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Sample records for harmonic analysis physics

  1. Resolution-Enhanced Harmonic and Interharmonic Measurement for Power Quality Analysis in Cyber-Physical Energy System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanchi; Wang, Xue; Liu, Youda; Cui, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    Power quality analysis issues, especially the measurement of harmonic and interharmonic in cyber-physical energy systems, are addressed in this paper. As new situations are introduced to the power system, the impact of electric vehicles, distributed generation and renewable energy has introduced extra demands to distributed sensors, waveform-level information and power quality data analytics. Harmonics and interharmonics, as the most significant disturbances, require carefully designed detection methods for an accurate measurement of electric loads whose information is crucial to subsequent analyzing and control. This paper gives a detailed description of the power quality analysis framework in networked environment and presents a fast and resolution-enhanced method for harmonic and interharmonic measurement. The proposed method first extracts harmonic and interharmonic components efficiently using the single-channel version of Robust Independent Component Analysis (RobustICA), then estimates the high-resolution frequency from three discrete Fourier transform (DFT) samples with little additional computation, and finally computes the amplitudes and phases with the adaptive linear neuron network. The experiments show that the proposed method is time-efficient and leads to a better accuracy of the simulated and experimental signals in the presence of noise and fundamental frequency deviation, thus providing a deeper insight into the (inter)harmonic sources or even the whole system. PMID:27355946

  2. Resolution-Enhanced Harmonic and Interharmonic Measurement for Power Quality Analysis in Cyber-Physical Energy System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchi; Wang, Xue; Liu, Youda; Cui, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    Power quality analysis issues, especially the measurement of harmonic and interharmonic in cyber-physical energy systems, are addressed in this paper. As new situations are introduced to the power system, the impact of electric vehicles, distributed generation and renewable energy has introduced extra demands to distributed sensors, waveform-level information and power quality data analytics. Harmonics and interharmonics, as the most significant disturbances, require carefully designed detection methods for an accurate measurement of electric loads whose information is crucial to subsequent analyzing and control. This paper gives a detailed description of the power quality analysis framework in networked environment and presents a fast and resolution-enhanced method for harmonic and interharmonic measurement. The proposed method first extracts harmonic and interharmonic components efficiently using the single-channel version of Robust Independent Component Analysis (RobustICA), then estimates the high-resolution frequency from three discrete Fourier transform (DFT) samples with little additional computation, and finally computes the amplitudes and phases with the adaptive linear neuron network. The experiments show that the proposed method is time-efficient and leads to a better accuracy of the simulated and experimental signals in the presence of noise and fundamental frequency deviation, thus providing a deeper insight into the (inter)harmonic sources or even the whole system. PMID:27355946

  3. The harmonic oscillator and nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional harmonic oscillator plays a central role in nuclear physics. It provides the underlying structure of the independent-particle shell model and gives rise to the dynamical group structures on which models of nuclear collective motion are based. It is shown that the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator features a rich variety of coherent states, including vibrations of the monopole, dipole, and quadrupole types, and rotations of the rigid flow, vortex flow, and irrotational flow types. Nuclear collective states exhibit all of these flows. It is also shown that the coherent state representations, which have their origins in applications to the dynamical groups of the simple harmonic oscillator, can be extended to vector coherent state representations with a much wider range of applicability. As a result, coherent state theory and vector coherent state theory become powerful tools in the application of algebraic methods in physics.

  4. Quaternionic Harmonic Analysis of Texture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-10-01

    QHAT uses various functions and data structures native to MATLAB to analyze crystallographic texture information using harmonic functions on the space of rotations represented as normalized quaternions. These harmonic functions generalize the spherical harmonics in three dimensions, and form the basis for the irreducible representations of the four-dimensional rotation group. This allows the basis of harmonic functions to be reduced to linearly independent combinations that satisfy the crystal and sample symmetry point groups.

  5. Data-Aware Retrodiction for Asynchronous Harmonic Measurement in a Cyber-Physical Energy System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youda; Wang, Xue; Liu, Yanchi; Cui, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    Cyber-physical energy systems provide a networked solution for safety, reliability and efficiency problems in smart grids. On the demand side, the secure and trustworthy energy supply requires real-time supervising and online power quality assessing. Harmonics measurement is necessary in power quality evaluation. However, under the large-scale distributed metering architecture, harmonic measurement faces the out-of-sequence measurement (OOSM) problem, which is the result of latencies in sensing or the communication process and brings deviations in data fusion. This paper depicts a distributed measurement network for large-scale asynchronous harmonic analysis and exploits a nonlinear autoregressive model with exogenous inputs (NARX) network to reorder the out-of-sequence measuring data. The NARX network gets the characteristics of the electrical harmonics from practical data rather than the kinematic equations. Thus, the data-aware network approximates the behavior of the practical electrical parameter with real-time data and improves the retrodiction accuracy. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the data-aware method maintains a reasonable consumption of computing resources. Experiments on a practical testbed of a cyber-physical system are implemented, and harmonic measurement and analysis accuracy are adopted to evaluate the measuring mechanism under a distributed metering network. Results demonstrate an improvement of the harmonics analysis precision and validate the asynchronous measuring method in cyber-physical energy systems. PMID:27548171

  6. Lunar gravity - A harmonic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A sixteenth-degree and sixteenth-order spherical harmonic lunar gravity field has been derived from the long-term Keplerian variations in the orbits of the Apollo subsatellites and Lunar Orbiter 5. This model resolves the major mascon gravity anomalies of the lunar near side and is in very good agreement with line-of-sight acceleration results. The far-side map shows the major ringed basins to be strong localized negative anomalies located in broad regions of positive gravity which correspond closely to the highlands. The rms pressure levels calculated from equivalent-surface height variations show that the moon and earth support nearly equal pressures, whereas Mars is appreciably stronger. The moon appears to support larger loads than earth owing to its weaker central gravity field and perhaps a colder upper lithosphere. Significant differences between the low-degree gravity and topography spectra indicate that the longer-wavelength topographic features are isostatically compensated.

  7. A harmonic analysis of lunar topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, B. G.; Ferrari, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A global lunar topographic map has been derived from existing earth-based and orbital observations supplemented in areas without data by a linear autocovariance predictor. Of 2592 bins, each 5 deg square, 1380 (64.7% by area) contain at least one measurement. A spherical harmonic analysis to degree 12 yields a mean radius of 1737.53 plus or minus 0.03 km (formal standard error) and an offset of the center of figure of 1.98 plus or minus 0.06 km toward (19 plus or minus 2) deg S, (194 plus or minus 1) deg E. A Bouguer gravity map, derived from a 12-degree free-air gravity model and the present topography data, is presented for an elevation of 100 km above the mean surface. It is confirmed that the low-degree gravity harmonics are determined primarily by surface height variations and only secondarily by lateral density variations.

  8. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  9. Artificial neural networks and Abelian harmonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Domingo; Pertuz-Campo, Jairo

    1991-12-01

    This work deals with the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) for the digital processing of finite discrete time signals. The effort concentrates on the efficient replacement of fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms with ANN algorithms in certain engineering and scientific applications. The FFT algorithms are efficient methods of computing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The ubiquitous DFT is utilized in almost every digital signal processing application where harmonic analysis information is needed. Applications abound in areas such as audio acoustics, geophysics, biomedicine, telecommunications, astrophysics, etc. To identify more efficient methods to obtain a desired spectral information will result in a reduction in the computational effort required to implement these applications.

  10. Harmonic decomposition of orbit data for multipole analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.-J.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a simple analysis procedure that transforms a set of beamline orbit data into a set of harmonic orbits of first, second, and third order or higher. Each harmonic orbit can be studied individually to identify errors of the specific order with minimum interference from other orders. Effectively these are orbits caused by kicks, due to harmonic errors, propagated through linear lattice. Examples from accelerator study will be presented. The application and inherent limitations of this analysis procedure are discussed.

  11. Powders Analysis by Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Azhad U; Zhang, Shijie; Simpson, Garth J

    2016-04-01

    A microscopy approach is developed for quantifying second harmonic generation (SHG) activity of powders that largely decouples linear and nonlinear optical interactions. Decoupling the linear and nonlinear optical effects provides a means to independently evaluate and optimize the role of each in crystal engineering efforts and facilitates direct comparisons between experimental and computational predictions of lattice hyperpolarizabilities. In this respect, the microscopy-based approach nicely complements well-established Kurtz-Perry ( J. Appl. Phys. 1968 , 39 , 3798 ) and related methods, in which collimated sources are used for powders analysis. Using a focused fundamental beam places a controllable upper bound on the interaction length, given by the depth of field. Because measurements are performed on a per-particle basis, crystal size-dependent trends can be recovered from a single powdered sample. An analytical model that includes scattering losses of a focused Gaussian beam reliably predicted several experimental observations. Specifically, the measured scattering length for SHG was in excellent agreement with the value predicted based on the particle size distribution. Additionally, histograms of the SHG intensities as functions of particle size and orientation agreed nicely with predictions from the model. PMID:26929984

  12. Spherical harmonic analysis of steady photospheric flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is presented in which full disk Doppler velocity measurements are analyzed using spherical harmonic functions to determine the characteristics of the spectrum of spherical harmonic modes and the nature of steady photospheric flows. Synthetic data are constructed in order to test the technique. In spite of the mode mixing due to the lack of information about the motions on the backside of the sun, solar rotation and differential rotation can be accurately measured and monitored for secular changes, and meridional circulations with small amplitudes can be measured. Furthermore, limb shift measurements can be accurately obtained, and supergranules can be fully resolved and separated from giant cells by their spatial characteristics.

  13. Spherical Harmonic Analysis of Particle Velocity Distribution Function: Comparison of Moments and Anisotropies using Cluster Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurgiolo, Chris; Vinas, Adolfo F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a spherical harmonic analysis of the plasma velocity distribution function using high-angular, energy, and time resolution Cluster data obtained from the PEACE spectrometer instrument to demonstrate how this analysis models the particle distribution function and its moments and anisotropies. The results show that spherical harmonic analysis produced a robust physical representation model of the velocity distribution function, resolving the main features of the measured distributions. From the spherical harmonic analysis, a minimum set of nine spectral coefficients was obtained from which the moment (up to the heat flux), anisotropy, and asymmetry calculations of the velocity distribution function were obtained. The spherical harmonic method provides a potentially effective "compression" technique that can be easily carried out onboard a spacecraft to determine the moments and anisotropies of the particle velocity distribution function for any species. These calculations were implemented using three different approaches, namely, the standard traditional integration, the spherical harmonic (SPH) spectral coefficients integration, and the singular value decomposition (SVD) on the spherical harmonic methods. A comparison among the various methods shows that both SPH and SVD approaches provide remarkable agreement with the standard moment integration method.

  14. Iron Loss Analysis of IPM Motor Considering Carrier Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Katsumi; Seto, Yoshiaki; Tanida, Makoto

    In this paper, we investigate the iron loss of interior permanent magnet motors driven by PWM inverters using electromagnetic field analysis. Following 4 methods are applied: (1) Current input finite element method neglecting the carrier harmonics. (2) Voltage input finite element analysis neglecting carrier harmonics. (3) Current input finite element method with the measured armature current waveforms including the carrier harmonics. (4) Voltage input finite element method with the theoretical voltage waveforms of the PWM inverter. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It is clarified that the accuracy of the calculated results are improved by considering the carrier harmonics and that the method (4) can estimate the iron loss of the IPM motor accurately before manufacturing. The variation of the iron loss components due to the driving condition is also clarified.

  15. Study of Longperiod Global Oscillations of Sun Through Spherical Harmonic Fourier Analysis of Sunspot Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, M. H.

    A spherical harmonic Fourier analysis of the maximum areas of sunspot groups listed in Ledgers I and II of Greenwich photoheliographic results for 1933 - 1954 yield significant peaks at the 11 y periodicity for some spherical harmonic modes: especially the mode (l = 6, m = 0). A similar analysis of the daily areas of the spotgroups during 1944 - 1954 yields 11 y periodicity peaks only for some non-axisymmetric modes. These results suggest that the sunspot activity may be physically related to long period global oscillations of the sun.

  16. Loss Analysis of IPM Motors Considering Carrier Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Katsumi; Abe, Atsushi

    In this paper, we investigate losses of interior permanent magnet motors driven by PWM inverters using 3-D finite element analysis, which can estimate the eddy current loss in the permanent magnet accurately. The calculated losses are compared with the measured results and the theoretical solution to verify the validity of the analysis. The method to decompose the electromagnetic field distribution into time-harmonic components is introduced in order to investigate the effects of the harmonic fields separately and to specify the main loss factors. The variation of the magnet eddy current loss due to the division of the magnet is also investigated. It is clarified that the magnet eddy current loss of the magnet depends on the voltage modulation ratio of the inverter and the magnetic saturation of the core. It can be said that the thickness of the divided magnet should be smaller than the skin depth of the eddy currents produced by the major harmonics for the loss reduction.

  17. A harmonic analysis of lunar gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, B. G.; Ferrari, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    An improved model of lunar global gravity has been obtained by fitting a sixteenth-degree harmonic series to a combination of Doppler tracking data from Apollo missions 8, 12, 15, and 16, and Lunar Orbiters 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, and laser ranging data to the lunar surface. To compensate for the irregular selenographic distribution of these data, the solution algorithm has also incorporated a semi-empirical a priori covariance function. Maps of the free-air gravity disturbance and its formal error are presented, as are free-air anomaly and Bouguer anomaly maps. The lunar gravitational variance spectrum has the form V(G; n) = O(n to the -4th power), as do the corresponding terrestrial and martian spectra. The variance spectra of the Bouguer corrections (topography converted to equivalent gravity) for these bodies have the same basic form as the observed gravity; and, in fact, the spectral ratios are nearly constant throughout the observed spectral range for each body. Despite this spectral compatibility, the correlation between gravity and topography is generally quite poor on a global scale.

  18. [A New HAC Unsupervised Classifier Based on Spectral Harmonic Analysis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke-ming; Wei, Hua-feng; Shi, Gang-qiang; Sun, Yang-yang; Liu, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Hyperspectral images classification is one of the important methods to identify image information, which has great significance for feature identification, dynamic monitoring and thematic information extraction, etc. Unsupervised classification without prior knowledge is widely used in hyperspectral image classification. This article proposes a new hyperspectral images unsupervised classification algorithm based on harmonic analysis(HA), which is called the harmonic analysis classifer (HAC). First, the HAC algorithm counts the first harmonic component and draws the histogram, so it can determine the initial feature categories and the pixel of cluster centers according to the number and location of the peak. Then, the algorithm is to map the waveform information of pixels to be classified spectrum into the feature space made up of harmonic decomposition times, amplitude and phase, and the similar features can be gotten together in the feature space, these pixels will be classified according to the principle of minimum distance. Finally, the algorithm computes the Euclidean distance of these pixels between cluster center, and merges the initial classification by setting the distance threshold. so the HAC can achieve the purpose of hyperspectral images classification. The paper collects spectral curves of two feature categories, and obtains harmonic decomposition times, amplitude and phase after harmonic analysis, the distribution of HA components in the feature space verified the correctness of the HAC. While the HAC algorithm is applied to EO-1 satellite Hyperion hyperspectral image and obtains the results of classification. Comparing with the hyperspectral image classifying results of K-MEANS, ISODATA and HAC classifiers, the HAC, as a unsupervised classification method, is confirmed to have better application on hyperspectral image classification. PMID:26717767

  19. Two dimensional kinetic analysis of electrostatic harmonic plasma waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca-Pongutá, E. C.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-06-01

    Electrostatic harmonic Langmuir waves are virtual modes excited in weakly turbulent plasmas, first observed in early laboratory beam-plasma experiments as well as in rocket-borne active experiments in space. However, their unequivocal presence was confirmed through computer simulated experiments and subsequently theoretically explained. The peculiarity of harmonic Langmuir waves is that while their existence requires nonlinear response, their excitation mechanism and subsequent early time evolution are governed by essentially linear process. One of the unresolved theoretical issues regards the role of nonlinear wave-particle interaction process over longer evolution time period. Another outstanding issue is that existing theories for these modes are limited to one-dimensional space. The present paper carries out two dimensional theoretical analysis of fundamental and (first) harmonic Langmuir waves for the first time. The result shows that harmonic Langmuir wave is essentially governed by (quasi)linear process and that nonlinear wave-particle interaction plays no significant role in the time evolution of the wave spectrum. The numerical solutions of the two-dimensional wave spectra for fundamental and harmonic Langmuir waves are also found to be consistent with those obtained by direct particle-in-cell simulation method reported in the literature.

  20. Circular current loops, magnetic dipoles and spherical harmonic analysis.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) is the most used method of describing the Earth's magnetic field, even though spherical harmonic coefficients (SHC) almost completely defy interpretation in terms of real sources. Some moderately successful efforts have been made to represent the field in terms of dipoles placed in the core in an effort to have the model come closer to representing real sources. Dipole sources are only a first approximation to the real sources which are thought to be a very complicated network of electrical currents in the core of the Earth. -Author

  1. High-Speed Video Analysis of Damped Harmonic Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poonyawatpornkul, J.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we acquire and analyse high-speed videos of a spring-mass system oscillating in glycerin at different temperatures. Three cases of damped harmonic oscillation are investigated and analysed by using high-speed video at a rate of 120 frames s[superscript -1] and Tracker Video Analysis (Tracker) software. We present empirical data for…

  2. Analysis of Different Harmonic and Intermodulation Distortions for CATV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sandeep; Kamaljit, Singh Bhatia; Anurag, Sharma; Kaur, Harsimrat

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, after examining all the basic design issues of CATV systems, prominent distortions like harmonic and intermodulation distortions are taken into account for different order. Besides outer distortions for CATV sources, inner distortion of relative intensity to noise is disabled for current analysis.

  3. Harmonic analysis on local fields and adelic spaces. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Denis V.; Parshin, Aleksei N.

    2011-08-01

    We develop harmonic analysis in certain categories of filtered Abelian groups and vector spaces. The objects of these categories include local fields and adelic spaces arising from arithmetic surfaces. We prove some structure theorems for quotients of the adèle groups of algebraic and arithmetic surfaces.

  4. RF physics of ICWC discharge at high cyclotron harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyssoivan, A.; van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Bobkov, V.; Vervier, M.; Douai, D.; Kogut, D.; Kreter, A.; Moiseenko, V.; Möller, S.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Philipps, V.; Rohde, V.; Schneider, P.; Sergienko, G.; van Schoor, M.; Textor Team, ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-02-01

    Recent experiments on Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) performed in tokamaks TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade with standard ICRF antennas operated at fixed frequencies but variable toroidal magnetic field demonstrated rather contrasting parameters of ICWC discharge in scenarios with on-axis fundamental ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) for protons,ω=ωH+, and with its high cyclotron harmonics (HCH), ω=10ωcH+ṡ HCH scenario: very high antenna coupling to low density RF plasmas (Ppl≈0.9PRF-G) and low energy Maxwellian distribution of CX hydrogen atoms with temperature TH≈350 eV. Fundamental ICR: lower antenna-plasma coupling efficiency (by factor of about 1.5 times) and generation of high energy non-Maxwellian CX hydrogen atoms (with local energy E⊥H ≥1.0 keV). In the present paper, we analyze the obtained experimental results numerically using (i) newly developed 0-D transport code describing the process of plasma production with electron and ion collisional ionization in helium-hydrogen gas mixture and (ii) earlier developed 1-D Dispersion Relation Solver accounting for finite temperature effects and collision absorption mechanisms for all plasma species in addition to conventionally examined Landau/TTPM damping for electrons and cyclotron absorption for ions. The numerical study of plasma production in helium with minor hydrogen content in low and high toroidal magnetic fields is presented. The investigation of the excitation, conversion and absorption of plasma waves as function of BT-field suggests that only fast waves (FW) may give a crucial impact on antenna coupling and characteristics of the ICWC discharge using standard poloidally polarized ICRF antennas designed to couple RF power mainly to FW. The collisional (non-resonant) absorption by electrons and ions and IC absorption by resonant ions of minor concentration in low Te plasmas is studied at fundamental ICR and its high harmonics.

  5. Harmonic analysis of precipitation climatology in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarawneh, Qassem

    2016-04-01

    Annual rainfall records of 20 stations for 30 years are used in order to detect rainfall regimes and climatic features of Saudi Arabia using harmonic analysis techniques. In this study, the percentages of variance, amplitudes, and phase angles are calculated in order to depict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the country's rainfall. The first harmonic explains 42 % of rainfall variation in the western (W) region. This percentage increases toward east (E) and north (N) with 69 and 67 %, respectively. In the southwest (SW) region, the percentages explain 43 % of rainfall variation. The percentages of variance in W and SW are lower than in the E, NW, and central (C) regions. This implies significant contributions of the second harmonic in W and SW regions with 26 and 16 %, respectively. The high percentages of the second and third harmonics in W and SW regions suggest that these two regions are affected by different weather systems at different times. The SW region has the highest amplitudes of the first, second, and third harmonics. The amplitude of the first harmonic reaches to 21 mm in SW and 9 mm in both C and E regions. The time of maximum rainfall is calculated using phase angle; the result reflects that maximum rainfall is shifted forward on the time axis toward the spring season in SW and C regions, January in E and NW regions, and October and November in the W region. This reveals that the SW region is a completely different climatic region, though some of what affects this region also affects the central region. Conditions in the E and NW regions are mainly affected by Mediterranean weather systems, while the W region is affected by unstable conditions caused by the active Red Sea Trough (RST) in October and November.

  6. RF physics of ICWC discharge at high cyclotron harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Lyssoivan, A.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Vervier, M.; Van Schoor, M.; Bobkov, V.; Rohde, V.; Schneider, P.; Douai, D.; Kogut, D.; Kreter, A.; Möller, S.; Philipps, V.; Sergienko, G.; Moiseenko, V.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Collaboration: TEXTOR Team; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-02-12

    Recent experiments on Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) performed in tokamaks TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade with standard ICRF antennas operated at fixed frequencies but variable toroidal magnetic field demonstrated rather contrasting parameters of ICWC discharge in scenarios with on-axis fundamental ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) for protons,ω=ω{sub H+}, and with its high cyclotron harmonics (HCH), ω=10ω{sub cH+}⋅ HCH scenario: very high antenna coupling to low density RF plasmas (P{sub pl}≈0.9P{sub RF-G}) and low energy Maxwellian distribution of CX hydrogen atoms with temperature T{sub H}≈350 eV. Fundamental ICR: lower antenna-plasma coupling efficiency (by factor of about 1.5 times) and generation of high energy non-Maxwellian CX hydrogen atoms (with local energy E{sub ⊥H} ≥1.0 keV). In the present paper, we analyze the obtained experimental results numerically using (i) newly developed 0-D transport code describing the process of plasma production with electron and ion collisional ionization in helium-hydrogen gas mixture and (ii) earlier developed 1-D Dispersion Relation Solver accounting for finite temperature effects and collision absorption mechanisms for all plasma species in addition to conventionally examined Landau/TTPM damping for electrons and cyclotron absorption for ions. The numerical study of plasma production in helium with minor hydrogen content in low and high toroidal magnetic fields is presented. The investigation of the excitation, conversion and absorption of plasma waves as function of B{sub T}-field suggests that only fast waves (FW) may give a crucial impact on antenna coupling and characteristics of the ICWC discharge using standard poloidally polarized ICRF antennas designed to couple RF power mainly to FW. The collisional (non-resonant) absorption by electrons and ions and IC absorption by resonant ions of minor concentration in low T{sub e} plasmas is studied at fundamental ICR and its high harmonics.

  7. A note about Norbert Wiener and his contribution to Harmonic Analysis and Tauberian Theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almira, J. M.; Romero, A. E.

    2009-05-01

    In this note we explain the main motivations Norbert Wiener had for the creation of his Generalized Harmonic Analysis [13] and his Tauberian Theorems [14]. Although these papers belong to the most pure mathematical tradition, they were deeply based on some Engineering and Physics Problems and Wiener was able to use them for such diverse areas as Optics, Brownian motion, Filter Theory, Prediction Theory and Cybernetics.

  8. An analysis of cochlear response harmonics: Contribution of neural excitation.

    PubMed

    Chertoff, M E; Kamerer, A M; Peppi, M; Lichtenhan, J T

    2015-11-01

    In this report an analysis of cochlear response harmonics is developed to derive a mathematical function to estimate the gross mechanics involved in the in vivo transfer of acoustic sound into neural excitation (f(Tr)). In a simulation it is shown that the harmonic distortion from a nonlinear system can be used to estimate the nonlinearity, supporting the next phase of the experiment: Applying the harmonic analysis to physiologic measurements to derive estimates of the unknown, in vivo f(Tr). From gerbil ears, estimates of f(Tr) were derived from cochlear response measurements made with an electrode at the round window niche from 85 Hz tone bursts. Estimates of f(Tr) before and after inducing auditory neuropathy-loss of auditory nerve responses with preserved hair cell responses from neurotoxic treatment with ouabain-showed that the neural excitation from low-frequency tones contributes to the magnitude of f(Tr) but not the sigmoidal, saturating, nonlinear morphology. PMID:26627769

  9. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATIONS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Arregui, I.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Diaz, A. J.

    2013-03-01

    The detection of multiple mode harmonic kink oscillations in coronal loops enables us to obtain information on coronal density stratification and magnetic field expansion using seismology inversion techniques. The inference is based on the measurement of the period ratio between the fundamental mode and the first overtone and theoretical results for the period ratio under the hypotheses of coronal density stratification and magnetic field expansion of the wave guide. We present a Bayesian analysis of multiple mode harmonic oscillations for the inversion of the density scale height and magnetic flux tube expansion under each of the hypotheses. The two models are then compared using a Bayesian model comparison scheme to assess how plausible each one is given our current state of knowledge.

  10. Spherical harmonic analysis of earth's conductive heat flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, V. M.; Cardoso, R. R.; Ponte Neto, C. F.

    2008-04-01

    A reappraisal of the international heat flow database has been carried out and the corrected data set was employed in spherical harmonic analysis of the conductive component of global heat flow. Procedures used prior to harmonic analysis include analysis of the heat flow data and determination of representative mean values for a set of discretized area elements of the surface of the earth. Estimated heat flow values were assigned to area elements for which experimental data are not available. However, no corrections were made to account for the hypothetical effects of regional-scale convection heat transfer in areas of oceanic crust. New sets of coefficients for 12° spherical harmonic expansion were calculated on the basis of the revised and homogenized data set. Maps derived on the basis of these coefficients reveal several new features in the global heat flow distribution. The magnitudes of heat flow anomalies of the ocean ridge segments are found to have mean values of less than 150 mW/m2. Also, the mean global heat flow values for the raw and binned data are found to fall in the range of 56-67 mW/m2, down by nearly 25% compared to the previous estimate of 1993, but similar to earlier assessments based on raw data alone. To improve the spatial resolution of the heat flow anomalies, the spherical harmonic expansions have been extended to higher degrees. Maps derived using coefficients for 36° harmonic expansion have allowed identification of new features in regional heat flow fields of several oceanic and continental segments. For example, lateral extensions of heat flow anomalies of active spreading centers have been outlined with better resolution than was possible in earlier studies. Also, the characteristics of heat flow variations in oceanic crust away from ridge systems are found to be typical of conductive cooling of the lithosphere, there being little need to invoke the hypothesis of unconfined hydrothermal circulation on regional scales. Calculations

  11. A Massively Parallel Solver for the Mechanical Harmonic Analysis of Accelerator Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    O. Kononenko

    2015-02-17

    ACE3P is a 3D massively parallel simulation suite that developed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory that can perform coupled electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical study. Effectively utilizing supercomputer resources, ACE3P has become a key simulation tool for particle accelerator R and D. A new frequency domain solver to perform mechanical harmonic response analysis of accelerator components is developed within the existing parallel framework. This solver is designed to determine the frequency response of the mechanical system to external harmonic excitations for time-efficient accurate analysis of the large-scale problems. Coupled with the ACE3P electromagnetic modules, this capability complements a set of multi-physics tools for a comprehensive study of microphonics in superconducting accelerating cavities in order to understand the RF response and feedback requirements for the operational reliability of a particle accelerator. (auth)

  12. Dirichlet's Principle as an Historical Test Case for Analytic and Harmonic Function Theory in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Lydia

    2004-03-01

    Dirichlet's Problem concerns the boundary conditions for certain harmonic functions. Dirichlet's Principle gives a solution to the Dirichlet problem for the Laplacian by reducing the problem to a minimization problem in a Hilbert space. At the time that he proposed it Dirichlet's problem caused an interesting historical rift between mathematicians such as Karl Weierstrass who pressed for more rigor in distinguishing between a minimum and a greatest lower bound, and physicists such as Hermann von Helmholtz who argued that for any given physical solution the above distinction is immaterial. I will present the historical context of the problem leading up to its eventual solution (for certain limited cases) by David Hilbert. In so doing I will underline how Hilbert was able to identify certain functions for which Dirichlet's Principle holds true, and will evaluate the historical significance of Hilbert's solution for analytic and harmonic function theory in physics.

  13. Linear harmonic analysis of free-piston Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Griffin, F.P.

    1986-06-01

    The equations that govern the behavior of free-piston Stirling engines are nonlinear differential equations. Traditional solution methods have been time-stepping integrations that can be plagued by numerical instabilities and can use large amounts of computer time. Closed-form analytical solutions are possible if the working gas behaves isothermally or if the nonlinear terms in the governing equations are replaced with accurate approximations. An almost closed-form solution method, called the linear harmonic analysis (LHA), has been developed for free-piston Stirling engine applications by representing all of the periodic variables with harmonic functions. The solution method accounts for the important thermodynamic losses that are coupled together in free-piston engines, yet it is efficient enough for optimization studies. The LHA method was compared with a standard numerical integration method to verify its mathematical accuracy. The LHA and numerical predictions for a sample free-piston Stirling engine configuration differed by <5% for all important parameters. Sensitivity studies using the LHA method have also shown that the thermodynamic loss assumptions used in an analysis can have a significant impact on the predicted dynamic behavior of a free-piston Stirling engine.

  14. Harmonic system analysis of the algae Valonia utricularis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianning; Wehner, Günter; Benz, Roland; Zimmermann, Ulrich

    1993-01-01

    Cell membrane properties of the giant marine alga Valonia utricularis were measured in the frequency domain between 1 Hz and 10 MHz by harmonic system analysis. Harmonic analysis was performed by imposing a sinusoidal electrical voltage on the cell interior via an internal microelectrode. Gain and phase-shift of the resulting sinusoidal membrane voltage were measured over the whole frequency range with an internal voltage microelectrode. Bode plots of gain and phase-shift allowed the determination of the electrical parameters of the equivalent electronic circuits of the cell membrane of V. utricularis, which showed dynamic and passive properties dependent on the pH of the external aqueous solution. The dynamic components of the membrane impedance were caused by an electrogenic transport system for chloride described previously (Wang, J., G. Wehner, R. Benz, and U. Zimmermann. 1991. Biophys. J. 59:235-248). The kinetic and equilibrium parameters of the transport system could be evaluated from the fit of Bode plots of gain and phase-shift. The frequency domain technique revealed complete agreement of transport parameters with previously published results. The data demonstrate that an electrogenic transport system can be driven by an oscillating electric field. PMID:19431898

  15. Quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aldersley, Andrew; Champneys, Alan; Robert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. The acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. A time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stationary wing beat frequency signature is constructed, based on Hilbert spectral analysis. A range of algorithmic tools is developed to automatically analyse these data, and used to perform a robust quantitative identification of the ‘harmonic convergence’ phenomenon. The results suggest that harmonic convergence is an active phenomenon, which does not occur by chance. It occurs for live pairs, as well as for lone individuals responding to playback recordings, whether from the same or opposite sex. Male–female behaviour is dominated by frequency convergence at a wider range of harmonic combinations than previously reported, and requires participation from both partners in the duet. New evidence is found to show that male–male interactions are more varied than strict frequency avoidance. Rather, they can be divided into two groups: convergent pairs, typified by tightly bound wing beat frequencies, and divergent pairs, that remain widely spaced in the frequency domain. Overall, the results reveal that mosquito acoustic interaction is a delicate and intricate time-dependent active process that involves both individuals, takes place at many different frequencies, and which merits further enquiry. PMID:27053654

  16. Quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions.

    PubMed

    Aldersley, Andrew; Champneys, Alan; Homer, Martin; Robert, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. The acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. A time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stationary wing beat frequency signature is constructed, based on Hilbert spectral analysis. A range of algorithmic tools is developed to automatically analyse these data, and used to perform a robust quantitative identification of the 'harmonic convergence' phenomenon. The results suggest that harmonic convergence is an active phenomenon, which does not occur by chance. It occurs for live pairs, as well as for lone individuals responding to playback recordings, whether from the same or opposite sex. Male-female behaviour is dominated by frequency convergence at a wider range of harmonic combinations than previously reported, and requires participation from both partners in the duet. New evidence is found to show that male-male interactions are more varied than strict frequency avoidance. Rather, they can be divided into two groups: convergent pairs, typified by tightly bound wing beat frequencies, and divergent pairs, that remain widely spaced in the frequency domain. Overall, the results reveal that mosquito acoustic interaction is a delicate and intricate time-dependent active process that involves both individuals, takes place at many different frequencies, and which merits further enquiry. PMID:27053654

  17. Identifying aquifer type in fractured rock aquifers using harmonic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Khayyun A; Halihan, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Determining aquifer type, unconfined, semi-confined, or confined, by drilling or performing pumping tests has inherent problems (i.e., cost and complex field issues) while sometimes yielding inconclusive results. An improved method to cost-effectively determine aquifer type would be beneficial for hydraulic mapping of complex aquifer systems like fractured rock aquifers. Earth tides are known to influence water levels in wells penetrating confined aquifers or unconfined thick, low-porosity aquifers. Water-level fluctuations in wells tapping confined and unconfined aquifers are also influenced by changes in barometric pressure. Harmonic analyses of water-level fluctuations of a thick (~1000 m) carbonate aquifer located in south-central Oklahoma (Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer) were utilized in nine wells to identify aquifer type by evaluating the influence of earth tides and barometric-pressure variations using signal identification. On the basis of the results, portions of the aquifer responded hydraulically as each type of aquifer even though there was no significant variation in lithostratigraphy. The aquifer type was depth dependent with confined conditions becoming more prevalent with depth. The results demonstrate that harmonic analysis is an accurate and low-cost method to determine aquifer type. PMID:22463080

  18. Three dimensional modelling and numerical analysis of super-radiant harmonic emission in FEL (optical klystron)

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, A.; Friedman, A.; Luccio, A.

    1986-09-01

    A full 3-D Analysis of super-radiant (bunched electron) free electron harmonic radiation is presented. A generalized form of the FEL pendulum equation was derived and numerically solved. Both spectral and phasor formulation were developed to treat the radiation in the time domain. In space the radiation field is expanded in terms of either a set of free space discrete modes or plane waves. The numerical solutions reveal some new distinctly 3-D effects to which we provide a physical explanation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Research of second harmonic generation images based on texture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Gong, Haiming; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan

    2014-09-01

    Texture analysis plays a crucial role in identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. It has been applied to a variety of medical image processing, ranging from the detection of disease and the segmentation of specific anatomical structures, to differentiation between healthy and pathological tissues. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy as a potential noninvasive tool for imaging biological tissues has been widely used in medicine, with reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching. In this paper, we clarified the principles of texture analysis including statistical, transform, structural and model-based methods and gave examples of its applications, reviewing studies of the technique. Moreover, we tried to apply texture analysis to the SHG images for the differentiation of human skin scar tissues. Texture analysis method based on local binary pattern (LBP) and wavelet transform was used to extract texture features of SHG images from collagen in normal and abnormal scars, and then the scar SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal ones. Compared with other texture analysis methods with respect to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, LBP combined with wavelet transform was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy. It can provide a new way for clinical diagnosis of scar types. At last, future development of texture analysis in SHG images were discussed.

  20. Analysis of rotor vibratory loads using higher harmonic pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Wachspress, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental studies of isolated rotors in forward flight have indicated that higher harmonic pitch control can reduce rotor noise. These tests also show that such pitch inputs can generate substantial vibratory loads. The modification is summarized of the RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward flighT) analysis of isolated rotors to study the vibratory loading generated by high frequency pitch inputs. The original RotorCRAFT code was developed for use in the computation of such loading, and uses a highly refined rotor wake model to facilitate this task. The extended version of RotorCRAFT incorporates a variety of new features including: arbitrary periodic root pitch control; computation of blade stresses and hub loads; improved modeling of near wake unsteady effects; and preliminary implementation of a coupled prediction of rotor airloads and noise. Correlation studies are carried out with existing blade stress and vibratory hub load data to assess the performance of the extended code.

  1. Harmonic analysis of spacecraft power systems using a personal computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Frank; Sheble, Gerald B.

    1989-01-01

    The effects that nonlinear devices such as ac/dc converters, HVDC transmission links, and motor drives have on spacecraft power systems are discussed. The nonsinusoidal currents, along with the corresponding voltages, are calculated by a harmonic power flow which decouples and solves for each harmonic component individually using an iterative Newton-Raphson algorithm. The sparsity of the harmonic equations and the overall Jacobian matrix is used to an advantage in terms of saving computer memory space and in terms of reducing computation time. The algorithm could also be modified to analyze each harmonic separately instead of all at the same time.

  2. Gaussian-Schell analysis of the transverse spatial properties of high-harmonic beams.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, David T; O'Keeffe, Kevin; Anderson, Patrick N; Hooker, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) is an established means of producing coherent, short wavelength, ultrafast pulses from a compact set-up. Table-top high-harmonic sources are increasingly being used to image physical and biological systems using emerging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography. These novel imaging methods require coherent illumination, and it is therefore important to both characterize the spatial coherence of high-harmonic beams and understand the processes which limit this property. Here we investigate the near- and far-field spatial properties of high-harmonic radiation generated in a gas cell. The variation with harmonic order of the intensity profile, wavefront curvature, and complex coherence factor is measured in the far-field by the SCIMITAR technique. Using the Gaussian-Schell model, the properties of the harmonic beam in the plane of generation are deduced. Our results show that the order-dependence of the harmonic spatial coherence is consistent with partial coherence induced by both variation of the intensity-dependent dipole phase as well as finite spatial coherence of the driving radiation. These findings are used to suggest ways in which the coherence of harmonic beams could be increased further, which would have direct benefits to imaging with high-harmonic radiation. PMID:27465654

  3. Gaussian-Schell analysis of the transverse spatial properties of high-harmonic beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, David T.; O’Keeffe, Kevin; Anderson, Patrick N.; Hooker, Simon M.

    2016-07-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) is an established means of producing coherent, short wavelength, ultrafast pulses from a compact set-up. Table-top high-harmonic sources are increasingly being used to image physical and biological systems using emerging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography. These novel imaging methods require coherent illumination, and it is therefore important to both characterize the spatial coherence of high-harmonic beams and understand the processes which limit this property. Here we investigate the near- and far-field spatial properties of high-harmonic radiation generated in a gas cell. The variation with harmonic order of the intensity profile, wavefront curvature, and complex coherence factor is measured in the far-field by the SCIMITAR technique. Using the Gaussian-Schell model, the properties of the harmonic beam in the plane of generation are deduced. Our results show that the order-dependence of the harmonic spatial coherence is consistent with partial coherence induced by both variation of the intensity-dependent dipole phase as well as finite spatial coherence of the driving radiation. These findings are used to suggest ways in which the coherence of harmonic beams could be increased further, which would have direct benefits to imaging with high-harmonic radiation.

  4. Gaussian-Schell analysis of the transverse spatial properties of high-harmonic beams

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, David T.; O’Keeffe, Kevin; Anderson, Patrick N.; Hooker, Simon M.

    2016-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) is an established means of producing coherent, short wavelength, ultrafast pulses from a compact set-up. Table-top high-harmonic sources are increasingly being used to image physical and biological systems using emerging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography. These novel imaging methods require coherent illumination, and it is therefore important to both characterize the spatial coherence of high-harmonic beams and understand the processes which limit this property. Here we investigate the near- and far-field spatial properties of high-harmonic radiation generated in a gas cell. The variation with harmonic order of the intensity profile, wavefront curvature, and complex coherence factor is measured in the far-field by the SCIMITAR technique. Using the Gaussian-Schell model, the properties of the harmonic beam in the plane of generation are deduced. Our results show that the order-dependence of the harmonic spatial coherence is consistent with partial coherence induced by both variation of the intensity-dependent dipole phase as well as finite spatial coherence of the driving radiation. These findings are used to suggest ways in which the coherence of harmonic beams could be increased further, which would have direct benefits to imaging with high-harmonic radiation. PMID:27465654

  5. Harmonic analysis utilizing a Phonodeik and an Henrici analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fickinger, William J.; Hanson, Roger J.; Hoekje, Peter L.

    2001-05-01

    Dayton C. Miller of the Case School of Applied Science assembled a series of instruments for accurate analysis of sound [D. C. Miller, J. Franklin Inst. 182, 285-322 (1916)]. He created the Phonodeik to display and record sound waveforms of musical instruments, voices, fog horns, and so on. Waveforms were analyzed with the Henrici harmonic analyzer, built in Switzerland by G. Coradi. In this device, the motion of a stylus along the curve to be analyzed causes a series of spheres to rotate; two moveable rollers in contact with the nth sphere record the contributions of the sine(nx) and cosine(nx) components of the wave. Corrections for the measured spectra are calculated from analysis of the response of the Phonodeik. Finally, the original waveform could be reconstructed from the corrected spectral amplitudes and phases by a waveform synthesizer, also built at Case. Videos will be presented that show the motion of the gears, spheres, and dials of a working Henrici analyzer, housed at the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at the University of Iowa. Operation of the Henrici analyzer and the waveform synthesizer will be explained.

  6. Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis for bladed wheels damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, P.; Peeters, B.

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between bladed wheels and the fluid distributed by the stator vanes results in cyclic loading of the rotating components. Compressors and turbines wheels are subject to vibration and fatigue issues, especially when resonance conditions are excited. Even if resonance conditions can be often predicted and avoided, high cycle fatigue failures can occur, causing safety issues and economic loss. Rigorous maintenance programs are then needed, forcing the system to expensive shut-down. Blade crack detection methods are beneficial for condition-based maintenance. While contact measurement systems are not always usable in exercise conditions (e.g. high temperature), non-contact methods can be more suitable. One (or more) stator-fixed sensor can measure all the blades as they pass by, in order to detect the damaged ones. The main drawback in this situation is the short acquisition time available for each blade, which is shortened by the high rotational speed of the components. A traditional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) analysis would result in a poor frequency resolution. A Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis (NHFA) can be executed with an arbitrary frequency resolution instead, allowing to obtain frequency information even with short-time data samples. This paper shows an analytical investigation of the NHFA method. A data processing algorithm is then proposed to obtain frequency shift information from short time samples. The performances of this algorithm are then studied by experimental and numerical tests.

  7. Analysis of the harmonic gyrotron traveling wave amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Kuo, S. C.; Cheo, B. R.; Lee, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    A single nonlinear differential equation is derived for describing the spatial evolution of the wave field in a gyrotron amplifier on the cylindrical guide geometry. The equation is then used to determine the efficiencies and the optimized interaction lengths for gyrotron operated with TE sub N1 modes at the N-th cyclotron harmonic. The equation offers a significant advantage in simplifying numerical work in comparison with the brute force particle simulation approach. The efficiencies of the harmonic operations by using a hollow beam decrease quickly with increasing harmonic number, but are enhanced by using an axis-encircling beam instead.

  8. Repeat analysis and incurred sample reanalysis: recommendation for best practices and harmonization from the global bioanalysis consortium harmonization team.

    PubMed

    Fluhler, Eric; Vazvaei, Faye; Singhal, Puran; Vinck, Petra; Li, Wenkui; Bhatt, Jignesh; de Boer, Theo; Chaudhary, Ajai; Tangiuchi, Masahiro; Rezende, Vinicius; Zhong, Dafang

    2014-11-01

    The A7 harmonization team (A7 HT), a part of the Global Bioanalysis Consortium (GBC), focused on reviewing best practices for repeat analysis and incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) as applied during regulated bioanalysis. With international representation from Europe, Latin America, North America, and the Asia Pacific region, the team first collated common practices and guidance recommendations and assessed their suitability from both a scientific and logistical perspective. Subsequently, team members developed best practice recommendations and refined them through discussions and presentations with industry experts at scientific meetings. This review summarizes the team findings and best practice recommendations. The few topics where no consensus could be reached are also discussed. The A7 HT recommendations, together with those from the other GBC teams, provide the basis for future international harmonization of regulated bioanalytical practices. PMID:25135836

  9. Spherical harmonic analysis of a harmonic function given on a spheroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessens, S. J.

    2016-07-01

    A new analytical method for the computation of a truncated series of solid spherical harmonic coefficients (HCs) from data on a spheroid (i.e. an oblate ellipsoid of revolution) is derived, using a transformation between surface and solid spherical HCs. A two-step procedure is derived to extend this transformation beyond degree and order (d/o) 520. The method is compared to the Hotine-Jekeli transformation in a numerical study based on the EGM2008 global gravity model. Both methods are shown to achieve submicrometre precision in terms of height anomalies for a model to d/o 2239. However, both methods result in spherical harmonic models that are different by up to 7.6 mm in height anomalies and 2.5 mGal in gravity disturbances due to the different coordinate system used. While the Hotine-Jekeli transformation requires the use of an ellipsoidal coordinate system, the new method uses only spherical polar coordinates. The Hotine-Jekeli transformation is numerically more efficient, but the new method can more easily be extended to cases where (a linear combination of) normal derivatives of the function under consideration are given on the surface of the spheroid. It therefore provides a solution to many types of ellipsoidal boundary-value problems in the spectral domain.

  10. Spherical harmonic analysis for verfication of a global atmospheric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christidis, Z.; Spar, J.

    1979-01-01

    Surface spherical harmonics were used to analyze the horizontal fields of various quantities generated by a global climate model. Also, the computed monthly mean forecast fields were compared with the corresponding observed fields.

  11. Analysis of Crustal Magnetisation in Cartesian Vector Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbins, D.; Ivers, D.; Williams, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new set of functions, Vector Cartesian Harmonics (VCH), analogous to the Vector Spherical Harmonics that we have applied recently to global models of crustal and lithospheric magnetisation. Like their spherical counterpart, the VCH form a complete, orthogonal set: planar models of magnetisation can be expanded in them. There are 3 distinct types of VCH, one representing that part of the magnetisation which generates the potential magnetic field above the surface, another the potential magnetic field below the surface, and a toroidal function that generates only a non-potential field. One function therefore describes the magnetisation detected by observations of the magnetic anomaly while the other two describe the null space of an inversion of magnetic observations for magnetisation. The formalism is therefore ideal for analysing the results of inversions for magnetic structures in plane layers such as local or regional surveys where Earth's curvature can be ignored. The null space is in general very large, being an arbitrary combination of a doubly-infinite set of vector functions. However, in the absence of remanence and when the inducing field is uniform the null space reduces to only 2 types of structure, uniform susceptibility (Runcorn's Theorem) and a pattern of susceptibility induced by a uniform field, the null space is restricted to uniform magnetisation and 1D patterns of susceptibility aligned with a horizontal inducing field. Both these cases are already well known, but this analysis shows them to be the ONLY members of the null space. We also give results for familiar text-book structures to show the nature of the null space in each case. Curiously, inversion of the magnetic field from a buried dipole returns exactly half the correct magnitude plus a spurious distributed magnetisation. A more complex application is the topographic structure based on the Bishop formation in California (Fairhead and Williams, SEG exp. abstr. 25, 845, 2006

  12. Non-Harmonic Analysis Applied to Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xu; Uchida, Tetsuya; Hirobayashi, Shigeki; Chong, Changho; Morosawa, Atsushi; Totsuka, Koki; Suzuki, Takuya

    2012-02-01

    A new processing technique called non-harmonic analysis (NHA) is proposed for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Conventional Fourier-domain OCT employs the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), which depends on the window function and length. The axial resolution of the OCT image, calculated by using DFT, is inversely proportional to the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the wavelength range. The FWHM of wavelength range is limited by the sweeping range of the source in swept-source OCT and it is limited by the number of CCD pixels in spectral-domain OCT. However, the NHA process does not have such constraints; NHA can resolve high frequencies irrespective of the window function and the frame length of the sampled data. In this study, the NHA process is described and it is applied to OCT imaging. It is compared with OCT images based on the DFT. To demonstrate the benefits of using NHA for OCT, we perform OCT imaging with NHA of an onion skin. The results reveal that NHA can achieve an image resolution equivalent that of a 100-nm sweep range using a significantly reduced wavelength range. They also reveal the potential of using this technique to achieve high-resolution imaging without using a broadband source. However, the long calculation times required for NHA must be addressed if it is to be used in clinical applications.

  13. Analysis of cyclotron harmonic emissions at the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, I.; Hudson, M. K.

    1992-01-01

    The flyby missions of Voyagers 1 and 2 at Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus revealed intense waves above the electron gyrofrequency. Observation of waves at the upper hybrid frequency is often accompanied by power at adjacent electron Bernstein harmonics, and the relative power in these modes depends both on the density and temperature ratios of the cold background electron population and the hot magnetospheric electrons which drive the instability. A model of electron distributions which is consistent with observations is used for analysis of the excited waves, their dependence upon plasma parameters, and the time scales of the saturation processes. It is shown that in the presence of two-temperature electron distributions the linear excitation is due to a fluidlike coupling of two eigenmodes for perpendicular propagation and to kinetic destalization of oblique modes. The dependence of linear growth rates on propagation angle is presented, along with results from particle simulations. A quasi-linear diffusion time for relaxing the hot electron loss cone is calculated and compared with simulation results. This time scale is faster than for local saturation by heating the cold population, and also the convective amplification time scale, suggesting that the waves saturate at quasi-linear levels, while being convectively localized to the equatorial regions of the outer planetary magnetospheres.

  14. Applied and computational harmonic analysis on graphs and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irion, Jeff; Saito, Naoki

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the advent of new sensor technologies and social network infrastructure has provided huge opportunities and challenges for analyzing data recorded on such networks. In the case of data on regular lattices, computational harmonic analysis tools such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms have well-developed theories and proven track records of success. It is therefore quite important to extend such tools from the classical setting of regular lattices to the more general setting of graphs and networks. In this article, we first review basics of graph Laplacian matrices, whose eigenpairs are often interpreted as the frequencies and the Fourier basis vectors on a given graph. We point out, however, that such an interpretation is misleading unless the underlying graph is either an unweighted path or cycle. We then discuss our recent effort of constructing multiscale basis dictionaries on a graph, including the Hierarchical Graph Laplacian Eigenbasis Dictionary and the Generalized Haar-Walsh Wavelet Packet Dictionary, which are viewed as generalizations of the classical hierarchical block DCTs and the Haar-Walsh wavelet packets, respectively, to the graph setting. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our dictionaries by using them to simultaneously segment and denoise 1-D noisy signals sampled on regular lattices, a problem where classical tools have difficulty.

  15. Optical coherence tomography imaging based on non-harmonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xu; Hirobayashi, Shigeki; Chong, Changho; Morosawa, Atsushi; Totsuka, Koki; Suzuki, Takuya

    2009-11-01

    A new processing technique called Non-Harmonic Analysis (NHA) is proposed for OCT imaging. Conventional Fourier-Domain OCT relies on the FFT calculation which depends on the window function and length. Axial resolution is counter proportional to the frame length of FFT that is limited by the swept range of the swept source in SS-OCT, or the pixel counts of CCD in SD-OCT degraded in FD-OCT. However, NHA process is intrinsically free from this trade-offs; NHA can resolve high frequency without being influenced by window function or frame length of sampled data. In this study, NHA process is explained and applied to OCT imaging and compared with OCT images based on FFT. In order to validate the benefit of NHA in OCT, we carried out OCT imaging based on NHA with the three different sample of onion-skin,human-skin and pig-eye. The results show that NHA process can realize practical image resolution that is equivalent to 100nm swept range only with less than half-reduced wavelength range.

