interpretation of the\\u000a harm principle, and framing the choice
The purpose of this study was to test the relation between deliberate self-harm (DSH) and state dissociation. Participants (N = 85) were randomly assigned to self-administer either a very mild electric shock below their pain threshold (a no-self-harm control condition) or an electric shock they were told could “cause minor tissue damage that would heal quickly,” but which was in
Katherine Lee Bracken; Mitchell E. Berman; Michael S. McCloskey; Joshua S. Bullock
This paper addresses the likely impact on women of being denied emergency contraception (EC) by pharmacists who conscientiously refuse to provide it. A common view—defended by Elizabeth Fenton and Loren Lomasky, among others—is that these refusals inconvenience rather than harm women so long as the women can easily get EC somewhere else close by. I argue from a feminist perspective that the refusals harm women even when they can easily get EC somewhere else close by.
HARM uses a conservative, shock-capturing scheme for evolving the equations of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. The fluxes are calculated using the Harten, Lax, & van Leer scheme. A variant of constrained transport, proposed earlier by Tóth, is used to maintain a divergence-free magnetic field. Only the covariant form of the metric in a coordinate basis is required to specify the geometry. On smooth flows HARM converges at second order.
Gammie, Charles, F.; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Tóth, Gábor
BACKGROUND: Many claims are made that the use of traditional medicine is a substantial and growing part of healthcare behavior around the world. In Bhutan traditional medical practice is one of the country's tangible heritages. The country hosts two forms of traditional medicines: local healing practices and the official traditional medical system known as sowa rigpa, meaning \\
Commonly used statistical measures to quantify the likelihood of an adverse drug event (ADE) from clinical trials include risk ratio; odds ratio; and number needed to harm (NNH), the reciprocal of absolute risk. This critical review focused on NNH, specifically on its limitations in controlled trials with psychotropic medication. Data for this evaluation were obtained primarily from articles in MEDLINE from 1988 to 2012. Limitations of NNH were found to include the following: a) arbitrary binary cutoffs for continuous measures, b) limited use of confidence intervals, c) limited adjustments for potential baseline confounders, d) limited adjustments for differences in dose and treatment duration, e) rare consideration of high attrition rates, f) variable use of the term harm, g) oversimplified single harm comparisons, h) frequent biased design and reporting, i) undue emphasis on less severe ADEs, j) application primarily to short-term clinical trials, and k) little or no generalizability in community practice. In sum, the NNH metric supplies very limited information on the risks of psychotropic medication. Postmarketing surveillance of community treatment populations using case-control methodology provides far more useful data on serious ADEs. PMID:23896857
This study explores the way in which adolescents who have engaged in self-harm make sense of their self-harm and its relationship to the events that have occurred in their lives. The six adolescents (aged between 13 and 18 years) who had been engaging in self-harm were invited to tell their life stories. The analysis explored both the content and the structure of these narratives in order to identify what they regarded to be key events in their lives and also what appeared to have been defended and less fully integrated features of their lives. A primary finding was that the adolescents perceive a severe lack of understanding from others about self-harm, which appeared to inhibit them from developing coherent narratives. They also found it difficult to discuss and integrate the difficulties behind their self-harm, giving narratives that were poorly integrated with little true resolution. One prominent story shared by this group was a story of self-harm as a way of directing their anger inwards. The findings highlight the importance for adolescents of access to conversations where difficult past events can be processed and understood within the context of a life story, and the implications for identity formation. PMID:22104364
Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is a powerful molecular biological tool to detect and enumerate harmful microorganism in the marine environment. Different FISH methods are available, and especially in combination with automated counting techniques, the potential for a routine monitoring of harmful marine microalgae is attainable. Various oligonucleotide probes are developed for detecting harmful microalgae. However, FISH-based methods are not yet regularly included in monitoring programmes tracking the presence of harmful marine microalgae. A limitation factor of the FISH technique is the currently available number of suited fluorochromes attached to the FISH probes to detect various harmful species in one environmental sample at a time. However, coupled automated techniques, like flow cytometry or solid-phase cytometry, can facilitate the analysis of numerous field samples and help to overcome this drawback. A great benefit of FISH in contrast to other molecular biological detection methods for harmful marine microalgae is the direct visualisation of the hybridised target cells, which are not permitted in cell free formats, like DNA depending analysis methods. Therefore, an additional validation of the FISH-generated results is simultaneously given. PMID:23835584
With the potential to minimize the risk of many chronic diseases and the apparent biochemical safety of ingesting doses of oral vitamin D several-fold higher than the current recommended intakes, recent research has focussed on supplementing individuals with intermittent, high-dose vitamin D. However, two recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) both using annual high-dose vitamin D reported an increase, rather than a decrease, in the primary outcome of fractures. This review summarises the results from studies that have used intermittent, high doses of vitamin D, with particular attention to those finding evidence of adverse effects. Results from observational, population-based studies with evidence of a U- or J-shaped curve are also presented as these findings suggest an increased risk in those with the highest serum 25D levels. Speculative mechanisms are discussed and biochemical results from studies using high-dose vitamin D are also presented. Emerging evidence from both observational studies and RCTs suggests there should be a degree of caution about recommending high serum 25D concentrations for the entire population. Furthermore, benefit of the higher doses commonly used in clinical practice on falls risk reduction needs to be demonstrated. The safety of loading doses of vitamin D should be demonstrated before these regimens become recommended as routine clinical practice. The current dilemma of defining vitamin D insufficiency and identifying safe and efficacious repletion regimens needs to be resolved. PMID:23250508
Sanders, Kerrie M; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Ebeling, Peter R
Senile dementia is a syndrome in the elderly involving deficits in memory and cognition. There has been a long history of research and medical practice in dementia in China, during which the ancient Chinese people have formed a whole theory and accumulated abundant experience in the treatment of dementia. During recent decades, with new theories and technologies being digested and integrated, progress has been made in the medical and pharmacy research on senile dementia in China. In this review, we will focus on the traditional opinion, clinical practice, and recent progress in pharmacological research in China towards the treatment of dementia. We also discuss the potential trends of global convergence.
2 systems of health care coexist in Ecuador. The traditional system combines elements of the indigenous system, the modifications brought by the Incas, and elements of medieval European medical theory and practice. The official medical system comprising both public and private institutions is inaccessible for large sectors of the population due to shortages of manpower and materials and high costs of services. The official system tends to address itself primarily to the relatively high income urban population. Ecuador's high infant mortality rate of 64/1000 attests to the limitations of its health care system. The traditional system provides care for much of the rural population and areas where western medical care is not available, but it is also represented in the city. According to traditional beliefs, illness is a social phenomenon indicating a problem in relations with one's peers, nature, or supernatural beings. Traditional disease classifications are different from those of western medicine and show strong regional variation. Improvements in health conditions in Ecuador should take into account the coexistence of multiple medical practices serving large numbers of people. PMID:12342248
China is the only country in the world where Western medicine and traditional medicine are practised alongside each other at every level of the healthcare system. Traditional Chinese medicine has a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of disease, which has developed over thousands of years. Traditional treatments include herbal remedies, acupuncture, acupressure and massage, and moxibustion. They account for around 40% of all health care delivered in China. The current government policy of expansion of traditional facilities and manpower is being questioned because many hospitals using traditional Chinese medicine are already underutilized and depend on government subsidies for survival. Research priorities include randomised controlled trials of common treatments and analysis of the active agents in herbal remedies. As more studies show the clinical effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, an integrated approach to disease using a combination of Western medicine and traditional approaches becomes a possibility for the future.
Background Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated.
Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article describes how corporate policies influence health and reviews recent health
|Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article…
Humans have tried to control fertility for centuries. Primitive, preliterate societies practiced infanticide and abortion. When primitive women understood the advantages of conception control, they tried, when possible, to use contraception. In the 4th century B.C., Plato and Aristotle advocated a one-child family. Greek medical literature reported a hollow tube inserted through the cervix into the uterus and a potion as contraceptives. Islamic physicians had much knowledge about conception control. The attitudes toward contraception. In the 5th century B.C., Saint Augustine condemned contraception, even among married couples. The condom emerged in the early modern period. Yet, they were usually worn to protect against disease, e.g., bilharzia in Egypt and syphilis in Europe. The cervical cap and the diaphragm are examples of occlusive pessaries. By 1880, contraceptives and spermicides were advertised. In 1928, the IUD joined the existing contraceptives. Today we have combined oral contraceptives. Judaic law requires husbands to fulfill their wives sexual needs, separate from their duty to procreate. It also calls men, not women, to procreate and forbids men from masturbating, thus Judaic law does not forbid women from practicing contraception. The Roman Catholic church forbids contraceptive use because it is a sin against nature. Some Protestant denominations have allowed contraceptive use. Islamic law states that children are gifts from Allah. Some Moslems believe that they must have many children, but Allah and the Prophet state that children have rights to education and future security. These rights allow couples to prevent pregnancy. Neither Hinduism nor Buddhism prohibit contraceptive use. Differences in husband-wife communication, sex roles, access to contraceptives, and traditional family values will have more of an effect on contraceptive use and fertility than theological barriers or the social class of religious groups. PMID:8365507
Heeding the words of their father, one Dr. W.W. Mayo, ÂNo one is big enough to be independent of othersÂ, Dr. William J. Mayo and Dr. Charles H. Mayo helped create one of the worldÂs first private integrated group practices of medicine. Now known as the Mayo Clinic, the story of their work is closely intertwined with the story of American medical history. As an attempt to bring this story to the web-browsing public, staff members at the Clinic recently created this historical timeline that offers some perspective on their institutional history. With their mouse in hand, visitors can move across the interactive timeline, which deploys high-quality photographs and short descriptions in its quest to document the ClinicÂs various achievements, such as the creation of the first heart bypass machine in 1955. Finally, online visitors can get up close and personal to some of the artifacts that are close to the Mayo Clinic traditions, including a 1904 photograph of some of the medical staff at the Clinic.
"It's a Wonderful Life," the title of Frank Capra's classic 1946 movie, seems to encapsulate a fundamental all-American conviction. Unsurprisingly, several courts and jurists have applied the movie-title maxim as the ultimate retort to one of the most intriguing questions in modern tort discourse: Is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born? Wrongful life claimants answer in the affirmative, whereas Capra's aphorism makes a compelling counter-argument. In my opinion, the contrasting views represent equally legitimate subjective beliefs rather than objective truths, so neither may ever prevail. Without a satisfactory solution from conventional wisdom, the life-as-injury debate may be the Gordian knot of tort law. The purpose of this Article is to cut, rather than untie, the knot: Allow the child to recover without challenging or validating the deep-seated perception of life. Part I shows that hostility to liability in tort for wrongful life is almost universal, crossing lands and seas. Part II argues that this demurral is ultimately rooted in the absence of one of the central components of the cause of action. A tort action must fail because of the inability--both logical and practical--to establish "harm" under the traditional definition of this term. Part III opines that because the Gordian knot of tort law cannot be untied, it must be cut altogether. We must replace the traditional tort framework, which gives rise to an insoluble problem, with a more promising contractual framework inspired by the celebrated case of Hawkins v. McGee. In my view, the child may base an action on the claim that the defendant promised the parents that the child would be born without a certain defect and that the promise went unfulfilled. In formal terms, the child is an intended third party beneficiary of the contract between the parents and the consultant in which the latter warranted birth without a particular disability. The warranty of the future child's physical integrity and health, an integral and inseparable part of the contract, should form the basis of the child's cause of action. PMID:18354869
This paper outlines the major policy challenges in reducing cannabis-related harm in Australia. The first is uncertainty about the health effects of cannabis, especially in young people. The second is uncertainty about the extent and severity of harms attributed to cannabis prohibition by its critics. The paper summarises and briefly states the extent of these putative harms to the degree that the data allow. The third challenge is a consequence of the first two, and the very different weightings that proponents of more liberal or restrictive policies give to harms arising from cannabis use and those arising from prohibition, namely, strong disagreements within the community about how we should respond to cannabis use by young people. In the face of such disagreement the formulation of cannabis policy necessitates a political compromise. The compromise that has emerged is a continued prohibition of cannabis production, sale and use, combined with either civil penalties for use in some states and reduced penalties or diversion in others. It concludes with suggestions about what needs to be learned about the health effects of cannabis use and the costs and benefits of cannabis prohibition if we are to develop policies that are more effective in reducing harms caused by cannabis use. PMID:19320694
Secular growth has been occurring in Europe for about 150 years. In the USA, since 1900, each new generation has increased by an average of 1in (2.54cm) in height and about 10lb (4.54kg) in weight. This trend has generally been viewed as favorable and tallness is admired, with the current ideal height for a man in the Western world being 6ft 2in (188cm). The Japanese have increased in height since the end of the Second World War by about 5in (12.7cm) in height and the Chinese have been growing at the rate of 2.54cm/decade since the 1950s. In spite of admiring greater height, a world population of increasing height and body-weight is a major threat to our environment, health and survival. Based on more than two decades of research, quantitative data are given for increased use of resources, and increased pollution, energy and fiscal costs resulting from a population of larger people. The laws of scaling are described to show why the impact of increasing stature has a non-linear impact on consumption, body-weight, strength, pollution and economic costs. Paleontological findings indicating that larger body size increases the risk of extinction are also discussed. Various studies indicate a loss of 0.47 year of longevity for each cm increment of height. Caloric restricted diets are also reviewed for their applicability to humans. Recommendations are made for dietary practices to moderate growth in our youth and to postpone development of chronic or degenerative diseases. PMID:11812183
The practitioners of traditional and indigenous medicine rely mainly upon medicinal plants and herbs for the preparation of therapeutic substances. The therapeutic properties of several medicinal plants and popular traditional medicine remedies are being investigated and validated. Present health care systems place people from developing countries in a dilemma. Countries can either continue providing a type of health care which cannot be extended to all in need or rethink and offer more inclusive types of medical care and delivery systems. Traditional medicine has a clear role to play in society, and even the World Health Organization supports the practice of traditional medicine to complement modern medicine. Traditional Malay medicine is the distillation of vast historical experience dating back more than 1000 years. It is often based upon observation, clinical trials, and experiments. The promotion and development of Malay traditional medicine can both foster dignity and self-confidence in communities through self-reliance, while considerably reducing the country's drug costs. The integrity and dignity of a people stems from self-respect and self-reliance. The practice of traditional medicine practitioners can help promote such conditions in many ways. It serves as an important focus for international technical cooperation and offers the potential for major breakthroughs in therapeutics and health care delivery. Effort should be taken to keep the practice of traditional medicine alive in Malaysia. PMID:12319996
Mali represents much of the traditional music practiced in various countries of West Africa including Guinea, Senegal and the Ivory Coast. The Djembe drumming tradition and various other folk musical performances are integrated into the society’s cultural, religious and philosophical beliefs. Traditional music is a vital part of various rituals and ceremonies, symbolic in its representation of various ceremonial procedures
In this paper, a novel cataluminescence (CTL)-based sensor array consisting of nine types of catalytic materials is developed for the recognition of several harmful gases, namely carbon monoxide, acetone, chloroform and toluene. First, the experimental setup is constructed by using sensing nanomaterials, a heating plate, a pneumatic pump, a gas flow meter, a digital temperature device, a camera and a BPCL Ultra Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer. Then, unique CTL patterns for the four types of harmful gas are obtained from the sensor array. The harmful gases are successful recognized by the PCA method. The optimal conditions are also investigated. Finally, experimental results show high sensitivity, long-term stability and good linearity of the sensor array, which combined with simplicity, make our system a promising application in this field. PMID:24113681
A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that those with lower scores on Instrumentality and Unmitigated Agency (positive and negative masculinity) and higher scores on Insecurity (negative femininity) had greater odds of self-harming. Relationships were weaker after accounting for generalized self-efficacy. Results are discussed in relation to previous findings and suggestions for prevention are made. PMID:23293983
Objective A quantitative framework to assess harms and benefits of candidate medications in the context of drugs that a patient is already taking is proposed. Method Probabilities of harms and benefits of a given medication are averaged to yield a utility value. The utility values of all medications under consideration are combined as a geometric mean to yield an overall measure of favorability. The grouping of medications yielding the highest favorability value is chosen. Results Five examples of choosing between widely used candidate medications demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed framework. Discussion The framework proposed provides a simple method for considering the trade-offs involved in prescribing multiple medications. It can be adapted to include additional parameters representing severity of condition, prioritization of outcomes, patient preferences, dosages, and medication interactions. Inconsistent reporting in the medical literature of data about benefits and harms of medications, dosages, and interactions constitutes its primary limitation.