  16. Harmonizing Physics & Cosmology With Everything Else in the Universe(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asija, Pal

    2006-03-01

    This paper postulates a theory of everything including our known finite physical universe within and as sub-set of an infinite virtual invisible universe occupying some of the same space and time. It attempts to harmonize astrophysics with everything else including life. It compares and contrasts properties, similarities, differences and relationships between the two universe(s). A particular attention is paid to the interface between the two and the challenges of building and/or traversing bridges between them. A number of inflection points between the two are identified. The paper also delineates their relationship to big bang, theory of evolution, gravity, dark matter, black holes, time travel, speed of light, theory of relativity and string theory just to name a few. Several new terms are introduced and defined to discuss proper relationship, transition and interface between the body, soul and spirit as well as their relationship to brain and mind. Physical bodies & beings are compared with virtual, meta and ultra bodies and beings and how the ``Virtual Inside'' relates to people, pets, plants and particles and their micro constituents as well as macro sets. The past, present, and potential of the concurrent universe(s) is compared and contrasted along with many myths and misconceptions of the meta physics as well as modern physics.

  17. Harmonics elimination algorithm for operational modal analysis using random decrement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, S. V.; Rawal, Chetan; Kundra, T. K.

    2010-05-01

    Operational modal analysis (OMA) extracts modal parameters of a structure using their output response, during operation in general. OMA, when applied to mechanical engineering structures is often faced with the problem of harmonics present in the output response, and can cause erroneous modal extraction. This paper demonstrates for the first time that the random decrement (RD) method can be efficiently employed to eliminate the harmonics from the randomdec signatures. Further, the research work shows effective elimination of large amplitude harmonics also by proposing inclusion of additional random excitation. This obviously need not be recorded for analysis, as is the case with any other OMA method. The free decays obtained from RD have been used for system modal identification using eigen-system realization algorithm (ERA). The proposed harmonic elimination method has an advantage over previous methods in that it does not require the harmonic frequencies to be known and can be used for multiple harmonics, including periodic signals. The theory behind harmonic elimination is first developed and validated. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated through a simulated study and then by experimental studies on a beam and a more complex F-shape structure, which resembles in shape to the skeleton of a drilling or milling machine tool. Cases with presence of single and multiple harmonics in the response are considered.

  18. Calculation and analysis of the harmonic vibrational frequencies in molecules at extreme pressure: Methodology and diborane as a test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammi, R.; Cappelli, C.; Mennucci, B.; Tomasi, J.

    2012-10-01

    We present a new quantum chemical method for the calculation of the equilibrium geometry and the harmonic vibrational frequencies of molecular systems in dense medium at high pressures (of the order of GPa). The new computational method, named PCM-XP, is based on the polarizable continuum model (PCM), amply used for the study of the solvent effects at standard condition of pressure, and it is accompanied by a new method of analysis for the interpretation of the mechanisms underpinning the effects of pressure on the molecular geometries and the harmonic vibrational frequencies. The PCM-XP has been applied at the density functional theory level to diborane as a molecular system under high pressure. The computed harmonic vibrational frequencies as a function of the pressure have shown a satisfactory agreement with the corresponding experimental results, and the parallel application of the method of analysis has reveled that the effects of the pressure on the equilibrium geometry can be interpreted in terms of direct effects on the electronic charge distribution of the molecular solutes, and that the effects on the harmonic vibrational frequencies can be described in terms of two physically distinct effects of the pressure (curvature and relaxation) on the potential energy for the motion of the nuclei.

  19. Nanoantenna harmonic sensor: theoretical analysis of contactless detection of molecules with light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Cheng, Mark M. C.; Le, Khai Q.; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2015-10-01

    The nonlinear harmonic sensor is a popular wireless sensor and radiofrequency identification (RFID) technique, which allows high-performance sensing in a severe interference/clutter background by transmitting a radio wave and detecting its modulated higher-order harmonics. Here we introduce the concept and design of optical harmonic tags based on nonlinear nanoantennas that can contactlessly detect electronic (e.g. electron affinity) and optical (e.g. relative permittivity) characteristics of molecules. By using a dual-resonance gold-molecule-silver nanodipole antenna within the quantum mechanical realm, the spectral form of the second-harmonic scattering can sensitively reveal the physical properties of molecules, paving a new route towards optical molecular sensors and optical identification (OPID) of biological, genetic, and medical events for the ‘Internet of Nano-Things’.

  20. Nanoantenna harmonic sensor: theoretical analysis of contactless detection of molecules with light.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Mohamed; Cheng, Mark M C; Le, Khai Q; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2015-10-16

    The nonlinear harmonic sensor is a popular wireless sensor and radiofrequency identification (RFID) technique, which allows high-performance sensing in a severe interference/clutter background by transmitting a radio wave and detecting its modulated higher-order harmonics. Here we introduce the concept and design of optical harmonic tags based on nonlinear nanoantennas that can contactlessly detect electronic (e.g. electron affinity) and optical (e.g. relative permittivity) characteristics of molecules. By using a dual-resonance gold-molecule-silver nanodipole antenna within the quantum mechanical realm, the spectral form of the second-harmonic scattering can sensitively reveal the physical properties of molecules, paving a new route towards optical molecular sensors and optical identification (OPID) of biological, genetic, and medical events for the 'Internet of Nano-Things'. PMID:26403614

  1. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Roodman, A

    2003-12-16

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.

  2. Physical pendulum experiments to enhance the understanding of moments of inertia and simple harmonic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Tim H.; Brittle, Stuart A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a set of experiments aimed at overcoming some of the difficulties experienced by students learning about the topics of moments of inertia and simple harmonic motion, both of which are often perceived to be complex topics amongst students during their first-year university courses. By combining both subjects in a discussion about physical pendula, in which the oscillation time periods for the periodic motion of several objects (a tennis ball, a thin beam, a hoop and a solid disc) are measured and compared, students are able to understand both topics at a higher level and also experience the synergistic effect of combining two or more physics themes in order to accelerate their learning whilst simultaneously raising their motivation. Special attention is given to the ‘ball and stick’ pendulum in which a block of material (treated as a point mass) can be moved along a shaft to create a composite pendulum whose time period exhibits a minimum value at a certain separation between the block and the rotation axis.

  3. Extracting tidal frequencies using multivariate harmonic analysis of sea level height time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri-Simkooei, A. R.; Zaminpardaz, S.; Sharifi, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    This contribution is seen as a first attempt to extract the tidal frequencies using a multivariate spectral analysis method applied to multiple time series of tide-gauge records. The existing methods are either physics-based in which the ephemeris of Moon, Sun and other planets are used, or are observation-based in which univariate analysis methods—Fourier and wavelet for instance—are applied to tidal observations. The existence of many long tide-gauge records around the world allows one to use tidal observations and extract the main tidal constituents for which efficient multivariate methods are to be developed. This contribution applies the multivariate least-squares harmonic estimation (LS-HE) to the tidal time series of the UK tide-gauge stations. The first 413 harmonics of the tidal constituents and their nonlinear components are provided using the multivariate LS-HE. A few observations of the research are highlighted: (1) the multivariate analysis takes information of multiple time series into account in an optimal least- squares sense, and thus the tidal frequencies have higher detection power compared to the univariate analysis. (2) Dominant tidal frequencies range from the long-term signals to the sixth-diurnal species interval. Higher frequencies have negligible effects. (3) The most important tidal constituents (the first 50 frequencies) ordered from their amplitudes range from 212 cm (M2) to 1 cm (OQ2) for the data set considered. There are signals in this list that are not available in the 145 main tidal frequencies of the literature. (4) Tide predictions using different lists of tidal frequencies on five different data sets around the world are compared. The prediction results using the first significant 50 constituents provided promising results on these locations of the world.

  4. Physics analysis tools

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F.

    1991-04-01

    There are many tools used in analysis in High Energy Physics (HEP). They range from low level tools such as a programming language to high level such as a detector simulation package. This paper will discuss some aspects of these tools that are directly associated with the process of analyzing HEP data. Physics analysis tools cover the whole range from the simulation of the interactions of particles to the display and fitting of statistical data. For purposes of this paper, the stages of analysis is broken down to five main stages. The categories are also classified as areas of generation, reconstruction, and analysis. Different detector groups use different terms for these stages thus it is useful to define what is meant by them in this paper. The particle generation stage is a simulation of the initial interaction, the production of particles, and the decay of the short lived particles. The detector simulation stage simulates the behavior of an event in a detector. The track reconstruction stage does pattern recognition on the measured or simulated space points, calorimeter information, etc., and reconstructs track segments of the original event. The event reconstruction stage takes the reconstructed tracks, along with particle identification information and assigns masses to produce 4-vectors. Finally the display and fit stage displays statistical data accumulated in the preceding stages in the form of histograms, scatter plots, etc. The remainder of this paper will consider what analysis tools are available today, and what one might expect in the future. In each stage, the integration of the tools with other stages and the portability of the tool will be analyzed.

  5. Analysis of higher harmonic contamination with a modified approach using a grating analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajkumar; Modi, Mohammed H.; Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.; Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    Soft x-ray spectra of the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source are analyzed for higher harmonic contribution. A diffraction grating of central line spacing 1200 l/mm is used to disperse the monochromatic beam received from TGM to quantify the harmonic contents in the 50-360 Å wavelength range. In order to calculate the harmonic contamination, conventionally the intensity of higher order peak is divided by first order peak intensity of the desired wavelength. This approach is found to give wrong estimate as first order peak itself is overlapped by higher order peaks. In the present study, a modified approach has been proposed to calculate harmonic contamination where the intensity contributions of overlapping orders have been removed from the first order diffraction peak of the desired wavelength. It is found that the order contamination in the TGM spectra is less than 15% in the wavelength range of 90-180 Å. The total harmonic contribution increases from 6%-60% in the wavelength range of 150-260 Å. The critical wavelength of Indus-1 is 61 Å hence the harmonic contamination below 90 Å is significantly low. The results obtained with modified approach match well with those obtained by quantitative analysis of multilayer reflectivity data. The obtained higher harmonics data are used to fit the transmission of aluminum edge filter in the 120-360 Å wavelength range.

  6. Analysis of higher harmonic contamination with a modified approach using a grating analyser.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajkumar; Modi, Mohammed H; Kumar, M; Chakera, J A; Lodha, G S

    2014-04-01

    Soft x-ray spectra of the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source are analyzed for higher harmonic contribution. A diffraction grating of central line spacing 1200 l/mm is used to disperse the monochromatic beam received from TGM to quantify the harmonic contents in the 50-360 Å wavelength range. In order to calculate the harmonic contamination, conventionally the intensity of higher order peak is divided by first order peak intensity of the desired wavelength. This approach is found to give wrong estimate as first order peak itself is overlapped by higher order peaks. In the present study, a modified approach has been proposed to calculate harmonic contamination where the intensity contributions of overlapping orders have been removed from the first order diffraction peak of the desired wavelength. It is found that the order contamination in the TGM spectra is less than 15% in the wavelength range of 90-180 Å. The total harmonic contribution increases from 6%-60% in the wavelength range of 150-260 Å. The critical wavelength of Indus-1 is 61 Å hence the harmonic contamination below 90 Å is significantly low. The results obtained with modified approach match well with those obtained by quantitative analysis of multilayer reflectivity data. The obtained higher harmonics data are used to fit the transmission of aluminum edge filter in the 120-360 Å wavelength range. PMID:24784593

  7. Analysis of higher harmonic contamination with a modified approach using a grating analyser

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rajkumar Modi, Mohammed H.; Lodha, G. S.; Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.

    2014-04-15

    Soft x-ray spectra of the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source are analyzed for higher harmonic contribution. A diffraction grating of central line spacing 1200 l/mm is used to disperse the monochromatic beam received from TGM to quantify the harmonic contents in the 50–360 Å wavelength range. In order to calculate the harmonic contamination, conventionally the intensity of higher order peak is divided by first order peak intensity of the desired wavelength. This approach is found to give wrong estimate as first order peak itself is overlapped by higher order peaks. In the present study, a modified approach has been proposed to calculate harmonic contamination where the intensity contributions of overlapping orders have been removed from the first order diffraction peak of the desired wavelength. It is found that the order contamination in the TGM spectra is less than 15% in the wavelength range of 90–180 Å. The total harmonic contribution increases from 6%–60% in the wavelength range of 150–260 Å. The critical wavelength of Indus-1 is 61 Å hence the harmonic contamination below 90 Å is significantly low. The results obtained with modified approach match well with those obtained by quantitative analysis of multilayer reflectivity data. The obtained higher harmonics data are used to fit the transmission of aluminum edge filter in the 120–360 Å wavelength range.

  8. Data harmonization and federated analysis of population-based studies: the BioSHaRE project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstracts Background Individual-level data pooling of large population-based studies across research centres in international research projects faces many hurdles. The BioSHaRE (Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Research Excellence in the European Union) project aims to address these issues by building a collaborative group of investigators and developing tools for data harmonization, database integration and federated data analyses. Methods Eight population-based studies in six European countries were recruited to participate in the BioSHaRE project. Through workshops, teleconferences and electronic communications, participating investigators identified a set of 96 variables targeted for harmonization to answer research questions of interest. Using each study’s questionnaires, standard operating procedures, and data dictionaries, harmonization potential was assessed. Whenever harmonization was deemed possible, processing algorithms were developed and implemented in an open-source software infrastructure to transform study-specific data into the target (i.e. harmonized) format. Harmonized datasets located on server in each research centres across Europe were interconnected through a federated database system to perform statistical analysis. Results Retrospective harmonization led to the generation of common format variables for 73% of matches considered (96 targeted variables across 8 studies). Authenticated investigators can now perform complex statistical analyses of harmonized datasets stored on distributed servers without actually sharing individual-level data using the DataSHIELD method. Conclusion New Internet-based networking technologies and database management systems are providing the means to support collaborative, multi-center research in an efficient and secure manner. The results from this pilot project show that, given a strong collaborative relationship between participating studies, it is possible to seamlessly co

  9. A Comparison between a GFDL General Circulation Model and Observations using Harmonic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavi, F.

    2010-09-01

    One of the most important features in analyzing the climatology of any region is to study the precipitation and its periodicity of different harmonics in order to investigate the behavior of the observed data. In this study using precipitation values obtained from the 20C3M (run1) experiment of the GFDL general circulation model (CM2.1) and CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) from NCEP, harmonic analysis has been employed to study the seasonal variation of precipitation over the Middle East (20°-40°N, 30°-65°E).The monthly precipitation values were averaged over a 25-year integration, producing a dataset 12 monthly for each grid locations. The annual mean and seasonal variance for each grid obtained from two dataset. Maps of the first, second and third harmonic amplitudes and phases provide a useful source of comparison between model output and observational data. Results show that the method of harmonic analysis allows a more analytical comparison between model predictions and data than the conventional approach of representing the annual march in the form of a curve of mean monthly rainfall amounts. The method delineates regional boundaries of the various precipitation regimes in the Middle East.A comparison of the simulated and observed values indicate that the GCM fails to capture a significant amount of the regional detail in precipitation climatology in the South of Middle East when its results are decomposed by harmonic analysis.

  10. The Effect of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on Harmonic Analysis of Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarian, T.; Joorabian, M.; Reza, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of plug-in electric vehicles is studied on the smart distribution system with a standard IEEE 30-bus network. At first, harmonic power flow analysis is performed by Newton-Raphson method and by considering distorted substation voltage. Afterward, proper sizes of capacitors is selected by cuckoo optimization algorithm to reduce the power losses and cost and by imposing acceptable limit for total harmonic distortion and RMS voltages. It is proposed that the impact of generated current harmonics by electric vehicle battery chargers should be factored into overall load control strategies of smart appliances. This study is generalized to the different hours of a day by using daily load curve, and then optimum time for charging of electric vehicles batteries in the parking lots are determined by cuckoo optimization algorithm. The results show that injecting harmonic currents of plug-in electric vehicles causes a drop in the voltage profile and increases power loss. Moreover, charging the vehicle batteries has more impact on increasing the power losses rather than the harmonic currents effect. Also, the findings showed that the current harmonics has a great influence on increasing of THD. Finally, optimum working times of all parking lots was obtained for the utilization cost reduction.

  11. Harmonic Resonance Analysis for PEP II Power Factor Control Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corvin, C.

    1997-05-01

    Recent upgrades to the high voltage utility distribution network at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center have been accompanied by the installation of a large number of power supplies associated with the PEP-II B Factory project. These power supplies include a diverse assortment of single and three phase units, in two, six and twelve pulse configurations, with chopped, pulsed and continuous loading. Viewed as harmonic power sources in a range from a hundred to several kilohertz, they have the potential to be in resonance with the utility system network, a condition to be avoided. This paper analyzes and evaluates these resonance conditions with a view toward adding electric power factor correction upgrades to achieve substantial cost savings associated with power factor penalty avoidance. Similar studies and upgrades at SLAC in the past have reduced electric power costs over time by several hundred thousand dollars, thus providing the incentive to evaluate the recent upgrades to the PEP-II utility network.

  12. Automated cardiac sarcomere analysis from second harmonic generation images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Gonzalez-Tendero, Anna; Iruretagoyena, Igor; Crispi, Fatima; Torre, Iratxe; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Bijnens, Bart H.; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Automatic quantification of cardiac muscle properties in tissue sections might provide important information related to different types of diseases. Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging provides a stain-free microscopy approach to image cardiac fibers that, combined with our methodology of the automated measurement of the ultrastructure of muscle fibers, computes a reliable set of quantitative image features (sarcomere length, A-band length, thick-thin interaction length, and fiber orientation). We evaluated the performance of our methodology in computer-generated muscle fibers modeling some artifacts that are present during the image acquisition. Then, we also evaluated it by comparing it to manual measurements in SHG images from cardiac tissue of fetal and adult rabbits. The results showed a good performance of our methodology at high signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB. We conclude that our automated measurements enable reliable characterization of cardiac fiber tissues to systematically study cardiac tissue in a wide range of conditions.

  13. Automatic K scaling by means of fractal and harmonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Santis, A.; Chiappini, M.

    1992-08-01

    The K index indicates the level of magnetic perturbation with respect to the normal diurnal variation. Usually K is taken manually from magnetograms, and the involved operations are consequently rather subjective. When data are available in digital form, it is possible to derive the K index automatically, using computer algorithms. This work applies a new combined technique based on both fractal and harmonic analyses. While the latter is often used in K determination, the former provides a substantially novel approach. One year (1989) of K observations at L'Aquila observatory has been used as a basis for comparison between hand and computer estimations of K. Agreements which have been found are comparable with those expected from two different operators.

  14. Analysis of astrometric catalogues with vector spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignard, F.; Klioner, S.

    2012-11-01

    Aims: We compare stellar catalogues with position and proper motion components using a decomposition on a set of orthogonal vector spherical harmonics. We aim to show the theoretical and practical advantages of this technique as a result of invariance properties and the independence of the decomposition from a prior model. Methods: We describe the mathematical principles used to perform the spectral decomposition, evaluate the level of significance of the multipolar components, and examine the transformation properties under space rotation. Results: The principles are illustrated with a characterisation of systematic effects in the FK5 catalogue compared to Hipparcos and with an application to extraction of the rotation and dipole acceleration in the astrometric solution of QSOs expected from Gaia.

  15. Spherical harmonic analysis of a synoptic climatology generated with a global general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christidis, Z. D.; Spar, J.

    1980-01-01

    Spherical harmonic analysis was used to analyze the observed climatological (C) fields of temperature at 850 mb, geopotential height at 500 mb, and sea level pressure. The spherical harmonic method was also applied to the corresponding "model climatological" fields (M) generated by a general circulation model, the "GISS climate model." The climate model was initialized with observed data for the first of December 1976 at 00. GMT and allowed to generate five years of meteorological history. Monthly means of the above fields for the five years were computed and subjected to spherical harmonic analysis. It was found from the comparison of the spectral components of both sets, M and C, that the climate model generated reasonable 500 mb geopotential heights. The model temperature field at 850 mb exhibited a generally correct structure. However, the meridional temperature gradient was overestimated and overheating of the continents was observed in summer.

  16. Full vector spherical harmonic analysis of the Holocene geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Marcia

    High-quality time-series paleomagnetic measurements have been used to derive spherical harmonic models of Earth's magnetic field for the past 2,000 years. A newly-developed data compilation, PSVMOD2.0 consists of time-series directional and intensity records that significantly improve the data quality and global distribution used to develop previous spherical harmonic models. PSVMOD2.0 consists of 185 paleomagnetic time series records from 85 global sites, including 30 full-vector records (inclination, declination and intensity). It includes data from additional sites in the Southern Hemisphere and Arctic and includes globally distributed sediment relative paleointensity records, significantly improving global coverage over previous models. PSVMOD2.0 records have been assessed in a series of 7 regional intercomparison studies, four in the Northern Hemisphere and 3 in the southern hemisphere. Comparisons on a regional basis have improved the quality and chronology of the data and allowed investigation of spatial coherence and the scale length associated with paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) features. We have developed a modeling methodology based on nonlinear inversion of the PSVMOD2.0 directional and intensity records. Models of the geomagnetic field in 100-year snapshots have been derived for the past 2,000 with the ultimate goal of developing models spanning the past 8,000 years. We validate the models and the methodology by comparing with the GUFM1 historical models during the 400-year period of overlap. We find that the spatial distribution of sites and quality of data are sufficient to derive models that agree with GUFM1 in the large-scale characteristics of the field. We use the the models derived in this study to downward continue the field to the core-mantle boundary and examine characteristics of the large-scale structure of the magnetic field at the source region. The derived models are temporally consistent from one epoch to the next and exhibit

  17. Modernization of Physical Appearance and Solution Color Tests Using Quantitative Tristimulus Colorimetry: Advantages, Harmonization, and Validation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Pack, Brian W; Montgomery, Laura L; Hetrick, Evan M

    2015-10-01

    Color measurements, including physical appearance, are important yet often misunderstood and underappreciated aspects of a control strategy for drug substances and drug products. From a patient safety perspective, color can be an important control point for detecting contamination, impurities, and degradation products, with human visual acuity often more sensitive for colored impurities than instrumental techniques such as HPLC. Physical appearance tests and solution color tests can also serve an important role in ensuring that appropriate steps are taken such that clinical trials do not become unblinded when the active material is compared with another product or a placebo. Despite the importance of color tests, compendial visual tests are not harmonized across the major pharmacopoeias, which results in ambiguous specifications of little value, difficult communication of true sample color, and significant extra work required for global registration. Some pharmacopoeias have not yet recognized or adopted technical advances in the instrumental measurement of color and appearance, whereas others begin to acknowledge the advantage of instrumental colorimetry, yet leave implementation of the technology ambiguous. This commentary will highlight the above-mentioned inconsistencies, provide an avenue toward harmonization and modernization, and outline a scientifically sound approach for implementing quantitative technologies for improved measurement, communication, and control of color and appearance for both solutions and solids. Importantly, this manuscript, for the first time, outlines a color method validation approach that is consistent with the International Conference on Harmonization's guidance on the topic of method validation. PMID:26173406

  18. Analysis of lithospheric magnetization in vector spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbins, D.; Ivers, D.; Masterton, S. M.; Winch, D. E.

    2011-10-01

    The lithospheric contribution to the geomagnetic field arises from magnetized rocks in a thin shell at the Earth's surface. The lithospheric field can be calculated as an integral of the distribution of magnetization using standard results from potential theory. Inversion of the magnetic field for the magnetization suffers from a fundamental non-uniqueness: many important distributions of magnetization yield no potential magnetic field outside the shell. We represent the vertically integrated magnetization (VIM) in terms of vector spherical harmonics that are new to geomagnetism. These vector functions are orthogonal and complete over the sphere: one subset (?) represents the part of the magnetization that produces a potential field outside the shell, the observed field; another subset (?) produces a potential field exclusively inside the shell; and a third, toroidal, subset (?) produces no potential field at all. ? and ? together span the null space of the inverse problem for magnetization with perfect, complete data. We apply the theory to a recent global model of VIM, give an efficient algorithm for finding the lithospheric field, and show that our model of magnetization is dominated by ?, the part producing a potential field inside the shell. This is largely because, to a first approximation, the model was formed by magnetizing a shell with a substantial uniform component by an potential field originating inside the shell. The null space for inversion of lithospheric magnetic anomaly data for VIM is therefore huge. It can be reduced if the magnetization is assumed to be induced by a known inducing field, but the null space for susceptibility is not so easily recovered.

  19. The development and analysis of geopotential coefficient models to spherical harmonic degree 360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.

    1990-12-01

    Two new geopotential coefficient models to spherical harmonic degree 360 are developed using recent advances made in theoretical modeling methods, satellite gravitational models, and expanded and improved terrestrial data. The new models are based on the combination of a satellite potential coefficient model (GEM-T2) to degree 50 with 30-arc mean gravity anomalies, yielding an adjusted set of coefficients and gravity anomalies, which were then harmonically analyzed to yield a set of potential coefficients to degree 360. The models were verified in several ways including satellite orbit residual analysis, demonstrating a substantial improvement over previous high-degree expansions.

  20. The development and analysis of geopotential coefficient models to spherical harmonic degree 360

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.

    1990-01-01

    Two new geopotential coefficient models to spherical harmonic degree 360 are developed using recent advances made in theoretical modeling methods, satellite gravitational models, and expanded and improved terrestrial data. The new models are based on the combination of a satellite potential coefficient model (GEM-T2) to degree 50 with 30-arc mean gravity anomalies, yielding an adjusted set of coefficients and gravity anomalies, which were then harmonically analyzed to yield a set of potential coefficients to degree 360. The models were verified in several ways including satellite orbit residual analysis, demonstrating a substantial improvement over previous high-degree expansions.

  1. Polarization Analysis of Nonlinear Harmonic Radiation in a Crossed-Planar Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, H.; Ding, Y.; Huang, Z.; /SLAC

    2009-06-23

    There is growing interest in producing intense, coherent x-ray radiation with an adjustable and arbitrary polarization state. The crossed-planar undulator, which was first proposed by Kim, could achieve rapid polarization control in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers (FELs) through the manipulation of a phase shifter. Recently, a statistical analysis shows that a polarization degree of over 80% is obtainable for a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FEL near saturation. In such a scheme, nonlinear harmonic radiation is also generated in each undulator and the polarization of the radiation is controllable in the same manner. In this paper, we study the degree of polarization achievable at the third harmonic in a crossed-planar undulator. We also propose a method for generating second harmonic radiation with arbitrary polarization.

  2. Unsteady rotor flow analysis using a diagonally implicit harmonic balance method and an overset mesh topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Dong-Kyun; Choi, Seongim; Hyuck Kwon, Jang

    2015-01-01

    The diagonally implicit harmonic balance method is developed in an overset mesh topology and applied to unsteady rotor flows analysis. Its efficiency is by reducing the complexity of a fully implicit harmonic balance method which becomes more flexible in handling the higher harmonics of the flow solutions. Applied to the overset mesh topology, the efficiency of the method becomes greater by reducing the number of solution interpolations required during the entire solution procedure as the method reduces the unsteady computation into periodic steady state. To verify the accuracy and efficiency of the method, both hovering and unsteady forward flight of Caradonna and Tung and AH-1G rotors are solved. Compared with wind-tunnel experiments, the numerical results demonstrate good agreements at computational cost an order of magnitude more efficient than the conventional time-accurate computation method. The proposed method has great potential in other engineering applications, including flapping wing vehicles, turbo-machinery, wind-turbines, etc.

  3. The Influence of Spring Length on the Physical Parameters of Simple Harmonic Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triana, C. A.; Fajardo, F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of spring length on the simple harmonic motion of a spring-mass system. In particular, we study the effect of changing the spring length on the elastic constant "[kappa]", the angular frequency "[omega]" and the damping factor "[gamma]" of the oscillations. To characterize the behaviour of these…

  4. Physical Pendulum Experiments to Enhance the Understanding of Moments of Inertia and Simple Harmonic Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Tim H.; Brittle, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a set of experiments aimed at overcoming some of the difficulties experienced by students learning about the topics of moments of inertia and simple harmonic motion, both of which are often perceived to be complex topics amongst students during their first-year university courses. By combining both subjects in a discussion…

  5. Suggested Courseware for the Non-Calculus Physics Student: Simple Harmonic Motion, Wave Motion, and Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grable-Wallace, Lisa; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluates 5 courseware packages covering the topics of simple harmonic motion, 7 packages for wave motion, and 10 packages for sound. Discusses the price range, sub-topics, program type, interaction, time, calculus required, graphics, and comments of each courseware. Selects several packages based on the criteria. (YP)

  6. Magnetic measurement system for harmonic analysis of LBL SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) model dipoles and quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.I.; Barale, P.J.; Gilbert, W.S.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Nelson, D.H.; Taylor, C.E.; Travis, N.J.; Van Dyke, D.A.

    1987-09-01

    Specialized hardware and software have been developed to facilitate harmonic error analysis measurements of one-meter-long Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) model dipole and quadrupole magnets. Cold bore measurements feature cryogenic search-coil arrays with high bucking ratios that also have sufficient sensitivity to make room-temperature measurements at the low magnet currents of approx.10 A. Three sets of search coils allow measurements of the center, either end, and/or the axially integrated field. Signals from the search coils are digitally integrated by means of a voltage-to-frequency converter feeding an up-down counter. The data are drift corrected, Fourier analyzed, converted to physical quantities, and printed and plotted. A cycle of measurements including data acquisition, processing, and the generation of tabular and graphic output requires 80 seconds. The vast amount of data generated (several hundred measurement cycles for each magnet) has led to the development of postprocessing programs and procedures. Spreadsheets allow easy manipulation and comparison of results within a test series and between magnets. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Workshop on Harmonic Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Zachary, W. W. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of a workshop on Harmonic Oscillators held at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland on March 25 - 28, 1992 are presented. The harmonic oscillator formalism is playing an important role in many branches of physics. This is the simplest mathematical device which can connect the basic principle of physics with what is observed in the real world. The harmonic oscillator is the bridge between pure and applied physics.

  8. Harmonic versus LigaSure hemostasis technique in thyroid surgery: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Arun; Hu, Tianpeng; Meng, Zhaowei; Li, Xue; He, Xianghui; Tian, Weijun; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Harmonic scalpel and LigaSure vessel sealing systems have been suggested as options for saving surgical time and reducing postoperative complications. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to compare surgical time, postoperative complications and other parameters between them in for the open thyroidectomy procedure. Studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science until December 2015. All the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Harmonic scalpel and LigaSure during open thyroidectomy were selected. Following data extraction, statistical analyses were performed. Among the 24 studies that were evaluated for eligibility, 7 RCTs with 981 patients were included. The Harmonic scalpel significantly reduced surgical time compared with LigaSure techniques (8.79 min; 95% confidence interval, −15.91 to −1.67; P=0.02). However, no significant difference was observed for the intraoperative blood loss, postoperative blood loss, duration of hospital stay, thyroid weight and serum calcium level postoperatively in either group. The present meta-analysis indicated superiority of Harmonic Scalpel only in terms of surgical time compared with LigaSure hemostasis techniques in open thyroid surgery. PMID:27446546

  9. Investigations of Low and Moderate Harmonic Fast Wave Physics on CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    J. Spaleta; R. Majeski; C.K. Phillips; R.J. Dumont; R. Kaita; V. Soukhanovskii; L. Zakharov

    2003-07-14

    Third harmonic hydrogen cyclotron fast wave heating studies are planned in the near term on CDX-U to investigate the potential for bulk ion heating. In preparation for these studies, the available radio-frequency power in CDX-U has been increased to 0.5 MW. The operating frequency of the CDX-U radio-frequency transmitter was lowered to operate in the range of 8-10 MHz, providing access to the ion harmonic range 2* {approx} 4* in hydrogen. A similar regime is accessible for the 30 MHz radio-frequency system on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), at 0.6 Tesla in hydrogen. Preliminary computational studies over the plasma regimes of interest for NSTX and CDX-U indicate the possibility of strong localized absorption on bulk ion species.

  10. A harmonic analysis method for unsteady transonic flow and its application to the flutter of airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, F. E.; Weatherill, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    A finite difference method for solving the unsteady transonic flow about harmonically oscillating wings is investigated. The procedure is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equation for small disturbances. The differential equation for the unsteady velocity potential is linear with spatially varying coefficients and with the time variable eliminated by assuming harmonic motion. A study is presented of the shock motion associated with an oscillating airfoil and its representation by the harmonic procedure. The effects of the shock motion and the resulting pressure pulse are shown to be included in the harmonic pressure distributions and the corresponding generalized forces. Analytical and experimental pressure distributions for the NACA 64A010 airfoil are compared for Mach numbers of 0.75, 0.80 and 0.842. A typical section, two-degree-of-freedom flutter analysis of a NACA 64A010 airfoil is performed. The results show a sharp transonic bucket in one case and abrupt changes in instability modes.

  11. Enhancing tidal harmonic analysis: Robust (hybrid L1/L2) solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leffler, Keith E.; Jay, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional harmonic analysis of tides is highly sensitive to omnipresent environmental noise. Robust fitting is an extension of the ordinary least squares calculation of harmonic analysis that is more resistant to broad spectrum noise. Since the variance of the amplitude and phase is calculated from the power spectrum of the residual, a calculation that filters broad spectrum noise and reduces the residual variance will increase the confidence of the computed parameters, and also allows more low-amplitude constituents to be resolved from the background noise. Improvement in confidence and resolution of more constituents has obvious benefits to the resolution of both seasonal and long-term variation of amplitude and phase of tidal constituents. Using a 6 month calculation window, confidence intervals were systematically reduced by 30-85% over results calculated with standard methods, with an increase in resolved constituents of 20-75%. The analysis was carried out with Matlab, using the t-tide package [Pawlowicz, R., Beardsley, B., Lentz, S., 2002. Classical tidal harmonic analysis with errors in matlab using t-tide. Computers and Geosciences 28, 929-937], with modifications to accommodate Matlab's implementation of the Iteratively Reweighted Least Squares algorithm.

  12. High-Quality Time Stretch and Pitch Shift Effects for Speech and Audio Using the Instantaneous Harmonic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarov, Elias; Petrovsky (Eurasipmember), Alexander; Parfieniuk (Eurasipmember), Marek

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents methods for instantaneous harmonic analysis with application to high-quality pitch, timbre, and time-scale modifications. The analysis technique is based on narrow-band filtering using special analysis filters with frequency-modulated impulse response. The main advantages of the technique are high accuracy of harmonic parameters estimation and adequate harmonic/noise separation that allow implementing audio and speech effects with low level of audible artifacts. Time stretch and pitch shift effects are considered as primary application in the paper.

  13. Data Analysis in Physics Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Patricia A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a critical analysis of data analysis requirements in physics tertiary entrance examinations. The setting is Western Australia. Common aspects of the questions asked over 14 years and changes in the questions since a major syllabus reform are identified. Similar changes in other jurisdictions are referenced. The data analysis…

  14. Modeling and analysis of aircraft non-linear components for harmonics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Karimi, K.J.; Voss, J.

    1995-12-31

    Modern commercial aircraft Electric Power Systems (EPS) include many nonlinear components which produce harmonics. The addition of all the current harmonics could result in a power system with unacceptable levels of voltage distortion. It is important to be able to predict the levels of voltage distortion at early program stages to correct any potential problems and avoid costly redesigns. In this paper the nature and sources of harmonic producing equipment are described. These sources of harmonics and their effect on aircraft power system operation are described. Models for various aircraft non-linear components are developed in this paper. These component models are used in a model of the Boeing 777 EPS which is used to calculate voltage harmonics for various airplane configurations and flight conditions. A description of this model and the models used for various components are given. Tests performed to validate these models are described. Comparison of experimental results with analytical model predictions are given.

  15. Analytical evaluation of describing functions arising from harmonic balance analysis of tapping mode atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Mamedov, B A

    2008-05-01

    A new algorithm of harmonic balance analysis of tapping mode atomic force microscopes has been developed. The new algorithm is applicable to analytical evaluation of a large class of common tip-sample interaction potentials. The extensive test calculations show that the proposed algorithm in this work is the efficient one in practical computations. The comparative values presented in tables are acceptable and have the excellent agreement with the numerical results. PMID:18513097

  16. Whispering-gallery-mode analysis of phase-matched doubly resonant second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumeige, Yannick; Féron, Patrice

    2006-12-01

    We propose a coupled modes analysis of second-harmonic generation in microdisk resonators. We demonstrate that whispering gallery modes can be used to obtain a combination of modal and geometrical quasi-phase-matching (without domain inversion) to obtain efficient conversion in isotropic and nonferroelectric materials such as III-V semiconductor compounds. Finally we use an analytical model to describe the coupling between a bus waveguide and the nonlinear microdisk to achieve an optimization scheme for practical configuration.

  17. Error and Symmetry Analysis of Misner's Algorithm for Spherical Harmonic Decomposition on a Cubic Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, David R.

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier paper, Misner (2004, Class. Quant. Grav., 21, S243) presented a novel algorithm for computing the spherical harmonic components of data represented on a cubic grid. I extend Misner s original analysis by making detailed error estimates of the numerical errors accrued by the algorithm, by using symmetry arguments to suggest a more efficient implementation scheme, and by explaining how the algorithm can be applied efficiently on data with explicit reflection symmetries.

  18. Harmonic Analysis of Sedimentary Cyclic Sequences in Kansas, Midcontinent, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, D.F.; Robinson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Several stratigraphic sequences in the Upper Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) in Kansas (Midcontinent, USA) were analyzed quantitatively for periodic repetitions. The sequences were coded by lithologic type into strings of datasets. The strings then were analyzed by an adaptation of a one-dimensional Fourier transform analysis and examined for evidence of periodicity. The method was tested using different states in coding to determine the robustness of the method and data. The most persistent response is in multiples of 8-10 ft (2.5-3.0 m) and probably is dependent on the depositional thickness of the original lithologic units. Other cyclicities occurred in multiples of the basic frequency of 8-10 with persistent ones at 22 and 30 feet (6.5-9.0 m) and large ones at 80 and 160 feet (25-50 m). These levels of thickness relate well to the basic cyclothem and megacyclothem as measured on outcrop. We propose that this approach is a suitable one for analyzing cyclic events in the stratigraphic record.

  19. Optically Encoded Second-Harmonic Generation in Semiconductor Microcrystallite-Doped Glass: Physics and Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Robert Lawrence

    Semiconductor microcrystallite-doped glasses (SDG) are presented as a new class of materials for optically encoded second harmonic generation. The encoding and readout behavior of SDG is compared with that observed in homogeneous glass. An encoding model for SDG, based on directional trapping of electrons at the semiconductor-glass interface, is developed and shown to be consistent with the observed behavior and with known properties of SDG. Measured optical erasure rates of the encoded SDG provide evidence for the microscopic details of the encoding, and above bandgap erasure is used to observe charge screening in the semiconductor nanocrystals. Quantum confinement effects are observed in the intensity dependence of the encoding efficiency. Ion -exchanged ridge and channel waveguides in SDG are fabricated and encoded with as little as 2 mW average power. The measured readout wavelength dependence in bulk homogeneous glass is consistent with encoding of a chi ^{(2)} grating having a period slightly shifted from that required for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation at the encoded wavelength. Multiple wavelength encoding is demonstrated and proposed as a new technique for optical storage and readout of information.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of solutions of the harmonic inversion problem: are all data points created equal?

    PubMed

    Celik, Hasan; Shaka, A J; Mandelshtam, V A

    2010-09-01

    We consider the harmonic inversion problem, and the associated spectral estimation problem, both of which are key numerical problems in NMR data analysis. Under certain conditions (in particular, in exact arithmetic) these problems have unique solutions. Therefore, these solutions must not depend on the inversion algorithm, as long as it is exact in principle. In this paper, we are not concerned with the algorithmic aspects of harmonic inversion, but rather with the sensitivity of the solutions of the problem to perturbations of the time-domain data. A sensitivity analysis was performed and the counterintuitive results call into question the common assumption made in "super-resolution" methods using non-uniform data sampling, namely, that the data should be sampled more often where the time signal has the largest signal-to-noise ratio. The numerical analysis herein demonstrates that the spectral parameters (such as the peak positions and amplitudes) resulting from the solution of the harmonic inversion problem are least susceptible to the perturbations in the values of data points at the edges of the time interval and most susceptible to the perturbations in the values at intermediate times. PMID:20663693

  1. Harmonic Band Spectrum Analysis of Backscattered Ultrasound from Lesioned and Normal Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratore, Robert; Lizzi, Frederic L.; Silverman, Ronald H.

    2006-05-01

    HIFU dose curves (lesion size vs. exposure parameters) exhibit scatter because of local variations in the acoustic properties of tissue. Therefore, clinical applications of HIFU, such as cardiac and cancer ablation, will benefit from the ability to distinguish treated from normal tissue, which can provide the surgeon with lesion monitoring. However, HIFU lesions, especially protein-denaturing lesions (PDLs), may be difficult to visualize with conventional B-mode ultrasound. In this study, spectrum analysis of backscattered radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound was successful in imaging lesions. HIFU lesions were formed at 5 MHz for various intensities and durations in model tissues including degassed chicken breast in vitro, fresh rabbit liver ex vivo, and canine cardiac left ventricle in vivo. The tissues were scanned pre- and post-exposure using confocal array and single-element diagnostic probes incorporated into the HIFU transducer assembly. The diagnostic probes were excited with a monocycle pulse under conditions previously shown to generate a second harmonic comparable in amplitude to the fundamental, and RF echo-signal data were recorded. In an alternate set, the therapy and diagnostic transducers were operated pitch-catch, with the therapy transducer sending out a series of 0.4 ms pulses and the diagnostic transducer in passive receive mode. Spectrum analysis of the RF data was performed separately on first (fundamental) and second harmonic frequency bands. Linear regression fits to spectra computed for sliding regions-of-interest yielded 3 parameters: midband fit (integrated backscatter), y-intercept and slope; grayscale images were produced for each parameter. Differences among the B-mode and parameter images, and between the lesion site and adjacent untreated tissues, were characterized statistically. The results indicate that midband fit images of both the fundamental and harmonic offer improved contrast and lateral resolution compared to conventional images

  2. Evaluation of patients with chest pain by radionuclide ventriculography: Comparison of phase and 2-harmonic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hurwitz, G.A.; Miller, T.R.; Biello, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Fourier-series analysis (FSA) of time activity curves has been used to enhance the detection of regional abnormalities in function of the left ventricle (LV) on radionuclide ventriculograms (RVGs). Phase, or first harmonic analysis, does not permit separate determination of systolic and diastolic function. The retention of 2 harmonics (2-H) in the FSA allows definition of both systolic and diastolic parameters, including time to peak ejection rate (TPER) and time to peak filling rate (TPFR). The authors compared regional phase and 2-H analysis in 42 patients with normal LV function by conventional analysis of resting RVGs. All patients had ejection fraction greater than 50% and normal regional wall motion. Diagnoses, established by cardiac characterization, included coronary artery disease (CAD) and chest pain but normal coronary arteries (NCA). Normal homogeneity of LV function was established in 12 normal volunteers by computing the standard deviation of the distribution of LV pixels for TPER, TPFR and phase angle on the 35/sup 0/ LAO views. Thus, in patients with CAD but normal conventional analysis of RVGs, 2-H analysis detected abnormal diastolic filling in 70% whereas phase analysis was abnormal in only 15%. In patients with NCA, abnormalities by either phase or 2-H analysis were infrequent. These data suggest that 2-H analysis may be of value in the investigation of patients with chest pain but normal LV function.

  3. Bioimpedance Harmonic Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Assess Regional Circulation and Neural Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudraya, I. S.; Revenko, S. V.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Markosyan, T. G.; Dudareva, A. A.; Ibragimov, A. R.; Romich, V. V.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.

    2013-04-01

    The novel technique based on harmonic analysis of bioimpedance microvariations with original hard- and software complex incorporating a high-resolution impedance converter was used to assess the neural activity and circulation in human urinary bladder and penis in patients with pelvic pain, erectile dysfunction, and overactive bladder. The therapeutic effects of shock wave therapy and Botulinum toxin detrusor injections were evaluated quantitatively according to the spectral peaks at low 0.1 Hz frequency (M for Mayer wave), respiratory (R) and cardiac (C) rhythms with their harmonics. Enhanced baseline regional neural activity identified according to M and R peaks was found to be presumably sympathetic in pelvic pain patients, and parasympathetic - in patients with overactive bladder. Total pulsatile activity and pulsatile resonances found in the bladder as well as in the penile spectrum characterised regional circulation and vascular tone. The abnormal spectral parameters characteristic of the patients with genitourinary diseases shifted to the norm in the cases of efficient therapy. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis seems to be a potent tool to assess regional peculiarities of circulatory and autonomic nervous activity in the course of patient treatment.

  4. Random harmonic analysis program, L221 (TEV156). Volume 2: Supplemental system design and maintenenace document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, M. L.; Clemmons, R. E.; Miller, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 of a two volume document is presented. A computer program, L222 (TEV 156), available for execution on the CDC 6600 computer is described. The program is capable of calculating steady-state solutions for linear second-order differential equations due to sinusoidal forcing functions. From this, steady-state solutions, generalized coordinates, and load frequency responses may be determined. Statistical characteristics of loads for the forcing function spectral shape may also be calculated using random harmonic analysis techniques. The particular field of application of the program is the analysis of airplane response and loads due to continuous random air turbulence.

  5. Quantum efficiency harmonic analysis of exciton annihilation in organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. S.; Giebink, N. C.

    2015-06-29

    Various exciton annihilation processes are known to impact the efficiency roll-off of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs); however, isolating and quantifying their contribution in the presence of other factors such as changing charge balance continue to be a challenge for routine device characterization. Here, we analyze OLED electroluminescence resulting from a sinusoidal dither superimposed on the device bias and show that nonlinearity between recombination current and light output arising from annihilation mixes the quantum efficiency measured at different dither harmonics in a manner that depends uniquely on the type and magnitude of the annihilation process. We derive a series of analytical relations involving the DC and first harmonic external quantum efficiency that enable annihilation rates to be quantified through linear regression independent of changing charge balance and evaluate them for prototypical fluorescent and phosphorescent OLEDs based on the emitters 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran and platinum octaethylporphyrin, respectively. We go on to show that, in most cases, it is sufficient to calculate the needed quantum efficiency harmonics directly from derivatives of the DC light versus current curve, thus enabling this analysis to be conducted solely from standard light-current-voltage measurement data.

  6. Inter-annual variation of NDVI over Korea Peninsula using harmonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In-hwan; Han, Kyung-Soo; Pi, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jae; Kim, Sang-Il

    2010-10-01

    Global warming and climatic changes due to human activities impact on marine and terrestrial ecosystems, which feedbacks to climate system. These negative feedbacks amplify or accelerate again global climate change. In particular, life cycle of vegetation sensitively vary according to global climate change. This study attempts to analyze quantitatively vegetation change in Korea peninsula using harmonic analysis. Satellite data was extracted from SPOT/VEGETATION S10 MVC (Maximum Value Composite) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) products during 10 years (1999 to 2008) around Korea peninsula. This NDVI data set was pre-processed to correct noise pixels cause by cloud and ground wetness. Variation of vegetation life cycle was analyzed through amplitudes and phases of annual harmonic components (first harmonic components) per year for two land cover types (cropland and forest). The results clearly show that the peak of vegetation life cycle in Korea peninsula is brought forward to early. Especially, it represents that the phases over low latitudes area between 32.8°N and 38°N steadily decrease every year both forest and cropland. The study estimated that phase values moved up approximately 0.5 day per year in cropland and 0.8 day per year in forest.

  7. Anomalies in high-order harmonic generation at relativistic intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Teubner, U.; Foerster, E.; Pretzler, G.; Eidmann, K.; Witte, K.; Schlegel, Th.

    2003-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation from a solid target surface has been investigated using femtosecond laser pulses focused to intensities greater than 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. The experiments show that the harmonics are very intense, with a conversion efficiency that is one or two orders of magnitude larger than that of harmonics generated in gases. Beside the observation of presently the shortest wavelength harmonics from femtosecond-laser solid target interaction, i.e., down to 22 nm, an anomaly has been observed in the harmonic spectrum. In contrast to the expected well-known continuous 'roll off' of the high-harmonic orders, the harmonic intensity decreases with the increase of harmonic order, but in between shows minima which are significantly less intense than the neighboring harmonics. Furthermore, the order of the harmonic minima depend on target material. Additional calculations using numerical kinetic particle simulations and a simpler oscillating mirror model show that the physical origin of these modulations is an intricate interplay of resonance absorption and ponderomotive force which leads to a complex electron density profile evolution. Furthermore, this is emphasized by a spectral line analysis of the harmonics. In agreement with the theory, broad lines have been observed and, in particular for the harmonics in the minima, a complex interference structure is present.

  8. Advances in high-harmonic fast wave physics in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Bell, R. E.; Hosea, J. C.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Podesta, M.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J-W.; Chen, G.; Green, D. L.; Jaeger, E. F.; Maingi, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Wilgen, J. B.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Liu, D.; Bonoli, P. T.; Brecht, T.; Choi, M.

    2010-05-15

    Improved core high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating at longer wavelengths and during start-up and plasma current ramp-up has now been obtained by lowering the edge density with lithium wall conditioning, thereby moving the critical density for perpendicular fast-wave propagation away from the vessel wall. Lithium conditioning allowed significant HHFW core electron heating of deuterium neutral beam injection (NBI) fuelled H-mode plasmas to be observed for the first time. Large edge localized modes were observed immediately after the termination of rf power. Visible and infrared camera images show that fast wave interactions can deposit considerable rf energy on the outboard divertor. HHFW-generated parametric decay instabilities were observed to heat ions in the plasma edge and may be the cause for a measured drag on edge toroidal rotation during HHFW heating. A significant enhancement in neutron rate and fast-ion profile was measured in NBI-fuelled plasmas when HHFW heating was applied.

  9. Advances in High-harmonic Fast Wave Physics in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G; Hosea, J C; LeBlanc, B P; Phillips, C K; Podesta, M; Valeo, E J; Wilson, J R; Ahn, J -W; Chen, G; Green, D L; Jaeger, E F; Maingi, R; Ryan, P M; Wilgen, J B; Heidbrink, W W; Liu, D; Bonoli, P T; Brecht, T; Choi, M

    2009-12-01

    Improved core high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating at longer wavelengths and during start-up and plasma current ramp-up, has now been obtained by lowering the edge density with lithium wall conditioning, thereby moving the critical density for perpendicular fast-wave propagation away from the vessel wall. Lithium conditioning allowed significant HHFW core electron heating of deuterium neutral beam injection (NBI) fuelled H-mode plasmas to be observed for the first time. Large edge localized modes were observed immediately after the termination of rf power. Visible and infrared camera images show that fast wave interactions can deposit considerable rf energy on the outboard divertor. HHFW-generated parametric decay instabilities were observed to heat ions in the plasma edge and may be the cause for a measured drag on edge toroidal rotation during HHFW heating. A significant enhancement in neutron rate and fast-ion profile were measured in NBI-fuelled plasmas when HHFW heating was applied. __________________________________________________

  10. The space physics analysis network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James L.

    1988-04-01

    The Space Physics Analysis Network, or SPAN, is emerging as a viable method for solving an immediate communication problem for space and Earth scientists and has been operational for nearly 7 years. SPAN and its extension into Europe, utilizes computer-to-computer communications allowing mail, binary and text file transfer, and remote logon capability to over 1000 space science computer systems. The network has been used to successfully transfer real-time data to remote researchers for rapid data analysis but its primary function is for non-real-time applications. One of the major advantages for using SPAN is its spacecraft mission independence. Space science researchers using SPAN are located in universities, industries and government institutions all across the United States and Europe. These researchers are in such fields as magnetospheric physics, astrophysics, ionosperic physics, atmospheric physics, climatology, meteorology, oceanography, planetary physics and solar physics. SPAN users have access to space and Earth science data bases, mission planning and information systems, and computational facilities for the purposes of facilitating correlative space data exchange, data analysis and space research. For example, the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), which manages the network, is providing facilities on SPAN such as the Network Information Center (SPAN NIC). SPAN has interconnections with several national and international networks such as HEPNET and TEXNET forming a transparent DECnet network. The combined total number of computers now reachable over these combined networks is about 2000. In addition, SPAN supports full function capabilities over the international public packet switched networks (e.g. TELENET) and has mail gateways to ARPANET, BITNET and JANET.