Murphy, Terrence E.; Agostini, Joseph V.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Peduzzi, Peter; Tinetti, Mary E.; Allore, Heather G.
Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as…
Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Moffit, Terrie E.
Harm reduction emerged in the 1980s as a public health response to HIV and injecting drug use. This paper reviews the literature to structure the harms associated with sex work and expand the domains of harm reduction. Sex work-related harms are often rooted in debates where moral arguments and health and criminal justice policies compete for priority. Like drug users,
Background: Despite the ban on misleading descriptors such as light or mild cigarettes in Europe, there are still widespread misperceptions of the relative harmfulness of different brands of cigarettes among smokers. This study examined the extent to which smokers in three European countries believed that some cigarette brands are less harmful and why, using data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe surveys. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were completed among nationally representative samples of 4,956 current smokers (aged ? 18) from Germany (n = 1,515), France (n = 1,735) and the United Kingdom (n = 1,706) conducted between September 2006 and November 2007. Logistic regression models examined whether outcomes, including beliefs that some cigarettes could be less harmful than others, varied by socio-demographic and country of residence. Findings: Around a quarter of smokers in the UK and France, and a third in Germany believed some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Overall, of smokers who falsely believed that some cigarettes are less harmful, 86.3% thought that tar/nicotine yields, 48.7% taste, and 40.4% terms on packs such as ‘smooth’ or ‘ultra’ indicated less harmful brands. About a fifth of smokers across all countries chose their brand based on health reasons, and a similar proportion gave tar yields as a reason for choosing brands. Conclusions: Our research suggests that the current European Tobacco Products Directive is inadequate in eliminating misperceptions about the relative risk of brand descriptors on cigarettes. There is therefore an urgent need to protect smokers in Europe from these misperceptions via stronger measures such as plain packaging regulations.
Those working in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services must cope with a range of stresses, including post traumatic stress and vicarious trauma. Pain and loss are just a part of the job. So is dealing with premature death as a result of HIV, hypertension, and even overdose. Faced with a range of challenges, some workers in the field even turn to self-medication. For some, it is about pleasure; for others it is about alleviating suffering. In recent years, several leaders in the AIDS and harm reduction fields have died ahead of their time. Some stopped taking their medications; others overdosed. Rather than weakness or pathology, French sociologist Emile Durkheim saw self-destructive behavior as a byproduct of social disorganization and isolation, as a way of contending with a breakdown of social bonds and alienation. There are any number of reasons why such behavior becomes part of work for those involved with battling the dueling epidemics of Hepatitis C, HIV, and related concerns. Forms of stress related to this work include secondary trauma, compassion fatigue, organizational conflict, burnout, complications of direct services, and lack of funding. Faced with day-to- day struggles over poverty, punitive welfare systems, drug use, the war on drugs, high risk behavior, structural violence, and illness, many in the field are left to wonder how to strive for wellness when taking on so much pain. For some, self-injury and self-medication are ways of responding. Building on ethnographic methods, this reflective analysis considers the stories of those who have suffered, as well as a few of the ways those in the field cope with harm and pain. The work considers the moral questions we face when we see our friends and colleagues suffer. It asks how we as practitioners strive to create a culture of wellness and support in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services. Through a brief review of losses and literature thereof, the essay considers models of harm reduction practice that emphasize health, pleasure and sustainability for practitioners.
The paper considers conceptual and methodological issues in studying the scope of alcohol’s harm to others. Reasons are suggested for the relative neglect of the topic. The approaches in two relevant research traditions are considered: population surveys on alcohol problems, and economic cost of alcohol studies. Ways of conceptualizing and measuring aspects of the drinker’s effects on others are considered, in terms of main types of relationship with the other, and in terms of major societal response institutions. The main types of data tend to measure different levels of severity, with population survey data dominated by less severe problems, and response institution data by more severe problems; so both are needed for a three-dimensional view. Research questions for the field and its policy significance are noted.
This paper provides a poststructuralist analysis of the cultural inscription of drug-using subjects in the neo-liberal discourses of contemporary harm reduction. We argue that although neo-liberal discourses downplay material constraints on individual human agency, divert policy and practice away from structural issues, limit the conception of effective strategies for harm reduction and ignore alternative formulations of the subject, they are also potentially empowering for drug users. Approximating the neo-liberal subject offers political benefits in terms of recognition, trust and legitimation, even as those values assume and reproduce understandings of behaviour, thought and sociality that fit only poorly the realities faced by many drug users. We explore this dilemma and consider three available directions in formulating the subject of harm reduction: (1) embracing the neo-liberal subject; (2) employing a more contextualised version of the neo-liberal subject; and (3) adopting alternative notions of subjectivity, extending the critique of the neo-liberal subject to all citizens, not solely drug users. To clarify some of these issues surrounding this strategic process, the paper considers another field in which struggles over the nature of the subject have been conducted--feminism. The intention is not to resolve the question of the most appropriate subject for harm reduction, but to sketch the political consequences of adopting particular models of the subject as a stimulus to further discussion and debate. PMID:16413645
|There is evidence suggesting that self harm among young people is beginning earlier, in childhood and adolescent years. This paper reports on a qualitative study of primary school staff responses to self harm among children. Some studies with adolescents show self harm presents challenges to education professionals who may lack training or…
There is evidence suggesting that self harm among young people is beginning earlier, in childhood and adolescent years. This paper reports on a qualitative study of primary school staff responses to self harm among children. Some studies with adolescents show self harm presents challenges to education professionals who may lack training or resources to address this issue, yet research concerning
Purpose: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a serious public health problem and, although in the past research has focused mainly on the DSH patient, it is now recognised that parental involvement in the therapeutic process is beneficial. This study aimed to understand parents' concerns, expectations and experiences following an episode of deliberate…
|Much resilience research highlights protective factors that prevent risk. Here the author focuses on resilience as the ability to recover from psychological harm. The strength-based view sees resilience as a transformational experience. One applicant of this approach is the Phoenix Intervention Program for Children (PIPC) which combines concepts…
|In this article I explore the ethical terrain of experiential learning activities drawing on my experiences leading college students on field trips into criminal justice settings. Though there are numerous educational benefits to adopting experiential learning activities, the rewards must be evaluated in light of the potential harms to nonstudent…