  11. Multiple harmonic ULF waves in the plasma sheet boundary layer: Instability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, R. E.; Engebretson, M. J.; Keiling, A.; Walsh, A. P.; Gary, S. P.; DéCréAu, P. M. E.; Cattell, C. A.; RèMe, H.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple-harmonic electromagnetic waves in the ULF band have occasionally been observed in Earth's magnetosphere, both near the magnetic equator in the outer plasmasphere and in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) in Earth's magnetotail. Observations by the Cluster spacecraft of multiple-harmonic electromagnetic waves with fundamental frequency near the local proton cyclotron frequency, Ωcp, were recently reported in the plasma sheet boundary layer by Broughton et al. (2008). A companion paper surveys the entire magnetotail passage of Cluster during 2003, and reports 35 such events, all in the PSBL, and all associated with elevated fluxes of counterstreaming ions and electrons. In this study we use observed pitch angle distributions of ions and electrons during a wave event observed by Cluster on 9 September 2003 to perform an instability analysis. We use a semiautomatic procedure for developing model distributions composed of bi-Maxwellian components that minimizes the difference between modeled and observed distribution functions. Analysis of wave instability using the WHAMP electromagnetic plasma wave dispersion code and these model distributions reveals an instability near Ωcp and its harmonics. The observed and model ion distributions exhibit both beam-like and ring-like features which might lead to instability. Further instability analysis with simple beam-like and ring-like model distribution functions indicates that the instability is due to the ring-like feature. Our analysis indicates that this instability persists over an enormous range in the effective ion beta (based on a best fit for the observed distribution function using a single Maxwellian distribution), β', but that the character of the instability changes with β'. For β' of order unity (for instance, the observed case with β' ˜ 0.4), the instability is predominantly electromagnetic; the fluctuating magnetic field has components in both the perpendicular and parallel directions, but the

  12. Non-harmonic analysis for high-resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Changho; Cao, Xu; Morosawa, Atsushi; Totsuka, Koki; Suzuki, Takuya; Hirobayashi, Shigeki

    2010-02-01

    A novel processing technique called Non-Harmonic Analysis (NHA) is proposed for high-resolution OCT imaging. Conventional Fourier-Domain OCT relies on the FFT calculation which depends on the window function and length. NHA can resolve high frequency without being influenced by window function or frame length of sampled data. The results show that NHA process realizes practical image resolution equivalent to 100nm swept range by using significantly reduced wavelength range, and also implies the potential of high resolution imaging capability without the need of a broadband source.

  13. Teaching Harmonic Motion in Trigonometry: Inductive Inquiry Supported by Physics Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej; Rackley, Robin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a lesson whose goal is to utilise a scientific environment to immerse a trigonometry student in the process of mathematical modelling. The scientific environment utilised during this activity is a physics simulation called "Wave on a String" created by the PhET Interactive Simulations Project at Colorado…

  14. Using a mobile phone acceleration sensor in physics experiments on free and damped harmonic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos Castro-Palacio, Juan; Velázquez-Abad, Luisberis; Giménez, Marcos H.; Monsoriu, Juan A.

    2013-06-01

    We have used a mobile phone acceleration sensor, and the Accelerometer Monitor application for Android, to collect data in physics experiments on free and damped oscillations. Results for the period, frequency, spring constant, and damping constant agree very well with measurements obtained by other methods. These widely available sensors are likely to find increased use in instructional laboratories.

  15. Nonlinear modeling of an immersed transmitting capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer for harmonic balance analysis.

    PubMed

    Oguz, H Kagan; Olcum, Selim; Senlik, Muhammed N; Taş, Vahdettin; Atalar, Abdullah; Köymen, Hayrettin

    2010-01-01

    Finite element method (FEM) is used for transient dynamic analysis of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUT) and is particularly useful when the membranes are driven in the nonlinear regime. One major disadvantage of FEM is the excessive time required for simulation. Harmonic balance (HB) analysis, on the other hand, provides an accurate estimate of the steady-state response of nonlinear circuits very quickly. It is common to use Mason's equivalent circuit to model the mechanical section of CMUT. However, it is not appropriate to terminate Mason's mechanical LC section by a rigid piston's radiation impedance, especially for an immersed CMUT. We studied the membrane behavior using a transient FEM analysis and found out that for a wide range of harmonics around the series resonance, the membrane displacement can be modeled as a clamped radiator. We considered the root mean square of the velocity distribution on the membrane surface as the circuit variable rather than the average velocity. With this definition, the kinetic energy of the membrane mass is the same as that in the model. We derived the force and current equations for a clamped radiator and implemented them using a commercial HB simulator. We observed much better agreement between FEM and the proposed equivalent model, compared with the conventional model. PMID:20178910

  16. Recent Developments in High-Harmonic Fast Wave Physics in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    B.P. LeBlanc, R.E. Bell, P. Bonoli, R. Harvey, W.W. Heidbrink, J.C. Hosea, S.M. Kaye, D. Liu, R. Maingi, S.S. Medley, M. Ono, M. Podestà, C.K. Phillips, P.M. Ryan, A.L. Roquemore, G. Taylor, J.R. Wilson and the NSTX Team

    2010-10-06

    Understanding the interaction between ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) fast waves and the fast-ions created by neutral beam injection (NBI) is critical for future devices such as ITER, which rely on a combination ICRF and NBI. Experiments in NSTX which use 30 MHz High-Harmonic Fast-Wave (HHFW) ICRF and NBI heating show a competition between electron heating via Landau damping and transit-time magnetic pumping, and radio-frequency wave acceleration of NBI generated fast ions. Understanding and mitigating some of the power loss mechanisms outside the last closed flux surface (LCFS) has resulted in improved HHFW heating inside the LCFS. Nevertheless a significant fraction of the HHFW power is diverted away from the enclosed plasma. Part of this power is observed locally on the divertor. Experimental observations point toward the radio-frequency (RF) excitation of surface waves, which disperse wave power outside the LCFS, as a leading loss mechanism. Lithium coatings lower the density at the antenna, thereby moving the critical density for perpendicular fast-wave propagation away from the antenna and surrounding material surfaces. Visible and infrared imaging reveal flows of RF power along open field lines into the divertor region. In L-mode -- low average NBI power -- conditions, the fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic measures a near doubling and broadening of the density profile of the upper energetic level of the fast ions concurrent with the presence of HHFW power launched with k// =-8m-1. We are able to heat NBI-induced H-mode plasmas with HHFW. The captured power is expected to be split between absorption by the electrons and absorption by the fast ions, based on TORIC calculation. In the case discussed here the Te increases over the whole profile when ~2MW of HHFW power with antenna k// =13m-1 is applied after the H-mode transition.. But somewhat unexpectedly fast-ion diagnostics do not observe a change between the HHFW heated NBI discharge and the

  17. Application of vector spherical harmonics for kinematic analysis of stars from zonal catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vityazev, V. V.; Tsvetkov, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    We solve the problem on a kinematic analysis of the three-dimensional velocity field of stars from zonal catalogues, i.e., catalogues in which the stars are presented at all right ascensions in some declination zones. We have constructed a system of vector spherical harmonics with the properties of completeness and orthogonality for a chosen declination zone. We suggest a method that allows the Ogorodnikov-Milne model parameters in the Galactic coordinate system to be estimated by analyzing the proper motions and radial velocities of stars in the equatorial coordinate system. The vector spherical harmonics are shown to have the following advantages over the standard approach based on a direct leastsquares estimation of the parameters for a specific model. First, in contrast to the standard approach, the new method can reveal all systematic components of the velocity field irrespective of a particular model. Second, it allows one to get rid of the correlation between the sought-for parameters, which presents a serious problem for the conventional method in the case of zonal catalogues. Third, the method of vector spherical harmonics allows the kinematic parameters to be estimated at least by two techniques. Comparison of these two solutions makes it possible to test the standard kinematic model for compatibility with the observational data. The developed method has been tested on the basis of numerical experiments and applied for a kinematic analysis of the proper motions of Tycho-2 stars in the southern hemisphere for which the parallaxes can be estimated using data from the Tycho-2 Spectral Type Catalogue.

  18. Semiclassical analysis of long-wavelength multiphoton processes: The periodically driven harmonic oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Ronald F.; Vela-Arevalo, Luz V.

    2002-11-01

    The problem of multiphoton processes for intense, long-wavelength irradiation of atomic and molecular electrons is presented. The recently developed method of quasiadiabatic time evolution is used to obtain a nonperturbative analysis. When applied to the standard vector potential coupling, an exact auxiliary equation is obtained that is in the electric dipole coupling form. This is achieved through application of the Goeppert-Mayer gauge. While the analysis to this point is general and aimed at microwave irradiation of Rydberg atoms, a Floquet analysis of the auxiliary equation is presented for the special case of the periodically driven harmonic oscillator. Closed form expressions for a complete set of Floquet states are obtained. These are used to demonstrate that for the oscillator case there are no multiphoton resonances.

  19. Texture analysis applied to second harmonic generation image data for ovarian cancer classification.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bruce L; Brewer, Molly A; Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Hocker, James; Singh, Vikas; Mackie, Thomas R; Campagnola, Paul J

    2014-09-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix has been implicated in ovarian cancer. To quantitate the remodeling, we implement a form of texture analysis to delineate the collagen fibrillar morphology observed in second harmonic generation microscopy images of human normal and high grade malignant ovarian tissues. In the learning stage, a dictionary of “textons”—frequently occurring texture features that are identified by measuring the image response to a filter bank of various shapes, sizes, and orientations—is created. By calculating a representative model based on the texton distribution for each tissue type using a training set of respective second harmonic generation images, we then perform classification between images of normal and high grade malignant ovarian tissues. By optimizing the number of textons and nearest neighbors, we achieved classification accuracy up to 97% based on the area under receiver operating characteristic curves (true positives versus false positives). The local analysis algorithm is a more general method to probe rapidly changing fibrillar morphologies than global analyses such as FFT. It is also more versatile than other texture approaches as the filter bank can be highly tailored to specific applications (e.g., different disease states) by creating customized libraries based on common image features. PMID:26296156

  20. Electrical Rhythms Revealed by Harmonic Analysis of a High-Resolution Cardiogram.

    PubMed

    Revenko, S V; Selector, L Ya; Gavrilov, I Yu; Nesterov, A V; Limonov, E V; Mudraya, I S; Kirpatovskii, V I

    2015-05-01

    The front-end low-noise electronic amplifiers and high-throughput computing systems made it possible to record ECG with a high resolution in the low-frequency range including the respiration and Mayer frequencies and to analyze ECG with digital filtering technique and harmonic analysis. These tools yielded ECG spectra of narcotized rats, which contained the characteristic pulsatile triplets and pentaplets with splitting constant equal to respiration rate, as well as the peaks at respiration and Mayer frequencies. The harmonic analysis of ECG determined the frequency parameters employed to tune the software bandpass filters, which revealed the respiratory (R) and Mayer (M) waves in the time domain with the amplitudes of 20-30 μV amounting to 5% ECG amplitude. The depolarizing myorelaxant succinylcholine chloride capable to trigger various types of arrhythmias, transiently increased R-wave, inhibited M-wave, and provoked a negative U-wave within a heartbeat ECG cycle synchronously with inspiration. It is hypothesized that M-, R-, and U-waves in ECG reflect cardiotropic activity of autonomic nervous system. The respective spectral peaks in ECG can be employed to assess intensity of sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiotropic influences, their balance, and the risk of arrhythmias. PMID:26033579

  1. Texture analysis applied to second harmonic generation image data for ovarian cancer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Bruce L.; Brewer, Molly A.; Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Hocker, James; Singh, Vikas; Mackie, Thomas R.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2014-09-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix has been implicated in ovarian cancer. To quantitate the remodeling, we implement a form of texture analysis to delineate the collagen fibrillar morphology observed in second harmonic generation microscopy images of human normal and high grade malignant ovarian tissues. In the learning stage, a dictionary of "textons"-frequently occurring texture features that are identified by measuring the image response to a filter bank of various shapes, sizes, and orientations-is created. By calculating a representative model based on the texton distribution for each tissue type using a training set of respective second harmonic generation images, we then perform classification between images of normal and high grade malignant ovarian tissues. By optimizing the number of textons and nearest neighbors, we achieved classification accuracy up to 97% based on the area under receiver operating characteristic curves (true positives versus false positives). The local analysis algorithm is a more general method to probe rapidly changing fibrillar morphologies than global analyses such as FFT. It is also more versatile than other texture approaches as the filter bank can be highly tailored to specific applications (e.g., different disease states) by creating customized libraries based on common image features.

  2. Texture analysis applied to second harmonic generation image data for ovarian cancer classification

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Bruce L.; Brewer, Molly A.; Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Hocker, James; Singh, Vikas; Mackie, Thomas R.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix has been implicated in ovarian cancer. To quantitate the remodeling, we implement a form of texture analysis to delineate the collagen fibrillar morphology observed in second harmonic generation microscopy images of human normal and high grade malignant ovarian tissues. In the learning stage, a dictionary of “textons”—frequently occurring texture features that are identified by measuring the image response to a filter bank of various shapes, sizes, and orientations—is created. By calculating a representative model based on the texton distribution for each tissue type using a training set of respective second harmonic generation images, we then perform classification between images of normal and high grade malignant ovarian tissues. By optimizing the number of textons and nearest neighbors, we achieved classification accuracy up to 97% based on the area under receiver operating characteristic curves (true positives versus false positives). The local analysis algorithm is a more general method to probe rapidly changing fibrillar morphologies than global analyses such as FFT. It is also more versatile than other texture approaches as the filter bank can be highly tailored to specific applications (e.g., different disease states) by creating customized libraries based on common image features. PMID:26296156

  3. Analysis of the harmonic distortion resulting from the interaction between synchronous machines and HVDC convertors

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleston, J.F.; Arrillaga, J.; Semlyen, A.

    1986-01-01

    The harmonic voltage distortion caused by static convertors can be greatly affected by the presence of local salient-pole synchronous generators or compensators. Such machines act as harmonic converters and are sensitive to the sequence of the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. This paper provides an accurate equivalent circuit for the synchronous machine in the multi-harmonic space, integrates such model with other a.c. system components and describes an iterative sequential algorithm to derive the harmonic interaction between the synchronous machine and static convertor.

  4. Physics: A New Reactor Physics Analysis Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    C. Rabiti; Y. Wang; G. Palmiotti; H. Hiruta; J. Cogliati; A. Alfonsi

    2011-06-01

    In the last year INL has internally pursued the development of a new reactor analysis tool: PHISICS. The software is built in a modular approach to simplify the independent development of modules by different teams and future maintenance. Most of the modules at the time of this summary are still under development (time dependent transport driver, depletion, cross section I/O and interpolation, generalized perturbation theory), while the transport solver INSTANT (Intelligent Nodal and Semi-structured Treatment for Advanced Neutron Transport) has already been widely used1, 2, 3, 4. For this reason we will focus mainly on the presentation of the transport solver INSTANT

  5. A Back-to-Front Derivation: The Equal Spacing of Quantum Levels Is a Proof of Simple Harmonic Oscillator Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, David L.; Romero, Luciana C. Davila

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical behaviour of simple harmonic motion can be found in numerous natural phenomena. Within the quantum realm of atomic, molecular and optical systems, two main features are associated with harmonic oscillations: a finite ground-state energy and equally spaced quantum energy levels. Here it is shown that there is in fact a one-to-one…

  6. Flood detection from multi-temporal SAR data using harmonic analysis and change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaffer, Stefan; Matgen, Patrick; Hollaus, Markus; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Flood mapping from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Most available algorithms typically focus on single-image techniques which do not take into account the backscatter signature of a land surface under non-flooded conditions. In this study, harmonic analysis of a multi-temporal time series of >500 ENVISAT Advanced SAR (ASAR) scenes with a spatial resolution of 150 m was used to characterise the seasonality in backscatter under non-flooded conditions. Pixels which were inundated during a large-scale flood event during the summer 2007 floods of the River Severn (United Kingdom) showed strong deviations from normal seasonal behaviour as inferred from the harmonic model. The residuals were classified by means of an automatic threshold optimisation algorithm after masking out areas which are unlikely to be flooded using a topography-derived index. The results were validated against a reference dataset derived from high-resolution airborne imagery. For the water class, accuracies > 80% were found for non-urban land uses. A slight underestimation of the reference flood extent can be seen, mostly due to the lower spatial resolution of the ASAR imagery. Finally, an outlook for the proposed algorithm is given in the light of the Sentinel-1 mission.

  7. Experiment Design and Analysis Guide - Neutronics & Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Misti A Lillo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a consistent, standardized approach to performing neutronics/physics analysis for experiments inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This document provides neutronics/physics analysis guidance to support experiment design and analysis needs for experiments irradiated in the ATR. This guide addresses neutronics/physics analysis in support of experiment design, experiment safety, and experiment program objectives and goals. The intent of this guide is to provide a standardized approach for performing typical neutronics/physics analyses. Deviation from this guide is allowed provided that neutronics/physics analysis details are properly documented in an analysis report.

  8. Characteristics of cosmic ray pole-equator anisotropy derived from spherical harmonic analysis of neutron monitor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Yahagi, N.

    1985-01-01

    The spherical harmonic analysis of cosmic ray neutron data from the worldwide network neutron monitor stations during the years, 1966 to 1969 was carried out. The second zonal harmonic component obtained from the analysis corresponds to the Pole-Equator anisotropy of the cosmic ray neutron intensity. Such an anisotropy makes a semiannual variation. In addition to this, it is shown that the Pole-Equator anisotropy makes a variation depending on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) sector polarities around the passages of the IMF sector boundary. A mechanism to interpret these results is also discussed.

  9. Second harmonic generation microscopy for quantitative analysis of collagen fibrillar structure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiyi; Nadiarynkh, Oleg; Plotnikov, Sergey; Campagnola, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has emerged as a powerful modality for imaging fibrillar collagen in a diverse range of tissues. Because of its underlying physical origin, it is highly sensitive to the collagen fibril/fiber structure, and, importantly, to changes that occur in diseases such as cancer, fibrosis and connective tissue disorders. We discuss how SHG can be used to obtain more structural information on the assembly of collagen in tissues than is possible by other microscopy techniques. We first provide an overview of the state of the art and the physical background of SHG microscopy, and then describe the optical modifications that need to be made to a laser-scanning microscope to enable the measurements. Crucial aspects for biomedical applications are the capabilities and limitations of the different experimental configurations. We estimate that the setup and calibration of the SHG instrument from its component parts will require 2–4 weeks, depending on the level of the user’s experience. PMID:22402635

  10. Second harmonic generation microscopy for quantitative analysis of collagen fibrillar structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiyi; Nadiarynkh, Oleg; Plotnikov, Sergey; Campagnola, Paul J

    2012-04-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has emerged as a powerful modality for imaging fibrillar collagen in a diverse range of tissues. Because of its underlying physical origin, it is highly sensitive to the collagen fibril/fiber structure, and, importantly, to changes that occur in diseases such as cancer, fibrosis and connective tissue disorders. We discuss how SHG can be used to obtain more structural information on the assembly of collagen in tissues than is possible by other microscopy techniques. We first provide an overview of the state of the art and the physical background of SHG microscopy, and then describe the optical modifications that need to be made to a laser-scanning microscope to enable the measurements. Crucial aspects for biomedical applications are the capabilities and limitations of the different experimental configurations. We estimate that the setup and calibration of the SHG instrument from its component parts will require 2-4 weeks, depending on the level of the user's experience. PMID:22402635

  11. Analysis of parameter sensitivity of space manipulator with harmonic drive based on the revised response surface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2014-05-01

    Space manipulator is an important tool for spacecraft to complete a variety of tasks in space. Nowadays the harmonic drive is widely used as the reducer in the space manipulator, which may influence the dynamical properties of flexible space manipulator. The analysis of dynamic reliability and parameter sensitivity of space manipulator with harmonic drive is of significant importance for space manipulator designers in the early stage of design. The trajectory precision of the manipulator determines whether the mechanism performs normally. However, it is difficult to use the existing methods to resolve reliability apportionment issues because of the data insufficiency and the uncertainty of the relations among the components in the mechanical system. This paper establishes the dynamical models of space manipulator considering the harmonic hysteresis phenomenon derived from the harmonic reducer. A new method is proposed to analyze the dynamic reliability and parameter sensitivity of space manipulator with harmonic drive. The proposed method extends the previous response surface method (RSM) and focuses on the characteristics of the output dynamical property of the space manipulator. With the result of parameter sensitivity analysis, we can prolong the fine arm or shorten the main arm to improve the motion precision reliability of space manipulator. Therefore, our revised response surface method (RRSM) is suitable for reliability apportionment of the space manipulator when the design information has not been clearly identified, particularly in early design phrase.

  12. Higher harmonic control analysis for vibration reduction of helicopter rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Khanh Q.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced higher harmonic control (HHC) analysis has been developed and applied to investigate its effect on vibration reduction levels, blade and control system fatigue loads, rotor performance, and power requirements of servo-actuators. The analysis is based on a finite element method in space and time. A nonlinear time domain unsteady aerodynamic model, based on the indicial response formulation, is used to calculate the airloads. The rotor induced inflow is computed using a free wake model. The vehicle trim controls and blade steady responses are solved as one coupled solution using a modified Newton method. A linear frequency-domain quasi-steady transfer matrix is used to relate the harmonics of the vibratory hub loads to the harmonics of the HHC inputs. Optimal HHC is calculated from the minimization of the vibratory hub loads expressed in term of a quadratic performance index. Predicted vibratory hub shears are correlated with wind tunnel data. The fixed-gain HHC controller suppresses completely the vibratory hub shears for most of steady or quasi-steady flight conditions. HHC actuator amplitudes and power increase significantly at high forward speeds (above 100 knots). Due to the applied HHC, the blade torsional stresses and control loads are increased substantially. For flight conditions where the blades are stalled considerably, the HHC input-output model is quite nonlinear. For such cases, the adaptive-gain controller is effective in suppressing vibratory hub loads, even though HHC may actually increase stall areas on the rotor disk. The fixed-gain controller performs poorly for such flight conditions. Comparison study of different rotor systems indicates that a soft-inplane hingeless rotor requires less actuator power at high speeds (above 130 knots) than an articulated rotor, and a stiff-inplane hingeless rotor generally requires more actuator power than an articulated or a soft-inplane hingeless rotor. Parametric studies for a hingeless rotor

  13. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) contrast imaging in biomaterial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xuye; Lyubovitsky, Julia

    2015-07-01

    Collagen hydrogels are natural biomaterials that comprise 3D networks of high water content and have viscoelastic properties and biocompatibility similar to native tissues. Consequently, these materials play an important role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for quite some time. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) contrasts transpire as valuable label-free spectroscopic probes for analysis of these biomaterials and this presentation will report the structural, mechanical and physicochemical parameters leading to the observed optical SHG and TPF effects in synthesized 3D collagen hydrogels. We will present results regarding understanding the dependency of collagen fiber formation on ion types, new results regarding strengthening of these biomaterials with a nontoxic chemical cross-linker genipin and polarization selection of collagen fibers' orientations.

  14. Bessel harmonic analysis and approximation of functions on the half-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, Sergei S.

    2007-10-01

    We study problems of approximation of functions on \\lbrack 0, +\\infty) in the metric of L_p with power weight using generalized Bessel shifts. We prove analogues of direct Jackson theorems for the modulus of smoothness of arbitrary order defined in terms of generalized Bessel shifts. We establish the equivalence of the modulus of smoothness and the K-functional. We define function spaces of Nikol'skii-Besov type and describe them in terms of best approximations. As a tool for approximation, we use a certain class of entire functions of exponential type. In this class, we prove analogues of Bernstein's inequality and others for the Bessel differential operator and its fractional powers. The main tool we use to solve these problems is Bessel harmonic analysis.

  15. A spherical harmonic transform spectral analysis of a localized surface plasmon on a gold nano shell.

    PubMed

    Berco, Dan; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2014-11-15

    We perform a study of the localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes of a gold nano shell having a silica core by means of discrete dipole approximation (DDA) and spherical harmonics transform for selected wavelengths. We demonstrate an efficient solution for the near and intermediate field terms by the dyadic Green function approach and determine the optical extinction efficiency by the far field term. Using this approach, we combine the advantages of a spectral analysis along with a DDA flexibility to solve an arbitrary shaped model and demonstrate the LSP dominant mode wavelength dependency. Our approach provides a metric which may be used to quantify the effects of minor changes in the model structure, or the external dielectric environment, in optical experiments. PMID:25327719

  16. Harmonic finite-element thermoelastic analysis of space frames and trusses

    SciTech Connect

    Givoli, D.; Rand, O. )

    1993-09-01

    A numerical procedure is devised for the thermoelastic analysis of three-dimensional frame- or truss-type space structures exposed to solar radiation. Thin-walled frame or truss members with cross sections of arbitrary shape are considered. Tension-compression, bending, shear, and torsional effects due to the temperature distribution induced by the solar radiation are all taken into account. The procedure proposed involves finite element discretization in the axial direction and a harmonic analysts in the circumferential direction of each member. This procedure is an extension of the one employed previously to obtain the temperature field in trusses. A multibay frame structure serves as a model to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The temperature, displacement, and stress fields in the frame are found in various cases. 23 refs.

  17. Fourier Analysis in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2007-01-01

    In an after-dinner talk at the fall 2005 meeting of the New England chapter of the AAPT, Professor Robert Arns drew an analogy between classical physics and Classic Coke. To generations of physics teachers and textbook writers, classical physics was the real thing. Modern physics, which in introductory textbooks "appears in one or more extra…

  18. AC quantum efficiency harmonic analysis of exciton annihilation in organic light emitting diodes (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-10-01

    Exciton annihilation processes impact both the lifetime and efficiency roll-off of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), however it is notoriously difficult to identify the dominant mode of annihilation in operating devices (exciton-exciton vs. exciton-charge carrier) and subsequently to disentangle its magnitude from competing roll-off processes such as charge imbalance. Here, we introduce a simple analytical method to directly identify and extract OLED annihilation rates from standard light-current-voltage (LIV) measurement data. The foundation of this approach lies in a frequency domain EQE analysis and is most easily understood in analogy to impedance spectroscopy, where in this case both the current (J) and electroluminescence intensity (L) are measured using a lock-in amplifier at different harmonics of the sinusoidal dither superimposed on the DC device bias. In the presence of annihilation, the relationship between recombination current and light output (proportional to exciton density) becomes nonlinear, thereby mixing the different EQE harmonics in a manner that depends uniquely on the type and magnitude of annihilation. We derive simple expressions to extract different annihilation rate coefficients and apply this technique to a variety of OLEDs. For example, in devices dominated by triplet-triplet annihilation, the annihilation rate coefficient, K_TT, is obtained directly from the linear slope that results from plotting EQE_DC-EQE_1ω versus L_DC (2EQE_1ω-EQE_DC). We go on to show that, in certain cases it is sufficient to calculate EQE_1ω directly from the slope of the DC light versus current curve [i.e. via (dL_DC)/(dJ_DC )], thus enabling this analysis to be conducted solely from common LIV measurement data.

  19. An Analysis of Shot Noise Propagation and Amplificationin Harmonic Cascade FELs

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z.; /SLAC

    2006-12-11

    The harmonic generation process in a harmonic cascade (HC) FEL is subject to noise degradation which is proportional to the square of the total harmonic order. In this paper, we study the shot noise evolution in the first-stage modulator and radiator of a HC FEL that produces the dominant noise contributions. We derive the effective input noise for a modulator operating in the low-gain regime, and analyze the radiator noise for a density-modulated beam. The significance of these noise sources in different harmonic cascade designs is also discussed.

  20. A comparative analysis of the density of the SNOMED CT conceptual content for semantic harmonization

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhe; Geller, James; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    content. In 30.5% and 17.6% of the cases, it was found that intermediate concepts could be imported into SNOMED CT or into the reference terminology, respectively, to enhance their conceptual content, if approved by a human curator. Other cases included synonymy and errors in one of the terminologies. Conclusion These results show that structure-based algorithmic methods can be used to identify potential concepts to enrich SNOMED CT and the four reference terminologies. The comparative analysis has the future potential of supporting terminology authoring by suggesting new content to improve content coverage and semantic harmonization between terminologies. PMID:25890688

  1. Oceanic lithospheric magnetisation: Forward modelling and analysis using vector spherical harmonics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterton, S. M.; Gubbins, D.; Müller, D.; Williams, S.

    2013-12-01

    The lithospheric contribution to the geomagnetic field arises from magnetised rocks that are cooler than the Curie temperature of their constituent minerals. Inversion of the magnetic field for this magnetisation is subject to inherent non-uniqueness, as many magnetisation distributions yield no potential field outside of the lithosphere. Such distributions are termed annihilators. We use a complete set of orthogonal vector spherical harmonics that separate the part of the magnetisation responsible for the magnetic field observed above the Earth's surface from the annihilators. A similar set of vector harmonics has been developed in Cartesian geometry suitable for small scale, industrial applications. In an attempt to quantify the significance of the annihilators, we first construct a global model of vertically integrated magnetisation (VIM) by combining a model of remanent magnetisation for the oceans with a previous model of induced magnetisation for the whole Earth. Remanence is computed by assigning magnetisations to the oceanic lithosphere acquired at the location and time of formation. The magnetising field is assumed to be an axial dipole that switches polarity with the reversal time scale. The magnetisation evolves with time by decay of thermal remanence and acquisition of chemical remanence. Remanence directions are calculated by implementing finite rotations of the original geomagnetic field direction with respect to an absolute reference frame. We then represent our estimated VIM in terms of vector spherical harmonics, to allow us to evaluate its relative contributions to a potential field that is observable outside of the lithosphere and to fields (both potential and non-potential) that are not observable. This analysis shows that our model of magnetisation is dominated by a part of the magnetisation that produces a potential field restricted to Earth's sub-lithospheric interior; it therefore contributes significantly to the huge null space in the

  2. Analysis of Current Harmonics in 3kV DC Catenary Caused by Specific Current Harmonics of an Asynchronous Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, Mirosław

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical model of vehicle supply system as well as the mathematical model of main circuit of locomotive with asynchronous motors have been described in this article. The necessity of analysis of disturbances caused by distorted current run of drive motors emerged together with the introduction of high power vehicles with power electronic converters. Analysis of the compatibility of traction high current circuits with circuits of the signal and traffic control systems requires the knowledge of current spectrum in a catenary, which has been taken by a vehicle. The author has described the algebraic method of calculating of the spectrum amplitudes in a catenary. It does not require laborious and time-consuming simulations of a system, which considerably decreases preliminary costs of designation and dimensioning of a vehicle drive system.

  3. Digital pathology and image analysis augment biospecimen annotation and biobank quality assurance harmonization

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bih-Rong; Simpson, R. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Standardization of biorepository best practices will enhance the quality of translational biomedical research utilizing patient-derived biobank specimens. Harmonization of pathology quality assurance procedures for biobank accessions has lagged behind other avenues of biospecimen research and biobank development. Comprehension of the cellular content of biorepository specimens is important for discovery of tissue-specific clinically relevant biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment. While rapidly emerging technologies in molecular analyses and data mining create focus on appropriate measures for minimizing pre-analytic artifact-inducing variables, less attention gets paid to annotating the constituent make up of biospecimens for more effective specimen selection by biobank clients. Both pre-analytic tissue processing and a specimen's composition influence acquisition of relevant macromolecules for downstream assays. Pathologist review of biorepository submissions, particularly tissues as part of quality assurance procedures, helps to ensure that the intended target cells are present and in sufficient quantity in accessioned specimens. This manual procedure can be tedious and subjective. Incorporating digital pathology into biobank quality assurance procedures, using automated pattern recognition morphometric image analysis to quantify tissue feature areas in digital whole slide images of tissue sections, can minimize variability and subjectivity associated with routine pathologic evaluations in biorepositories. Whole-slide images and pathologist-reviewed morphometric analyses can be provided to researchers to guide specimen selection. Harmonization of pathology quality assurance methods that minimize subjectivity and improve reproducibility among collections would facilitate research-relevant specimen selection by investigators and could facilitate information sharing in an integrated network approach to biobanking. PMID:24362266

  4. Harmonic distortion in intracochlear pressure and its analysis to explore the cochlear amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2004-03-01

    Intracochlear pressure was measured close to the basal basilar membrane in gerbil with pure-tone stimulation. This report describes harmonic distortion in the pressure. The harmonic components were tuned in frequency and physiologically vulnerable, implying that they were related to the cell-derived force that sharpens tuning at low levels in healthy cochleae. For stimulus frequencies in the vicinity of the best frequency the harmonic distortion appeared to be produced locally, at the place of measurement. Therefore, it could be explored with a local nonlinear model. The combined model and observations demonstrate two specific points: First, the harmonics in the cell-based force were likely similar in size to the harmonics in pressure (multiplied by area) close to the basilar membrane. This is distinctly different than the situation for the fundamental component, where the cell-based force is apparently much smaller than the pressure (times area). Second, although the fundamental component of the measured pressure was much larger than its harmonic components, the harmonic and fundamental components of the active force were likely much more similar in size. This allows the harmonic components in the pressure to be used as an indirect measure of the active force.

  5. Development of a Standard Protocol for the Harmonic Analysis of Radial Pulse Wave and Assessing Its Reliability in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Wei; Chen, Jiang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to establish a standard protocol and to quantitatively assess the reliability of harmonic analysis of the radial pulse wave measured by a harmonic wave analyzer (TD01C system). Both intraobserver and interobserver assessments were conducted to investigate whether the values of harmonics are stable in successive measurements. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and a Bland–Altman plot were used for this purpose. For the reliability assessments of the intraobserver and the interobserver, 22 subjects (mean age 45 ± 14 years; 14 males and 8 females) were enrolled. The first eleven harmonics of the radial pulse wave presented excellent repeatability (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\text {ICCs}>0.9$ \\end{document} and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\text {p}<0.001$ \\end{document}) for the intraobserver assessment and high reproducibility (ICCs range from 0.83 to 0.96 and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\text {p}<0.001$ \\end{document}) for the interobserver assessment. The Bland–Altman plot indicated that more than 90% of harmonic values fell within two standard deviations of the mean difference. Thus, we concluded that the harmonic analysis of the radial pulse wave using the TD01C system is a feasible and reliable method to assess a hemodynamic characteristic in clinical trial. PMID:27170904

  6. Fourier Analysis in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2007-01-01

    In an after-dinner talk at the fall 2005 meeting of the New England chapter of the AAPT, Professor Robert Arns drew an analogy between classical physics and Classic Coke. To generations of physics teachers and textbook writers, classical physics was the real thing. Modern physics, which in introductory textbooks "appears in one or more extra chapters at the end of the book, … is a divertimento that we might get to if time permits." Modern physics is more like vanilla or lime Coke, probably a fad, while "Classic Coke is part of your life; you do not have to think about it twice."

  7. Analysis of human knee osteoarthritic cartilage using polarization sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Grønhaug, Kirsten M.; Romijn, Elisabeth I.; Drogset, Jon O.; Lilledahl, Magnus B.

    2014-05-01

    Osteoarthritis is one of the most prevalent joint diseases in the world. Although the cause of osteoarthritis is not exactly clear, the disease results in a degradation of the quality of the articular cartilage including collagen and other extracellular matrix components. We have investigated alterations in the structure of collagen fibers in the cartilage tissue of the human knee using mulitphoton microscopy. Due to inherent high nonlinear susceptibility, ordered collagen fibers present in the cartilage tissue matrix produces strong second harmonic generation (SHG) signals. Significant morphological differences are found in different Osteoarthritic grades of cartilage by SHG microscopy. Based on the polarization analysis of the SHG signal, we find that a few locations of hyaline cartilage (mainly type II collagen) is being replaced by fibrocartilage (mainly type I cartilage), in agreement with earlier literature. To locate the different types and quantify the alteration in the structure of collagen fiber, we employ polarization-SHG microscopic analysis, also referred to as _-tensor imaging. The image analysis of p-SHG image obtained by excitation polarization measurements would represent different tissue constituents with different numerical values at pixel level resolution.

  8. Definitions of non-stationary vibration power for time-frequency analysis and computational algorithms based upon harmonic wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, YongHwa; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2015-02-01

    While the vibration power for a set of harmonic force and velocity signals is well defined and known, it is not as popular yet for a set of stationary random force and velocity processes, although it can be found in some literatures. In this paper, the definition of the vibration power for a set of non-stationary random force and velocity signals will be derived for the purpose of a time-frequency analysis based on the definitions of the vibration power for the harmonic and stationary random signals. The non-stationary vibration power, defined as the short-time average of the product of the force and velocity over a given frequency range of interest, can be calculated by three methods: the Wigner-Ville distribution, the short-time Fourier transform, and the harmonic wavelet transform. The latter method is selected in this paper because band-pass filtering can be done without phase distortions, and the frequency ranges can be chosen very flexibly for the time-frequency analysis. Three algorithms for the time-frequency analysis of the non-stationary vibration power using the harmonic wavelet transform are discussed. The first is an algorithm for computation according to the full definition, while the others are approximate. Noting that the force and velocity decomposed into frequency ranges of interest by the harmonic wavelet transform are constructed with coefficients and basis functions, for the second algorithm, it is suggested to prepare a table of time integrals of the product of the basis functions in advance, which are independent of the signals under analysis. How to prepare and utilize the integral table are presented. The third algorithm is based on an evolutionary spectrum. Applications of the algorithms to the time-frequency analysis of the vibration power transmitted from an excitation source to a receiver structure in a simple mechanical system consisting of a cantilever beam and a reaction wheel are presented for illustration.

  9. Gastrectomy and D2 Lymphadenectomy for Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Comparing the Harmonic Scalpel to Conventional Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hang; Hsiao, Chia-Wen; Clymer, Jeffrey W.; Schwiers, Michael L.; Tibensky, Bryanna N.; Patel, Leena; Ferko, Nicole C.; Chekan, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The ultrasonic Harmonic scalpel has demonstrated clinical and surgical benefits in dissection and coagulation. To evaluate its use in gastrectomy, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the Harmonic scalpel to conventional techniques in gastrectomy for patients with gastric cancer. International databases were searched without language restrictions for comparisons in open or laparoscopic gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy. The meta-analysis used a random-effects model for all outcomes; continuous variables were analyzed for mean differences and dichotomous variables were analyzed for risk ratios. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for study quality, type of conventional technique, and imputation of study results. Ten studies (N = 935) met the inclusion criteria. Compared with conventional hemostatic techniques, the Harmonic scalpel demonstrated significant reductions in operating time (−27.5 min; P < 0.001), intraoperative blood loss (−93.2 mL; P < 0.001), and drainage volume (−138.8 mL; P < 0.001). Results were numerically higher for conventional techniques for hospital length of stay, complication risk, and transfusions but did not reach statistical significance. Results remained robust to sensitivity analyses. This meta-analysis demonstrates the clear advantages of using the Harmonic scalpel compared to conventional techniques, with improvements demonstrated across several outcome measures for patients undergoing gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy. PMID:26075090

  10. Theoretical analysis of high-order harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states

    SciTech Connect

    Milosevic, Dejan B.

    2006-02-15

    A quantum theory of high-order harmonic generation by a strong laser field in the presence of more bound states is formulated. The obtained numerical and analytical results for a two-state hydrogenlike atom model show that the harmonic spectrum consists of two parts: a usual single-state harmonic spectrum of odd harmonics having the energies (2k+1){omega} and a resonant part with the peaks around the excitation energy {delta}{omega}. The energy of the harmonics in the resonant part of the spectrum is equal to {delta}{omega}{+-}{omega}, {delta}{omega}{+-}3{omega}, .... For energies higher than the excitation energy, the resonant part forms a plateau, followed by a cutoff. The emission rate of the harmonics in this resonant plateau is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the harmonics generated in the presence of the ground state alone. The influence of the depletion of the initial states, as well as of the pulse shape and intensity, is analyzed.

  11. Second harmonic generation microscopy analysis of extracellular matrix changes in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tilbury, Karissa; Hocker, James; Wen, Bruce L; Sandbo, Nathan; Singh, Vikas; Campagnola, Paul J

    2014-08-01

    Patients with idiopathic fibrosis (IPF) have poor long-term survival as there are limited diagnostic/prognostic tools or successful therapies. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in IPF progression; however, the structural consequences on the collagen architecture have not received considerable attention. Here, we demonstrate that second harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton fluorescence microscopy can quantitatively differentiate normal and IPF human tissues. For SHG analysis, we developed a classifier based on wavelet transforms, principle component analysis, and a K-nearest-neighbor algorithm to classify the specific alterations of the collagen structure observed in IPF tissues. The resulting ROC curves obtained by varying the numbers of principal components and nearest neighbors yielded accuracies of >95%. In contrast, simpler metrics based on SHG intensity and collagen coverage in the image provided little or no discrimination. We also characterized the change in the elastin/collagen balance by simultaneously measuring the elastin autofluorescence and SHG intensities and found that the IPF tissues were less elastic relative to collagen. This is consistent with known mechanical consequences of the disease. Understanding ECM remodeling in IPF via nonlinear optical microscopy may enhance our ability to differentiate patients with rapid and slow progression and, thus, provide better prognostic information. PMID:25134793

  12. Second harmonic generation microscopy analysis of extracellular matrix changes in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tilbury, Karissa; Hocker, James; Wen, Bruce L.; Sandbo, Nathan; Singh, Vikas; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Patients with idiopathic fibrosis (IPF) have poor long-term survival as there are limited diagnostic/prognostic tools or successful therapies. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in IPF progression; however, the structural consequences on the collagen architecture have not received considerable attention. Here, we demonstrate that second harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton fluorescence microscopy can quantitatively differentiate normal and IPF human tissues. For SHG analysis, we developed a classifier based on wavelet transforms, principle component analysis, and a K-nearest-neighbor algorithm to classify the specific alterations of the collagen structure observed in IPF tissues. The resulting ROC curves obtained by varying the numbers of principal components and nearest neighbors yielded accuracies of >95%. In contrast, simpler metrics based on SHG intensity and collagen coverage in the image provided little or no discrimination. We also characterized the change in the elastin/collagen balance by simultaneously measuring the elastin autofluorescence and SHG intensities and found that the IPF tissues were less elastic relative to collagen. This is consistent with known mechanical consequences of the disease. Understanding ECM remodeling in IPF via nonlinear optical microscopy may enhance our ability to differentiate patients with rapid and slow progression and, thus, provide better prognostic information. PMID:25134793

  13. Multivariable harmonic balance analysis of the neuronal oscillator for leech swimming.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyong; Zheng, Min; Friesen, W Otto; Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    2008-12-01

    Biological systems, and particularly neuronal circuits, embody a very high level of complexity. Mathematical modeling is therefore essential for understanding how large sets of neurons with complex multiple interconnections work as a functional system. With the increase in computing power, it is now possible to numerically integrate a model with many variables to simulate behavior. However, such analysis can be time-consuming and may not reveal the mechanisms underlying the observed phenomena. An alternative, complementary approach is mathematical analysis, which can demonstrate direct and explicit relationships between a property of interest and system parameters. This paper introduces a mathematical tool for analyzing neuronal oscillator circuits based on multivariable harmonic balance (MHB). The tool is applied to a model of the central pattern generator (CPG) for leech swimming, which comprises a chain of weakly coupled segmental oscillators. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the MHB method and provide analytical explanations for some CPG properties. In particular, the intersegmental phase lag is estimated to be the sum of a nominal value and a perturbation, where the former depends on the structure and span of the neuronal connections and the latter is roughly proportional to the period gradient, communication delay, and the reciprocal of the intersegmental coupling strength. PMID:18663565

  14. Spherical harmonic analysis of the sound radiation from omnidirectional loudspeaker arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqual, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Omnidirectional sound sources are widely used in room acoustics. These devices are made up of loudspeakers mounted on a spherical or polyhedral cabinet, where the dodecahedral shape prevails. Although such electroacoustic sources have been made readily available to acousticians by many manufacturers, an in-depth investigation of their vibroacoustic behavior has not been provided yet. In order to fulfill this lack, this paper presents a theoretical study of the sound radiation from omnidirectional loudspeaker arrays, which is carried out by using a mathematical model based on the spherical harmonic analysis. Eight different loudspeaker arrangements on the sphere are considered: the well-known five Platonic solid layouts and three extremal system layouts. The latter possess useful properties for spherical loudspeaker arrays used as directivity controlled sound sources, so that these layouts are included here in order to investigate whether or not they could be of interest as omnidirectional sources as well. It is shown through a comparative analysis that the dodecahedral array leads to the lowest error in producing an omnidirectional sound field and to the highest acoustic power, which corroborates the prevalence of such a layout. In addition, if a source with less than 12 loudspeakers is required, it is shown that tetrahedra or hexahedra can be used alternatively, whereas the extremal system layouts are not interesting choices for omnidirectional loudspeaker arrays.

  15. Harmonic analysis for the characterization and correction of geometric distortion in MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Tadic, Tony Stanescu, Teodor; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gaining widespread use in radiation therapy planning, patient setup verification, and real-time guidance of radiation delivery. Successful implementation of these technologies relies on the development of simple and efficient methods to characterize and monitor the geometric distortions arising due to system imperfections and gradient nonlinearities. To this end, the authors present the theory and validation of a novel harmonic approach to the quantification of system-related distortions in MRI. Methods: The theory of spatial encoding in MRI is applied to demonstrate that the 3D distortion vector field (DVF) is given by the solution of a second-order boundary value problem (BVP). This BVP is comprised of Laplace’s equation and a limited measurement of the distortion on the boundary of a specified region of interest (ROI). An analytical series expansion solving this BVP within a spherical ROI is obtained, and a statistical uncertainty analysis is performed to determine how random errors in the boundary measurements propagate to the ROI interior. This series expansion is then evaluated to obtain volumetric DVF mappings that are compared to reference data obtained on a 3 T full-body scanner. This validation is performed within two spheres of 20 cm diameter (one centered at the scanner origin and the other offset +3 cm along each of the transverse directions). Initially, a high-order mapping requiring measurements at 5810 boundary points is used. Then, after exploring the impact of the boundary sampling density and the effect of series truncation, a reduced-order mapping requiring measurements at 302 boundary points is evaluated. Results: The volumetric DVF mappings obtained from the harmonic analysis are in good agreement with the reference data. Following distortion correction using the high-order mapping, the authors estimate a reduction in the mean distortion magnitude from 0.86 to 0.42 mm and from 0.93 to 0.39 mm

  16. RUSHMAPS: Real-Time Uploadable Spherical Harmonic Moment Analysis for Particle Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    programmable gate arrays), and DSP (digital signal processing) elements. The fundamental computational algorithm de constructs 3D velocity distributions in terms of spherical harmonic spectral coefficients (which are analogous to a Fourier sine-cosine decomposition), but uses instead spherical harmonics Legendre polynomial orthogonal functions as a basis for the expansion, portraying each 2D angular distribution at every energy or, geometrically, spherical speed-shell swept by the particle spectrometer. Optionally, these spherical harmonic spectral coefficients may be telemetered to the ground. These will provide a smoothed description of the velocity distribution function whose quality will depend on the number of coefficients determined. Successfully implemented on the GSFC-developed processor, the capability to integrate the proposed methodology with both heritage and anticipated future plasma particle spectrometer designs is demonstrated (with sufficiently detailed design analysis to advance TRL) to show specific science relevancy with future HSD (Heliophysics Science Division) solar-interplanetary, planetary missions, sounding rockets and/or CubeSat missions.

  17. An Analysis of Canadian Physical Education Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilborn, Michelle; Lorusso, Jenna; Francis, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    There has been much international concern about the present and future status of school physical education. Recent research has employed surveys or case studies to examine the status of physical education but there is a dearth of in-depth physical education curriculum document analysis. The aim of this study is to contribute to the international…

  18. Computational-Model-Based Analysis of Context Effects on Harmonic Expectancy.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Satoshi; Remijn, Gerard B; Nakajima, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Expectancy for an upcoming musical chord, harmonic expectancy, is supposedly based on automatic activation of tonal knowledge. Since previous studies implicitly relied on interpretations based on Western music theory, the underlying computational processes involved in harmonic expectancy and how it relates to tonality need further clarification. In particular, short chord sequences which cannot lead to unique keys are difficult to interpret in music theory. In this study, we examined effects of preceding chords on harmonic expectancy from a computational perspective, using stochastic modeling. We conducted a behavioral experiment, in which participants listened to short chord sequences and evaluated the subjective relatedness of the last chord to the preceding ones. Based on these judgments, we built stochastic models of the computational process underlying harmonic expectancy. Following this, we compared the explanatory power of the models. Our results imply that, even when listening to short chord sequences, internally constructed and updated tonal assumptions determine the expectancy of the upcoming chord. PMID:27003807

  19. Computational-Model-Based Analysis of Context Effects on Harmonic Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Satoshi; Remijn, Gerard B.; Nakajima, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Expectancy for an upcoming musical chord, harmonic expectancy, is supposedly based on automatic activation of tonal knowledge. Since previous studies implicitly relied on interpretations based on Western music theory, the underlying computational processes involved in harmonic expectancy and how it relates to tonality need further clarification. In particular, short chord sequences which cannot lead to unique keys are difficult to interpret in music theory. In this study, we examined effects of preceding chords on harmonic expectancy from a computational perspective, using stochastic modeling. We conducted a behavioral experiment, in which participants listened to short chord sequences and evaluated the subjective relatedness of the last chord to the preceding ones. Based on these judgments, we built stochastic models of the computational process underlying harmonic expectancy. Following this, we compared the explanatory power of the models. Our results imply that, even when listening to short chord sequences, internally constructed and updated tonal assumptions determine the expectancy of the upcoming chord. PMID:27003807

  20. Harmonic balance analysis of nonlinear tristable energy harvesters for performance enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengxi; Cao, Junyi; Inman, Daniel J.; Lin, Jing; Li, Dan

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear energy harvesters are very sensitive to ambient vibrations. If the excitation level is too low, their large-amplitude oscillations for high-energy voltage output cannot be obtained. A nonlinear tristable energy harvester has been previously proposed to achieve more effective broadband energy harvesting for low-level excitations. However, the sensitivity of its dynamic characteristics to the system parameters remains uninvestigated. Therefore, this paper theoretically analyzes the influence of the external load, the external excitation, the internal system parameters and the equilibrium positions on the dynamic responses of nonlinear tristable energy harvesters by using the harmonic balance method. In addition, numerical acceleration excitation thresholds and basins of attraction are provided to investigate the potential for energy harvesting performance enhancement using the suitable equilibrium positions, appropriate initial conditions or external disturbances, due to high-energy interwell oscillations in the multi-solution ranges. More importantly, experimental voltage responses of a given tristable energy harvester versus the external excitation frequency and amplitude verify the existence of experimental multi-solution ranges and the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis. It is also revealed that achieving high-energy interwell oscillations in the multi-solution ranges of tristable energy harvesters will be feasible for improving energy harvesting from low-level ambient excitations.

  1. Quantitative analysis of intrinsic skin aging in dermal papillae by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Hua; Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Chou, Sin-Yo; Tsai, Cheng-Shiun; Lin, Guan-Liang; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Shih, Yuan-Ta; Lee, Gwo-Giun; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    Chronological skin aging is associated with flattening of the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), but to date no quantitative analysis focusing on the aging changes in the dermal papillae (DP) has been performed. The aim of the study is to determine the architectural changes and the collagen density related to chronological aging in the dermal papilla zone (DPZ) by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) with a sub-femtoliter spatial resolution. We recruited 48 Asian subjects and obtained in vivo images on the sun-protected volar forearm. Six parameters were defined to quantify 3D morphological changes of the DPZ, which we analyzed both manually and computationally to study their correlation with age. The depth of DPZ, the average height of isolated DP, and the 3D interdigitation index decreased with age, while DP number density, DP volume, and the collagen density in DP remained constant over time. In vivo high-resolution HGM technology has uncovered chronological aging-related variations in DP, and sheds light on real-time quantitative skin fragility assessment and disease diagnostics based on collagen density and morphology. PMID:25401037

  2. Spherical Harmonic Analysis of Gravitational Curvatures and Its Implications for Future Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel; Pitoňák, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this study we assume that a gravitational curvature tensor, i.e. a tensor of third-order directional derivatives of the Earth's gravitational potential, is observable at satellite altitudes. Such a tensor is composed of ten different components, i.e. gravitational curvatures, which may be combined into vertical-vertical-vertical, vertical-vertical-horizontal, vertical-horizontal-horizontal and horizontal-horizontal-horizontal gravitational curvatures. Firstly, we study spectral properties of the gravitational curvatures. Secondly, we derive new quadrature formulas for the spherical harmonic analysis of the four gravitational curvatures and provide their corresponding analytical error models. Thirdly, requirements for an instrument that would eventually observe gravitational curvatures by differential accelerometry are investigated. The results reveal that measuring third-order directional derivatives of the gravitational potential imposes very high requirements on the accuracy of deployed accelerometers which are beyond the limits of currently available sensors. For example, for orbital parameters and performance similar to those of the GOCE mission, observing third-order directional derivatives requires accelerometers with the noise level of {˜}10^{-17} {m} {s}^{-2} Hz^{-1/2}.