Objective: Health researchers have claimed that perceptions toward a person with a tattoo are more negative than are perceptions toward nontattooed persons. However, support for this has been obtained almost completely by nonexperimental research. Participants: In 2 experiments with 158 community college student participants, the authors found that tattoos harmed perceptions. Methods: Students viewed a photograph of a female model
|Understanding the reasons for self-harm (SH) may be paramount for the identification and treatment of SH behavior. Presently, the psychometric properties for SH reason questionnaires are generally unknown or tested only in non-inpatient samples. Existing inpatient measures may have limited generalizability and do not examine SH apart from an…
Communication of drug interactions has been the focus of reports surrounding the use of terfenadine. Two studies reported in the literature indicated that coprescription events between terfenadine and contraindicated drugs occurred despite communications to health professionals regarding potential harm. Recent studies have found that pharmacists frequently dispense such drug combinations without concern or appropriate counseling. Throughout 1996, reports in journals
The provocative hypothesis that income inequality harms population health has sparked a large body of research, some of which has reported strong associations between income inequality and population health. Cross-national evidence is frequently cited in support of this important hypothesis, but the hypothesis remains controversial, and the…
A recent survey has revealed a large number of young children in institutional care across Europe. Young children placed in institutional care without parents may be at risk of harm. This review considers systematically the research evidence on the impact of institutional care on brain growth, attachment, social behavior, and cog- nitive development. Analytical epidemiological study designs (i.e., including a
REBECCA JOHNSON; KEVIN BROWNE; CATHERINE HAMILTON-GIACHRITSIS
This paper analyzes the decision-making process for negotiating reparative contracts with offenders in a restorative justice model. Based on a content analysis of videotaped Community Reparative Board meetings with probationers in Vermont, this paper defines restoration as a core concept in restorative justice; examines how boards identify harm to victims and community; discusses how boards identify strategies to repair identified
This chemical is still used in condoms and lubricants to kill HIV--although it has been shown to actually increase HIV infection. Rectal use may be particularly harmful. A new report from the World Health Organization summarizes the evidence and makes recommendations. PMID:12161855
Investigates the conventional wisdom concerning consumer responses associated with product defect during a product-harm crisis. Reports on an experiment relying primarily on three generally recognized factors: company?s reputation, external effects from regulatory agencies and the press, and organizational responses. Shows that over-reliance on these areas may mask hidden variables which can prove counterproductive to crisis abatement.
The current study tested hypotheses derived from Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicide, which proposes that deliberate self-harm (DSH) becomes increasingly more reinforcing with repetition. One hundred six participants with a history of DSH completed questionnaires about their emotions and experience of physical pain during their most recent DSH episode. Consistent with prediction, people with more numerous past DSH episodes
Kathryn H. Gordon; Edward A. Selby; Michael D. Anestis; Theodore W. Bender; Tracy K. Witte; Scott Braithwaite; Kimberly A. Van Orden; Konrad Bresin; Thomas E. Joiner Jr
Emerging environmental problems and technologies, coupled with the existence of mature regulatory regimes governing most industrial sources of pollution, reveal with new clarity the harms that individual behaviors can inflict on the environment. Changing how individuals impact the environment through their daily behaviors, however, requires a reorientation of environmental law and policy and a balancing of government prerogatives with individual
|Face composite programs permit eyewitnesses to build likenesses of target faces by selecting facial features and combining them into an intact face. Research has shown that these composites are generally poor likenesses of the target face. Two experiments tested the proposition that this composite-building process could harm the builder's memory…
Wells, Gary L.; Charman, Steve D.; Olson, Elizabeth A.
This study explored patterns of ecstasy use and associated harm through the administration of a structured interview schedule to 329 ecstasy users, recruited from three Australian cities. A broad range of ecstasy users were interviewed, but on the whole, the sample was young, relatively well educated and most were employed or students. Patterns of use were varied, although extensive polydrug
Libby Topp; Julie Hando; Paul Dillon; Ann Roche; Nadia Solowij
Background: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in deliberate self-harm (DSH) patients and in those who commit suicide. The aim of this study was to examine the treatment received by DSH patients with depression and their progress following DSH. Methods: A representative sample of 106 patients with an ICD-10 depressive episode who presented to a general hospital following an
Camilla Haw; Kelly Houston; Ellen Townsend; Keith Hawton
This resource provides scientific understanding, detection, monitoring, assessment, and prediction of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxia (low oxygen). Specifics are given on understanding HABs (red tide) where they occur, the climate and economic impact on the environment as well as a framework of response options.
|Every Australian citizen expects state and territory governments to protect children from child abuse and neglect. Protecting children from harm is seen as good. This however is not a simple matter. The ultimate act in protecting children is to remove them from parental care. This causes trauma for the child and pain and distress for parents no…
Investigated 3-, 5-, and 7-year-olds' and adults' integration of information about intentions, acts, and outcomes in moral judgments of psychological harm. Found that participants at all ages judged it wrong to inflict fear or embarrassment on unwilling participants. Younger children tended to use outcome rules when assigning punishment; older…
Helwig, Charles C.; Zelazo, Philip David; Wilson, Mary
Much resilience research highlights protective factors that prevent risk. Here the author focuses on resilience as the ability to recover from psychological harm. The strength-based view sees resilience as a transformational experience. One applicant of this approach is the Phoenix Intervention Program for Children (PIPC) which combines concepts…
Seventy-two children were presented with a series of stories involving psychological harm in a game context. Found that older children were more likely than younger ones to base their evaluations on intentions, or both intentions and consequences, and to take into account the recipient's perspective. Game context interacted differentially with…
An affinity between the evidence and arguments for drug normalization and the policy and programme directions favoured by harm reduction is often assumed but seldom critically examined. This commentary looks at parallels and contradictions emerging with respect to different cultures, social settings, types of problems and responses where the match is less than perfect. Mounting evidence of normalization has also led to backlash in some countries and the mobilization of forces reaffirming prohibition. We call for further research on normalization that focuses on substance use, risks, harms, and social context across a broader spectrum of the population, and in a variety of cultures. By emphasizing the most serious harms experienced by persons in the smallest segments of drug using populations, harm reduction often has neglected broader research and policy suggestions that might be implemented to benefit controlled, recreational drug users. Future policy development with respect to normalization will require more research and more serious discussion of its implications for informing the transition toward a global public health approach to substance use. PMID:20022234
Algal blooms have recently attracted significant attention due to their human and ecological effects. The aim of this technical note is to assess the importance of freshwater harmful algal blooms (HABs) to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operations t...