  3. Harmonic analysis of environmental time series with missing data or irregular sample spacing.

    PubMed

    Dilmaghani, Shabnam; Henry, Isaac C; Soonthornnonda, Puripus; Christensen, Erik R; Henry, Ronald C

    2007-10-15

    The Lomb periodogram and discrete Fourier transform are described and applied to harmonic analysis of two typical data sets, one air quality time series and one water quality time series. The air quality data is a 13 year series of 24 hour average particulate elemental carbon data from the IMPROVE station in Washington, D.C. The water quality data are from the stormwater monitoring network in Milwaukee, WI and cover almost 2 years of precipitation events. These data have irregular sampling periods and missing data that preclude the straightforward application of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). In both cases, an anthropogenic periodicity is identified; a 7-day weekday/ weekend effect in the Washington elemental carbon series and a 1 month cycle in several constituents of stormwater. Practical aspects of application of the Lomb periodogram are discussed, particularly quantifying the effects of random noise. The proper application of the FFT to data that are irregularly spaced with missing values is demonstrated on the air quality data. Recommendations are given when to use the Lomb periodogram and when to use the FFT. PMID:17993144

  4. Experimental intensity analysis of second harmonic generation at the Cu(110) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, C.; Meister, G.; Woll, J.; Gerlach, A.; Goldmann, A.

    2000-06-01

    We have analyzed second harmonic generation (SHG) intensities from Cu(110) at fundamental wavelengths λ=1064 nm and between λ=650 and 540 nm. Experimentally the light incidence direction was chosen along the two inequivalent mirror planes of the surface lattice unit cell, and the linear polarizations of both input (fundamental) and output (frequency-doubled) radiation could be varied independently. At λ=1064 nm the relative sizes of the different components of the second-order susceptibility tensor are as follows: | χ zzz|=2490, | χ yzy|=139 and | χ zyy|=33.7. The remaining elements are below detection threshold: | χ xzx|<3 and | χ zxx|<3. This analysis is based on the use of Fresnel coefficients and bulk optical constants. The results indicate that SHG is dominated by transitions induced by the z-components of the incident electric field. However, the situation is completely different in the intensity maximum ( λ=600 nm) of a resonant intersurface band transition occurring around the Ȳ-point of the surface Brillouin zone: now SHG is dominated by the zyy tensor component, which exceeds both yzy and zzz, while again | χ zxx| and | χ xzx| are negligible. All available data, including temperature-dependent SHG studies of different authors, clearly show that contributions of electronic surface states to SHG intensities may be significant or even dominant. Therefore, a detailed quantitative understanding is a necessary condition for any analysis of adsorbate-induced SHG signals, since adsorbates can modify the surface electronic properties considerably. Our results furthermore indicate that the use of isotropic Fresnel coefficients to model the SHG-active electric fields is inadequate for a complete quantitative analysis.

  5. Analysis and synthesis of harmonic reduction in single-phase inverters using a parallel operation technique with different PWM strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kamel, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new technique for harmonic reduction in single-phase inverters, using sinusoidal pulse width modulation (PWM), is presented. A modified circuit based on parallel operation techniques of MOS inverter sets using interphase reactors as current balancers and making use of a specific phase shift between the modulating and carrier waveforms is investigated as a means to economically and efficiently reduce the harmonic contents in the output waveform. In this study, extensions of the natural sampling methods were considered for the PWM strategy, as this method is popular for the single bridge converters. A variety of PWM techniques were investigated analytically using computer simulation. A number of the more promising techniques were tested in the laboratory using commercial signal generators. Finally, a dedicated signal generator was designed and built which implements the best PWM strategy. Good agreement between analytical results and experimental results was observed throughout the project. Detailed analysis shows that the harmonics low than the 15th (or the 29th) are all less than one percent of the fundamental component when the frequency ratio is relatively low 9 (or 15). When the frequency ratio is increased to 45, at low output frequency, harmonics lower than 87th are canceled from the output waveform. This is done without noticeable reduction in the fundamental component. The results show the feasibility of obtaining practically sinusoidal output waveforms.

  6. Correlation of the earth's rotation rate and the secular change of the geomagnetic field. [power spectra/harmonic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    Power spectral density analysis using Burg's maximum entropy method was applied to the geomagnetic dipole field and its rate of change for the years 1901 to 1969. Both spectra indicate relative maxima at 0.015 cycles/year and its harmonics. These maxima correspond approximately to 66, 33, 22, 17, 13, 11, and 9-year spectral lines. The application of the same analysis techniques to the length-of-day (l.o.d) fluctuations for the period 1865 to 1961 reveal similar spectral characteristics. Although peaks were observed at higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency, the 22-year and 11-year lines are not attributed unambiguously to the solar magnetic cycle and the solar cycle. It is suggested that the similarity in the l.o.d fluctuations and the dipole field variations is related to the motion within the earth's fluid core during the past one hundred years.

  7. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, C. B.; Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2010-04-15

    We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane.

  8. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C. B.; Abu-Samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2010-04-01

    We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH4 and CD4 and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker , Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane.

  9. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine Planetary Gears Using an Extended Harmonic Balance Approach: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Parker, R. G.

    2012-06-01

    The dynamics of wind turbine planetary gears with gravity effects are investigated using an extended harmonic balance method that extends established harmonic balance formulations to include simultaneous internal and external excitations. The extended harmonic balance method with arc-length continuation and Floquet theory is applied to a lumped-parameter planetary gear model including gravity, fluctuating mesh stiffness, bearing clearance, and nonlinear tooth contact to obtain the planetary gear dynamic response. The calculated responses compare well with time domain integrated mathematical models and experimental results. Gravity is a fundamental vibration source in wind turbine planetary gears and plays an important role in system dynamics, causing hardening effects induced by tooth wedging and bearing-raceway contacts. Bearing clearance significantly reduces the lowest resonant frequencies of translational modes. Gravity and bearing clearance together lowers the speed at which tooth wedging occurs lower than the resonant frequency.

  10. Experimental Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System for Harmonic, Random, and Sine on Random Vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cryns, Jackson W.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2013-07-01

    Formal journal article Experimental analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for harmonic, random, and sine on random vibration Abstract: Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random and sine on random (SOR) input vibration scenarios. Additionally, the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. Studies in vibration harvesting have yielded numerous alternatives for harvesting electrical energy from vibrations but piezoceramics arose as the most compact, energy dense means of energy transduction. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. In this manuscript, variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. We characterize the source vibration by its acceleration response for repeatability and transcription to general application. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions for in previous literature that load optimal resistance varies with transducer natural frequency and source type, and the findings demonstrate that significant gains are seen with lower tuned transducer natural frequencies for similar source amplitudes. Going beyond idealized steady state sinusoidal and simplified random vibration input, SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibrational sources significantly alter power generation and power processing

  11. Multielectron Correlation in High-Harmonic Generation: A 2D Model Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sukiasyan, Suren; McDonald, Chris; Destefani, Carlos; Brabec, Thomas; Ivanov, Misha Yu.

    2009-06-05

    We analyze the role of multielectron dynamics in high-harmonic generation spectroscopy, using an example of a two-electron system. We identify and systematically quantify the importance of correlation and exchange effects. One of the main sources for correlation is identified to be the polarization of the ion by the recombining continuum electron. This effect, which plays an important qualitative and quantitative role, seriously undermines the validity of the standard approaches to high-harmonic generation, which ignore the contribution of excited ionic states to the radiative recombination of the continuum electron.

  12. Analysis of the harmonics and power-factor effects at a utility-intertied photovoltaic system

    SciTech Connect

    Campen, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Outlined are the harmonics and power-factor characteristics and effects of a single residential photovoltaic (PV) installation using a line-commutated inverter. The data were taken during a five-day measurement program conducted at the John F. Long House, which is a prototype residential PV installation located in Phoenix, Arizona. The magnitude and phase of various currents and voltages from the fundamental to the 13th harmonic were recorded both with and without the operation of the PV system. A candidate method of modeling the installation for computer studies of larger concentrations is given.

  13. An analysis of the harmonics and power factor effects at a utility intertied photovoltaic system

    SciTech Connect

    Campen, G.L.

    1982-12-01

    This paper outlines the harmonics and power-factor characteristics and effects of a single residential photovoltaic (PV) installation using a line-commutated inverter. The data were taken during a five-day measurement program conducted at the John F. Long House, which is a prototype residential PV installation located in Phoenix, Arizona. The magnitude and phase of various currents and voltages from the fundamental to the 13th harmonic were recorded both with and without the operation of the PV system. A candidate method of modeling the installation for computer studies of larger concentrations is given.

  14. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  15. Harmonic analysis of AC magnetostriction measurements under non-sinusoidal excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Mogi, Hisashi; Yabumoto, Masao; Mizokami, Masato; Okazaki Yasuo

    1996-09-01

    A new system for analyzing ac magnetostriction of electrical steel sheets has been developed. This system has the following advantages: (a) AC magnetostriction waveforms can be precisely measured up to 4 kHz, and analyzed to harmonic components; (b) non-sinusoidal flux density can be excited to simulate the distorted waveform in an actual transformer core.

  16. Cosmic physics data analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, R. Jeffrey

    1993-01-01

    A data analysis program was carried out to investigate the intensity, propagation, and origin of primary Cosmic Ray Galactic electrons. Scanning was carried out on two new balloon flight experiments as well as the border area of previous experiments. The identification and evaluation of the energies of the primary electrons were carried out. A new analysis of these data were incorporated into an overall evaluation of the roll of electrons in the problem of the origin of cosmic rays. Recent measurements indicate that the earth may be within the expanding Geminga supernova shock wave which is expected to have a major effect upon the propagation and the energy spectrum of galactic electrons. Calculations with the Geminga model indicate that the cut-off energy may be very close to the observed highest energy electrons in our analysis.

  17. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-05-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-Written components: (i) a set of standard finite elements physics solvers for rersolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of contact both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problemsmore » and problems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for, e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release.« less

  18. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-Written components: (i) a set of standard finite elements physics solvers for rersolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of contact both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problems and problems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for, e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release.

  19. Advanced Analysis Methods in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Pushpalatha C. Bhat

    2001-10-03

    During the coming decade, high energy physics experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron and around the globe will use very sophisticated equipment to record unprecedented amounts of data in the hope of making major discoveries that may unravel some of Nature's deepest mysteries. The discovery of the Higgs boson and signals of new physics may be around the corner. The use of advanced analysis techniques will be crucial in achieving these goals. The author discusses some of the novel methods of analysis that could prove to be particularly valuable for finding evidence of any new physics, for improving precision measurements and for exploring parameter spaces of theoretical models.

  20. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-12-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-written components: (i) a set of standard finite, discrete, and discontinuous displacement element physics solvers for resolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, fault rupture and earthquake nucleation, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of physcial behaviors both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. Themore » resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problems; ploblems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed; fault rupture modeling and seismic risk assessment; and general granular materials behavior. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for , e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release. CPAC's secondary applications include modeling fault evolution for predicting the statistical distribution of earthquake events and to capture granular materials behavior under different load paths.« less

  1. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-written components: (i) a set of standard finite, discrete, and discontinuous displacement element physics solvers for resolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, fault rupture and earthquake nucleation, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of physcial behaviors both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problems; ploblems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed; fault rupture modeling and seismic risk assessment; and general granular materials behavior. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for , e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release. CPAC's secondary applications include modeling fault evolution for predicting the statistical distribution of earthquake events and to capture granular materials behavior under different load paths.

  2. Workshop Physics Activity Guide, Module 2: Mechanics II, Momentum, Energy, Rotational and Harmonic Motion, and Chaos (Units 8 - 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2004-05-01

    The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is a set of student workbooks designed to serve as the foundation for a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics course. It consists of 28 units that interweave text materials with activities that include prediction, qualitative observation, explanation, equation derivation, mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and problem solving. Students use a powerful set of computer tools to record, display, and analyze data, as well as to develop mathematical models of physical phenomena. The design of many of the activities is based on the outcomes of physics education research. The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is supported by an Instructor's Website that: (1) describes the history and philosophy of the Workshop Physics Project; (2) provides advice on how to integrate the Guide into a variety of educational settings; (3) provides information on computer tools (hardware and software) and apparatus; and (4) includes suggested homework assignments for each unit. Log on to the Workshop Physics Project website at http://physics.dickinson.edu/ Workshop Physics is a component of the Physics Suite--a collection of materials created by a group of educational reformers known as the Activity Based Physics Group. The Physics Suite contains a broad array of curricular materials that are based on physics education research, including:

      Understanding Physics, by Cummings, Laws, Redish and Cooney (an introductory textbook based on the best-selling text by Halliday/Resnick/Walker) RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules Physics by Inquiry (intended for use in a workshop setting) Interactive Lecture Demonstration Tutorials in Introductory Physics Activity Based Tutorials (designed primarily for use in recitations)

    • Dealing with periodical loads and harmonics in operational modal analysis using time-varying transmissibility functions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Weijtjens, Wout; Lataire, John; Devriendt, Christof; Guillaume, Patrick

      2014-12-01

      Periodical loads, such as waves and rotating machinery, form a problem for operational modal analysis (OMA). In OMA only the vibrations of a structure of interest are measured and little to nothing is known about the loads causing these vibrations. Therefore, it is often assumed that all dynamics in the measured data are linked to the system of interest. Periodical loads defy this assumption as their periodical behavior is often visible within the measured vibrations. As a consequence most OMA techniques falsely associate the dynamics of the periodical load with the system of interest. Without additional information about the load, one is not able to correctly differentiate between structural dynamics and the dynamics of the load. In several applications, e.g. turbines and helicopters, it was observed that because of periodical loads one was unable to correctly identify one or multiple modes. Transmissibility based OMA (TOMA) is a completely different approach to OMA. By using transmissibility functions to estimate the structural dynamics of the system of interest, all influence of the load-spectrum can be eliminated. TOMA therefore allows to identify the modal parameters without being influenced by the presence of periodical loads, such as harmonics. One of the difficulties of TOMA is that the analyst is required to find two independent datasets, each associated with a different loading condition of the system of interest. This poses a dilemma for TOMA; how can an analyst identify two different loading conditions when little is known about the loads on the system? This paper tackles that problem by assuming that the loading conditions vary continuously over time, e.g. the changing wind directions. From this assumption TOMA is developed into a time-varying framework. This development allows TOMA to not only cope with the continuously changing loading conditions. The time-varying framework also enables the identification of the modal parameters from a single dataset

    • Texture analysis applied to second harmonic generation image data for disease classification and development of a multi-view second harmonic generation imaging platform

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wen, Lianggong

      Many diseases, e.g. ovarian cancer, breast cancer and pulmonary fibrosis, are commonly associated with drastic alterations in surrounding connective tissue, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) are associated with the vast majority of cellular processes in disease progression and carcinogenesis: cell differentiation, proliferation, biosynthetic ability, polarity, and motility. We use second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy for imaging the ECM because it is a non-invasive, non-linear laser scanning technique with high sensitivity and specificity for visualizing fibrillar collagen. In this thesis, we are interested in developing imaging techniques to understand how the ECM, especially the collagen architecture, is remodeled in diseases. To quantitate remodeling, we implement a 3D texture analysis to delineate the collagen fibrillar morphology observed in SHG microscopy images of human normal and high grade malignant ovarian tissues. In the learning stage, a dictionary of "textons"---frequently occurring texture features that are identified by measuring the image response to a filter bank of various shapes, sizes, and orientations---is created. By calculating a representative model based on the texton distribution for each tissue type using a training set of respective mages, we then perform classification between normal and high grade malignant ovarian tissues classification based on the area under receiver operating characteristic curves (true positives versus false positives). The local analysis algorithm is a more general method to probe rapidly changing fibrillar morphologies than global analyses such as FFT. It is also more versatile than other texture approaches as the filter bank can be highly tailored to specific applications (e.g., different disease states) by creating customized libraries based on common image features. Further, we describe the development of a multi-view 3D SHG imaging platform. Unlike fluorescence microscopy, SHG excites

    • Digital Movement Analysis in Physical Education

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Trout, Josh

      2013-01-01

      Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets offer applications (apps) that make digital movement analysis simple and efficient in physical education. Highly sophisticated movement analysis software has been available for many years but has mainly appealed to coaches of elite athletes and biomechanists. Apps on mobile devices are less expensive…

    • A Time-Distinguished Analysis of the Harmonic Structure from a Model Molecular Ion

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yang, Yu-Jun; Chen, Gao; Chen, Ji-Gen; Zhu, Qi-Ren

      2004-04-01

      We present high-order harmonic generation spectra resulted from a single-electron model molecular ion exposed to intense laser fields by numerically solving a one-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation. There are three plateaus in the spectra and the maximal cutoff energy is Ip+8.5Up, when the inter-nuclear distance R equals pialpha0/2. Here Ip is the ionization potential and Up = E02/(4omega2) is the ponderomotive potential with E0 and omega being the laser electric field amplitude and the central frequency. The harmonic structures are well interpreted by a modified three-step model in which the effects of the electron reflected by the non-parent ion are stressed.

    • Analysis of Vibrational Harmonic Response for Printing Double-Sheet Detecting System via ANSYS

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Guo, Qiang; Cai, Ji-Fei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yang

      In order to explore the influence of the harmonic response of system vibration upon the stability of the double-sheet detector system, the mathematical model of vibrational system is established via the mechanical dynamic theory. Vibrational system of double-sheet detector is studied by theoretical modeling, and the dynamic simulation to obtain the amplitude/phase frequency response curve of the system based on ANSYS is completed to make a comparison with the theoretical results. It is shown that the theoretical value is basically consistent with that calculated through ANSYS. Conclusion vibrational characteristics of double-sheet detection system is obtained quickly and accurately, and propound solving measures by some crucial factors, such as the harmonic load, mass and stiffness, which will affect the vibration of the system, contribute to the finite element method is applied to the complex multiple-degree-of-freedom system.

    • Separation of harmonic sounds using multipitch analysis and linear models for the overtone series

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Virtanen, Tuomas; Klapuri, Anssi

      2002-05-01

      A signal processing method for the separation of concurrent harmonic sounds is described. The method is based on a two-stage approach. First, a multiple fundamental frequency estimator is applied to find initial sound parameters which are reliable, but inaccurate and static. Second, time-varying sinusoidal parameters are estimated in an iterative algorithm. The harmonic structure is retained by keeping the frequency ratio of overtones constant over time. Overlapping harmonic components are resolved using linear models for the overtone series. In practice, the models retain the spectral envelope continuity of natural sounds. Simulation experiments were carried out using generated test signals, which were random mixtures of two to six notes from recorded natural instruments. The system is able to produce meaningful results in all polyphonies, the quality of separated sounds gradually degrading along with the polyphony. Some denoising algorithms were applied to suppress nonstationary noise component, such as drums in real-world music signals. However, the usability of the system for real musical signals is still quite limited.

    • Harmonic analysis of tides and tidal currents in South San Francisco Bay, California

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

      1985-01-01

      Water level observations from tide stations and current observations from current-meter moorings in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California have been harmonically analysed. At each tide station, 13 harmonic constituents have been computed by a least-squares regression without inference. Tides in South Bay are typically mixed; there is a phase lag of approximately 1 h and an amplification of 1??5 from north to south for a mean semi-diurnal tide. Because most of the current-meter records are between 14 and 29 days, only the five most important harmonics have been solved for east-west and north-south velocity components. The eccentricity of tidal-current ellipse is generally very small, which indicates that the tidal current in South Bay is strongly bidirectional. The analyses further show that the principal direction and the magnitude of tidal current are well correlated with the basin bathymetry. Patterns of Eulerian residual circulation deduced from the current-meter data show an anticlockwise gyre to the west and a clockwise gyre to the east of the main channel in the summer months due to the prevailing westerly wind. Opposite trends have been observed during winter when the wind was variable. ?? 1985.

    • Quantum optical signatures in strong-field laser physics: Infrared photon counting in high-order-harmonic generation

      PubMed Central

      Gonoskov, I. A.; Tsatrafyllis, N.; Kominis, I. K.; Tzallas, P.

      2016-01-01

      We analytically describe the strong-field light-electron interaction using a quantized coherent laser state with arbitrary photon number. We obtain a light-electron wave function which is a closed-form solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). This wave function provides information about the quantum optical features of the interaction not accessible by semi-classical theories. With this approach we can reveal the quantum optical properties of high harmonic generation (HHG) process in gases by measuring the photon statistics of the transmitted infrared (IR) laser radiation. This work can lead to novel experiments in high-resolution spectroscopy in extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and attosecond science without the need to measure the XUV light, while it can pave the way for the development of intense non-classical light sources. PMID:27601191

    • Quantum optical signatures in strong-field laser physics: Infrared photon counting in high-order-harmonic generation.

      PubMed

      Gonoskov, I A; Tsatrafyllis, N; Kominis, I K; Tzallas, P

      2016-01-01

      We analytically describe the strong-field light-electron interaction using a quantized coherent laser state with arbitrary photon number. We obtain a light-electron wave function which is a closed-form solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). This wave function provides information about the quantum optical features of the interaction not accessible by semi-classical theories. With this approach we can reveal the quantum optical properties of high harmonic generation (HHG) process in gases by measuring the photon statistics of the transmitted infrared (IR) laser radiation. This work can lead to novel experiments in high-resolution spectroscopy in extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and attosecond science without the need to measure the XUV light, while it can pave the way for the development of intense non-classical light sources. PMID:27601191

    • Symbolic vector analysis in plasma physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Qin, H.; Tang, W. M.; Rewoldt, G.

      1999-01-01

      Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the underlying coordinate systems. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. Besides the basic vector analysis functions, the package provides asymptotic capabilities, 2D vector analysis notation, and a simple interface for users to define their own coordinate systems. These features will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis in complicated coordinate systems is required. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

    • M-shaped asymmetric nonlinear oscillator for broadband vibration energy harvesting: Harmonic balance analysis and experimental validation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Leadenham, S.; Erturk, A.

      2014-11-01

      validated experimentally, analytically, and numerically. As compared to the 3 dB bandwidth of the corresponding linear system with the same linear damping ratio, the M-shaped oscillator offers 3200, 5600, and 8900 percent bandwidth enhancement at the root-mean-square base excitation levels of 0.03g, 0.05g, and 0.07g, respectively. The M-shaped configuration can easily be exploited in piezoelectric and electromagnetic energy harvesting as well as their hybrid combinations due to the existence of both large strain and kinetic energy regions. A demonstrative case study is given for electromagnetic energy harvesting, revealing the importance of higher harmonics and the need for multi-term harmonic balance analysis for predicting the electrical power output accurately.

    • Application of spherical cap harmonic analysis to plasma convection mapping at high latitudes

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fiori, Robyn A. D.

      The primary goal of this work is to develop, validate, and apply a new technique for mapping the high-latitude ionospheric plasma flow (convection pattern) from velocity measurements routinely performed by the Super Dual Auroral Radar (SuperDARN) network of high frequency (HF) radars. The currently employed FIT technique relies heavily on assumptions that are not always justifiable. A spherical cap harmonic analysis (SCHA) technique, traditionally used in handling geomagnetic field data, is introduced for mapping the high-latitude ionospheric convection pattern based on SuperDARN velocity measurements. The SCHA technique does not require contributions from a statistical model which is dependent on the magnitude and orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and does not confine the high-latitude flows to a specific region based on magnetic latitude. Several steps are taken to validate the SCHA convection mapping technique. First, it is demonstrated that the SCHA technique can reproduce an arbitrary pattern based on simulated data modified by a random noise component. SCHA maps of the global scale plasma flow pattern for various IMF conditions are next shown to be consistent with expectations for patterns reported in the literature. SCHA maps are compared to ion drifts measured by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites and with convection vectors inferred by merging SuperDARN measurements at beam crossings. The SCHA technique is shown to perform comparably to the FIT technique over regions of good data coverage. The SCHA technique provides a better representation of the ionospheric convection pattern for regions with limited data coverage and over regions of highly variable flow, particularly near the equatorward edge of the mapping region. SCHA analysis of SuperDARN data to create convection maps is expanded to include magnetometer measurements of the perturbation magnetic field. Plasma flow is determined from magnetometer data

    • Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

      SciTech Connect

      Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

      1997-10-01

      Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

    • Modeling Stretching Modes of Common Organic Molecules with the Quantum Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator: An Undergraduate Vibrational Spectroscopy Laboratory Exercise

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Parnis, J. Mark; Thompson, Matthew G. K.

      2004-01-01

      An introductory undergraduate physical organic chemistry exercise that introduces the harmonic oscillator's use in vibrational spectroscopy is developed. The analysis and modeling exercise begins with the students calculating the stretching modes of common organic molecules with the help of the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator (QMHO) model.

    • The kinematical analysis of proper motions and radial velocities of stars by means of the vector spherical harmonics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Tsvetkov, A.; Vityazev, . V.; , Kumkova I. I.

      2009-09-01

      The paper describes the application of the 3-D vector spherical harmonics (henceforth VSH) to the investigation of stellar kinematics. The VSH technique is suitable for present and future catalogues which contain all three components of velocity vector: proper motions and radial velocities. In general, the VSH allows to detect all the systematic components in the stellar velocity field and does not depend on any model. If some physical model is used, the VSH not only determines the parameters of the model, but detects the systematic components which are beyond the model. The application of the VSH to the Hipparcos data complimented with radial velocities discovers the systematic components which are beyond the linear Ogorodnikov-milne model.

    • Analysis and measurement of the modulation transfer function of harmonic shear wave induced phase encoding imaging.

      PubMed

      McAleavey, Stephen A

      2014-05-01

      Shear wave induced phase encoding (SWIPE) imaging generates ultrasound backscatter images of tissue-like elastic materials by using traveling shear waves to encode the lateral position of the scatters in the phase of the received echo. In contrast to conventional ultrasound B-scan imaging, SWIPE offers the potential advantages of image formation without beam focusing or steering from a single transducer element, lateral resolution independent of aperture size, and the potential to achieve relatively high lateral resolution with low frequency ultrasound. Here a Fourier series description of the phase modulated echo signal is developed, demonstrating that echo harmonics at multiples of the shear wave frequency reveal target k-space data at identical multiples of the shear wavenumber. Modulation transfer functions of SWIPE imaging systems are calculated for maximum shear wave acceleration and maximum shear constraints, and compared with a conventionally focused aperture. The relative signal-to-noise ratio of the SWIPE method versus a conventionally focused aperture is found through these calculations. Reconstructions of wire targets in a gelatin phantom using 1 and 3.5 MHz ultrasound and a cylindrical shear wave source are presented, generated from the fundamental and second harmonic of the shear wave modulation frequency, demonstrating weak dependence of lateral resolution with ultrasound frequency. PMID:24815265

    • Analysis and measurement of the modulation transfer function of harmonic shear wave induced phase encoding imaging

      PubMed Central

      McAleavey, Stephen A.

      2014-01-01

      Shear wave induced phase encoding (SWIPE) imaging generates ultrasound backscatter images of tissue-like elastic materials by using traveling shear waves to encode the lateral position of the scatters in the phase of the received echo. In contrast to conventional ultrasound B-scan imaging, SWIPE offers the potential advantages of image formation without beam focusing or steering from a single transducer element, lateral resolution independent of aperture size, and the potential to achieve relatively high lateral resolution with low frequency ultrasound. Here a Fourier series description of the phase modulated echo signal is developed, demonstrating that echo harmonics at multiples of the shear wave frequency reveal target k-space data at identical multiples of the shear wavenumber. Modulation transfer functions of SWIPE imaging systems are calculated for maximum shear wave acceleration and maximum shear constraints, and compared with a conventionally focused aperture. The relative signal-to-noise ratio of the SWIPE method versus a conventionally focused aperture is found through these calculations. Reconstructions of wire targets in a gelatin phantom using 1 and 3.5 MHz ultrasound and a cylindrical shear wave source are presented, generated from the fundamental and second harmonic of the shear wave modulation frequency, demonstrating weak dependence of lateral resolution with ultrasound frequency. PMID:24815265

    • Optimal analysis on the performance of an irreversible harmonic quantum Brayton refrigeration cycle.

      PubMed

      Lin, Bihong; Chen, Jincan

      2003-11-01

      An irreversible model of a quantum refrigeration cycle working with many noninteracting harmonic oscillators is established. The refrigeration cycle consists of two adiabatic and two constant-frequency processes. The general performance characteristics of the cycle are investigated, based on the quantum master equation and the semigroup approach. The expressions for several important performance parameters such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate, power input, and rate of entropy production are derived. By using numerical solutions, the cooling rate of the refrigeration cycle subject to finite cycle duration is optimized. The maximum cooling rate and the corresponding parameters are calculated numerically. The optimal region of the coefficient of performance and the optimal ranges of temperatures of the working substance and times spent on the two constant-frequency processes are determined. Moreover, the optimal performance of the cycle in the high-temperature limit is compared with that of a classical Brayton refrigerator working with an ideal gas. The results obtained here show that in the high-temperature limit a harmonic quantum Brayton cycle may be equivalent to a classical Brayton cycle. PMID:14682856

  1. Theoretical analysis of dynamic chemical imaging with lasers using high-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Van-Hoang Le; Anh-Thu Le; Xie Ruihua; Lin, C. D.

    2007-07-15

    We report theoretical investigations of the tomographic procedure suggested by Itatani et al. [Nature (London) 432, 867 (2004)] for reconstructing highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) using high-order harmonic generation (HHG). Due to the limited range of harmonics from the plateau region, we found that even under the most favorable assumptions, it is still very difficult to obtain accurate HOMO wave functions using the tomographic procedure, but the symmetry of the HOMOs and the internuclear separation between the atoms can be accurately extracted, especially when lasers of longer wavelengths are used to generate the HHG. Since the tomographic procedure relies on approximating the continuum wave functions in the recombination process by plane waves, the method can no longer be applied upon the improvement of the theory. For future chemical imaging with lasers, we suggest that one may want to focus on how to extract the positions of atoms in molecules instead, by developing an iterative method such that the theoretically calculated macroscopic HHG spectra can best fit the experimental HHG data.

  2. Autoregressive harmonic analysis of the earth's polar motion using homogeneous International Latitude Service data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.

    1983-01-01

    The homogeneous set of 80-year-long (1900-1979) International Latitude Service (ILS) polar motion data is analyzed using the autoregressive method (Chao and Gilbert, 1980), which resolves and produces estimates for the complex frequency (or frequency and Q) and complex amplitude (or amplitude and phase) of each harmonic component in the data. The ILS data support the multiple-component hypothesis of the Chandler wobble. It is found that the Chandler wobble can be adequately modeled as a linear combination of four (coherent) harmonic components, each of which represents a steady, nearly circular, prograde motion. The four-component Chandler wobble model 'explains' the apparent phase reversal during 1920-1940 and the pre-1950 empirical period-amplitude relation. The annual wobble is shown to be rather stationary over the years both in amplitude and in phase, and no evidence is found to support the large variations reported by earlier investigations. The Markowitz wobble is found to be marginally retrograde and appears to have a complicated behavior which cannot be resolved because of the shortness of the data set.

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis of Harmonic technology compared with conventional techniques in mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery with lymphadenectomy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hang; Clymer, Jeffrey W; Ferko, Nicole C; Patel, Leena; Soleas, Ireena M; Cameron, Chris G; Hinoul, Piet

    2016-01-01

    Background Mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) are important treatment options for breast cancer patients. A previous meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of certain complications can be reduced with the Harmonic technology compared with conventional methods in mastectomy. However, the meta-analysis did not include studies of BCS patients and focused on a subset of surgical complications. The objective of this study was to compare Harmonic technology and conventional techniques for a range of clinical outcomes and complications in both mastectomy and BCS patients, including axillary lymph node dissection. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing Harmonic technology and conventional methods in breast cancer surgery. Outcome measures included blood loss, drainage volume, total complications, seroma, necrosis, wound infections, ecchymosis, hematoma, hospital length of stay, and operating time. Risk of bias was analyzed for all studies. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models for mean differences of continuous variables and a fixed-effects model for risk ratios of dichotomous variables. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Across surgery types, compared to conventional techniques, Harmonic technology reduced total complications by 52% (P=0.002), seroma by 46% (P<0.0001), necrosis by 49% (P=0.04), postoperative chest wall drainage by 46% (P=0.0005), blood loss by 38% (P=0.0005), and length of stay by 22% (P=0.007). Although benefits generally appeared greatest in mastectomy patients with lymph node dissection, Harmonic technology showed significant reductions in complications in the BCS study subgroup. Conclusion In this meta-analysis of both mastectomy and BCS procedures, the use of Harmonic technology reduced the risk of most complications by about half across breast cancer surgery patients. These benefits may be due to superior hemostatic capabilities of Harmonic

  4. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  5. A spherical harmonics intensity model for 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci.

    PubMed

    Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl

    2016-08-01

    The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci. PMID:27037463

  6. Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, Ara; Tsai, Halley F.; Hayrapetyan, Gor; Chen, Wei-Liang; Chen, Yang-Fang; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Shean-Jen; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2013-03-01

    We present an automated and systematic two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform (2D-FFT) approach to analyze collagen fiber organization through the use of second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Average orientations of individual domains and Ising-like order parameters introduced to characterize the correlation between orientations of adjacent domains may be used to quantitatively characterize fibrous tissues. Our approach was applied to analyze tissues including rat tail tendon, mouse skin, bovine corneas, and human corneas. We also show that collagen fiber organization in normal and keratokonus human corneas may be distinguished. The current approach may be used for the quantitative differentiation of SHG collagen fiber morphology in different tissues and may be applied for diagnostic purposes.

  7. In pixel analysis of molecular structure with Stokes vector resolved second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Nirmal; Xiang, Lu Yun; Qiu, Jianjun; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2014-02-01

    We report on measurements and characterization of polarization properties of Second Harmonic (SH) signals using a four-channel photon counting based Stokes polarimeter from type I collagen and starch granules. In this way, the critical polarization parameters including the degree of polarization (DOP), the degree of linear polarization (DOLP), and the degree of circular polarization (DOCP), are extracted from the reconstructed Stokes vector based SH images in a pixel-by-pixel manner. The measurements are further extended to determine the molecular structure and orientation of the samples by varying the polarization states of the incident light and recording the resulting Stokes parameters of the SH signal. The combination of SHG microscopy and Stokes polarimeter hence makes a powerful tool to investigate the structural order of starch granules under water and heating environment.

  8. A fiber approach to harmonic analysis of unfolded higher-spin field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iazeolla, C.; Sundell, P.

    2008-10-01

    In Vasiliev's unfolded formulation of higher-spin dynamics the standard fields are embedded on-shell into covariantly constant master fields valued in Lorentz-covariant slices of the star-product algebra Script A of functions on the singleton phase space. Correspondingly, the harmonic expansion is taken over compact slices of Script A that are unitarizable in a rescaled trace-norm rather than the standard Killing norm. Motivated by the higher-derivative nature of the theory, we examine indecomposable unitarizable Harish-Chandra modules consisting of standard massless particles plus linearized runaway solutions. This extension arises naturally in the above fiber approach upon realizing compact-weight states as non-polynomial analytic functions in Script A.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Induced Current in Human Head Exposed to Nonuniform Magnetic Field Including Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarao, Hiroo; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Isaka, Katsuo

    In this paper, induced currents in an anatomical head model exposed to a non-uniform ELF magnetic field (B-field) including harmonics are numerically calculated, and are discussed based on the basic restriction established by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). A casual hair dryer of 100V and 1.2kW is chosen as a typical source of the non-uniform B-field including both the fundamental and second harmonic components. The B-field distribution around the hair dryer is estimated by using the 3-orthogonal magnetic dipole moments, which are derived from a couple of measured values around it. The high-resolution human head model used is constructed based on the MRI images of a real human, and consists of six kinds of tissues (bone, brain, eyeballs, muscle, skin and blood). So-called impedance method is used for the numerical calculation of the induced current. The numerical results show that the maximum values of the induced current of 17µA/m2, for the 60Hz component, which is about 1/120 of the ICNIRP basic restriction appear in the muscle near the eyeball when the hair dryer is used from the side of the head model, and the averaged current in the eyeballs that have the highest conductivity is the highest among the six tissues. It is also demonstrated that the induced current due to the 120Hz B-field becomes comparable to the 60Hz current although the magnitude of the 120Hz B-field is much smaller than that of the 60Hz B-field.

  10. A study of the application of power-spectral methods of generalized harmonic analysis to gust loads on airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Press, Harry; Mazelsky, Bernard

    1954-01-01

    The applicability of some results from the theory of generalized harmonic analysis (or power-spectral analysis) to the analysis of gust loads on airplanes in continuous rough air is examined. The general relations for linear systems between power spectrums of a random input disturbance and an output response are used to relate the spectrum of airplane load in rough air to the spectrum of atmospheric gust velocity. The power spectrum of loads is shown to provide a measure of the load intensity in terms of the standard deviation (root mean square) of the load distribution for an airplane in flight through continuous rough air. For the case of a load output having a normal distribution, which appears from experimental evidence to apply to homogeneous rough air, the standard deviation is shown to describe the probability distribution of loads or the proportion of total time that the load has given values. Thus, for airplane in flight through homogeneous rough air, the probability distribution of loads may be determined from a power-spectral analysis. In order to illustrate the application of power-spectral analysis to gust-load analysis and to obtain an insight into the relations between loads and airplane gust-response characteristics, two selected series of calculations are presented. The results indicate that both methods of analysis yield results that are consistent to a first approximation.

  11. Spherical harmonic representation of the main geomagnetic field for world charting and investigations of some fundamental problems of physics and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barraclough, D. R.; Hide, R.; Leaton, B. R.; Lowes, F. J.; Malin, S. R. C.; Wilson, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Progress in the harmonic analysis of MAGSAT data is reported. Single-day data sets were subdivided into information on the sunrise side of the Earth and information on the sunset side of the Earth. Data for the main and external fields each demonstrate a clear and consistent systematic difference between the sets of data which was determined to be, due to ionospheric currents which differ from the sunset to the sunrise terminator. A toroidal field was analyzed for and determined to be an apparent toroidal field resulting from electric currents concentrated in the two terminators. Progressive elimination of auroral zone data demonstrates that the information presented does not arise from complications due to Birkeland currents.

  12. Global QCD Analysis and Hadron Collider Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, W.-K.

    2005-03-22

    The role of global QCD analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in collider physics at the Tevatron and LHC is surveyed. Current status of PDF analyses are reviewed, emphasizing the uncertainties and the open issues. The stability of NLO QCD global analysis and its prediction on 'standard candle' W/Z cross sections at hadron colliders are discussed. The importance of the precise measurement of various W/Z cross sections at the Tevatron in advancing our knowledge of PDFs, hence in enhancing the capabilities of making significant progress in W mass and top quark parameter measurements, as well as the discovery potentials of Higgs and New Physics at the Tevatron and LHC, is emphasized.

  13. Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics

    SciTech Connect

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Kamezawa, Hidemi; Jin, Ze; Nakamoto, Takahiro; Soufi, Mazen

    2015-09-30

    Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics have been constructed for increasing the accuracy of medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy in radiological physics. Computational image analysis has been established based on applied mathematics, physics, and engineering. This review paper will introduce how computational image analysis is useful in radiation therapy with respect to radiological physics.

  14. Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Kamezawa, Hidemi; Jin, Ze; Nakamoto, Takahiro; Soufi, Mazen

    2015-09-01

    Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics have been constructed for increasing the accuracy of medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy in radiological physics. Computational image analysis has been established based on applied mathematics, physics, and engineering. This review paper will introduce how computational image analysis is useful in radiation therapy with respect to radiological physics.

  15. Analysis of open loop higher harmonic control at high airspeeds on a modern four-bladed articulated rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Leyland, Jane

    1991-01-01

    The effects of open loop higher harmonic control (HHC) on rotor hub loads, performance, and push rod loads of a Sikorsky S-76 helicopter rotor at high airspeeds (up to 200 knots) and moderate lift (10,000 lbs) were studied analytically. The analysis was performed as part of a wind tunnel pre-test prediction and preparation procedure, as well as to provide analytical results for post-test correlation efforts. The test associated with this study is to be concluded in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) at the NASA Ames Research Center. The results from this analytical study show that benefits from HHC can be achieved at high airspeeds. These results clear the way for conducting (with the requirement of safe pushrod loads) an open loop HHC test a high airspeeds in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel using an S-76 rotor as the test article.

  16. Analysis of Harmonic Vibration of Cable-Stayed Footbridge under the Influence of Changes of the Cables Tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakos, Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents numerical analysis of harmonically excited vibration of a cable-stayed footbridge caused by a load function simulating crouching (squats) while changing the static tension in chosen cables. The intentional synchronized motion (e.g., squats) of a single person or group of persons on the footbridge with a frequency close to the natural frequency of the structure may lead to the resonant vibrations with large amplitudes. The appropriate tension changes in some cables cause detuning of resonance on account of stiffness changes of structures and hence detuning in the natural frequency that is close to the excitation frequency. The research was carried out on a 3D computer model of a real structure - a cable-stayed steel footbridge in Leśnica, a quarter of Wrocław, Poland, with the help of standard computer software based on FEM COSMOS/M System.

  17. Design, fabrication, and calibration of a cryogenic search-coil array for harmonic analysis of quadrupole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.I.; Barale, P.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Nelson, D.H.; O'Neill, J.W.; Schafer, R.V.; Taylor, C.E.

    1987-09-01

    A cryogenic search-coil array has been fabricated at LBL for harmonic error analysis of SSC model quadrupoles. It consists of three triplets of coils; the center-coil triplet is 10 cm long, and the end coil triplets are 70 cm long. Design objectives are a high bucking ratio for the dipole and quadrupole signals and utility at cryogenic operating currents (approx.6 kA) with sufficient sensitivity for use at room-temperature currents (approx.10 A). the design and fabrication are described. Individual coils are mechanically measured to +-5 ..mu..m, and their magnetic areas measured to 0.05%. A computer program has been developed to predict the quadrupole and dipole bucking ratios from the mechanical and magnetic measurements. The calibration procedure and accuracy of the array are specified. Results of measurements of SSC model quadrupoles are presented. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  18. Harmonic analysis approach to the 'TunneLadder' - A modified Karp circuit for millimeter-wave TWTA's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Palmer, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    A field approach to the summed harmonic analysis of the TunneLadder structure, or modified forward-wave Karp circuit, is developed by combining TM(01) and TE(11) modes. Results suggest the suitability of this structure as a high-impedance, about 1-% bandwidth circuit, millimeter-wave forward-wave-type amplifier that is voltage tunable over about a 5-% frequency range and has excellent power handling ability. Theory gives good agreement with experimental results obtained by Karp in omega-beta dispersion and predicts qualitatively the appearances of the antisymmetric mode discussed and of the so called Hightron mode that was discussed earlier in White, Enderby and Birdsall (1964), and Enderby (1964), in addition to the desired symmetric mode.

  19. Harmonic analysis approach to the 'TunneLadder' - A modified Karp circuit for millimeter-wave TWTA's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Palmer, R. W.

    1982-05-01

    A field approach to the summed harmonic analysis of the TunneLadder structure, or modified forward-wave Karp circuit, is developed by combining TM(01) and TE(11) modes. Results suggest the suitability of this structure as a high-impedance, about 1-% bandwidth circuit, millimeter-wave forward-wave-type amplifier that is voltage tunable over about a 5-% frequency range and has excellent power handling ability. Theory gives good agreement with experimental results obtained by Karp in omega-beta dispersion and predicts qualitatively the appearances of the antisymmetric mode discussed and of the so called Hightron mode that was discussed earlier in White, Enderby and Birdsall (1964), and Enderby (1964), in addition to the desired symmetric mode.

  20. Numerical analysis of second harmonic generation for THz-wave in a photonic crystal waveguide using a nonlinear FDTD algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kyosuke; Tanabe, Tadao; Oyama, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    We have presented a numerical analysis to describe the behavior of a second harmonic generation (SHG) in THz regime by taking into account for both linear and nonlinear optical susceptibility. We employed a nonlinear finite-difference-time-domain (nonlinear FDTD) method to simulate SHG output characteristics in THz photonic crystal waveguide based on semi insulating gallium phosphide crystal. Unique phase matching conditions originated from photonic band dispersions with low group velocity are appeared, resulting in SHG output characteristics. This numerical study provides spectral information of SHG output in THz PC waveguide. THz PC waveguides is one of the active nonlinear optical devices in THz regime, and nonlinear FDTD method is a powerful tool to design photonic nonlinear THz devices.

  1. Determining fine-structure parameters for tungsten powder and filings by harmonic analysis of x-ray diffraction lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchik, A.E.; Moshkina, T.I.; Osmakov, A.S.

    1986-12-01

    Evidence has been accumulating on determining fine-structure parameters by line shape harmonic analysis (LSHA) although many aspects remain unresolved. In this paper, the authors discuss the interpretations afresh, on-going improvements in x-ray techniques, in recording methods, and in processing the data, as well as in programs for determining the parameters by LSHA. The authors selected tungsten because of its bcc lattice, whose diffraction peaks are widely separated, which almost completely rules out their overlapping even if there is considerable broadening, such as is produced by large plastic strain. The material was produced in two ways: by firing a tungsten single crystal and by grinding VChDK tungsten powder in a laboratory vibration mill for 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 h.

  2. Full sky harmonic analysis hints at large ultra-high energy cosmic ray deflections

    SciTech Connect

    Tinyakov, P. G. Urban, F. R.

    2015-03-15

    The full-sky multipole coefficients of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been measured for the first time by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array collaborations using a joint data set with E > 10 EeV. We calculate these harmonic coefficients in the model where UHECR are protons and sources trace the local matter distribution, and compare our results with observations. We find that the expected power for low multipoles (dipole and quadrupole, in particular) is sytematically higher than in the data: the observed flux is too isotropic. We then investigate to which degree our predictions are influenced by UHECR deflections in the regular Galactic magnetic field. It turns out that the UHECR power spectrum coefficients C{sub l} are quite insensitive to the effects of the Galactic magnetic field, so it is unlikely that the discordance can be reconciled by tuning the Galactic magnetic field model. On the contrary, a sizeable fraction of uniformly distributed flux (representing for instance an admixture of heavy nuclei with considerably larger deflections) can bring simulations and observations to an accord.

  3. Thermodynamical analysis of a quantum heat engine based on harmonic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Insinga, Andrea; Andresen, Bjarne; Salamon, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Many models of heat engines have been studied with the tools of finite-time thermodynamics and an ensemble of independent quantum systems as the working fluid. Because of their convenient analytical properties, harmonic oscillators are the most frequently used example of a quantum system. We analyze different thermodynamical aspects with the final aim of the optimization of the performance of the engine in terms of the mechanical power provided during a finite-time Otto cycle. The heat exchange mechanism between the working fluid and the thermal reservoirs is provided by the Lindblad formalism. We describe an analytical method to find the limit cycle and give conditions for a stable limit cycle to exist. We explore the power production landscape as the duration of the four branches of the cycle are varied for short times, intermediate times, and special frictionless times. For short times we find a periodic structure with atolls of purely dissipative operation surrounding islands of divergent behavior where, rather than tending to a limit cycle, the working fluid accumulates more and more energy. For frictionless times the periodic structure is gone and we come very close to the global optimal operation. The global optimum is found and interestingly comes with a particular value of the cycle time. PMID:27575089

  4. Harmonic analysis of irradiation asymmetry for cylindrical implosions driven by high-frequency rotating ion beams.

    PubMed

    Bret, A; Piriz, A R; Tahir, N

    2012-03-01

    Cylindrical implosions driven by intense heavy ion beams should be instrumental in the near future for study of high-energy-density matter. By rotating the beam by means of a high-frequency wobbler, it should be possible to deposit energy in the outer layers of a cylinder, compressing the material deposited in its core. The beam's temporal profile should, however, generate an inevitable irradiation asymmetry likely to feed the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) during the implosion phase. In this paper, we compute the Fourier components of the target irradiation in order to make the connection with previous works on the RTI performed in this setting. Implementing one- and two-dimensional beam models, we find that these components can be expressed exactly in terms of the Fourier transform of the temporal beam profile. If T is the beam duration and Ω its rotation frequency, "magic products" ΩT can be identified which cancel the first harmonic of the deposited density, resulting in an improved irradiation symmetry. PMID:22587191

  5. Thermodynamical analysis of a quantum heat engine based on harmonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insinga, Andrea; Andresen, Bjarne; Salamon, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Many models of heat engines have been studied with the tools of finite-time thermodynamics and an ensemble of independent quantum systems as the working fluid. Because of their convenient analytical properties, harmonic oscillators are the most frequently used example of a quantum system. We analyze different thermodynamical aspects with the final aim of the optimization of the performance of the engine in terms of the mechanical power provided during a finite-time Otto cycle. The heat exchange mechanism between the working fluid and the thermal reservoirs is provided by the Lindblad formalism. We describe an analytical method to find the limit cycle and give conditions for a stable limit cycle to exist. We explore the power production landscape as the duration of the four branches of the cycle are varied for short times, intermediate times, and special frictionless times. For short times we find a periodic structure with atolls of purely dissipative operation surrounding islands of divergent behavior where, rather than tending to a limit cycle, the working fluid accumulates more and more energy. For frictionless times the periodic structure is gone and we come very close to the global optimal operation. The global optimum is found and interestingly comes with a particular value of the cycle time.

  6. Application of functional analysis to perturbation theory of differential equations. [nonlinear perturbation of the harmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, V. M.; Bond, V. B.

    1980-01-01

    The deviation of the solution of the differential equation y' = f(t, y), y(O) = y sub O from the solution of the perturbed system z' = f(t, z) + g(t, z), z(O) = z sub O was investigated for the case where f and g are continuous functions on I x R sup n into R sup n, where I = (o, a) or I = (o, infinity). These functions are assumed to satisfy the Lipschitz condition in the variable z. The space Lip(I) of all such functions with suitable norms forms a Banach space. By introducing a suitable norm in the space of continuous functions C(I), introducing the problem can be reduced to an equivalent problem in terminology of operators in such spaces. A theorem on existence and uniqueness of the solution is presented by means of Banach space technique. Norm estimates on the rate of growth of such solutions are found. As a consequence, estimates of deviation of a solution due to perturbation are obtained. Continuity of the solution on the initial data and on the perturbation is established. A nonlinear perturbation of the harmonic oscillator is considered a perturbation of equations of the restricted three body problem linearized at libration point.

  7. Analysis of second-harmonic-generation microscopy in a mouse model of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jennifer M; Rice, Photini F; Marion, Samuel L; Brewer, Molly A; Davis, John R; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J; Utzinger, Urs; Hoyer, Patricia B; Barton, Jennifer K

    2012-07-01

    Second-harmonic-generation (SHG) imaging of mouse ovaries ex vivo was used to detect collagen structure changes accompanying ovarian cancer development. Dosing with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene resulted in histologically confirmed cases of normal, benign abnormality, dysplasia, and carcinoma. Parameters for each SHG image were calculated using the Fourier transform matrix and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Cancer versus normal and cancer versus all other diagnoses showed the greatest separation using the parameters derived from power in the highest-frequency region and GLCM energy. Mixed effects models showed that these parameters were significantly different between cancer and normal (P<0.008). Images were classified with a support vector machine, using 25% of the data for training and 75% for testing. Utilizing all images with signal greater than the noise level, cancer versus not-cancer specimens were classified with 81.2% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity, and cancer versus normal specimens were classified with 77.8% sensitivity and 79.3% specificity. Utilizing only images with greater than of 75% of the field of view containing signal improved sensitivity and specificity for cancer versus normal to 81.5% and 81.1%. These results suggest that using SHG to visualize collagen structure in ovaries could help with early cancer detection. PMID:22894485

  8. Analysis of second-harmonic-generation microscopy in a mouse model of ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Jennifer M.; Rice, Photini F.; Marion, Samuel L.; Brewer, Molly A.; Davis, John R.; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J.; Utzinger, Urs; Hoyer, Patricia B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Second-harmonic-generation (SHG) imaging of mouse ovaries ex vivo was used to detect collagen structure changes accompanying ovarian cancer development. Dosing with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene resulted in histologically confirmed cases of normal, benign abnormality, dysplasia, and carcinoma. Parameters for each SHG image were calculated using the Fourier transform matrix and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Cancer versus normal and cancer versus all other diagnoses showed the greatest separation using the parameters derived from power in the highest-frequency region and GLCM energy. Mixed effects models showed that these parameters were significantly different between cancer and normal (P<0.008). Images were classified with a support vector machine, using 25% of the data for training and 75% for testing. Utilizing all images with signal greater than the noise level, cancer versus not-cancer specimens were classified with 81.2% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity, and cancer versus normal specimens were classified with 77.8% sensitivity and 79.3% specificity. Utilizing only images with greater than of 75% of the field of view containing signal improved sensitivity and specificity for cancer versus normal to 81.5% and 81.1%. These results suggest that using SHG to visualize collagen structure in ovaries could help with early cancer detection. PMID:22894485

  9. Analysis of second-harmonic-generation microscopy in a mouse model of ovarian carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jennifer M.; Rice, Photini F.; Marion, Samuel L.; Brewer, Molly A.; Davis, John R.; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J.; Utzinger, Urs; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2012-07-01

    Second-harmonic-generation (SHG) imaging of mouse ovaries ex vivo was used to detect collagen structure changes accompanying ovarian cancer development. Dosing with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene resulted in histologically confirmed cases of normal, benign abnormality, dysplasia, and carcinoma. Parameters for each SHG image were calculated using the Fourier transform matrix and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Cancer versus normal and cancer versus all other diagnoses showed the greatest separation using the parameters derived from power in the highest-frequency region and GLCM energy. Mixed effects models showed that these parameters were significantly different between cancer and normal (P<0.008). Images were classified with a support vector machine, using 25% of the data for training and 75% for testing. Utilizing all images with signal greater than the noise level, cancer versus not-cancer specimens were classified with 81.2% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity, and cancer versus normal specimens were classified with 77.8% sensitivity and 79.3% specificity. Utilizing only images with greater than of 75% of the field of view containing signal improved sensitivity and specificity for cancer versus normal to 81.5% and 81.1%. These results suggest that using SHG to visualize collagen structure in ovaries could help with early cancer detection.

  10. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Analysis of Collagen Arrangement in Human Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Choul Yong; Lee, Jimmy K.; Chuck, Roy S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the horizontal arrangement of human corneal collagen bundles by using second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. Methods Human corneas were imaged with an inverted two photon excitation fluorescence microscope. The excitation laser (Ti:Sapphire) was tuned to 850 nm. Backscatter signals of SHG were collected through a 425/30-nm bandpass emission filter. Multiple, consecutive, and overlapping image stacks (z-stacks) were acquired to generate three dimensional data sets. ImageJ software was used to analyze the arrangement pattern (irregularity) of collagen bundles at each image plane. Results Collagen bundles in the corneal lamellae demonstrated a complex layout merging and splitting within a single lamellar plane. The patterns were significantly different in the superficial and limbal cornea when compared with deep and central regions. Collagen bundles were smaller in the superficial layer and larger in deep lamellae. Conclusions By using SHG imaging, the horizontal arrangement of corneal collagen bundles was elucidated at different depths and focal regions of the human cornea. PMID:26313297

  11. Numerical and experimental analysis of harmonic distortion in a moving-coil loudspeaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun; Wang, Chi-Chang; Shiah, Y. C.; Huang, Jin H.

    2013-07-01

    The nonlinear effect of a moving-coil loudspeaker, originating from its magnetic coupling factor and the system's stiffness, presents a significant impact on the sound quality. For improving the sound quality, this article proposes an approach to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) by adjusting the initial position of its voice-coil. First, a mathematical model involving the nonlinearities of force factor, mechanical stiffness, and inductance of voice coil is constructed and then solved using a novel algorithm called the parameter spline difference method (PSD). In the course of pursuing reduction of the corresponding THD of a typical moving-coil loudspeaker, the model was used to analyze the nonlinearity of the THD, revealing itself as a nonlinear function of force factor, the system's stiffness and inductance of voice coil. For various initial positions of the voice-coil, the coupled nonlinear differential equations were solved using the PSD to yield corresponding sound pressure level and THD. To our satisfaction, the loudspeaker driver with its voice-coil optimally tuned for the initial position turns out to have a THD reduction of 10%, which is also consistent with our experimental observations.

  12. BESIU Physical Analysis on Hadoop Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jing; Zang, Dongsong; Lei, Xiaofeng; Li, Qiang; Sun, Gongxing

    2014-06-01

    In the past 20 years, computing cluster has been widely used for High Energy Physics data processing. The jobs running on the traditional cluster with a Data-to-Computing structure, have to read large volumes of data via the network to the computing nodes for analysis, thereby making the I/O latency become a bottleneck of the whole system. The new distributed computing technology based on the MapReduce programming model has many advantages, such as high concurrency, high scalability and high fault tolerance, and it can benefit us in dealing with Big Data. This paper brings the idea of using MapReduce model to do BESIII physical analysis, and presents a new data analysis system structure based on Hadoop platform, which not only greatly improve the efficiency of data analysis, but also reduces the cost of system building. Moreover, this paper establishes an event pre-selection system based on the event level metadata(TAGs) database to optimize the data analyzing procedure.

  13. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  14. Spatial Harmonic Decomposition as a tool for unsteady flow phenomena analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duparchy, A.; Guillozet, J.; De Colombel, T.; Bornard, L.

    2014-03-01

    Hydropower is already the largest single renewable electricity source today but its further development will face new deployment constraints such as large-scale projects in emerging economies and the growth of intermittent renewable energy technologies. The potential role of hydropower as a grid stabilizer leads to operating hydro power plants in "off-design" zones. As a result, new methods of analyzing associated unsteady phenomena are needed to improve the design of hydraulic turbines. The key idea of the development is to compute a spatial description of a phenomenon by using a combination from several sensor signals. The spatial harmonic decomposition (SHD) extends the concept of so-called synchronous and asynchronous pulsations by projecting sensor signals on a linearly independent set of a modal scheme. This mathematical approach is very generic as it can be applied on any linear distribution of a scalar quantity defined on a closed curve. After a mathematical description of SHD, this paper will discuss the impact of instrumentation and provide tools to understand SHD signals. Then, as an example of a practical application, SHD is applied on a model test measurement in order to capture and describe dynamic pressure fields. Particularly, the spatial description of the phenomena provides new tools to separate the part of pressure fluctuations that contribute to output power instability or mechanical stresses. The study of the machine stability in partial load operating range in turbine mode or the comparison between the gap pressure field and radial thrust behavior during turbine brake operation are both relevant illustrations of SHD contribution.

  15. Fundamental analysis and ex vivo validation of thermal lesion mapping using harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Gary Y.; Luo, Jianwen; Maleke, Caroline; Vappou, Jonathan; Marquet, Fabrice; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2012-10-01

    Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) is a novel high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy monitoring method with feasibilities demonstrated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Its principle is based on Amplitude-modulated (AM) - Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI), an oscillatory radiation force used for imaging the tissue mechanical response during thermal ablation. In this study, a theoretical framework of HMIFU is presented, comprising a customized nonlinear wave propagation model, a finite-element (FE) analysis module, and an image-formation model. The objective of this study is to develop such a framework in order to 1) assess the fundamental performance of HMIFU in detecting HIFU lesions based on the change in tissue apparent elasticity, i.e., the increasing Young's modulus, and the HIFU lesion size with respect to the HIFU exposure time and 2) validate the simulation findings ex vivo. The same HMI and HMIFU parameters as in the experimental studies were used, i.e., 4.5-MHz HIFU frequency and 25-Hz AM frequency. For a lesion-to-background Young's modulus ratio of 3, 6, and 9, the estimated HMI displacement ratios were equal to 1.65, 3.19, 4.59, respectively. In experiments, the HMI displacement followed a similar increasing trend of 1.19, 1.28, 1.78 at 10-s, 20-s, and 30-s HIFU exposure, respectively. In addition, moderate agreement in lesion size growth was also found in both simulations (16.2, 73.1 and 334.7 mm2) and experiments (26.2, 94.2 and 206.2 mm2). Therefore, the feasibility of HMIFU for HIFU lesion detection based on the underlying tissue elasticity changes was verified through the developed theoretical framework, i.e., validation of the fundamental performance of the HMIFU system for lesion detection, localization and quantification, was demonstrated both theoretically and ex vivo.

  16. [Quantitative analysis of psychometric indicators among 20-40 years old Georgian men and women of normal physical development].

    PubMed

    Nadashvili, L A

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the work was to establish quantitative analysis of individual indicators and constitutional types among 20-40 years old Georgian men and women of normal physical development. The studied contingent was divided into 4 scales of age: 20-24 years old 65 women and 35 men; 25-29 years old 35 women and 25 men; 30-34 years old 10 women and 5 men; and 35-39 years old 10 women and 10 men. On the basis of the conducted research it was established that younger Georgian women of normal physical development are mainly sanguines, extroverts, express middle logic intellect, plastic-dynamic mood, constitutional and stable middle excitement, and are mainly harmonic and dynamic constitutional types. Younger Georgian men are sanguines, extroverts, express middle logic intellect plastic - dynamic and constitutional-stable mood, and are mainly harmonic and dynamic constitutional types. PMID:16783078

  17. Molecular structure, Normal Coordinate Analysis, harmonic vibrational frequencies, Natural Bond Orbital, TD-DFT calculations and biological activity analysis of antioxidant drug 7-hydroxycoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, S.; Sylvestre, S.; Jayarajan, D.; Amalanathan, M.; Oudayakumar, K.; Gnanapoongothai, T.; Jayavarthanan, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report harmonic vibrational frequencies, molecular structure, NBO and HOMO, LUMO analysis of Umbelliferone also known as 7-hydroxycoumarin (7HC). The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by computation (monomer and dimmer) shows good agreement with experimental XRD data. Harmonic frequencies of 7HC were determined and analyzed by DFT utilizing 6-311+G(d,p) as basis set. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Coordinate Analysis (NCA) following the Scaled Quantum Mechanical Force Field Methodology (SQMFF). The change in electron density (ED) in the σ* and π* antibonding orbitals and stabilization energies E(2) have been calculated by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis to give clear evidence of stabilization originating in the hyperconjugation of hydrogen-bonded interaction. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincides with the experimental spectra. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis.

  18. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-01

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  19. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    SciTech Connect

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  20. Random harmonic analysis program, L221 (TEV156). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. D.; Graham, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    A digital computer program capable of calculating steady state solutions for linear second order differential equations due to sinusoidal forcing functions is described. The field of application of the program, the analysis of airplane response and loads due to continuous random air turbulence, is discussed. Optional capabilities including frequency dependent input matrices, feedback damping, gradual gust penetration, multiple excitation forcing functions, and a static elastic solution are described. Program usage and a description of the analysis used are presented.

  1. Topological vector spaces of harmonic functions and the trace operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansò, F.; Venuti, G.

    2005-07-01

    Many problems in physical geodesy can be formulated in terms of boundary-value problems (BVPs) for the gravitational potential; many of them can be ultimately formulated as a Dirichlet problem. For this reason, there is a flourishing literature of geodetic contributions to potential theory. In this paper, the authors pick up some classical arguments from the mathematical analysis of BVPs and show, by using only Hilbert spaces of harmonic functions, how they can be systematically cast into a functional scheme clarifying the role of duality when dealing with the harmonic subspaces of classical Sobolev spaces, of any real order. The analysis is here restricted to the case of functions harmonic in spherical domains to make the results transparent and more readable by geodesists. A further step is then taken showing how to generalize the Dirichlet problem for the space of all the functions that are harmonic outside a sphere, which exploits the more general theory of Fréchet topological spaces. Basically, the result is that any functions harmonic in the exterior of a sphere can be uniquely identified by a suitably defined trace on the sphere. The paper concludes with comments and discussion of future work.

  2. B1 magnet harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P D

    2000-05-30

    During the B0 Overpass construction for the CDF detector at Fermilab, 33 B1 magnets were measured using a bucked tangential coil. Measurements were made on the midplane, at the centerline and at {+-} 1 inch horizontal displacement. Since the coil was only 62 inches long, measurements were made at four longitudinal positions. Because of the design of the Main Ring, it was sufficient to combine data from all positions and report the harmonic spectrum for the magnet as a whole. For modeling the Scrounge-atron, it is more useful to treat each measurement position separately. The author reports here an analysis of the harmonic spectra at each probe position, based on the original data.

  3. A probabilistic approach to the dynamic analysis of ducts subjected to multibase harmonic and random excitation. [for Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debchaudhury, Amit; Rajagopal, K. R.; Ho, H.; Newell, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the discharge duct of the high-pressure oxidizer turbopump of a cryogenic rocket motor is investigated analytically. The probabilistic analysis program NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress; Cruse et al., 1988) is used to treat the uncertainties due to random and harmonic excitation (e.g., pump noise, pump-induced harmonics, and combustion noise), variations in engine inlet pressure, and changes in system damping. The load modeling procedure, the variation in power-spectral density in different zones of the engine structure, and the dynamic structural-analysis technique are described, and the numerical results of the NESSUS analysis are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail.

  4. On the limits of quasi-static analysis for a simple Coulomb frictional oscillator in response to harmonic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papangelo, A.; Ciavarella, M.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the nonlinearity of the Coulomb friction law, even the simplest models of interfaces in contact show a very rich dynamic solution. It is often desirable, especially if the frequency of loading is only a fraction of the first natural frequency of the system, to replace a full dynamic analysis with a quasi-static one, which obviously is much simpler to obtain. In this work, we study a simple Coulomb frictional oscillator with harmonic tangential load, but with constant normal load. It is found that the quasi-static solution (which has only 2 stops) captures approximately the displacement peak as long as the forcing frequency is low enough for the dynamic solution to have 2 or, even better, more than 2 stops. Instead, the velocity peak is not correctly estimated, since the velocity becomes highly irregular due to the stick-slip stops, whose number increases without limit for zero frequency. In this sense, the classical quasi-static solution, obtaining by cancelling inertia terms in the equilibrium equations, does not coincide with the limit of the full dynamic solution at low frequencies. The difference is not eliminated by adding a small amount of viscous damping, as only with critical damping, the dynamic solution is very close to the quasi-static one. Additional discrepancies arise above a limit frequency whose value depends on the ratio of the tangential load to the limit one for sliding, and correspond to when the dynamic solution turns from 2 to 0 stop per cycle.

  5. Analysis of physical processes via imaging vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volovodenko, V.; Efremova, N.; Efremov, V.

    2016-06-01

    Practically, all modeling processes in one way or another are random. The foremost formulated theoretical foundation embraces Markov processes, being represented in different forms. Markov processes are characterized as a random process that undergoes transitions from one state to another on a state space, whereas the probability distribution of the next state depends only on the current state and not on the sequence of events that preceded it. In the Markov processes the proposition (model) of the future by no means changes in the event of the expansion and/or strong information progression relative to preceding time. Basically, modeling physical fields involves process changing in time, i.e. non-stationay processes. In this case, the application of Laplace transformation provides unjustified description complications. Transition to other possibilities results in explicit simplification. The method of imaging vectors renders constructive mathematical models and necessary transition in the modeling process and analysis itself. The flexibility of the model itself using polynomial basis leads to the possible rapid transition of the mathematical model and further analysis acceleration. It should be noted that the mathematical description permits operator representation. Conversely, operator representation of the structures, algorithms and data processing procedures significantly improve the flexibility of the modeling process.

  6. Analysis of star pair latitudes. [earth tides tesseral harmonics, and polar wandering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Star pair latitude observations forming the basis for the pole positions reported by the International Polar Motion Service (IPMS) are processed to produce a mean pole position. However, the time series of raw observations contains high frequency information which is lost in the calculation of the mean pole. Analysis of 2931 star pair observations reveals a possible large excitation at one cycle per solar day. The average power level in the frequency band of the tesseral tides is seen to be high, although the peaks do not occur at the expected tidal frequencies.

  7. Computer Analysis of a Physical Pendulum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Joseph; Potts, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The interfacing of a physical pendulum to an Apple IIe computer and the physic instruction associated with it are discussed. Laboratory procedures, software commands, and computations used in this lesson are described. (CW)

  8. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  9. Design and Error Analysis of a Vehicular AR System with Auto-Harmonization.

    PubMed

    Foxlin, Eric; Calloway, Thomas; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the design, development and testing of an AR system that was developed for aerospace and ground vehicles to meet stringent accuracy and robustness requirements. The system uses an optical see-through HMD, and thus requires extremely low latency, high tracking accuracy and precision alignment and calibration of all subsystems in order to avoid mis-registration and "swim". The paper focuses on the optical/inertial hybrid tracking system and describes novel solutions to the challenges with the optics, algorithms, synchronization, and alignment with the vehicle and HMD systems. Tracker accuracy is presented with simulation results to predict the registration accuracy. A car test is used to create a through-the-eyepiece video demonstrating well-registered augmentations of the road and nearby structures while driving. Finally, a detailed covariance analysis of AR registration error is derived. PMID:26415180

  10. An analysis of physical guidance as reinforcement for noncompliance.

    PubMed

    Kern, Lee; Delaney, Beth A; Hilt, Alexandra; Bailin, Deborah E; Elliot, Christina

    2002-09-01

    Physical guidance is a strategy commonly used for noncompliance. In two experiments, we evaluated reinforcing effects of physical guidance. Experiment 1 include three individuals with developmental disabilities who were noncompliant with tasks. Anecdotal observations indicated physical contact was highly reinforcing, and a functional analysis identified attention as a reinforcer for problem behavior. Two conditions compared physical guidance following noncompliance and no physical guidance following noncompliance. Results showed noncompliance increased for all three participants when physical guidance followed noncompliance. The second experiment empirically evaluated the function of noncompliance prior to examining the effect of physical guidance on noncompliance. A functional analysis, conducted with two participants, indicated noncompliance served an escape function for one and an attention function for the other. Comparisons of physical guidance and no physical guidance indicated physical guidance resulted in decreased noncompliance for the participant with an escape function but increased noncompliance for the participant with an attention function. PMID:12205825

  11. Response analysis of a nonlinear magnetoelectric energy harvester under harmonic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naifar, S.; Bradai, S.; Viehweger, C.; Kanoun, O.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetostrictive (MS) piezoelectric composites provide interesting possibilities to harvest energy from low amplitude and low frequency vibrations with a relative high energy outcome. In this paper a magnetoelectric (ME) vibration energy harvester has been designed, which consists of two ME transducers a magnetic circuit and a magnetic spring. The ME transducers consist of three layered Terfenol-D and Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) laminated composites. The outcoming energy is collected directly from the piezo layer to avoid electrical losses. In the system under consideration, the magnetic forces between the ME transducers and the magnetic circuit introduce additional stiffness on the magnetic spring. The one degree of freedom system is analysed analytically and the corresponding governing equation is solved with the Lindstedt-Poincaré method. The effects of the structure parameters, such as the nonlinear magnetic forces and the magnetic field distribution, are analysed based on finite element analysis for optimization of electric output performances. Investigations demonstrate that 1.56 mW output power across 8 MΩ load resistance can be harvested for an excitation amplitude of 1 mm at 21.84 Hz.

  12. Harmonic Oscillators as Bridges between Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    2005-03-01

    Other than scattering problems where perturbation theory is applicable, there are basically two ways to solve problems in physics. One is to reduce the problem to harmonic oscillators, and the other is to formulate the problem in terms of two-by-two matrices. If two oscillators are coupled, the problem combines both two-by-two matrices and harmonic oscillators. This method then becomes a powerful research tool to cover many different branches of physics. Indeed, the concept and methodology in one branch of physics can be translated into another through the common mathematical formalism. It is noted that the present form of quantum mechanics is largely a physics of harmonic oscillators. Special relativity is the physics of the Lorentz group which can be represented by the group of by two-by-two matrices commonly called SL(2, c). Thus the coupled harmonic oscillators can therefore play the role of combining quantum mechanics with special relativity. Both Paul A. M. Dirac and Richard P. Feynman were fond of harmonic oscillators, while they used different approaches to physical problems. Both were also keenly interested in making quantum mechanics compatible with special relativity. It is shown that the coupled harmonic oscillators can bridge these two different approaches to physics.

  13. How Physics Instruction Impacts Students' Beliefs about Learning Physics: A Meta-Analysis of 24 Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2015-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, we synthesize the results of 24 studies using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) and the Maryland Physics Expectations Survey (MPEX) to answer several questions: (1) How does physics instruction impact students' beliefs? (2) When do physics majors develop expert-like beliefs? and (3) How do…

  14. Color harmonization for images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

    2011-04-01

    Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Vascular Heterogeneity in Breast Lesions Using Contrast-Enhanced 3-D Harmonic and Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R.; Machado, Priscilla; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Wilkes, Annina; Sevrukov, Alexander; Mattrey, Robert F.; Wallace, Kirk; Chalek, Carl L.; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ability to visualize breast lesion vascularity and quantify the vascular heterogeneity using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic (HI) and subharmonic (SHI) ultrasound imaging was investigated in a clinical population. Patients (n = 134) identified with breast lesions on mammography were scanned using power Doppler imaging, contrast-enhanced 3-D HI, and 3-D SHI on a modified Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare). A region of interest corresponding to ultrasound contrast agent flow was identified in 4D View (GE Medical Systems) and mapped to raw slice data to generate a map of time-intensity curves for the lesion volume. Time points corresponding to baseline, peak intensity, and washout of ultrasound contrast agent were identified and used to generate and compare vascular heterogeneity plots for malignant and benign lesions. Vascularity was observed with power Doppler imaging in 84 lesions (63 benign and 21 malignant). The 3-D HI showed flow in 8 lesions (5 benign and 3 malignant), whereas 3-D SHI visualized flow in 68 lesions (49 benign and 19 malignant). Analysis of vascular heterogeneity in the 3-D SHI volumes found benign lesions having a significant difference in vascularity between central and peripheral sections (1.71 ± 0.96 vs. 1.13 ± 0.79 dB, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas malignant lesions showed no difference (1.66 ± 1.39 vs. 1.24 ± 1.14 dB, p = 0.24), indicative of more vascular coverage. These preliminary results suggest quantitative evaluation of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D SHI is feasible and able to detect variations in vascularity between central and peripheral sections for benign and malignant lesions. PMID:25935933

  16. Spherical Harmonics Analysis of the ECMWF Global Wind Fields at the 10-Meter Height Level During 1985: A Collection of Figures Illustrating Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Half-daily global wind speeds in the east-west (u) and north-south (v) directions at the 10-meter height level were obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data set of global analyses. The data set covered the period 1985 January to 1995 January. A spherical harmonic expansion to degree and order 50 was used to perform harmonic analysis of the east-west (u) and north-south (v) velocity field components. The resulting wind field is displayed, as well as the residual of the fit, at a particular time. The contribution of particular coefficients is shown. The time variability of the coefficients up to degree and order 3 is presented. Corresponding power spectrum plots are given. Time series analyses were applied also to the power associated with degrees 0-10; the results are included.

  17. Experimental investigation and theoretical analysis of pulse repetition rate adjustable deep ultraviolet picosecond radiation by second harmonic generation in KBe2BO3F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhi; Zhang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Shenjin; Wang, Zhimin; Yang, Feng; Xu, Fengliang; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan

    2014-06-01

    We reported on an experimental investigation and theoretical analysis of pulse repetition rate (PRR) adjustable deep ultraviolet (DUV) picosecond (ps) radiation by second harmonic generation (SHG) in KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF) crystal. Third harmonic radiation at 355 nm of a ps Nd:YVO4 laser output with PRR of 200 kHz-1 MHz was employed as the pump source. The dependence of the 177.3 nm output power on the 355 nm pump power was measured at different PRRs, and the maximum 177.3 nm average output power of 695 μW was obtained at the PRR of 200 kHz. The measured data agreed well with the results of the ps KBBF SHG theoretical simulations. Using simulations, the pulse width and the spectral bandwidth of the generated radiation at 177.3 nm were estimated to be 5.88 ps and 7.84 pm, respectively.

  18. Next generation data harmonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Chandler; Brown, Ryan M.; Chaves, Jillian; Czerniejewski, Adam; Del Vecchio, Justin; Perkins, Timothy K.; Rudnicki, Ron; Tauer, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Analysts are presented with a never ending stream of data sources. Often, subsets of data sources to solve problems are easily identified but the process to align data sets is time consuming. However, many semantic technologies do allow for fast harmonization of data to overcome these problems. These include ontologies that serve as alignment targets, visual tools and natural language processing that generate semantic graphs in terms of the ontologies, and analytics that leverage these graphs. This research reviews a developed prototype that employs all these approaches to perform analysis across disparate data sources documenting violent, extremist events.

  19. Simple Harmonic Motion in Harmonic Plane Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benumof, Reuben

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the distribution of kinetic and potential energy in transverse and longitudinal waves and examines the transmission of power and momentum. This discussion is intended to aid in understanding the simple harmonic motion of a particle involved in the propagation of a harmonic mechanical plane wave. (HM)

  20. Cost and performance analysis of physical security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, M.J.; Yates, D.; Jago, W.H.; Phillips, A.W.

    1998-04-01

    Analysis of cost and performance of physical security systems can be a complex, multi-dimensional problem. There are a number of point tools that address various aspects of cost and performance analysis. Increased interest in cost tradeoffs of physical security alternatives has motivated development of an architecture called Cost and Performance Analysis (CPA), which takes a top-down approach to aligning cost and performance metrics. CPA incorporates results generated by existing physical security system performance analysis tools, and utilizes an existing cost analysis tool. The objective of this architecture is to offer comprehensive visualization of complex data to security analysts and decision-makers.

  1. Astrostatistical Analysis in Solar and Stellar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenning, David Craig

    the solar cycle that are missed when the model is fit using only the sunspot numbers. In Part II of this dissertation we focus on two related lines of research involving Bayesian analysis of stellar evolution. We first focus on modeling multiple stellar populations in star clusters. It has long been assumed that all star clusters are comprised of single stellar populations---stars that formed at roughly the same time from a common molecular cloud. However, recent studies have produced evidence that some clusters host multiple populations, which has far-reaching scientific implications. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for multiple-population star clusters, extending earlier statistical models of stellar evolution (e.g., van Dyk et al. 2009, Stein et al. 2013). We also devise an adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to explore the complex posterior distribution. We use numerical studies to demonstrate that our method can recover parameters of multiple-population clusters, and also show how model misspecification can be diagnosed. Our model and computational tools are incorporated into an open-source software suite known as BASE-9. We also explore statistical properties of the estimators and determine that the influence of the prior distribution does not diminish with larger sample sizes, leading to non-standard asymptotics. In a final line of research, we present the first-ever attempt to estimate the carbon fraction of white dwarfs. This quantity has important implications for both astrophysics and fundamental nuclear physics, but is currently unknown. We use a numerical study to demonstrate that assuming an incorrect value for the carbon fraction leads to incorrect white-dwarf ages of star clusters. Finally, we present our attempt to estimate the carbon fraction of the white dwarfs in the well-studied star cluster 47 Tucanae.

  2. Harmonics and Resonance Issues with Wind Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bradt, M.; Badrzadeh, Babak; Camm, E H; Castillo, Nestor; Mueller, David; Siebert, T.; Schoene, Jens; Smith, Travis M; Starke, Michael R; Walling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Wind plants are susceptible to lightly-damped resonances which can attract and amplify ambient grid harmonic distortion and magnify wind turbine harmonic generation. Long-accepted harmonic modeling assumptions and practices are not appropriate for wind plants. VSCs are not ideal current sources and grid impedance is important. Attention to modeling detail and thorough evaluation over range of conditions is critical to meaningful analysis. In general, wind turbines are very slight sources of harmonics. Most harmonic issues are a result of resonance, caused by capacitor banks (for reactive power compensation) or from the extensive underground cabling in a collector system. Converter controls instability can be exacerbated by power system resonances. In some cases this has caused severe voltage distorDon and other problems. The IEEE 519 recommended guidelines are very restrictive. I recommend that they are used to resolve serious harmonic issues, and not to create petty problems.

  3. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.451 PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). (a)...

  4. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.451 PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). (a)...

  5. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.451 PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). (a)...

  6. Dimensional analysis as the other language of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinett, R. W.

    2015-04-01

    We review the use of dimensional analysis as a tool for the systematic study and analysis of physical concepts and phenomena at multiple levels in the physics curriculum. After reviewing the methodology of its use and citing examples from classical physics, we illustrate how it can be applied to problems in quantum mechanics, including research-level problems, noting both its power and its limitations.

  7. Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.

    2008-02-01

    Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.

  8. Spherical Harmonic Analysis of Short-Term Variability in the External and Induced Geomagnetic Field, with Supermag.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrian, G.; Wild, J. A.; Freeman, M. P.; Shore, R.; Gjerloev, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    We present a methodology for developing spherical harmonic models of short-term variations in the external and induced geomagnetic field. The method uses data from the SuperMAG global magnetometer network, which is provided at 1-minute time resolution. We examine some of the technical challenges encountered in the method development and some initial results are discussed. Results are compared with those from a climatological study running in parallel, which also utilizes SuperMAG data.

  9. Optical harmonic generation in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibres: analysis of optical losses and phase-matching conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, A N; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2002-02-28

    We consider hollow-core fibres with a microstructure photonic-crystal cladding, which open a unique opportunity of implementing nonlinear-optical interactions of waveguide modes with transverse sizes on the order of several microns in the gas phase. Phase-matching conditions for optical harmonic generation can be improved in higher waveguide modes of hollow-core photonic-crystal fibres by optimising parameters of the gas medium filling the fibre and characteristics of the fibre. (optical fibres)

  10. Harmonic Nanoparticles for Regenerative Research

    PubMed Central

    Ronzoni, Flavio; Magouroux, Thibaud; Vernet, Remi; Extermann, Jérôme; Crotty, Darragh; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Ciepielewski, Daniel; Volkov, Yuri; Bonacina, Luigi; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Jaconi, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    In this visualized experiment, protocol details are provided for in vitro labeling of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) with second harmonic generation nanoparticles (HNPs). The latter are a new family of probes recently introduced for labeling biological samples for multi-photon imaging. HNPs are capable of doubling the frequency of excitation light by the nonlinear optical process of second harmonic generation with no restriction on the excitation wavelength. Multi-photon based methodologies for hESC differentiation into cardiac clusters (maintained as long term air-liquid cultures) are presented in detail. In particular, evidence on how to maximize the intense second harmonic (SH) emission of isolated HNPs during 3D monitoring of beating cardiac tissue in 3D is shown. The analysis of the resulting images to retrieve 3D displacement patterns is also detailed. PMID:24836220

  11. Harmonic nanoparticles for regenerative research.

    PubMed

    Ronzoni, Flavio; Magouroux, Thibaud; Vernet, Remi; Extermann, Jérôme; Crotty, Darragh; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Ciepielewski, Daniel; Volkov, Yuri; Bonacina, Luigi; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Jaconi, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    In this visualized experiment, protocol details are provided for in vitro labeling of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) with second harmonic generation nanoparticles (HNPs). The latter are a new family of probes recently introduced for labeling biological samples for multi-photon imaging. HNPs are capable of doubling the frequency of excitation light by the nonlinear optical process of second harmonic generation with no restriction on the excitation wavelength. Multi-photon based methodologies for hESC differentiation into cardiac clusters (maintained as long term air-liquid cultures) are presented in detail. In particular, evidence on how to maximize the intense second harmonic (SH) emission of isolated HNPs during 3D monitoring of beating cardiac tissue in 3D is shown. The analysis of the resulting images to retrieve 3D displacement patterns is also detailed. PMID:24836220

  12. Physics and Analysis at a Hadron Collider - Searching for New Physics (2/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    This is the second lecture of three which together discuss the physics of hadron colliders with an emphasis on experimental techniques used for data analysis. This second lecture discusses techniques important for analyses searching for new physics using the CDF B_s --> mu+ mu- search as a specific example. The lectures are aimed at graduate students.

  13. Physics and Analysis at a Hadron Collider - Searching for New Physics (2/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-20

    This is the second lecture of three which together discuss the physics of hadron colliders with an emphasis on experimental techniques used for data analysis. This second lecture discusses techniques important for analyses searching for new physics using the CDF B_s --> mu+ mu- search as a specific example. The lectures are aimed at graduate students.

  14. Atmospheric cloud physics thermal systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Engineering analyses performed on the Atmospheric Cloud Physics (ACPL) Science Simulator expansion chamber and associated thermal control/conditioning system are reported. Analyses were made to develop a verified thermal model and to perform parametric thermal investigations to evaluate systems performance characteristics. Thermal network representations of solid components and the complete fluid conditioning system were solved simultaneously using the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) computer program.

  15. Synchronous Discrete Harmonic Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-17

    We introduce the synchronous discrete harmonic oscillator, and present an analytical, numerical and graphical study of its characteristics. The oscillator is synchronous when the time T for one revolution covering an angle of 2{pi} in phase space, is an integral multiple N of the discrete time step {delta}t. It is fully synchronous when N is even. It is pseudo-synchronous when T/{delta}t is rational. In the energy conserving hyperincursive representation, the phase space trajectories are perfectly stable at all time scales, and in both synchronous and pseudo-synchronous modes they cycle through a finite number of phase space points. Consequently, both the synchronous and the pseudo-synchronous hyperincursive modes of time-discretization provide a physically realistic and mathematically coherent, procedure for dynamic, background independent, discretization of spacetime. The procedure is applicable to any stable periodic dynamical system, and provokes an intrinsic correlation between space and time, whereby space-discretization is a direct consequence of background-independent time-discretization. Hence, synchronous discretization moves the formalism of classical mechanics towards that of special relativity. The frequency of the hyperincursive discrete harmonic oscillator is ''blue shifted'' relative to its continuum counterpart. The frequency shift has the precise value needed to make the speed of the system point in phase space independent of the discretizing time interval {delta}t. That is the speed of the system point is the same on the polygonal (in the discrete case) and the circular (in the continuum case) phase space trajectories.

  16. Exploratory versus Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Collegiate Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Tim P.; Legg, David L.

    Twenty-one variables believed to be important indicators of health related physical fitness were measured on male and female college students between 1991 and 1993 (n=433). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used in an attempt to derive important components of physical fitness. The exploratory factor analysis identified…

  17. A Path-Analysis Model of Secondary Physics Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lee T.; Doran, Rodney L.

    1977-01-01

    Develops a path-analysis model of critical variables affecting student enrollment in secondary school physics. A test of the model utilizing state provided data of physics enrollment in New York State resulted in the rejection of the model; however, significant critical variable results were obtained. (SL)

  18. Dimensional Analysis in Physics and the Buckingham Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misic, Tatjana; Najdanovic-Lukic, Marina; Nesic, Ljubisa

    2010-01-01

    Dimensional analysis is a simple, clear and intuitive method for determining the functional dependence of physical quantities that are of importance to a certain process. However, in physics textbooks, very little space is usually given to this approach and it is often presented only as a diagnostic tool used to determine the validity of…

  19. Spectral Analysis of Vibrational Harmonic Motion by use of a Continuous-Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana

    1999-01-01

    Vibrational motion of a harmonic oscillator was investigated using a focused continuous wave CO2 Doppler lidar at 9.1 microns wavelength. A continuum of frequencies along with many discrete, equally spaced, resonant frequency modes was observed. The frequency modes are similar in structure to the oscillatory longitudinal modes of a laser cavity and arise because of interference of the natural resonant frequency of the oscillator with specific frequencies within the continuum. The spectra revealed departures from linear motion for vigorous vibrations of the oscillator. Each consecutive resonant frequency mode occurred for a movement of the oscillator much less than the wavelength of incident lidar radiation.

  20. Analysis of ANS LWR physics benchmark problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Taiwo, T. A.

    1998-07-29

    Various Monte Carlo and deterministic solutions to the three PWR Lattice Benchmark Problems recently defined by the ANS Ad Hoc Committee on Reactor Physics Benchmarks are presented. These solutions were obtained using the VIM continuous-energy Monte Carlo code and the DIF3D/WIMS-D4M code package implemented at the Argonne National Laboratory. The code results for the K{sub eff} and relative pin power distribution are compared to measured values. Additionally, code results for the three benchmark-prescribed infinite lattice configurations are also intercompared. The results demonstrate that the codes produce very good estimates of both the K{sub eff} and power distribution for the critical core and the lattice parameters of the infinite lattice configuration.

  1. High order harmonic generation in rare gases

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K.S.

    1994-05-01

    The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I {approximately}10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) is focused into a dense ({approximately}10{sup l7} particles/cm{sup 3}) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic {open_quotes}source{close_quotes}. A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.

  2. 34 GHz second-harmonic peniotron oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressman, Lawrence Jude

    Harmonic operation of gyro-devices has been proposed as a way to lower the magnetic field required to a level feasible with normal (i.e., non-superconducting) magnets. The problem is, however, that gyrotron efficiency drops dramatically at harmonics greater than two, making development of such a device of limited utility. A promising solution to this quandary is the development of a related device, the peniotron, which is believed capable of achieving both high efficiency and harmonic operation resulting in a reduction of the required axial magnetic field. Although the physics of the peniotron interaction, including its high electronic conversion efficiency, has been understood and experimentally verified, demonstration of characteristics consistent with a practical device has been more elusive. This is the goal of this effort---specifically, to demonstrate high device efficiency (defined as the actual power output as a fraction of the electron beam power) with an electron beam generated by a compact cusp electron gun consistent in size and performance with other microwave vacuum electron devices. The cavity design process revealed that the pi/2 mode couples easily to the output circular waveguide. In fact, the transition to circular waveguide produced such a low reflection coefficient that an iris was needed at the cavity output to achieve the desired Q. Integral couplers were also designed to couple directly into the slotted cavity for diagnostic purposes for simplicity in this proof-of-principle physics experiment. This eliminated the need for a high-power circular vacuum window and allowed the diagnostic coupling to be made in standard WR-28 rectangular waveguide. Although mode competition did prevent the second-harmonic peniotron mode from being tuned over its entire range of magnetic field, the peniotron mode was stable over a range sufficient to allow useful experimental data to be obtained. However, another unexpected problem which occurred during execution

  3. Gesture Analysis for Physics Education Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.

    2008-01-01

    Systematic observations of student gestures can not only fill in gaps in students' verbal expressions, but can also offer valuable information about student ideas, including their source, their novelty to the speaker, and their construction in real time. This paper provides a review of the research in gesture analysis that is most relevant to…

  4. Higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions for the analysis of non-linear systems with harmonic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuij, P. W. J. M.; Bosgra, O. H.; Steinbuch, M.

    2006-11-01

    For high-precision motion systems, modelling and control design specifically oriented at friction effects is instrumental. The sinusoidal input describing function theory represents an approximative mathematical framework for analysing non-linear system behaviour. This theory, however, limits the description of the non-linear system behaviour to a quasi-linear amplitude-dependent relation between sinusoidal excitation and sinusoidal response. In this paper, an extension to higher-order describing functions is realised by introducing the concept of the harmonics generator. The resulting higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions (HOSIDFs) relate the magnitude and phase of the higher harmonics of the periodic response of the system to the magnitude and phase of a sinusoidal excitation. Based on this extension two techniques to measure HOSIDFs are presented. The first technique is FFT based. The second technique is based on IQ (in-phase/quadrature-phase) demodulation. In a simulation, the measurement techniques have been tested by comparing the simulation results to analytically derived results from a known (backlash) non-linearity. In a subsequent practical case study both techniques are used to measure the changes in dynamic behaviour as a function of drive level due to friction in an electric motor. Both methods prove successful for measuring HOSIDFs.

  5. Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Poletto, L.; Bonora, S.; Pascolini, M.; Villoresi, P.

    2004-11-01

    The design and the performances of an extreme ultraviolet (EUV)spectrometer/monochromator for generation and diagnostics of high-order harmonics of an ultrashort (<30 fs) pulsed laser focused onto a gas jet are presented. The harmonic generation is optimized using an adaptive mirror before the laser focusing stage. A toroidal mirror is used to focus the XUV radiation in an intermediate stage for pump/probe experiments. A grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for the 5-75 nm spectral region has been designed: it adopts a stigmatic toroidal mirror and a varied line-space flat grating mounted in converging light. The almost flat stigmatic spectrum is acquired by a 40-mm-diameter microchannel plate intensifier; the whole detector can be moved to scan various portions of the spectrum. Different detectors allow one to acquire both integrated and single shot spectra at 1 kHz repetition rate. The absolute calibration of the spectrometer is provided. The same optical scheme can be applied to the design of a constant deviation angle EUV monochromator by substituting the detector block with an exit slit.

  6. Temporal and spatial variability of tidal-fluvial dynamics in the St. Lawrence fluvial estuary: An application of nonstationary tidal harmonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, Pascal; Secretan, Yves; Morin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Predicting tides in upstream reaches of rivers is a challenge, because tides are highly nonlinear and nonstationary, and accurate short-time predictions of river flow are hard to obtain. In the St. Lawrence fluvial estuary, tide forecasts are produced using a one-dimensional model (ONE-D), forced downstream with harmonic constituents, and upstream with daily discharges using 30 day flow forecasts from Lake Ontario and the Ottawa River. Although this operational forecast system serves its purpose of predicting water levels, information about nonstationary tidal-fluvial processes that can be gained from it is limited, particularly the temporal changes in mean water level and tidal properties (i.e., constituent amplitudes and phases), which are function of river flow and ocean tidal range. In this paper, a harmonic model adapted to nonstationary tides, NS_TIDE, was applied to the St. Lawrence fluvial estuary, where the time-varying external forcing is directly built into the tidal basis functions. Model coefficients from 13 analysis stations were spatially interpolated to allow tide predictions at arbitrary locations as well as to provide insights into the spatiotemporal evolution of tides. Model hindcasts showed substantial improvements compared to classical harmonic analyses at upstream stations. The model was further validated by comparison with ONE-D predictions at a total of 32 stations. The slightly lower accuracy obtained with NS_TIDE is compensated by model simplicity, efficiency, and capacity to represent stage and tidal variations in a very compact way and thus represents a new means for understanding tidal rivers.

  7. Harmonic analysis of the Earth's gravitational field by means of semi-continuous ephemerides of a low Earth orbiting GPS-tracked satellite. Case study: CHAMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reubelt, T.; Austen, G.; Grafarend, E. W.

    2003-08-01

    An algorithm for the determination of the spherical harmonic coefficients of the terrestrial gravitational field representation from the analysis of a kinematic orbit solution of a low earth orbiting GPS-tracked satellite is presented and examined. A gain in accuracy is expected since the kinematic orbit of a LEO satellite can nowadays be determined with very high precision, in the range of a few centimeters. In particular, advantage is taken of Newton's Law of Motion, which balances the acceleration vector with respect to an inertial frame of reference (IRF) and the gradient of the gravitational potential. By means of triple differences, and in particular higher-order differences (seven-point scheme, nine-point scheme), based upon Newton's interpolation formula, the local acceleration vector is estimated from relative GPS position time series. The gradient of the gravitational potential is conventionally given in a body-fixed frame of reference (BRF) where it is nearly time independent or stationary. Accordingly, the gradient of the gravitational potential has to be transformed from spherical BRF to Cartesian IRF. Such a transformation is possible by differentiating the gravitational potential, given as a spherical harmonics series expansion, with respect to Cartesian coordinates by means of the chain rule, and expressing zero- and first-order Ferrer's associated Legendre functions in terms of Cartesian coordinates. Subsequently, the BRF Cartesian coordinates are transformed into IRF Cartesian coordinates by means of the polar motion matrix, the precession nutation matrices and the Greenwich sidereal time angle (GAST). In such a way a spherical harmonic representation of the terrestrial gravitational field intensity with respect to an IRF is achieved. Numerical tests of a resulting Gauss Markov model document not only the quality and the high resolution of such a space gravity spectroscopy, but also the problems resulting from noise amplification in the

  8. Computational and Physical Analysis of Catalytic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Richard; Sohn, Jung Jae; Kyung, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Nanoparticles exhibit unique physical and chemical properties depending on their geometrical properties. For this reason, synthesis of nanoparticles with controlled shape and size is important to use their unique properties. Catalyst supports are usually made of high-surface-area porous oxides or carbon nanomaterials. These support materials stabilize metal catalysts against sintering at high reaction temperatures. Many studies have demonstrated large enhancements of catalytic behavior due to the role of the oxide-metal interface. In this paper, the catalyzing ability of supported nano metal oxides, such as silicon oxide and titanium oxide compounds as catalysts have been analyzed using computational chemistry method. Computational programs such as Gamess and Chemcraft has been used in an effort to compute the efficiencies of catalytic compounds, and bonding energy changes during the optimization convergence. The result illustrates how the metal oxides stabilize and the steps that it takes. The graph of the energy computation step(N) versus energy(kcal/mol) curve shows that the energy of the titania converges faster at the 7th iteration calculation, whereas the silica converges at the 9th iteration calculation.

  9. A physical analysis of nucleosome positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerland, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    The first level of genome packaging in eukaryotic cells involves the formation of dense nucleosome arrays, with DNA coverage near 90% in yeasts. A high nucleosome coverage is essential for cells, e.g. to prevent cryptic transcription, and the local positions of specific nucleosomes can play an important role in gene regulation. It is known that in vivo nucleosome positions are affected by a complex mix of passive and active mechanisms, including sequence-specific histone-DNA binding, nucleosome-nucleosome interactions, ATP-dependent remodeling enzymes, transcription, and DNA replication. Yet, the statistical distribution of nucleosome positions is extremely well described by simple physical models that treat the chromatin fiber as an interacting one-dimensional gas. I will discuss how can we interpret this surprising observation from a mechanistic perspective. I will also discuss the kinetics of the interacting gas model, which is pertinent to the question of how cells achieve the high nucleosome coverage within a short time, e.g. after DNA replication.

  10. Accelerator physics analysis with an integrated toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J.A.; Michelotti, L.; Satogata, T.

    1992-08-01

    Work is in progress on an integrated software toolkit for linear and nonlinear accelerator design, analysis, and simulation. As a first application, ``beamline`` and ``MXYZPTLK`` (differential algebra) class libraries, were used with an X Windows graphics library to build an user-friendly, interactive phase space tracker which, additionally, finds periodic orbits. This program was used to analyse a theoretical lattice which contains octupoles and decapoles to find the 20th order, stable and unstable periodic orbits and to explore the local phase space structure.

  11. Transient regime in second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeftel, Jacob; Sandeau, Laure; Sandeau, Nicolas; Delezoide, Camille; Khater, Antoine

    2013-09-01

    The time growth of the electromagnetic field at the fundamental and double frequencies is studied from the very onset of the second harmonic generation (SHG) process for a set of dipoles lacking a symmetry centre and exhibiting a nonresonant coupling with a classical electromagnetic field. This approach consists first of solving the Schrödinger equation by applying a generalised Rabi rotation to the Hamiltonian describing the light-dipole interaction. This rotation has been devised for the resulting Hamiltonian to show up time-independent for both components of the electromagnetic field at the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic one. Then an energy conservation argument, derived from the Poynting theorem, is introduced to work out an additional relationship between the electromagnetic field and its associated electric polarisation. Finally this analysis yields the full time behaviour of all physical quantities of interest. The calculated results reproduce accurately both the observed spatial oscillations of the SHG intensity (Maker's fringes) and its power law dependence on the intensity of the incoming light at the fundamental frequency.

  12. Harmon Craig (1926-2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Ray

    Harmon Craig, one of the great pioneers of isotope geochemistry died on 14 March after suffering a massive heart attack at his home in La Jolla, California. He was one day shy of his 77th birthday. Through an academic career of more than fifty years, Craig—or simply “Harmon,” as he was known throughout the world of geochemistry—made a remarkable number of fundamental and far-reaching contributions in a wide range of important areas concerned with the chemical and physical processes by which the solid Earth, the oceans, the atmosphere, and the solar system interact. While his research was broad in scope, it was also characterized by a strong emphasis on meticulous field and laboratory work, and on original and insightful interpretations of the resulting observations.

  13. Plasma physics analysis of SERT-2 operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the major plasma processes involved in the SERT 2 spacecraft experiments was conducted to aid in the interpretation of recent data. A plume penetration model was developed for neutralization electron conduction to the ion beam and showed qualitative agreement with flight data. In the SERT 2 configuration conduction of neutralization electrons between thrusters was experimentally demonstrated in space. The analysis of this configuration suggests that the relative orientation of the two magnetic fields was an important factor in the observed results. Specifically, the opposed field orientation appeared to provide a high conductivity channel between thrusters and a barrier to the ambient low energy electrons in space. The SERT 2 neutralizer currents with negative neutralizer biases were up to about twice the theoretical prediction for electron collection by the ground screen. An explanation for the higher experimental values was a possible conductive path from the neutralizer plume to a nearby part of the ground screen. Plasma probe measurements of SERT 2 gave the clearest indication of plasma electron temperature, with normal operation being near 5 eV and discharge only operation near 2 eV.

  14. Covariant harmonic oscillators and coupled harmonic oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Daesoo; Kim, Young S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators shares the basic symmetry properties with the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism which provides a concise description of the basic features of relativistic hadronic features observed in high-energy laboratories. It is shown also that the coupled oscillator system has the SL(4,r) symmetry in classical mechanics, while the present formulation of quantum mechanics can accommodate only the Sp(4,r) portion of the SL(4,r) symmetry. The possible role of the SL(4,r) symmetry in quantum mechanics is discussed.

  15. High-Speed Video Analysis in a Conceptual Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desbien, Dwain M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of probe ware and computers has become quite common in introductory physics classrooms. Video analysis is also becoming more popular and is available to a wide range of students through commercially available and/or free software. Video analysis allows for the study of motions that cannot be easily measured in the traditional lab setting…

  16. Dynamic analysis of composite beam subjected to harmonic moving load based on the third-order shear deformation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvanil, Mohammad Javad; Kargarnovin, Mohammad Hossein; Younesian, Davood

    2011-12-01

    The response of an infinite Timoshenko beam subjected to a harmonic moving load based on the thirdorder shear deformation theory (TSDT) is studied. The beam is made of laminated composite, and located on a Pasternak viscoelastic foundation. By using the principle of total minimum potential energy, the governing partial differential equations of motion are obtained. The solution is directed to compute the deflection and bending moment distribution along the length of the beam. Also, the effects of two types of composite materials, stiffness and shear layer viscosity coefficients of foundation, velocity and frequency of the moving load over the beam response are studied. In order to demonstrate the accuracy of the present method, the results TSDT are compared with the previously obtained results based on first-order shear deformation theory, with which good agreements are observed.

  17. Time Harmonic Electromagnetic Field Analysis in Multi-spheres Model by Gumerov's Method of Two Scalar Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Shoji; Masutani, Keigo; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    Time harmonic electromagnetic fields in multi-spheres models were calculated by the method of two scalar potentials proposed by Gumerov. The analyzed models were an eccentric two-spheres model and a ten-spheres model including brain core and a pair of eyeballs. The applied fields were a plane wave and a dipole magnetic field, and the frequency was 1.8 or 2.0GHz. The truncation degree p of multipole and local expansion was set to up to 170∼200. The peak power density on the x-y plane and the absorbed power in each tissue almost monotonously converged as p increased. It demonstrated the usefulness of the Gumerov's method.

  18. Analysis of forward and backward Second Harmonic Generation images to probe the nanoscale structure of collagen within bone and cartilage.