D. Loney F. K. Satterstrom I. Linkov J. A. Steevens
ABSTRACT. The potential use of clays to control harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been explored in East Asia, Australia, the United States, and Sweden. In Japan and South Korea, minerals such as montmorillonite, kaolinite, and yellow loess, have already been used in the field effectively, to protect fish mariculture fromCochlodiniumspp. and other blooms. Cell removal occurs through the flocculation of
In January 2003, the US Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a “roundtable discussion” to develop a consensus on the relationship between eutrophication and harmful algal blooms (HABs), specifically targeting those relationships for which management actions may be appropriate. Academic, federal, and state agency representatives were in attendance. The following seven statements were unanimously adopted by attendees based on review and analysis
J. Heisler; P. M. Glibert; J. M. Burkholder; D. M. Anderson; W. Cochlan; W. C. Dennison; Q. Dortch; C. J. Gobler; C. A. Heil; E. Humphries; A. Lewitus; R. Magnien; H. G. Marshall; K. Sellner; D. A. Stockwell; D. K. Stoecker; M. Suddleson
There is a great need to assess the harmful effects of chemicals to which man is exposed. Various in silico techniques including chemical grouping and category formation, as well as the use of (Q)SARs can be applied to predict the toxicity of chemicals for a number of toxicological effects. This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art
Face composite programs permit eyewitnesses to build likenesses of target faces by selecting facial features and combining them into an intact face. Research has shown that these composites are generally poor likenesses of the target face. Two experiments tested the proposition that this composite-building process could harm the builder's memory for the face. In Experiment 1 (n = 150), the
Gary L. Wells; Steve D. Charman; Elizabeth A. Olson
Psychiatric patients may try (or express a desire) to injure themselves in hospital in order to cope with overwhelming emotional pain. Some health care practitioners and patients propose allowing a controlled amount of self-injury to occur in inpatient facilities, so as to prevent escalation of distress. Is this approach an example of professional assistance with harm? Or, is the approach more likely to minimise harm, by ensuring safer self-injury? In this article, I argue that health care practitioners who use harm-minimisation can be considered to be helping physical injury to occur, although they do not encourage the act. I consider why there are compelling reasons to believe that a patient who self-injures is not maximally autonomous in relation to that choice. However, I then move onto argue that allowing a degree of self-injury may enable engagement with psychotherapy (enhancing autonomy) and behavioural change. In these circumstances, allowing injury (with precautions) may not be harm, all things considered. PMID:20232252
Australia ranks high internationally in the prevalence of cannabis and other illicit drug use, with the prevalence of all illicit drug use increasing since the 1970s. There are two distinctive features associated with harms from injecting drug use--high rates of death from heroin overdose and low rates of HIV infection. Australia has largely avoided a punitive and moralistic drug policy,
Gabriele Bammer; Wayne Hall; Margaret Hamilton; Robert Ali
Background: Smokeless tobacco (ST) substitution for cigarettes as a method to reduce harm has been actively debated. Use of ST as a smoking cessation method or as a means to reduce cigarettes has been proposed. The impact of using ST in these ways is relatively unknown.Method: A review of the different issues and studies related to using smokeless tobacco as
Dorothy K Hatsukami; Charlotte Lemmonds; Scott L Tomar
Recent work has distinguished "harm" from "purity" violations, but how does an act get classified as belonging to a domain in the first place? We demonstrate the impact of not only the kind of action (e.g., harmful versus impure) but also its target (e.g., oneself versus another). Across two experiments, common signatures of harm and purity tracked with other-directed and self-directed actions, respectively. First, participants judged self-directed acts as primarily impure and other-directed acts as primarily harmful. Second, conservatism predicted harsher judgments of self-directed but not other-directed acts. Third, while participants delivered harsher judgments of intentional versus accidental acts, this effect was smaller for self-directed than other-directed acts. Finally, participants judged self-directed acts more harshly when focusing on the actor's character versus the action itself; other-directed acts elicited the opposite pattern. These findings suggest that moral domains are defined not only by the kind of action but also by the target of the action. PMID:24040245
The openness of the Web allows any user to access almost any type of information. However, some information, such as adult con- tent, is not appropriate for all users, notably children. Additionally for adults, some contents included in abnormal porn sites can do ordinary people's mental health harm. In this paper, we propose an e-cient 2-way text fllter for blocking
Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28?days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83%) prescriptions and 93 (87%) medicines. 47 (38%) of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97%) received at least one medicine (median number 2) with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99%) and 297 (85%) of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable.
Frame tales, medieval literary works in which characters become narrators by telling stories of their own, owe a great debt to oral tradition and transmission. Oral tradition provides much of the raw material for these texts, while at the same time providing medieval audiences and modern readers cues for understanding them. Frame tales depict oral storytelling events in such a
|Traditional Inupiat society was, and is, about knowing the right time to be in the right place, with the right tools to take advantage of a temporary abundance of resources. Sharing the necessary knowledge about the natural world with the next generation was critical. The example of learning to hunt is used to demonstrate features of traditional…
Why are potentially harmful, non-biomedical chemical substances, such as battery acid, chlorine, herbicides, and insecticides, used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)? What drives people to use these products as medicine? This article is about perceptions of CL, and the quest for a cure, in Suriname, South America. It highlights the associative style of reasoning behind health seeking and discusses the use of harmful chemical substances as medicines. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, affects 1 to 1.5 million people globally. It has a spectrum of clinical manifestations, but the most prominent and disfiguring elements are extensive dermatological ulceration and scar formation from lesions. The data upon which this article is based are derived from anthropological research carried out in different parts of Suriname between September 2009 and December 2010. Data was collected through mainly qualitative methods, including interviewing 205 CL patients using structured questionnaires at the Dermatological Service in the capital Paramaribo. Almost all people with CL said they tried self-treatment, varying from the use of ethno-botanical products to non-biomedical chemical solutions. This article presents and interprets the views and practices of CL patients who sought treatment using harsh chemicals. It argues that a confluence of contextual factors - environmental, occupational, infrastructural, geographical, socio-cultural, economic, socio-psychological - leads to the use of harmful chemical substances to treat CL sores. This study is the first in Suriname - and one of the few done globally - focusing on social and cultural aspects related to CL health seeking. It aims to encourage health policy makers and health professionals to carefully initiate, provide, and evaluate CL treatment and prevention programs. PMID:22704264
Self harm is a major public health concern, yet there are considerable challenges in providing support for those who self harm within psychiatric inpatient services. This paper presents the first review of research into self harm within inpatient settings. Searches of the main electronic databases were conducted using key words for self harm and inpatient care. There was substantial variation in the rates of self-harm and attempted suicide between studies, but rates were highest on forensic wards. There was no evidence of differences in prevalence of self-harm between men and women; women, however, were at increased risk of attempting suicide. People were more likely to self-harm in private areas of the ward and in the evening hours, and often self-harmed in response to psychological distress, or elements of nursing care that restricted their freedom. Wards used a variety of strategies to prevent self-harm; however, there is little research into their effectiveness. PMID:22340085
This website contains an online guide for identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates and diatoms (primarily from UK waters). The guide is divided into several sections: contents (species list); schematic drawings (including characteristic features); illustrative data sheets (including key features, measurements, ecological data, references, a detailed taxonomic description, and lists of similar species and/or synonyms); methods of sampling, fixation, and staining; glossary; and references.
BackgroundPsychosocial assessment is central to the management of self-harm, but not all individuals receive an assessment following presentation to hospital. Research exploring the factors associated with assessment and non-assessment is sparse. It is unclear how assessment relates to subsequent outcome.