    PubMed

    Houle, Marie-Andrée; Couture, Charles-André; Bancelin, Stéphane; Van der Kolk, Jarno; Auger, Etienne; Brown, Cameron; Popov, Konstantin; Ramunno, Lora; Légaré, François

    2015-11-01

    Collagen ultrastructure plays a central role in the function of a wide range of connective tissues. Studying collagen structure at the microscopic scale is therefore of considerable interest to understand the mechanisms of tissue pathologies. Here, we use second harmonic generation microscopy to characterize collagen structure within bone and articular cartilage in human knees. We analyze the intensity dependence on polarization and discuss the differences between Forward and Backward images in both tissues. Focusing on articular cartilage, we observe an increase in Forward/Backward ratio from the cartilage surface to the bone. Coupling these results to numerical simulations reveals the evolution of collagen fibril diameter and spatial organization as a function of depth within cartilage. PMID:26349534

  19. Harmonic phase interference for the detection of tag line crossings and beyond in homogeneous strain analysis of cardiac tagged MRI data.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Mehmet

    2010-12-01

    Homogenous strain analysis (HSA) was developed to evaluate regional cardiac function using tagged cine magnetic resonance images of heart. Current cardiac applications of HSA are however limited in accurately detecting tag intersections within the myocardial wall, producing consistent triangulation of tag cells throughout the image series and achieving optimal spatial resolution due to the large size of the triangles. To address these issues, this article introduces a harmonic phase (HARP) interference method. In principle, as in the standard HARP analysis, the method uses harmonic phases associated with the two of the four fundamental peaks in the spectrum of a tagged image. However, the phase associated with each peak is wrapped when estimated digitally. This article shows that special combination of wrapped phases results in an image with unique intensity pattern that can be exploited to automatically detect tag intersections and to produce reliable triangulation with regularly organized partitioning of the mesh for HSA. In addition, the method offers new opportunities and freedom for evaluating myocardial function when the power and angle of the complex filtered spectra are mathematically modified prior to computing the phase. For example, the triangular elements can be shifted spatially by changing the angle and/or their sizes can be reduced by changing the power. Interference patterns obtained under a variety of power and angle conditions were presented and specific features observed in the results were explained. Together, the advanced processing capabilities increase the power of HSA by making the analysis less prone to errors from human interactions. It also allows strain measurements at higher spatial resolution and multi-scale, thereby improving the display methods for better interpretation of the analysis results. PMID:21110236

  20. Geomagnetic local and regional harmonic analyses.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are developed for using rectangular and cylindrical harmonic analyses in local and regional areas. Both the linear least squares analysis, applicable when component data are available, and the nonlinear least squares analysis, applicable when only total field data are available, are treated. When component data are available, it is advantageous to work with residual fields obtained by subtracting components derived from a harmonic potential from the observed components. When only total field intensity data are available, they must be used directly. Residual values cannot be used. Cylindrical harmonic analyses are indicated when fields tend toward cylindrical symmetry; otherwise, rectangular harmonic analyses will be more advantageous. Examples illustrating each type of analysis are given.-Author

  1. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 15-17: Gravitation; Simple Harmonic Motion; and Traveling Waves; plus a Partial Derivatives Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  2. Continuum physics: Correlation and fluctuation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Herskind, B.

    1993-10-01

    It is well known that the main flow of the {gamma}-decay from high spin states passes through the regions of high level density several MeV above the yrast line. Nevertheless, only very limited information about the nuclear structure in this region is available, due to the extremely high complexity of the decay patterns. The new highly efficient {gamma}-spectrometer arrays, GASP, EUROGAM and GAMMASPHERE coming into operation these years, with several orders of magnitude higher selectivity for studying weakly populated states, offers new exiting possibilities also for a much more detailed study of the high spin quasi-continuum. It is of special interest to study the phase transition from the region of discrete regular rotational band structures found close to the yrast line, into the region of damped rotational motion at higher excitation energies and investigate the interactions responsible for the damping phenomena. Some of the first large data-sets to be analyzed are made on residues around e.g. {sup 152}Dy and {sup 168}Yb produced with EUROGAM in Daresbury, UK, in addition to {sup 143}Eu and {sup 182}Pt produced with GASP in Legnaro, Italy. These data-sets will for the first time contain enough counts to allow for a fluctuation analysis of 3-fold coincidence matrixes. The high spatial resolution in a cube of triples make it possible to select transitions from specific configurations using 2 of the detectors and measure the fluctuations caused by the simplicity of feeding the selected configuration by the 3. detector. Thus, weakly mixed structures in the damped region as e.g. superdeformed- or high-K bands are expected to show large fluctuations. Results from these experiments will be discussed.

  3. HEPDOOP: High-Energy Physics Analysis using Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhimji, W.; Bristow, T.; Washbrook, A.

    2014-06-01

    We perform a LHC data analysis workflow using tools and data formats that are commonly used in the "Big Data" community outside High Energy Physics (HEP). These include Apache Avro for serialisation to binary files, Pig and Hadoop for mass data processing and Python Scikit-Learn for multi-variate analysis. Comparison is made with the same analysis performed with current HEP tools in ROOT.

  4. Relativistic harmonic oscillator revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Bars, Itzhak

    2009-02-15

    The familiar Fock space commonly used to describe the relativistic harmonic oscillator, for example, as part of string theory, is insufficient to describe all the states of the relativistic oscillator. We find that there are three different vacua leading to three disconnected Fock sectors, all constructed with the same creation-annihilation operators. These have different spacetime geometric properties as well as different algebraic symmetry properties or different quantum numbers. Two of these Fock spaces include negative norm ghosts (as in string theory), while the third one is completely free of ghosts. We discuss a gauge symmetry in a worldline theory approach that supplies appropriate constraints to remove all the ghosts from all Fock sectors of the single oscillator. The resulting ghost-free quantum spectrum in d+1 dimensions is then classified in unitary representations of the Lorentz group SO(d,1). Moreover, all states of the single oscillator put together make up a single infinite dimensional unitary representation of a hidden global symmetry SU(d,1), whose Casimir eigenvalues are computed. Possible applications of these new results in string theory and other areas of physics and mathematics are briefly mentioned.

  5. Simulation of 100-300 GHz solid-state harmonic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zybura, Michael F.; Jones, J. Robert; Jones, Stephen H.; Tait, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate and efficient simulations of the large-signal time-dependent characteristics of second-harmonic Transferred Electron Oscillators (TEO's) and Heterostructure Barrier Varactor (HBV) frequency triplers have been obtained. This is accomplished by using a novel and efficient harmonic-balance circuit analysis technique which facilitates the integration of physics-based hydrodynamic device simulators. The integrated hydrodynamic device/harmonic-balance circuit simulators allow TEO and HBV circuits to be co-designed from both a device and a circuit point of view. Comparisons have been made with published experimental data for both TEO's and HBV's. For TEO's, excellent correlation has been obtained at 140 GHz and 188 GHz in second-harmonic operation. Excellent correlation has also been obtained for HBV frequency triplers operating near 200 GHz. For HBV's, both a lumped quasi-static equivalent circuit model and the hydrodynamic device simulator have been linked to the harmonic-balance circuit simulator. This comparison illustrates the importance of representing active devices with physics-based numerical device models rather than analytical device models.

  6. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part Ii: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-01-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition,…

  7. Creativity in theoretical physics: A situational analysis of the fifth Solvay Council on Physics, 1927

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    First, Leili K.

    This dissertation investigates the intersections and interactions of factors which enhance and inhibit creativity in theoretical physics research, using a situational analysis of the fifth Solvay Council on Physics of 1927 (Solvay 1927), a pivotal point in the history of quantum physics. Situational analysis is a postmodern variant of the grounded theory method which views a situation as the unit of analysis and adds situational mapping as an analytic tool. This method specifically works against normalizing or simplifying the points of view, instead drawing out diversity, complexity, and contradiction. It results in "theorizing" rather than theory. This research differs from other analyses of the development of quantum mechanics in looking at technical issues as well as individual, collective, and societal factors. Data examined in this historical analysis includes theoretical papers, conference proceedings, personal letters, and commentary and analysis, both contemporaneous and modern. Literature related to scientific creativity was also consulted. Mapping the situation as a master discourse of Niels Bohr overlapping and interacting with co-existent major discourses on matrix mechanics/Copenhagen interpretation, wave mechanics, and the pilot-wave theory resulted in the most descriptive illustration of the factors influencing scientific creativity before and after Solvay 1927. The master discourse strongly influenced the major discourses and generated the "Copenhagen spirit" which effectively marginalized discourses other than matrix mechanics/Copenhagen interpretation after Solvay 1927.

  8. Physical parameter effects on radar backscatter using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, Hean T.; Teh, K. B.

    1994-12-01

    This paper contains a sensitivity analysis of the effects of physical parameters on radar backscatter coefficients from a vegetation canopy using the method of principal component analysis. A Monte Carlo forward scattering model is used to generate the necessary data set for such analysis. The vegetation canopy is modeled as a layer of randomly distributed circular disks bounded below by a Kirchhoff rough surface. Data reduction is accomplished by the statistical principal component analysis technique in which only three principal components are found to be sufficient, containing 97% of the information in the original set. The first principal component can be interpreted as volume-volume backscatter, while the second and the third as surface backscatter and surface-volume backscatter, respectively. From the correlation matrix obtained, the sensitivity of radar backscatter due to various physical parameters is investigated. These include wave frequency, moisture content, scatterer's size, volume fraction, ground permittivity and surface roughness.

  9. Second International Workshop on Harmonic Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Daesoo (Editor); Wolf, Kurt Bernardo (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Second International Workshop on Harmonic Oscillators was held at the Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc from March 23 to 25, 1994. The Workshop gathered 67 participants; there were 10 invited lecturers, 30 plenary oral presentations, 15 posters, and plenty of discussion divided into the five sessions of this volume. The Organizing Committee was asked by the chairman of several Mexican funding agencies what exactly was meant by harmonic oscillators, and for what purpose the new research could be useful. Harmonic oscillators - as we explained - is a code name for a family of mathematical models based on the theory of Lie algebras and groups, with applications in a growing range of physical theories and technologies: molecular, atomic, nuclear and particle physics; quantum optics and communication theory.

  10. How physics instruction impacts students' beliefs about learning physics: A meta-analysis of 24 studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2015-06-01

    In this meta-analysis, we synthesize the results of 24 studies using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) and the Maryland Physics Expectations Survey (MPEX) to answer several questions: (1) How does physics instruction impact students' beliefs? (2) When do physics majors develop expert-like beliefs? and (3) How do students' beliefs impact their learning of physics? We report that in typical physics classes, students' beliefs deteriorate or at best stay the same. There are a few types of interventions, including an explicit focus on model-building and (or) developing expertlike beliefs that lead to significant improvements in beliefs. Further, small courses and those for elementary education and nonscience majors also result in improved beliefs. However, because the available data oversamples certain types of classes, it is unclear whether these improvements are actually due to the interventions, or due to the small class size, or student populations typical of the kinds of classes in which these interventions are most often used. Physics majors tend to enter their undergraduate education with more expertlike beliefs than nonmajors and these beliefs remain relatively stable throughout their undergraduate careers. Thus, typical physics courses appear to be selecting students who already have strong beliefs, rather than supporting students in developing strong beliefs. There is a small correlation between students' incoming beliefs about physics and their gains on conceptual mechanics surveys. This suggests that students with more expertlike incoming beliefs may learn more in their physics courses, but this finding should be further explored and replicated. Some unanswered questions remain. To answer these questions, we advocate several specific types of future studies: measuring students' beliefs in courses with a wider range of class sizes, student populations, and teaching methods, especially large classes with very innovative pedagogy and

  11. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part II: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-11-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition, planning, monitoring, evaluation, debugging, and information management. The college students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students' physics motivation and physics grade. However, the results of the exploratory factor analysis indicated that the questionnaire could be revised to improve its construct validity. The goal of this study was to revise the questionnaire and establish its construct validity through a confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, a Rasch analysis was applied to the data to better understand the psychometric properties of the inventory and to further evaluate the construct validity. Results indicated that the final, revised inventory is a valid, reliable, and efficient tool for assessing student metacognition for physics problem solving.

  12. Disability in Physical Education Textbooks: An Analysis of Image Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taboas-Pais, Maria Ines; Rey-Cao, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how images of disability are portrayed in physical education textbooks for secondary schools in Spain. The sample was composed of 3,316 images published in 36 textbooks by 10 publishing houses. A content analysis was carried out using a coding scheme based on categories employed in other similar studies and adapted…

  13. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  14. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  15. Effective ATI channels in high harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchiev, M. Yu; Ostrovsky, V. N.

    2001-02-01

    Harmonic generation by an atom in a laser field is described by the three-step mechanism as proceeding via above-threshold ionization (ATI) followed by electron propagation in the laser-dressed continuum and subsequent laser-assisted recombination (LAR). The amplitude of the harmonic production is given by the coherent sum of contributions from different intermediate ATI channels labelled by the number, m, of absorbed laser photons. The range of m-values that give a substantial contribution is explored and found to be rather broad for high harmonic generation. The coherence effects are of crucial importance as they are responsible for the characteristic pattern of harmonic intensities with a plateau domain followed by a cut-off region. Due to the multiphoton nature of the process, an efficient summation of m-contributions can be carried out within the framework of the saddle-point method. The saddle points correspond to some complex-valued labels m = mc associated with the intermediate effective ATI channels in the three-step harmonic generation process. The advantage of this approach stems from the fact that summation over a large number of conventional ATI m-channels is replaced by summation over a small number of effective mc-channels. The equation governing mc has a transparent physical meaning: the electron ejected from the atom on the first (ATI) stage should return to the core to make LAR possible. The effective channel labels m move along characteristic trajectories in the complex plane as the system parameters vary. In the cut-off region of the harmonic spectrum a single effective channel contributes. For lower harmonics, in the plateau domain, two effective ATI channels become essential. The interference of their contributions leads to an oscillatory pattern in the harmonic generation rates. The calculated rates are in good agreement with the results obtained by other approaches.

  16. Ultrafast harmonic rf kicker design and beam dynamics analysis for an energy recovery linac based electron circulator cooler ring

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan

    2016-08-01

    An ultrafast kicker system is being developed for the energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron circulator cooler ring (CCR) in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, previously named MEIC). In the CCR, the injected electron bunches can be recirculated while performing ion cooling for 10–30 turns before the extraction, thus reducing the recirculation beam current in the ERL to 1/10–1/30 (150mA–50 mA) of the cooling beam current (up to 1.5 A). Assuming a bunch repetition rate of 476.3 MHz and a recirculating factor of 10 in the CCR, the kicker is required to operate at a pulse repetitionmore » rate of 47.63 MHz with pulse width of around 2 ns, so that only every 10th bunch in the CCR will experience a transverse kick while the rest of the bunches will not be disturbed. Such a kicker pulse can be synthesized by ten harmonic modes of the 47.63 MHz kicker pulse repetition frequency, using up to four quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities. In this paper, several methods to synthesize such a kicker waveform will be discussed and a comparison of their beam dynamics performance is made using ELEGANT. Four QWR cavities are envisaged with high transverse shunt impedance requiring less than 100 W of total rf power for a Flat-Top kick pulse. Multipole fields due to the asymmetry of this type of cavity are analyzed. The transverse emittance growth due to the sextupole component is simulated in ELEGANT. In conclusion, off-axis injection and extraction issues and beam optics using a multicavity kick-drift scheme will also be discussed.« less

  17. Spatial Mode Control of High-Order Harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, I.; Mevel, E.; Zerne, R.; LHuillier, A.; Antoine, P.; Wahlstroem, C.

    1996-08-01

    We demonstrate that the spatial mode of high-order harmonics can be continuously controlled. The control is achieved by spatially modulating the degree of elliptical polarization of the fundamental field using birefringent optics. A highly sensitive relationship between the efficiency of harmonic generation and the degree of laser elliptical polarization leads to atoms emitting harmonics only in regions of linear polarization. The harmonics are emitted as annular beams whose angles of divergence can be continuously varied. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. RMC - A Monte Carlo code for reactor physics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Li, Z.; She, D.; Liang, J.; Xu, Q.; Qiu, A.; Yu, J.; Sun, J.; Fan, X.; Yu, G.

    2013-07-01

    A new Monte Carlo neutron transport code RMC has been being developed by Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing as a tool for reactor physics analysis on high-performance computing platforms. To meet the requirements of reactor analysis, RMC now has such functions as criticality calculation, fixed-source calculation, burnup calculation and kinetics simulations. Some techniques for geometry treatment, new burnup algorithm, source convergence acceleration, massive tally and parallel calculation, and temperature dependent cross sections processing are researched and implemented in RMC to improve the efficiency. Validation results of criticality calculation, burnup calculation, source convergence acceleration, tallies performance and parallel performance shown in this paper prove the capabilities of RMC in dealing with reactor analysis problems with good performances. (authors)

  19. Game theoretic analysis of physical protection system design

    SciTech Connect

    Canion, B.; Schneider, E.; Bickel, E.; Hadlock, C.; Morton, D.

    2013-07-01

    The physical protection system (PPS) of a fictional small modular reactor (SMR) facility have been modeled as a platform for a game theoretic approach to security decision analysis. To demonstrate the game theoretic approach, a rational adversary with complete knowledge of the facility has been modeled attempting a sabotage attack. The adversary adjusts his decisions in response to investments made by the defender to enhance the security measures. This can lead to a conservative physical protection system design. Since defender upgrades were limited by a budget, cost benefit analysis may be conducted upon security upgrades. One approach to cost benefit analysis is the efficient frontier, which depicts the reduction in expected consequence per incremental increase in the security budget.

  20. Harmonic generation with multiple wiggler schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P.

    1995-02-01

    In this paper the authors give a simple theoretical description of the basic physics of the single pass high gain free electron laser (FEL), describing in some detail the FEL bunching properties and the harmonic generation technique with a multiple-wiggler scheme or a high gain optical klystron configuration.

  1. Oscillation Laue Analysis (OLA) - A new crystal structure determination method for mineral physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dera, P.; Downs, R. T.; Liermann, H.; Yang, W.

    2006-12-01

    We present a new approach for collection and interpretation of polychromatic radiation diffraction images, called Oscillation Laue Analysis, which combines capabilities of single crystal X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The method is based on smearing Laue reflections into variable-energy curves by slight oscillation of the crystal during the exposure. The OLA method allows for simple and precise peak energy determination and harmonic overlap deconvolution through measurement of X-ray attenuation coefficient of metal foils inserted into incident beam. The method provides an easy reliable way of determining unit cells of unknown single-crystal phases, yields multiple monochromatic structure factor sets covering wide range of energies, which can be used for Multiple Anomalous Dispersion (MAD) based structure solution or enhancement of contrast between neighboring elements in the periodic table, and allows the routine ab initio solution of unknown structures. The results of our first experiments, performed at sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source Laboratory, and aimed at determination of the compression mechanism of escolite (Cr2O3) will be presented and discussed in the context of application of the new approach in micromineralogy, characterization of meteoritic samples, and high-pressure mineral physics.

  2. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-07-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (VX,VY,VZ)=(10.5,18.5,7.3)+/-0.1 km s-1 not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (VX,VY,VZ)=(9.9,15.6,6.9)+/-0.2 km s-1. The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0+/-1.4, B=-13.1+/-1.2, K=1.1+/-1.8, and C=-2.9+/-1.4 km s-1 kpc-1. The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at ~-20 km s-1 kpc-1. A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z>1 kpc), but here we surmise its existence in the thin disk at z<200 pc. The most unexpected and unexplained term within

  3. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0 +/- 1.4, B=13.1 +/- 1.2, K=1.1 +/- 1.8, and C=2.9 +/- 1.4 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at approximately -20 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z greater than 1 kpc

  4. Reexamining the high-order harmonic generation of HD molecule in non-Born-Oppenheimer approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hongchuan; Yue, Shengjun; Wang, Huiqiao; Wu, Hongmei; Hu, Bitao

    2016-03-01

    The high-order harmonic generation of the HD molecule is studied in non-Born-Oppenheimer approximation. It is found that there are only the odd harmonics in the harmonic spectrum of the HD molecule though the generation of even harmonics is possible in principle. Theoretical analysis [T. Kreibich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103901 (2001)] reveals that the nuclear dipole moment can contribute to the generation of the even harmonics, but the acceleration of the nucleus is about three orders of magnitude less than that of the electron. Hence, the even harmonics cannot be observed in the harmonic spectrum of the HD molecule.

  5. Reactor Physics Methods and Analysis Capabilities in SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D; Bowman, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for performing reactor physics analysis. This paper presents a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as next-generation power reactors and space reactors require new high-fidelity physics methods, such as those available in SCALE/TRITON, that accurately represent the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light water reactor designs.

  6. Reactor Physics Methods and Analysis Capabilities in SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. DeHart; Stephen M. Bowman

    2011-05-01

    The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for performing reactor physics analysis. This paper presents a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as next-generation power reactors and space reactors require new high-fidelity physics methods, such as those available in SCALE/TRITON, that accurately represent the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light water reactor designs.

  7. A Global Sensitivity Analysis Methodology for Multi-physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, C H; Graziani, F R

    2007-02-02

    Experiments are conducted to draw inferences about an entire ensemble based on a selected number of observations. This applies to both physical experiments as well as computer experiments, the latter of which are performed by running the simulation models at different input configurations and analyzing the output responses. Computer experiments are instrumental in enabling model analyses such as uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. This report focuses on a global sensitivity analysis methodology that relies on a divide-and-conquer strategy and uses intelligent computer experiments. The objective is to assess qualitatively and/or quantitatively how the variabilities of simulation output responses can be accounted for by input variabilities. We address global sensitivity analysis in three aspects: methodology, sampling/analysis strategies, and an implementation framework. The methodology consists of three major steps: (1) construct credible input ranges; (2) perform a parameter screening study; and (3) perform a quantitative sensitivity analysis on a reduced set of parameters. Once identified, research effort should be directed to the most sensitive parameters to reduce their uncertainty bounds. This process is repeated with tightened uncertainty bounds for the sensitive parameters until the output uncertainties become acceptable. To accommodate the needs of multi-physics application, this methodology should be recursively applied to individual physics modules. The methodology is also distinguished by an efficient technique for computing parameter interactions. Details for each step will be given using simple examples. Numerical results on large scale multi-physics applications will be available in another report. Computational techniques targeted for this methodology have been implemented in a software package called PSUADE.

  8. Index calculation by means of harmonic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Yosuke

    2015-11-01

    We review derivation of superconformal indices by means of supersymmetric localization and spherical harmonic expansion for 3d mathcal {N}=2, 4d mathcal {N}=1, and 6d mathcal {N}=(1,0) supersymmetric gauge theories. We demonstrate calculation of indices for vector multiplets in each dimension by analyzing energy eigenmodes in {boldsymbol S}^p × mathbb {R}. For the 6d index we consider the perturbative contribution only. We focus on the technical details of harmonic expansion rather than physical applications.

  9. QA/QC requirements for physical properties sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Innis, B.E.

    1993-07-21

    This report presents results of an assessment of the available information concerning US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements and guidance applicable to sampling, handling, and analyzing physical parameter samples at Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation sites. Geotechnical testing laboratories measure the following physical properties of soil and sediment samples collected during CERCLA remedial investigations (RI) at the Hanford Site: moisture content, grain size by sieve, grain size by hydrometer, specific gravity, bulk density/porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and permeability of rocks by flowing air. Geotechnical testing laboratories also measure the following chemical parameters of soil and sediment samples collected during Hanford Site CERCLA RI: calcium carbonate and saturated column leach testing. Physical parameter data are used for (1) characterization of vadose and saturated zone geology and hydrogeology, (2) selection of monitoring well screen sizes, (3) to support modeling and analysis of the vadose and saturated zones, and (4) for engineering design. The objectives of this report are to determine the QA/QC levels accepted in the EPA Region 10 for the sampling, handling, and analysis of soil samples for physical parameters during CERCLA RI.

  10. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the physics of water rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio-Perotti, R.; Blanco-Marigorta, E.; Fernández-Francos, J.; Galdo-Vega, M.

    2010-09-01

    A simple rocket can be made using a plastic bottle filled with a volume of water and pressurized air. When opened, the air pressure pushes the water out of the bottle. This causes an increase in the bottle momentum so that it can be propelled to fairly long distances or heights. Water rockets are widely used as an educational activity, and several mathematical models have been proposed to investigate and predict their physics. However, the real equations that describe the physics of the rockets are so complicated that certain assumptions are usually made to obtain models that are easier to use. These models provide relatively good predictions but fail in describing the complex physics of the flow. This paper presents a detailed theoretical analysis of the physics of water rockets that concludes with the proposal of a physical model. The validity of the model is checked by a series of field tests. The tests showed maximum differences with predictions of about 6%. The proposed model is finally used to investigate the temporal evolution of some significant variables during the propulsion and flight of the rocket. The experience and procedure described in this paper can be proposed to graduate students and also at undergraduate level if certain simplifications are assumed in the general equations.

  11. Optical harmonic generator

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Mark A.; Eimerl, David; Boyd, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The "extraordinary" or "e" directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90.degree.). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude "o" and "e" components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has "o" and "e" components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 ("o":"e" reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10.degree.. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axes ("o").

  12. Optical harmonic generator

    DOEpatents

    Summers, M.A.; Eimerl, D.; Boyd, R.D.

    1982-06-10

    A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The extraordinary or e directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90/sup 0/). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude o and e components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has o and e components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 (o:e reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10/sup 0/. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axeses (o).

  13. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process. PMID:25611867

  14. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process.

  15. The Coupled Harmonic Oscillator: Not Just for Seniors Anymore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preyer, Norris W.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use Microcomputer Based Laboratory (MBL) techniques to enable freshmen physics students to investigate complex systems, such as nonlinear oscillators or coupled harmonic oscillators, at a level appropriate for an independent project. (JRH)

  16. Light and harmonicity: the golden section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftopoulos, Dionysios G.

    2015-09-01

    Adhering to Werner Heisenberg's and to the school of Copenhagen's physical philosophy we introduce the localized observer as an absolutely necessary element of a consistent physical description of nature. Thus we have synthesized the theory of the harmonicity of the field of light, which attempts to present a new approach to the events in the human perceptible space. It is an axiomatic theory based on the selection of the projective space as the geometrical space of choice, while its first fundamental hypothesis is none other than special relativity theory's second hypothesis, properly modified. The result is that all our observations and measurements of physical entities always refer not to their present state but rather to a previous one, a conclusion evocative of the "shadows" paradigm in Plato's cave allegory. In the kinematics of a material point this previous state we call "conjugate position", which has been called the "retarded position" by Richard Feynman. We prove that the relation of the present position with its conjugate is ruled by a harmonic tetrad. Thus the relation of the elements of the geometrical (noetic) and the perceptible space is harmonic. In this work we show a consequence of this harmonic relation: the golden section.

  17. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Motloch, C.G.; Bonney, R.F.; Levine, J.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Masson, L.S.; Commander, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), includes an indication of the magnitude of facility hazards, complexity of facility operations, and the stage of the facility life-cycle. It presents the results of safety analyses, safety assurance programs, identified vulnerabilities, compensatory measures, and, in general, the rationale describing why the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) can be safely operated. It discusses application of the graded approach to the TPX safety analysis, including the basis for using Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 and DOE-STD-3009-94 in the development of the PSAR.

  18. Harmonic uniflow engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-03-22

    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  19. Physics-Based Simulator for NEO Exploration Analysis & Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Cameron, J.; Jain, A.; Kline, H.; Lim, C.; Mazhar, H.; Myint, S.; Nayar, H.; Patton, R.; Pomerantz, M.; Quadrelli, M.; Shakkotai, P.; Tso, K.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Space Exploration Analysis and Simulation (SEAS) task, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is using physics-based simulations at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to explore potential surface and near-surface mission operations at Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The simulator is under development at JPL and can be used to provide detailed analysis of various surface and near-surface NEO robotic and human exploration concepts. In this paper we describe the SEAS simulator and provide examples of recent mission systems and operations concepts investigated using the simulation. We also present related analysis work and tools developed for both the SEAS task as well as general modeling, analysis and simulation capabilites for asteroid/small-body objects.

  20. Meta-Analysis of Workplace Physical Activity Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Cooper, Pamela S.; Brown, Lori M.; Lusk, Sally L.

    2009-01-01

    Context Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from these programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Evidence acquisition Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Evidence synthesis Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21), fitness (0.57), lipids (0.13), anthropometric measures (0.08), work attendance (0.19), and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is more tentative given small sample sizes. Significant heterogeneity documents intervention effects varied across studies. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on V02max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, −0.2 on total cholesterol:HDL; and for diabetes risk, −12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. Conclusions These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity. PMID:19765506

  1. Harmonic Frequency Lowering

    PubMed Central

    Kirchberger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A novel algorithm for frequency lowering in music was developed and experimentally tested in hearing-impaired listeners. Harmonic frequency lowering (HFL) combines frequency transposition and frequency compression to preserve the harmonic content of music stimuli. Listeners were asked to make judgments regarding detail and sound quality in music stimuli. Stimuli were presented under different signal processing conditions: original, low-pass filtered, HFL, and nonlinear frequency compressed. Results showed that participants reported perceiving the most detail in the HFL condition. In addition, there was no difference in sound quality across conditions. PMID:26834122

  2. Booster double harmonic setup notes

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-02-17

    The motivation behind implementing a booster double harmonic include the reduced transverse space charge force from a reduced peak beam current and reduced momentum spread of the beam, both of which can be achieved from flattening the RF bucket. RF capture and acceleration of polarized protons (PP) is first set up in the single harmonic mode with RF harmonic h=1. Once capture and acceleration have been set up in the single harmonic mode, the second harmonic system is brought on and programmed to operate in concert with the single harmonic system.

  3. Comparative analysis of the high-order harmonic generation in the laser ablation plasmas prepared on the surfaces of complex and atomic targets

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Milosevic, D. B.

    2008-07-15

    We analyzed high-order harmonic generation from the plasma plumes prepared on the surfaces of complex targets. The studies of In-Ag targets showed that the characteristics of the high-order harmonics from the double-target plume were the same as those from the single-target plasmas. For the chromium-tellurium plasma, the enhancements of the 29th and 27th harmonics were obtained, thus indicating the appearance of the enhancement properties from both components of the double-target plasma. These comparative studies also showed higher enhancement of a single harmonic in the case of atomic plasma (Sb) with regard to the molecular one (InSb). The additional component can only decrease the enhancement factor of the medium, due to the change of the oscillator strength and spectral distribution of the transitions involved in the resonance enhancement of the specific harmonic order. The theoretical calculations have shown the enhancement of specific harmonics for the Sb, Te, and Cr plasmas in the double-target configurations.

  4. Characterization of collagen fibers by means of texture analysis of second harmonic generation images using orientation-dependent gray level co-occurrence matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenyan; Li, Hui; Wang, Chunyou; Gou, Shanmiao; Fu, Ling

    2012-02-01

    Collagen is the most prominent protein in the human body, making up 30% of the total protein content. Quantitative studies have shown structural differences between collagen fibers of the normal and diseased tissues, due to the remodeling of the extracellular matrix during the pathological process. The dominant orientation, which is an important characteristic of collagen fibers, has not been taken into consideration for quantitative collagen analysis. Based on the conventional gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method, the authors proposed the orientation-dependent GLCM (OD-GLCM) method by estimating the dominant orientation of collagen fibers. The authors validated the utility of the OD-GLCM method on second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopic images of tendons from rats with different ages. Compared with conventional GLCM method, the authors' method has not only improved the discrimination between different tissues but also provided additional texture information of the orderliness of collagen fibers and the fiber size. The OD-GLCM method was further applied to the differentiation of the preliminary SHG images of normal and cancerous human pancreatic tissues. The combination of SHG microscopy and the OD-GLCM method might be helpful for the evaluation of diseases marked with abnormal collagen morphology.

  5. Theoretical and computational analysis of second- and third-harmonic generation in periodically patterned graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weismann, Martin; Panoiu, Nicolae C.

    2016-07-01

    Remarkable optical and electrical properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers, offer vast technological potential for novel and improved optoelectronic nanodevices, many of which rely on nonlinear optical effects in these 2D materials. This paper introduces a highly effective numerical method for efficient and accurate description of linear and nonlinear optical effects in nanostructured 2D materials embedded in periodic photonic structures containing regular three-dimensional (3D) optical materials, such as diffraction gratings and periodic metamaterials. The proposed method builds upon the rigorous coupled-wave analysis and incorporates the nonlinear optical response of 2D materials by means of modified electromagnetic boundary conditions. This allows one to reduce the mathematical framework of the numerical method to an inhomogeneous scattering matrix formalism, which makes it more accurate and efficient than previously used approaches. An overview of linear and nonlinear optical properties of graphene and TMDC monolayers is given and the various features of the corresponding optical spectra are explored numerically and discussed. To illustrate the versatility of our numerical method, we use it to investigate the linear and nonlinear multiresonant optical response of 2D-3D heteromaterials for enhanced and tunable second- and third-harmonic generation. In particular, by employing a structured 2D material optically coupled to a patterned slab waveguide, we study the interplay between geometric resonances associated to guiding modes of periodically patterned slab waveguides and plasmon or exciton resonances of 2D materials.

  6. Experimental Harmonic Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, G. F. C.

    2014-05-01

    1. Elementary theory of harmonic motion; 2. Experimental work in harmonic motion; Experiment 1. Determination of g by a simple pendulum; Experiment 2. Harmonic motion of a body suspended by a spring; Experiment 3. Harmonic motion of a rigid body suspended by a torsion wire; Experiment 4. Study of a system with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 5. Dynamical determination of ratio of couple to twist for a torsion wire; Experiment 6. Comparison of the moments of inertia of two bodies; Experiment 7. Experiment with a pair of inertia bars; Experiment 8. Determination of the moment of inertia of a rigid pendulum; Experiment 9. Experiment on a pendulum with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 10. Determination of g by a rigid pendulum; Experiment 11. Pendulum on a yielding support; Experiment 12. Determination of the radius of curvature of a concave mirror by the oscillations of a sphere rolling in it; Experiment 13. Determination of g by the oscillations of a rod rolling on a cylinder; Experiment 14. Study of a vibrating system with two degrees of freedom; Note 1. On the vibration of a body suspended from a light spring; Note 2. Periodic time of a pendulum vibrating through a finite arc; Note 3. Periodic time for finite motion; Note 4. Periodic times of a pendulum with two degrees of freedom.

  7. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  8. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.

    1985-08-06

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs.

  9. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  10. Introducing Simple Harmonic Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, John

    2002-01-01

    Explains the origin and significance of harmonic motion which is an important topic that has wide application in the world. Describes the phenomenon by using an auxiliary circle to help illustrate the key relationships between acceleration, displacement, time, velocity, and phase. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  11. Coherent harmonic production using a two-section undulator FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroszynski, D.A.; Prazeres, R.; Glotin, F.

    1995-12-31

    We present measurements and a theoretical analysis of a new method of generating harmonic radiation in a free-electron laser oscillator with a two section undulator in a single optical cavity. To produce coherent harmonic radiation the undulator is arranged so that the downstream undulator section resonance frequency matches a harmonic of the upstream undulator. Both the fundamental and the harmonic optical fields evolve in the same optical cavity and are coupled out with different extraction fractions using a hole in one of the cavity mirrors. We present measurements that show that the optical power at the second and third harmonic can be enhanced by more than an order of magnitude in this fundamental/harmonic configuration. We compare the production of harmonic radiation of a two sectioned fundamental/harmonic undulator with that produced from a FEL operating at its highest efficiency with a step-tapered undulator, where the bunching at the end of the first section is very large. We examine, the dependence of the harmonic power on the intracavity power by adjusting the optical cavity desynchronism, {delta}L. We also examine the evolution of the fundamental and harmonic powers as a function of cavity roundtrip number to evaluate the importance of the small signal gain at the harmonic. We compare our measurements with predictions of a multi-electron numerical model that follows the evolution of fundamental and harmonic power to saturation. This fundamental/harmonic mode, of operation of the FEL may have useful applications in the production of coherent X-ray and VUV radiation, a spectral range where high reflectivity optical cavity mirrors are difficult or impossible to manufacture.

  12. Introduction to the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L. (Editor); Peters, D. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Space Physics Analysis Network or SPAN is emerging as a viable method for solving an immediate communication problem for the space scientist. SPAN provides low-rate communication capability with co-investigators and colleagues, and access to space science data bases and computational facilities. The SPAN utilizes up-to-date hardware and software for computer-to-computer communications allowing binary file transfer and remote log-on capability to over 25 nationwide space science computer systems. SPAN is not discipline or mission dependent with participation from scientists in such fields as magnetospheric, ionospheric, planetary, and solar physics. Basic information on the network and its use are provided. It is anticipated that SPAN will grow rapidly over the next few years, not only from the standpoint of more network nodes, but as scientists become more proficient in the use of telescience, more capability will be needed to satisfy the demands.

  13. Toward the automated analysis of plasma physics problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1989-04-01

    A program (CALC) is described, which carries out nontrivial plasma physics calculations, in a manner intended to emulate the approach of a human theorist. This includes the initial process of gathering the relevant equations from a plasma knowledge base, and then determining how to solve them. Solution of the sets of equations governing physics problems, which in general have a nonuniform,irregular structure, not amenable to solution by standardized algorithmic procedures, is facilitated by an analysis of the structure of the equations and the relations among them. This often permits decompositions of the full problem into subproblems, and other simplifications in form, which renders the resultant subsystems soluble by more standardized tools. CALC's operation is illustrated by a detailed description of its treatment of a sample plasma calculation. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Disability in physical education textbooks: an analysis of image content.

    PubMed

    Táboas-Pais, María Inés; Rey-Cao, Ana

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how images of disability are portrayed in physical education textbooks for secondary schools in Spain. The sample was composed of 3,316 images published in 36 textbooks by 10 publishing houses. A content analysis was carried out using a coding scheme based on categories employed in other similar studies and adapted to the requirements of this study with additional categories. The variables were camera angle, gender, type of physical activity, field of practice, space, and level. Univariate and bivariate descriptive analyses were also carried out. The Pearson chi-square statistic was used to identify associations between the variables. Results showed a noticeable imbalance between people with disabilities and people without disabilities, and women with disabilities were less frequently represented than men with disabilities. People with disabilities were depicted as participating in a very limited variety of segregated, competitive, and elite sports activities. PMID:23027145

  15. Selection rules for harmonic generation in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2015-05-01

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a bulk crystal was first observed in 2011 [S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, Nat. Phys. 7, 138 (2011), 10.1038/nphys1847]. Only odd-order harmonics were observed as expected on the basis of the selection rules in solids, which were derived when only the interband currents were taken into consideration. Here we study HHG in solids when the intraband currents are taken into consideration as well. We show that the dynamical selection rules are broken in solids and the possibility of generation of even-order harmonics cannot be excluded on the basis of the dynamical symmetry analysis. However, a simple analysis of the expression we obtained for the amplitude of the emitted high-order harmonics shows, without the need to carry out numerical calculations, that the even-order harmonics are suppressed due to the localization of the field-free one-electron density probability on the atoms in the solids.

  16. Application of higher harmonic blade feathering for helicopter vibration reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Higher harmonic blade feathering for helicopter vibration reduction is considered. Recent wind tunnel tests confirmed the effectiveness of higher harmonic control in reducing articulated rotor vibratory hub loads. Several predictive analyses developed in support of the NASA program were shown to be capable of calculating single harmonic control inputs required to minimize a single 4P hub response. In addition, a multiple-input, multiple-output harmonic control predictive analysis was developed. All techniques developed thus far obtain a solution by extracting empirical transfer functions from sampled data. Algorithm data sampling and processing requirements are minimal to encourage adaptive control system application of such techniques in a flight environment.

  17. Physical explosion analysis in heat exchanger network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasha, M.; Zaini, D.; Shariff, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The failure of shell and tube heat exchangers is being extensively experienced by the chemical process industries. This failure can create a loss of production for long time duration. Moreover, loss of containment through heat exchanger could potentially lead to a credible event such as fire, explosion and toxic release. There is a need to analyse the possible worst case effect originated from the loss of containment of the heat exchanger at the early design stage. Physical explosion analysis during the heat exchanger network design is presented in this work. Baker and Prugh explosion models are deployed for assessing the explosion effect. Microsoft Excel integrated with process design simulator through object linking and embedded (OLE) automation for this analysis. Aspen HYSYS V (8.0) used as a simulation platform in this work. A typical heat exchanger network of steam reforming and shift conversion process was presented as a case study. It is investigated from this analysis that overpressure generated from the physical explosion of each heat exchanger can be estimated in a more precise manner by using Prugh model. The present work could potentially assist the design engineer to identify the critical heat exchanger in the network at the preliminary design stage.

  18. Distribution system harmonic filter planning

    SciTech Connect

    Ortmeyer, T.H.; Hiyama, Takashi

    1996-10-01

    A planning methodology for distribution system harmonic filtering is proposed. The method is intended for use on radial distribution systems with no large harmonic sources. It is proposed that 60 hertz var planning be done first to allocate the var resources. Following this process, the harmonic filter planning can be readily accomplished. Characteristics of the distribution systems and the harmonic sources are exploited to provide a practical filter planning technique which is effective and efficient.

  19. Applying cluster analysis to physics education research data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springuel, R. Padraic

    One major thrust of Physics Education Research (PER) is the identification of student ideas about specific physics concepts, both correct ideas and those that differ from the expert consensus. Typically the research process of eliciting the spectrum of student ideas involves the administration of specially designed questions to students. One major analysis task in PER is the sorting of these student responses into thematically coherent groups. This process is one which has previously been done by eye in PER. This thesis explores the possibility of using cluster analysis to perform the task in a more rigorous and less time-intensive fashion while making fewer assumptions about what the students are doing. Since this technique has not previously been used in PER, a summary of the various kinds of cluster analysis is included as well as a discussion of which might be appropriate for the task of sorting student responses into groups. Two example data sets (one based on the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (DICE) the other looking at acceleration in two-dimensions (A2D) are examined in depth to demonstrate how cluster analysis can be applied to PER data and the various considerations which must be taken into account when doing so. In both cases, the techniques described in this thesis found 5 groups which contained about 90% of the students in the data set. The results of this application are compared to previous research on the topics covered by the two examples to demonstrate that cluster analysis can effectively uncover the same patterns in student responses that have already been identified.

  20. The time-dependent quantum harmonic oscillator revisited: Applications to quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Vergel, Daniel Villasenor, Eduardo J.S.

    2009-06-15

    In this article, we formulate the study of the unitary time evolution of systems consisting of an infinite number of uncoupled time-dependent harmonic oscillators in mathematically rigorous terms. We base this analysis on the theory of a single one-dimensional time-dependent oscillator, for which we first summarize some basic results concerning the unitary implementability of the dynamics. This is done by employing techniques different from those used so far to derive the Feynman propagator. In particular, we calculate the transition amplitudes for the usual harmonic oscillator eigenstates and define suitable semiclassical states for some physically relevant models. We then explore the possible extension of this study to infinite dimensional dynamical systems. Specifically, we construct Schroedinger functional representations in terms of appropriate probability spaces, analyze the unitarity of the time evolution, and probe the existence of semiclassical states for a wide range of physical systems, particularly, the well-known Minkowskian free scalar fields and Gowdy cosmological models.

  1. Management of the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Thomas, Valerie L.; Butler, Todd F.; Peters, David J.; Sisson, Patricia L.

    1990-01-01

    Here, the purpose is to define the operational management structure and to delineate the responsibilities of key Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) individuals. The management structure must take into account the large NASA and ESA science research community by giving them a major voice in the operation of the system. Appropriate NASA and ESA interfaces must be provided so that there will be adequate communications facilities available when needed. Responsibilities are delineated for the Advisory Committee, the Steering Committee, the Project Scientist, the Project Manager, the SPAN Security Manager, the Internetwork Manager, the Network Operations Manager, the Remote Site Manager, and others.

  2. Multi-Physics Analysis of the Fermilab Booster RF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Awida, M.; Reid, J.; Yakovlev, V.; Lebedev, V.; Khabiboulline, T.; Champion, M.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-14

    After about 40 years of operation the RF accelerating cavities in Fermilab Booster need an upgrade to improve their reliability and to increase the repetition rate in order to support a future experimental program. An increase in the repetition rate from 7 to 15 Hz entails increasing the power dissipation in the RF cavities, their ferrite loaded tuners, and HOM dampers. The increased duty factor requires careful modelling for the RF heating effects in the cavity. A multi-physic analysis investigating both the RF and thermal properties of Booster cavity under various operating conditions is presented in this paper.

  3. Determining physical constraints in transcriptional initiationcomplexes using DNA sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shultzaberger, Ryan K.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Moses, Alan M.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2007-07-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is often under the control ofcooperatively acting transcription factors whose binding is limited bystructural constraints. By determining these structural constraints, wecan understand the "rules" that define functional cooperativity.Conversely, by understanding the rules of binding, we can inferstructural characteristics. We have developed an information theory basedmethod for approximating the physical limitations of cooperativeinteractions by comparing sequence analysis to microarray expressiondata. When applied to the coordinated binding of the sulfur amino acidregulatory protein Met4 by Cbf1 and Met31, we were able to create acombinatorial model that can correctly identify Met4 regulatedgenes.

  4. Harmonization, Trade, and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Candice

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the harmonization of international methods for the development and administration of product standards. Defines the term "harmonization" and discusses the harmonization of environmental policies and purposes involving product standards; environmental regulations on production methods, technologies, and practices; and life-cycle…

  5. Second harmonic inversion for ultrasound contrast harmonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasovic, Mirza; Danilouchkine, Mike; Faez, Telli; van Neer, Paul L. M. J.; Cachard, Christian; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Basset, Olivier; de Jong, Nico

    2011-06-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are small micro-bubbles that behave nonlinearly when exposed to an ultrasound wave. This nonlinear behavior can be observed through the generated higher harmonics in a back-scattered echo. In past years several techniques have been proposed to detect or image harmonics produced by UCAs. In these proposed works, the harmonics generated in the medium during the propagation of the ultrasound wave played an important role, since these harmonics compete with the harmonics generated by the micro-bubbles. We present a method for the reduction of the second harmonic generated during nonlinear-propagation-dubbed second harmonic inversion (SHI). A general expression for the suppression signals is also derived. The SHI technique uses two pulses, p' and p'', of the same frequency f0 and the same amplitude P0 to cancel out the second harmonic generated by nonlinearities of the medium. Simulations show that the second harmonic is reduced by 40 dB on a large axial range. Experimental SHI B-mode images, from a tissue-mimicking phantom and UCAs, show an improvement in the agent-to-tissue ratio (ATR) of 20 dB compared to standard second harmonic imaging and 13 dB of improvement in harmonic power Doppler.

  6. Analysis of the physical demands of international rugby union.

    PubMed

    McLean, D A

    1992-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physical demands of international rugby union. Five games in the 1989-90 Five Nations Championship were analysed using video-recordings of live television transmissions. When the ball was in open play, the average running pace of players central to the action ranged from 5 to 8 m s-1. This together with scrum, lineout, ruck and maul was classified as high-intensity exercise. The density of work was measured by timing the work:rest ratios (W:RRs) throughout each game. The mean duration of the work periods was 19 s and the most frequent W:RRs were in the range of 1:1 to 1:1.9. On average, a scrum, lineout, ruck or maul occurred every 33 s. The ball was in play for an average of 29 min during a scheduled time of play of 80 min. To complement the time-motion analysis, blood samples were taken from six players throughout a first-class game. The highest measured blood lactate (BLa) concentrations for each individual ranged from 5.8 to 9.8 mM. Running speed, duration, BLa levels, physical confrontation and, most particularly, the density of work as illustrated by the W:RRs indicate that the game places greater demands on anaerobic glycolysis than previously reported. This has implications for the physical conditioning of rugby union players. PMID:1602530

  7. Raising and lowering operators of spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Abhay G.; Whiting, Bernard F.

    2016-06-01

    Differential operators for raising and lowering angular momentum for spherical harmonics are used widely in many branches of physics. Less well known are raising and lowering operators for both spin and the azimuthal component of angular momentum (Goldberg et al. in J Math Phys 8:2155, 1967). In this paper we generalize the spin-raising and lowering operators of spin-weighted spherical harmonics to operators linear-in-γ for spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics, where γ is an additional parameter present in the second order ordinary differential equation governing these harmonics. Constructing these operators has required using all the ℓ -, s- and m-raising and lowering operators (and various combinations of them) for spin-weighted spherical harmonics, which have been calculated and shown explicitly in this paper. Following a well-defined procedure, the operators given could be generalized to higher powers in γ.

  8. Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) of networked systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, David P.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; McDonald, Michael James; Onunkwo, Uzoma A.; Tarman, Thomas David; Urias, Vincent E.

    2009-09-01

    This report describes recent progress made in developing and utilizing hybrid Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) environments. Many organizations require advanced tools to analyze their information system's security, reliability, and resilience against cyber attack. Today's security analysis utilize real systems such as computers, network routers and other network equipment, computer emulations (e.g., virtual machines) and simulation models separately to analyze interplay between threats and safeguards. In contrast, this work developed new methods to combine these three approaches to provide integrated hybrid SEPIA environments. Our SEPIA environments enable an analyst to rapidly configure hybrid environments to pass network traffic and perform, from the outside, like real networks. This provides higher fidelity representations of key network nodes while still leveraging the scalability and cost advantages of simulation tools. The result is to rapidly produce large yet relatively low-cost multi-fidelity SEPIA networks of computers and routers that let analysts quickly investigate threats and test protection approaches.

  9. Physics-based stability analysis of MOS transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, A.; Steeneken, P. G.; Boksteen, B. K.; Heringa, A.; Scholten, A. J.; Schmitz, J.; Hueting, R. J. E.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a physics-based model is derived based on a linearization procedure for investigating the electrical, thermal and electro-thermal instability of power metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors. The proposed model can be easily interfaced with a circuit or device simulator to perform a failure analysis, making it particularly useful for power transistors. Furthermore, it allows mapping the failure points on a three-dimensional (3D) space defined by the gate-width normalized drain current, drain voltage and junction temperature. This leads to the definition of the Safe Operating Volume (SOV), a powerful frame work for making failure predictions and determining the main root of instability (electrical, thermal or electro-thermal) in different bias and operating conditions. A comparison between the modeled and the measured SOV of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) LDMOS transistors is reported to support the validity of the proposed stability analysis.

  10. Positron emission tomography: physics, instrumentation, and image analysis.

    PubMed

    Porenta, G

    1994-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive diagnostic technique that permits reconstruction of cross-sectional images of the human body which depict the biodistribution of PET tracer substances. A large variety of physiological PET tracers, mostly based on isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine is available and allows the in vivo investigation of organ perfusion, metabolic pathways and biomolecular processes in normal and diseased states. PET cameras utilize the physical characteristics of positron decay to derive quantitative measurements of tracer concentrations, a capability that has so far been elusive for conventional SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging techniques. Due to the short half lives of most PET isotopes, an on-site cyclotron and a radiochemistry unit are necessary to provide an adequate supply of PET tracers. While operating a PET center in the past was a complex procedure restricted to few academic centers with ample resources, PET technology has rapidly advanced in recent years and has entered the commercial nuclear medicine market. To date, the availability of compact cyclotrons with remote computer control, automated synthesis units for PET radiochemistry, high-performance PET cameras, and user-friendly analysis workstations permits installation of a clinical PET center within most nuclear medicine facilities. This review provides simple descriptions of important aspects concerning physics, instrumentation, and image analysis in PET imaging which should be understood by medical personnel involved in the clinical operation of a PET imaging center. PMID:7941595

  11. Nondeducibility-Based Analysis of Cyber-Physical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamage, Thoshitha; McMillin, Bruce

    Controlling information flow in a cyber-physical system (CPS) is challenging because cyber domain decisions and actions manifest themselves as visible changes in the physical domain. This paper presents a nondeducibility-based observability analysis for CPSs. In many CPSs, the capacity of a low-level (LL) observer to deduce high-level (HL) actions ranges from limited to none. However, a collaborative set of observers strategically located in a network may be able to deduce all the HL actions. This paper models a distributed power electronics control device network using a simple DC circuit in order to understand the effect of multiple observers in a CPS. The analysis reveals that the number of observers required to deduce all the HL actions in a system increases linearly with the number of configurable units. A simple definition of nondeducibility based on the uniqueness of low-level projections is also presented. This definition is used to show that a system with two security domain levels could be considered “nondeducibility secure” if no unique LL projections exist.

  12. Harmonic Electromagnetic Forces in Induction Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Fuminori; Matsushita, Makoto; Noda, Shinichi

    Recently, there has been increasing demand for quiet motors, and the same trend has been observed in the case of induction motors. In induction motors, electromagnetic noise is sometimes the predominant acoustic noise. In small motors, the major cause of vibration and noise is electromagnetic forces resulting from the combination of harmonic fluxes in the air gap. In this study, the spatial distribution of fundamental and harmonic time electromagnetic forces was studied by using search coils, by performing FEM analysis, and by using conventional equations. In a four-pole 2.2kW motor, harmonic electromagnetic forces were measured using 36 search coils on the inner surface of the stator teeth, and the spatial distribution of electromagnetic forces was obtained at each time harmonic frequency. Spatial distribution was also analyzed by FEM, and the results were analytically validated by using conventional equations. On the basis of these analyses, the spatial distribution of electromagnetic forces for various time harmonics was confirmed. These results can be used in the design and development of quiet motors.

  13. Harmonic electron correlation operator.

    PubMed

    Rassolov, Vitaly A

    2011-07-21

    An appealing way to model electron correlation within the single determinant wave function formalism is through the expectation value of a linear two-electron operator. For practical reasons, it is desirable for such an operator to be universal, i.e., not depend on the positions and types of nuclei in a molecule. We show how a perturbation theory applied to a hookium atom provides for a particular form of a correlation operator, hence called the harmonic correlation operator. The correlation operator approach is compared and contrasted to the traditional ways to describe electron correlation. To investigate the two-electron approximation of this operator, we apply it to many-electron hookium systems. To investigate the harmonic approximation, we apply it to the small atomic systems. Directions of future research are also discussed. PMID:21786991

  14. Evidence of High Harmonics from Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation for Seeding X-ray Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodle, M.; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron lasers hold great promise for the generation of fully coherent radiation in x-ray wavelengths. Here we report the first evidence of high harmonics from the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique in the realistic scenario where the laser energy modulation is comparable to the beam slice energy spread. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the seventh harmonic of the second seed laser is generated when the energy modulation amplitude is about 2-3 times the slice energy spread. The experiment confirms the underlying physics of echo-enabled harmonic generation and may have a strong impact on emerging seeded x-ray free electron lasers that are capable of generating laserlike x rays which will advance many areas of science.

  15. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, R. K.; Okatan, M. Baris; Rajapaksa, I.; Kim, Y.; Marincel, D.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Jesse, S.; Valanoor, N.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of nth order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials. PMID:24045269

  16. Degradation in finite-harmonic subcarrier demodulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feria, Y.; Townes, S.; Pham, T.

    1995-01-01

    Previous estimates on the degradations due to a subcarrier loop assume a square-wave subcarrier. This article provides a closed-form expression for the degradations due to the subcarrier loop when a finite number of harmonics are used to demodulate the subcarrier, as in the case of the buffered telemetry demodulator. We compared the degradations using a square wave and using finite harmonics in the subcarrier demodulation and found that, for a low loop signal-to-noise ratio, using finite harmonics leads to a lower degradation. The analysis is under the assumption that the phase noise in the subcarrier (SC) loop has a Tikhonov distribution. This assumption is valid for first-order loops.

  17. Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Orbital Mechanics: Application to Computations of Observables' Partials with Respect to Harmonics of the Planetary Gravity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustinov, Eugene A.; Sunseri, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    An approach is presented to the inversion of gravity fields based on evaluation of partials of observables with respect to gravity harmonics using the solution of adjoint problem of orbital dynamics of the spacecraft. Corresponding adjoint operator is derived directly from the linear operator of the linearized forward problem of orbital dynamics. The resulting adjoint problem is similar to the forward problem and can be solved by the same methods. For given highest degree N of gravity harmonics desired, this method involves integration of N adjoint solutions as compared to integration of N2 partials of the forward solution with respect to gravity harmonics in the conventional approach. Thus, for higher resolution gravity models, this approach becomes increasingly more effective in terms of computer resources as compared to the approach based on the solution of the forward problem of orbital dynamics.

  18. Harmonic multiplication using resonant tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Correa, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of resonant-tunneling diodes as varistors for harmonic multiplication. It is shown that efficient odd-harmonic conversion is possible and that even harmonics do not appear because of the antisymmetry of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. It is also shown that, with the proper choice of resonant-tunneling structure and pump amplitude, most of the harmonic output power can be confined to a single odd-harmonic frequency. Fifth-harmonic multiplication was demonstrated with an output at 21.75 GHz and a power conversion efficiency of 0.5 percent, and a fifth-harmonic efficiency of 2.7 percent was achieved in a circuit simulation using an improved I-V curve.

  19. Differentiation of Col I and Col III Isoforms in Stromal Models of Ovarian Cancer by Analysis of Second Harmonic Generation Polarization and Emission Directionality

    PubMed Central

    Tilbury, Karissa; Lien, Chi-Hsiang; Chen, Shean-Jen; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    A profound remodeling of the extracellular matrix occurs in many epithelial cancers. In ovarian cancer, the minor collagen isoform of Col III becomes upregulated in invasive disease. Here we use second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging microscopy to probe structural differences in fibrillar models of the ovarian stroma comprised of mixtures of Col I and III. The SHG intensity and forward-backward ratios decrease with increasing Col III content, consistent with decreased phasematching due to more randomized structures. We further probe the net collagen α-helix pitch angle within the gel mixtures using what is believed to be a new pixel-based polarization-resolved approach that combines and extends previous analyses. The extracted pitch angles are consistent with those of peptide models and the method has sufficient sensitivity to differentiate Col I from the Col I/Col III mixtures. We further developed the pixel-based approach to extract the SHG signal polarization anisotropy from the same polarization-resolved image matrix. Using this approach, we found that increased Col III results in decreased alignment of the dipole moments within the focal volume. Collectively, the SHG measurements and analysis all indicate that incorporation of Col III results in decreased organization across several levels of collagen organization. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the collagen isoforms comingle within the same fibrils, in good agreement with ultrastructural data. The pixel-based polarization analyses (both excitation and emission) afford determination of structural properties without the previous requirement of having well-aligned fibers, and the approaches should be generally applicable in tissue. PMID:24461010

  20. Differentiation of Col I and Col III isoforms in stromal models of ovarian cancer by analysis of second harmonic generation polarization and emission directionality.

    PubMed

    Tilbury, Karissa; Lien, Chi-Hsiang; Chen, Shean-Jen; Campagnola, Paul J

    2014-01-21

    A profound remodeling of the extracellular matrix occurs in many epithelial cancers. In ovarian cancer, the minor collagen isoform of Col III becomes upregulated in invasive disease. Here we use second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging microscopy to probe structural differences in fibrillar models of the ovarian stroma comprised of mixtures of Col I and III. The SHG intensity and forward-backward ratios decrease with increasing Col III content, consistent with decreased phasematching due to more randomized structures. We further probe the net collagen α-helix pitch angle within the gel mixtures using what is believed to be a new pixel-based polarization-resolved approach that combines and extends previous analyses. The extracted pitch angles are consistent with those of peptide models and the method has sufficient sensitivity to differentiate Col I from the Col I/Col III mixtures. We further developed the pixel-based approach to extract the SHG signal polarization anisotropy from the same polarization-resolved image matrix. Using this approach, we found that increased Col III results in decreased alignment of the dipole moments within the focal volume. Collectively, the SHG measurements and analysis all indicate that incorporation of Col III results in decreased organization across several levels of collagen organization. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the collagen isoforms comingle within the same fibrils, in good agreement with ultrastructural data. The pixel-based polarization analyses (both excitation and emission) afford determination of structural properties without the previous requirement of having well-aligned fibers, and the approaches should be generally applicable in tissue. PMID:24461010

  1. Point-based manifold harmonics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Prabhakaran, Balakrishnan; Guo, Xiaohu

    2012-10-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm to build a set of orthogonal Point-Based Manifold Harmonic Bases (PB-MHB) for spectral analysis over point-sampled manifold surfaces. To ensure that PB-MHB are orthogonal to each other, it is necessary to have symmetrizable discrete Laplace-Beltrami Operator (LBO) over the surfaces. Existing converging discrete LBO for point clouds, as proposed by Belkin et al., is not guaranteed to be symmetrizable. We build a new point-wisely discrete LBO over the point-sampled surface that is guaranteed to be symmetrizable, and prove its convergence. By solving the eigen problem related to the new operator, we define a set of orthogonal bases over the point cloud. Experiments show that the new operator is converging better than other symmetrizable discrete Laplacian operators (such as graph Laplacian) defined on point-sampled surfaces, and can provide orthogonal bases for further spectral geometric analysis and processing tasks. PMID:22879345

  2. Changes in physical activity behaviour and physical function after bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Herring, L Y; Stevinson, C; Davies, M J; Biddle, S Jh; Sutton, C; Bowrey, D; Carter, P

    2016-03-01

    Although physical activity performed after bariatric surgery is associated with enhanced weight loss outcomes, there is limited information on patients' physical activity behaviour in this context. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed pre-operative to post-operative changes in physical activity and physical function outcomes among obese adults undergoing bariatric surgery. A total of 50 studies met inclusion criteria with 26 papers reporting data for meta-analysis. Increases in both objectively recorded and self-reported physical activity at 12 months were demonstrated. Studies indicated that there was a shift towards a greater amount of active time, but of a lower intensity within the first 6 months of bariatric surgery, suggested by a reduction in moderate to vigorous physical activity but an increase in step count. A standardized mean difference (SMD) of 1.53 (95% CI: 1.02-2.04) based on nine studies indicated improved walking performance at 12 months. Similarly, analysis of five studies demonstrated increased musculoskeletal function at 3-6 months (SMD: 1.51; 95% CI: 0.60-2.42). No relationship was identified between changes in weight and walking performance post-surgery. More studies assessing physical activity, physical function and weight loss would help understand the role of physical activity in optimizing post-operative weight and functional outcomes. PMID:26783103

  3. High Harmonic Generation at Long Wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehy, B.; Martin, J. D. D.; DiMauro, L. F.; Agostini, P.; Schafer, K. J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund, ; Kulander, K. C.

    1999-12-20

    High harmonic radiation spectra up to 19th order in alkali metal vapors excited by an intense, picosecond mid-infrared (3-4 {mu} m ) laser are reported and compared to theory. The strong-field dynamics in the alkali metal atoms exhibit significant differences from all previously studied systems due to the strong coupling between their ground and first excited states. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  4. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT) study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62) were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2) were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population), social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p < .001) of the variance in the intention to engage in physical activity for 60 minutes every day. Important correlates of intention to engage in physical activity were attitude (beta = .225, p < .001), self-efficacy (beta = .271, p < .001), descriptive norm (beta = .172, p < .001) and barriers (beta = -.169, p < .01). Social-cognitive variables accounted for 52% (p < .001) of the variance in physical active behaviour (being physical active for 60 minutes every day). The intention to engage in physical activity (beta = .469, p < .001) and self-efficacy (beta = .243, p < .001) were, in turn, important correlates of physical active behavior. In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p < .01, R2 = .06, p < .001). An

  5. Ultra-high-Degree Surface Spherical Harmonic Analysis Using the Gauss-Legendre and the Driscoll/Healy Quadrature Theorem and Application to Planetary Topography Models of Earth, Mars and Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexer, Moritz; Hirt, Christian

    2015-11-01

    In geodesy and geophysics, spherical harmonic techniques are popular for modelling topography and potential fields with ever-increasing spatial resolution. For ultra-high-degree spherical harmonic modelling, i.e. degree 10,000 or more, classical algorithms need to be extended to avoid under- or overflow problems associated with the computation of associated Legendre functions (ALFs). In this work, two quadrature algorithms—the Gauss-Legendre (GL) quadrature and the quadrature following Driscoll/Healy (DH)—and their implementation for the purpose of ultra-high (surface) spherical harmonic analysis of spheroid functions are reviewed and modified for application to ultra-high degree. We extend the implementation of the algorithms in the SHTOOLS software package (v2.8) by (1) the X-number (or Extended Range Arithmetic) method for accurate computation of ALFs and (2) OpenMP directives enabling parallel processing within the analysis. Our modifications are shown to achieve feasible computation times and a very high precision: a degree-21,600 band-limited (=frequency limited) spheroid topographic function may be harmonically analysed with a maximum space-domain error of 3 × 10^{-5} and 5 × 10^{-5} m in 6 and 17 h using 14 CPUs for the GL and for the DH quadrature, respectively. While not being inferior in terms of precision, the GL quadrature outperforms the DH algorithm in terms of computation time. In the second part of the paper, we apply the modified quadrature algorithm to represent for—the first time—gridded topography models for Earth, Moon and Mars as ultra-high-degree series expansions comprising more than 2 billion coefficients. For the Earth's topography, we achieve a resolution of harmonic degree 43,200 (equivalent to 500 m in the space domain), for the Moon of degree 46,080 (equivalent to 120 m) and Mars to degree 23,040 (equivalent to 460 m). For the quality of the representation of the topographic functions in spherical harmonics, we use the

  6. Driven harmonic oscillator as a quantum simulator for open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Piilo, Jyrki; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2006-09-15

    We show theoretically how a driven harmonic oscillator can be used as a quantum simulator for the non-Markovian damped harmonic oscillator. In the general framework, our results demonstrate the possibility to use a closed system as a simulator for open quantum systems. The quantum simulator is based on sets of controlled drives of the closed harmonic oscillator with appropriately tailored electric field pulses. The non-Markovian dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator is obtained by using the information about the spectral density of the open system when averaging over the drives of the closed oscillator. We consider single trapped ions as a specific physical implementation of the simulator, and we show how the simulator approach reveals physical insight into the open system dynamics, e.g., the characteristic quantum mechanical non-Markovian oscillatory behavior of the energy of the damped oscillator, usually obtained by the non-Lindblad-type master equation, can have a simple semiclassical interpretation.

  7. Analysis of physical parameters measured during the ECRIN 96 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berton, Roland P. H.

    2008-07-01

    A general analysis of stratocumulus observations performed during the ECRIN96 Experiment is presented from the threefold point of view of vertical variability, statistical and spectral fluctuations, which provide information aiming at vertical profile and 3D modelling of these clouds. The analysis of vertical variability confirms essential features of stratocumulus retrieved via the constrained water cloud generator we developed elsewhere (Berton, R.P.H., 2008-this volume. Constrained water cloud generator. Atmos. Res., Paper I). Temperature gradients are found in good agreement with theoretical values in the bound of accuracy tolerance. The temperature difference at the cloud top is also consistent with model estimations and the maximum liquid water content is close to the result of our adiabatic modelling. The statistical analysis performed on the vertical velocity proves the importance of distribution skewness and shows that for both clouds the fraction of updrafts is larger than 0.5 and correlated with negative skewness as pointed out by several authors. Moreover, a relationship between the skewness and the kurtosis established by other authors for vertical velocity realisations is also shown by our data set, but for six parameters and with a different constant. Eventually, the spectral analysis leads to a classification of physical parameters in three classes according to the spectral index β: absolute humidity ( β ≈ 5/3), temperature and vertical velocity ( β ≈ 4/3), liquid water content and kinetic energy ( β ≈ 2/3 to 1). In particular, the liquid water content ( β ≈ 1) does not follow Kolmogorov law ( β = 5/3). Instead we find this latter value for absolute humidity. Nevertheless, our result for kinetic energy spectra ( β ≈ 2/3) is consistent with published analysis of turbulence in stratocumulus.

  8. Physical optics analysis of a four-reflector antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, A. G.

    1986-01-01

    Concern has been raised for the 64-m to 70-m antenna upgrade project that the 70-m system may experience greater S-band beam-pointing perturbations than the 64-m system. The S-band perturbations are due to minor (higher order) mode generation, causing subtle cross-polarization fields affecting beam pointing direction, as described herein. For the antennas in their present configuration (64 m), a slight S-band gain degradation of about 0.05 dB can be attributed to these effects. Therefore, a full physical optics analysis was performed for the present-day 64-m system, as described herein. The results were compared with past analyses and experimental observations in order to verify the algebra and computer code with the intent of deriving a valid analysis method for accurately analyzing the 70-m shaped dual reflector Cassegrainian antenna. The results of the new analysis appear to be in excellent agreement with previous analyses and experimental data.

  9. Physical optics analysis of a four-reflector antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, A. G.

    1986-08-01

    Concern has been raised for the 64-m to 70-m antenna upgrade project that the 70-m system may experience greater S-band beam-pointing perturbations than the 64-m system. The S-band perturbations are due to minor (higher order) mode generation, causing subtle cross-polarization fields affecting beam pointing direction, as described herein. For the antennas in their present configuration (64 m), a slight S-band gain degradation of about 0.05 dB can be attributed to these effects. Therefore, a full physical optics analysis was performed for the present-day 64-m system, as described herein. The results were compared with past analyses and experimental observations in order to verify the algebra and computer code with the intent of deriving a valid analysis method for accurately analyzing the 70-m shaped dual reflector Cassegrainian antenna. The results of the new analysis appear to be in excellent agreement with previous analyses and experimental data.

  10. Effective harmonic approach to helix proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung Nam Peter

    Recent laser-induced experiments have shown that on the time scale of long range tertiary contact formation, the kinetics of the helix-coil interconversion are very rapid (1). The notion that secondary structures form first before long range tertiary contacts are made, suggests that the helix-coil interconversion is one key in understanding the protein folding problem. We developed a method of generating an alpha-helix conformation of any residue using AMBER 4.0, the Protein Data Bank (PDB), and a series of pattern matching translation and rotation operations. We have chosen to study Alanine for its highly non polar nature, and Glutamine for its highly polar characteristic. Using the information obtained from the above method, analysis of vibrational lattice dynamics are carried out on polymers Poly-alpha-L alanine (PLA) and Poly-alpha-L glutamic acid (PLGA). The lattice dynamics method called Modified Self- consistent Harmonic Approach theory (MSHA) was used in carrying out the analysis of the PLA and PLGA helix-coil transition. MSHA was originally developed for the DNA molecule by Prohofsky et al. In this model, the molecule is considered as a one dimensional, repeating unit cell of an infinite helix. The lattice was modeled with harmonic force constants. Anharmonicity of hydrogen bond force constants at different temperatures are introduced along with the effects of water on the polar PLGA and the non polar PLA. Using MSHA, we calculated the opening bond probabilities of PLGA at different temperatures. The experimentally observed helix to coil relaxation time τ* of PLGA was inversely compared to our results with a correlation coefficient of 0.8424 (5, 13, 58). These experiments were done at temperatures ranging from 295 K to 310 K. Our calculation also yielded critical melting temperatures of Tc=317 K for PLGA and Tc=347 K for PLA. The calculated acoustic compressional velocities were 4.78 km/s and 4.84 km/s for PLA and PLGA respectively. Our calculation

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Normal mode analysis and applications in biological physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykeman, Eric C.; Sankey, Otto F.

    2010-10-01

    Normal mode analysis has become a popular and often used theoretical tool in the study of functional motions in enzymes, viruses, and large protein assemblies. The use of normal modes in the study of these motions is often extremely fruitful since many of the functional motions of large proteins can be described using just a few normal modes which are intimately related to the overall structure of the protein. In this review, we present a broad overview of several popular methods used in the study of normal modes in biological physics including continuum elastic theory, the elastic network model, and a new all-atom method, recently developed, which is capable of computing a subset of the low frequency vibrational modes exactly. After a review of the various methods, we present several examples of applications of normal modes in the study of functional motions, with an emphasis on viral capsids.

  12. Second harmonic FEL oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, George R.; Benson, S. V.; Biallas, G.; Freund, H. P.; Gubeli, J.; Jordan, K.; Myers, S.; Shinn, M. D.

    2002-05-01

    We have produced and measured for the first time second harmonic oscillation in the infrared region by the high-average-power Jefferson Lab Infrared Free Electron Laser. The finite geometry and beam emittance allows sufficient gain for lasing to occur. We were able to lase at pulse rates up to 74.85 MHz and could produce over 4.5 W average and 40 kW peak of IR power in a 40 nm FWHM bandwidth at 2925 nm. In agreement with predictions, the source preferentially lased in a TEM 01 mode. We present results of initial source performance measurements and comparisons with theory and simulation.

  13. Second Harmonic FEL Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, George R.; Benson, S. V.; Biallas, G.; Gubeli, J.; Jordan, K.; Myers, S.; Shinn, M. D.

    2001-08-01

    We have produced and measured for the first time second harmonic oscillation in the infrared region by a free electron laser. Although such lasing is ideally forbidden, since the gain of a plane wave is zero on axis for an electron beam perfectly aligned with a wiggler, a transverse mode antisymmetry allows sufficient gain in this experiment for lasing to occur. We lased at pulse rates up to 74.85 MHz and could produce over 4.5 W average and 40 kW peak of IR power in a 40 nm FWHM bandwidth at 2925 nm. In agreement with predictions, the source preferentially lased in a TEM01 mode.

  14. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C. R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts.

  15. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  16. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, A.; Agarwal, A.; Anderson, M.; Armstrong, P.; Fransham, K.; Gable, I.; Harris, D.; Impey, R.; Leavett-Brown, C.; Paterson, M.; Podaima, W.; Sobie, R. J.; Vliet, M.

    2012-02-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  17. Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2005-02-15

    The anthrax letters event of 2001 has raised our awareness of the potential importance of non-biological measurements on samples of biological agents used in a terrorism incident. Such measurements include a variety of mass spectral, spectroscopic, and other instrumental techniques that are part of the current armamentarium of the modern materials analysis or analytical chemistry laboratory. They can provide morphological, trace element, isotopic, and other molecular ''fingerprints'' of the agent that may be key pieces of evidence, supplementing that obtained from genetic analysis or other biological properties. The generation and interpretation of such data represents a new domain of forensic science, closely aligned with other areas of ''microbial forensics''. This paper describes some major elements of the R&D agenda that will define this sub-field in the immediate future and provide the foundations for a coherent national capability. Data from chemical and physical analysis of BW materials can be useful to an investigation of a bio-terror event in two ways. First, it can be used to compare evidence samples collected at different locations where such incidents have occurred (e.g. between the powders in the New York and Washington letters in the Amerithrax investigation) or between the attack samples and those seized during the investigation of sites where it is suspected the material was manufactured (if such samples exist). Matching of sample properties can help establish the relatedness of disparate incidents, and mis-matches might exclude certain scenarios, or signify a more complex etiology of the events under investigation. Chemical and morphological analysis for sample matching has a long history in forensics, and is likely to be acceptable in principle in court, assuming that match criteria are well defined and derived from known limits of precision of the measurement techniques in question. Thus, apart from certain operational issues (such as how to

  18. Destructive physical analysis of degraded quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Y.; Lingley, Z.; Brodie, M.; Presser, N.; Moss, S. C.; Kirch, J.; Chang, C. C.; Boyle, C.; Mawst, L. J.; Botez, D.; Lindberg, D.; Earles, T.

    2015-03-01

    Remarkable progress made in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) has led them to find an increasing number of applications in remote sensing, chemical sensing, and free space communications, in addition to potential space applications. However, little has been reported on reliability and failure modes of QCLs although it is crucial to understand failure modes and underlying degradation mechanisms in developing QCLs that meet lifetime requirements for space missions. Focused ion beam (FIB) techniques have been employed to investigate failure modes in various types of laser diodes. Our group has also used FIB to study failure modes in single-mode and multi-mode InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers, but few groups have used this technique to investigate failure modes in QCLs. In our study, we report on destructive physical analysis (DPA) of degraded InGaAs-InAlAs QCLs using FIB and high-resolution TEM techniques. The active region of QCLs that we studied consisted of two-23 stage layers of InGaAs-InAlAs separated by a 0.5 μm thick InP spacer layer for 8.4μm QCLs and 30-stage layers of lattice-matched InGaAs-InAlAs heterostructure for 4.7μm QCLs. The MOVPE-grown laser structures were fabricated into deep-etched ridge waveguide QCLs. L-I-V-spectral characteristics were measured at RT under pulsed operation. Our 8.4μm QCLs with as-cleaved and HR-coated facets showed a laser threshold of 1.7 A and a threshold voltage of 13 V at RT, whereas our 4.7μm QCLs without facet coating showed threshold currents of 320 - 400 mA and threshold voltages of 13 - 13.5V. Failures were generated via short-term tests of QCLs. FIB systems were used to study the damage area on the front facet and also to prepare TEM cross sections at different locations along the waveguide for defect and chemical analyses using a HR-TEM. In contrast to the COMD damaged area showing as a blister on the front facet of QW lasers, the damaged area of QCLs was significantly extended into the InP substrate due to a much

  19. Preliminary Rock Physics Analysis on Lodgepole Formation in Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, N.; Keehm, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We present rock physics analysis results of Lodgepole Formation, a carbonate reservoir in Daly Field, Manitoba, Canada. We confirmed that the Lodgepole Formation can be divided into six units in the study area: Basal Limestone, Cromer Shale, Cruickshank Crinoidal, Cruickshank Shale, Daly member and Flossie Lake member from the bottom, using eight well log data and previous works. We then performed rock physics analyses on four carbonate units (Basal Limestone, Cruickshank Crinoidal, Daly and Flossie Lake), such as Vp-porosity, AI-porosity, DEM (differential effective medium) modeling, and fluid substitution analysis. In Vp-porosity domain, the top unit, Flossie Lake member has lower porosity and higher velocity, while the other units show similar porosity and velocity. We think that this results from the diagenesis of Flossie Lake member since it bounds with unconformity. However, the four units show very similar trend in Vp-porosity domain, and we can report one Vp-porosity relation for all carbonate units of the Lodgepole formation. We also found that the acoustic impedance varies more than 10% from low porosity zone (3-6%) to high porosity zone (9-12%) from AI-porosity analysis. Thus one can delineate high porosity zone from seismic impedance data. DEM modeling showed that Flossie Lake would have relatively low aspect ratio of pores than the others, which implies that the top unit has been influenced by diagenesis. To determine fluid sensitivity of carbonate units, we conducted fluid substitution on four units from 100% water to 100% oil. The top unit, Flossie Lake, showed slight increase of Vp, which seems to be density effect. The others showed small decrease of Vp, but not significant. If we observe Vp/Vs rather than Vp, the sensitivity increases. However, fluid discrimination would be difficult because of high stiffness of rock frame. In summary, three lower carbonate units of Lodgepole Formation would be prospective and high porosity zone can be delineated

  20. Harmonic generation in optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Sherborn, H.P.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for providing second harmonic generated radiation. It comprises: an optical fiber disposed in a laser cavity, the optical fiber having a substantially single-mode core which is doped with an active laser material, the laser material being self-organizable to produce radiation by second harmonic generation, the laser material further being substantially transparent to the second harmonic generated radiation; and means for pumping the core of the optical fiber to produce laser radiation therein and the laser cavity further comprising means for extracting at least a portion of the second harmonic generated radiation.

  1. Number of Women in Physics Departments: A Simulation Analysis. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Ivie, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Women's representation in physics lags behind most other STEM disciplines. Currently, women make up about 13% of faculty members in all physics degree-granting departments, and there are physics departments with no women faculty members at all. These two data points are often cited as evidence of a lack of equity for women. In this article,…

  2. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  3. Physical Disability on Children's Television Programming: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Media representations of physical disability can influence the attitudes of child audiences. In the current study, the depiction of physical disability was analyzed in more than 400 episodes of children's television programming to better understand how media depict physical disability to children and, in turn, how exposure may…

  4. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A.

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  5. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields. PMID:24784614

  6. Coordinate singularities in harmonically sliced cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hern, Simon D.

    2000-08-01

    Harmonic slicing has in recent years become a standard way of prescribing the lapse function in numerical simulations of general relativity. However, as was first noticed by Alcubierre [Phys. Rev. D 55, 5981 (1997)], numerical solutions generated using this slicing condition can show pathological behavior. In this paper, analytic and numerical methods are used to examine harmonic slicings of Kasner and Gowdy cosmological spacetimes. It is shown that in general the slicings are prevented from covering the whole of the spacetimes by the appearance of coordinate singularities. As well as limiting the maximum running times of numerical simulations, the coordinate singularities can lead to features being produced in numerically evolved solutions which must be distinguished from genuine physical effects.

  7. Harmonic generation at high intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Atomic electrons subject to intense laser fields can absorb many photons, leading either to multiphoton ionization or the emission of a single, energetic photon which can be a high multiple of the laser frequency. The latter process, high-order harmonic generation, has been observed experimentally using a range of laser wavelengths and intensities over the past several years. Harmonic generation spectra have a generic form: a steep decline for the low order harmonics, followed by a plateau extending to high harmonic order, and finally an abrupt cutoff beyond which no harmonics are discernible. During the plateau the harmonic production is a very weak function of the process order. Harmonic generation is a promising source of coherent, tunable radiation in the XUV to soft X-ray range which could have a variety of scientific and possibly technological applications. Its conversion from an interesting multiphoton phenomenon to a useful laboratory radiation source requires a complete understanding of both its microscopic and macroscopic aspects. We present some recent results on the response of single atoms at intensities relevant to the short pulse experiments. The calculations employ time-dependent methods, which we briefly review in the next section. Following that we discuss the behavior of the harmonics as a function of laser intensity. Two features are notable: the slow scaling of the harmonic intensities with laser intensity, and the rapid variation in the phase of the individual harmonics with respect to harmonic order. We then give a simple empirical formula that predicts the extent of the plateau for a given ionization potential, wavelength and intensity.

  8. Harmonic and rhythmic influences on musical expectancy.

    PubMed

    Schmuckler, M A; Boltz, M G

    1994-09-01

    The effects of harmony and rhythm on expectancy formation were studied in two experiments. In both studies, we generated musical passages consisting of a melodic line accompanied by four harmonic (chord) events. These sequences varied in their harmonic content, the rhythmic periodicity of the three context chords prior to the final chord, and the ending time of the final chord itself. In Experiment 1, listeners provided ratings for how well the final chord in a chord sequence fit their expectations for what was to come next; analyses revealed subtle changes in ratings as a function of both harmonic and rhythmic variation. Experiment 2 extended these results; listeners made a speeded reaction time judgment on whether the final chord of a sequence belonged with its set of context chords. Analysis of the reaction time data suggested that harmonic and rhythmic variation also influenced the speed of musical processing. These results are interpreted with reference to current models of music cognition, and they highlight the need for rhythmical weighting factors within the psychological representation of tonal/pitch information. PMID:7971131

  9. Preliminary rock physics analysis on Grosmont carbonate formation, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, D.; Keehm, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Grosmont formation in Canada is a bitumen-saturated carbonate reservoir and draw increasing attention as a possible future unconventional oil field. However, the characterization of the formation is not easy due to high geological complexity. In this paper, we report our preliminary results of rock physics modeling effort using log data from seven wells in the T85R19W4 township, Alberta, Canada. Since the acoustic and shear velocity data are not very common, we use three logging properties: gamma ray; neutron-density porosity; and resistivity. The bitumen saturation is obtained from core measurement data. From the preliminary analysis, Grosmont formation can be divided into two groups by resistivity and porosity. The lower group matches with Grosmont A and B from previous studies and upper group with Grosmont C and D. The lower group mainly consists of limestone with different clay contents. The upper group was under dolomitization and karstification during Mesozoic, and is composed of fractured dolomite and karst breccia. The two groups can be divided by 15% porosity and 100 ohm-m resistivity values. The upper group has higher porosity and higher resistivity, which indicates high bitumen saturation and better reservoir quality. In porosity-resistivity domain, some wells shows typical trend; resistivity increases as porosity decrease; however, wells from the north-eastern part does not show any consistent trends. We believe that north-eastern part of our study area has more dolomitization and karstification, thus higher heterogeneity. We report basic trends for porosity vs. resistivity using Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for upper and lower group at each well. We also plan to obtain velocity data and perform quantitative analysis on porosity-velocity relations and velocity sensitivity to bitumen saturation. Acknowledgement: This research was funded by Energy Efficiency and Resources Program of KETEP (Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning), Grant No

  10. Structural, Physical, and Compositional Analysis of Lunar Simulants and Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul; Street, Kenneth W.; Gaier, James

    2008-01-01

    Relative to the prior manned Apollo and unmanned robotic missions, planned Lunar initiatives are comparatively complex and longer in duration. Individual crew rotations are envisioned to span several months, and various surface systems must function in the Lunar environment for periods of years. As a consequence, an increased understanding of the surface environment is required to engineer and test the associated materials, components, and systems necessary to sustain human habitation and surface operations. The effort described here concerns the analysis of existing simulant materials, with application to Lunar return samples. The interplay between these analyses fulfills the objective of ascertaining the critical properties of regolith itself, and the parallel objective of developing suitable stimulant materials for a variety of engineering applications. Presented here are measurements of the basic physical attributes, i.e. particle size distributions and general shape factors. Also discussed are structural and chemical properties, as determined through a variety of techniques, such as optical microscopy, SEM and TEM microscopy, Mossbauer Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman microspectroscopy, inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence mapping. A comparative description of currently available stimulant materials is discussed, with implications for more detailed analyses, as well as the requirements for continued refinement of methods for simulant production.

  11. MODEL HARMONIZATION POTENTIAL AND BENEFITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IPCS Harmonization Project, which is currently ongoing under the auspices of the WHO, in the context of chemical risk assessment or exposure modeling, does not imply global standardization. Instead, harmonization is thought of as an effort to strive for consistency among appr...

  12. Harmonic Series Meets Fibonacci Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hongwei; Kennedy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The terms of a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any prescribed real value. What if the harmonic series is grouped into Fibonacci length blocks? Or the harmonic series is arranged in alternating Fibonacci length blocks? Or rearranged and alternated into separate blocks of even and odd terms of Fibonacci length?

  13. SURFACE ENHANCED SECOND HARMONIC GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. K.; de Castro, A. R.B.; Shen, Y. R.

    1980-09-01

    Second harmonic generation at a silver-air interface was enhanced due to surface roughness by a factor of 10{sup 4}. The local field enhancement is believed to be responsible for the effect. An unusually broad luminescence background extending far beyond the antiStokes side of the second harmonic was also observed.

  14. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  15. Harmonic diffractive lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, D.W.; Sommargren, G.E.

    1995-05-10

    The harmonic diffractive lens is a diffractive imaging lens for which the optical path-length transition between adjacent facets is an integer multiple {ital m} of the design wavelength {lambda}{sub 0}. The total lens thickness in air is {ital m}{lambda}{sub 0}/({ital n} {minus} 1), which is {ital m} times thicker than the so-called modulo 2{pi} diffractive lens. Lenses constructed in this way have hybrid properties of both refractive and diffractive lenses. Such a lens will have a diffraction-limited, common focus for a number of discrete wavelengths across the visible spectrum. A 34.75-diopter, 6-mm-diameter lens is diamond turned in aluminum and replicated in optical materials. The sag of the lens is 23 {mu}m. Modulation transfer function measurements in both monochromatic and white light verify the performance of the lens. The lens approaches the diffraction limit for 10 discrete wavelengths across the visible spectrum.

  16. Galilean covariant harmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A Galilean covariant approach to classical mechanics of a single particle is described. Within the proposed formalism, all non-covariant force laws defining acting forces which become to be defined covariantly by some differential equations are rejected. Such an approach leads out of the standard classical mechanics and gives an example of non-Newtonian mechanics. It is shown that the exactly solvable linear system of differential equations defining forces contains the Galilean covariant description of harmonic oscillator as its particular case. Additionally, it is demonstrated that in Galilean covariant classical mechanics the validity of the second Newton law of dynamics implies the Hooke law and vice versa. It is shown that the kinetic and total energies transform differently with respect to the Galilean transformations.

  17. HVDC-AC system interaction from AC harmonics. Volume 1. Harmonic impedance calculations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R

    1982-09-01

    Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.

  18. Parallelization of the Physical-Space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, J. W.; Guo, J.; Lyster, P. M.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the atmosphere than the observations or forecast alone can provide. Data assimilation plays an increasingly important role in the study of climate and atmospheric chemistry. The NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) has developed the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS) to create assimilated datasets. The core computational components of the GEOS DAS include the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) and the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). The need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system poses computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. PSAS is implemented in Fortran 90 using object-based design principles. The analysis portions of the code solve two equations. The first of these is the "innovation" equation, which is solved on the unstructured observation grid using a preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) method. The "analysis" equation is a transformation from the observation grid back to a structured grid, and is solved by a direct matrix-vector multiplication. Use of a factored-operator formulation reduces the computational complexity of both the CG solver and the matrix-vector multiplication, rendering the matrix-vector multiplications as a successive product of operators on a vector. Sparsity is introduced to these operators by partitioning the observations using an icosahedral decomposition scheme. PSAS builds a large (approx. 128MB) run-time database of parameters used in the calculation of these operators. Implementing a message passing parallel computing paradigm into an existing yet developing computational system as complex as PSAS is nontrivial. One of the technical challenges is balancing the requirements for computational reproducibility with the need for high performance. The problem of computational

  19. Factors Influencing Singapore Students' Choice of Physics as a Tertiary Field of Study: A Rasch analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Subramaniam, R.

    2013-01-01

    Asian students often perform well in international science and mathematics assessments. Their attitude toward technical subjects, such as physics, remains curious for many. The present study examines Singapore school students' views on various aspects of physics according to whether they intend to choose physics as an advanced field of study. A sample of 1076 physics students, from 16 secondary schools and junior colleges, participated in this study. The students were categorized as physics choosers or non-choosers according to their indicated intention, as sought in the survey, to study or not to study physics as a major subject at university after their leaving level examinations. Rasch-anchored analysis was employed to interpret the results; the use of Rasch analysis has helped to overcome significantly the psychometric limitations inherent in the treatment of Likert scale type of data using traditional analysis. As expected, the image of physics as a difficult subject surfaced in the samples used in our study. The students recognized unequivocally the utilitarian value of physics: physics is said to enhance career options and is necessary for technological progress to occur in a country. They also showed high interest in school physics-this is so even for students who are not keen to study physics in the future, a finding which is at variance with other studies reported from Western countries. School physics is seen to be relevant, and physics teachers are viewed as being able to foster students' interest in physics. Laboratory work, enrichment activities, and physics textbooks were reported to be important in order to encourage students to like physics. Though the physics choosers showed greater intention in physics, they were generally not inclined to pursue physics-related careers after graduation. Parents and peers at school, on the other hand, are perceived to display unenthusiastic attitudes toward physics. Possible reasons for these are discussed along

  20. Developing Skill-Analysis Competency in Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbery, Monica; Coker, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Given the known relationship between physical inactivity and chronic disease (US Dept. of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 2000, 2001), learning more about antecedents for physical activity engagement is an important research priority. In this vein, a number of studies have found a relationship between perceived and actual motor skill…

  1. Applying Cluster Analysis to Physics Education Research Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springuel, R. Padraic

    2010-01-01

    One major thrust of Physics Education Research (PER) is the identification of student ideas about specific physics concepts, both correct ideas and those that differ from the expert consensus. Typically the research process of eliciting the spectrum of student ideas involves the administration of specially designed questions to students. One major…

  2. Characterization and nultivariate analysis of physical properties of processing peaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of physical properties of fruits represents the first vital step to ensure optimal performance of fruit processing operations and is also a prerequisite in the development of new processing equipment. In this study, physical properties of engineering significance to processing of th...

  3. The effects of physical activity and physical fitness on children's achievement and cognitive outcomes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fedewa, Alicia L; Ahn, Soyeon

    2011-09-01

    It is common knowledge that physical activity leads to numerous health and psychological benefits. However; the relationship between children's physical activity and academic achievement has been debated in the literature. Some studies have found strong, positive relationships between physical activity and cognitive outcomes, while other studies have reported small, negative associations. This study was a comprehensive, quantitative synthesis of the literature, using a total of 59 studies from 1947 to 2009 for analysis. Results indicated a significant and positive effect of physical activity on children's achievement and cognitive outcomes, with aerobic exercise having the greatest effect. A number of moderator variables were also found to play a significant role in this relationship. Findings are discussed in light of improving children's academic performance and changing school-based policy. PMID:21957711

  4. Group sparsity based spectrum estimation of harmonic speech signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yimin D.; Wang, Ben

    2015-05-01

    Spectrum analysis of speech signals is important for their detection, recognition, and separation. Speech signals are nonstationary with time-varying frequencies which, when analyzed by Fourier analysis over a short time window, exhibit harmonic spectra, i.e., the fundamental frequencies are accompanied by multiple associated harmonic frequencies. With proper modeling, such harmonic signal components can be cast as group sparse and solved using group sparse signal reconstruction methods. In this case, all harmonic components contribute to effective signal detection and fundamental frequency estimation with improved reliability and spectrum resolution. The estimation of the fundamental frequency signature is implemented using the block sparse Bayesian learning technique, which is known to provide high-resolution spectrum estimations. Simulation results confirm the superiority of the proposed technique when compared to the conventional STFT-based methods.

  5. Harmonic structure of Pc 3--4 pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; McPherron, R.L.

    1982-03-01

    Power spectra of magnetic pulsations observed at synchronous orbit by the ATS 6 satellite often show several spectral peaks simultaneously. Such pulsations, which we call harmonic events because of the nearly constant separation between successive peaks, are continuously observed in the dayside in the Pc 3--4 frequency range (6.6--100 mHz). The harmonic events are seen clearly only in the east-west magnetic field component. The spectral peaks are regularly spaced with a typical minimum separation of 14 mHz in the morining gradually decreasing to 10 mHz in the afternoon. In the dynamic spectra of harmonic events, the fundamental mode is usually absent. In addition, the relative amplitudes of the higher harmonics depend on the magnetic latitude. These observed features can be explained by a standing Alfven wave consisting of many discrete harmonic frequencies. A statistical analysis of power spectra demonstrates that at least 10--30% of Pc 3 pulsations can be classified as harmonic events. Using the harmonic events, we are able to estimate the plasma mass density. For a selected event on August 7, 1975, the plasma mass density at the synchronous orbit is estimated to be 3--8 hydrogen mass/cm/sup 3/.

  6. A design of novel type superconducting magnet for super-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging by using the harmonic analysis method of magnetic vector potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Dong-Lin; Guo, Hua; Song, Xiao-Yu; Bao, Shang-Lian

    2002-10-01

    The approach of expanding the magnetic scalar potential in a series of Legendre polynomials is suitable for designing a conventional superconducting magnetic resonance imaging magnet of distributed solenoidal configuration. Whereas the approach of expanding the magnetic vector potential in associated Legendre harmonics is suitable for designing a single-solenoid magnet that has multiple tiers, in which each tier may have multiple layers with different winding lengths. A set of three equations to suppress some of the lowest higher-order harmonics is found. As an example, a 4T single-solenoid magnetic resonance imaging magnet with 4×6 layers of superconducting wires is designed. The degree of homogeneity in the 0.5m diameter sphere volume is better than 5.8 ppm. The same degree of homogeneity is retained after optimal integralization of turns in each correction layer. The ratio Bm/B0 in the single-solenoid magnet is 30% lower than that in the conventional six-solenoid magnet. This tolerates higher rated superconducting current in the coil. The Lorentz force of the coil in the single-solenoid system is also much lower than in the six-solenoid system. This novel type of magnet possesses significant advantage over conventional magnets, especially when used as a super-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging magnet.

  7. Physics and Analysis at a Hadron Collider - An Introduction (1/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    This is the first lecture of three which together discuss the physics of hadron colliders with an emphasis on experimental techniques used for data analysis. This first lecture provides a brief introduction to hadron collider physics and collider detector experiments as well as offers some analysis guidelines. The lectures are aimed at graduate students.

  8. Harmonic or Fourier synthesis in the teaching laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaite, Geoffrey; Wolfe, Joe

    1990-05-01

    The design of an electronic device that synthesizes and adds the low-order harmonics of a fundamental sine wave is described. Frequency and phase are digitally controlled to ensure stability, and amplitude is analog controlled. The harmonics are synthesized digitally and so the harmonic distortion is low (-48 dB). The device is used in the teaching laboratory of a course on the physics of music, where it shows clearly the effects of amplitude and phase of the spectral components on waveform and timbre. Because of the phase stability and low distortion inherent in the digital design, the device gives an effective demonstration of Fourier synthesis, and it is used as a lecture demonstration for students in introductory physics courses.

  9. Extreme Harmonic Generation in Electrically Driven Spin Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlik, Jiri

    2015-03-01

    InAs nanowire double quantum dots offer a rich platform for studying single spin physics in a material with large spin-orbit (SO) coupling. The large SO coupling allows all electrical control of the electron spin through electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR). Here an oscillating electric field of frequency f displaces the electron wave function, while a magnetic field with strength B is applied. Spin rotations occur when the resonance condition hf = gμB B is met. Here g is the electron g-factor, h is Planck's constant, and μB is the Bohr magneton. We find that near zero interdot detuning efficient spin rotations also occur when hf = ngμB B , with n being an integer as large as 8 in our system. The harmonics feature a striking odd/even dependence. While the odd harmonics show an enhancement of the leakage current, the even harmonics show a reduction. In contrast, we do not observe any measurable harmonics at large detuning. We link the presence of harmonics with additional anti-crossings present in the level diagram. This implies that harmonics are the result of Landau-Zener transitions occurring at multiple anti-crossings. Recent theoretical work supports this conclusion. Research performed in collaboration with M. D. Schroer, M. Z. Maialle, M. H. Degani, and J. R. Petta. Research was supported by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, Army Research Office, DARPA QuEST and the NSF.

  10. Harmonic oscillators and resonance series generated by a periodic unstable classical orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazansky, A. K.; Ostrovsky, Valentin N.

    1995-01-01

    The presence of an unstable periodic classical orbit allows one to introduce the decay time as a purely classical magnitude: inverse of the Lyapunov index which characterizes the orbit instability. The Uncertainty Relation gives the corresponding resonance width which is proportional to the Planck constant. The more elaborate analysis is based on the parabolic equation method where the problem is effectively reduced to the multidimensional harmonic oscillator with the time-dependent frequency. The resonances form series in the complex energy plane which is equidistant in the direction perpendicular to the real axis. The applications of the general approach to various problems in atomic physics are briefly exposed.

  11. Problematic drinking, impulsivity, and physical IPV perpetration: A dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Leone, Ruschelle M; Crane, Cory A; Parrott, Dominic J; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use and impulsivity are 2 known risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV). The current study examined the independent and interactive effects of problematic drinking and 5 facets of impulsivity (i.e., negative urgency, positive urgency, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance) on perpetration of physical IPV within a dyadic framework. Participants were 289 heavy drinking heterosexual couples (total N = 578) with a recent history of psychological and/or physical IPV recruited from 2 metropolitan U.S. cities. Parallel multilevel actor partner interdependence models were used and demonstrated actor problematic drinking, negative urgency, and lack of perseverance were associated with physical IPV. Findings also revealed associations between partner problematic drinking and physical IPV as well as significant Partner Problematic Drinking × Actor Impulsivity (Negative Urgency and Positive Urgency) interaction effects on physical IPV. Findings highlight the importance of examining IPV within a dyadic framework and are interpreted using the I3 metatheoretical model. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26828640

  12. Pythagorean Triples from Harmonic Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiDomenico, Angelo S.; Tanner, Randy J.

    2001-01-01

    Shows how all primitive Pythagorean triples can be generated from harmonic sequences. Use inductive and deductive reasoning to explore how Pythagorean triples are connected with another area of mathematics. (KHR)

  13. Super harmonic nonlinear lateral vibrations of a segmented driveline incorporating a tuned damper excited by non-constant velocity joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Michael; Palazzolo, Alan

    2009-06-01

    Typical industrial vibration problem solving includes utilization of linear vibration measurement and analysis techniques. These techniques have appeared to be sufficient with most vibration problem solving requirements. This is partially due to the lack of proper identification of the nonlinear dynamic response in measured data of actual engineering systems. Therefore, as an example, a vehicle driveshaft exhibits a nonlinear super harmonic jump due to universal joint excitations. This phenomenon is partially responsible for objectionable audible noise in the vehicle. Previously documented measurements or analytical predictions of vehicle driveshaft systems do not indicate nonlinear jump as a typical vibration mode. Physical measurements of the phenomena will be provided with subsequent analysis. Second, the secondary moment exciting the driveshaft system is derived with subsequent analysis showing the harmonic and super harmonic excitations. Third, a derivation of a model incorporating the linear and nonlinear modeling of a large degree of freedom system is introduced. Finally, simulations with the derived model with the universal joint excitations will be presented showing the correlation to physical test results. Therefore, a typical automotive driveshaft system is capable of producing nonlinear response, and thus the assumption of linearity is not sufficient for design validation or problem resolution in this case.

  14. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  15. Learning physics: A comparative analysis between instructional design methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Easow

    The purpose of this research was to determine if there were differences in academic performance between students who participated in traditional versus collaborative problem-based learning (PBL) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. This study utilized a quantitative quasi-experimental design methodology to determine the significance of differences in pre- and posttest introductory physics exam performance between students who participated in traditional (i.e., control group) versus collaborative problem solving (PBL) instructional design (i.e., experimental group) approaches to physics curricula over a college semester in 2008. There were 42 student participants (N = 42) enrolled in an introductory physics course at the research site in the Spring 2008 semester who agreed to participate in this study after reading and signing informed consent documents. A total of 22 participants were assigned to the experimental group (n = 22) who participated in a PBL based teaching methodology along with traditional lecture methods. The other 20 students were assigned to the control group (n = 20) who participated in the traditional lecture teaching methodology. Both the courses were taught by experienced professors who have qualifications at the doctoral level. The results indicated statistically significant differences (p < .01) in academic performance between students who participated in traditional (i.e., lower physics posttest scores and lower differences between pre- and posttest scores) versus collaborative (i.e., higher physics posttest scores, and higher differences between pre- and posttest scores) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. Despite some slight differences in control group and experimental group demographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity, and age) there were statistically significant (p = .04) differences between female average academic improvement which was much higher than male average academic improvement (˜63%) in

  16. Investigation of plasma diagnostics using a dual frequency harmonic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Young-Do; Cho, Sung-Won; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2014-09-07

    Plasma diagnostic methods using harmonic currents analysis of electrostatic probes were experimentally investigated to understand the differences in their measurement of the plasma parameters. When dual frequency voltage (ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}) was applied to a probe, various harmonic currents (ω{sub 1}, 2ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}, 2ω{sub 2},ω{sub 2}±ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}±2ω{sub 1}) were generated due to the non-linearity of the probe sheath. The electron temperature can be obtained from the ratio of the two harmonics of the probe currents. According to the combinations of the two harmonics, the sensitivities in the measurement of the electron temperature differed, and this results in a difference of the electron temperature. From experiments and simulation, it is shown that this difference is caused by the systematic and random noise.

  17. Analysis of Self-Directed Mastery Learning of Honors Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athens, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Self-directed learning (SDL) is an important life skill in a knowledge-based society and prepares students to persist, manage their time and resources, use logic to construct their knowledge, argue their views, and collaborate. The purpose of this study was to facilitate mastery of physics concepts through self-directedness in formative testing…

  18. Analysis of Risk Management in Adapted Physical Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelle L.; Donovan, Jacqueline B.; Berg, Dominck A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs vary on how the topics of safe teaching and risk management are addressed. Common practices to cover such issues include requiring textbooks, lesson planning, peer teaching, videotaping, reflecting, and reading case law analyses. We used a mixed methods design to examine how risk management is…

  19. Instrumental physical analysis of microwaved glycerol citrate foams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid polyester glyceride polymers generated by microwave cooking were further cured in a conventional oven at 100 oC for 0, 6, 24, 48, or 72 hr and their physical properties were tested. Curing polyester glycerides resulted in decreased moisture content (MC), altered color, increased hydrated polym...

  20. Physics and systems design analysis of ST based VNS

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    1998-01-01

    Physics and systems design analyses are carried out to estimate the desired fusion core parameters for an ST based Volume Neutron Source (ST-VNS) that utilizes a single-turn toroidal field coil (TFC). A design with a major radius R, = 1.07 m is estimated to have large margins in physics, technology, and engineering for the initial operation at moderate performance (neutron wall load, W, = 0.5-2.0 MW/mZ). The VNS therefore begins with technologies already assumed in the ITER EDA, and the relatively conservative physics to be tested initially by the ST proof-of-principle experiments presently being built. Given continued advances in technology via the VNS and in physics via the ST experiments, the design should permit upgrades to test components and operation at the level of future Pilot Plant and Power Plants (W, = 5 MW/mZ). This approach to VNS places premium on modular components and remote maintenance, encourages continued innovation and optimization in ST fusion and plasma science, and enhances the practicality of the ST pathway to fusion power.