Navneet Kapur; Elizabeth Murphy; Jayne Cooper; Helen Bergen; Keith Hawton; Sue Simkin; Deborah Casey; Judith Horrocks; Rachael Lilley; Rachael Noble; David Owens
Physicians often take shortcuts in diagnostic reasoning by being selective in the information that they gather and follow-up on. Although necessary, these shortcuts are susceptible to cognitive biases and may cause diagnostic errors. The aim of this study is to examine the occurrence of inappropriate selectivity in the information-gathering and information-processing stages of the diagnostic process and study how it relates to diagnostic errors and patient harm in clinical practice. Expert internists reviewed the patient records of 247 dyspnea patients of five acute-care hospitals in the Netherlands, to detect reasoning faults, diagnostic errors and patient harm. The cases with reasoning faults were discussed with the treating physicians. Based on the record review and the clarifications from the treating physicians, the occurrence of inappropriate selectivity in information-gathering and information-processing was established and related to the occurrence of diagnostic errors and patient harm. Inappropriate selectivity in the diagnostic reasoning process occurred in 45.7% (113 of 247) of the cases. Specifically, selective information-gathering occurred in 33.2% of the cases and selective information-processing in 12.6% of the cases. Diagnostic errors occurred in 18.3% of the cases with selective information-gathering, and in 35.5% of the cases with selective information-processing. Patient harm occurred in 11.0% of the cases with selective information-gathering and in 38.7% of the cases with selective information-processing. The results showed that inappropriate selectivity in the diagnostic process occurred in a substantial number of cases. Particularly inappropriate selective information-processing was related to diagnostic errors and patient harm. Prevention strategies should include an increase in promoting the falsification strategies in the diagnostic process. PMID:23849236
Zwaan, Laura; Thijs, Abel; Wagner, Cordula; Timmermans, Daniëlle R M
Much of the marine related traditional knowledge held by fishers in Vanuatu relates to increasing catches while managing resources of cultural, social and subsistence value. Traditional beliefs and practices asso- ciated with fisheries and their management follow natural cycles of resource abundance, accessibility, and respect for customary rules enshrined in oral traditions. Many management related rules that control fish- ers'
The employment of women in female-dominated occupations and men in male-dominated occu- pations (sex traditional employment) is a fundamental source of economic sex inequality. Despite this, we know little about how organizational practices and policies link workers to sex traditional jobs. The author tests theoretically hypothesized determinants of sex traditional employment using data on the sex of the last hire
|Presents three brief essays that discuss approaching traditional literature (Thornton Wilder's "Our Town," Mark Twain "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," and Geoffrey Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales") in imaginative ways in high school English and vocational/technical classrooms. (RS)|
The so-called Hippocratic injunction to do no harm has been an axiom central to clinical pharmacology and to the education of medical and graduate students. With the recent reexamination of the nature and magnitude of adverse reactions to drugs, the purposes of this research and review were to discover the origin of this unique Latin expression. It has been reported that the author was neither Hippocrates nor Galen. Searches of writings back to the Middle Ages have uncovered the appearance of the axiom as expressed in English, coupled with its unique Latin, in 1860, with attribution to the English physician, Thomas Sydenham. Commonly used in the late 1800s into the early decades of the 1900s, it was nearly exclusively transmitted orally; it rarely appeared in print in the early 20th century. Its applicability and limitations as a guide to the ethical practice of medicine and pharmacological research are discussed. Despite insufficiencies, it remains a potent reminder that every medical and pharmacological decision carries the potential for harm. PMID:15778417
This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).
|Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practicetraditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice…
Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practicetraditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice…
The ecological principles underlying traditional agricultural management practices are not always understood. On the coast of Berisso, Argentina, traditional management practices are applied to “old” vineyards located in flood plain areas, subject to periodic floods. Over the last few years, “new” vineyards have been planted at slightly higher altitudes, protecting them from river flooding. Despite the ecological differences between the
Esteban A. Abbona; Santiago J. Sarandón; Mariana E. Marasas; Marta Astier
Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.
A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners’ (GPs’) advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service’s National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are reviewed, including their political acceptability. It is tentatively concluded that widespread dissemination of SBI, without the implementation of alcohol control measures, might have indirect influences on levels of consumption and harm but would be unlikely on its own to result in public health benefits. However, if and when alcohol control measures were introduced, SBI would still have an important role in the battle against alcohol-related harm.
In recent years, a renewed debate has developed around the potential for modified tobacco products to play a role in reducing tobacco-related harm. During the 1960s and 1970s medical experts recommended to smokers who could not quit that they switch to cigarettes with lower tar and nicotine content. At the time, survey data suggested that smokers who switched did not compensate for the reduction in nicotine by increasing their intake. However, public health scientists were hindered in their ability to evaluate the population impact of the reduced tar strategy by a limited understanding of nicotine addiction. Smoking dependence was seen as primarily psychological and social, rather than pharmacological or biological, until the late 1970s, when addiction researchers began to apply experimental techniques from other forms of drug abuse to study smoking behavior. This history has important lessons for current discussions about tobacco harm reduction and regulation of nicotine delivery.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a proven animal carcinogen. Occupational cohorts with the highest exposures imply that there is a small risk of all cancers combined, but it is difficult to pinpoint the confounding effect of the main chemicals. Studies after major accidents do not unequivocally confirm this risk. The risks to populations at the current dioxin levels seem trivial if present at all. There is increasing evidence that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), i.e. the so called "dioxin receptor", is a physiological transcription factor exerting important functions in the body. Consequently a certain level of AhR activation may be beneficial rather than harmful. This challenges the wisdom of excessive regulation of dioxin levels in certain foods and nutrients. This could pose indirect nutritional risks, in fact being more harmful than even the worst case predictions of the putative cancer risks attributable to dioxins. PMID:22387160
For decades, Bible stories have been a source of both conflict and healing. In earlier days, Christian missionaries often went to considerable lengths to question the accuracy of traditional northern Native stories, especially those with supernatural dimensions, and to discredit traditional Native spiritual leaders, such as medicine men and women, angakoks, and shamans. The missionaries’ efforts often undercut Native culture and sometimes contributed to the intergenerational trauma that creates widespread hurt and pain in northern Native communities today. At the same time, a significant number of northern Native people derive considerable solace and support from their Christian beliefs and church affiliations, and many Christian religious organizations active in the North today no longer oppose traditional Native stories, practices, and values. Many northern Native people recognize that there is great value in both Native stories and the stories found in the Bible, but some still feel a tension in trying to reconcile acceptance of both. In his presentation, Walter Porter provided an interesting perspective on this issue, and his approach has considerable potential for healing. PMID:21755639
Suicide is a tragic cause of death and causes considerable distress for families, carers and healthcare professionals. Thankfully, suicide rates in older people in the UK have steadily declined for both men and women since the mid-1980s. An understanding of the clinical and demographic characteristics of both completed suicide and non-fatal self-harm in older people is important in informing the
Suicide is now considered a major public health problem, especially in low income countries. A systematic review was conducted to identify risk factors and causes of deliberate self-harm and suicide in Pakistan – a Muslim, South Asian nation. In addition, the role of emergency department-based surveillance is explored. Four electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL Plus, MDConsult, PakMediNet) were searched and 23
Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) resulting in multiple cuts to the forearms and wrists is an increasingly common problem in the\\u000a UK, providing a regular source of referrals for hand trauma services in the UK. It requires the input of both the mental health\\u000a services and appropriate surgical services and frequently long-distance transfers to regional hand trauma centres. In providing\\u000a for a
The promise of experimental criminology is finding ways to reduce harm from crime and injustice. The problem of experimental criminology is that so few experiments produce evidence of big effects from the interventions they test.\\u000a One solution to this problem may be concentrating scarce resources for experiments on the “power few:” the small percentage\\u000a of places, victims, offenders, police officers
This paper argues that the rules that constitute a market protect autonomy and increase welfare in healthcare. Markets do\\u000a the former through protecting rights to self-ownership and a cluster of rights that protect its exercise. Markets protect\\u000a welfare by organizing and protecting trades. In contrast, prohibition destroys legitimate markets, giving rise to so-called\\u000a black markets that harm both the autonomy
\\u000a There is a great need to assess the harmful effects of chemicals to which man is exposed. Various in silico techniques including\\u000a chemical grouping and category formation, as well as the use of (Q)SARs can be applied to predict the toxicity of chemicals\\u000a for a number of toxicological effects. This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art
This thesis is a collection of three empirical essays focusing on two important research topics, i.e. (i) competitive structure and (ii) product-harm crises. Competitive structure In the first two empirical essays, we study store competition in two local-service sectors, i.e. the video-rental and the grocery industry. In the considered sectors, collecting data on different marketing and\\/or performance variables for all
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased globally in recent years. In Hong Kong, a record algal bloom, caused by Gymnodinium mikimotoi and Gyrodiniumsp. HK'98 (subsequently described as Karenia digitata) occurred in March and April 1998. Almost all fishes died in the affected cages, and the estimated economic loss caused by the HAB was HK$$315?000?000 (equivalent to US $$40?000?000). Most of
|Objective: To ascertain the association between pubertal stage and deliberate self-harm. Method: Cross-sectional survey of 12- to 15-year-olds in 300 secondary schools in the U.S. state of Washington in February-April 2002 and the Australian state of Victoria in June-August 2002. A total of 3,332 students in grades 7 and 9 provided complete data…
Patton, George C.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Beyers, Jennifer M.; Bond, Lyndal; Toumbourou, John W.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.
This article reviews the 2009 APA President's initiatives and recommendations for the future of psychology practice and science. The future of psychology practice requires that we expand the focus of traditionalpractice; become health care providers, not just mental health providers; use evidence-based practice, assessment, and outcome measures; incorporate technology into our practices, including electronic health records; and change training
Compiled by Chidi Denis Isizoh, this bibliography contains books, journal articles, and selections from larger works that focus on traditional religions in Africa. Citations include items in French and German as well as English.
Adults usually ask their physician about the kind of treatment they will be given and especially whether ionizing radiation applied for therapeutic purposes is harmful. When these treatments are applied to children and especially to infants of <18 months of age, parents should be more reluctant to give their consent for such a treatment. A paper under the title "Effect of low doses of ionizing radiation in infancy on cognitive function in adulthood: Swedish population based cohort study" written by Hall P, Adami HO, Trichopoulos D, et al. and published in the British Journal of Medicine 2004, 328:19-21 presents new and important data referring to 3094 males who at an age of <18 months had undergone radiation treatment for haemangiomas of the head and other dermatological lesions. The doses they received in their brain were from 20 mGy to > 250 mGy. Findings were exciting. 17%-32% of these infants did not attend highschool lessons. Many failed to pass tests related to cognitive tests for learning ability or logical reasoning. On the contrary spatial recognition was intact. As the authors state it is important to know that a cranial tomography examination administers to the brain of infants about 120 mGy. These doses are relevant to the doses tested above and found harmful. More radiation protection studies about the possible harmful effects on humans who receive doses of radiation for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes, are necessary. PMID:16868634
Recent empirical studies indicate that grandparents favour some categories of grandchildren over others. Here, we expand the previous theoretical foundation for this finding and show that grandchild-harming phenotypes are predicted to evolve by ‘sexually antagonistic zygotic drive (SA-zygotic drive) of the sex chromosomes’. We use the logic of Hamilton's rule to develop a new ‘no-cost-to-self nepotism rule’ that greatly simplifies the determination of the invasion criteria for mutations that cause grandparents to harm grandchildren. We use this theory to generate predictions that distinguish SA-zygotic drive from theory based solely on paternity assurance. The major diagnostic prediction is that grandmothers, and to a lesser degree grandfathers, will evolve grandson-harming phenotypes that reduce the level of sib competition experienced by their more closely related granddaughters, especially in their sons' families. This prediction is supported by data from recent studies showing (i) grandmothers invest more in granddaughters than grandsons, and counterintuitively, (ii) paternal grandmothers reduce the survival of their grandsons. We conclude that SA-zygotic drive is plausibly operating in humans via sexually antagonistic grandparental care.
Rice, William R.; Gavrilets, Sergey; Friberg, Urban
Many alternative health practices have their origins in spiritual traditions and practices. Through the research and clinical uses of meditation, biofeedback, prayer, imagery, music, relaxation, therapeutic touch, yoga, and other methods, the alternative health practitioner is discovering which practices actually alleviate human suffering and promote healing. In doing so, the practitioner is participating in a sociocultural event with as yet
In this paper we present Tunepal, a search engine and music retrieval tool for traditional musicians that runs on an iPhone\\/iPod Touch (2nd generation)\\/iPad. Tunepal connects musicians the scores and metadata of 13,290 traditional Irish, Welsh, Scottish and Breton dance tunes. These tunes are drawn from community sources, such as the website thesession.org and \\
The critical tradition in Bulgaria includes all philosophical studies concerned directly or indirectly with Kant’s philosophy. In this sense, it can be called the Kantian trend in the Bulgarian philosophical tradition. Compared with other philosophical schools, such as Rehmke’s philosophy, dialectical materialism, etc., Kantianism develops relatively steadily, neither achieving lasting pre-eminence over other trends nor losing ground altogether. In the
In this qualitative study we used an interpretive, critical ethnographic approach to provide an understanding of childbirth and maternal illness and death in Liberia through the lens of women, families, and communities. We identified three major themes from the data: (a) secrecy surrounding pregnancy and childbirth; (b) power and authority; and (c) distrust of the health care system. The interpretive
In writing this chapter I cannot abandon my professional identity as a special educator with a commitment to a scientific\\u000a approach to education. This has created some dissonance, as I would not regard self-study as a scientific approach to the\\u000a problems of teacher education. However, the questions that are addressed by a scientific approach must emerge from observations\\u000a and experience.
|Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…
(2) . There are about two billion patients with osteoporosis all over the world. Half of them are in Asia or in the Pacifi c Region. The causes of primary osteoporosis are not totally clear at present. It is related to age, physiological degeneration of tissues, decreased estrogen levels in postmenopausal women, etc. Primary osteoporosis can be classified into two
Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are very effective in inhibiting acid secretion and are extensively used in many acid related diseases. They are also often used in patients with cirrhosis sometimes in the absence of a specific acid related disease, with the aim of preventing peptic complications in patients with variceal or hypertensive gastropathic bleeding receiving multidrug treatment. Contradicting reports support their use in cirrhosis and evidence of their efficacy in this condition is poor. Moreover there are convincing papers suggesting that acid secretion is reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis. With regard to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, its prevalence in patients with cirrhosis is largely variable among different studies, and it seems that H pylori eradication does not prevent gastro-duodenal ulcer formation and bleeding. With regard to the prevention and treatment of oesophageal complications after banding or sclerotherapy of oesophageal varices, there is little evidence for a protective role of PPI. Moreover, due to liver metabolism of PPI, the dose of most available PPIs should be reduced in cirrhotics. In conclusion, the use of this class of drugs seems more habit related than evidence-based eventually leading to an increase in health costs. PMID:18494046
Lodato, Francesca; Azzaroli, Francesco; Di Girolamo, Maria; Feletti, Valentina; Cecinato, Paolo; Lisotti, Andrea; Festi, Davide; Roda, Enrico; Mazzella, Giuseppe
In this qualitative study we used an interpretive, critical ethnographic approach to provide an understanding of childbirth and maternal illness and death in Liberia through the lens of women, families, and communities. We identified three major themes from the data: (a) secrecy surrounding pregnancy and childbirth; (b) power and authority; and (c) distrust of the health care system. The interpretive theory, Behind the House, generated from data analysis provides an understanding of the larger social and cultural context of childbirth in Liberia. Our findings provide a more complete understanding of the contextual factors that impact on the intractable problem of maternal mortality. PMID:21547801
The importance of multicultural art education has been addressed by art educators over the past 15 years. Art educators maintain that art is capable of empowering mutual respect and appreciation for people, objects, and ideas among diverse groups. Although many educators/teachers use non-Western artworks or artifacts to enrich their art programs,…
Lean manufacturing theory is founded on several key principles: specify value by product, rethink your operating methods, focus on actual objects from beginning to completion, release resources for delivery just when needed and strive for perfection. Transferring these principles from manufacturing to the construction domain is of ongoing interest for construction researchers. However, modifying real construction processes is expensive, time
Abdulsalam A. Al-Sudairi; James E. Diekmann; Anthony D. Songer; Hyman M. Brown
The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Early detection based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) presumably can reduce prostate cancer mortality. At the same time it is associated with a comparatively high rate of overdiagnosis involving tumors that would not have become apparent without screening since they would have remained asymptomatic during the patient's entire life. Current studies show that the probability of such an overdiagnosis is 12-48 times higher than one which would save a man's life. Thus, overdiagnosis poses an ethical dilemma for physicians: their actions (screening examination) can turn a healthy individual into a chronically ill person. This profoundly contradicts the principle of medical ethics to"do no harm." An open debate on whether early detection can be reconciled with doctors' ethical duties is hampered by the implications of liability law, faulty economic incentives, and the pressures of competition as well as the empirical practice of many physicians to overestimate the benefits of cancer screening. PMID:22009258
This paper uses a case study to illustrate an application of the scientist-practitioner model to clinical practice. Through consultation with a clinical psychologist, a simple method of obtaining an objective overview of the therapeutic use of medication was developed. Focusing on a woman in a Regional Secure Unit, data were gathered from incident forms of self-harm and the corresponding drug charts. Using basic statistical techniques (such as frequencies and measures of central tendency) to summarize these data, useful clinical information was obtained. Actual data from the case study are presented, as an example of a research process that can be applied to understanding the role of extraneous variables when pursuing a course of chemical treatment. Analyses of drug effects suggest that additional variables such as environmental, interpersonal and engagement factors needed to be considered. The paper advocates the ease of applicability of research methods to clinical investigation. PMID:10076276
Many people who have cirrhosis are undiagnosed. The diagnosis may not become evident until they develop multiorgan failure after an invasive procedure. Patients with cirrhosis are unusually fragile and can be easily harmed and even set into a fatal down-spiral by seemingly innocuous treatments including medications and invasive procedures. There is much confusion regarding the care of these patients. For example, what medications can be used safely to treat pain, what sedatives are safe and effective, which medications are to be avoided, what diet should be prescribed, and which invasive procedures are safe. This paper provides the author's advice regarding clues to the presence of cirrhosis and the dos and do nots in the general care of these patients, based on his 30 years of experience in a liver-failure-focused academic practice.