  1. Inharmonicity Analysis: A Novel Physical Method for Acoustic Screening of Dysphonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteson, Sam; Lu, Fang-Ling

    2008-10-01

    In the United States 6.8% of men, women, and children report current voice problems and approximately 29% will report some problems during their lifetime. Often this dysphonia is due to pathologies of the vocal folds. The authors (a physicist and a speech pathologist) describe an interdisciplinary approach that shows promise of detecting physiological abnormalities of the vocal folds from an analysis of the Fourier spectrum of spoken ``tokens.'' The underlying principle maintains that the normal human vocal fold is a linear oscillator that emits overtones that are very nearly precise integral values of the fundamental. Physiological problems of the vocal folds, however, introduce mechanical non-linearities that manifest themselves as frequency deviations from the ideal harmonic (that is, integral) values. The authors quantify this inharmonicity, describing and illustrating how one can obtain and analyze such data. They outline, as well, a proposed program to assess the clinical sensitivity and significance of the analysis discussed in this work.

  2. The Physics of Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, S. R.; Tanner, B. K.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests using musical instruments to demonstrate physics concepts. Topics include: pitch and frequency; string vibrations; string-resonator system; wind instruments; harmonic content; transients; scales and temperament; psycho-acoustical affects; and electronic music. (SK)

  3. Simulating Harmonic Oscillator and Electrical Circuits: A Didactical Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Giovannina; D'Apice, Ciro; Tomasiello, Stefania

    2002-01-01

    A Mathematica[TM] package is described that uses simulations and animations to illustrate key concepts in harmonic oscillation and electric circuits for students not majoring in physics or mathematics. Students are not required to know the Mathematica[TM] environment: a user-friendly interface with buttons functionalities and on-line help allows…

  4. Attosecond Pulse Trains Using High-Order Harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, P.; LHuillier, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    1996-08-01

    We demonstrate that high-order harmonics generated by an atom in intense laser field form trains of ultrashort pulses corresponding to different trajectories of electrons that tunnel out of the atom and recombine. Propagation in an atomic jet allows us to select one of these trajectories, leading to a train of pulses of extremely short duration. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  5. A Simple Mechanical Model for the Isotropic Harmonic Oscillator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nita, Gelu M.

    2010-01-01

    A constrained elastic pendulum is proposed as a simple mechanical model for the isotropic harmonic oscillator. The conceptual and mathematical simplicity of this model recommends it as an effective pedagogical tool in teaching basic physics concepts at advanced high school and introductory undergraduate course levels. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Analysis of self-directed mastery learning of honors physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athens, Wendy

    Self-directed learning (SDL) is an important life skill in a knowledge-based society and prepares students to persist, manage their time and resources, use logic to construct their knowledge, argue their views, and collaborate. The purpose of this study was to facilitate mastery of physics concepts through self-directedness in formative testing with feedback, a choice of learning activities, and multiple forms of support. This study was conducted within two sections of honors physics at a private high school (N=24). Students' learning activity choices, time investments, and perceptions (assessed through a post survey) were tracked and analyzed. SDL readiness was linked to success in mastering physics concepts. The three research questions pursued in this study were: What SDL activities did honors physics students choose in their self-directed mastery learning environment? How many students achieved concept mastery and how did they spend their time? Did successful and unsuccessful students perceive the self-directed mastery learning environment differently? Only seven of 24 students were successful in passing the similar concept-based unit tests within four tries, and these seven students were separated into a "successful" group and the other 17 into an "unsuccessful" group. Differences between the two groups were analyzed. A profile of a self-directed secondary honors physics student emerged. A successful self-directed student invested more time learning from activities rather than simply completing them, focused on learning concepts more than rote operations, intentionally selected activities to fill in gaps of knowledge and practice concepts, actively constructed knowledge into a cognitive framework, engaged in academic discourse with instructor and peers as they made repeated attempts to master content and pass the test given constructive feedback, used a wide variety of learning resources, and managed their workload to meet deadlines. This capstone study found

  7. Results of the task analysis study sports physical therapy section american physical therapy association.

    PubMed

    Skovly, R C; Davies, G J; Mangine, R E; Mansell, R E; Wallace, L A

    1980-01-01

    A survey instrument containing 1 13 sports physical therapy job tasks was developed by a committee of experts at the Combined Sections Meeting, American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), in Orlando, FL, on February 8-1 1, 1978. The committee was assisted by the Committee on Competencies, APTA, and a representative from Courseware, Inc. The instrument was then sent to 1074 members of the Section for the purposes of identifying the clinical tasks in which competency is essential to practice effectively and of determining to what extent members are practicing these clinical tasks. Two major mailings were sent, in October 1978 and January 1979; 573 forms were returned for a response rate of 53.4%. Seventy returned forms were not used because they were incomplete or incorrectly filled out (35), were not deliverable (23), or were sent to those that were no longer members of the Section (12). The response rate of usable forms was 50.1 %.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1980;1(4):229-238. PMID:18810174

  8. Harmonic Pinnacles in the Discrete Gaussian Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubetzky, Eyal; Martinelli, Fabio; Sly, Allan

    2016-06-01

    The 2 D Discrete Gaussian model gives each height function {η : Z^2to{Z}} a probability proportional to {exp(-β {H}(η))}, where {β} is the inverse-temperature and {{H}(η) = sum_{x˜ y}(η_x-η_y)^2} sums over nearest-neighbor bonds. We consider the model at large fixed {β}, where it is flat unlike its continuous analog (the Discrete Gaussian Free Field). We first establish that the maximum height in an {L× L} box with 0 boundary conditions concentrates on two integers M, M + 1 with {M˜ √{(1/2πβ)log Llog log L}}. The key is a large deviation estimate for the height at the origin in {{Z}2}, dominated by "harmonic pinnacles", integer approximations of a harmonic variational problem. Second, in this model conditioned on {η≥ 0} (a floor), the average height rises, and in fact the height of almost all sites concentrates on levels H, H + 1 where {H˜ M/√{2}}. This in particular pins down the asymptotics, and corrects the order, in results of Bricmont et al. (J. Stat. Phys. 42(5-6):743-798, 1986), where it was argued that the maximum and the height of the surface above a floor are both of order {√{log L}}. Finally, our methods extend to other classical surface models (e.g., restricted SOS), featuring connections to p-harmonic analysis and alternating sign matrices.

  9. Object relations and physical abuse: a TAT analysis.

    PubMed

    Freedenfeld, R N; Ornduff, S R; Kelsey, R M

    1995-06-01

    Selected Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) stories of 39 physically abused children and a clinical group of 39 children with no recorded history of abuse were examined using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales (Westen, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, & Goodrich, 1985). As predicted, a history of physical abuse was associated with a more malevolent object world; a lower level capacity for emotional investment in relations and moral standards; and less accurate, complex, and logical attributions of causality in understanding human interaction. These impairments in object relations were manifest both as a typical level of functioning and as a propensity for more grossly pathological functioning. Results are discussed in terms of clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:7760261

  10. Harmonization of the intracellular cytokine staining assay.

    PubMed

    Welters, Marij J P; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H; Letsch, Anne; Ottensmeier, Christian H; Britten, Cedrik M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2012-07-01

    Active immunotherapy for cancer is an accepted treatment modality aiming to reinforce the T-cell response to cancer. T-cell reactivity is measured by various assays and used to guide the clinical development of immunotherapeutics. However, data obtained across different institutions may vary substantially making comparative conclusions difficult. The Cancer Immunotherapy Immunoguiding Program organizes proficiency panels to identify key parameters influencing the outcome of commonly used T-cell assays followed by harmonization. Our successes with IFNγ-ELISPOT and peptide HLA multimer analysis have led to the current study on intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). We report the results of three successive panels evaluating this assay. At the beginning, 3 out of 9 participants (33 %) were able to detect >6 out of 8 known virus-specific T-cell responses in peripheral blood of healthy individuals. This increased to 50 % of the laboratories in the second phase. The reported percentages of cytokine-producing T cells by the different laboratories were highly variable with coefficients of variation well over 60 %. Variability could partially be explained by protocol-related differences in background cytokine production leading to sub-optimal signal-to-noise ratios. The large number of protocol variables prohibited identification of prime guidelines to harmonize the assays. In addition, the gating strategy used to identify reactive T cells had a major impact on assay outcome. Subsequent harmonization of the gating strategy considerably reduced the variability within the group of participants. In conclusion, we propose that first basic guidelines should be applied for gating in ICS experiments before harmonizing assay protocol variables. PMID:22714399

  11. Integrative Analysis of the Physical Transport Network into Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Robert C.; Ross, Joshua V.; Wittmann, Talia A.; Prowse, Thomas A. A.; Cassey, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Effective biosecurity is necessary to protect nations and their citizens from a variety of threats, including emerging infectious diseases, agricultural or environmental pests and pathogens, and illegal wildlife trade. The physical pathways by which these threats are transported internationally, predominantly shipping and air traffic, have undergone significant growth and changes in spatial distributions in recent decades. An understanding of the specific pathways and donor-traffic hotspots created by this integrated physical transport network is vital for the development of effective biosecurity strategies into the future. In this study, we analysed the physical transport network into Australia over the period 1999–2012. Seaborne and air traffic were weighted to calculate a “weighted cumulative impact” score for each source region worldwide, each year. High risk source regions, and those source regions that underwent substantial changes in risk over the study period, were determined. An overall risk ranking was calculated by integrating across all possible weighting combinations. The source regions having greatest overall physical connectedness with Australia were Singapore, which is a global transport hub, and the North Island of New Zealand, a close regional trading partner with Australia. Both those regions with large amounts of traffic across multiple vectors (e.g., Hong Kong), and those with high levels of traffic of only one type (e.g., Bali, Indonesia with respect to passenger flights), were represented among high risk source regions. These data provide a baseline model for the transport of individuals and commodities against which the effectiveness of biosecurity controls may be assessed, and are a valuable tool in the development of future biosecurity policy. PMID:26881782

  12. Integrative Analysis of the Physical Transport Network into Australia.

    PubMed

    Cope, Robert C; Ross, Joshua V; Wittmann, Talia A; Prowse, Thomas A A; Cassey, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Effective biosecurity is necessary to protect nations and their citizens from a variety of threats, including emerging infectious diseases, agricultural or environmental pests and pathogens, and illegal wildlife trade. The physical pathways by which these threats are transported internationally, predominantly shipping and air traffic, have undergone significant growth and changes in spatial distributions in recent decades. An understanding of the specific pathways and donor-traffic hotspots created by this integrated physical transport network is vital for the development of effective biosecurity strategies into the future. In this study, we analysed the physical transport network into Australia over the period 1999-2012. Seaborne and air traffic were weighted to calculate a "weighted cumulative impact" score for each source region worldwide, each year. High risk source regions, and those source regions that underwent substantial changes in risk over the study period, were determined. An overall risk ranking was calculated by integrating across all possible weighting combinations. The source regions having greatest overall physical connectedness with Australia were Singapore, which is a global transport hub, and the North Island of New Zealand, a close regional trading partner with Australia. Both those regions with large amounts of traffic across multiple vectors (e.g., Hong Kong), and those with high levels of traffic of only one type (e.g., Bali, Indonesia with respect to passenger flights), were represented among high risk source regions. These data provide a baseline model for the transport of individuals and commodities against which the effectiveness of biosecurity controls may be assessed, and are a valuable tool in the development of future biosecurity policy. PMID:26881782

  13. Application of logistic analysis to the history of physics.

    SciTech Connect

    LePoire, D. J.; Environmental Assessment

    2005-05-01

    Recently, two analyses have tried to put technological progress in a larger context. One interpretation hypothesizes that technological progress is likely to continue at increasingly higher rates of change. Another interpretation, which includes data from the beginning of the universe to the present, suggests that the universe is approaching a transition point in a logistic development of complexity. This logistic development is similar to the way ideas or products diffuse in a population, i.e., the rate of discovery in a field of knowledge is proportional to the amount discovered and the amount to be discovered. To test a part of this hypothesis, a leading indicator field (fundamental physics) was identified and the events in the history of this field were analyzed. Twelve subfields were identified and grouped into six stages. Each stage seemed to demonstrate a logistic-like development. By analyzing both the median time of development and the characteristic time of development of these stages, the overall development of this one field was found to suggest logistic development. These data seem to indicate that development in fundamental physics is slowing down, with at least one subfield beyond string physics yet to be developed. The data tend to support the hypothesis that a knowledge field can develop logistically.

  14. Physically-based Models For Flood Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupczewski, W. G.; Singh, V. P.; Weglarczyk, S.

    Flood frequency models can be broadly classified into: (1) empirical, (2) phenomeno- logical, and (3) physically based. Despite their appeal, physically-based models have yet to become models of choice in hydrologic practice. Along the lines of physically based models and recognizing that channels are the dominant conduits for transmis- sion of flood waters, it is plausible to develop a model that employs the physics of channel flow routing and in which no explicit consideration is given to the hydrologic processes occurring on the land areas of the watershed. It is well accepted that the complete linearized Saint Venant equation and its simplifications provide a reason- able representation of the physics of channel flow. It is then hypothesized that impulse response function (IRF) of such models can be considered as a probability density function (PDF) for FFA. The impulse response of a linear convective-diffusion anal- ogy (LD) model is proposed for perennial rivers and that of a linear kinematic dif- fusion (KD) model for ephemeral streams. Each of them has two parameters which are derived using the method of moments (MOM) and maximum likelihood method (MLM). Also derived are errors in quantiles for both methods. Both distributions show an equivalency of MOM and MLM with respect to the mean U an important property in the case of unknown true distribution function. The LD model was tested using 39 series of Polish rivers showing its superiority over Log-normal - the main competitor among the family of two-parameter PDFs for the analyzed data. In particular, the LD model represents FF-characteristics well when the LD is likely to be the best of all lin- ear flood routing models. The KD distribution was tested on 44 annual peak flows data series containing zero values. A comparison of empirical and KD distributions shows that MOM better reproduces the upper tail of the distribution, while MLM is more ro- bust for higher sample values and more conditioned on the

  15. The technical analysis of the stock exchange and physics: Japanese candlesticks for solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, C.; Atanasov, V.

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we use the Japanese candlesticks, a method popular in the technical analysis of the Stock/Forex markets and apply it to a variable in physics-the solar activity. This method is invented and used exclusively for economic analysis and its application to a physical problem produced unexpected results. We found that the Japanese candlesticks are convenient tool in the analysis of the variables in the physics of the Sun. Based on our observations, we differentiated a new cycle in the solar activity.

  16. A parametric study of harmonic rotor hub loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Chengjian

    1993-01-01

    A parametric study of vibratory rotor hub loads in a nonrotating system is presented. The study is based on a CAMRAD/JA model constructed for the GBH (Growth Version of Blackhawk Helicopter) Mach-scaled wind tunnel rotor model with high blade twist (-16 deg). The theoretical hub load predictions are validated by correlation with available measured data. Effects of various blade aeroelastic design changes on the harmonic nonrotating frame hub loads at both low and high forward flight speeds are investigated. The study aims to illustrate some of the physical mechanisms for change in the harmonic rotor hub loads due to blade design variations.

  17. Multi-harmonic RF test stand for RF breakdown studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Shchelkunov, S.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Solyak, N.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2012-12-21

    A multi-harmonic RF test stand is under construction at Yale Beam Physics Laboratory. It includes a frequency multiplier which can generate high power harmonics efficiently that are phase locked to the fundamental drive frequency. In a bi-modal asymmetric cavity powered by this RF source, the cavity may experience reduced exposure time to peak fields and sweeping of peak fields across their surfaces, and strong asymmetry between surfaces that may experience cathode-and anode-like fields; these phenomena are to be assessed for their influence on RF breakdown probabilities.

  18. Compact, harmonic multiplying gyrotron amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, H.Z.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.; Tate, J.; Chen, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    A compact, harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling wave amplifier is being developed. The device is a three-stage tube with the output section running as a fourth harmonic gyro-TWT, the input section running as a fundamental gyro-TWT, and the middle operating at the second harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. Radiation is suppressed by servers between the sections. The operating beam of the tube is produced by a magnetron injection gun (MIG). A TE{sub 0n} mode selective interaction circuit consisting of mode converters and a filter waveguide is employed for both input and output sections to solve the mode competition problem, which is pervasive in gyro-TWT operation. The input section has an input coupler designed as a TE{sub 0n} mode launcher. It excites a signal at the fundamental cyclotron frequency (17.5 GHz), which is amplified in the first TWT interaction region. So far the device is similar to a two-stage harmonic gyro-TWT. The distinction is that in the three-stage device the second section will be optimized not for output power but for fourth harmonic bunching of the beam. A gyroklystron amplifier has also been designed. The configuration is similar to the gyro-TWT but with the traveling wave interaction structures replaced by mode selective special complex cavities. Cold test results of the wideband input coupler and the TE{sub 0n} mode selective interaction circuit have been obtained.

  19. Electromagnetic ion beam instabilities - Growth at cyclotron harmonic wave numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Gary, S. Peter

    1987-01-01

    The linear theory of electromagnetic ion beam instabilities for arbitrary angles of propagation is studied, with an emphasis on the conditions necessary to generate unstable modes at low harmonics of the ion cyclotron resonance condition. The present results extend the analysis of Smith et al. (1985). That paper considered only the plasma parameters at a time during which harmonic wave modes were observed in the earth's foreshock. The parameters of that paper are used as the basis of parametric variations here to establish the range of beam properties which may give rise to observable harmonic spectra. It is shown that the growth rates of both left-hand and right-hand cyclotron harmonic instabilities are enhanced by an increase in the beam temperature anisotropy and/or the beam speed. Decreases in the beam density and/or the core-ion beta reduce the overall growth of the cyclotron harmonic instabilities but favor the growth of these modes over the growth of the nonresonant instability and thereby enhance the observability of the harmonics.

  20. Analysis of the physical atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions and halogen ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical forces between atoms and molecules are important in a number of processes of practical importance, including line broadening in radiative processes, gas and crystal properties, adhesion, and thin films. The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base for the dispersion forces is developed from the literature based on evaluations with the harmonic oscillator dispersion model for higher order coefficients. The Zener model of the repulsive core is used in the context of the recent asymptotic wave functions of Handler and Smith; and an effective ionization potential within the Handler and Smith wave functions is defined to analyze the two body potential data of Waldman and Gordon, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  1. Mapping university students' epistemic framing of computational physics using network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Madelen

    2012-06-01

    Solving physics problem in university physics education using a computational approach requires knowledge and skills in several domains, for example, physics, mathematics, programming, and modeling. These competences are in turn related to students’ beliefs about the domains as well as about learning. These knowledge and beliefs components are referred to here as epistemic elements, which together represent the students’ epistemic framing of the situation. The purpose of this study was to investigate university physics students’ epistemic framing when solving and visualizing a physics problem using a particle-spring model system. Students’ epistemic framings are analyzed before and after the task using a network analysis approach on interview transcripts, producing visual representations as epistemic networks. The results show that students change their epistemic framing from a modeling task, with expectancies about learning programming, to a physics task, in which they are challenged to use physics principles and conservation laws in order to troubleshoot and understand their simulations. This implies that the task, even though it is not introducing any new physics, helps the students to develop a more coherent view of the importance of using physics principles in problem solving. The network analysis method used in this study is shown to give intelligible representations of the students’ epistemic framing and is proposed as a useful method of analysis of textual data.

  2. Using Video Analysis or Data Loggers during Practical Work in First Year Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Susan; Pearce, Jon; Livett, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a project investigating students' learning processes when video analysis and data logging practical work were used in a first-year undergraduate physics course. Suggests that students were motivated by the tasks and believed that these tasks helped them overall to understand physics concepts. Includes references. (CMK)

  3. A Multi-Dimensional Cognitive Analysis of Undergraduate Physics Students' Understanding of Heat Conduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Guo-Li; Anderson, O. Roger

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a multi-dimensional approach to investigate, represent, and categorize students' in-depth understanding of complex physics concepts. Clinical interviews were conducted with 30 undergraduate physics students to probe their understanding of heat conduction. Based on the data analysis, six aspects of the participants' responses…

  4. A Discussion on an Expression Written about Dimensional Analysis in a Physics Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss a wrong statement written about dimensional analysis in a physics text book prepared for the students who are studying in science, engineering and teaching undergraduate programs at universities and who have to take compulsory physics courses, to analyse the use of the text book including the wrong…

  5. Effects of Physical Exercise on Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Michelle; Meulenbroek, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    It is generally agreed that regular physical exercise promotes physical and mental health, but what are the benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? This meta-analysis evaluates 16 behavioural studies reporting on a total of 133 children and adults with various variants of the syndrome who were offered structured physical…

  6. Effectiveness of Physical Activity Interventions for Preschoolers: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Elliott S.; Tucker, Patricia; Burke, Shauna M.; Carron, Albert V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on physical activity participation among preschoolers. A secondary purpose was to investigate the influence of several possible moderator variables (e.g., intervention length, location, leadership, type) on moderate-to-vigorous physical…

  7. Experiences and Outcomes of Preschool Physical Education: An Analysis of Developmental Discourses in Scottish Curricular Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of developmental discourses underpinning preschool physical education in Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence. Implementing a post-structural perspective, the article examines the preschool experiences and outcomes related to physical education as presented in the Curriculum for Excellence "health and…

  8. The CERN analysis facility—a PROOF cluster for day-one physics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G-Oetringhaus, J. F.

    2008-07-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at the LHC plans to use a PROOF cluster at CERN (CAF - CERN Analysis Facility) for analysis. The system is especially aimed at the prototyping phase of analyses that need a high number of development iterations and thus require a short response time. Typical examples are the tuning of cuts during the development of an analysis as well as calibration and alignment. Furthermore, the use of an interactive system with very fast response will allow ALICE to extract physics observables out of first data quickly. An additional use case is fast event simulation and reconstruction. A test setup consisting of 40 machines is used for evaluation since May 2006. The PROOF system enables the parallel processing and xrootd the access to files distributed on the test cluster. An automatic staging system for files either catalogued in the ALICE file catalog or stored in the CASTOR mass storage system has been developed. The current setup and ongoing development towards disk quotas and CPU fairshare are described. Furthermore, the integration of PROOF into ALICE's software framework (AliRoot) is discussed.

  9. Calculation of four-particle harmonic-oscillator transformation brackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanas, D.; Kalinauskas, R. K.; Mickevičius, S.

    2010-02-01

    A procedure for precise calculation of the three- and four-particle harmonic-oscillator (HO) transformation brackets is presented. The analytical expressions of the four-particle HO transformation brackets are given. The computer code for the calculations of HO transformation brackets proves to be quick, efficient and produces results with small numerical uncertainties. Program summaryProgram title: HOTB Catalogue identifier: AEFQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1247 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6659 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 90 Computer: Any computer with FORTRAN 90 compiler Operating system: Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, True64 Unix RAM: 8 MB Classification: 17.17 Nature of problem: Calculation of the three-particle and four-particle harmonic-oscillator transformation brackets. Solution method: The method is based on compact expressions of the three-particle harmonics oscillator brackets, presented in [1] and expressions of the four-particle harmonics oscillator brackets, presented in this paper. Restrictions: The three- and four-particle harmonic-oscillator transformation brackets up to the e=28. Unusual features: Possibility of calculating the four-particle harmonic-oscillator transformation brackets. Running time: Less than one second for the single harmonic-oscillator transformation bracket. References:G.P. Kamuntavičius, R.K. Kalinauskas, B.R. Barret, S. Mickevičius, D. Germanas, Nuclear Physics A 695 (2001) 191.

  10. Analysis of interfacial energy states in Au/pentacene/polyimide/indium-zinc-oxide diodes by electroluminescence spectroscopy and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-03-01

    By using electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopy and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we analyzed interfacial energy states in Au/pentacene/polyimide/indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) diodes, to characterize the pentacene/polyimide interface. Under positive voltage application to the Au electrode with reference to the IZO electrode, the EFISHG showed that holes are injected from Au electrode, and accumulate at the pentacene/polyimide interface with the surface charge density of Qs = 3.8 × 10-7 C/cm2. The EL spectra suggested that the accumulated holes are not merely located in the pentacene but they are transferred to the interface states of polyimide. These accumulated holes distribute with the interface state density greater than 1012 cm-2 eV-1 in the range E = 1.5-1.8 and 1.7-2.4 eV in pentacene and in polyimide, respectively, under assumption that accumulated holes govern recombination radiation. The EL-EFISHG measurement is helpful to characterize organic-organic layer interfaces in organic devices and provides a way to analyze interface energy states.

  11. Analysis of current-voltage characteristics of Au/pentacene/fluorine polymer/indium zinc oxide diodes by electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishi, Shohei; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-06-28

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement coupled with the conventional current-voltage (I-V) measurement, we studied the carrier transport of organic double-layer diodes with a Au/pentacene/fluorine polymer (FP)/indium zinc oxide (IZO) structure. The rectifying I-V characteristics were converted into the I-E characteristics of the FP and pentacene layers. Results suggest a model in which Schottky-type electron injection from the IZO electrode to the FP layer governs the forward electrical conduction (V > 0), where the space charge electric field produced in the FP layer by accumulated holes at the pentacene/FP interface makes a significant contribution. On the other hand, Schottky-type injection by accumulated interface electrons from the pentacene layer to the FP layer governs the backward electrical conduction (V < 0). The electroluminescence generated from the pentacene layer in the region V > 0 verifies the electron transport across the FP layer, and supports the above suggested model.

  12. Analysis of carrier behavior in α-NPD/P(VDF-TrFE) double-layer capacitor by using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaojin; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2014-02-01

    The effect of ferroelectric polymer on carrier behaviors in indium-tin oxide (ITO)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)]/N,N‧-di-[(1-naphthyl)-N,N‧-diphenyl]-(1,1‧-biphenyl)-4,4‧-diamine (α-NPD)/Au structure was investigated. The internal electric field in α-NPD introduced by the dipole moments from ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) together with the α-NPD/P(VDF-TrFE) interface accumulated charges plays an important role in the carrier motion in α-NPD. In displacement current measurement (DCM), two asymmetric peaks and reduced polarization resulting from a large injection barrier from Au electrode to α-NPD layer were observed. Coupled with the electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, the electric field in α-NPD layer was directly probed and gave a support that only part of the dipoles in P(VDF-TrFE) was polarized. We proposed that the formation of an amorphous insulating layer between amorphous α-NPD layer and partially crystallized P(VDF-TrFE) layer markedly decreased the voltage directly applied on the P(VDF-TrFE) film and caused a reduced polarization. Our findings here will be helpful in analyzing the carrier behavior in organic electronic devices using ferroelectric layers.

  13. Analysis of current-voltage characteristics of Au/pentacene/fluorine polymer/indium zinc oxide diodes by electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Shohei; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-06-01

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement coupled with the conventional current-voltage (I-V) measurement, we studied the carrier transport of organic double-layer diodes with a Au/pentacene/fluorine polymer (FP)/indium zinc oxide (IZO) structure. The rectifying I-V characteristics were converted into the I-E characteristics of the FP and pentacene layers. Results suggest a model in which Schottky-type electron injection from the IZO electrode to the FP layer governs the forward electrical conduction (V > 0), where the space charge electric field produced in the FP layer by accumulated holes at the pentacene/FP interface makes a significant contribution. On the other hand, Schottky-type injection by accumulated interface electrons from the pentacene layer to the FP layer governs the backward electrical conduction (V < 0). The electroluminescence generated from the pentacene layer in the region V > 0 verifies the electron transport across the FP layer, and supports the above suggested model.

  14. Analysis of carrier behavior in C60/P(VDF-TrFE) double-layer capacitor by using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaojin; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2013-12-21

    By using displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier behavior in the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/C60/Au(or Al) capacitors. Two DCM peaks appeared asymmetrically at around −35.5 V and +30.0 V in the dark. Correspondingly, the EFISHG response from the C60 layer was observed, but the peak positions were different with respect to DCM ones. The results show that the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymeric layer directly affects the electric field in the C60 layer, and thus governs the carrier motion in this layer. As a result, the C60 layer serves like an insulator in the dark, while electrons and holes are captured and released at the interface in response to the turn-over of spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric layer. On the other hand, under white light illumination, C60 layer serves like a conductor due to the increase of photogenerated mobile carriers, and these carriers dominate the carrier motions therein. Our findings here will be helpful for analyzing carrier behaviors in organic electronic devices using ferroelectric polymers.

  15. Topological analysis of the periodic structures in a harmonically driven bubble oscillator near Blake's critical threshold: Infinite sequence of two-sided Farey ordering trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedűs, Ferenc

    2016-03-01

    The topology of the stable periodic orbits of a harmonically driven bubble oscillator, the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, in the space of the excitation parameters (pressure amplitude and frequency) has been revealed numerically. This topology is governed by a hierarchy of two-sided Farey trees initiated from a unique primary structure defined also by a simple asymmetric Farey tree. The sub-topology of each of these building blocks is driven by a homoclinic tangency of a periodic saddle. This self-similar organisation is a suitable basis for a general description, since it is in good agreement with partial results obtained in other periodically forced oscillators and iterated maps. The applied ambient pressure in the model is near but still below Blake's critical threshold. Therefore, this paper is also a straightforward continuation of the work of Hegedűs [1], who first found numerical evidence for the existence of stable, period 1 solutions beyond Blake's threshold. The present findings are crucial for the extension of the available numerical results from period 1 to arbitrary periodicity.

  16. Valley-selective harmonic generations in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jingxin; Jiang, Tao; Shan, Yuwei; Li, Yingguo; Chen, Xianhui; Shen, Y. R.; Liu, Weitao; Wu, Shiwei

    Transition metal dichalcogenide monolayer has emerged as another star in the family of atomically thin two dimensional materials. Different from graphene, the two sublattices in its honeycomb-like structure are occupied by different atoms, leading to the reduced rotational symmetry from six fold to three fold. The reduced symmetry and dimension not only result in many intriguing physics such as valley and excitons, but also lead to rich nonlinear optical phenomena such as strong second harmonic generation. In this talk, we will present a systematic study on linearly and circularly polarized harmonic generations in this wonder material. We show that both the second and third harmonic generations follow the conservation of angular momentum and are valley-selective. Furthermore, these nonlinear optical processes could be used as a powerful imaging tool for studying transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers and other similar 2D materials.

  17. Harmonics radiation of graphene surface plasmon polaritons in terahertz regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Wang, Y.; Nakajima, M.; Hashida, M.; Wei, Y.; Miyamoto, S.

    2016-06-01

    This letter presents an approach to extract terahertz radiation from surface plasmon polaritons excited in the surface of a uniform graphene structure by an electron beam. A sidewall configuration is proposed to lift the surface plasmon mode to be close to the light line, so that some of its harmonics have chances to go above the light line and become radiative. The harmonics are considered to be excited by a train of periodic electron bunches. The physical mechanism in this scheme is analyzed with three-dimensional theory, and the harmonics excitation and radiation are demonstrated through numerical calculations. The results show that this technique could be an alternative to transform the surface plasmon polaritons into radiation.

  18. SunPy: Python for Solar Physics Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughitt, V. Keith; Christe, S.; Ireland, J.; Shih, A.; Mayer, F.; Earnshaw, M. D.; Young, C.; Perez-Suarez, D.; Schwartz, R.

    2012-05-01

    In recent years, Python, a free cross platform general purpose high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community resulting in the availability of wide range of software, from numerical computation and machine learning to spectral analysis and visualization. SunPy is a software suite specializing in providing the tools necessary to analyze solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. It provides a free and open-source alternative to the IDL-based SolarSoft (SSW) solar data analysis environment. We present the current capabilities of SunPy which include WCS-aware map objects that allow simple overplotting of data from multiple image FITS files; time-series objects that allow overplotting of multiple lightcurves, and integration with online services such as The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) and The Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK). SunPy also provides functionality that is not currently available in SSW such as advanced time series manipulation routines and support for working with solar data stored using JPEG 2000. We present examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing data analysis tools currently available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  19. BESIII physical offline data analysis on virtualization platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Q.; Li, H.; Kan, B.; Shi, J.; Lei, X.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution, we present an ongoing work, which aims at benefiting BESIII computing system for higher resource utilization and more efficient job operations brought by cloud and virtualization technology with Openstack and KVM. We begin with the architecture of BESIII offline software to understand how it works. We mainly report the KVM performance evaluation and optimization from various factors in hardware and kernel. Experimental results show the CPU performance penalty of KVM can be approximately decreased to 3%. In addition, the performance comparison between KVM and physical machines in aspect of CPU, disk IO and network IO is also presented. Finally, we present our development work, an adaptive cloud scheduler, which allocates and reclaims VMs dynamically according to the status of TORQUE queue and the size of resource pool to improve resource utilization and job processing efficiency.

  20. Analysis of the numerics of physics-dynamics coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, Andrew; Wood, Nigel; Côté, Jean

    2002-10-01

    A methodology for analysing the numerical properties of schemes for coupling physics parametrizations to a dynamical core is presented. As an example of its application, the methodology is used to study four coupling schemes ('explicit', 'implicit', 'split-implicit' and 'symmetrized split-implicit') in the context of a semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian dynamical core. Each coupling scheme is assessed in terms of its numerical stability and of the accuracy of both its transient and steady-state responses. Additionally, the occurrence of spurious, computational resonance is analysed and discussed. It is found that in this respect all four schemes behave similarly.In particular, in the absence of any damping mechanism to control resonance, the time-step restriction needed to avoid spurious resonance is twice as restrictive for time-dependent forcing as for stationary forcing.

  1. Analysis of physical unclonable identification based on reference list decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, Oleksiy; Voloshynovskiy, Sviatoslav; Beekhof, Fokko; Pun, Thierry

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we advocate a new approach to item identification based on physical unclonable features. Being unique characteristics of an item, these features represent a kind of unstructured random codebook that links the identification problem to digital communications via composite hypothesis testing. Despite the obvious similarity, this problem is significantly different in that a security constraint prohibits the disclosure of the entire codebook at the identification stage. Besides this, complexity, memory storage and universality constraints should be taken into account for databases with several hundred millions entries. Therefore, we attempt to find a trade-off between performance, security, memory storage and universality constraints. A practical suboptimal method is considered based on our reference list decoding (RLD) framework. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate and support the theoretical findings.

  2. Geometry Description Markup Language for Physics Simulation And Analysis Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Chytracek, R.; McCormick, J.; Pokorski, W.; Santin, G.; /European Space Agency

    2007-01-23

    The Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) is a specialized XML-based language designed as an application-independent persistent format for describing the geometries of detectors associated with physics measurements. It serves to implement ''geometry trees'' which correspond to the hierarchy of volumes a detector geometry can be composed of, and to allow to identify the position of individual solids, as well as to describe the materials they are made of. Being pure XML, GDML can be universally used, and in particular it can be considered as the format for interchanging geometries among different applications. In this paper we will present the current status of the development of GDML. After having discussed the contents of the latest GDML schema, which is the basic definition of the format, we will concentrate on the GDML processors. We will present the latest implementation of the GDML ''writers'' as well as ''readers'' for either Geant4 [2], [3] or ROOT [4], [10].

  3. Localization and vector spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Brecht, James H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes the following localization property for vector spherical harmonics: a wide class of non-local, vector-valued operators reduce to local, multiplication-type operations when applied to a vector spherical harmonic. As localization occurs in a very precise, quantifiable and explicitly computable fashion, the localization property provides a set of useful formulae for analyzing vector-valued fractional diffusion and non-local differential equations defined on S d - 1. As such analyses require a detailed understanding of operators for which localization occurs, we provide several applications of the result in the context of non-local differential equations.

  4. Physical basis for prompt-neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The technique called prompt ..gamma..-ray neutron activation analysis has been applied to rapid materials analysis. The radiation following the neutron radiation capture is prompt in the sense that the nuclear decay time is on the order of 10/sup -15/ second, and thus the technique is not strictly activation, but should be called radiation neutron capture spectroscopy or neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. This paper reviews the following: sources and detectors, theory of radiative capture, nonstatistical capture, giant dipole resonance, fast neutron capture, and thermal neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectra. 14 figures.

  5. Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules.

    PubMed

    Silva, R E F; Rivière, P; Morales, F; Smirnova, O; Ivanov, M; Martín, F

    2016-01-01

    Isotropic gases irradiated by long pulses of intense IR light can generate very high harmonics of the incident field. It is generally accepted that, due to the symmetry of the generating medium, be it an atomic or an isotropic molecular gas, only odd harmonics of the driving field can be produced. Here we show how the interplay of electronic and nuclear dynamics can lead to a marked breakdown of this standard picture: a substantial part of the harmonic spectrum can consist of even rather than odd harmonics. We demonstrate the effect using ab-initio solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for and its isotopes in full dimensionality. By means of a simple analytical model, we identify its physical origin, which is the appearance of a permanent dipole moment in dissociating homonuclear molecules, caused by light-induced localization of the electric charge during dissociation. The effect arises for sufficiently long laser pulses and the region of the spectrum where even harmonics are produced is controlled by pulse duration. Our results (i) show how the interplay of femtosecond nuclear and attosecond electronic dynamics, which affects the charge flow inside the dissociating molecule, is reflected in the nonlinear response, and (ii) force one to augment standard selection rules found in nonlinear optics textbooks by considering light-induced modifications of the medium during the generation process. PMID:27596609

  6. Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. E. F.; Rivière, P.; Morales, F.; Smirnova, O.; Ivanov, M.; Martín, F.

    2016-01-01

    Isotropic gases irradiated by long pulses of intense IR light can generate very high harmonics of the incident field. It is generally accepted that, due to the symmetry of the generating medium, be it an atomic or an isotropic molecular gas, only odd harmonics of the driving field can be produced. Here we show how the interplay of electronic and nuclear dynamics can lead to a marked breakdown of this standard picture: a substantial part of the harmonic spectrum can consist of even rather than odd harmonics. We demonstrate the effect using ab-initio solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for and its isotopes in full dimensionality. By means of a simple analytical model, we identify its physical origin, which is the appearance of a permanent dipole moment in dissociating homonuclear molecules, caused by light-induced localization of the electric charge during dissociation. The effect arises for sufficiently long laser pulses and the region of the spectrum where even harmonics are produced is controlled by pulse duration. Our results (i) show how the interplay of femtosecond nuclear and attosecond electronic dynamics, which affects the charge flow inside the dissociating molecule, is reflected in the nonlinear response, and (ii) force one to augment standard selection rules found in nonlinear optics textbooks by considering light-induced modifications of the medium during the generation process. PMID:27596609

  7. High power operation of first and second harmonic gyrotwystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.; Latham, P.E.; Calame, J.P.; Cheng, J.; Hogan, B.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Irwin, V.; Granatstein, V.L.; Reiser, M.

    1995-07-01

    We report the first experimental operation of overmoded first and second harmonic gyrotwystron amplifier configurations. Both devices utilize a single cavity which is driven near 9.87 GHz in the TE{sub 011} mode, heavily attenuated drift tubes, and long tapered output waveguide sections. A magnetron injection gun produces a 460 kV, 245 A beam with a maximum average perpendicular-to-parallel velocity ratio approximately equal to one. The axial magnetic field profile is sharply tapered in the output section. Peak powers above 21 MW are achieved in 1 {mu}s pulses with an efficiency exceeding 22% and a large signal gain near 24 dB in the first harmonic tube. The second harmonic tube achieves nearly 12 MW of the peak power with an efficiency of 11% and a gain above 21 dB. First harmonic amplifier performance is limited principally by competition from a fundamental mode output waveguide interaction; the second harmonic tube is limited by both travelling wave output modes and by a down-taper oscillation. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  8. Harmonic Generation from Solid Targets - Optmization of Source Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepf, Matthew; Watts, I. F.; Dangor, A. E.; Norreys, P. A.; Chambers, D. M.; Machacek, A.; Wark, J. S.; Tsakiris, G. D.

    1998-11-01

    High harmonics from solid targets have received renewed interest over the last few years. Theoretical predictions using 1 1/2 D codes suggest that very high orders (>100 ) can be generated at conversion efficiencies in excess of 10-6 [1,2] at Iλ^2 > 10^19 W/cm^2. Experiments have since been performed with pulses varying from 100 fs to 2.5 ps in duration [3-6]. The steep density gradient necessary to generate the harmonics can be generated by either ponderomotive steepening or by using ultraclean pulses which preserve the initial solid vacuum boundary. The two regimes are compared in terms of their dependence on the laser parameters and the emitted harmonic radiation. Particular emphasis will be given to measurements of the holeboring velocity, the polarisation of the harmonics and the intensity scaling in the two regimes. This comparison enables us to find the ideal parameter range for the optimization of harmonic source. [1] R. Lichters et al., Physics of Plasmas 3, 3425, (1996). [2] P. Gibbon, IEEE J. of Q. Elec. 33, 1915 (1997). [3] S. Kohlweyer, et al., Optics Comm. 177, 431 (1995). [4] P. Norreys et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 1832 (1995). [5] D. von der Linde et al., Phys. Rev. A, 52, R25 (1995) [6] M. Zepf, et al., submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.

  9. Physical Violence between Siblings: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Kristi L.; Kiecolt, K. Jill; Edwards, John N.

    2005-01-01

    This study develops and tests a theoretical model to explain sibling violence based on the feminist, conflict, and social learning theoretical perspectives and research in psychology and sociology. A multivariate analysis of data from 651 young adults generally supports hypotheses from all three theoretical perspectives. Males with brothers have…

  10. Global and Local Sensitivity Analysis Methods for a Physical System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morio, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is the study of how the different input variations of a mathematical model influence the variability of its output. In this paper, we review the principle of global and local sensitivity analyses of a complex black-box system. A simulated case of application is given at the end of this paper to compare both approaches.…

  11. Physical activity and risk of pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Gundula; Jochem, Carmen; Schmid, Daniela; Keimling, Marlen; Ricci, Cristian; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity may prevent pancreatic cancer by regulating body weight and decreasing insulin resistance, DNA damage, and chronic inflammation. Previous meta-analyses found inconsistent evidence for a protective effect of physical activity on pancreatic cancer but those studies did not investigate whether the association between physical activity and pancreatic cancer varies by smoking status, body mass index (BMI), or level of consistency of physical activity over time. To address these issues, we conducted an updated meta-analysis following the PRISMA guidelines among 30 distinct studies with a total of 10,501 pancreatic cancer cases. Random effects meta-analysis of cohort studies revealed a weak, statistically significant reduction in pancreatic cancer risk for high versus low levels of physical activity (relative risk (RR) 0.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.88-0.98). By comparison, case-control studies yielded a stronger, statistically significant risk reduction (RR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.66-0.94; p-difference by study design = 0.07). When focusing on cohort studies, physical activity summary risk estimates appeared to be more pronounced for consistent physical activity over time (RR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.76-0.97) than for recent past physical activity (RR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.90-1.01) or distant past physical activity (RR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.79-1.15, p-difference by timing in life of physical activity = 0.36). Physical activity summary risk estimates did not differ by smoking status or BMI. In conclusion, physical activity is not strongly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, and the relation is not modified by smoking status or BMI level. While overall findings were weak, we did find some suggestion of potential pancreatic cancer risk reduction with consistent physical activity over time. PMID:25773752

  12. Process monitoring using automatic physical measurement based on electrical and physical variability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shauly, Eitan N.; Levi, Shimon; Schwarzband, Ishai; Adan, Ofer; Latinsky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    A fully automated silicon-based methodology for systematic analysis of electrical features is shown. The system was developed for process monitoring and electrical variability reduction. A mapping step was created by dedicated structures such as static-random-access-memory (SRAM) array or standard cell library, or by using a simple design rule checking run-set. The resulting database was then used as an input for choosing locations for critical dimension scanning electron microscope images and for specific layout parameter extraction then was input to SPICE compact modeling simulation. Based on the experimental data, we identified two items that must be checked and monitored using the method described here: transistor's sensitivity to the distance between the poly end cap and edge of active area (AA) due to AA rounding, and SRAM leakage due to a too close N-well to P-well. Based on this example, for process monitoring and variability analyses, we extensively used this method to analyze transistor gates having different shapes. In addition, analysis for a large area of high density standard cell library was done. Another set of monitoring focused on a high density SRAM array is also presented. These examples provided information on the poly and AA layers, using transistor parameters such as leakage current and drive current. We successfully define "robust" and "less-robust" transistor configurations included in the library and identified unsymmetrical transistors in the SRAM bit-cells. These data were compared to data extracted from the same devices at the end of the line. Another set of analyses was done to samples after Cu M1 etch. Process monitoring information on M1 enclosed contact was extracted based on contact resistance as a feedback. Guidelines for the optimal M1 space for different layout configurations were also extracted. All these data showed the successful in-field implementation of our methodology as a useful process monitoring method.

  13. A scientometrics and social network analysis of Malaysian research in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, H. X.; Ujum, E. A.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-03-01

    This conference proceeding presents an empirical assessment on the domestic publication output and structure of scientific collaboration of Malaysian authors for the field of physics. Journal articles with Malaysian addresses for the subject area "Physics" and other sub-discipline of physics were retrieved from the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge database spanning the years 1980 to 2011. A scientometrics and social network analysis of the Malaysian physics field was conducted to examine the publication growth and distribution of domestic collaborative publications; the giant component analysis; and the degree, closeness, and betweenness centralisation scores for the domestic co-authorship networks. Using these methods, we are able to gain insights on the evolution of collaboration and scientometric dimensions of Malaysian research in physics over time.

  14. Interaction and learning: An analysis of two freshman physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Dexter

    2005-08-01

    The influence of digital technology has gradually increased through the years to the point where it impacts almost every part of our experience in some way. Educators are expected increasingly to supplement or even replace lecture and chalkboard practices with alternative strategies. Beyond integrating new technologies into the learning environments are the new forms of learning that some believe are implied by the nature of digitally mediated instruction itself. The use of multimedia technologies for learning in many cases is thought to facilitate a move away from teacher-centered practices of instruction toward learner-centered strategies of both delivery and assessment. This study was an investigation of effects that may be encountered when alternative forms of classroom delivery are introduced. It was a mixed-mode investigation of classroom culture and student performance in two sections of a physics course for undergraduate engineering students. The content for these two classes was identical as were the learning resources available to students. Both classes employed multiple methods of presentation combining face-to-face methods with classroom and online digital learning tools. The most distinctive differences between them were found in the classroom practice itself. One class received what may be called a traditional teacher-centered presentation focusing on solving math problems in physics. The other employed dense student to instructor and student-to-student interaction in the classroom with a learning approach characterized by inquiry methods of content delivery. The investigation asked three questions. First it sought to identify what expectations students brought to the classroom about what they would experience and how they would be taught. Second it examined how the tools and practices used to facilitate learning actually affected the classroom culture. Finally the study explored what affect if any the pedagogical practices students experienced had on

  15. The LivePhoto Physics videos and video analysis site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, David

    2009-09-01

    The LivePhoto site is similar to an archive of short films for video analysis. Some videos have Flash tools for analyzing the video embedded in the movie. Most of the videos address mechanics topics with titles like Rolling Pencil (check this one out for pedagogy and content knowledge—nicely done!), Juggler, Yo-yo, Puck and Bar (this one is an inelastic collision with rotation), but there are a few titles in other areas (E&M, waves, thermo, etc.).

  16. Experimental Development and Physical Analysis of Jet and Vortex Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Yang, Zhi; Lachowicz, Jason T.

    2000-01-01

    The Vortex generator consists of a cavity with a lightweight actuator plate. The actuator plate acts like a piston pumping air out of the cavity on the down-stroke and sucking air into the cavity on the upstroke. The actuator is placed asymmetrically over the cavity opening, forming narrow and wide slots when viewed from the top. The actuator depending on amplitude, frequency, and slot spacing produces several flow fields (free jet, wall jet, vortex flow). Computational simulation of the actuator-generated flows have been developed and applied to several actuator flow modes. The objectives of this paper are to study the physics of the actuator-induced flow and to develop computational simulations of the actuatorgenerated flows. This work should provide an impetus for designing similar active flow control systems suitable for aircraft applications. The computational simulation uses a time-accurate full Navier-Stokes (NS) solver known as FTNS3D (a full NS version of CFL3D solver). A Multi-block moving grid has been developed and used for the computational study of the flow fields produced by the vortex generator. For three-dimensional computations, ten multi-block grids are used and for two-dimensional computations, six multiblock grids are used. The grid blocks adjacent to the actuator plate move with the plate motion, and second-order interpolation is used along the block interfaces. Periodic response of the flow has been observed to develop after three cycles of the plate sinusoidal motion.

  17. Univalent harmonic mappings convex in one direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnusamy, S.; Kaliraj, A. Sairam

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present a criterion for a harmonic function to be convex in one direction. Also, we discuss the class of harmonic functions starlike in one direction in the unit disk and obtain a method to construct univalent harmonic functions convex in one direction. Although the converse of classical Alexander's theorem for harmonic functions was proved to be false, we obtain a version of converse of it under a suitable additional condition.

  18. An epistemic framing analysis of upper level physics students' use of mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bing, Thomas Joseph

    Mathematics is central to a professional physicist's work and, by extension, to a physics student's studies. It provides a language for abstraction, definition, computation, and connection to physical reality. This power of mathematics in physics is also the source of many of the difficulties it presents students. Simply put, many different activities could all be described as "using math in physics". Expertise entails a complicated coordination of these various activities. This work examines the many different kinds of thinking that are all facets of the use of mathematics in physics. It uses an epistemological lens, one that looks at the type of explanation a student presently sees as appropriate, to analyze the mathematical thinking of upper level physics undergraduates. Sometimes a student will turn to a detailed calculation to produce or justify an answer. Other times a physical argument is explicitly connected to the mathematics at hand. Still other times quoting a definition is seen as sufficient, and so on. Local coherencies evolve in students' thought around these various types of mathematical justifications. We use the cognitive process of framing to model students' navigation of these various facets of math use in physics. We first demonstrate several common framings observed in our students' mathematical thought and give several examples of each. Armed with this analysis tool, we then give several examples of how this framing analysis can be used to address a research question. We consider what effects, if any, a powerful symbolic calculator has on students' thinking. We also consider how to characterize growing expertise among physics students. Framing offers a lens for analysis that is a natural fit for these sample research questions. To active physics education researchers, the framing analysis presented in this dissertation can provide a useful tool for addressing other research questions. To physics teachers, we present this analysis so that it

  19. High-order harmonic generation in the presence of a resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Tudorovskaya, Maria; Lein, Manfred

    2011-07-15

    We investigate high-order harmonic generation from laser-irradiated systems that support a shape resonance. From the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, we calculate the harmonic spectra and the time-frequency analysis of the harmonic intensity and phase. The analysis reveals the separate contributions of the short and long trajectories as well as the resonance. A range of harmonics is strongly enhanced by the presence of the resonance irrespective of the pulse length. The signature of the resonance remains significant after coherent summation over intensities as a simple method to simulate macroscopic effects. The time-frequency analysis supports the recently proposed four-step mechanism of the enhanced harmonic generation process.

  20. Physical Analysis of the Jovian Synchrotron Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Costa, D.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S. M.; Thorne, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    We present results of our recent investigation of the Jovian synchrotron emission based on a particle transport code. The features of the two-dimensional brightness distributions, radio spectra and beaming curves are correlated to the different phenomena driven the dynamics of the electron radiation belts. The adiabatic invariant theory was used for performing this analysis work. The theoretical approach first enabled us to describe the electron radiation belts by modeling the interactions between high-energy trapped particles and plasmas, neutrals, moons, dust and magnetic field. Then radio observations were used to discuss the computed particle distributions in the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The simulated brightness mappings were compared with VLA observations made at two wavelengths (20 and 6 cm). The beaming curve comparisons at 13-cm wavelength were performed for different epochs in order to evaluate the dependence of the model to the geometric factor De. The computed radio spectra were discussed with measurements made in the [0.5-20] GHz radio band. The simulation results match the different remote observations very well and thus allowed us to study the phenomenology of the Jovian synchrotron radio emission. The analysis of the Jovian synchrotron emission demonstrates that during the inward particle transport, local losses associated with the Jovian moons set the extension and intensity of the synchrotron radiation along the magnetic equator. Close to the planet, trapped electrons suffer from the interactions with dust and magnetic field, resulting in the transport of particles toward the high latitudes. The quantity of particles transported away from the equator is sufficient to produce the measurable secondary radio emissions. The simulations show that the moon sweeping effect controls both the transport toward the planet and at high latitudes by reducing the abundance of particles constrained to populate the regions out of the equator. Among the