The purpose of this study was to explicate a definition of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and present a model that illustrates the DSH process as experienced by incarcerated women. Grounded theory was used to guide the collection and analysis of data. A circular process of DSH emerged. For the incarcerated women in this study anxiety caused a visceral build-up of tension that reached a critical level necessitating a need to act in some way to gain relief. DSH supplied the mechanism by which overwhelming tension was released. The temporary relief, however, was soon supplanted by the negative consequences of disciplinary detention imposed as a means of punishment that in turn, lead to more anxiety and anger. Implications: Nurses practicing in corrections need to work towards "decriminalizing" DSH and to develop a prison protocol that gives nurses permission to "just listen" and incarcerated women permission to "just talk" without fear of reprisal. PMID:20507421
|Reviews common wild, cultivated, and household plants which may be harmful to humans by causing allergic reactions, dermatitis, physical injury, or internal poisoning. Includes brief descriptions of plants, their potential harm, and some illustrations. (DC)|
...harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission...suffering harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that...functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then...
...harmful interference. (a) The earth station operator whose transmission...suffering harmful interference shall first check the earth station equipment to ensure that...functioning properly. (b) The earth station operator shall then...
Examines children's moral judgments of story characters who accidently harm themselves. Children in kindergarten and in grades 3 and 5 rated actors in stories which varied in terms of intention, damage, and harm to the actor. (SS)
Background There is little research on the relationship between key socioeconomic variables and alcohol related harms in Australia. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between income inequality and the rates of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local-area level in Australia. Method We conducted a cross sectional ecological analysis at a Local Government Area (LGA) level of associations between data on alcohol caused harms and income inequality data after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. The main outcome measures used were matched rate ratios for four measures of alcohol caused harm; acute (primarily related to the short term consequences of drinking) and chronic (primarily related to the long term consequences of drinking) alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and acute and chronic alcohol-attributable death. Matching was undertaken using control conditions (non-alcohol-attributable) at an LGA level. Results A total of 885 alcohol-attributable deaths and 19467 alcohol-attributable hospitalisations across all LGAs were available for analysis. After weighting by the total number of cases in each LGA, the matched rate ratios of acute and chronic alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and chronic alcohol-attributable death were associated with the squared centred Gini coefficients of LGAs. This relationship was evident after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. For both measures of hospitalisation the relationship was curvilinear; increases in income inequality were initially associated with declining rates of hospitalisation followed by large increases as the Gini coefficient increased beyond 0.15. The pattern for chronic alcohol-attributable death was similar, but without the initial decrease. There was no association between income inequality and acute alcohol-attributable death, probably due to the relatively small number of these types of death. Conclusion We found a curvilinear relationship between income inequality and the rates of some types of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local area level in Australia. While alcohol-attributable harms generally increased with increasing income inequality, alcohol-attributable hospitalisations actually showed the reverse relationship at low levels of income inequality. The curvilinear patterns we observed are inconsistent with monotonic trends found in previous research making our findings incompatible with previous explanations of the relationship between income inequality and health related harms.
Dietze, Paul M; Jolley, Damien J; Chikritzhs, Tanya N; Clemens, Susan; Catalano, Paul; Stockwell, Tim
Deliberate non-fatal acts of self-harm, including self-poisoning and self-injury are a significant public health challenge: the incidence of self-harm in young people is in the region of 7–14%. This paper considers the application of cognitive behaviour therapy to people who harm themselves through attempted suicide or self-injury. Models and interventions for self-harm based on problem-solving, Beck's cognitive therapy and other
Traditional metallurgical processes are among the many “old fashion” practices that use nanoparticles to control the behavior\\u000a of materials. Many of these practices were developed long before microscopy could resolve nanoscale features, yet the practitioners\\u000a learned to manipulate and control microstructural elements that they could neither see nor identify. Furthermore, these early\\u000a practitioners used that control to modify microstructures and
Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.
Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.
The concept of using a harm-minimization approach to drug education in Australian schools has existed in both national and state government policy documents for over two decades. However, this approach appears to be ineffectively and inconsistently incorporated within the curriculum. Harm minimization emphasizes strategies that reduce the harms…
People are reluctant to harm some people in order to help others, even when the harm is less than the forgone help (the harm resulting from not acting). The present studies use hypothetical scenarios to argue that these judgments go against what the subjects themselves would take to be the best overall outcome. When the outcomes in question are income
The "National Index of Violence and Harm" (NIVAH) tracks levels of violence and harm in the United States and identifies trends over the study period 1995-2003. NIVAH is comprised of nineteen variables in the areas of interpersonal, intrapersonal, institutional and structural violence and harm as experienced by people in the U.S. Two composite…
Self-harm is a widespread and controversial issue in contemporary society. Statistics are based on reported incidents and therefore do not accurately reveal prevalence, as self-harm is often a hidden behaviour. This highlights the essential need for practitioners and society to work towards reducing the stigma surrounding self-harm. This paper goes some way towards understanding the impact of self-harm on individuals and communities. It begins by exploring terminologies and definitions of self-harm and discusses the importance of sensitivity in language use relating to self-harm. It continues by examining types of self-harm and subsequently presents life experiences that may contribute to the onset of self-harm. The paper elucidates the cultural, historical and religious origins of self-harm, indicating the ways in which self-harm has evolved with us as part of our humanity. Moreover, literature relating to the significance of stigma and attitudes is examined, followed by issues around psychiatric diagnoses pertaining to self-harm. The paper concludes by synthesizing literature relevant to the relationship between self-harm and suicide. PMID:22404278
...noneconomic losses for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.46 Section 104.46...noneconomic losses for claimants who suffered physical harm. The Special Master may determine...noneconomic losses for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die) by...
...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...